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Sample records for larvae artemia salina

  1. Acute toxicity of furazolidone on Artemia salina, Daphnia magna, and Culex pipiens molestus larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Macri, A.; Stazi, A.V.; Dojmi di Delupis, G.

    1988-10-01

    As a result of evidence of the ecotoxicity of nitrofurans, the acute toxicity of furazolidone was tested in vivo on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, which are both crustaceans. Toxicity studies were also performed on larvae of Culex pipiens molestus. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the compound on Culex pipiens and Daphnia magna, while Artemia salina proved to be the least sensitive.

  2. Mass marking of Leuciscus idus larvae using Artemia salina as a vector of fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Stańczak, K; Krejszeff, S; Dębowska, M; Mierzejewska, K; Woźniak, M; Hliwa, P

    2015-09-01

    A method for the mass marking of ide Leuciscus idus larvae by feeding them Artemia salina nauplii that were immersed in different solutions of alizarin red S, tetracycline hydrochloride and calcein was tested. The best quality marks were obtained after feeding fish for 4 days with nauplii that had been immersed in 200 mg l(-1) alizarin red S. PMID:26255972

  3. Evaluation of Alpha and Gamma Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticle Accumulation, Toxicity and Depuration in Artemia Salina Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.; Bogatu, Corneliu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Artemia salina (crustacean filter feeders) larvae were used as a test model to investigate the toxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) on marine microorganisms. The uptake, toxicity and elimination of α-Al2O3 (50 nm and 3.5 μm) and γ-Al2O3 (5 nm and 0.4 μm) NPs were studied. Twenty-four and ninety-six hour exposures of different concentrations of Al2O3 NPs to Artemia larvae were conducted in a seawater medium. When suspended in water, Al2O3 NPs aggregated substantially with the sizes ranging from 6.3 nm to > 0.3 μm for spherical NPs, and from 250 to 756 nm for rod-shaped NPs. The phase contrast microscope images revealed that NPs deposited inside the guts as aggregates. ICP-MS analysis showed that large particles (3.5 μm α-Al2O3) were not taken up by Artemia, while fine NPs (0.4 μm γ-Al2O3) and ultra-fine NPs (5 nm γ-Al2O3 and 50 nm α-Al2O3) accumulated substantially. Differences in toxicity were detected as changing with NP size and morphology. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicated that smaller γ-Al2O3 (5 nm) NPs were more toxic than larger γ-Al2O3 (0.4 μm) particulates in 96 h. The highest mortality was measured as 34% in 96 h for γ-Al2O3 NPs (5 nm) at 100 mg/L (LC50 > 100 mg/L). γ-Al2O3 NPs were more toxic than α-Al2O3 NPs at in all conditions. PMID:24753078

  4. Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina L.) Larvae as a Screening System for Fungal Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Harwig, J.; Scott, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    Concentrations resulting in 50% mortality, determined with brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) larvae exposed to known mycotoxins for 16 hr, were (μg/ml): aflatoxin G1, 1.3; diacetoxyscirpenol, 0.47; gliotoxin, 3.5; ochratoxin A, 10.1; and sterigmatocystin, 0.54. 4-Acetamido-4-hydroxy-2-butenoic acid γ-lactone gave no mortality at 10 μg/ml. Used as a screening system involving discs saturated with solutions of known mycotoxins, the larvae were relatively sensitive to aflatoxin B1, diacetoxyscirpenol, gliotoxin, kojic acid, ochratoxin A, rubratoxin B, sterigmatocystin, stemphone, and T-2 toxin. Quantities of 0.2 to 2 μg/disc caused detectable mortality. The larvae were only moderately sensitive to citrinin, patulin, penicillic acid, and zearalenone which were detectable at 10 to 20 μg/disc. They were relatively insensitive to griseofulvin, luteoskyrin, oxalic acid, and β-nitropropionic acid. The disc screening method indicated that 27 out of 70 fungal isolates from foods and feeds grown in liquid or solid media produced chloroform-extractable toxic material. Examination of toxic extracts by thin-layer chromatography for 17 known mycotoxins showed that the toxicity of eight isolates could be attributed to aflatoxin B1 and B2, kojic acid, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, or ochratoxin A. Nine out of 32 of these fungal isolates grown in four liquid media yielded toxic culture filtrates from at least one medium. Chemical tests for kojic, oxalic, and β-nitropropionic acids showed the presence of one or two of these compounds in filtrates of seven of these nine isolates. PMID:5105681

  5. Effects of selected metal oxide nanoparticles on Artemia salina larvae: evaluation of mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Chiara; Mesarič, Tina; Milivojević, Tamara; Sepčić, Kristina; Gallus, Lorenzo; Carbone, Serena; Ferrando, Sara; Faimali, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the toxicity of selected metal oxide nanoparticles (MO-NPs) on the brine shrimp Artemia salina, by evaluating mortality and behavioural and biochemical responses. Larvae were exposed to tin(IV) oxide (stannic oxide (SnO2)), cerium(IV) oxide (CeO2) and iron(II, III) oxide (Fe3O4) NPs for 48 h in seawater, with MO-NP suspensions from 0.01 to 1.0 mg/mL. Mortality and behavioural responses (swimming speed alteration) and enzymatic activities of cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase were evaluated. Although the MO-NPs did not induce any mortality of the larvae, they caused changes in behavioural and biochemical responses. Swimming speed significantly decreased in larvae exposed to CeO2 NPs. Cholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were significantly inhibited in larvae exposed to SnO2 NPs, whereas cholinesterase activity significantly increased after CeO2 NP and Fe3O4 NP exposure. Catalase activity significantly increased in larvae exposed to Fe3O4 NPs. In conclusion, swimming alteration and cholinesterase activity represent valid endpoints for MO-NP exposure, while glutathione-S-transferase and catalase activities appear to be NP-specific. PMID:24590232

  6. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae.

    PubMed

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration-dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5mg/mL carbon black and 0.1mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change. PMID:25889088

  7. Comparative evaluation of impact of Zn and ZnO nanoparticles on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae: effects of particle size and solubility on toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Mehmet; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.; Rivera, Hilsamar Félix

    2012-01-01

    Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were exposed to different sizes of zinc (Zn) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) to evaluate their toxicity in marine aquatic ecosystems. Acute exposure was conducted in seawater with 10, 50 and 100 mg/L concentrations of the NPs for 24 h and 96 h. Phase contrast microscope images confirmed the accumulation of the NPs inside the guts. Artemia were unable to eliminate the ingested particles, which was thought to occur due the formation of massive particles in the guts. Although the suspensions of the NPs did not exhibit any significant acute toxicity within 24 h, mortalities increased remarkably in 96 h and escalated with increasing concentration of NP suspension to 42% for Zn NPs (40-60 nm) (LC50 ~100 mg/L) and to about 34% for ZnO NPs (10-30 nm) (LC50 >100 mg/L). The suspensions of Zn NPs were more toxic to Artemia than those of ZnO NPs under comparable regimes. This effect was attributed to higher Zn2+ levels (ca. up to 8.9 mg L-1) released to the medium from Zn NPs in comparison to that measured in the suspensions of ZnO NPs (ca. 5.5 mg L-1). In addition, the size of the nanopowders appeared to contribute to the observed toxicities. Although the suspensions possessed aggregates of comparable sizes, smaller Zn NPs (40-60 nm) were relatively more toxic than larger Zn NPs (80-100 nm). Likewise, the suspensions of 10-30 nm ZnO NPs caused higher than those of 200 nm ZnO NPs. Lipid peroxidation levels were substantially higher in 96 h (p<0.05) indicating that the toxic effects were due to the oxidative stress. PMID:24058731

  8. Specific anion effects in Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Lo Nostro, Pierandrea; Ninham, Barry W; Carretti, Emiliano; Dei, Luigi; Baglioni, Piero

    2015-09-01

    The specific anion effect on the vitality of Artemia salina was investigated by measuring the Lethal Time LT50 of the crustaceans in the presence of different sodium salts solutions at room temperature and at the same ionic strength as natural seawater. Fluoride, thiocyanate and perchlorate are the most toxic agents, while chloride, bromide and sulfate are well tolerated. The rates of oxygen consumption of brine shrimps were recorded in mixed NaCl+NaF or NaCl+NaSCN solutions as a function of time. The results are discussed in terms of the Hofmeister series, and suggest that, besides the biochemical processes that involve F(-), SCN(-) and ClO4(-), the different physico-chemical properties of the strong kosmotropic and chaotropic anions may contribute in determining their strong toxicity for A. salina. PMID:25978674

  9. The swimming mechanics of Artemia Salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Ramos-Musalem, A. K.; Zenit, R.

    2013-11-01

    An experimental study to analyze the swimming strategy of a small crustacean (Artemia Salina) was conducted. This animal has a series of eleven pairs of paddle-like appendices in its thorax. These legs move in metachronal-wave fashion to achieve locomotion. To quantify the swimming performance, both high speed video recordings of the legs motion and time-resolved PIV measurements of the induced propulsive jet were conducted. Experiments were conducted for both tethered and freely swimming specimens. We found that despite their small size, the propulsion is achieved by an inertial mechanism. An analysis of the efficiency of the leg wave-like motion is presented and discussed. A brief discussion on the mixing capability of the induced flow is also presented.

  10. Effect of petroleum oil, pesticides, PCBs and other environmental contaminants on the hatchability of Artemia salina dry eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, A.; Kashimoto, T.

    1980-07-01

    Artemia salina Leach is well-known as the brine shrimp used as tropical fish food and its dry eggs are easily obtained at a pet-shop at any season. One or two days after placing the dry eggs into salt water, the nauplius larvae of Artemia begins to hatch. In this paper, the methodlogy on a hatchability test for environmental contaminants and their effects on the dry egg hatchabilities are presented.

  11. Acute toxicity of organic solvents on Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect

    Barahona-Gomariz, M.V.; Sanz-Barrera, F.; Sanchez-Fortun, S. )

    1994-05-01

    Organic solvents can make their way into the environment as industrial wastes and components of pesticide formulation. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic formulations. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic solvents is often unavoidable, since many pesticides and organic pollutants have low water solubility and must be dissolved in organic solvents prior to addition into experimental systems. In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species are of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian test systems. Toxic effects of organic solvents have been tested with a few aquatic species, but information on the comparative toxicity of solvents towards Artemia salina is not available. Artemia salina have, within recent years, gained popularity as test organisms for short-term toxicity testing. Because Artemia salina exhibit rapid development and growth within 48 hr after hatch, their potential as a model organism for toxicology screening has been considered. To do this, synchronous populations of Artemia salina at different development intervals must be available.

  12. Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Hisem, Daniel; Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, Petr; Tomšíčková, Jana; Zapomělová, Eliška; Skácelová, Kateřina; Lukešová, Alena; Kopecký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Heterocytous cyanobacteria from various habitats were screened for toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina and the murine lymphoblastic cell line Sp/2 in order to compare these two testing models for evaluation of risk posed by cyanobacteria to human health. Methanol extracts of biomass and cultivation media were tested for toxicity and selected extracts were fractionated to determine the active fraction. We found a significant toxic effect to A. salina and to Sp/2 cells in 5.2% and 31% of studied extracts, respectively. Only 8.6% of the tested strains were highly toxic to both A. salina and the Sp/2 cell line, and only two of the tested strains were toxic to A. salina and not to the murine cell line. Therefore, it is likely that the toxic effect of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites mostly targets basal metabolic pathways present in mammal cells and so is not manifested in A. salina. We conclude that it is insufficient to monitor cytotoxicity of cyanobacteria using only the brine shrimp bioassay as was usual in the past, since cytotoxicity is a more frequent feature in cyanobacteria in comparison with toxicity to A. salina. A. salina toxicity test should not be used when estimating the possible health risk for humans. We suggest that in vitro mammal cells be used for these purposes. PMID:20946912

  13. Mitochondrial biogenesis during differentiation of Artemia salina cysts.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, H; Grossfeld, H; Littauer, U Z

    1973-09-01

    Mitochondria isolated from cysts of Artemia salina (brine shrimp) were found to be devoid of cristae and to possess a low respiratory capability. Hydration of the cysts induces marked biochemical and morphological changes in the mitochondria. Their biogenesis proceeds in two stages. The first stage is completed within 1 h and is characterized by a rapid increase in the respiratory capability of the mitochondria, their cytochrome oxidase, cytochrome b, cytochrome c and perhaps some morphological changes. In the second stage there is an increase in the protein-synthesizing capacity of the mitochondria as well as striking changes in mitochondrial morphology leading to the formation of cristae. PMID:4355924

  14. SALT EFFECTS ON EGGS AND NAUPLII OF ARTEMIA SALINA L.

    PubMed

    Boone, E; Baas-Becking, L G

    1931-07-20

    Eggs of Artemia salina L., the brine shrimp, are easily obtainable in large quantities. Ecdysis takes place in two stages: (a) extrusion of the inner membrane, and (b) ecdysis of the nauplius from that membrane. The conditions which allow for the former are much more varied than those for the latter. Nauplii form in only solutions of a few sodium salts; and, in Mg, Ca, and Sr salts, potassium is very toxic. The possible environment for the nauplii (1 M total molarity) has been ascertained for chlorides of Na, K, Mg, and Ca. The facts observed account for the peculiar distribution of the organism. PMID:19872620

  15. Preliminary results of the Artemia salina experiments in biostack on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graul, E. H.; Ruether, W.; Hiendl, C. O.

    1992-01-01

    The mosaic egg of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, resting in blastula or gastrula state represents a system that during further development, proceeds without any further development to the larval stage, the free swimming nauplius. Therefore, injury to a single cell of the egg will be manifest in the larvae. In several experiments, it was shown that the passage of a single heavy ion through the shrimp egg damaged a cellular area large enough to disturb either embryogenesis or further development of the larvae, or the integrity of the adult individual. Emergence from the egg shell was heavily disturbed by the heavy ions as was hatching. Additional late effects, due to a hit by a heavy ion, are delayed of growth and of sexual maturity, and reduced fertility. Anomalies in the body and the extremities could be observed more frequently for the nauplii which had developed from eggs hit by heavy ions.

  16. Toxic Assessment of Triclosan and Triclocarban on Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaolu; Lu, Yin; Zhang, Deyong; Wang, Yinyin; Zhou, Xianshan; Xu, Huiying; Mei, Yu

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the possible acute toxic and genotoxic effects of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) on Artemia salina. Genotoxicity was evaluated using single-cell gel electrophoresis and apoptotic frequency assays (Annexin V-FITC/PI assay). Acute toxicity test results showed that TCC (LC50-24 h = 17.8 µg/L) was more toxic than TCS (LC50-24 h = 171.1 µg/L). Significant increases in both genotoxic biomarkers were observed at 24 h after initial exposure, indicating that these two chemicals are potentially dangerous for this aquatic biological model. Although further studies are required, a comparison of data both in vitro and in vivo allowed us to suggest possible mechanisms of action for TCS and TCC in this sentinel organism. PMID:26310128

  17. Assessment of toxicity of Moringa oleifera flower extract to Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni and Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Filho, Cláudio A A; Albuquerque, Lidiane P; Silva, Luanna R S; Silva, Patrícia C B; Coelho, Luana C B B; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Albuquerque, Monica C P A; Melo, Ana Maria M A; Napoleão, Thiago H; Pontual, Emmanuel V; Paiva, Patrícia M G

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the effect of an aqueous extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. flowers on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults and on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The extract contains tannins, saponins, flavones, flavonols, xanthones, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The toxicity of the extract on Artemia salina larvae was also investigated to determine the safety of its use for schistosomiasis control. After incubation for 24h, the flower extract significantly (p<0.05) delayed the development of B. glabrata embryos and promoted mortality of adult snails (LC50: 2.37±0.5mgmL(-1)). Furthermore, treatment with the extract disrupted the development of embryos generated by snails, with most of them remaining in the blastula stage while control embryos were already in the gastrula stage. Flower extract killed A. salina larvae with a LC50 value (0.2±0.015mgmL(-1)) lower than that determined for snails. A small reduction (17%) in molluscicidal activity was detected when flower extract (2.37mgmL(-1)) was exposed to tropical environmental conditions (UVI index ranging from 1 to 14, temperature from 25 to 30°C, and 65% relative humidity). Toxicity to A. salina was also reduced (LC50 value of 0.28±0.01mgmL(-1)). In conclusion, M. oleifera flower extract had deleterious effects on B. glabrata adults and embryos. However, unrestricted use to control schistosomiasis should be avoided due to the toxicity of this extract on A. salina. PMID:25867917

  18. Iron Metallodrugs: Stability, Redox Activity and Toxicity against Artemia salina

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Iron metallodrugs comprise mineral supplements, anti-hypertensive agents and, more recently, magnetic nanomaterials, with both therapeutic and diagnostic roles. As biologically-active metal compounds, concern has been raised regarding the impact of these compounds when emitted to the environment and associated ecotoxicological effects for the fauna. In this work we assessed the relative stability of several iron compounds (supplements based on glucoheptonate, dextran or glycinate, as well as 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoyl (TMH) derivatives of ferrocene) against high affinity models of biological binding, calcein and aprotransferrin, via a fluorimetric method. Also, the redox-activity of each compound was determined in a physiologically relevant medium. Toxicity toward Artemia salina at different developmental stages was measured, as well as the amount of lipid peroxidation. Our results show that polymer-coated iron metallodrugs are stable, non-redox-active and non-toxic at the concentrations studied (up to 300 µM). However, TMH derivatives of ferrocene were less stable and more redox-active than the parent compound, and TMH-ferrocene displayed toxicity and lipid peroxidation to A. salina, unlike the other compounds. Our results indicate that iron metallodrugs based on polymer coating do not present direct toxicity at low levels of emission; however other iron species (eg. metallocenes), may be deleterious for aquatic organisms. We suggest that ecotoxicity depends more on metal speciation than on the total amount of metal present in the metallodrugs. Future studies with discarded metallodrugs should consider the chemical speciation of the metal present in the composition of the drug. PMID:25849743

  19. Purification and characterization of a carboxymethyl cellulase from Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Zin, Hyun Woo; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Choi, Tae Jin

    2014-01-01

    Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) belong to a group of crustaceans that feed on microalgae and require a cellulase enzyme that can be used in ethanol production from marine algae. Protein with potential cellulase activity was purified and the activity analyzed under different conditions. After initial identification of cellulase activity by CMC cellulase, surface sterilization and PCR using 16s rRNA primers was conducted to confirm that the cellulase activity was not produced from contaminating bacteria. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography. After the final purification, a 70-fold increase in specific enzyme activity was observed. SDS-PAGE results revealed that the cellulase enzyme had a molecular mass of 96 kDa. Temperature, pH, and salinity values were found to be optimal at 55 °C, pH 8.0, and 600 mM NaCl, respectively. Specifically, the enzyme showed a fivefold increase in enzyme activity in seawater compared to 600 mM NaCl in phosphate buffer. Further analysis of the purified enzyme by molecular spectrometry showed no match to known cellulases, indicating this enzyme could be a novel halophilic cellulase that can be used for the production of bioethanol from marine macroalgae. PMID:24291747

  20. Analyzing the Movement of the Nauplius 'Artemia salina' by Optical Tracking of Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Silke R.; Fedoruk, Michael; Lohmüller, Theobald; Feldmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how optical tweezers may provide a sensitive tool to analyze the fluidic vibrations generated by the movement of small aquatic organisms. A single gold nanoparticle held by an optical tweezer is used as a sensor to quantify the rhythmic motion of a Nauplius larva (Artemia salina) in a water sample. This is achieved by monitoring the time dependent displacement of the trapped nanoparticle as a consequence of the Nauplius activity. A Fourier analysis of the nanoparticle's position then yields a frequency spectrum that is characteristic to the motion of the observed species. This experiment demonstrates the capability of this method to measure and characterize the activity of small aquatic larvae without the requirement to observe them directly and to gain information about the position of the larvae with respect to the trapped particle. Overall, this approach could give an insight on the vitality of certain species found in an aquatic ecosystem and could expand the range of conventional methods for analyzing water samples. PMID:25077781

  1. A cryptobiosis-specific 19S protein complex of Artemia salina gastrulae.

    PubMed

    De Herdt, E; De Voeght, F; Clauwaert, J; Kondo, M; Slegers, H

    1981-01-15

    The postribosomal supernatant of Artemia salina cryptobiotic embryos contains a large quantity of a 19S protein complex. An amount of 3.6 mg/g of cysts is measured by immunoprecipitation with anti-(19S protein complex) antibody. The quantity of this complex decreases during further development to nauplius larvae to only 15% of the quantity present in cryptobiotic embryos. The complex was no longer detectable after 7 days of growth. The 27000-Mr protein subunit of the 19S complex is not synthesized by mRNA isolated from cryptobiotic embryos. The cryptobiosis-specific complex has Mr 573000 and 610000 as calculated from light-scattering and sedimentation-diffusion measurements respectively. The 19S homocomplex contains 20-23 27000-Mr proteins and has no function in the translation of homologous mRNA. From hydrodynamic data a hydration of 1.25 g of water/g of protein is calculated. The abundant presence of the 19S protein complex in cryptobiotic embryos and the absence of synthesis during development to nauplius larvae indicate a functional role during the cryptobiotic process in early embryogenesis. A role in maintaining the water content of the cytoplasm above a critical threshold during desiccation is suggested. PMID:7305995

  2. INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON 'ARTEMIA'. XXVI. FOOD VALUE OF NAUPLII FROM REFERENCE 'ARTEMIA' CYSTS AND FOUR GEOGRAPHICAL COLLECTIONS OF 'ARTEMIA' FOR MUD CRAB LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nauplii from 4 commercially available geographical collections of Artemia and nauplii hatched from the Reference Artemia Cysts were compared for their effects on survival and growth of Rhithropanopeus harrisii larvae. In addition, nauplii from these sources were analyzed for thei...

  3. [Detection of fungal metabolites showing toxic activity through Artemia salina bioassay].

    PubMed

    González, Ana María; Presa, Maximiliano; Latorre, María Gabriela; Lurá, María Cristina

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to detect toxic metabolites from fungi contaminating food and medicinal herbs by applying the toxicity assay to Artemia salina. According to toxicity percentages, the extracts were classified as nontoxic (NT), slightly toxic (ST), toxic (T) and highly toxic (HT). Those classified as T and HT were assayed for mycotoxins. Only 6 out of 71 strains were found to be T (8.5%) for A. salina. Penicillium brevicompactum Dierckx, isolated from sausages, was found to be HT, mainly due to the presence of ochratoxin A and two other unidentified metabolites. PMID:17592895

  4. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821

  5. On the motility of living invertebrates The case of Artemia Salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, R.; Hernández, A.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    1998-08-01

    Using a laser beam deflection technique a non-destructive and non-invasive method is developed. This method is applied to monitor the motility of small invertebrates, in particular we study the important case of the crustacean Artemia Salina and the motion of its different parts. We find out that its dynamics can be explained as a superposition of several periodic motions with very well defined frequencies.

  6. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  7. Nutritional Composition, in vitro Antioxidant Activity and Artemia salina L. Lethality of Pulp and Seed of Tamarindus indica L. Extracts.

    PubMed

    Khairunnuur, F A; Zulkhairi, A; Azrina, A; Moklas, Ma M; Khairullizam, S; Zamree, M S; Shahidan, M A

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and medium lethal concentration (LC50 value) of Tamarindus indica L. pulp and seed extracts in vitro. The extraction was set at 40◦C, 60◦C and 100◦C for 12 hours, 6 hours and 15 minutes respectively to determine the optimum extraction parameter whereas the anti-oxidant activity of the extracts was measured using iron (III) reduction (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts was estimated as gallic acid equivalent by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Toxicity potential of the extract was assessed in vitro by Artemia salina lethality test both in seed and pulp samples. The results showed that tamarind seed contained a higher percentage of carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy (15%, 82%, 95% and 33.13% respectively) than the pulp. On the other hand, the pulp demonstrated a high moisture (51.1%) and ash (34.84%) content than the seed. For the mineral analysis, tamarind seed contained higher Ca and C (1.0% and 50.73% respectively) than the pulp (0.27% and 40.40% respectively). No heavy metals were detected in both samples. Seed extracted at 60◦C/6 hours and 100◦C/15 minutes showed the highest TPC value and were significantly different (p<0.05) than the seed extracted at 40◦C/12 hours. Anti-oxidant activity is positively correlated to the TPC value of the extracts (R=0.991). The pulp and seed extracted at 100◦C/15 minutes showed the highest FRAP value among its groups (216.17 ± 14.06 μmol (Fe)/g and 659.74 ± 16.40 μmol (Fe)/g respectively). This study indicates that tamarind pulp and seed extracts possess beneficial antioxidant properties and the optimum extraction parameter is 100◦C for 15 minutes. In Artemia salina lethality test, tamarind pulp caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC50 in the range of 26-28 μL/mL. Tamarind seed were not toxic to Artemia salina since the LC50 of the extracts was higher than 1000 μL/mL. PMID:22691806

  8. Effects of aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on Artemia salina: assessment of nanoparticle aggregation, accumulation and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Mehmet; Daniels, James; Arslan, Zikri; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic stability and impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs, 10-30 nm) was investigated using Artemia salina. Acute exposure was conducted on nauplii (larvae) and adults in seawater in a concentration range from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs for 24 h and 96 h. Rapid aggregation occurred in all suspensions of TiO2 NPs to form micrometer size particles. Yet, both nauplii and adults accumulated the aggregates significantly. Average TiO2 content in nauplii ranged from 0.47 to 3.19 mg/g and from 1.29 to 4.43 mg/g in 24 h and 96 h, respectively. Accumulation in adults was higher ranging from 2.30 to 4.19 mg/g and from 4.38 to 6.20 mg/g in 24 h and 96 h, respectively. Phase contrast microscopy images revealed that Artemia were unable to excrete the particles. Thus, the TiO2 aggregates filled inside the guts. No significant mortality or toxicity occurred within 24 h at any dose. Lipid peroxidation levels characterized with malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were not statistically different from those of the controls (p>0.05). These results suggested that suspensions of the TiO2 NPs were nontoxic to Artemia, most likely due to the formation of benign TiO2 aggregates in water. In contrast, both mortality and lipid peroxidation increased in extended exposure to 96 h. Highest mortality occurred in 100 mg/L TiO2 NP suspensions; 18% for nauplii and 14% for adults (LC50 > 100 mg/L). These effects were attributed to the particle loading inside the guts leading to oxidative stress as a result of impaired food uptake for a long period of time. PMID:22810381

  9. Isolation of intact larval haemoglobin from the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Prevention of degradation in vitro by proteases induced during larval development.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, B C; Krissansen, G W; Smith, M G; Tate, W P

    1980-05-29

    Haemoglobin induced in the larval stage of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina is extensively degraded when isolated from the later developmental stages of the larvae. Alkaline proteases appear in the organism a few hours after the induction of haemoglobin and cause the observed degradation. Addition of 2.6 mM phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride or 20 micrograms/ml soybean trypsin inhibitor to the extraction buffer used for haemoglobin isolation prevents most of this degradation. Discrete haem proteins are found in extracts of the brine shrimp larvae isolated before induction of the proteases, and the major species has a molecular weight of over 200,000. This is believed to be the native haemoglobin. A spread of lower molecular weight haem-containing polypeptides is found in extracts of larvae isolated after induction of the proteases. These products are believed to result from degradation of the discrete haem proteins present in protease-free extracts. PMID:6990994

  10. Oxygen-binding characteristics of three extracellular haemoglobins of Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    D'Hondt, J; Moens, L; Heip, J; D'Hondt, A; Kondo, M

    1978-06-01

    The oxygen-binding characteristics of the three extracellular haemoglobins of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) were studied in vitro by using highly purified preparations. Haemoglobin I is induced last in the development of brine shrimps when functional gills are formed. It has the lowest oxygen affinity (p(50) 5.34mmHg), an intermediate Bohr effect (ø -0.09 at 20 degrees C) above pH8 and a temperature-sensitivity (DeltaH -44.8 to -45.6kJ/mol at pH8-9) comparable with those observed with other invertebrate haemoglobins [Weber & Heidemann (1977) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A57, 151-155]. Haemoglobin II, which is the first to be induced, soon after hatching of nauplius larvae, persists generally throughout the whole adult life. It has an intermediate oxygen affinity (p(50) 3.7mmHg), the highest Bohr effect (ø -0.21 at 20 degrees C) above pH8 and a similar temperature-sensitivity (DeltaH -46.0 to -54.8kJ/mol at pH8-9) as haemoglobin I. However, haemoglobin III, which is induced second several hours after the induction of haemoglobin II but disappearing from the haemolymph in the middle of adult life, has the highest oxygen affinity (p(50) 1.8mmHg), the lowest Bohr effect (ø -0.03 at 20 degrees C) above pH8.5 and a high resistance against temperature variation between 10 and 25 degrees C at pH8.5-9 (DeltaH -22.6 to -23.0kJ/mol). At pH7.5-8, haemoglobin III exhibits a similar temperature-sensitivity under 30 degrees C as do other haemoglobins. All three haemoglobins have a rather low co-operativity, with Hill coefficients (h 1.6-1.9 at pH8.5), which are dependent on both pH and temperature. The highest co-operativity was observed at 20 degrees C and pH9 for haemoglobins I and II, whereas it was at 27 degrees C and pH8.5 for haemoglobin III. Thus the oxygen-binding behaviour of haemoglobin III in vitro is significantly different from those of haemoglobins I and II and indicates possibly its specific physiological role in vivo in the adaptive process in the natural

  11. A bioassay using Artemia salina for detecting phototoxicity of plant coumarins.

    PubMed

    Ojala, T; Vuorela, P; Kiviranta, J; Vuorela, H; Hiltunen, R

    1999-12-01

    Artemia salina (brine shrimp) has been successfully used for toxicity testing, and a screening test for phototoxicity has been developed based on this method. The ability of the method to test the phototoxic potential of seven known compounds was investigated. Athamantin (an angular furanocoumarin) and umbelliferone (a simple coumarin) showed no phototoxicity, while linear furanocoumarins exhibited phototoxic activity in the following order: psoralen > bergapten > peucedanin > xanthotoxin. The applicability of this method was also tested in screening the phototoxicity of plant material. Six plants from Apiaceae [Aegopodium podagraria L., Anethum graveolens L., Angelica archangelica L., Levisticum officinalis Koch, Petroselinum crispum (P. Mill) A. W. Hill., and Peucedanum palustre (L.) Moench] and one from Rutaceae (Ruta graveolens L.) were selected, all of them known to contain furanocoumarins. Extracts from leaves collected at different times during the growth period were used in the screening. Our results were in accordance with the furanocoumarin content of these plants and with the results of other phototoxicity tests. The Artemia salina method proved to be rapid, simple and inexpensive, and is therefore ideal in the initial biological screening of large numbers of samples for simultaneous detection of both toxicity and phototoxicity. PMID:10630112

  12. [Biological and biochemical quality of the Artemia (Anostraca: Artemiidae) population from Real de Salinas saltworks, Calkiní, Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Canché, Leticia G; Maldonado-Montiel, Teresita D N J; Carrillo Navarro, Luciano A

    2006-12-01

    Cysts of Artemia spp. collected from February 1997 to February 2000 in the Real de Salinas solar saltworks, Campeche, Mexico, were compared with Artemia franciscana (batch number 8,131 Microfeast Artemia Cysts, Texas, USA). The variables determined in these two populations were: number of cysts per gram, hatching percentage, hatching efficiency, hatching rate, hatching synchrony and hatching biomass, as well as diameter of the cysts and length of the nauplii (instar I). For Salinas, the average diameters of the encapsulated and decapsulated cysts were 230.5 +/- 4.14 and 221.8 +/- 3.39 microm, respectively. The thickness of the cyst shell was 4.35 +/- 0.68 microm and the length of the nauplii was 388.11 +/- 4.39 microm, this last value is among the smallest reported in the literature. For the commercial population of A. franciscana, the average diameters of the encapsulated and decapsulated cysts were 230.21 +/- 12.49 and 216.96 +/- 13.71, respectively. With respect to the corion thickness and length of the nauplii the values were 6.62 +/- 2.72 and 424.70 +/- 30.08, respectively. The protein value of the cysts (47.91 %) and nauplii (50.5 %) of Artemia population from Real de Salinas, are considered adequate to be used as food in aquaculture. The results indicate that the population from Real de Salinas presents positive features for its use in aquaculture in the region. PMID:18457164

  13. Accumulation of mercury by Artemia populations of different salinas of Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Boia, C.M.; Duarte, A.C.

    1995-12-31

    The total mercury content in samples of the brine shrimp Artemia, sediments, water, suspended matter and, when available, algae, from nine salines of Portugal, was evaluated, to find out how mercury present in its natural habitat accumulates in Artemia. This study, carried out between 1990 and 1993, was part of a larger research project aiming to contribute to the knowledge on mercury accumulation and its effects on Artemia. This crustacean is used worldwide for marine species feeding in aquafarms, including in Portugal. The following sampling sites were chosen: some salinas of the lagoon of Aveiro, situated in the northern region of Portugal and partially contaminated with mercury-, the salt-mines of Rio Maior, in the interior of the central region of the country, where there are no sediments (the floor is cemented); and salt-marshes in the Algarve, in the south of Portugal. Mercury was determined by cold vapor absorption espectrofotometry after digestion of samples with sulfuric acid and potassium permanganate, and reference materials have been used to control the analytical performance. The concentrations of total Hg varied from 0.014 to 0.36 mg/Kg in the sediments, 0 to 0.30 {micro}g/g in the Artemia, 0.17 to 0.84 {micro}g/l in the suspended matter and 0.09 to 0.56 {micro}g/l in the water. The content of mercury in the artemias was strongly related to the concentration in the sediments, except when the algae were present, because they also accumulate a significantly percentage of the mercury. No relationships could be established with the Hg in water or in suspended matter (in mass of Hg/volume of filtered water), because their, content in Hg varied a lot with time and weather conditions, such as the wind strength. The presence of Hg in the sediments was due either to significant containing Hg discharges or to the composition of the sediments, being more important in the case of clays.

  14. Artemia salina as test organism for assessment of acute toxicity of leachate water from landfills.

    PubMed

    Svensson, B M; Mathiasson, L; Mårtensson, L; Bergström, S

    2005-03-01

    Artemia salina has, for the first time, been used as test organism for acute toxicity of leachate water from three landfills (the municipal landfills at Kristianstad, Sweden and Siauliai, Lithuania, and an industrial landfill at Stena fragmenting AB, Halmstad, as well as for leachate from Kristianstad treated in different ways in a pilot plan). Artemia can tolerate the high concentrations of chloride ions found in such waters. Large differences in toxicities were found, the leachate from Siauliai being the most toxic one. To increase the selectivity in the measurements, a fractionation was done by using ion exchange to separate ammonium/ammonia and metal ions from the leachate, and activated carbon adsorbents for organic pollutants. The influence of some metals and phenol compounds on the toxicity was investigated separately. It was found that most of the toxicity emanated from the ammonium/ammonia components in the leachate. However, there was also a significant contribution n from organic pollutants, other than phenol compounds, since separate experiments had in this latter case indicated negligible impact. The concentrations of metals were at a level, shown by separate experiments, where only small contribution to the toxicity could be expected. PMID:15869192

  15. Toxicity of organophosphates on morphology and locomotor behavior in brine shrimp, Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara Rao, J; Kavitha, P; Jakka, N M; Sridhar, V; Usman, P K

    2007-08-01

    The acute toxicity and hatching success of four organophosphorus insecticides--acephate (ACEP), chlorpyrifos (CPP), monocrotophos (MCP), and profenofos (PF)--was studied in a short-term bioassay using brine shrimp, Artemia salina. Fifty percent hatchability inhibition concentration and median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values were calculated after probit transformation of the resulting data. Among the insecticides tested, CPP is found to be the most toxic and also to inhibit hatching success of A. salina cysts in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the effect of these pesticides on locomotor behavior (swimming speed) and morphologic differences were studied in LC(50)-exposed nauplii after 24 hours. The in vivo effect of these insecticides on acetylcholinesterase (Enzyme commission number (EC 3.1.1.7) activity was also determined in LC(50)-exposed nauplii after 24 hours. Maximum percent decrease in their swimming speed and significant morphologic alterations were noticed in CPP-exposed brine shrimps. The order of toxicity was CPP > PF > MCP > ACEP in all the parameters studied. PMID:17549541

  16. Interference from ordinarily used solvents in the outcomes of Artemia salina lethality test

    PubMed Central

    Geethaa, Sahgal; Thavamany, Priscilla Jayanthi; Chiew, Siah Poh; Thong, Ong Ming

    2013-01-01

    Methanol, ethanol, Tween 20 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are widely used as dissolving agents in Artemia salina lethality test (aka brine shrimp lethality test [BSLT]) to screen the pharmaceutical properties of natural products. Nevertheless, there is lack of toxicity level of these solvents against brine shrimp. High concentration of these organic solvent might be toxic for this zoology invertebrate and interfere in the experimental outcomes. To avoid this, permissible concentration of the solvents used in BSLT was identified. BSLT was performed to evaluate the toxicity effect of Tween 20, methanol, ethanol and DMSO at 24 h post-treatment time point against A. salina. The suggested maximum working concentration (v/v) for DMSO, methanol, ethanol was found to be 1.25% and that for Tween 20 was 0.16%. LC50 for the solvents were 8.5% (DMSO), 6.4% (methanol), 3.4% (ethanol) and 2.5% (Tween 20). The findings have shown a toxicity level among the solvents in descending order as Tween 20 > ethanol > methanol > DMSO. DMSO is a safer solvent to be used in BSLT compared with other tested solvents, whereas Tween 20 has been shown to be the most stringent solvent among the tested solvents. The findings are resourcefully useful to avoid interference of solvents in the assessment of natural products using BSLT. PMID:24350047

  17. COMPARISON OF A REFERENCE STRAIN AND FOUR GEOGRAPHICAL STRAINS OF 'ARTEMIA' AS FOOD FOR WINTER FLOUNDER (PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS) LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A reference strain and four commercially available geographical strains of Artemia nauplii were each tested as a diet for winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) larvae. The Reference strain was provided by the Artemia Reference Center, Ghent, Belgium. The geographical st...

  18. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    SciTech Connect

    Jayasekara, S.; Drown, D.B.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-02-01

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day exposure period. Heat-stable, cadmium-binding ligands were isolated and identified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cadmium was found to be equally distributed between high and low molecular weight proteins in animals collected from the lake and the 0.5 ppm cadmium group. There was also a slight growth stimulation noted in the 0.5-pm group. Higher cadmium incorporation was noted in low molecular weight fractions with increasing cadmium concentration in the exposure media. Low molecular weight fractions were also found to have high uv absorption characteristics at 250 nm and low absorption at 280 nm. Molecular weight of the cadmium-binding ligands was found to be 11,000 as estimated by the gel filtration method. De novo synthesis of this protein was increased as a function of cadmium concentration in the media. However, slow accumulation of cadmium in other protein fractions was also noticed in higher cadmium exposure groups, suggesting the existence of possible tolerance mechanisms in brine shrimp exposed to suspected acute cadmium concentrations.

  19. Biological screening of selected Pacific Northwest forest plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity bioassay.

    PubMed

    Karchesy, Yvette M; Kelsey, Rick G; Constantine, George; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay was used to screen 211 methanol extracts from 128 species of Pacific Northwest plants in search of general cytotoxic activity. Strong toxicity (LC50 < 100 µg/ml) was found for 17 extracts from 13 species, with highest activity observed for Angelica arguta roots at <10 µg/ml. Notably, four species of cedar trees and one of juniper in the family Cupressaceae dominated this group with LC50 for heartwood extracts ranging from 15 to 89 µg/ml. Moderate toxicity (LC50 100-500 µg/ml) was found in 38 extracts from 27 species, while weak toxicity (LC50 500-1000 µg/ml) was detected for 17 extracts in 16 species. There were 139 extracts from 99 species that were non-toxic (LC50 > 1000 µg/ml). Our subsequent studies of conifer heartwoods with strong activity confirm the assay's value for identifying new investigational leads for materials with insecticidal and fungicidal activity. PMID:27186474

  20. The use of a brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay to assess the toxicity of diatom extracts and short chain aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Gary S; Bentley, Matthew G; Olive, Peter J W

    2003-09-01

    Water soluble algal extracts, the aldehydes 2E,4E-decadienal, decanal, undecanal and the fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were assayed for toxicity to hatching success and larval mortality of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Both crude cellular extracts of the diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Nitzschia commutata and the diatom-derived short chain aldehyde decadienal were found to inhibit hatching success of A. salina cysts in a dose-dependent manner. Decadienal also significantly affected larval mortality rates in 24 and 72 h exposure incubations. The Artemia hatching success assay was the least sensitive of the three (EC50=3.94 microg ml(-1)). A greater sensitivity was observed for the 72 h compared with the 24 h exposure trials (EC50 for 24h=2.14, 72 h=0.023 microg ml(-1)). Decanal did not significantly affect survival or hatching success at the concentrations tested. Undecanal and EPA showed a limited toxic effect in naupliar mortality trials. We suggest that 72 h Artemia exposure trials represent an acceptable bioassay for diatom toxicity where alternative bioassays are unavailable. PMID:14559082

  1. INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON 'ARTEMIA' VI. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF GEOGRAPHICAL AND TEMPORAL STRAINS OF 'ARTEMIA': EFFECTS ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF TWO SPECIES OF BRACHYURAN LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five geographical strains of Artemia were compared for their effects on the survival and growth of Rhithropanopeus harrisii and Cancer irroratus larvae. High survival during larval development was provided by Artemia strains from Brazil, Italy, and Shark Bay-Australia. The San Pa...

  2. Use of Probiotic Bacillus spp. in Rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia (Artemia urmiana) Enrichment: Effects on Growth and Survival of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, Larvae.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Hadi; Imani, Ahmad; Abdollahi, Daruosh; Roozbehfar, Reza; Isari, Amin

    2015-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of a preparation of Bacillus probiotic (Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis, 1:1) on growth and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. The larvae were fed on Artemia urmiana nauplii and Brachionus plicatilis enriched with the probiotic preparation at 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1) rate. The experimental setup was completely randomized design comprised of six treatments, namely solo Artemia nauplii (A) or rotifer (R), Artemia nauplii and rotifer without any enrichment (A + R), Artemia nauplii enrichment with probiotic bacilli (Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis) (A + B), rotifer enrichment with probiotic bacilli (R + B) and enriched Artemia nauplii and rotifer (A + R + B). All treatments were performed in triplicate. Chemical parameters of rearing water viz. pH, salinity and temperature were 7.5-8, 30-31 ppt and 31-32 °C, respectively. Photoperiod was 16L:8D. Shrimp larvae were fed Artemia nauplii and rotifers at 5-20 and 10-40 individuals per shrimp larvae four times a day, respectively. Growth and survival rate of larvae were determined at MII, MIII, PL1, PL4, PL7 and PL10 stages. Larvae in A + R + B treatment showed the highest total length (10.89 ± 0.51 mm), weight (674 ± 73 μg) and survival rate (65% ± 3.5). Lowest total length, weight and survival rate (7.96 ± 0.63 mm, 493 ± 52 μg and 24.5 ± 2.4%, respectively) were recorded in treatment B larvae. We concluded that Bacillus probiotic can improve growth and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp larvae without conceivably undesirable effects. PMID:25721675

  3. Effect of artificial regulations of Artemia n-3 HUFA content on growth and survival of black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Ke

    1998-06-01

    The requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black seabream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was tested using Artemia with various levels of n-3 HUFA. Four treatments with Artemia differing in their n-3 HUFA were prepared by feeding them various oil emulsions. The results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influences fish n-3 HUFA levels and are necessary for good growth and survival of black seabream larvae. The proper value of n-3 HUFA level and DHA, EPA level in Artemia should be 4.273% and 0.873% (wet weight) for good growth and survival in black seabream larvae respectively.

  4. Effect of temperature on post-radiation survival of Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect

    Radchenko, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The postradiative survival rate was studied in one-day Artemia nauplii ..gamma..-irradiation in doses equal to 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10 Gy at medium temperatures of 15, 22, 25, 27/sup 0/C, respectively. A relationship is established between the irradiation effect (stimulation or inhibition) and temperature of the medium. The analysis of Artemia survival rate for stages of development shows that age contributes to the Artemia survival rate, relative to control, dependences on temperature (direct) and on the irradiation dose (inverse). 2 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  5. Artemia salina as a new index for assessment of acute cytotoxicity during co-composting of sewage sludge and lignocellulose waste.

    PubMed

    El Fels, Loubna; Hafidi, Mohamed; Ouhdouch, Yedir

    2016-04-01

    Considering the necessity to constantly monitor the safety of use of sewage sludge, we have focused on evaluating the toxicity of raw sludge and sludge treated by co-composting with date palm waste using an in vitro assessment of cytotoxicity based on Artemia salina larvae as a simple new sensitive and reliable routine test. The efficiency of co-composting in decreasing sludge toxicity was evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity abatement reaching 100% by the second month of composting for mixture A (1/3 sludge+2/3 date palm waste) and the third month for mixture B (1/2 sludge+1/2 date palm waste). Cytotoxicity abatement was confirmed by the increase of germination index, which reached over 100% with positive correlation for lettuce (R(2)=0.81 and 0.86) and for turnip (R(2)=0.87 and 0.74) for mixtures A and B respectively. A strong correlation between the proposed cytotoxicity test and the evolution of regulatory physical-chemical approaches was found, (R(2)=0.88 and 0.89) for NH4(+)/NO3(-) and (R(2)=0.80 and 0.88) for C/N respectively for mixture A and B. These findings allow the inexpensive bioassay reported to be used as a highly sensitive test to determine the cytotoxicity and maturity of composts. PMID:26868843

  6. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  7. Salinas :

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Garth M.; Walsh, Timothy; Bhardwaj, Manoj K.

    2009-02-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics nite element analysis, required for high delity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, Users Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are speci c to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  8. Evaluation of metabolic responses of Artemia salina to oil and oil dispersant as a potential indicator of toxicant stress

    SciTech Connect

    Verriopoulos, G.; Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, M.; Xatzispirou, A.

    1986-03-01

    Oil represents an obvious hazard for the coastal environment and studies on its impact on marine organisms are necessary. Solvent based oil dispersants constitute one of the most important means for removing oil from shores. Although recently new dispersants have been developed, which are much less toxic than the first ones, dispersants still remain toxic substances. Since in the case of oil pollution treatment, oils and detergents are acting in combination, a realistic approach of laboratory studies must also include the combined action of these substances on marine organisms. Although acute toxicity studies are very useful for the determination of the range of animal tolerance, other effects causing physiological alterations may be detrimental to a population's survival. This paper concerns research on the effects of an oil, an oil dispersant and of the mixture of oil and dispersant on a physiological process, the respiration of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

  9. Toxic effects of Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin on Artemia salina, human cells, and the schistosomiasis vector Biomphalaria glabrata.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Lidiane Pereira; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Santana, Giselly Maria de Sá; Silva, Luanna Ribeiro Santos; Aguiar, Jaciana dos Santos; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha; da Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-10-01

    The present study evaluated the toxicity of Microgramma vacciniifolia rhizome lectin (MvRL) to Artemia salina, human tumour cell lines (larynx epidermoid carcinoma Hep-2, NCI-H292 lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and chronic myelocytic leukaemia K562), and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as to Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults. MvRL was toxic to A. salina (LC50=159.9 μg/mL), and exerted cytotoxic effects on NCI-H292 cells (IC50=25.23 μg/mL). The lectin (1-100 μg/mL) did not affect the viability of K562 and Hep-2 tumour cells, as well as of PBMCs. MvRL concentration of 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL promoted malformations (mainly exogastrulation) in 7.8%, 22.5%, and 27.7% of embryos, respectively, as well as delayed embryo development in 42.0%, 69.5%, and 54.7% of embryos, respectively. MvRL at a concentration of 100 μg/mL killed B. glabrata embryos (17.7%) and adults (25%). Further, MvRL damaged B. glabrata reproductive processes, which was evidenced by observations that snails exposed to the lectin (100 μg/mL) deposited fewer eggs than those in the control group, and approximately 40% of the deposited eggs exhibited malformations. Comparison of these results with that from A. salina assay indicates that MvRL is adulticidal at the concentration range which is toxic to environment. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of MvRL on tumour cell and absence of toxicity to normal cell indicate its potential as chemotherapeutic drug. Also, the study revealed that the lectin is able to promote deleterious effects on B. glabrata embryos at environmentally safe concentrations. PMID:24954527

  10. The ability of the branchiopod, Artemia salina, to graze upon harmful algal blooms caused by Alexandrium fundyense, Aureococcus anophagefferens, and Cochlodinium polykrikoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcoval, M. Alejandra; Pan, Jerónimo; Tang, Yingzhong; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    We present experiments that examined the grazing and survivorship of zooplankton native (Acartia tonsa) and non-native (Artemia salina) to NY (USA) estuaries when exposed to blooms and cultures of the three harmful algae native to NY, Alexandrium fundyense, Aureococcus anophagefferens (strains CCMP 1850 and CCMP 1984) and Cochlodinium polykrikoides. During experiments with cultures of A. anophagefferens, clearance rates (CR) of A. salina were significantly greater than those of A. tonsa for both algal strains examined. A. salina fed on cultures of C. polykrikoides at higher rates than all phytoplankton species examined, including the control diet (Rhodomonas salina), and faster than rates of A. tonsa fed C. polykrikoides. During experiments with A. fundyense, A. salina actively grazed all cell concentrations (250-1500 cells ml-1) while A. tonsa did not feed at any concentration. Percent mortality of A. salina and A. tonsa fed A. fundyense for 48 h were 43 ± 7.7% and 72 ± 7.8%, respectively, percentages significantly higher than those of individuals fed all other algal diets. During 25 field experiments using natural blooms of the three HAB species performed across six NY estuaries, A. salina significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cell densities of A. anophagefferens, C. polykrikoides, and A. fundyense relative to the control treatments in all but one experiment. The sum of these findings demonstrates that a failure to graze these HABs by the indigenous copepod, A. tonsa, may permit blooms to occur. In addition, the ability of A. salina to graze these HABs at densities that were inhibitory to A. tonsa suggests that A. salina could, in some circumstances, be considered as a part of mitigation strategy for these events.

  11. The role of guanine nucleotides in the interaction between aminoacyl-tRNA and elongation factor 1 of Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Roobol, K; Möller, W

    1978-10-16

    The low-molecular-weight form of elongation factor 1 (EF-1L) of the cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and [3H]phenylalanyl-tRNA are able to form a stable complex which can be isolated on a Sephacryl S200 column. The formation of this complex is inhibited by increasing concentrations of magnesium acetate and KCl. Furthermore, the formation of this complex is independent of the presence of guanine nucleotides. Complex formation between EF-1L and phenylalanyl-tRNA appears to be specific, since acylation of the tRNA is a necessity for this interaction. Although EF-1L alone binds GDP somewhat more strongly than GTP, the complex between EF-1L and phenylalanyl-tRNA binds GTP exclusively. Our results support the idea that complex formation between EF-1L and aminoacyl-tRNA precedes the enzymatic binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the 80-S ribosome. Subsequently to this binding, release of EF-1L from the ribosome occurs. PMID:251131

  12. Copper(II) complexes with 2-pyridineformamide-derived thiosemicarbazones: Spectral studies and toxicity against Artemia salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, Karina O.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.; Wardell, James L.; Louro, Sonia R. W.; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2009-07-01

    The copper(II) complexes [Cu(H2Am4DH)Cl 2] ( 1), [Cu(H2Am4Me)Cl 2] ( 2), [Cu(H2Am4Et)Cl 2] ( 3) and [Cu(2Am4Ph)Cl] ( 4) with 2-pyridineformamide thiosemicarbazone (H2Am4DH) and its N(4)-methyl (H2Am4Me), N(4)-ethyl (H2Am4Et) and N(4)-phenyl (H2Am4Ph) derivatives were studied by means of infrared and EPR spectral techniques. The crystal structure of 4 was determined. The studied compounds proved to be toxic to Artemia salina, suggesting that they could present cytotoxic activity against solid tumors. Among the free thiosemicarbazones H2Am4Ph presented higher toxicity than all other compounds, which showed comparable effects. In the case of complexes 2 and 3 toxicity is probably attributable to the complex as an entity or to a synergistic effect involving the thiosemicarbazone and copper. H2Am4Ph and complexes 2 and 3 revealed to be the most promising compounds as potential antineoplasic agents.

  13. Topography and stoichiometry of acidic proteins in large ribosomal subunits from Artemia salina as determined by crosslinking

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiumi, T.; Wahba, A.J.; Traut, R.R.

    1987-08-01

    The 60S subunits isolated from Artemia salina ribosomes were treated with the crosslinking reagent 2-iminothiolane under mild conditions. Proteins were extracted and fractions containing crosslinked acidic proteins were obtained by stepwise elution from CM-cellulose. Each fraction was analyzed by diagonal (two-dimensional nonreducing-reducing) NaDodSO/sub 4//polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Crosslinked proteins below the diagonal were radioiodinated and identified by two-dimensional acidic urea-NaDodSO/sub 4/ gel electrophoresis. Each of the acidic proteins P1 and P2 was crosslinked individually to the same third protein, PO. The fractions containing acidic proteins were also analyzed by two-dimensional nonequilibrium isoelectric focusing-NaDodSO/sub 4//polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two crosslinked complexes were observed that coincide in isoelectric positions with monomeric P1 and P2, respectively. Both P1 and P2 appear to form crosslinked homodimers. These results suggest the presence in the 60S subunit of (P1)/sub 2/ and (P2)/sub 2/ dimers, each of which is anchored to PO. Protein PO appears to play the same role as L10 in Escherichia coli ribosomes and may form a pentameric complex with the two dimers in the 60S subunits.

  14. Short-term effects on Artemia salina of aponin and Gomphosphaeria aponina in unialgal cultures and in mixed cultures with gymnodinium breve.

    PubMed

    Eng-Wilmot, D L; Martin, D F

    1979-08-01

    Previous investigations showed that the natural marine substance aponin, produced by the blue-gree alga Gomphosphaeria sponina, was cytolytic towards Florida's red tide organism, Gymnodinium breve. As part of a study of the aponin-alga biological interactions, the effects of unialgal (G. aponina) and mixed cultures (G. aponina + G. breve) on the viability of artemia salina were investigated. Two contrasting effects were observed in mixed cultures: survival of A. salina was promoted in low G. aponina populations, while enhanced toxicity of G. breve to A. salina occurred at higher culture populations. Unialgal G. aponina cultures exerted no adverse effects on A. salina. The apparent protective effect is thought to result from the observed change in G. breve morphology (motile to sessile); toxicity was the result of enhanced toxin release by cytolyzed G. breve cells. In dose-response studies, aponin exhibited no adverse effect on A. salina at concentrations (1 unit) that were deleterious to G. breve. However, at higher applied levels (4--6 units), mortality was substantial (greater than 70%) after 48 hr of incubation. Probit analysis yielded an apparent LD50 of 2.3 units, where 1 unit was that amount required to cytolyze 50% of the G. breve cells (2000 cells/ml) after 20 hr of incubation. PMID:113525

  15. Comparing cestode infections and their consequences for host fitness in two sexual branchiopods: alien Artemia franciscana and native A. salina from syntopic-populations

    PubMed Central

    Amat, Francisco; Sánchez, Marta I.; Green, Andy J.

    2015-01-01

    The American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is invasive in the Mediterranean region where it has displaced native species (the sexual A. salina, and the clonal A. parthenogenetica) from many salt pond complexes. Artemia populations are parasitized by numerous avian cestodes whose effects have been studied in native species. We present a study from the Ebro Delta salterns (NE Spain), in a salt pond where both A. franciscana and native A. salina populations coexist, providing a unique opportunity to compare the parasite loads of the two sexual species in syntopy. The native species had consistently higher infection parameters, largely because the dominant cestode in A. salina adults and juveniles (Flamingolepis liguloides) was much rarer in A. franciscana. The most abundant cestodes in the alien species were Eurycestus avoceti (in adults) and Flamingolepis flamingo (in juveniles). The abundance of E. avoceti and F. liguloides was higher in the A. franciscana population syntopic with A. salina than in a population sampled at the same time in another pond where the native brine shrimp was absent, possibly because the native shrimp provides a better reservoir for parasite circulation. Infection by cestodes caused red colouration in adult and juvenile A. salina, and also led to castration in a high proportion of adult females. Both these effects were significantly stronger in the native host than in A. franciscana with the same parasite loads. However, for the first time, significant castration effects (for E. avoceti and F. liguloides) and colour change (for six cestode species) were observed in infected A. franciscana. Avian cestodes are likely to help A. franciscana outcompete native species. At the same time, they are likely to reduce the production of A. franciscana cysts in areas where they are harvested commercially. PMID:26157636

  16. Comparing cestode infections and their consequences for host fitness in two sexual branchiopods: alien Artemia franciscana and native A. salina from syntopic-populations.

    PubMed

    Redón, Stella; Amat, Francisco; Sánchez, Marta I; Green, Andy J

    2015-01-01

    The American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is invasive in the Mediterranean region where it has displaced native species (the sexual A. salina, and the clonal A. parthenogenetica) from many salt pond complexes. Artemia populations are parasitized by numerous avian cestodes whose effects have been studied in native species. We present a study from the Ebro Delta salterns (NE Spain), in a salt pond where both A. franciscana and native A. salina populations coexist, providing a unique opportunity to compare the parasite loads of the two sexual species in syntopy. The native species had consistently higher infection parameters, largely because the dominant cestode in A. salina adults and juveniles (Flamingolepis liguloides) was much rarer in A. franciscana. The most abundant cestodes in the alien species were Eurycestus avoceti (in adults) and Flamingolepis flamingo (in juveniles). The abundance of E. avoceti and F. liguloides was higher in the A. franciscana population syntopic with A. salina than in a population sampled at the same time in another pond where the native brine shrimp was absent, possibly because the native shrimp provides a better reservoir for parasite circulation. Infection by cestodes caused red colouration in adult and juvenile A. salina, and also led to castration in a high proportion of adult females. Both these effects were significantly stronger in the native host than in A. franciscana with the same parasite loads. However, for the first time, significant castration effects (for E. avoceti and F. liguloides) and colour change (for six cestode species) were observed in infected A. franciscana. Avian cestodes are likely to help A. franciscana outcompete native species. At the same time, they are likely to reduce the production of A. franciscana cysts in areas where they are harvested commercially. PMID:26157636

  17. The efficiency of a new hydrodynamic cavitation pilot system on Artemia salina cysts and natural population of copepods and bacteria under controlled mesocosm conditions.

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Martina; Grego, Mateja; Turk, Valentina

    2016-04-15

    A study of the efficiency of hydrodynamic cavitation and separation was carried out to evaluate an innovative, environmentally safe and acceptable system for ballast water treatment for reducing the risk of introducing non-native species worldwide. Mesocosm experiments were performed to assess the morphological changes and viability of zooplankton (copepods), Artemia salina cysts, and the growth potential of marine bacteria after the hydrodynamic cavitation treatment with a different number of cycles. Our preliminary results confirmed the significant efficiency of the treatment since more than 98% of the copepods and A. salina cysts were damaged, in comparison with the initial population. The efficiency increased with the number of the hydrodynamic cavitation cycles, or in combination with a separation technique for cysts. There was also a significant decrease in bacterial abundance and growth rate, compared to the initial number and growth potential. PMID:26902683

  18. Production and utilization of detyrosinated tubulin in developing Artemia larvae: evidence for a tubulin-reactive carboxypeptidase.

    PubMed

    Xiang, H; MacRae, T H

    1995-01-01

    The reversible, enzymatically driven removal and readdition of its carboxy-terminal tyrosine are major posttranslational modifications of alpha-tubulin. To study these processes isoform-specific antibodies were produced and subsequently used to characterize tyrosinated and detyrosinated tubulin in the brine shrimp, Artemia. Tyrosinated tubulin existed in relatively constant amounts on western blots of cell-free protein extracts from Artemia at all developmental stages examined, whereas detyrosinated tubulin was present after 20-24 h of postgastrula growth. In agreement with the blots, the detyrosinated isoform was observed in immunofluorescently stained larvae after 24 h of incubation, appearing first in structures of a transient nature, namely spindles and midbodies. The elongated muscle cells encircling the gut and the epithelium bordering the gut lumen were stained extensively with antibody to detyrosinated tubulin. Detyrosination was accompanied by the appearance of a tubulin-reactive carboxypeptidase, which used both nonpolymerized and polymerized tubulin as substrate. The enzyme bound to microtubules very poorly, if at all, under conditions used in this work. Several inhibitors of carboxypeptidase A had no effect on the carboxypeptidase from Artemia and revealed similarities between this enzyme and others thought to be tubulin specific. The use of inhibitors also indicated that the carboxypeptidase from Artemia recognized aspects of tubulin structure in addition to the carboxy-terminal tyrosine. Our results support the idea that detyrosinated tubulin appears in microtubules of varying stability, and they demonstrate that Artemia possess a carboxypeptidase with the potential to detyrosinate tubulin during growth of larvae. PMID:8714688

  19. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    PubMed

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs. PMID:26422775

  20. Exposure of gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae to abiotic stress promotes heat shock protein 70 synthesis and enhances resistance to pathogenic Vibrio campbellii

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, Carlos; MacRae, Thomas H.; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana serve as important feed in fish and shellfish larviculture; however, they are subject to bacterial diseases that devastate entire populations and consequently hinder their use in aquaculture. Exposure to abiotic stress was shown previously to shield Artemia larvae against infection by pathogenic Vibrio, with the results suggesting a mechanistic role for heat shock protein 70. In the current report, combined hypothermic/hyperthermic shock followed by recovery at ambient temperature induced Hsp70 synthesis in Artemia larvae. Thermotolerance was also increased as was protection against infection by Vibrio campbellii, the latter indicated by reduced mortality and lower bacterial load in challenge tests. Resistance to Vibrio improved in the face of declining body mass as demonstrated by measurement of ash-free dry weight. Hypothermic stress only and acute osmotic insult did not promote Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance in Artemia larvae nor was resistance to Vibrio challenge augmented. The data support a causal link between Hsp70 accumulation induced by abiotic stress and enhanced resistance to infection by V. campbellii, perhaps via stimulation of the Artemia immune system. This possibility is now under investigation, and the work may reveal fundamental properties of crustacean immunity. Additionally, the findings are important in aquaculture where development of procedures to prevent bacterial infection of feed stock such as Artemia larvae is a priority. PMID:18347942

  1. Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L.; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M.; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C.; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used. PMID:25861638

  2. Evaluation of toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of natural and technical cashew nut shell liquids using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina bioassays.

    PubMed

    Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Oliveira, George Laylson da Silva; Gomes Júnior, Antonio L; de Lima, Sidney Gonçalo; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Freitas, Rivelilson M; Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de C; Dantas Lopes, José Arimateia

    2015-01-01

    The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems' root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used. PMID:25861638

  3. The use of a brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay to assess the water quality in Hangzhou section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yin; Xu, Xiaolu; Li, Tian; Xu, Yifei; Wu, Xu

    2012-03-01

    As physical and chemical tests alone are not sufficient enough for the assessment of potential effects on aquatic organisms, bioassays are required for the integrated evaluation of water pollution. In this study, invertebrate crustacean Artemia salina (brine shrimp) was applied as an indicator to assess the water quality of Hangzhou Section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. The percentage mortality of brine shrimp was recorded after 24-h exposure to the Canal water. The water samples were collected from five typical sites during October 2008 and April 2009. It exhibited 11% ± 8.3%, 26.7% ± 17%, 31.7% ± 8.5%, 28.0% ± 11.7%, and 4% ± 4.3% percentage mortality for the sample from Tangxi Bridge, Yi Bridge, Gongchen Bridge, Maiyu Bridge, and Gujia Bridge in 2008, respectively. And it exhibited 5.7% ± 4.2%, 10.3% ± 8.2%, 24.3% ± 12.3%, 16.0% ± 12.3%, and 0%, percentage mortality in 2009, respectively. According to the results, a relative improvement in water quality was observed, although the results were not significantly different at the p < 0.05 level. It suggested that 24-h A. salina exposure trials represent an acceptable bioassay for water toxicity when alternative bioassays were unavailable. PMID:22187021

  4. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) monitoring of the photolysis of diazinon in aqueous solution: degradation route and toxicity of by-products against Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amauri G; Cardeal, Zenilda L; Augusti, Rodinei

    2013-01-01

    The photolytic degradation of diazinon, an organophosphorus pesticide, in aqueous medium under assorted pH values was continuously monitored by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results indicated that the UV radiation was quite efficient in promoting the pesticide degradation at the three pH levels evaluated (5, 7 and 8). The m/z of the most abundant ions observed in the mass spectra (MS), in conjunction with the fragmentation patterns of such ionic species (MS/MS data), made possible the proposition of chemical structures for the main by-products formed. As a result, routes for the photodegradation of diazinon in aqueous solution could thus be suggested. In the assays using Artemia salina (brine shrimp) it was verified that the photodegradation products exhibited much lower toxicity than the primary substrate. Aiming at mimicking the conditions ordinarily found in water treatment plants, an additional series of tests was conducted with a solution containing sodium hypochlorite and diazinon. This solution, when not exposed to UV radiation, exhibited high toxicity against the microorganisms. Under the influence of UV radiation, however, the toxicity rates decreased dramatically. This result is relevant because it points toward the confident application of UV radiation to neutralize the deleterious effects caused by diazinon (and perhaps other organophosphorus pesticides) as well as sodium hypochlorite to the environment. PMID:23356337

  5. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF A SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW LARVAE AND JUVENILES ON A DIET OF 'ARTEMIA' NAUPLII

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two geographic strains of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii were evaluated for nutritional quality as a food source for young sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Although there was no mortality of fish fed either strain, fish reared on brine shrimp nauplii from S...

  6. SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW LARVAE AND JUVENILES ON A DIET OF 'ARTEMIA' NAUPLII

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two geographic strains of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii were evaluated for nutritional quality as a food source for young sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Although there was no mortality of fish fed either strain, fish reared on brine shrimp nauplii from S...

  7. Sudden weaning of angel fish pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein) (Pisces; Cichlidae) larvae from brine shrimp (Artemia sp) nauplii to formulated larval feed.

    PubMed

    Herath, Sandamali Sakunthala; Atapaththu, Kerthi Sri Senarathna

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of sudden weaning of angel fish larvae (Pteraphylum scalari) from Artemia nauplii to commercial larval feed. Four days post hatch (DPH) larvae were reared in four different weaning protocols (TR1-TR4) with triplicates in a complete randomize design. Larvae in TR1 and TR4 were exclusively fed Artemia nauplii and dry feed respectively. In TR2 and TR3, larvae were initially fed Artemia nauplii and suddenly wean to formulated feed on 14 DPH and 7 DPH respectively. The experiment was lasted for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, final mean weight (FW), total length (FL), height (FH), Daily Weight Gain (DWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), survival and stress index were compared. Significantly highest (P < 0.05) FW, DWG and SGR were observed in TR1 and TR2 while former values of TR3 were not significantly different from TR1. Highest FL observed in TR1 and TR2 while FL of TR2 was statistically similar to that of TR3. The poorest growth was observed in larvae solely fed formulated feed. Survival and the stress index were independent from weaning methods. Although sudden weaning is possible on 7 DPH, larvae showed comparatively higher growth when switch off to formulate feed on 14 DPH. PMID:23626927

  8. Proteomic analysis of acute responses to copper sulfate stress in larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia sinica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qian; Wu, Changgong; Dong, Bo; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Fengqi; Xiang, Jianhai

    2010-03-01

    Proteomics was used to reveal the differential protein expression profiles of acute responses to copper sulfate exposure in larvae of Artemia sinica. Fourteen differentially displayed protein spots were detected and seven of them were identified. Three spots were up-expressed and identified: actin, heat shock protein 70, and chaperone subunit 1; three down-regulated proteins were identified: arginine kinase, elongation factor-2, and glycine-rich protein; and a newly expressed protein was identified as peroxiredoxin. The study indicates the involvement of all the differentially expressed proteins in the early responses of protein expression, and in the survival of A. sinica in the presence of copper and other heavy metals; the findings improve understanding of the organism’s adaptive responses and resistance.

  9. Studies on the structure and biosynthesis of the linkage region between chitin and protein in Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect

    Horst, M.N.

    1986-05-01

    In vivo and in vitro studies on chitin synthesis in Artemia nauplii indicate that two classes of /sup 3/H GlcNAc labeled products are synthesized. The first is soluble in urea and contains a chitoprotein with short chitin oligosaccharides and attached to a high molecular weight polypeptide. The other product is insoluble in urea and SDS, and contains crosslinked, macromolecular chitin. Both classes of chitin products bind the fluorescent probe Calcofluor White (CW), as do glycopeptides prepared from these samples by pronase digestion. The in vivo and in vitro effect of CW on synthesis of both chitin products has been examined. /sup 3/H GlcNAc-labeled glycopeptides have been generated from both products by HCl partial hydrolysis, CNBr cleavage or pronase digestion. Analysis of the pronase soluble fraction after digestion of the urea residue has been carried out by gel permeation and paper chromatography. Sic glycopeptide fractions have been isolated which contain up to 85% (w/w) GlcN and 4-6 predominant amino acids. Common amino acids in all fractions are Asp, Arg and Thr; others found include Lys, Glu and Ala. Synthesis of /sup 3/H GlcNAc-labeled chitopeptides has been achieved in vitro using artificial peptide acceptors such as DNS-Ala-Ile-Glu-Asn-Ala-Thr-Leu and N/sup ..cap alpha../-/sup 3/H Ac-Asn-Tyr-Thr-NHCH/sub 3/. Further studies on the synthesis of Dol-PP-(GlcNAc)/sub 3-8/ and the properties of the oligosaccharide transferase are in progress.

  10. The effect of juvenile hormone III, methyl farnesoate, and methoprene on Na/K-ATPase activity in larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    PubMed

    Ahl, J S; Brown, J J

    1991-01-01

    1. Ion transport enzyme (Na/K-ATPase) activity in stage III larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia, remains elevated throughout the stadium when populations are exposed to methoprene in artificial seawater. 2. Infusion of methoprene, juvenile hormone, or methyl farnesoate causes increased Na/K-ATPase activity in homogenates of mid-stadium larvae that would otherwise exhibit low activity. 3. The sensitivity of the enzyme system to extremely low concentrations of the juvenoids suggests that this may be a common mode of action of these compounds. Additionally it suggests that the enzyme may be under the influence of a similar compound present in the larvae. PMID:1682091

  11. Toxicity assessment of textile effluents treated by advanced oxidative process (UV/TiO2 and UV/TiO2/H2O2) in the species Artemia salina L.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juliana Carla; de Souza Freitas, Thábata Karoliny Formicoly; Palácio, Soraya Moreno; Ambrósio, Elizangela; Souza, Maísa Tatiane Ferreira; Santos, Lídia Brizola; de Cinque Almeida, Vitor; de Souza, Nilson Evelázio

    2013-03-01

    Textile industry wastes raise a great concern due to their strong coloration and toxicity. The objective of the present work was to characterize the degradation and mineralization of textile effluents by advanced oxidative processes using either TiO(2) or TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) and to monitor the toxicity of the products formed during 6-h irradiation in relation to that of the in natura effluent. The results demonstrated that the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association was more efficient in the mineralization of textile effluents than TiO(2), with high mineralized ion concentrations (NH (4) (+) , NO (3) (-) , and SO (4) (2-) ) and significantly decreased organic matter ratios (represented by the chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon). The toxicity of the degradation products after 4-h irradiation to Artemia salina L. was not significant (below 10 %). However, the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association produced more toxicity under irradiation than the TiO(2) system, which was attributed to the increased presence of oxidants in the first group. Comparatively, the photogenerated products of both TiO(2) and the TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) association were less toxic than the in natura effluent. PMID:22638725

  12. Portuguese native Artemia parthenogenetica resisting invasion by Artemia franciscana - Assessing reproductive parameters under different environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Pedro M.; Hontoria, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade; Bio, Ana

    2014-05-01

    There is widespread interest in the conservation of native Artemia biodiversity. In Portugal, only two known populations of native Artemia remain: one in the Rio Maior salina, the other in the Aveiro salina complex, both of the diploid Artemia parthenogenetica species. All other Portuguese hypersaline environments where Artemia can be found have been invaded by Artemia franciscana, which has eradicated the native strains. Invasiveness and resilience of, respectively, exotic and indigenous species are thought to depend on strain-specific traits and adaptation to local conditions. This work evaluates the reproductive performance of the two Portuguese native strains and the invasive species exposed to different salinities, temperatures, photoperiods and food supplies. Reproduction periods, quantity and quality of offspring varied significantly, depending on both the Artemia strain and environmental conditions. A. parthenogenetica from Rio Maior reproduced better than A. franciscana at high salinity (150) and low food supply, which may reflect an adaptation to its biotope that aids its resistance to invasion. But A. parthenogenetica form Aveiro performed much worse than its invasive competitor, under most of the conditions tested. It is unlikely that A. franciscana has not been introduced in this salina by chance alone. Other biological traits of the local A. parthenogenetica or adaptation to unstudied local factors (e.g. pollution) are probably responsible for this strain's survival. Further knowledge on specific local conditions and trait-specific tolerances to biotic and abiotic conditions are needed to understand (non-)invasion patterns and preserve the remaining native populations.

  13. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3–1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  14. Bacillus sp. LT3 improves the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii by enhancing the innate immune response and by decreasing the activity of shrimp-associated vibrios.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yufeng; Defoirdt, Tom; Baruah, Kartik; Van de Wiele, Tom; Dong, Shuanglin; Bossier, Peter

    2014-10-10

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus are amongst the most intensively studied group of bacteria for use as probiotics in aquaculture. However, the exact mechanism of action of these bacteria is often not well described, and the microbiota that are naturally present in cultures of test organisms often compromise the interpretation of the results. The present study aimed to evaluate the putative probiotic effect of Bacillus sp. LT3 in a model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. The strain significantly increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii when administered 6h before the challenge. Under these conditions, LT3 was able to colonize the brine shrimp gastrointestinal tract and to decrease the in vivo pathogen activity as indicated by the bioluminescence of the V. campbellii associated with brine shrimp larvae. In order to investigate the effect of the Bacillus strain on the innate immune system of the brine shrimp larvae, prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase mRNA levels were monitored, while heat shock protein 70 mRNA levels were measured as an indicator of physiological stress. Interestingly, 12h after challenge, the prophenoloxidase mRNA level in the larvae pre-treated with LT3 and challenged with V. campbellii was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other treatments. Further, a decreased mRNA level of transglutaminase gene and heat shock protein 70 gene suggested that pretreatment with LT3 results in less stress and tissue damage in the brine shrimp larvae upon V. campbellii challenge. These results indicated that Bacillus sp. LT3 could improve the survival of brine shrimp larvae when challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii, both by decreasing the in vivo activity of the pathogen and by priming the innate immune response through activating the prophenoloxidase system. PMID:25190276

  15. Salinas primer.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis. This capability is required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. General capabilities for modal, statics and transient dynamics are provided. Salinas is similar to commercial codes like Nastran or Abaqus. It has some nonlinear capability, but excels in linear computation. It is different than the above commercial codes in that it is designed to operate efficiently in a massively parallel environment. Even for an experienced analyst, running a new finite element package can be a challenge. This little primer is intended to make part of this task easier by presenting the basic steps in a simple way. The analyst is referred to the theory manual for details of the mathematics behind the work. The User's Notes should be used for more complex inputs, and will have more details about the process (as well as many more examples). More information can be found on our web pages, 3 or 4. Finite element analysis can be deceptive. Any software can give the wrong answers if used improperly, and occasionally even when used properly. Certainly a solid background in structural mechanics is necessary to build an adequate finite element model and interpret the results. This primer should provide a quick start in answering some of the more common questions that come up in using Salinas.

  16. The case of Artemia spp. in nanoecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Libralato, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Artemia spp. is one of the most widespread saltwater organism suitable for ecotoxicity testing, but no internationally standardised methods exist. Several endpoints can be considered with Artemia spp. including short-term (24-48 h) and long-term (14 days) mortality, cysts and nauplii hatchability, biomass productivity, biomarkers' expression/inhibition and bioaccumulation on larvae as well as organisms' reproductive ability. Recently, Artemia spp. started to be used as a reference biological model in nanoecotoxicology with both inorganic and organic engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) also in combination with traditional environmental stressors looking for potential interactive effects. Criticisms were detected about the use of Artemia spp. in relation to the hatching phase, the toxicity test design, the occasional use only of reference toxicants and the way testing solution/suspensions were prepared thus potentially compromising the reliability of nanoecotoxicological results. A full list of compulsory information that must accompany Artemia nanoecotoxicity data is provided with positive feedbacks also for other toxicity bioassays. PMID:25195085

  17. Salinas : theory manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2004-08-01

    This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programer-notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  18. Salinas : theory manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas, we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  19. Radiation Damage to Artemia Cysts:Effects of Water Vapor.

    PubMed

    Snipes, W C; Gordy, W

    1963-10-25

    Water vapor altered the form and greatly increased the rate of decay of the electron-spin resonance pattern of long-lived free radicals obtained upon gamma irradiation of Artemia salina cysts ( brine shrimp eggs). These results, combined with data on radiation survival, indicate that the water vapor protects the cysts from radiation damage, or heals the damage. They also indicate that water protects the cysts from the effect of oxygen by neutralizing the radiation-induced free radicals before they can interact with oxygen to produce irreversible damage. PMID:17748168

  20. USE of pseudomonas stutzeri and candida utilis in the improvement of the conditions of artemia culture and protection against pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkarim, Mahdhi; Kamel, Chaieb; Fathi, Kammoun; Amina, Bakhrouf

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of two bacterial strains isolated from Artemia cysts and yeast (Candida utilis) on the survival, growth and total biomass production of its larvae, challenge tests were performed with Candida utilis, Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pasteurella haemolityca. In addition, a pathogenic strain of Vibrio alginolyticus was tested for comparative purposes. Pseudomonas stutzeri and Candida utilis have no impact on survival, but enhance growth and total biomass production of the larvae. However, we noted that Pasteurella haemolityca affect negatively Artemia larvae. The adhesion and antagonism assay demonstrates that Candida utilis and Pseudomonas stutzeri are fairly adherent and play an important role in the enhancement of the protection of Artemia culture against pathogens. On the basis of these results, it’s suggested that it’s possible to use Candida utilis and Pseudomonas stutzeri, potential candidates, as probiotic for the culture of Artemia larvae. PMID:24031470

  1. Salinas - User's Notes

    SciTech Connect

    ALVIN,KENNETH F.; BHARDWAJ,MANOJ K.; DRIESSEN,BRIAN; REESE,GARTH M.; SEGALMAN,DANIEL J.

    1999-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Salinas. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  2. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  3. SALINAS1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-10-01

    Salinas isa general purpose finite element package for structural dynamics analysis, written pecifically for distributed memory computers. It has been used for the analysis of structures ranging MEMs, to weapons components to aircraft carriers. The package provides eigenanalysis, and implicit linear and nonlinear transient and static analysis of structures, and incorporates sensitivity analysis. A full range of structural elements is provided.

  4. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) gene in golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus fed Artemia nauplii with different enrichments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qibin; Zheng, Panlong; Ma, Zhenhua; Li, Tao; Jiang, Shigui; Qin, Jian G

    2015-12-01

    The retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are involved in the skeletal development and other biological process such as blood vessel formation and metabolism. Partial sequences of RXRα and β genes were obtained, and their expressions were quantified on golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus at 28 days post hatching (DPH) to explore the molecular response to nutritional manipulation in fish larvae. As live food, Artemia nauplii were separately enriched with Nannochloropsis and Algamac 3080 and non-enriched Artemia nauplii (control) for fish feeding. The expressions of RXRs were detected in the embryos and fish larvae at early stages, suggesting that the skeletal development in golden pompano initiated before yolk re-sorption completion. Fish fed non-enriched Artemia nauplii ended up with higher jaw malformation. The highest specific growth rate was obtained when fish were fed with the Artemia nauplii enriched with Algamac 3080, and the lowest growth rate was observed when fish were fed with unenriched Artemia nauplii. The highest survival was obtained when fish were fed with non-enriched or Nannochloropsis-enriched Artemia nauplii. This study indicates that the use of enriched formula for Artemia nauplii can significantly affect the expression levels of RXRs and jaw malformation of golden pompano larvae, but there is no clear correlation between RXRs expressions and malformation rates when fish are subjected to nutrient challenge. PMID:26159320

  5. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by introduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spa ceflight, and show that extensive degrees of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  6. Embryogenesis, hatching and larval development of Artemia during orbital spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Debell, L.; Armbrust, L.; Guikema, J. A.; Metcalf, J.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-08-01

    Developmental biology studies, using gastrula-arrested cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, were conducted during two flights of the space shuttle Atlantis (missions STS-37 and STS-43) in 1991. Dehydrated cysts were activated, on orbit, by addition of salt water to the cysts, and then development was terminated by the addition of fixative. Development took place in 5 ml syringes, connected by tubing to activation syringes, containing salt water, and termination syringes, containing fixative. Comparison of space results with simultaneous ground control experiments showed that equivalent percentages of naupliar larvae hatched in the syringes (40%). Thus, reactivation of development, completion of embryogenesis, emergence and hatching took place, during spaceflight, without recognizable alteration in numbers of larvae produced. Post-hatching larval development was studied in experiments where development was terminated, by intrduction of fixative, 2 days, 4 days, and 8 days after reinitiation of development. During spaceflight, successive larval instars or stages, interrupted by molts, occurred, generating brine shrimp at appropriate larval instars. Naupliar larvae possessed the single naupliar eye, and development of the lateral pair of adult eyes also took place in space. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive differentiation, including skeletal muscle and gut endoderm, as well as the eye tissues. These studies demonstrate the potential value of Artemia for developmental biology studies during spaceflight, and show that extensive degress of development can take place in this microgravity environment.

  7. Determination of biological and physicochemical parameters of Artemia franciscana strains in hypersaline environments for aquaculture in the Colombian Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, William N; Durán, Gabriel C; Rada, Orlando C; Hernández, Licet C; Linero, Juan-Carlos G; Muelle, Igor M; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Background Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), also known as brine shrimp, are typical inhabitants of extreme environments. These hypersaline environments vary considerably in their physicochemical composition, and even their climatic conditions and elevation. Several thalassohaline (marine) environments along the Colombian Caribbean coast were surveyed in order to contribute to the knowledge of brine shrimp biotopes in South America by determining some vital biological and physicochemical parameters for Artemia survival. Additionally, cyst quality tests, biometrical and essential fatty acids analysis were performed to evaluate the economic viability of some of these strains for the aquaculture industry. Results In addition to the three locations (Galerazamba, Manaure, and Pozos Colorados) reported in the literature three decades ago in the Colombian Caribbean, six new locations were registered (Salina Cero, Kangaru, Tayrona, Bahía Hondita, Warrego and Pusheo). All habitats sampled showed that chloride was the prevailing anion, as expected, because of their thalassohaline origin. There were significant differences in cyst diameter grouping strains in the following manner according to this parameter: 1) San Francisco Bay (SFB-Control, USA), 2) Galerazamba and Tayrona, 3) Kangarú, 4) Manaure, and 5) Salina Cero and Pozos Colorados. Chorion thickness values were smaller in Tayrona, followed by Salina Cero, Galerazamba, Manaure, SFB, Kangarú and Pozos Colorados. There were significant differences in naupliar size, grouping strains as follows (smallest to largest): 1) Galerazamba, 2) Manaure, 3) SFB, Kangarú, and Salina Cero, 4) Pozos Colorados, and 5) Tayrona. Overall, cyst quality analysis conducted on samples from Manaure, Galerazamba, and Salina Cero revealed that all sites exhibited a relatively high number of cysts.g-1. Essential fatty acids (EFA) analysis performed on nauplii from cyst samples from Manaure, Galerazamba, Salina Cero and Tayrona revealed that cysts

  8. Use of solid-phase extraction systems to improve the sensitivity of Artemia bioassays for trichothecene mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Hoke, S H; Carley, C M; Johnson, E T; Broski, F H

    1987-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction was used to preconcentrate trichothecene mycotoxins from rivers and streams in order to develop and improve a rapid and sensitive bioassay using the brine shrimp Artemia salina. For T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, LC50 values obtained were 172, 600, and 700 micrograms/L, respectively. The LC50 for 4-deoxynivalenol was 21 mg/L. A more than 5-fold increase in sensitivity was observed when solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used in conjunction with the Artemia bioassay. For T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, LC50/SPE values after solid-phase extraction were 21, 83, and 130 micrograms/L. The use of river and stream waters and chlorinated water did not seem to interfere with the bioassay. PMID:3624171

  9. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  10. Diet affects the redox system in developing Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae

    PubMed Central

    Penglase, Samuel; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Furmanek, Tomasz; Rønnestad, Ivar; Karlsen, Ørjan; van der Meeren, Terje; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of marine fish larvae fed copepods is superior to those fed rotifers, but the underlying molecular reasons for this are unclear. In the following study we compared the effects of such diets on redox regulation pathways during development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae. Cod larvae were fed a control diet of copepods or the typical rotifer/Artemia diet commonly used in commercial marine fish hatcheries, from first feeding until after metamorphosis. The oxidised and reduced glutathione levels, the redox potential, and the mRNA expression of 100 genes in redox system pathways were then compared between treatments during larval development. We found that rotifer/Artemia-fed cod larvae had lower levels of oxidised glutathione, a more reduced redox potential, and altered expression of approximately half of the redox system genes when compared to copepod-fed larvae. This rotifer/Artemia diet-induced differential regulation of the redox system was greatest during periods of suboptimal growth. Upregulation of the oxidative stress response transcription factor, nrf2, and NRF2 target genes in rotifer/Artemia fed larvae suggest this diet induced an NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response. Overall, the data demonstrate that nutritional intake plays a role in regulating the redox system in developing fish larvae. This may be a factor in dietary-induced differences observed in larval growth. PMID:26099546

  11. Marine Lactobacillus pentosus H16 protects Artemia franciscana from Vibrio alginolyticus pathogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Garcés, M E; Sequeiros, C; Olivera, N L

    2015-02-10

    Vibrio alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen which may affect different aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the probiotic properties and the protective mode of action of Lactobacillus pentosus H16 against V. alginolyticus 03/8525, through in vitro and in vivo studies using Artemia franciscana (hereafter Artemia). This strain showed antimicrobial activity against V. alginolyticus 03/8525 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC33658 possibly related to lactobacilli organic acid production. It was able to survive at high rainbow trout bile concentrations and showed high selective adhesion to rainbow trout mucus (1.2×10(5)±8.0×10(3) cells cm(-2)). H16 outcompeted V. alginolyticus 03/8525 and A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC33658, greatly reducing their adherence to rainbow trout mucus (64.8 and 74.1%, respectively). Moreover, H16 produced a cell-bound biosurfactant which caused an important decrease in the surface tension. H16 also protected Artemia nauplii against mortality when it was administered previous to V. alginolyticus 03/8525 inoculation. Furthermore, H16 bioencapsulated in Artemia, suggesting that it is possible to use live carriers in its administration. We conclude that the ability of L. pentosus H16 to selectively adhere to mucosal surfaces and produce cell-bound biosurfactants, displacing pathogenic strains, in addition to its antimicrobial activity, confer H16 competitive advantages against pathogens as demonstrated in in vivo challenge experiments. Thus, L. pentosus H16, a marine bacterium from the intestinal tract of hake, is an interesting probiotic for Artemia culture and also has the potential to prevent vibriosis in other aquaculture activities such as larvae culture and fish farming. PMID:25667335

  12. Toxicological investigations of Aloe ferox Mill. extracts using Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) assay.

    PubMed

    Abosede, Wintola Olubunmi; Sunday, Arowosegbe; Jide, Afolayan Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Cytotoxicity of the extracts of Aloe ferox using brine shrimp was evaluated. Effects of the extracts on hatchability and lethality of brine shrimps were reported in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and LD(50) respectively. The hatching success was in the order: aqueous root extract (39.8%) >aqueous leaf (26.5%) >acetone leaf (13.7%) > ethanol leaf extracts (2.5%). Hatchability in incubations of ethanol and acetone extracts was found to be dose - dependent, with hatching success decreasing as the concentration of the extracts increased. The lethality of extracts was in the order: aqueous leaf extract (4.7%) >aqueous root extract (4.2%) >acetone leaf extract (3.5%) >ethanol root extract (2.6%) > ethanol leaf extract (1.8%) >acetone root extract (0.7%). Mean mortality of nauplii in the control was higher (6.7%) than that of all the extracts. Based on Meyer's index of toxicity, the acetone leaf extract with LD(50) >1.0mg/mL could be considered as non toxic, while the ethanol root extract (LD(50) <1.0mg/mL was significantly toxic to the brine shrimp. Since the extracts of A. ferox have consistently exhibited significant pharmaceutical properties in-vitro, the non-toxic extracts could further be exploited for the development of plant-based pharmaceuticals. PMID:25730795

  13. Biological screening of araripe basin medicinal plants using Artemia salina Leach and pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, José Galberto M.; Campos, Adriana R.; Brito, Samara A.; Pereira, Carla Karine B.; Souza, Erlânio O.; Rodrigues, Fabíola Fernandes G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many medicinal plant species from the Araripe Basin are widely known and used in folk medicine and for commercial manufacturing of phytotherapeutic products. Few ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies have been undertaken in this region, however, in spite of the great cultural and biological diversity found there. Materials and Methods: Extracts of 11 plant species collected from Ceará state, Brazil, were subjected to the brine shrimp lethality test in order to detect potential sources of novel cytotoxic, antitumor compounds. The larvicidal activity, based on the percentage of larval mortality, was evaluated after 24 h exposure to the treatments. Results: All species tested showed good larvicidal activity as compared to a reference compound and literature data. The extract from Vanillosmopsis arborea was the most active with an LC50 of 3.9 μg/ml. Best results were shown by Lantana montevidensis against Pseudomonas aeruginosa [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 8μg/ml] and Escherichia coli (MIC 32 μg/ml), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium against E. coli (MIC, 256 μg/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 64 μg/ml) and Croton zenhtneri against S. aureus (MIC 64 μg/ml). Conclusion: Chemical tests indicated that a wide variety of natural product classes was present in those extracts that showed significant activities in the bioassays. PMID:21120038

  14. Organisms for Teaching: "Artemia salina": An Easily Cultured Invertebrate Ideally Suited for Ecological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Booth, Kirsty; Reiss, Michael

    1988-01-01

    This paper includes a general account of the biology of the brine shrimp, instructions on how the organism may be cultured, the results of some experiments on the ecology and population biology of the species, and some suggestions for further studies. (Author/CW)

  15. Combined toxicity of four toxicants (Cu, Cr, oil, oil dispersant) to Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect

    Verriopoulos, G.; Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, M.; Milliou, E.

    1987-03-01

    In sea waters multicontaminant pollution appears to be the rule rather than the exception. For a realistic approach to pollution effects it is essential to estimate the combined toxicity of two or more chemicals. There is a need to understand the mechanisms of quantify the effects of multiple toxicity in order to provide responsible authorities with rational estimate of the effects of chemical mixtures. Thus the potential toxic effects of mixtures of toxicants has recently become a subject of growing scientific interest. In this paper the authors have tried to estimate the joint toxicity of some pollutants commonly found in nearshore polluted waters: two metals, copper and chromium; an oil (Tunesian crude oil zarzaitine type); and an oil dispersant (Finasol OSR-2).

  16. The occurrence of an exotic bisexual Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, in two coastal salterns of Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bo; Sun, Shichun; Ma, Lin

    2004-10-01

    The alien halophilous Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, was found in Chengkou Saltern and Yangkou Saltern of Shandong Province, P.R. China. Although the indigenous parthenogenetic Artemia is detectable, the exotic species is dominant in both salterns. The cross-breeding tests between the exotic A. franciscana and 5 bisexual Artemia species were conducted. The results of hybridization and morphological observations on the exotic A. franciscana are briefly presented in this short communication.

  17. A revision of Artemia biodiversity in Macaronesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In a biogeographical context, the term Macaronesia broadly embraces the North Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, the Canary Islands, and Cape Verde. The peculiar arid climatic conditions in some of these places have led to the development of marine salt exploitations, which can be counted among the hypersaline habitats of the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca). Parthenogenetic populations of this anostracan were described in the Canary Islands during the last decades of the 20th century, while the American Artemia franciscana species was recently found in the Cape Verde archipelago. Following an invasive pattern, this exotic species has recently reached the Canary Islands, too. This paper reports information dealing with biotope loss (solar saltworks) in this biogeographical region, together with possible consequences concerning the arrival of invasive species, two factors that frequently promote dramatic biodiversity losses. The discussion of this threat focuses mainly on the Canary Islands archipelago where native species of Artemia still exist. PMID:23075404

  18. Further characterization of the cathepsin L-associated protein and its gene in two species of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liqian; Warner, Alden H

    2006-12-01

    The major cysteine protease in embryos and larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is a heterodimer composed of a cathepsin L-like polypeptide of 28.5 kDa and a 31.5 kDa polypeptide called the cathepsin L-associated protein or CLAP. In a previous study, CLAP was shown to be a cell adhesion protein containing two Fas I domains and two GTP/ATP binding sites known as Walker A and B motifs. Here, we have characterized CLAP and its genes to better understand the role of this protein in Artemia development. The polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the structure of the CLAP gene in two species of Artemia, the New World bisexual diploid A. franciscana and the Old World parthenogenetic tetraploid Artemia parthenogenetica. The protein coding region of the CLAP gene from each species was 99.5% identical for a protein of 332 amino acids, while the 3' non-coding region, representing nearly 45% of the gene, was only 86% identical between the two related species. However, while the CLAP gene is intronless in A. franciscana, in A. parthenogenetica the gene contained a mini-intron of 30 base pairs in the 3' non-coding region. The sequences representing the CLAP gene in A. franciscana and A. parthenogenetica have been entered into the NCBI database as AY757920 and DQ100385, respectively. Northern blot analysis showed that while the cathepsin L gene is expressed constitutively in Artemia franciscana embryos and young larvae, the CLAP gene is not expressed in late embryos and young larvae. In contrast, Western blots indicated that CLAP is present in developing embryos and young larvae, at least to the first larval molt, supporting results obtained previously showing CLAP's resistance to degradation by its dimeric partner, cathepsin L. At the protein level we showed that the GTP/ATP binding sites in CLAP are functional with rate constants of 0.024 and 0.022 for GTP and ATP hydrolase activity, respectively. GTP but not ATP also had a slight stimulatory effect on

  19. Antifouling potential of the marine microalga Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min; Li, Fengchao; Su, Rongguo; Wang, Ke; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Marine organisms have usually been viewed as sources of environmentally friendly compounds with antifouling activity. We performed a series of operations to investigate the antifouling potential of the marine microalga Dunaliella salina. For the ethyl acetate crude extract, the antialgal activity was significant, and the EC50 value against Skeletonema costatum was 58.9 μg ml(-1). The isolated purified extract was tested for antifouling activity, the EC 50 value against S. costatum was 21.2 μg ml(-1), and the LC50 against Balanus amphitrite larvae was 18.8 μg ml(-1). Subsequently, both UHR-TOF-MS and GC-MS were used for the structural elucidation of the compounds, and a series of unsaturated and saturated 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids were detected. The data suggested that the fatty acid extracts from D. salina possess high antifouling activity, and could be used as substitutes for potent, toxic antifouling compounds. PMID:25096202

  20. Evaluation of toxicity of polluted marine sediments from Bahia Salina Cruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Lozano, Maria Cristina; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lia C; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Murugan, Gopal; Vazquez-Botello, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Bahia Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, Mexico is a major center of oil and refined product distribution on the Mexican Pacific coast. From the start of oil industry operations in 1979, negative effects from discharges of treated effluents in the bay have been a constant concern for local communities. We analyzed 28 surface sediment samples obtained in June, 2002 to evaluate the level of toxicity in the littoral zone, port-harbor, and La Ventosa estuary in Bahia Salina Cruz. The extractable organic matter concentration was high (1,213 to 7,505 micro g g(-1)) in 5 of 7 stations from the port and harbor, whereas it was low in 12 of 16 stations in the littoral zone (36 to 98 micro g g(-1)). The total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest (57 to 142 micro g g(-1)) in the port and harbor compared to the La Ventosa estuary and the littoral zone. Among the heavy metals analyzed, cadmium exceeded the effects range-low values associated with adverse biological effects. The geo-accumulation index of sediments was moderate to strong contamination at 5 stations in the nonlittoral and 6 stations in the littoral zone. The enrichment of lead, zinc, and cadmium at 5 stations from the littoral, port, and harbor suggest that these metals are of anthropogenic origin. Bioassay tests of elutriates of sediments on nauplii of Artemia franciscana and Artemia sp. showed that the port and harbor were more toxic than the La Ventosa estuary and the coastal zone. The Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) did not show a similar response with the solid phase of the sediments. The results of this study indicate that the high levels of organic content and metals in the sediments of port-harbor and the La Ventosa estuary are mainly caused by anthropogenic activities. PMID:20390851

  1. Post-translationally modified tubulins in Artemia: prelarval development in the absence of detyrosinated tubulin.

    PubMed

    Langdon, C M; Freeman, J A; MacRae, T H

    1991-11-01

    The synthesis of post-translationally modified tubulins was examined during Artemia development. Tubulin, either purified to homogeneity or in cell-free extracts, was blotted to nitrocellulose and probed with a panel of antibodies. When purified tubulin was examined, tyrosinated tubulin underwent a large decrease as development progressed and this was accompanied by the appearance of detyrosinated tubulin in samples from organisms developed 24 hr. The inclusion of carboxypeptidase inhibitors had a small effect on the relative amounts of tyrosinated and detyrosinated tubulins in 24-hr preparations. The amount of alpha- and beta-tubulin in cell-free extracts of Artemia either remained relatively constant during development or increased slightly. The same result was obtained for acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin. Detyrosinated tubulin first appeared in 24-hr cell-free extracts and was only post-translationally modified tubulin to increase, relative to the total amount of tubulin, as the brine shrimp developed. As revealed by immunofluorescence staining, detyrosinated tubulin occurred in many cell types of developing nauplii and was prominently displayed in mitotic figures. Artemia, a complex metazoan animal, is thus able to grow for an extended period of time in the absence of detyrosinated tubulin. This isoform is however, synthesized in early larvae and may be required for the development of elongated cells including those which encircle the gut. Detyrosination remains as the only developmentally related change observed for brine shrimp tubulin. PMID:1936554

  2. Long-term lethal toxicity test with the crustacean Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Manfra, Loredana; Savorelli, Federica; Pisapia, Marco; Magaletti, Erika; Cicero, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Our research activities target the use of biological methods for the evaluation of environmental quality, with particular reference to saltwater/brackish water and sediment. The choice of biological indicators must be based on reliable scientific knowledge and, possibly, on the availability of standardized procedures. In this article, we present a standardized protocol that used the marine crustacean Artemia to evaluate the toxicity of chemicals and/or of marine environmental matrices. Scientists propose that the brine shrimp (Artemia) is a suitable candidate for the development of a standard bioassay for worldwide utilization. A number of papers have been published on the toxic effects of various chemicals and toxicants on brine shrimp (Artemia). The major advantage of this crustacean for toxicity studies is the overall availability of the dry cysts; these can be immediately used in testing and difficult cultivation is not demanded. . Cyst-based toxicity assays are cheap, continuously available, simple and reliable and are thus an important answer to routine needs of toxicity screening, for industrial monitoring requirements or for regulatory purposes. The proposed method involves the mortality as an endpoint. The numbers of survivors were counted and percentage of deaths were calculated. Larvae were considered dead if they did not exhibit any internal or external movement during several seconds of observation. This procedure was standardized testing a reference substance (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate); some results are reported in this work. This article accompanies a video that describes the performance of procedural toxicity testing, showing all the steps related to the protocol. PMID:22525984

  3. Nonhatching Decapsulated Artemia Cysts As a Replacement to Artemia Nauplii in Juvenile and Adult Zebrafish Culture.

    PubMed

    Tye, Marc; Rider, Dana; Duffy, Elizabeth A; Seubert, Adam; Lothert, Brogen; Schimmenti, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    Feeding Artemia nauplii as the main nutrition source for zebrafish is a common practice for many research facilities. Culturing live feed can be time-consuming and requires additional equipment to be purchased, maintained, and cleaned. Nonhatching decapsulated Artemia cysts (decaps) are a commercially available product that can be fed directly to fish. Several other ornamental fish species have been successfully cultured using decaps. Replacing Artemia nauplii with decaps could reduce the overall time and costs associated with the operation of a zebrafish facility. The objective of this study was to determine if decaps could be a suitable replacement to Artemia nauplii in juvenile and adult zebrafish culture. Wild-type zebrafish were fed one of three dietary treatments: decaps only, nauplii only, or a standard consisting of nauplii plus a commercially prepared pellet food. Survival, growth (length and weight), and embryo production were analyzed between the treatments. Fish receiving the decap diet demonstrated a significantly higher growth and embryo production when compared to the fish receiving the nauplii-only diet. When comparing the decap fish to the standard fish, no significant difference was found in mean survival, mean weight at 90 days postfertilization, or mean embryo production. It was determined that nonhatching decapsulated Artemia cysts can be used as a suitable replacement to Artemia nauplii in juvenile and adult zebrafish culture. PMID:25495227

  4. Effects of nutrition (herbivore vs carnivore) on energy charge and nucleotide composition in Hyas araneus larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, J.

    1992-03-01

    Growth rate expressed as dry weight, elemetnal composition (C, N, H), protein content and nucleotide composition (ATP, ADP, AMP, CTP, GTP and UTP) as well as adenosine were measured in laboratory cultured Hyas araneus larvae fed two different diets. One group was fed freshly hatched Artemia sp. nauplii, the other the diatom Odontella (Biddulphia) sinensis. Growth rate was reduced in the O. sinensis-fed group, reaching 20 to 50% of the growth rate of Artemia-fed larvae. In all cases, some further development to the next instar occurred when larvae were fed O. sinensis, although at reduced levels compared to Artemia-fed larvae. The adenylic energy charge was quite similar for the two nutritional conditions tested and therefore does not reflect the reduced growth rate in O. sinensis-fed larvae. The individual nucleotide content was clearly reduced in O. sinensis-fed larvae, reflecting the nutritional conditions already during early developmental periods. These reduced amount of nucleotides in O. sinensis-fed larvae were most obvious when adenylic nucleotide contents were pooled. Pooled adenylic nucleotides were found to be correlated with the individual content of carbon and protein, showing significant differences at both nutritional conditions tested.

  5. Effect of n-3 HUFA levels in rotifers and Artemia on growth and survival of larval black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingke; Li, Kuiran; Huang, Bingxin; Chen, Xiaolin

    2004-12-01

    Requirement for dietary n-3 HUFA (n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid) for growth and survival of black sea bream ( Sparus macrocephalus) larvae was studied using rotifers and Artemia at various levels of n-3 HUFA. Five treatments with rotifers and Artemia differing in n-3 HUFA were prepared by enriching them with various oil emulsions. Results indicated that dietary n-3 HUFA significantly influence fish n-3 HUFA levels and are essential for growth and survival of black sea bream larvae. The results also indicated that the incorporation of n-3HUFA TG (triacylglycerols) into tissues of larval black sea bream was more effective from natural fish oil in comparison with n-3 HUFA fatty acid ethyl esters from ethyl-esterified oil.

  6. Single-cell protein diet of a novel recombinant vitellogenin yeast enhances growth and survival of first-feeding tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) larvae.

    PubMed

    Lim, E H; Lam, T J; Ding, J L

    2005-03-01

    Yeast single-cell protein (SCP) is a high-nutrient feed substitute. This study evaluates the dual applications of a novel recombinant Pichia pastoris SMD1168H (SMD) yeast, expressing a tilapia vitellogenin protein (rVtg), as an SCP diet for Artemia and the first-feeding fish larvae. Instar II Artemia fed rVtg, rVtg precultured in 5% fish oil (rVtg-FO), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), or native SMD had greater lipid contents (P < 0.05) than the freshly hatched. Lipid deposition in the Artemia fed rVtg or rVtg-FO was greater (P < 0.05) than in those fed SMD or SC. Diet-induced accumulation of low levels of docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3)] was detected only in Artemia fed the rVtg-based diets. Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) larvae were fed solely yeast diets singly or in combination (d 3-22), or a staggered regimen of yeast (d 3-12) followed by unenriched or yeast-enriched Artemia (d 13-22). The larvae fed rVtg for 22 d increased in length and weight (P < 0.05), whereas those fed SC or SMD suffered growth suppression and high mortality. Such adverse consequences were ameliorated when 50% of SC was substituted with rVtg. The larvae prefed rVtg followed by a dietary switch to Artemia preenriched for 48 h with rVtg or rVtg-FO were greatest in length, had the highest weight gain, and lived the longest. Besides delivering rVtg protein, essential fatty acids and amino acids, rVtg may have probiotic effects in enhancing larval survival. This study suggests the feasibility of using the rVtg yeast as an Artemia booster and an SCP first feed for larvae. PMID:15735086

  7. Bundling of bovine and brine shrimp (Artemia) microtubules in vitro.

    PubMed

    MacRae, T H

    1984-06-01

    Cell-free extracts from embryos of the brine shrimp (Artemia) induced bundling of bovine microtubules assembled in the presence of glycerol and Mg++. Sedimentation of microtubules through sucrose cushions and subsequent electrophoresis revealed that bundling occurred independently of accessory proteins tightly bound to the microtubules. Bovine microtubules containing microtubule-associated proteins (MAPS) or assembled with taxol did not bundle. The unusual polymerization properties of homogeneous Artemia tubulin, bundling in the absence of added factors and the small number of microtubules assembled in crude embryo extracts upon addition of taxol precluded a complete comparative study of Artemia and bovine microtubule bundling. Interesting properties of the in vitro assembly of Artemia microtubules were, however, elaborated and putative Artemia MAPs were observed as a consequence of the work with brine shrimp embryos. PMID:6744423

  8. Porfirio Salinas and His Bluebonnet Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Dolores M.

    Porfirio Salinas has been hailed the best painter of the Texas hill country and its bluebonnets. Born on November 6, 1910, Porfirio's teachers recognized and encouraged his drawing ability. When Porfirio found employment after school in a graphics company that also sold art supplies, he met Robert Wood, recognized for his Texas landscapes, and…

  9. Long-term Lethal Toxicity Test with the Crustacean Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    Manfra, Loredana; Savorelli, Federica; Pisapia, Marco; Magaletti, Erika; Cicero, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Our research activities target the use of biological methods for the evaluation of environmental quality, with particular reference to saltwater/brackish water and sediment. The choice of biological indicators must be based on reliable scientific knowledge and, possibly, on the availability of standardized procedures. In this article, we present a standardized protocol that used the marine crustacean Artemia to evaluate the toxicity of chemicals and/or of marine environmental matrices. Scientists propose that the brine shrimp (Artemia) is a suitable candidate for the development of a standard bioassay for worldwide utilization. A number of papers have been published on the toxic effects of various chemicals and toxicants on brine shrimp (Artemia). The major advantage of this crustacean for toxicity studies is the overall availability of the dry cysts; these can be immediately used in testing and difficult cultivation is not demanded1,2. Cyst-based toxicity assays are cheap, continuously available, simple and reliable and are thus an important answer to routine needs of toxicity screening, for industrial monitoring requirements or for regulatory purposes3. The proposed method involves the mortality as an endpoint. The numbers of survivors were counted and percentage of deaths were calculated. Larvae were considered dead if they did not exhibit any internal or external movement during several seconds of observation4. This procedure was standardized testing a reference substance (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate); some results are reported in this work. This article accompanies a video that describes the performance of procedural toxicity testing, showing all the steps related to the protocol. PMID:22525984

  10. Helminth parasites of Artemia franciscana (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) in the Great Salt Lake, Utah: first data from the native range of this invader of European wetlands.

    PubMed

    Redon, Stella; Berthelemy, Nicole J; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Amat, Francisco; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P

    2015-01-01

    The present study is the first survey on the role of Artemia franciscana Kellogg as intermediate host of helminth parasites in its native geographical range in North America (previous studies have recorded nine cestode and one nematode species from this host in its invasive habitats in the Western Mediterranean). Samples of Artemia franciscana were collected from four sites in the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, across several months (June-September 2009). A. franciscana serves as intermediate host of five helminth species in this lake. Four of them are cestodes: three hymenolepidids, i.e. Confluaria podicipina (Szymanski, 1905) (adults parasitic in grebes), Hymenolepis (sensu lato) californicus Young, 1950 (adults parasitic in gulls), Wardium sp. (definitive host unknown, probably charadriiform birds), and one dilepidid, Fuhrmannolepis averini Spassky et Yurpalova, 1967 (adults parasitic in phalaropes). In addition, an unidentified nematode of the family Acuariidae was recorded. Confluaria podicipina is the most prevalent and abundant parasite at all sampling sites, followed by H. (s. l.) californicus. The species composition of the parasites and the spatial variations in their prevalence and abundance reflect the abundance and distribution of aquatic birds serving as their definitive hosts. The temporal dynamics of the overall helminth infections exhibits the highest prevalence in the last month of study at each site (August or September). This native population of A. franciscana from GSL is characterised with higher prevalence, intensity and abundance of the overall cestode infection compared to the introduced populations of this species in the Palaearctic Region. The values of the infection descriptors in the native population of A. franciscana are slightly lower or in some cases similar to those of the Palaearctic species Artemia parthenogenetica Barigozzi (diploid populations) and Artemia salina (Linnaeus) in their native habitats. PMID:26040582

  11. [Larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Chabasse, D; Le Clec'h, C; de Gentile, L; Verret, J L

    1995-01-01

    Larbish, cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruption, is a serpiginous cutaneous eruption caused by skin penetration of infective larva from various animal nematodes. Hookworms (Ancylostoma brasiliense, A. caninum) are the most common causative parasites. They live in the intestines of dogs and cats where their ova are deposited in the animal feces. In sandy and shady soil, when temperature and moisture are elevated, the ova hatch and mature into infective larva. Infection occurs when humans have contact with the infected soil. Infective larva penetrate the exposed skin of the body, commonly around the feet, hands and buttocks. In humans, the larva are not able to complete their natural cycle and remain trapped in the upper dermis of the skin. The disease is widespread in tropical or subtropical regions, especially along the coast on sandy beaches. The diagnosis is easy for the patient who is returning from a tropical or subtropical climate and gives a history of beach exposure. The characteristic skin lesion is a fissure or erythematous cord which is displaced a few millimeters each day in a serpiginous track. Scabies, the larva currens syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis, must be distinguished from other creeping eruptions and subcutaneous swelling lesions caused by other nematodes or myiasis. Medical treatments are justified because it shortens the duration of the natural evolution of the disease. Topical tiabendazole is safe for localized invasions, but prolonged treatment may be necessary. Oral thiabendazole treatment for three days is effective, but sometimes is associated with adverse effects. Trials using albendazole for one or four consecutive days appear more efficacious. More recent trials using ivermectine showed that a single oral dose can cure 100% of the patients; thus, this drug looks very promising as a new form of therapy. Individual prophylaxis consists of avoiding skin contact with soil which has been contaminated with dog or cat feces

  12. Porting salinas to the windows platform.

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Garth M.; Wilson, Christopher Riley

    2006-06-01

    The ASC program has enabled significant development of high end engineering applications on massively parallel machines. There is a great benefit in providing these applications on the desktop of the analysts and designers, at least insofar as the small models may be run on these platforms, thus providing a tool set that spans the application needs. This effort documents the work of porting Salinas to the WINDOWS{trademark} platform. Selection of the tools required to compile, link, test and run Salinas in this environment is discussed. Significant problems encountered along the way are listed along with an estimation of the overall cost of the port. This report may serve as a baseline for streamlining further porting activities with other ASC codes.

  13. Embryonic diapause in two species of brine shrimp: Artemia monica and Artemia franciscana

    SciTech Connect

    Drinkwater, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia, has the capacity to produce encysted embryos which are resistant to severe environmental conditions. Upon release from the ovisac, these embryos, or cysts, do not hatch, but remain in a state of developmental arrest imposed by some unknown endogenous mechanism. However, once the proper abiotic signal is received, the embryo is free to resume development. Regulation of this embryonic diapause in two related species of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana and Artemia monica, is studied. The abiotic cues which terminate diapause and the possibility of a regulatory mechanism involving depressed intracellular pH (pH/sub i/) are investigated. /sup 31/P-NMR studies show that pH/sub i/ of diapause cysts of both species is alkaline, greater than or equal to 7.9, essentially the same as that of activated cysts. A franciscana, which inhabits an unpredictable environment, is activated by several cues: low temperature, dehydration, and elevated levels of CO/sub 2/. A. monica, found in a fairly stable body of water with regular seasonal changes in temperature, breaks diapause only upon exposure to low temperature. Induction of anoxybiosis in diapause and activated cysts is studied using /sup 31/P-NMR to reveal that diapause cysts acidify rapidly in response to anoxia; pH/sub i/ falls to about 7.2 in 30 minutes, much like activated cysts, indicating the presence of a fairly active metabolism. The effects of salinity on cyst activation, hatching, water content, and carbohydrate metabolism are examined.

  14. Strong environmental tolerance of Artemia under very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, K.; Ono, F.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Yamashita, M.

    2010-03-01

    It was shown by the present authors group that a tardigrade in its tun-state can survive after exposed to 7.5 GPa for 13 hours. We have extended this experiment to other tiny animals searching for lives under extreme conditions of high hydrostatic pressure. Artemia, a kind of planktons, in its dried egg-state have strong environmental tolerance. Dozens of Artemia eggs were sealed in a small Teflon capsule together with a liquid pressure medium, and exposed to the high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa. After the pressure was released, they were soaked in seawater to observe hatching rate. It was proved that 80-90% of the Artemia eggs were alive and hatched into Nauplii after exposed to the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa for up to 48 hours. Comparing with Tardigrades, Artemia are four-times stronger against high pressure.

  15. New approaches for Artemia pond culture.

    PubMed

    Van Hoa, Nguyen; Le Tran, Huu; Hong Van, Nguyen Thi; Sorgeloos, P; Van Stappen, G

    2013-01-01

    A project for intensive culture of Artemia in Vinhchau solar saltwork was funded by Soctrang Authority. The aim of this project is to increase the average cyst yield of 50kg.ha-1.crop, and to build up a stable culture technique with a better yield for local farmers. Multiple laboratory experiments were set up with inert food including fermented rice bran, tiger shrimp feed (PL15), as well as their combination with live algae (Chaetoceros). Results showed that, under laboratory conditions, fermented rice bran and tiger shrimp feed can be used as supplemental food sources. The shrimp feed alone or in combination with algae always gave better cyst production compared to the others, but should not account for more than 50% of the diet. In the field trials, aeration of Artemia ponds also increased cyst yields (from 195.8+/-44.2 to 207+/-46.1kg.ha-1.crop with 6 and 12 aeration a day, respectively) compared to ponds with no aeration (88.2+/-27.5kg.ha-1.crop), however the returns on investment (ROI=2.73-2.71 with aera tion vs. 2.24 without) are not significantly different. Utilization of fermented rice bran (20kg.ha-1.day) and shrimp feed (6kg.ha-1.day) as a supplementary feed during pond production in combination with greenwater supplies (10% of pond volume daily) resulted in higher yields (96.0+/-15.9 and 157.2+/-15.0kg.ha-1.crop, respectively) than traditional culture; Shrimp feed as a supplemental feed supported the cyst yield but their negative effect was at a high cost vs. traditional culture and use of fermented rice bran. Based on the cyst yield and ROI, fermented rice bran should be a promising item for poor farmers. PMID:25141701

  16. Toxicity Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Brine Shrimp Artemia

    PubMed Central

    Arulvasu, Chinnasamy; Jennifer, Samou Michael; Prabhu, Durai; Chandhirasekar, Devakumar

    2014-01-01

    The present study revealed the toxic effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in Artemia nauplii and evaluated the mortality rate, hatching percentage, and genotoxic effect in Artemia nauplii/cysts. The AgNPs were commercially purchased and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were spherical in nature and with size range of 30–40 nm. Artemia cysts were collected from salt pan, processed, and hatched in sea water. Artemia nauplii (II instar) were treated using silver nanoparticles of various nanomolar concentrations and LC50 value (10 nM) and mortality rate (24 and 48 hours) was evaluated. Hatching percentage of decapsulated cysts treated with AgNPs was examined. Aggregation of AgNPs in the gut region of nauplii was studied using phase contrast microscope and apoptotic cells in nauplii stained with acridine orange were observed using fluorescence microscope. DNA damage of single cell of nauplii was determined by comet assay. This study showed that as the concentration of AgNPs increased, the mortality rate, aggregation in gut region, apoptotic cells, and DNA damage increased in nauplii, whereas the percentage of hatching in Artemia cysts decreased. Thus this study revealed that the nanomolar concentrations of AgNPs have toxic effect on both Artemia nauplii and cysts. PMID:24516361

  17. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  18. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus).

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  19. Copepods enhance nutritional status, growth and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae - can we identify the underlying factors?

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Ørjan; van der Meeren, Terje; Rønnestad, Ivar; Mangor-Jensen, Anders; Galloway, Trina F; Kjørsvik, Elin; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The current commercial production protocols for Atlantic cod depend on enriched rotifers and Artemia during first-feeding, but development and growth remain inferior to fish fed natural zooplankton. Two experiments were conducted in order to identify the underlying factors for this phenomenon. In the first experiment (Exp-1), groups of cod larvae were fed either (a) natural zooplankton, mainly copepods, increasing the size of prey as the larvae grew or (b) enriched rotifers followed by Artemia (the intensive group). In the second experiment (Exp-2), two groups of larvae were fed as in Exp-1, while a third group was fed copepod nauplii (approximately the size of rotifers) throughout the larval stage. In both experiments, growth was not significantly different between the groups during the first three weeks after hatching, but from the last part of the rotifer feeding period and onwards, the growth of the larvae fed copepods was higher than that of the intensive group. In Exp-2, the growth was similar between the two copepod groups during the expeimental period, indicating that nutrient composition, not prey size caused the better growth on copepods. Analyses of the prey showed that total fatty acid composition and the ratio of phospholipids to total lipids was slightly different in the prey organisms, and that protein, taurine, astaxanthin and zinc were lower on a dry weight basis in rotifers than in copepods. Other measured nutrients as DHA, all analysed vitamins, manganese, copper and selenium were similar or higher in the rotifers. When compared to the present knowledge on nutrient requirements, protein and taurine appeared to be the most likely limiting nutrients for growth in cod larvae fed rotifers and Artemia. Larvae fed rotifers/Artemia had a higher whole body lipid content than larvae fed copepods at the end of the experiment (stage 5) after the fish had been fed the same formulated diet for approximately 2 weeks. PMID:26038712

  20. Effects of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a live food on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods ( P<0.01). Three live organisms were used for raising larvae and juveniles of Paralichthys olivaceus respectively for 15 and 10 d. Then the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of the larvae and juveniles were investigated. The results showed that the larvae and juveniles fed with copepods ( S. poplesia) had significantly higher growth rate than those fed with the other two organisms ( P<0.01). The survival of the flounder larvae fed with copepods was significantly higher than that of the others ( P<0.01), and the survival of the juvenile fish fed with copepods was higher than that fed with Artemia ( P<0.05). The contents of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) and the ratio of DHA/EPA in larval and juvenile flounder P. olivaceus were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of DHA, EPA and ARA in the larvae and juveniles fed with S. poplesia were higher than those fed with a mixed diet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  1. 19. REGIONAL MAP, SALINAS RIVER PROJECT, CAMP SAN LUIS OBISPO, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. REGIONAL MAP, SALINAS RIVER PROJECT, CAMP SAN LUIS OBISPO, IN CENTRAL PORTION OF SAN LUIS OBISPO, CALIFORNIA. Leeds Hill Barnard & Jewett - Consulting Engineers, February 1942. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  2. Variant subunit specificity in the quaternary structure of Artemia hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Cassandra J; Matthews, Charles M; Trotman, Clive N A

    2002-08-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia has three extracellular hemoglobins (Hbs) that are developmentally expressed and exhibit distinct oxygen-binding characteristics (Heip, Moens, and Kondo 1978; Heip et al. 1978 ). These Hbs are composed of two polymers, each of which comprises nine covalently linked globin domains. Although the cDNA sequences of two nine-domain globins from Artemia have been published, there is evidence for the existence of further expressed globin genes (Manning, Trotman, and Tate 1990 ). In the present study extensive analysis at the cDNA and genomic levels was performed in order to determine the globin gene copy number in Artemia. Sequence and Southern analysis suggest that four Hb polymers (T1, T2, C1, and C2) are expressed in Artemia. In addition, there is also at least one globin pseudogene. Protein sequencing of the native Hbs revealed that there are limitations on which two polymers can associate. The composition of the Hbs has been determined to be: Hb I, C1C2; Hb II, C1T2; and Hb III, T1T2. These pairings allow the levels of the three Artemia Hbs to be regulated independently by polymer expression alone, therefore explaining the previously inconsistent developmental and hypoxia-induced expression patterns. PMID:12140240

  3. Kinetic properties and heme pocket structure of two domains of the polymeric hemoglobin of Artemia in comparison with the native molecule.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Heshmat Akbari; Berghmans, Herald; Trashin, Stanislav; De Wael, Karolien; Fago, Angela; Moens, Luc; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2015-10-01

    In this project, we studied some physicochemical properties of two different globin domains of the polymeric hemoglobin of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and compared them with those of the native molecule. Two domains (AsHbC1D1 and AsHbC1D5) were cloned and expressed in BL21(DE3)pLysS strain of Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins as well as the native hemoglobin (AfHb) were purified from bacteria and frozen Artemia, respectively by standard chromatographic methods and assessed by SDS-PAGE. The heme environment of these proteins was studied by optical spectroscopy and ligand-binding kinetics (e.g. CO association and O2 binding affinity) were measured for the two recombinant proteins and the native hemoglobin. This indicates that the CO association rate for AsHbC1D1 is higher than that of AsHbC1D5 and AfHb, while the calculated P50 value for AsHbC1D1 is lower than that of AsHbC1D5 and AfHb. The geminate and bimolecular rebinding parameters indicate a significant difference between both domains. Moreover, EPR results showed that the heme pocket in AfHb is in a more closed conformation than the heme pocket in myoglobin. Finally, the reduction potential of -0.13V versus the standard hydrogen electrode was determined for AfHb by direct electrochemical measurements. It is about 0.06V higher than the potential of the single domain AsHbC1D5. This work shows that each domain in the hemoglobin of Artemia has different characteristics of ligand binding. PMID:26004089

  4. Ametabolic embryos of Artemia franciscana accumulate DNA damage during prolonged anoxia.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Alexander G

    2009-03-01

    Encysted embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana are able to survive prolonged periods of anoxia even when fully hydrated. During this time there is no metabolism, raising the question of how embryos tolerate spontaneous, hydrolytic DNA damage such as depurination. When incubated at 28 degrees C and 40 degrees C for several weeks, hydrated anoxic embryos were found to accumulate abasic sites in their DNA with k=5.8x10(-11) s(-1) and 2.8x10(-10) s(-1), respectively. In both cases this is about 3-fold slower than expected from published observations on purified DNA. However, purified calf thymus DNA incubated under similar anoxic conditions at pH 6.3, the intracellular pH of anoxic cysts, also depurinated more slowly than predicted (about 1.7-fold), suggesting that cysts may in fact accumulate abasic sites only slightly more slowly than purified DNA. Upon reoxygenation of cysts stored under N(2) for 30 weeks at 28 degrees C, the number of abasic sites per 10(4) bp DNA fell from 21.1+/-4.0 to 9.8+/-2.0 by 12 h and to 6.2+/-2.1 by 24 h. Larvae hatched after 48 h and 72 h had only 0.59+/-0.17 and 0.48+/-0.07 abasic sites per 10(4) bp, respectively, suggesting that repair of these lesions had largely taken place before hatching commenced. Thus, unlike bacterial spores, Artemia cysts appear to have no specific protective mechanism beyond what might be afforded by chromatin structure to limit spontaneous depurination, and rely on the repair of accumulated lesions during the period between reoxygenation and hatching. PMID:19251993

  5. Extracellular Matrix Peptides of Artemia Cyst Shell Participate in Protecting Encysted Embryos from Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Li; Chen, Dian-Fu; Liu, Yu-Lei; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Fan; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Many species of the brine shrimp Artemia are found in various severe environments in many parts of the world where extreme salinity, high UV radiation levels, high pH, anoxia, large temperature fluctuations, and intermittent dry conditions are often recorded. To withstand adverse environments, Artemia undergoes an oviparous developmental pathway to release cysts whereas, under favorable conditions, swimming nauplius larvae are formed directly via an ovoviviparous pathway. In the former case these cysts have an extraordinary ability to keep the embryos protected from the harsh environment for long periods. This is achieved through the protection by a complex out-wrapping cyst shell. However, the formation and function of the cyst shell is complex; the details remain largely unclear. Principal Finding A shell gland-specific gene (SGEG2) was cloned and identified from a suppression subtractive hybridization library. Western blot analysis showed that SGEG2 presumably requires post-translational proteolysis in order to be processed into two mature peptides (SGEG2a and 2b). The three matrix peptides (SGEG1 reported previously, 2a, and 2b) were found to distribute throughout the cyst shell. The results of gene knockdown by RNAi and subsequent resistance to environmental stresses assays indicated that these matrix peptides are required for cyst shell formation and are involved in protecting the encysted embryos from environmental stress. Conclusions/Significance This study revealed that extracellular matrix peptides participate in protecting embryos from extreme salinity, UV radiation, large temperature fluctuations and dry environments, thereby facilitating their survival. The cyst shell provides an excellent opportunity to link the ecological setting of an organism to the underlying physiological and biochemical processes enabling its survival. The cyst shell material has also a high potential to become an excellent new biomaterial with a high number of

  6. Impact of brine acidification on hatchability, survival and reproduction of Artemia parthenogenetica and Artemia franciscana in salt ponds, Bohai Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Liying; Deng, Yuangao; Wang, Jing; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Van Stappen, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    We studied the effect of pH (pH 5, 6, 7 and 8) on the hatching percentage, survival and reproduction of Artemia strains in Bohai Bay salt ponds. Strains included parthenogenetic Artemia from Bohai Bay (BHB), Artemia franciscana from San Francisco Bay, and A. franciscana artificially produced in salt ponds in Vietnam. The latter was included as a potential inoculum for biological management of salt ponds. The hatching percentage of cysts after 24 h and the survival rate of the tested Artemia strains were significantly reduced when exposed to a culture medium at pH 5 for 18 d ( P<0.05). The tolerance of Artemia to 48 h acid exposure varied with developmental stage, increasing in the following order: juvenile, nauplii, pre-adult, with maximum tolerance in adults. All strains of Artemia tested could not reproduce at pH 5. At pH levels from pH 6-8, a higher pH generally resulted in a shorter brood interval and enhanced ovoviviparity. Hence, we suggest that brine acidification has a negative impact on Artemia populations in the Bohai Bay saltworks. Inoculation of Artemia with either local parthenogenetic Artemia or exotic A. franciscana should be feasible at pH 7-8.

  7. Copepods enhance nutritional status, growth and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae — can we identify the underlying factors?

    PubMed Central

    van der Meeren, Terje; Rønnestad, Ivar; Mangor-Jensen, Anders; Galloway, Trina F.; Kjørsvik, Elin; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The current commercial production protocols for Atlantic cod depend on enriched rotifers and Artemia during first-feeding, but development and growth remain inferior to fish fed natural zooplankton. Two experiments were conducted in order to identify the underlying factors for this phenomenon. In the first experiment (Exp-1), groups of cod larvae were fed either (a) natural zooplankton, mainly copepods, increasing the size of prey as the larvae grew or (b) enriched rotifers followed by Artemia (the intensive group). In the second experiment (Exp-2), two groups of larvae were fed as in Exp-1, while a third group was fed copepod nauplii (approximately the size of rotifers) throughout the larval stage. In both experiments, growth was not significantly different between the groups during the first three weeks after hatching, but from the last part of the rotifer feeding period and onwards, the growth of the larvae fed copepods was higher than that of the intensive group. In Exp-2, the growth was similar between the two copepod groups during the expeimental period, indicating that nutrient composition, not prey size caused the better growth on copepods. Analyses of the prey showed that total fatty acid composition and the ratio of phospholipids to total lipids was slightly different in the prey organisms, and that protein, taurine, astaxanthin and zinc were lower on a dry weight basis in rotifers than in copepods. Other measured nutrients as DHA, all analysed vitamins, manganese, copper and selenium were similar or higher in the rotifers. When compared to the present knowledge on nutrient requirements, protein and taurine appeared to be the most likely limiting nutrients for growth in cod larvae fed rotifers and Artemia. Larvae fed rotifers/Artemia had a higher whole body lipid content than larvae fed copepods at the end of the experiment (stage 5) after the fish had been fed the same formulated diet for approximately 2 weeks. PMID:26038712

  8. Probiont niche specialization contributes to additive protection against Vibrio owensii in spiny lobster larvae.

    PubMed

    Goulden, Evan F; Hall, Michael R; Pereg, Lily L; Baillie, Brett K; Høj, Lone

    2013-02-01

    The development of efficient probiotic application protocols for use in marine larviculture relies on comprehensive understanding of pathogen-probiont-host interactions. The probiont combination of Pseudoalteromonas sp. PP107 and Vibrio sp. PP05 provides additive protection against vectored Vibrio owensii DY05 infection in larvae (phyllosomas) of ornate spiny lobster, Panulirus ornatus. Here, fluorescently tagged strains were used to demonstrate niche specialization of these probionts in both the live feed vector organism Artemia and in phyllosomas. The pathogen was vulnerable to direct interaction with PP05 in the bacterioplankton as well as in the Artemia gut and the phyllosoma foregut and midgut gland. In contrast, PP107 was localized on external surfaces of Artemia and phyllosomas, and direct interaction with the pathogen was limited to the bacterioplankton. While PP107 was the overall dominant ectobiont on the phyllosoma cephalothorax and inner leg segments, PP05 was the primary colonizer of outer leg segments, nutrient-rich locales that may promote ingestion during feeding. This study shows that niche specialization can contribute to the additive probiotic effect of a probiotic mixture and highlights that probiotic enrichment of Artemia cultures can intercept the infection cycle of V. owensii DY05 in early-stage P. ornatus phyllosomas. PMID:23757129

  9. Origin and Genetic Diversity of Diploid Parthenogenetic Artemia in Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Marta; Amat, Francisco; Gómez, Africa

    2013-01-01

    There is wide interest in understanding how genetic diversity is generated and maintained in parthenogenetic lineages, as it will help clarify the debate of the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction. There are three mechanisms that can be responsible for the generation of genetic diversity of parthenogenetic lineages: contagious parthenogenesis, repeated hybridization and microorganism infections (e.g. Wolbachia). Brine shrimps of the genus Artemia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca) are a good model system to investigate evolutionary transitions between reproductive systems as they include sexual species and lineages of obligate parthenogenetic populations of different ploidy level, which often co-occur. Diploid parthenogenetic lineages produce occasional fully functional rare males, interspecific hybridization is known to occur, but the mechanisms of origin of asexual lineages are not completely understood. Here we sequenced and analysed fragments of one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes from an extensive set of populations of diploid parthenogenetic Artemia and sexual species from Central and East Asia to investigate the evolutionary origin of diploid parthenogenetic Artemia, and geographic origin of the parental taxa. Our results indicate that there are at least two, possibly three independent and recent maternal origins of parthenogenetic lineages, related to A. urmiana and Artemia sp. from Kazakhstan, but that the nuclear genes are very closely related in all the sexual species and parthenogegetic lineages except for A. sinica, who presumable took no part on the origin of diploid parthenogenetic strains. Our data cannot rule out either hybridization between any of the very closely related Asiatic sexual species or rare events of contagious parthenogenesis via rare males as the contributing mechanisms to the generation of genetic diversity in diploid parthenogenetic Artemia lineages. PMID:24376692

  10. The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M.; Beardmore, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to “perceive” forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of

  11. INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON 'ARTEMIA' XI. AMINO ACID COMPOSITION AND ELECTROPHORETIC PROTEIN PATTERNS OF 'ARTEMIA' FROM FIVE GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cysts of five geographical strains of Artemia were hatched and the newly hatched nauplii were acid hydrolyzed and analyzed for their amino acid content. Strains from Australia, Brazil, Italy, and Utah were similar in amino acid content, whereas the San Pablo Bay, California s...

  12. A novel model of early development in the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, and its use in assessing the effects of environmental variables on development, emergence, and hatching.

    PubMed

    Neumeyer, Courtney H; Gerlach, Jamie L; Ruggiero, Kristin M; Covi, Joseph A

    2015-03-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia (Crustacea, Anostraca), is a zooplankton that is commonly used in both basic and applied research. Unfortunately, Artemia embryos are often cultured under conditions that alter early development, and reports based on these cultures oversimplify or fail to describe morphological phenotypes. This is due in part to the lack of a comprehensive developmental model that is applicable to observations of live specimens. The objective of this study was to build and test a descriptive model of post-diapause development in Artemia franciscana using observations made with a standard dissecting microscope. The working model presented is the first to comprehensively place all known "abnormal" embryonic and naupliar phenotypes within the context of a classic hatching profile. Contrary to previous reports, embryos and nauplii with aberrant phenotypes often recover and develop normally. Oval prenauplii may emerge as normal prenauplii (E2 stage). A delay of this transition leads to incomplete hatching or direct hatching of first instar larvae with a curved thoracoabdomen. When hatching is incomplete, retained cuticular remnants are shed during the next molt, and a "normal" second instar larva is produced. By differentiating between molting events and gross embryonic patterning in live embryos, this new model facilitates fine time-scale analyses of chemical and environmental impacts on early development. A small increase in salinity within what is commonly believed to be a permissive range (20‰-35‰) produced aberrant morphology by delaying emergence without slowing development. A similar effect was observed by decreasing culture density within a range commonly applied in toxicological studies. These findings clearly demonstrate that morphological data from end-point studies are highly dependent on the time points chosen. An alternate assessment method is proposed, and the potential impact of heavy metals, hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, and cis

  13. Continuous production of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Janssen, Marcel; Brandenburg, Willem A; Wijffels, René H

    2011-03-01

    During the in situ extraction of β-carotene from Dunaliella salina, the causal relationship between carotenoid extraction and cell death indicated that cell growth and cell death should be at equilibrium for a continuous in situ extraction process. In a flat-panel photobioreactor that was operated as a turbidostat cell numbers of stressed cells were kept constant while attaining a continuous well-defined light-stress. In this way it was possible to study the balance between cell growth and cell death and determine whether both could be increased to reach higher volumetric productivities of carotenoids. In the two-phase system a volumetric productivity of 8.3 mg β-carotene L(RV)(-1)d(-1) was obtained. In situ extraction contributed only partly to this productivity. The major part came from net production of carotenoid-rich biomass, due to a high growth rate of the cells and subsequent dilution of the reactor. To reach equilibrium between cell growth and cell death, sparging rates of dodecane could have been increased. However, already at the applied sparging rate of 286 L(dod)L(RV)(-1)min(-1) emulsion formation of the dodecane in the aqueous phase appeared. In a turbidostat without in situ extraction a volumetric productivity of 13.5 mg β-caroteneL(RV)(-1)d(-1) was reached, solely based on the continuous production of carotenoid-rich biomass. PMID:22112908

  14. Regulation of promoter occupancy during activation of cryptobiotic embryos from the crustacean Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lamparero, Ana; Casero, Marie-Carmen; Ortiz-Caro, Javier; Sastre, Leandro

    2003-05-01

    Artemia franciscana embryos can suspend their development and metabolism at the gastrula stage to enter a state of cryptobiosis, forming cysts. Embryonic development and metabolism can be resumed under favorable environmental conditions to give rise to free-swimming larvae or nauplii. The mechanisms that mediate these processes are not completely known. Here, we report our studies of the mechanisms that regulate transcriptional activation upon exiting cryptobiosis. Regulatory regions of several A. franciscana gene promoters were identified. Functional analyses in mammalian cells allowed the identification of transcriptional activator regions in the Actin302 promoter and in promoter 2 of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase-encoding gene. These regions were shown to specifically bind protein factors from nuclear extracts of A. franciscana nauplii by means of electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Several protein-binding regions were also detected by DNase I protection analysis in the promoters of the genes encoding the alpha1 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, actin 302 and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. Specific DNA-binding proteins in nauplius nuclear extracts were detected for all the promoter regions analyzed. These proteins were either not present in cyst nuclear extracts or were present in much smaller concentrations. Three of the five regions analyzed also bound proteins present in cyst nuclear extracts. These data indicate that transcriptional activation upon exiting cryptobiosis in A. franciscana involves the expression/activation of DNA-binding transcription factors that are not present in cyst nuclei PMID:12654895

  15. The swimming behavior of Artemia (Anostraca): new experimental and observational data.

    PubMed

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2014-12-01

    Artemia (Anostraca) is among the most primitive and ancient groups of crustaceans. Artemia spp. play a dominant role in the ecosystems of hypersaline waters, and often they are the only animals in these extreme biotopes. Most ethological studies on Artemia have been conducted on nauplii and metanauplii. We made ethological observations on Artemia under laboratory conditions and in the natural waters of Crimea, where we studied growth and ontogenetic changes of swimming behavior. Growth occurred during the first 50 days up to a size of 9.5-10.5mm, after which time the size did not increase (some females lived up to 6.5 months). A strong positive relation was found between maximal speed and individual length, which varied between 0.4 and 10.5mm; it may be approximated by the power equation: Vmax=1.205·K(0.820), where Vmax is the maximal speed of Artemia (in mms(-1)) of the length K (in mm). There is no similar relation between average speed and length of Artemia. The average speed of adults was 40-60% lower in environments with microalgae compared to media without food. The duration of the "riding position" for mating pairs of Artemia urmiana in our experiments varied from 10 to 27 days. In lakes we observed different Artemia aggregations varying in size and form. We conclude that the swimming behavior of Artemia is quite complex and diverse, and develops during ontogeny. PMID:25438935

  16. The induction and extraction of metallothioneins in Artemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing-Liang; Chien, Paul K.

    1994-06-01

    A small amount of heavy metal binding protein, identified by BioRad Protein Assay, has been isolated from the adult brine shrimp, Artemia franciscanus. This protein has an apparent molecular weight between 6000 to 9000 dalton. a UV absorption peak at 260 instead of 280 nm like most proteins; and has high affinity towards binding with radioactive labeled109Cd. These characteristics are similar to that of metallothioneins reported for many vertebrate and invertebrate, marine and terrestrial animals. After the brine shrimp is exposed to a small amount of Cd2+ for 24 h, a large amount of metallothionein can be isolated, showing the inducibility of this detoxifying protein in the adult Artemia in a short period of time.

  17. Possibilities of alternative generation II biotests at Artemia.

    PubMed

    Dvořák, Petr; Zďárský, Michal; Beňová, Katarína

    2009-06-01

    The meaning of alternative biotests is described and discussed. The paper also deals with the possible application of the developmental studies of the sea Artemia franciscana nauplinus. Five-day biotests including the validation criteria are described. The possibilities of the biotests are very wide. Additionally to the standard applications in ecotoxicology, there is a possibility of modelling pharmacological experiments or monitoring the effects of ionizing radiation and the interaction with other chemicals. PMID:21217845

  18. Possibilities of alternative generation II biotests at Artemia

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Petr; Žďárský, Michal; Beňová, Katarína

    2009-01-01

    The meaning of alternative biotests is described and discussed. The paper also deals with the possible application of the developmental studies of the sea Artemia franciscana nauplinus. Five-day biotests including the validation criteria are described. The possibilities of the biotests are very wide. Additionally to the standard applications in ecotoxicology, there is a possibility of modelling pharmacological experiments or monitoring the effects of ionizing radiation and the interaction with other chemicals. PMID:21217845

  19. ANALYTICAL VARIATION IN THE DETERMINATION OF THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF STANDARD PREPARATIONS OF BRINE SHRIMP ARTEMIA: AN INTERLABORATORY EXERCISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international interlaboratory exercise was conducted to investigate the variability associated with the preparation and analysis of samples and the reporting of fatty acid composition data for tvo samples of Artemia supplied to the laboratories by the Artemia Reference Center ...

  20. Effect of Artemia franciscana on the removal of nickel by bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Devi, S Sujatha; Sethu, M; Priya, P Gomathi

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the feasibility of using Artemia franciscana in reducing the Ni concentration of synthetic wastewater by the process of bioaccumulation. Metallothionein protein plays a key role in the uptake of nickel by Artemia. Artemia (Brine shrimp) was exposed to an initial nickel concentration of 40 mg/L. Gradual decrease of nickel was observed from 40 mg/L to 5 mg/L with a removal efficiency of 87.5%. The number of organisms were varied to determine the number for the maximum removal efficiency. Metallothionein protein in Artemia was estimated by the silver saturation method. The physical parameters such as pH were maintained in an alkaline condition of 9-10, temperature was maintained at room temperature and salinity at 30-35‰. These were found to be the optimal conditions for the survival and reduction of nickel by Artemia. PMID:24975411

  1. Stimulating effect of space flight factors on Artemia cysts: comparison with irradiation by gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubin, Y.; Pianezzi, B.; Gasset, G.; Plannel, H.; Kovalev, E.E.

    1986-06-01

    The Artemia cyst, a gastrula in dormant state, is a very suitable material to investigate the individual effects of HZE cosmic particles. Monolayers of Artemia cysts, sandwiched with nuclear emulsions, flew aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129. The space flight stimulated the developmental capacity expressed by higher percentages of emergence, hatching, and alive nauplii at day 4-5. A greater mean life span was reported in Artemias developed from Artemia cysts hit by the cosmic heavy ions. On Earth, Artemia cysts were exposed to 1, 10, 100, 200 and 400 Gy of gamma (gamma) rays. A stimulating effect on developmental capacity was observed for 10 Gy; the mean life span was significantly increased for this dose. These results are discussed in comparison with previous investigations performed on Earth and in space.

  2. Isolation of TDA-producing Phaeobacter strains from sea bass larval rearing units and their probiotic effect against pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Artemia cultures.

    PubMed

    Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul; Dourala, Nancy; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gram, Lone

    2016-05-01

    Fish-pathogenic Vibrio can cause large-scale crashes in marine larval rearing units and, since the use of antibiotics can result in bacterial antibiotic resistance, new strategies for disease prevention are needed. Roseobacter-clade bacteria from turbot larval rearing facilities can antagonize Vibrio anguillarum and reduce mortality in V. anguillarum-infected cod and turbot larvae. In this study, it was demonstrated that antagonistic Roseobacter-clade bacteria could be isolated from sea bass larval rearing units. In addition, it was shown that they not only antagonized V. anguillarum but also V. harveyi, which is the major bacterial pathogen in crustaceans and Mediterranean sea bass larvae cultures. Concomitantly, they significantly improved survival of V. harveyi-infected brine shrimp. 16S rRNA gene sequence homology identified the antagonists as Phaeobacter sp., and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that they could belong to a new species. The genomes contained genes involved in synthesis of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), and its production was confirmed by UHPLC-TOFMS. The new Phaeobacter colonized live feed (Artemia) cultures and reduced Vibrio counts significantly, since they reached only 10(4)CFUmL(-1), as opposed to 10(8)CFUmL(-1) in non-Phaeobacter treated controls. Survival of V. anguillarum-challenged Artemia nauplii was enhanced by the presence of wild type Phaeobacter compared to challenged control cultures (89±1.0% vs 8±3.2%). In conclusion, TDA-producing Phaeobacter isolated from Mediterranean marine larviculture are promising probiotic bacteria against pathogenic Vibrio in crustacean live-feed cultures for marine fish larvae. PMID:26922490

  3. Influence of phosphorylation on isoform composition and function of a microtubule-associated protein from developing Artemia.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J; Macrae, T H

    1995-01-01

    A novel 49 kDa protein, which exhibits nucleotide-dependent cross-linking of microtubules in vitro and localizes to ordered microtubule arrays by immunofluorescent staining, has been purified to apparent homogeneity from the brine shrimp, Artemia. Electrophoretic analysis involving isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional gels, supplemented by staining of Western blots with affinity-purified antibody, revealed that the 49 kDa protein consists of five isoforms with pI values of 6.0-6.2. The amount of 49 kDa protein increased slightly, but its isoform composition did not change significantly, during development of Artemia gastrula to third-instar larvae. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase caused the 49 kDa protein to undergo a mobility shift on gel electrophoresis, and, by use of an antibody to phosphoserine, at least two isoforms of the protein were shown to be phosphorylated. The serine phosphate, presumably added by a post-translational mechanism, did not influence binding of the 49 kDa protein to microtubules. Under conditions in which microtubules were cross-linked, the 49 kDa protein failed to interact with actin filaments. Our results demonstrate that the 49 kDa protein, like other structural microtubule-associated proteins such as tau and MAP2, is composed of several isoforms, some of which are phosphorylated. This protein has the potential to regulate the spatial distribution of microtubules within cells but does not link microfilaments to one another or to microtubules. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7733878

  4. Solar Pond devices: free energy or bioreactors for Artemia biomass production?

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Luisa; Sousa, João; Marques, Ana; Tavares, Célia; Giestas, Margarida

    2009-08-01

    The recent exponential growth in industrial aquaculture has led to a huge increase in Artemia biomass production in order to meet increased fish production needs. The present study explores the potential use of salt gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) for production of Artemia nauplii. An SGSP is a basin of water where solar energy is trapped and collected via an artificially imposed gradient. Three zones can be identified in an SGSP: upper and lower zones, which are both convective, and a middle zone, which is intended to be non-convective. The latter acts as a transparent insulation layer and allows for storage of solar energy at the bottom, where it is available for use. The combination of salt, temperature and high transparency could make SGSPs promising bioreactors for the production of Artemia nauplii. Using particle image velocymetry (PIV) and Shadowgraph visualisation techniques, the behaviour of Artemia nauplii under critical cultivation parameters (namely, salinity, temperature and light) was monitored to determine movement velocity, and how movement of Artemia affects the salt gradient. It was observed that Artemia nauplii constantly follow light, irrespective of adverse salinity and/or temperature conditions. However, despite the substantial displacement of Artemia following the light source, the salt gradient is not disrupted. The suitability of SGSPs as bioreactors for Artemia biomass production was then tested. The results were disappointing, probably due to the lack of sufficient O(2) for Artemia survival and growth. Follow-up trials were conducted aimed at using the SGSP as a green and economically attractive energy source to induce faster hatching of cysts and improved Artemia nauplii growth. The results of these trials, and a case study of Artemia nauplii production using an SGSP, are presented. The authors constructed a Solar Pond device, which they suggest as a novel way of supplying thermal energy for Artemia biomass production in an aquaculture

  5. Assessment of fluorescent-labeled bacteria for evaluation of in vivo uptake of bacteria (Vibrio spp.) by crustacean larvae.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rodriguez, S A; Simões, N; Jones, D A; Roque, A; Gomez-Gil, B

    2003-01-01

    Available methods to study crustacean digestive tract colonization by bacteria are laborious, time-consuming, and do not permit in vivo assays and observation. This paper reports on a rapid and consistent technique to apply a fluorescent label to bacteria, which can then be presented to filter-feeding crustacea such as Artemia and penaeid larvae for later in situ bacterial distribution observation. Three luminescent Vibrio spp. were stained and observed inside Artemia nauplii, shrimp zoea and mysis stages, Vibrio harveyi type strain ATCC 14126, M(1) (pathogenic) and Ea (non-pathogenic). Factors such as dye (DTAF) concentration, exposure time/temperature and sonication time were evaluated. Viability of the dye and stained bacteria were tested at 4, -20 and -70 degrees C storage temperatures for up to 81 days. Results show that 4 and -20 degrees C storage temperatures are not recommended. At -70 degrees C, both bacteria and dye are optimally preserved. Monodispersed fluorescent-labeled bacterial cells can be observed inside the digestive tract of crustacean larvae at a density of inoculation as high as 5.2 x 10(6) CFU ml(-1). After 2 to 4 h, some leaching occurs, increasing difficulty in observation, although after 24 h, it is still possible to observe monodispersed FLB inside the digestive tract of crustacean larvae. Autofluorescence may complicate observation when filter-feeding crustacean larvae are co-fed with microalgae. PMID:12401232

  6. DNA polymerases alpha and gamma during pre-emergence and early larval development of Artemia.

    PubMed

    Slater, J M; McLennan, A G

    1982-12-15

    DNA polymerases alpha and gamma have been studied in cryptobiotic cysts and developing embryos and larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia. The two enzymes readily separate on Cibacron blue 3-GA Matrex gel. Assay requirements with activated DNA as primer-template are pH 8.0, 1 mM Mg2+, 50 mM K+ for DNA polymerase alpha and pH 8.4, 10 mM Mg2+, 80 mM K+ for DNA polymerase gamma. DNA polymerase alpha is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide (94% and 100% at 1 mM and 10 mM respectively) and aphidicolin (96% at 60 microM). DNA polymerase gamma is also sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide (83% and 100% inhibition at 1 mM and 10 mM respectively) but is resistant to aphidicolin. 2',3'-Dideoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate (ddTTP) inhibits the gamma polymerase by 88% when in fivefold excess over dTTP whereas the alpha polymerase is unaffected by this compound. DNA polymerase alpha has a sedimentation coefficient of 7.6 S which is reduced to 6.2 S by a phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride-sensitive proteinase. The gamma polymerase sediments at 8.3 S. No DNA polymerase beta activity could be detected. After the reinitiation of development both activities increased twofold up to 8 h (gamma polymerase) and 16 h (alpha polymerase), then declined before the onset of nuclear DNA replication after hatching. Thymidine kinase activity increased over 200-fold up to the time of replication. Analysis on Percoll density gradients of the intracellular distribution of both polymerases during development suggests that the changes in their activities may be due to migration from storage sites to replication complexes in the nuclei and mitochondria. The content of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma in different batches of cysts may reflect the relative viabilities of the cysts. PMID:7151804

  7. Automixis in Artemia: solving a century-old controversy.

    PubMed

    Nougué, O; Rode, N O; Jabbour-Zahab, R; Ségard, A; Chevin, L-M; Haag, C R; Lenormand, T

    2015-12-01

    Parthenogenesis (reproduction through unfertilized eggs) encompasses a variety of reproduction modes with (automixis) or without (apomixis) meiosis. Different modes of automixis have very different genetic and evolutionary consequences but can be particularly difficult to tease apart. In this study, we propose a new method to discriminate different types of automixis from population-level genetic data. We apply this method to diploid Artemia parthenogenetica, a crustacean whose reproductive mode remains controversial despite a century of intensive cytogenetic observations. We focus on A. parthenogenetica from two western Mediterranean populations. We show that they are diploid and that markers remain heterozygous in cultures maintained up to ~36 generations in the laboratory. Moreover, parallel patterns of population-wide heterozygosity levels between the two natural populations strongly support the conclusion that diploid A. parthenogenetica reproduce by automictic parthenogenesis with central fusion and low, but nonzero recombination. This settles a century-old controversy on Artemia, and, more generally, suggests that many automictic organisms harbour steep within-chromosome gradients of heterozygosity due to a transition from clonal transmission in centromere-proximal regions to a form of inbreeding similar to self-fertilization in centromere-distal regions. Such systems therefore offer a new avenue for contrasting the genomic consequences of asexuality and inbreeding. PMID:26356354

  8. Molecular identification of microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research on the microorganisms associated with the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, has mainly been limited to culture-based identification techniques or feeding studies for aquaculture. Our objective was to identify bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia adults and encysted embryos to understand the role of microbes in the Artemia life cycle and, therefore, their importance in a hypersaline food chain. Results We used small subunit (SSU) 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to identify bacteria and archaea associated with adults and encysted Artemia embryos from one of their natural environments – Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA. We found that bacterial sequences most closely related to the genera Halomonas and Vibrio were commonly extracted from GSL adult Artemia, while bacterial sequences most similar to the genera Halomonas, Psychroflexus and Alkalilimnicola dominate in GSL water. Encysted embryos (cysts) yielded bacterial sequences from the genera Idiomarina and Salinivibrio, which were absent from adults and water. Common archaeal sequences in adults were most closely related to the genera Haloterrigena and Haloarcula, while all of the archaeal sequences from GSL water were most similar to the genus Halogeometricum. Cyst derived archaeal sequences were most closely related to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Conclusions In addition to identifying microbial rRNA sequences that are specific to different stages of the Artemia life cycle, we observed striking differences in the sequences associated with the adult Artemia population in samples collected from GSL at different times and locations. While our study was limited in scope and the sample was small, our findings provide a foundation for future research into how the bacteria and archaea associated with Artemia influence the Artemia life cycle, and GSL food web. PMID:23497541

  9. Improved purification of brine-shrimp (Artemia saline) (Na+ + K+)-activated adenosine triphosphatase and amino-acid and carbohydrate analyses of the isolated subunits.

    PubMed

    Peterson, G L; Hokin, L E

    1980-10-15

    Purification of the (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase has been improved 2-fold the respect to both purity and yield over the previous method [Peterson, Ewing, Hootman & Conte (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 4762-4770] by using Lubrol WX and non-denaturing concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The enzyme was purified 200-fold over the homogenate. The preparation had a specific activity of about 600 mumol of Pi/h per mg of protein, and was about 60% pure according to quantification of Coomassie Blue-stained SDS/polyacrylamide gels. The yield of purified enzyme was about 10 mg of protein per 100g of dry brine-shrimp (Artemia salina) cysts. The method is highly suitable for purification either on a small scale (10-25g of dry cysts) or on a large scale (900g of dry cysts) and methods are described for both. The large (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase subunit (alpha-subunit) was isolated in pure form by SDS-gel filtration on Bio-Gel A 1.5m. The small subunit (beta-subunit) was eluted with other contaminating proteins on the Bio-Gel column, but was isolated in pure form by extraction from SDS/polyacrylamide gels. The amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of both subunits are reported. The alpha-subunit contained 5.2% carbohydrate by weight, and the beta-subunit 9.2%. Sialic acid was absent from both subunits. PMID:6272692

  10. Protective effect of Dunaliella salina (Volvocales, Chlorophyta) against experimentally induced fibrosarcoma on wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Raja, Rathinam; Hemaiswarya, Shanmugam; Balasubramanyam, Dakshanamoorthy; Rengasamy, Ramasamy

    2007-01-01

    The beta-carotene-yielding microalga, Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teod. maintained in De Walne's medium was harvested and lyophilized. Fibrosarcoma was induced in rats by 20-methylcholanthrene. 0.5 g and 1.0 g of lyophilized D. salina powder was administered to the rats orally through carboxy methyl cellulose. Cisplatin was administered along with vitamin E to compare the protective effect of D. salina against fibrosarcoma. Administration of D. salina decreased the levels of cholesterol and lactate dehydrogenase as well as the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, serum aspartate aminotransaminase, serum alanine aminotransferase, when compared to control. A significant reduction in the levels of hepatic and renal RNA and DNA was observed in the sarcoma rats when treated with D. salina powder. Histopathological studies of tumor tissues showed regenerative and regressive changes. beta-carotene globules isolated from the powder of Dunaliella salina confirmed the presence of 9-cis-beta-carotene and all-trans-beta-carotene. PMID:16713216

  11. Diffusive properties of water in Artemia cysts as determined from quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectra. [Artemia shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Trantham, E.C.; Rorschach, H.E.; Clegg, J.S.; Hazlewood, C.F.; Nicklow, R.M.; Wakabayashi, N.

    1984-05-01

    Results have been obtained on the quasi-elastic spectra of neutrons scattered from pure water, 20% agarose gel (hydration four grams H/sub 2/O per gram of dry solid) and cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia for hydrations between 0.10 and 1.2 grams H/sub 2/O per gram of dry solids. The spectra were interpreted using a two-component model that included contributions from the covalently bonded protons and the hydration water, and a mobile water fraction. The mobile fraction was described by a jump-diffusion correlation function for the translation motion and a simple diffusive orientational correlation function. The results for the line widths ..gamma..(Q/sup 2/) for pure water were in good agreement with previous measurements. The agarose results were consistent with NMR measurements that show a slightly reduced translational diffusion for the mobile water fraction. The Artemia results show that the translational diffusion coefficient of the mobile water fraction was greatly reduced from that of pure water. The line width was determined mainly by the rotational motion, which was also substantially reduced from the pure water value as determined from dielectric relaxation studies. The translational and rotational diffusion parameters were consistent with the NMR measurements of diffusion and relaxation. Values for the hydration fraction and the mean square thermal displacement as determined from the Q-dependence of line areas were also obtained.

  12. Longitudinal Analysis of Microbiota in Microalga Nannochloropsis salina Cultures.

    PubMed

    Geng, Haifeng; Sale, Kenneth L; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary Bao; Lane, Todd W; Yu, Eizadora T

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale open microalgae cultivation has tremendous potential to make a significant contribution to replacing petroleum-based fuels with biofuels. Open algal cultures are unavoidably inhabited with a diversity of microbes that live on, influence, and shape the fate of these ecosystems. However, there is little understanding of the resilience and stability of the microbial communities in engineered semicontinuous algal systems. To evaluate the dynamics and resilience of the microbial communities in microalgae biofuel cultures, we conducted a longitudinal study on open systems to compare the temporal profiles of the microbiota from two multigenerational algal cohorts, which include one seeded with the microbiota from an in-house culture and the other exogenously seeded with a natural-occurring consortia of bacterial species harvested from the Pacific Ocean. From these month-long, semicontinuous open microalga Nannochloropsis salina cultures, we sequenced a time-series of 46 samples, yielding 8804 operational taxonomic units derived from 9,160,076 high-quality partial 16S rRNA sequences. We provide quantitative evidence that clearly illustrates the development of microbial community is associated with microbiota ancestry. In addition, N. salina growth phases were linked with distinct changes in microbial phylotypes. Alteromonadeles dominated the community in the N. salina exponential phase whereas Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia were more prevalent in the stationary phase. We also demonstrate that the N. salina-associated microbial community in open cultures is diverse, resilient, and dynamic in response to environmental perturbations. This knowledge has general implications for developing and testing design principles of cultivated algal systems. PMID:26956183

  13. Celestite replacements of evaporites in the Salina Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Ernest H.

    1987-09-01

    Replacements of evaporites by celestite were discovered recently at three sites in northwestern Ohio. These replacements are more durable than the original evaporites and provide new paleoenvironmental data for the upper Silurian rocks of the region. The occurrences are situated along the western margin of the Ohio (Cayugan) Basin and appear in the Greenfield Dolomite and in undifferentiated Salina dolostones. The replacements include: lenticular and prismatic crystals of gypsum, nodules of anhydrite and laminar evaporites. The lenticular crystals contain inclusions of carbonate and anhydrite, and are believed to have altered to anhydrite prior to replacement. The prismatic crystals are exceptionally well-preserved, with euhedral, deeply embayed outlines and internally zoned growth bands containing large numbers of inclusions of dolostone and anhydrite. Optical data for the latter crystals indicate that they are oriented replacements of gypsum, and suggest that the original gypsum was unchanged prior to replacement. The nodular and laminar occurrences display features such as chicken-wire and enterolithic structures, and were comprised of anhydrite prior to replacement. Replacement postdates the dolomitization and cementation of the Salina sediments enclosing the evaporites, but occurred prior to deep burial. The rocks hosting the replacements, therefore, did not provide the strontium. The strontium may have been released from dolomitization of the underlying Lockport (Niagaran) beds or from dissolution of subaerially exposed Salina gypsum prior to the middle Devonian.

  14. Dunaliella salina as a novel host for the production of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuying; Li, Xuebing; Xu, Zhengshun; Qi, Jingjiao

    2014-05-01

    Although several expression systems are currently available for the production of recombinant proteins, they still have some inherent disadvantages, thereby resulting in the desire to explore a novel expression system for producing recombinant proteins. Dunaliella salina (D. salina) has been exploited as a novel expression system for the field of genetic engineering because of its distinct advantages, including low production cost, fast growth, easy culture, ease of transgenic manipulation, and modified abilities of transcription and translation. Thus far, studies on D. salina host have made great development and significant progress. This paper presents a comprehensive summary of the achievements of D. salina host from the following aspects: the advantages of D. salina cells, transformation methods, cloning of D. salina genes, and expression of exogenous genes into D. salina. Furthermore, the authors identified the current main obstacles and future application prospects for the recombinant proteins produced by D. salina, which could be used as a basis for the future maturation of D. salina expression system. PMID:24643734

  15. Historical Ground-Water Development in the Salinas Alluvial Fan Area, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 1900-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The Salinas alluvial fan area has historically been one of the most intensively used agricultural areas in the South Coastal Plain of Puerto Rico. Changes in agricultural practices and land use in the Salinas alluvial fan have also caused changes in the geographic distribution of ground-water withdrawals from the alluvial aquifer. As a result, the ground-water balance and ground-water flow pattern have changed throughout the years and may explain the presence of saline ground water along parts of the coast at present. By providing a reconstruction of historical ground-water development in the Salinas alluvial fan area, from the initial years of aquifer development at about 1900 to the most recent conditions existing in 2005, water resources managers and planners can use the results of the analysis for a more complete understanding of aquifer conditions especially pertaining to water quality. This study effort was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources as a contribution in the management of the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The study area encompasses about 20 mi2 (square miles) of the extensive South Coastal Plain alluvial aquifer system (fig. 1). The study area is bounded to the north by foothills of the Cordillera Central mountain chain, to the south by the Caribbean Sea, and to the east and west by the Rio Nigua de Salinas and the Quebrada Aguas Verdes, respectively. Fan-delta and alluvial deposits contain the principal aquifers in the study area.

  16. Reclassification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae as Paenibacillus larvae without subspecies differentiation.

    PubMed

    Genersch, Elke; Forsgren, Eva; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Ashiralieva, Ainura; Rauch, Sandra; Kilwinski, Jochen; Fries, Ingemar

    2006-03-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study of the two subspecies of Paenibacillus larvae, Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens, supported the reclassification of the subspecies into one species, Paenibacillus larvae, without subspecies separation. Our conclusions are based on the analysis of six reference strains of P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens and three reference strains and 44 field isolates of P. larvae. subsp. larvae. The latter originated from brood or honey of clinically diseased honey bee colonies or from honey of both clinically diseased and asymptomatic colonies from Sweden, Finland and Germany. Colony and spore morphology, as well as the metabolism of mannitol and salicin, did not allow a clear identification of the two subspecies and SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins did not support the subspecies differentiation. For genomic fingerprinting, repetitive element-PCR fingerprinting using ERIC primers and PFGE of bacterial DNA were performed. The latter method is a high-resolution DNA fingerprinting method proven to be superior to most other methods for biochemical and molecular typing and has not previously been used to characterize P. larvae. ERIC-PCR identified four different genotypes, while PFGE revealed two main clusters. One cluster included most of the P. larvae subsp. larvae field isolates, as well as all P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens reference strains. The other cluster comprised the pigmented variants of P. larvae subsp. larvae. 16S rRNA gene sequences were determined for some strains. Finally, exposure bioassays demonstrated that reference strains of P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens were pathogenic for honey bee larvae, producing symptoms similar to reference strains of P. larvae subsp. larvae. In comparison with the type strain for P. larvae subsp. larvae, ATCC 9545T, the P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens strains tested were even more virulent, since they showed a shorter LT100. An emended description of the species is given

  17. [Larva migrans cutanea].

    PubMed

    Nevoralová, Z

    2006-01-01

    A case of rare skin disease in Czech Republic caused by nematode larva is presented. The disease is most frequently caused by Ankylostoma brasiliensis and was imported from Brazil. It was successfully treated by peroral therapy with albendazol. PMID:16639935

  18. Baylisascaris larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Kazacos, Kevin R; Jelicks, Linda A; Tanowitz, Herbert B

    2013-01-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a roundworm of the raccoon found primarily in North America but also known to occur in other parts of the world including South America, Europe, and Japan. Migration of the larvae of this parasite is recognized as a cause of clinical neural larva migrans (NLM) in humans, primarily children. It is manifested as meningoencephalitis associated with marked eosinophilia of the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. Diagnosis is made by recovering and identifying larvae in or from the tissues, epidemiological history, serology, and imaging of the central nervous system. Treatment is with albendazole and steroids, although the prognosis is generally poor. This parasite can also cause ocular larva migrans (OLM) which usually presents as diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN). The ocular diagnosis can be made by visualizing the larva in the eye and by serology. Intraocular larvae can be destroyed by photocoagulation although albendazole and steroids may also be used. However, once visual disturbance is established the prognosis for improved vision is poor. Related Baylisascaris species occur in skunks, badgers, and certain other carnivores, although most cases of NLM are caused by B. procyonis. Baylisascaris procyonis has also been found in kinkajous in the USA and South America and may also occur in related procyonids (coatis, olingos, etc.). PMID:23829916

  19. Dietary fatty acid composition affects food intake and gut-brain satiety signaling in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) larvae and post-larvae.

    PubMed

    Bonacic, Kruno; Campoverde, Cindy; Gómez-Arbonés, Javier; Gisbert, Enric; Estevez, Alicia; Morais, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    Little is known how dietary lipids affect food intake during larval development of fish, especially with regard to fatty acid (FA) composition. In fact, very little work has been done on appetite regulation and food intake in fish larvae in general, due to biological and technical difficulties associated with this type of studies. A new method using fluorescent microspheres as markers was developed in this study to evaluate food intake and prey selectivity of Senegalese sole larvae and post-larvae. Food intake was quantified in fish fed Artemia metanauplii enriched with oils differing in FA profile: cod liver oil (CLO), linseed oil (LSO), soybean oil (SBO) or olive oil (OO). The fish did not preferentially ingest a specific diet when presented with a choice. However, pre-metamorphic larvae from the CLO treatment ingested more metanauplii per g body weight, while differences in post-larvae were not significant. These findings were developed further by analyzing mRNA levels of a range of putative anorexigenic (pyya, pyyb, glp1, cckl, cart1a, cart1b, cart2a, cart4, pomca, pomcb, crf) and orexigenic (gal, npy, agrp2) genes, to identify those which are significantly affected by feeding and/or dietary FA composition. The variety of expression patterns observed highlighted the complexity of appetite regulatory mechanisms. In general, fish fed the CLO diet tended to show gene expression patterns most dissimilar to the remaining treatments. Expression in pre-metamorphic larvae was generally less in accordance with the putative function of the genes than in post-larvae, which could suggest a yet underdeveloped regulatory system. PMID:26851305

  20. Selected morphological changes in Artemia franciscana after ionizing radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Dvořák, P; Zd'árský, M; Beňová, K; Spalek, M

    2012-08-01

    Nauplii of Artemia franciscana were irradiated by the doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 kGy (60)Co. Dimensions of the body length, body width, intestine width, intestine epithelium width, and intestine lumen width, as well as the mutual ratios of dimensions were determined in 126 specimens. Ratios of the body length/body width (3.98, 3.60, 3.59, and 3.45 vs. 4.13 of control group), and ratios of the intestine epithelium width/intestine lumen width (0.64, 0.52, 0.51, and 0.45 vs. 0.85 of control group), according to the doses, were the most important parameters of evaluation of dependence of morphological changes on radiation doses. PMID:22673764

  1. Mercury accumulation and its effects an Artemia franciscana

    SciTech Connect

    Boia, C.M.; Duarte, A.C.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of mercury accumulation on the brine shrimp Artemia franciscona were studied by long term (1--2 months) laboratory bioassays, using mercury chloride as the contaminant and the algae, Tetraselmis suecica as the food. These experiments were part of a larger research project aiming to contribute to the knowledge on mercury accumulation and its effects on Artemia. This crustacean is used worldwide for marine species feeding in aquafarms. This also happens on the lagoon of Aveiro, Portugal, which is partially contaminated with mercury. The first assays were conducted with concentrations of HgCl{sub 2} of the order of magnitude of those found in the waters of the lagoon of Aveiro (1.4 and 2.8 {micro}g/l). In further bioassays ranges of concentrations with observable effects have been used, from 0.02 to 1 mo. In the different assays the HgCl{sub 2} was: (a) simultaneously added to all the tanks or along the time, to evaluate the effects over different life stages (b) added directly to the tanks and then to the algae, at the same or in different quantities, to find out which was the more important pathway of contamination (c) removed from the feed stream after a certain time, to find out if detoxification would occur. The bioassays were carried out in five 100 l tanks under controlled temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity and feeding rate. Besides the content in mercury, size and number of the organisms have also been measured, as well as their content in total proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

  2. Methodical aspects of rearing decapod larvae, Pagurus bernhardus (Paguridae) and Carcinus maenas (Portunidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawirs, R. R.

    1982-12-01

    Improved methods for experimental rearing of Pagurus bernhardus and Carcinus maenas larvae are presented. Isolated maintenance was found essential for reliable statistical evaluation of results obtained from stages older than zoea-1. Only by isolated rearing is it possible to calculate mean values ±95% confidence intervals of stage duration. Mean values (without confidence intervals) can only be given for group-reared larvae if mortality is zero. Compared to group rearing, isolated rearing led to better survival, shorter periods of development and stimulated growth. Due to different swimming behavior P. bernhardus zoeae needed larger water volumes than Carcinus maenas larvae. P. bernhardus zoeae were reared with best results when isolated in Petri dishes (ca. 50 ml). They fed on newly hatched brine shrimp nauplii ( Artemia spp.). P. bernhardus megalopa did not require any gastropod shell or substratum; it developed best in glass vials without any food. C. maenas larvae could be reared most sucessfully in glass vials (ca 20 ml) under a simulated day-night regime (LD 16:8); constant darkness had a detrimental effect on development, leading to prolonged stage-duration times. C. maenas larvae were fed a mixture of newly hatched brine shrimp naupli and rotifers ( Brachionus plicatilis).

  3. Development of a bacterial challenge test for gnotobiotic Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus larvae.

    PubMed

    Situmorang, Magdalena Lenny; Dierckens, Kristof; Mlingi, Frank Thomas; Van Delsen, Bart; Bossier, Peter

    2014-04-23

    Gastrointestinal microbiota have an important impact on fish health and disease, stimulating interest in a better understanding of how these gastrointestinal microbial communities are composed and consequently affect host fitness. In this respect, probiotic microorganisms have been extensively used in recent aquaculture production. To study the use of probiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases, the establishment of a method of experimental infection to obtain consistent results for mortality and infection in challenge tests is important. In pathogen-screening tests, 4 candidate pathogenic bacteria strains (Edwardsiella ictaluri gly09, E. ictaluri gly10, E. tarda LMG2793 and Streptococcus agalactiae LMG15977) were individually tested on xenic Nile tilapia larvae. Only Edwardsiella strains delivered via Artemia nauplii, with or without additional pathogen delivery via the culture water, led to increased mortality in fish larvae. A gnotobiotic Nile tilapia larvae model system was developed to provide a research tool to investigate the effects and modes-of-action of probiotics under controlled conditions. A double disinfection procedure using hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite solution was applied to the fish eggs, which were subsequently incubated in a cocktail of antibiotic and antifungal agents. In the gnotobiotic challenge test, E. ictaluri gly09R was added to the model system via Artemia nauplii and culture water, resulting in a significant mortality of the gnotobiotic fish larvae. The developed gnotobiotic Nile tilapia model can be used as a tool to extend understanding of the mechanisms involved in host-microbe interactions and to evaluate new methods of disease control. PMID:24781794

  4. Multifractal anisotropic swimming: the optimal foraging behaviour of grouper larvae.

    PubMed

    Mahjoub, M S; Dur, G; Souissi, S; Schmitt, F G; Hwang, J S

    2016-05-01

    It was hypothesized that the Malabar grouper Ephinephelus malabaricus larvae have developed search patterns adapted to the distribution of their prey to maximise their net energy intake per unit time. Analysis of the swimming behaviour of E. malabaricus larvae in both the presence and absence of Artemia sp. nauplii is presented to test this hypothesis. A method derived from turbulence studies (the moment function of the displacements) was used to characterize the behaviour. The results revealed that larval swimming pattern was multifractal (intermittent and long-range-correlated) and isotropic (i.e. uniform in all directions) in the presence of prey, but multifractal and anisotropic (i.e. more frequent long displacement on the vertical axis) in the absence of prey. It is suggested that the search behaviour observed in the absence of prey is an adaptive response to prey distribution pattern, which is often characterised by multifractality and anisotropy (i.e. larger patches on the horizontal axes). In the presence of prey, E. malabaricus shifted to intensive search behaviour. Other possible contributors to the observed patterns are discussed. It is concluded that multifractality and anisotropy of swimming patterns observed in the experiment are mainly explained in an optimal foraging theory framework. PMID:27021375

  5. Baylisascaris larva migrans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kazacos, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  6. Dynamic studies on flagellar regeneration in Dunaliella salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Bourne, W. F.

    1999-09-01

    Flagella, the basic locomotive organ in algae, as well as bacteria and some cells of animals or high plants, would be damaged in the well stirred mass culture due to the strong forces caused by the fast mixing impellers. The dynamic regeneration of the flagella in deflagellated Dunaliella salina was studied microscopically by using a bench-top flat-bottom photobioreactor. The results showed that 90 minutes was necessary for the repair of flagella, after which half of the cells became motile as their flagella generated within 120 minutes and nearly all of the cells could swim freely within 180 minutes.

  7. The reaction of European lobster larvae (Homarus gammarus) to different quality food: effects of ontogenetic shifts and pre-feeding history.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Schmalenbach, Isabel; Boersma, Maarten

    2014-02-01

    Young larval stages of many organisms represent bottlenecks in the life-history of many species. The high mortality commonly observed in, for example, decapod larvae has often been linked to poor nutrition, with most studies focussing on food quantity. Here, we focus instead on the effects of quality and have investigated its effects on the nutritional condition of lobster larvae. We established a tri-trophic food chain consisting of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. In a set of experiments, we manipulated the C:N:P stoichiometry of the primary producers, and accordingly those of the primary consumer. In a first experiment, R. salina was grown under N- and P-limitation and the nutrient content of the algae was manipulated by addition of the limiting nutrient to create a food quality gradient. In a second experiment, the effect on lobster larvae of long- and short-term exposure to food of varying quality during ontogenetic development was investigated. The condition of the lobster larvae was negatively affected even by subtle N- and P-nutrient limitations of the algae. Furthermore, younger lobster larvae were more vulnerable to nutrient limitation than older ones, suggesting an ontogenetic shift in the capacity of lobster larvae to cope with low quality food. The results presented here might have substantial consequences for the survival of lobster larvae in the field, as, in the light of future climate change and re-oligotrophication of the North Sea, lobster larvae might face marked changes in temperature and nutrient conditions, thus significantly altering their condition and growth. PMID:24072442

  8. Hepatic visceral larva migrans

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas; Dhaulakhandi, Dhara Ballabh

    2013-01-01

    Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a systemic manifestation of migration of second stage larvae of nematodes through the tissue of human viscera. It is not uncommon but is underdiagnosed in developing countries. The liver is the most common organ to be involved due to its portal venous blood supply. The imaging findings are subtle and differentiation from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastases, cystic mesenchymal hamartoma and granulomatous diseases is difficult. This case report highlights the imaging features of hepatic lesions of VLM along with clinical and laboratory data which help in clinching the diagnosis. PMID:23853189

  9. INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF 'ARTEMIA' VIII. COMPARISON OF THE CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS AND HEAVY METALS IN FIVE DIFFERENT STRAINS OF NEWLY HATCHED 'ARTEMIA' AND A LABORATORY-REARED MARINE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Newly hatched nauplii of Artemia from Brazil, Australia, Italy, and the United States (Utah and San Pablo Bay, California) were analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons. The Brazil and Australia nauplii contained very low levels of PCB and chlorinated insecticides. Italian nauplii c...

  10. 1H NMR metabolic profiling of cod (Gadus morhua) larvae: potential effects of temperature and diet composition during early developmental stages

    PubMed Central

    Chauton, Matilde Skogen; Galloway, Trina Falck; Kjørsvik, Elin; Størseth, Trond Røvik; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; van der Meeren, Terje; Karlsen, Ørjan; Rønnestad, Ivar; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Marine aquaculture offers a great source of protein for the increasing human population, and farming of, for example, Atlantic salmon is a global industry. Atlantic cod farming however, is an example of a promising industry where the potential is not yet realized. Research has revealed that a major bottleneck to successful farming of cod is poor quality of the larvae and juveniles. A large research program was designed to increase our understanding of how environmental factors such as temperature and nutrition affects cod larvae development. Data on larvae growth and development were used together with nuclear magnetic resonance. The NMR data indicated that the temperature influenced the metabolome of the larvae; differences were related to osmolytes such as betaine/TMAO, the amino acid taurine, and creatine and lactate which reflect muscle activity. The larvae were fed Artemia from stage 2, and this was probably reflected in a high taurine content of older larvae. Larvae fed with copepods in the nutrition experiment also displayed a high taurine content, together with higher creatine and betaine/TMAO content. Data on the cod larvae metabolome should be coupled to data on gene expression, in order to identify events which are regulated on the genetic level versus regulation resulting from temperature or nutrition during development, to fully understand how the environment affects larval development. PMID:26545964

  11. Acute toxicity impacts of Euphorbia hirta L extract on behavior, organs body weight index and histopathology of organs of the mice and Artemia salina

    PubMed Central

    Rajeh, Mohammad Abu Basma; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Zakaria, Zuraini; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Jothy, Subramanion L.; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L (Euphorbiaceae), which is used in traditional medicines, was tested for in vivo toxicity. Materials and Methods: In vivo brine shrimp lethality assay and oral acute toxicity study at single high dose of 5000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days in mice were used to study the toxic effect of E. hirta. Results: Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of E. hirta (for leaves, stems, flowers and roots) methanolic extracts at concentrations from 100 to 0.07 mg/ml. The LC50 values of 1.589, 1.420, 0.206 and 0.0827 mg/ml were obtained for stems, leaves, flowers and roots, respectively. Potassium dichromate (the positive control) had LC50 value of 0.00758 mg/ml. The acute oral toxicity study of the leaf extract resulted in one third mortality and mild behavioral changes among the treated mice. No significant statistical differences found between body weight, relative (%) and absolute (g) organ weights of treated and untreated groups (P> 0.05). Gross and microscopic examination of the vital organ tissues revealed no differences between control and treated mice. All the tissues appeared normal. Conclusions: E. hirta leaves methanol extract has exhibited mild toxic effects in mice. PMID:22923956

  12. Periodic CO2 Dosing Strategy for Dunaliella salina Batch Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Kezhen; Gilmour, D. James; Zimmerman, William B.

    2015-01-01

    A periodic CO2 dosing strategy for D. salina 19/30 batch culture is proposed. A model of periodic CO2 dosing including dosing time calculation, dosing interval estimation and final chlorophyll yield prediction was established. In experiments, 5% CO2/95% N2 gas was periodically dosed into D. salina culture. Two different gas dosing flow rates were tested. The corresponding dosing time for each flow rate was estimated via the model (10 min·d−1 for 0.7 L·min−1 and 36 min·d−1 for 0.3 L·min−1). Daily pH measurements showed that the pH of these cultures dosed periodically was always kept between 7.5 and 9.5, which highlights that periodic gas supply can maintain a suitable range of pH for microalgal growth without expensive buffers. Notably the culture dosed for set daily intervals was seen to have similar growth to the culture supplied constantly, but with much higher CO2 capture efficiency (11%–18%) compared to continuous dosing (0.25%). It shows great potential for using periodic gas supply to reduce cost, wasted gas and energy use. PMID:25997005

  13. Metabolic engineering of Dunaliella salina for production of ketocarotenoids.

    PubMed

    Anila, N; Simon, Daris P; Chandrashekar, Arun; Ravishankar, G A; Sarada, R

    2016-03-01

    Dunaliella is a commercially important marine alga producing high amount of β-carotene. The use of Dunaliella as a potential transgenic system for the production of recombinant proteins has been recently recognized. The present study reports for the first time the metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in Dunaliella salina for ketocarotenoid production. The pathway modification included the introduction of a bkt gene from H. pluvialis encoding β-carotene ketolase (4,4'β-oxygenase) along with chloroplast targeting for the production of ketocarotenoids. The bkt under the control of Dunaliella Rubisco smaller subunit promoter along with its transit peptide sequence was introduced into the alga through standardized Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure. The selected transformants were confirmed using GFP and GUS expression, PCR and southern blot analysis. A notable upregulation of the endogenous hydroxylase level of transformants was observed where the BKT expression was higher in nutrient-limiting conditions. Carotenoid analysis of the transformants through HPLC and MS analysis showed the presence of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin with maximum content of 3.5 and 1.9 µg/g DW, respectively. The present study reports the feasibility of using D. salina for the production of ketocarotenoids including astaxanthin. PMID:26334599

  14. Stress tolerance during diapause and quiescence of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Oviparously developing embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia, arrest at gastrulation and are released from females as cysts before entering diapause, a state of dormancy and stress tolerance. Diapause is terminated by an external signal, and growth resumes if conditions are permissible. However, if circumstances are unfavorable, cysts enter quiescence, a dormant stage that continues as long as adverse conditions persist. Artemia embryos in diapause and quiescence are remarkably resistant to environmental and physiological stressors, withstanding desiccation, cold, heat, oxidation, ultraviolet radiation, and years of anoxia at ambient temperature when fully hydrated. Cysts have adapted to stress in several ways; they are surrounded by a rigid cell wall impermeable to most chemical compounds and which functions as a shield against ultraviolet radiation. Artemia cysts contain large amounts of trehalose, a non-reducing sugar thought to preserve membranes and proteins during desiccation by replacing water molecules and/or contributing to vitrification. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins similar to those in seeds and other anhydrobiotic organisms are found in cysts, and they safeguard cell organelles and proteins during desiccation. Artemia cysts contain abundant amounts of p26, a small heat shock protein, and artemin, a ferritin homologue, both ATP-independent molecular chaperones important in stress tolerance. The evidence provided in this review supports the conclusion that it is the interplay of these protective elements that make Artemia one of the most stress tolerant of all metazoan organisms. PMID:26334984

  15. Assessment of the production potential of an emerging Artemia population in the Aral Sea, Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marden, Brad; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Musaev, Ablatdyin; Mirabdullayev, Iskandar; Joldasova, Iliya; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information on the developing parthenogenetic Artemia population in the Uzbek part of the Aral Sea, and to assess its potential for commercial exploitation. A sampling campaign was designed for abiotic factors (temperature, salinity, transparency) and Artemia population parameters at least once monthly in the period March-October of the years 2005-2007. By 2007 salinity in both basins had increased to values above 100 g l - 1 . Moreover, by 2007, desiccation had rendered the eastern Aral basin practically inaccessible for sampling or cyst harvesting. The volume of the western basin remained considerable, given its depth, with a relatively accessible shoreline. Average Artemia population parameters (e.g. adult abundance < 0.5 adults l - 1 ; 10-25 cysts brood - 1 ; cyst abundance < 5 and 10 cysts l - 1 for the western, resp. eastern basin) were low compared to Artemia sites of commercial importance. A gradual gain in population size in the western basin was observed over the period 2005-2007. The data further suggest that the low Artemia productivity is not genetically determined, but is largely the result of food limitation. The western basin may approach the threshold where a small-scale commercial operation is justified.

  16. Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from the Large Aral Sea: Abundance, distribution, population structure and cyst production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arashkevich, Elena G.; Sapozhnikov, P. V.; Soloviov, K. A.; Kudyshkin, T. V.; Zavialov, P. O.

    2009-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica appeared in the Large Aral Sea (Central Asia) in 1998 when mineralization reached 63 ppt. Data on Artemia abundance and biomass, along with temperature and salinity measurements were collected in the western basin during 2002-2006, primarily in the autumn. During the study period, population density grew progressively, both in terms of number, from 250 to 1260 individuals per m 3, and in terms of biomass, from 0.3 to 1.3 g per m 3. In 2005, the population density and spatial distribution in the different parts of the sea (western and eastern basins and strait) was assessed. The horizontal distribution of the Artemia population was uniform in the deep central part of the western basin, although the distribution was quite patchy in the shallow coastal zone. Depth habitat of Artemia was restricted to the upper 20-25 m of depth, as the oxygen depletion and formation of anoxic layer prevented distribution of Artemia to the deeper waters. In autumn, all females reproduced oviparously, with an average clutch size of 30-35 eggs per female. The number of eggs in a clutch was positively correlated with female body length ( r2 = 0.36-0.44).

  17. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, J; Green, A J; Figuerola, J; Amat, F; Rico, C

    2009-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a complex genus containing sexual species and parthenogenetic lineages. Artemia franciscana is native to America and its cysts (diapausing eggs) are used worldwide as a food source in aquaculture. As a consequence, this anostracan has become an invasive species in many hypersaline aquatic ecosystems of other continents. Parthenogenetic Artemia lineages occur only in the Old World. Ten and five microsatellite markers were developed to characterize two populations for A. franciscana and two populations for diploid parthenogenetic Artemia, respectively. For A. franciscana the number of alleles ranged from 11 to 58 per locus, while for parthenogens the number of alleles ranged from three to 10. The levels of heterozygosity in A. franciscana and in parthenogens ranged from 0.115 to 0.976 and from 0.000 to 0.971, respectively. These microsatellite loci showed a high population assignment power, which will be useful for future studies of population genetics and invasive processes in Artemia. PMID:21564689

  18. Gamma Radiation Reduced Toxicity of Azoxystrobin Tested on Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, P; Zdarsky, M; Benova, K; Falis, M; Tomko, M

    2016-06-01

    Fungicide azoxystrobin toxicity was monitored by means of a 96-h biotest with Artemia franciscana nauplius stages after exposure to solutions with concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mg L(-1) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation with doses of 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The effects of ionization radiation on azoxystrobin toxicity were mainly manifested by a statistically significant reduction of lethality after 72- and 96-h exposure. A maximum reduction of lethality of 72 % was achieved using doses of 1-5 kGy for an azoxystrobin initial concentration of 0.4 mg L(-1) and after 72 h of exposure. At a 96-h exposure, a difference of lethal effects reached up to 70 % for a dose of 10 kGy. The observed effect of gamma ionizing radiation on azoxystrobin toxicity suggest that this approach can be applied as an alternative for a reduction of azoxystrobin residua in food. PMID:27107585

  19. [Artemia sp. (Crustacea, Anostracea) as intermediate host of Eurycestus avoceti Clark, 1954 (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gabrion, C; MacDonald, G

    1980-01-01

    Examination of Artemia sp. (Crustacé, Anostracé) for natural infection by cysticercoids of Flamingolepis liguloides, Cestode of the Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) shows the presence of three other cysticercoids of cestode parasites of the Flamingo in the hemocoele of the Branchiopode. A fourth one is reported as the cysticercoid of Eurycestus avoceti, Clark, 1954, which parasitizes the Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta). The systematic position of this Cestode is always unknown. This report shows the importance of Artemia in the life cycle of Cestodes of Anseriforms and Charadriiforms birds in saline lagoons. PMID:7406422

  20. Continuous flocculation-sedimentation for harvesting Nannochloropsis salina biomass.

    PubMed

    Chatsungnoen, Tawan; Chisti, Yusuf

    2016-03-20

    A continuous flow process is developed for recovery of the biomass of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina. Flocculation-sedimentation is used to recover the biomass from an algal suspension with an initial dry biomass concentration of 0.5 g L(-1), as would be typical of a raceway-based biomass production system. More than 85% of the biomass initially in suspension could be settled by gravity in a flocculation-sedimentation device with a total residence time of ∼148 min. Aluminum sulfate was used as an inexpensive, readily available and safe flocculant. The optimal flocculant dosage (as Al2(SO4)3) was 229 mg L(-1). Relative to a highly effective 62-min batch flocculation-sedimentation process for the same alga and flocculant, the continuous flow operation took longer and required nearly double the flocculant dose. The design of the flocculation-sedimentation system is explained. PMID:26880538

  1. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina in municipal wastewater or digester centrate.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bingfeng; Ho, Nam; Ogden, Kimberly L; Arnold, Robert G

    2014-05-01

    Meaningful use of biofuels for transportation depends on utilization of water from non-traditional, non-potable resources. Here it is hypothesized that (i) reclaimed wastewater or nutrient-rich side streams derived from municipal wastewater treatment are suitable for that purpose and (ii) use of those waters for algal growth can promote water quality through nutrient management. Experiments showed that metals levels in municipal wastewaters are unlikely to inhibit algal growth and lipid production, at least by metals tolerant microalgae like Nannochloropsis salina. Cells grew without inhibition in treated municipal wastewater or centrate derived from wastewater treatment at additions up to 75 percent v/v in their normal growth medium minus nitrogen and phosphorus. Although wastewater provides a suitable nutrient source for algal growth, not enough municipal wastewater is available to support a meaningful biofuels industry without efficient water recycling and nutrient recovery/reuse from spent algae. PMID:24565931

  2. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  3. Determination of extremely high pressure tolerance of brine shrimp larvae by using a new pressure chamber system.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mihye; Koyama, Sumihiro; Toyofuku, Takashi; Kojima, Shigeaki; Watanabe, Hiromi

    2013-11-01

    Hydrostatic pressure is the only one of a range of environmental parameters (water temperature, salinity, light availability, and so on) that increases in proportion with depth. Pressure tolerance is therefore essential to understand the foundation of populations and current diversity of faunal compositions at various depths. In the present study, we used a newly developed pressure chamber system to examine changes in larval activity of the salt-lake crustacean, Artemia franciscana, in response to a range of hydrostatic pressures. We showed that A. franciscana larvae were able to survive for a short period at pressures of ≤ 60 MPa (approximately equal to the pressure of 6000 m deep). At a pressure of > 20 MPa, larval motor ability was suppressed, but not lost. Meanwhile, at a pressure of > 40 MPa, some of the larval motor ability was lost without recovery after decompression. For all experiments, discordance of movement and timing between right and left appendages, was observed at pressures of > 20 MPa. Our results indicate that the limit of pressure for sustaining active behavior of A. franciscana larvae is ∼20 MPa, whereas the limit of pressure for survival is within the range 30-60 MPa. Thus, members of the genus Artemia possess the ability to resist a higher range of pressures than their natural habitat depth. Our findings demonstrated an example of an organism capable of invading deeper environment in terms of physical pressure tolerance, and indicate the need and importance of pressure study as an experimental method. PMID:24224473

  4. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David R.; Lee, Robert W.; Cushman, John C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Tran, Duc; Polle, Juergen E.

    2010-05-07

    Abstract Background: Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results: The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA) sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions: These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the development of a viable

  5. Interspecific competition and allelopathic interaction between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dong; Liu, Jiao; Hao, Qiang; Ran, Lihua; Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-03-01

    Algal allelopathy is a manifold ecological/physiological phenomenon that is focused on chemical interactions and autotoxicity. We investigated the allelopathic interactions between Karenia mikimotoi and Dunaliella salina in laboratory cultures based on diff erent temperature (15°C, 20°C, and 25°C) and lighting (40, 80, and 160 μmol/(m2·s)) conditions. The growth of D. salina in bi-algae culture (1:1 size/density) was significantly restrained. The results of cell-free filtrate culture indicate that direct cell-tocell contact was not necessary in interspecific competition. Further experimental results demonstrated that allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi were markedly influenced by both temperature ( P =0.013) and irradiance ( P =0.003), resulting in diff erent growth characteristics of D. salina in filtrate mediums. Compared with the plateau period, K. mikimotoi exudates in the exponential phase had a stronger short-term inhibition effect on D. salina in normal conditions. A clear concentration-dependent relationship was observed in the effect of allelochemicals released from K. mikimotoi with low-promoting and high-repressing effects on D. Salina in a short time-scale. In addition, allelopathic substances remain stable and effective under high temperature and pressure stress. Many flocculent sediments adhering with D. salina cells were observed in all filtrate mediums, while the quantity and color depended on the original culture conditions.

  6. A symbiotic bacterium differentially influences arsenate absorption and transformation in Dunaliella salina under different phosphate regimes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Zhang, Chun Hua; Lin, Man Man; Ge, Ying

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we investigated the effects of a symbiotic bacterium and phosphate (PO4(3-)) nutrition on the toxicity and metabolism of arsenate (As(V)) in Dunaliella salina. The bacterium was identified as Alteromonas macleodii based on analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. When no As(V) was added, A. macleodii significantly enhanced the growth of D. salina, irrespective of PO4(3-) nutrition levels, but this effect was reversed after As(V)+PO4(3-) treatment (1.12mgL(-1)) for 3 days. Arsenic (As) absorption by the non-axenic D. salina was significantly higher than that by its axenic counterpart during incubation with 1.12mgL(-1) PO4(3-). However, when the culture was treated with 0.112mgL(-1) PO4(3-), As(V) reduction and its subsequent arsenite (As(III)) excretion by non-axenic D. salina were remarkably enhanced, which, in turn, contributed to lower As absorption in non-axenic algal cells from days 7 to 9. Moreover, dimethylarsinic acid was synthesized by D. salina alone, and the rates of its production and excretion were accelerated when the PO4(3-) concentration was 0.112mgL(-1). Our data demonstrate that A. macleodii strongly affected As toxicity, uptake, and speciation in D. salina, and these impacts were mediated by PO4(3-) in the cultures. PMID:27450336

  7. Cactodera salina n. sp. from the Estuary Plant, Salicornia bigelovii, in Sonora, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, J. G.; Mundo-Ocampo, M.; McClure, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Cactodera salina n. sp. (Heteroderinae) is described from roots of the estuary plant Salicornia bigelovii (Chenopodiaceae), in Puerto Pefiasco, Sonora, Mexico, at the northern tip of the Sea of Cortez. The halophyte host is grown experimentally for oilseed in plots flooded daily with seawater. Infected plants appear to be adversely affected by C. salina relative to plants in noninfested plots. Cactodera salina extends the morphological limits of the genus. Females and cysts have a very small or absent terminal cone and deep cuticular folds in a zigzag pattern more typical of Heterodera and Globodera than of Cactodera spp. Many Cactodera spp. have a tuberculate egg surface, whereas C. salina shares the character of a smooth egg with C. amaranthi, C. weissi, and C. acnidae. Only C. milleri and C. acnidae have larger cysts than C. salina. Face patterns of males and second-stage juveniles, as viewed with scanning electron microscopy, reveal the full complement of six lip sectors as in other Cactodera spp. Circumfenestrae of C. salina are typical for the genus. PMID:19274182

  8. A comparative toxicity study between an autochthonous Artemia and a non native invasive species.

    PubMed

    Leis, Marilena; Manfra, Loredana; Taddia, Lucia; Chicca, Milvia; Trentini, Pierluigi; Savorelli, Federica

    2014-08-01

    Acute heavy metal toxicity was compared in nauplii of an autochthonous Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) from Saline di Cervia (Ravenna, Italy) and of a non native commercially available A. franciscana. No significant difference in sensitivity was detected between two species. PMID:24825725

  9. Potential utilization of Artemia franciscana eggs as food for Coleomegilla maculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the hypothesis that Artemia franciscana Kellogg (brine shrimp, Anostraca: Artemiidae) eggs are suitable factitious, i.e., alternative, food to support the life history of a predatory ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Using progeny from a stock colo...

  10. Bioconversion of omega-six to omega-three polyunsaturated fatty acids in Artemia

    SciTech Connect

    Omara-Alwala, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide conclusive evidence for the bioconversion of 18:2W6 to 20:5W3 in Artemia and to establish a possible biosynthetic pathway responsible for the bioconversion. Except for fatty acid profile, the diet was considered complete in its nutritional quality. It was deficient in 20:5W3, an essential fatty acid for marine fish, but adequate in 18:3W3, an essential fatty acid for freshwater fish. The Artemia raised on the diet showed a high level of 20:5W3 with little accumulation of 18:3W3, making them the marine type. There were no mortalities throughout the 7-day feeding period. Two-day-old Artemia were fed for 7 days on either control diet or treatment diet with (1-/sup 14/C) 18:2W6, along with various unlabeled fatty acids. Data confirmed that Artemia were able to bioconvert 18:2W6 to 20:5W3. The following biosynthetic sequence was proposed for the bioconversion: 18:2W6 - 18:3W3 - 20:3W3 - 20:4W3 - 20:5W3. All possible multistep pathways for the synthesis of 20:5W3 from 18:2W6 were worked out for any feeding experiments using dietary 18:2W6.

  11. Biochemical studies on sphingolipids of Artemia franciscana: complex neutral glycosphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hisao; Tohsato, Yukako; Kabayama, Kazuya; Itonori, Saki; Ito, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    Brine shrimp are primitive crustacean arthropodal model organisms, second to daphnia, which can survive in high-salinity environments. Their oviposited cysts, cuticle-covered diapausing eggs, are highly resistant to dryness. To elucidate specialties of brine shrimp, this study characterized glycosphingolipids, which are signal transduction-associated material. A group of novel and complex fucosyl glycosphingolipids were separated and identified from cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana by repeated lipid extraction, alkaline methanolysis, acid treatment, successive column chromatography, and post-source decay measurements by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Structures of the glycosphingolipids were elucidated by conventional structural characterization and mass spectrometry, and the compounds were identified as GlcNAcβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcα1-2Fucα1-3)GlcNAcβ1-3Manβ1-4Glcβ1-Cer, GalNAcβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAcβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcα1-2Fucα1-3)GlcNAcβ1-3Manβ1-4Glcβ1-Cer, and GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcα1-2Fucα1-3)GlcNAcβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcα1-2Fucα1-3)GlcNAcβ1-3Manβ1-4Glcβ1-Cer. These compounds also contained a branching, non-arthro-series disaccharide with an α-GlcNAc terminus, similar to that found in a previously reported ceramide hexasaccharide (III(3)(GlcNAcα2Fucα)-At4Cer). The glycans within these complex GSLs are longer than reported glycans of the animal kingdom containing α-GlcNAc terminus. These complex GSLs as well as the longest GSL with ten sugar residues, ceramide decasaccharide (CDeS), contain the fucosylated LacdiNAc sequence reported to associate with parasitism/immunosuppression and the α-GlcNAc terminus reported to show a certain antibacterial effect in other reports. CDeS, the longest GSL of this species, was found in the highest amount, which indicates that CDeS may be functionally important. PMID:22890904

  12. Nitrate Contamination of Deep Aquifers in the Salinas Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, J. E.; Esser, B. K.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Holtz, M.; Roberts, S. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Belitz, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Salinas Valley, known as 'the salad bowl of the world', has been an agricultural center for more than 100 years. Irrigated row crops such as lettuce and strawberries dominate both land use and water use. Groundwater is the exclusive supply for both irrigation and drinking water. Some irrigation wells and most public water supply wells in the Salinas Valley are constructed to draw water from deep portions of the aquifer system, where contamination by nitrate is less likely than in the shallow portions of the aquifer system. However, a number of wells with top perforations greater than 75 m deep, screened below confining or semi-confining units, have nitrate concentrations greater than the Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) of 45 mg/L as NO3-. This study uses nitrate concentrations from several hundred irrigation, drinking water, and monitoring wells (Monterey County Water Resources Agency, 1997), along with tritium-helium groundwater ages acquired at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through the State of California Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program (reported in Kulongoski et al., 2007 and in Moran et al., in press), to identify nitrate 'hot spots' in the deep aquifer and to examine possible modes of nitrate transport to the deep aquifer. In addition, observed apparent groundwater ages are compared with the results of transport simulations that use particle tracking and a stochastic-geostatistical framework to incorporate aquifer heterogeneity to determine the distribution of travel times from the water table to each well (Fogg et al., 1999). The combined evidence from nitrate, tritium, tritiogenic 3He, and radiogenic 4He concentrations, reveals complex recharge and flow to the capture zone of the deep drinking water wells. Widespread groundwater pumping for irrigation accelerates vertical groundwater flow such that high nitrate groundwater reaches some deep drinking water wells. Deeper portions of the wells often draw in water that recharged

  13. [Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans].

    PubMed

    Petithory, Jean-Claude

    2007-11-30

    The syndrome of visceral larva migrans was described for the first time in 1952 by Beaver. He demonstrated that the presence of nematodes larvae, particularly in the liver, were those of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Baylisascaris procyonis, the common racoon ascarid in the U.S.A. can also cause serious diseases in human. Digestive and respiratory clinical symptoms are usually moderate, however severe disease resulting from invasion of the myocardium or the brain has been reported. A blood hypereosinophilia is usually present the first few years after infection. Diagnosis uses serological methods, among them the ELISA test. Ocular larva is also possible with in that case, immunological modifications of the aqueous. Cutaneous larva migrans characterized by a linear, progressing, serpigenous eruption and intense itching is easy to diagnose. Larva migrans is due to dogs, cats and horses helminths. Dogs and cats (referred here as pets) now receive antihelmintitic treatments and parasites are now in decrease. PMID:18326429

  14. Characterization of vitamin B12 in Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Kumudha, Anantharajappa; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of nature's complex metabolite which is industrially produced using certain bacteria. Algae could be an alternative source of vitamin B12 and in this study, vitamin B12 from a halotolerant green alga, Dunaliella salina V-101 was purified and characterized. The extract of Dunaliella was purified by passing through Amberlite XAD-2 and EASI-extract vitamin B12 immunoaffinity column. The total vitamin B12 content in purified sample fractions was 42 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as determined by the chemiluminescence method which was almost close to 49 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as estimated by microbiological method. Further quantification of total vitamin B12 using gold nanoparticle (AUNPs) based aptamer showed 40 ± 0.8/100 g dry weight. There was a good correlation among all the methods of quantification. Adenosylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 which is a cofactor for methylmalonyl CoA mutase was identified by HPLC. Upon quantification, Dunaliella was found to contain 34 ± 4 μg of adenosylcobalamin for 100 g dry biomass. Authenticity of adenosylcobalmin was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) studies. PMID:26788012

  15. A biometric and ecologic comparison between Artemia from Mexico and Chile

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Thalía B; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Castro, Jorge M; Castro, Germán M

    2006-01-01

    Background A preliminary biometric and ecologic database for the brine shrimp Artemia from Mexico and Chile is presented. The area abounds in small and seasonal ponds and large inland lakes, the latter mainly located in Mexico, although relatively large and isolated lakes are found in complex hydrological settings in pre-high plateau areas of Chile. This paper summarizes research efforts aimed at the localization, characterization, and evaluation of the aquaculture potential of Artemia populations in Mexico and Chile, which exhibit great habitat diversity (ponds, salterns, coastal lagoons, sea arms, coastal and inland lakes), contrasting weather conditions and different levels of isolation and human intervention. Results This study covered locations between 29° north latitude (Baja California, Mexico) to 50° south latitude (Puerto Natales, Chile). Biological characteristics considered are species name, reproductive mode, cyst diameter, chorion thickness, and nauplius length, whereas ecological data include pond size, pH, salinity, temperature, and water ionic composition. Artemia franciscana is the only species found in Mexico, it exists together with A. persimilis in Chile, though separated geographically. Ecological differences in habitat exist between both regions but also within countries, a pattern particularly clear with regard to water composition. Surprisingly, a Mexican (Cuatro Ciénegas, A. franciscana) and a Chilean location (Torres del Paine, A. persimilis) share habitat characteristics, at least for the period when data were collected. The discriminat analysis for cyst diameter and nauplius length shows that Artemia from only one location match in cyst diameter with those from San Francisco Bay (SFB) (Point Lobos), and one (Marquez) is far apart from SFB and all the others. The Chilean locations (Pampilla, Cejar, Cahuil, Llamara, Yape) share cyst diameter, but tend to differ from SFB. The remaining Mexican locations (Juchitan, Ohuira, Yavaros) are

  16. Microgavage of zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Cocchiaro, Jordan L; Rawls, John F

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism for studying intestinal development(1-5), physiology(6-11), disease(12-16), and host-microbe interactions(17-25). Experimental approaches for studying intestinal biology often require the in vivo introduction of selected materials into the lumen of the intestine. In the larval zebrafish model, this is typically accomplished by immersing fish in a solution of the selected material, or by injection through the abdominal wall. Using the immersion method, it is difficult to accurately monitor or control the route or timing of material delivery to the intestine. For this reason, immersion exposure can cause unintended toxicity and other effects on extraintestinal tissues, limiting the potential range of material amounts that can be delivered into the intestine. Also, the amount of material ingested during immersion exposure can vary significantly between individual larvae(26). Although these problems are not encountered during direct injection through the abdominal wall, proper injection is difficult and causes tissue damage which could influence experimental results. We introduce a method for microgavage of zebrafish larvae. The goal of this method is to provide a safe, effective, and consistent way to deliver material directly to the lumen of the anterior intestine in larval zebrafish with controlled timing. Microgavage utilizes standard embryo microinjection and stereomicroscopy equipment common to most laboratories that perform zebrafish research. Once fish are properly positioned in methylcellulose, gavage can be performed quickly at a rate of approximately 7-10 fish/ min, and post-gavage survival approaches 100% depending on the gavaged material. We also show that microgavage can permit loading of the intestinal lumen with high concentrations of materials that are lethal to fish when exposed by immersion. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present a fluorescent dextran microgavage assay that can be

  17. Halomarina salina sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Mei; Xu, Jia-Qi; Zhou, Yao; Li, Yang; Lü, Zhen-Zhen; Hou, Jing; Zhu, Lin; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2016-08-01

    A halophilic archaeal strain, designated ZS-57-S(T), was isolated from Zhoushan marine solar saltern, China. Cells were observed to be pleomorphic, stained Gram-negative and formed red pigmented colonies on agar plates. Optimal growth was obtained at 3.9 M NaCl (range 1.4-4.8 M), 0.3 M MgCl2 (range 0-1.0 M), 30 °C (range 20-55 °C) and pH 6.5-7.5 (range 5.5-9.0). The cells were found to lyse in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was determined to be 5 % (w/v). The major polar lipids were identified as C20C20 and C20C25 diether derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, glucosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether and two unidentified glycolipids. The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain ZS-57-S(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Halomarina oriensis JCM 16495(T) (98.2 and 93.7 % similarities, respectively). The DNA G+C content of strain ZS-57-S(T) was determined to be 67.1 mol% (T m). The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain ZS-57-S(T) (=CGMCC 1.12543(T) = JCM 30039(T)) represents a new species of the genus Halomarina, for which the name Halomarina salina sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:27198657

  18. A modern subtropical playa complex: Salina de Ambargasta, central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanor, Gabriela A.; Piovano, Eduardo L.; Ariztegui, Daniel; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine

    2012-04-01

    Salina de Ambargasta is a playa located at mid latitudes in central Argentina (29 °S-64 °W). Because of its hydrological behaviour, this playa complex can be subdivided into a closed system "sensu-stricto" and an "open-like system" due to the presence of a seasonal outflow. Geomorphological and sedimentological features enable the separation of the Ambargasta playa into well-defined western, eastern and northern zones, where aeolian processes, groundwater supply and surface inflow, respectively, define distinctive sedimentary environments and typical processes of deposition. The following depositional settings were recognized: (1) alluvial fan; (2) sandflat; (3) springs; (4) dunes and palaeo-dune field; (5) dry mudflat; (6) capillary mudflat; (7) ephemeral saline lake (includes saline mudflat and salt pan). The dry mudflat is present at the highest topographical zone, where the groundwater influence is less important and only intermittent ponds are present. In the capillary mudflat, evaporite sedimentation is limited to the development of efflorescence by evaporative pumping. The ephemeral saline lake, placed in the lowermost topographical region, alternates cycles of lake expansion and contraction responding to inter-annual hydrological variability as well as to seasonal variability. Lake expansion takes place during early austral summer (December-March), while continuous evaporation of brine leads to the growth of halite crystals during late summer. Sodium chloride-type brines result from both chemical fractionation as evaporation increases and salt dissolution. The isotopic compositions of surficial and underground waters (δ18O and δ2H) indicate that lake waters become isotopically enriched during summer when evaporation plays a significant role in the playa complex.

  19. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating bacteria protect gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio campbellii.

    PubMed

    Halet, Dirk; Defoirdt, Tom; Van Damme, Petra; Vervaeren, Han; Forrez, Ilse; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Verstraete, Willy

    2007-06-01

    A poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)-accumulating enrichment culture was obtained using activated sludge from a polyphosphate-accumulating reactor as inoculum. PHB accumulated by the enrichment culture significantly enhanced the survival of Artemia nauplii, infected with the virulent pathogen Vibrio campbellii LMG 21363. A strain was isolated from the enrichment culture, based on its ability to accumulate PHB, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the isolate revealed 99% sequence similarity to Brachymonas denitrificans AS-P1. The isolate, named PHB2, showed good PHB-accumulating activity (up to 32% of the cell dry weight). PHB accumulated by isolate PHB2 was able to protect Artemia completely from the V. campbellii strain. Our data indicate that PHB-accumulating bacteria, such as B. denitrificans PHB2, could be used as an an effective and economically interesting alternative strategy to control infections in aquaculture. PMID:17391334

  20. Effects of abiotic stressors on lutein production in the green microalga Dunaliella salina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent years have witnessed a rising trend in exploring microalgae for valuable carotenoid products as the demand for lutein and many other carotenoids in global markets has increased significantly. In green microalgae lutein is a major carotenoid protecting cellular components from damage incurred by reactive oxygen species under stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of abiotic stressors on lutein accumulation in a strain of the marine microalga D. salina which had been selected for growth under stress conditions of combined blue and red lights by adaptive laboratory evolution. Results Nitrate concentration, salinity and light quality were selected as three representative influencing factors and their impact on lutein production in batch cultures of D. salina was evaluated using response surface analysis. D. salina was found to be more tolerant to hyper-osmotic stress than to hypo-osmotic stress which caused serious cell damage and death in a high proportion of cells while hyper-osmotic stress increased the average cell size of D. salina only slightly. Two models were developed to explain how lutein productivity depends on the stress factors and for predicting the optimal conditions for lutein productivity. Among the three stress variables for lutein production, stronger interactions were found between nitrate concentration and salinity than between light quality and the other two. The predicted optimal conditions for lutein production were close to the original conditions used for adaptive evolution of D. salina. This suggests that the conditions imposed during adaptive evolution may have selected for the growth optima arrived at. Conclusions This study shows that systematic evaluation of the relationship between abiotic environmental stresses and lutein biosynthesis can help to decipher the key parameters in obtaining high levels of lutein productivity in D. salina. This study may benefit future stress-driven adaptive

  1. Heterologous gene expression driven by carbonic anhydrase gene promoter in Dunaliella salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yurong; Lu, Yumin; Wang, Tianyun; Hou, Weihong; Xue, Lexun

    2006-12-01

    Dunaliella salina, a halotolerant unicellular green alga without a rigid cell wall, can live in salinities ranging from 0.05 to 5 mol/L NaCl. These features of D. salina make it an ideal host for the production of antibodies, oral vaccine, and commercially valuable polypeptides. To produce high level of heterologous proteins from D. salina, highly efficient promoters are required to drive expression of target genes under controlled condition. In the present study, we cloned a 5' franking region of 1.4 kb from the carbonic anhydrase ( CAH) gene of D. salina by genomic walking and PCR. The fragment was ligated to the pMD18-T vector and characterized. Sequence analysis indicated that this region contained conserved motifs, including a TATA- like box and CAAT-box. Tandem (GT)n repeats that had a potential role of transcriptional control, were also found in this region. The transcription start site (TSS) of the CAH gene was determined by 5' RACE and nested PCR method. Transformation assays showed that the 1.4 kb fragment was able to drive expression of the selectable bar (bialaphos resistance) gene when the fusion was transformed into D. salina by biolistics. Northern blotting hybridizations showed that the bar transcript was most abundant in cells grown in 2 mol/L NaCl, and less abundant in 0.5 mol/L NaCl, indicating that expression of the bar gene was induced at high salinity. These results suggest the potential use of the CAH gene promoter to induce the expression of heterologous genes in D. salina under varied salt condition.

  2. The structure of Artemia sp. (brine shrimp) haemoglobins. Purification of a structural unit to homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Moens, L; Van Hauwaert, M L; Wolf, G

    1985-05-01

    The extracellular haemoglobins (Mr 260 000) of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. were cleaved by limited digestion with subtilisin. Structural units of Mr 16 000, which can bind dioxygen reversibly, were isolated. Analysis of the 16 000-Mr fraction (E) reveals the presence of a limited number of structural units. A single type of structural unit, E1 (Mr 15 800; pI4.8), was purified to homogeneity and characterized. PMID:4004806

  3. The transcription factor p8 regulates autophagy during diapause embryo formation in Artemia parthenogenetica.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng; Jia, Sheng-Nan; Yang, Fan; Jia, Wen-Huan; Yu, Xiao-Jian; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Autophagy is an essential homeostatic process by which cytoplasmic components, including macromolecules and organelles, are degraded by lysosome. Increasing evidence suggests that phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and target of rapamycin (TOR) play key roles in the regulation of autophagy. However, the regulation of autophagy in quiescent cells remains unclear, despite the fact that autophagy is known to be critical for normal development, regeneration, and degenerative diseases. Here, crustacean Artemia parthenogenetica was used as a model system because they produced and released encysted embryos that enter a state of obligate dormancy in cell quiescence to withstand various environmental threats. We observed that autophagy was increased before diapause stage but dropped to extremely low level in diapause cysts in Artemia. Western blot analyses indicated that the regulation of autophagy was AMPK/TOR independent during diapause embryo formation. Importantly, the level of p8 (Ar-p8), a stress-inducible transcription cofactor, was elevated at the stage just before diapause and was absent in encysted embryos, indicating that Ar-p8 may regulate autophagy. The results of Ar-p8 knockdown revealed that Ar-p8 regulated autophagy during diapause formation in Artemia. Moreover, we observed that activating transcription factors 4 and 6 (ATF4 and ATF6) responded to Ar-p8-regulated autophagy, indicating that autophagy targeted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during diapause formation in Artemia. Additionally, AMPK/TOR-independent autophagy was validated in human gastric cancer MKN45 cells overexpressing Ar-p8. The findings presented here may provide insights into the role of p8 in regulating autophagy in quiescent cells. PMID:27125785

  4. The study of fkbp and ubiquitin reveals interesting aspects of Artemia stress history.

    PubMed

    Maniatsi, Stefania; Farmaki, Theodora; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-08-01

    Research on stress responses in animals has increased greatly during the last decades. Though most studies focus on the cellular and molecular bases of the stress response mechanisms, the ecological and evolutionary aspects of stress responses gain more and more interest. Here, we use species and parthenogenetic strains of the genus Artemia, an extremophile model organism, to study, for the first time, a protein well known for its chaperone activity and its involvement in stress responses. More specifically, transcription and protein accumulation of an FK506-Binding Protein (FKBP) homologue were investigated under heat and salt stresses. Additionally, the mRNA levels of ubiquitin, a heat-inducible protein related to the proteasomal pathway, were quantitated under these conditions. Biochemical and phylogenetic analyses showed that the studied FKBP orthologue is a typical representative of the family that clusters with other crustacean sequences. The expression was increased in both fkbp and ubiquitin genes after salt and heat stresses. However, our results in combination with the fact that Artemia species and parthenogenetic strains, selected for this study, exhibit different heat or salt tolerance provide useful hints about the evolutionary significance of FKBP and ubiquitin. Regarding FKBP, mRNA expression and protein accumulation seem to depend on the environmental conditions and the evolutionary history of each Artemia population while ubiquitin has a clear and more conserved role under heat shock. PMID:25868628

  5. Laboratory generation of new parthenogenetic lineages supports contagious parthenogenesis in Artemia

    PubMed Central

    Amat, Francisco; Hontoria, Francisco; Gómez, Africa

    2014-01-01

    Contagious parthenogenesis—a process involving rare functional males produced by a parthenogenetic lineage which mate with coexisting sexual females resulting in fertile parthenogenetic offspring—is one of the most striking mechanisms responsible for the generation of new parthenogenetic lineages. Populations of the parthenogenetic diploid brine shrimp Artemia produce fully functional males in low proportions. The evolutionary role of these so-called Artemia rare males is, however, unknown. Here we investigate whether new parthenogenetic clones could be obtained in the laboratory by mating these rare males with sexual females. We assessed the survival and sex ratio of the hybrid ovoviviparous offspring from previous crosses between rare males and females from all Asiatic sexual species, carried out cross-mating experiments between F1 hybrid individuals to assess their fertility, and estimated the viability and the reproductive mode of the resulting F2 offspring. Molecular analysis confirmed the parentage of hybrid parthenogenetic F2. Our study documents the first laboratory synthesis of new parthenogenetic lineages in Artemia and supports a model for the contagious spread of parthenogenesis. Our results suggest recessive inheritance but further experiments are required to confirm the likelihood of the contagious parthenogenesis model. PMID:25024909

  6. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the carotenoids during development of the brine shrimp Artemia.

    PubMed

    Nelis, H J; Lavens, P; Van Steenberge, M M; Sorgeloos, P; Criel, G R; De Leenheer, A P

    1988-04-01

    In order to study the biological fate of all-trans- and cis-canthaxanthin in the brine shrimp Artemia, a quantitative method was developed for the determination of both carotenoids and their metabolic precursors in encysted embryos (cysts), nauplii, whole animals, organs, and subcellular fractions. This method is based on nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatography, two new exhaustive extraction procedures, and the determination of proteins in the extracted residue. Hydration of Artemia cysts caused a reversible conversion of part of the all-trans- to cis-canthaxanthin. During further pre-emergence embryonic development, there was little change in the levels of both isomers. After hatching of cysts, cis-canthaxanthin was progressively isomerized to the all-trans form, while the total (all-trans + cis) canthaxanthin to protein ratio tended to remain constant. Cis-canthaxanthin rapidly became undetectable in animals fed on algae and reappeared in females at an advanced stage of the reproductive cycle. All-trans-canthaxanthin remained present during the whole Artemia life cycle in addition to its metabolic precursors echinenone and beta-carotene. The carotenoid distribution in organs and subcellular fractions indicated high affinity of cis-canthaxanthin for the female reproductive system, oocytes in general, and yolk in particular. A role for cis-canthaxanthin is suggested at an early developmental stage, i.e., in cysts, before hatching. PMID:3392466

  7. Essential oils of Nigella sativa protects Artemia from the pathogenic effect of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2.

    PubMed

    Manju, Sivalingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-05-01

    The anti-Vibrio activity of essential oils (EOs) of nine medicinal plants was tested against 28 Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus. EO of Nigella sativa exhibited anti-Vibrio activity against all Vibrio spp. and greater inhibition was noted for the isolate V2 which was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Further, EO of N. sativa effectively inhibited V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 with an inhibition zone of 23.9mm at 101.2μgml(-1). Moreover, EO of N. sativa revealed anti-biofilm activity at 101.2μgml(-1) against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 100μgml(-1).In vivo experimental infection studies showed that the survival of Artemia spp. infected with V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 1×10(3)cfuml(-1) was only 40%. However, the survival of Artemia spp. was significantly increased after challenge with 100μgml(-1) of EO of N. sativa. EO of N. sativa showed higher anti-oxidant potential and total phenol content than other EOs tested. The anti-oxidant activity of EO of N. sativa was highly correlated to their total phenolic contents (r=0.836, P<0.05). This observation suggests that EO of N. sativa protected the Artemia spp. after experimental infection of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2. PMID:26945773

  8. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture. PMID:24567204

  9. Cytological, molecular and life cycle characterization of Anostracospora rigaudi n. g., n. sp. and Enterocytospora artemiae n. g., n. sp., two new microsporidian parasites infecting gut tissues of the brine shrimp Artemia.

    PubMed

    Rode, Nicolas Olivier; Landes, Julie; Lievens, Eva J P; Flaven, Elodie; Segard, Adeline; Jabbour-Zahab, Roula; Michalakis, Yannis; Agnew, Philip; Vivarès, Christian P; Lenormand, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Two new microsporidia, Anostracospora rigaudi n. g., n. sp., and Enterocytospora artemiae n. g., n. sp. infecting the intestinal epithelium of Artemia parthenogenetica Bowen and Sterling, 1978 and Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906 in southern France are described. Molecular analyses revealed the two species belong to a clade of microsporidian parasites that preferentially infect the intestinal epithelium of insect and crustacean hosts. These parasites are morphologically distinguishable from other gut microsporidia infecting Artemia. All life cycle stages have isolated nuclei. Fixed spores measure 1·3×0·7 μm with 5-6 polar tube coils for A. rigaudi and 1·2×0·9 μm with 4 polar tube coils for E. artemiae. Transmission of both species is horizontal, most likely through the ingestion of spores released with the faeces of infected hosts. The minute size of these species, together with their intestinal localization, makes their detection and identification difficult. We developed two species-specific molecular markers allowing each type of infection to be detected within 3-6 days post-inoculation. Using these markers, we show that the prevalence of these microsporidia ranges from 20% to 75% in natural populations. Hence, this study illustrates the usefulness of molecular approaches to study prevalent, but cryptic, infections involving microsporidian parasites of gut tissues. PMID:23731593

  10. Halomicroarcula salina sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2015-05-01

    Halophilic archaeal strain YGHS18(T) was isolated from the Yinggehai marine solar saltern near Shanya city of Hainan Province, China. Cells from the strain were observed to be pleomorphic rods, stained Gram-negative, and formed red-pigmented colonies on solid media. Strain YGHS18(T) was found to be able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), with 0.9-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.1 M) and at pH 5.5-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The cells lysed in distilled water and the minimum NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was found to be 0.9 M. The major polar lipids of the strain were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, glucosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether and a diglycosyl diether (DGD-2). Strain YGHS18(T) possessed two heterogeneous 16S rRNA genes (rrnA and rrnB) and both were related to those of members of the genera Haloarcula (93.1-96.9% sequence similarity) and Halomicroarcula (92.7-96.1% similarity). The rrnA gene (orthologous gene) of strain YGHS18(T) clustered phylogenetically with members of the genus Halomicroarcula while the rrnB gene formed a paraphyly with members of the genera Halomicroarcula and Haloarcula . The rpoB' gene of strain YGHS18(T) was related phylogenetically to species of the genera Halomicroarcula (91.6-92.7% sequence similarity) and Haloarcula (91.5-92.4% similarity). EF-2 gene analysis revealed that strain YGHS18(T) was related phylogenetically to species of the genus Halomicroarcula (92.2-92.9% sequence similarity) rather than to those of the genus Haloarcula (90.9-91.7% similarity). The DNA G+C content of strain YGHS18(T) was determined to be 64.5 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain YGHS18(T) ( =CGMCC 1.12128(T) =JCM 18369(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Halomicroarcula , for which the name Halomicroarcula salina sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:25721722

  11. Pseudomonas salina sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Hou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Wang, Fang; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-09-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, facultatively aerobic bacterium, strain XCD-X85(T), was isolated from Xiaochaidan Lake, a salt lake (salinity 9.9%, w/v) in Qaidam basin, Qinghai province, China. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain XCD-X85(T) were non-endospore-forming rods, 0.4-0.6 μm wide and 1.0-1.6 μm long, and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Strain XCD-X85(T) was catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth was observed in the presence of 0-12.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.0-2.0%) and at 4-35 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C) and pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 8.0-8.5). Strain XCD-X85(T) contained (>10%) summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C12 : 0, C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) as the predominant fatty acids. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 57.4 mol%. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain XCD-X85(T) was associated with the genus Pseudomonas, and showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Pseudomonas pelagia CL-AP6(T) (99.0%) and Pseudomonas bauzanensis BZ93(T) (96.8%). DNA-DNA relatedness of strain XCD-X85T to P. pelagia JCM 15562(T) was 19 ± 1%. On the basis of the data presented above, it is concluded that strain XCD-X85(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas salina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XCD-X85(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12482(T) = JCM 19469(T)). PMID:25985833

  12. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional digital flow models of the Salinas Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durbin, T.J.; Kapple, G.W.; Freckleton, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Salinas Valley ground-water basin is in central coastal California. The ground-water basin extends from Monterey Bay southeastward along the Salinas River to San Ardo, a distance of about 70 miles, and has a maximum thickness of about 2,000 feet. Annual recharge to the ground-water basin, which is derived mostly from the Salinas River, is about 290,000 acre-feet. Annual discharge, which is mostly from pumpage but also includes the consumptive use of ground water by riparian vegetation along the Salinas River, is about 507,000 acre-feet. About 45 percent of the pumpage, or about 217,000 acre-feet of water annually, returns to the ground-water system. A system of interacting hydrologic models was developed for the Salinas Valley. These models include the small-stream model, river model, two-dimensional ground-water model, and three-dimensional ground-water model. The small-stream model simulates ground-water recharge from small streams that are tributary to the Salinas River. The river model simulates ground-water recharge from the surface-water discharge in the Salinas River. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional ground-water models simulate hydraulic head in the ground-water basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Biochemical composition and bioactivity screening of various extracts from Dunaliella salina, a green microalga.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Yavuz Selim; Kaya, Murat; Asan-Ozusaglam, Meltem

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of different extracts of the microalga Dunaliella salina Teodoresco (Dunaliellaceae), their fatty acid composition and the antimicrobial activity of the oil. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were evaluated by obtaining extracts of D. salina in n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol, and methanol. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity, the extracts, and fatty acids from D. salina were assessed by the disc diffusion and microdilution techniques against pathogenic microorganisms including fish and clinical/food-borne. The MBC or MFC values of the extracts and fatty acids ranged from 0.63 to 10.00 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was studied by phosphomolybdenum and DPPH assays and ß-carotene/linoleic acid tests. In addition, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated and the fatty acid composition was determined using gas chromatography. Palmitic, alpha-linolenic, and oleic acids were discovered to be the major components of the fatty acids. These findings have demonstrated that the extracts and oil from D. salina could be used as natural antimicrobials and antioxidants in the food/feed and pharmaceutical industry and as a biodiesel because of its high unsaturated fatty acid content. PMID:26417292

  14. Pesticide Risk Communication, Risk Perception, and Self-Protective Behaviors among Farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Leckie, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use is the highest of any industry, yet there is little research evaluating farmworkers' understandings of the health risks chemical exposure poses. This study examines pesticide education, risk perception, and self-protective behaviors among farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley. Fifty current and former farmworkers…

  15. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Dunaliella salina in Paracetamol-induced Acute Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Fedekar F.; Abdel-Daim, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Paracetamol has a reasonable safety profile when taken in therapeutic doses. However, it could induce hepatotoxicity and even more severe fatal acute hepatic damage when taken in an overdose. The green alga, Dunaliella salina was investigated for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Male albino Wistar rats overdosed with paracetamol showed liver damage and oxidative stress as indicated by significantly (P<0.05) increased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide. At the same time, there were decreased activities of serum superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity compared with the control group. Treatment with D. salina methanol extract at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight or silymarin could significantly (P<0.05) decrease the liver damage marker enzymes, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide levels and increase the activities of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in serum when compared with paracetamol intoxicated group. Liver histopathology also showed that D. salina reduced the centrilobular necrosis, congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration evoked by paracetamol overdose. These results suggest that D. salina exhibits a potent hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats, which may be due to both the increase of antioxidant enzymes activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:24591738

  16. Biochemical composition and bioactivity screening of various extracts from Dunaliella salina, a green microalga

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Yavuz Selim; Kaya, Murat; Asan-Ozusaglam, Meltem

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of different extracts of the microalga Dunaliella salina Teodoresco (Dunaliellaceae), their fatty acid composition and the antimicrobial activity of the oil. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were evaluated by obtaining extracts of D. salina in n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol, and methanol. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity, the extracts, and fatty acids from D. salina were assessed by the disc diffusion and microdilution techniques against pathogenic microorganisms including fish and clinical/food-borne. The MBC or MFC values of the extracts and fatty acids ranged from 0.63 to 10.00 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was studied by phosphomolybdenum and DPPH assays and ß-carotene/linoleic acid tests. In addition, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated and the fatty acid composition was determined using gas chromatography. Palmitic, alpha-linolenic, and oleic acids were discovered to be the major components of the fatty acids. These findings have demonstrated that the extracts and oil from D. salina could be used as natural antimicrobials and antioxidants in the food/feed and pharmaceutical industry and as a biodiesel because of its high unsaturated fatty acid content. PMID:26417292

  17. La columna, el circulo y sus variantes en la poesia primera de Pedro Salinas (The Vertical Line, the Circle, and other Geometric Varieties in the Early Poetry of Pedro Salinas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Armas, Jose R.

    1970-01-01

    Interprets Salinas' use of geometric figures for depicting concepts of time and infinity, and for portraying idealism and realism (the vertical line is idealism, perfection; the circle stands for reality and imperfection). (DS)

  18. Physical, biochemical and functional characterization of haemoglobin from three strains of Artemia.

    PubMed

    Sugumar, Vasudevan; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2007-02-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia, an inhabitant of coastal and inland salterns, encounter fluctuations in the salinity which in turn influences the oxygen availability of their habitat. Hence, experiments were performed to analyze variations in haemoglobin structure and patterns of three strains of Artemia from South India and also to reflect the effect of varying oxygen levels in their habitat. Haemoglobins were purified on a DEAE-Sephadex column and haemoglobin types were analyzed by comparing their relative mobility on a non-denaturing medium. Furthermore, their molecular masses were determined by gel filtration in Sepharose column and by dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results clearly reveal the presence of three distinct extracellular haemoglobins Hb I, Hb II and Hb III in Tuticorin strain while the other strains displayed only trails or the complete absence of Hb III and Hb II. Estimated molecular masses of these haemoglobins are 235,000-250,000 Da. Denaturation of the reduced and alkylated haemoglobins revealed apparently one polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 124,000 Da. Upon denaturing gel electrophoresis of native haemoglobin Hb II, it was found that the 124,000 Da, polypeptide was cleaved specifically into two unequally-sized fragments of 50,400 and 79,800 Da. With regard to oxygen affinity, Hb III has a very high affinity for oxygen, an almost negligible Bohr effect and a good physiological adaptation to temperature changes. By combining the three haemoglobins in different proportions Artemia strains must be able to withstand diverging environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of Hb III in Puthalam and its occurrence as a faint band in Thamaraikulam could be correlated to the oxygen levels of their habitats. PMID:17185017

  19. Diapause termination and development of encysted Artemia embryos: roles for nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Heather M; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Sung, Yeong Yik; MacRae, Thomas H; Bossier, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Encysted embryos (cysts) of the brine shrimp Artemia undergo diapause, a state of profound dormancy and enhanced stress tolerance. Upon exposure to the appropriate physical stimulus diapause terminates and embryos resume development. The regulation of diapause termination and post-diapause development is poorly understood at the molecular level, prompting this study on the capacity of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) to control these processes. Exposure to H(2)O(2) and NO, the latter generated by the use of three NO generators, promoted cyst development, emergence and hatching, effects nullified by catalase and the NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO). The maximal effect of NO and H(2)O(2) on cyst development was achieved by 4 h of exposure to either chemical. NO was effective at a lower concentration than H(2)O(2) but more cysts developed in response to H(2)O(2). Promotion of development varied with incubation conditions, indicating for the first time a population of Artemia cysts potentially arrested in post-diapause and whose development was activated by either H(2)O(2) or NO. A second cyst sub-population, refractory to hatching after prolonged incubation, was considered to be in diapause, a condition broken by H(2)O(2) but not NO. These observations provide clues to the molecular mechanisms of diapause termination and development in Artemia, while enhancing the organism's value in aquaculture by affording a greater understanding of its growth and physiology. PMID:20400630

  20. Effects of rotenone and other mitochondrial complex I inhibitors on the brine shrimp Artemia.

    PubMed

    Vehovszky, Agnes; Szabó, Henriette; Acs, A; Gyori, J; Farkas, Anna

    2010-12-01

    (Artemia) nauplii was used to asses the toxicity of rotenone, MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), MP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) and the effect of L-DOPA co-treatment with rotenone. Rotenone had a dose dependent effect on mortality (LC₅₀: 0.37 ± 0.04 μM mean ± S E, n = 24), while MPTP and MP+ proved to be toxic in millimolar range (LC₅₀: 0.21 ± 0.09 mM and 0.20 ± 0.08 mM, respectively, n = 4). L-DOPA (50-200 μM) co-treatment increased the survival of the rotenone-treated animals (LC₅₀: 0.51 ± 0.23 μM, 1.03 ± 0.66 μM, and 0.76 ± 0.52 μM, respectively). In the whole body tissue homogenates of Artemia, sublethal (up to 0.3 μM) concentrations of rotenone increased the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity by up to 50 about percent (LC₅₀: 53.3 ± 6.8 nM/min/mg protein, against 34.7 ± 3.6 nM/min/mg protein, n = 4). Nauplii treated in 100 mM L-DOPA and rotenone together showed further increase of GST activity all across the range of rotenone concentrations. These results on Artemia nauplii show similarities with other animal models, when complex I inhibitors were tested. Biochemical measurements suggest a protective role of L-DOPA by increasing the GST activity as part of the intracellular defences during toxin-evoked oxidative stress. PMID:21112832

  1. May arsenic pollution contribute to limiting Artemia franciscana invasion in southern Spain?

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding the complex interactions between biological invasions, pollution, and climate change. Most studies indicate that pollution tends to favor invasive species. Here, we provide evidence that arsenic (As) pollution may have a role in limiting the invasion of the exotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. We tested As toxicity in natural populations of Artemia parthenogenetica (a native taxon) and A. franciscana from localities in southern Spain with differing degrees of As contamination. Tests were conducted both under current mean temperature conditions (25 °C), and as per a future climate scenario (i.e., an increase in mean temperature of 4 °C). Acute toxicity was estimated on the basis of the median lethal concentration (at 24 h), and chronic toxicity was evaluated by measuring Artemia survival and growth under sublethal exposures (after 26 days). At 25 °C, native A. parthenogenetica from the highly polluted Odiel and Tinto estuary was much more resistant to acute As stress (LC50-24 h, 24.67 mg L−1) than A. franciscana (15.78 mg L−1) and A. parthenogenetica from unpolluted sites (12.04 mg L−1)–suggesting that local adaptation to polluted conditions may occur. At 29 °C, resistance of A. parthenogenetica from Odiel decreased significantly, and there were no statistical differences in sensitivity between the three species/populations, suggesting that climate change may enhance the probability of invasion. Resistance increased with developmental stage from nauplii to adults, and was extremely high in cysts which still hatched at As concentrations of up to 6400 mg L−1. Under sublethal chronic exposure A. franciscana performed better (survival and growth) than A. parthenogenetica, and both species experienced a faster growth when exposed to As, compared with unexposed (control) individuals, probably due to the hormesis. We discuss the ecological implications of our results. PMID:26925327

  2. May arsenic pollution contribute to limiting Artemia franciscana invasion in southern Spain?

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Marta I; Petit, Cathleen; Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Taggart, Mark A; Green, Andy J

    2016-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding the complex interactions between biological invasions, pollution, and climate change. Most studies indicate that pollution tends to favor invasive species. Here, we provide evidence that arsenic (As) pollution may have a role in limiting the invasion of the exotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. We tested As toxicity in natural populations of Artemia parthenogenetica (a native taxon) and A. franciscana from localities in southern Spain with differing degrees of As contamination. Tests were conducted both under current mean temperature conditions (25 °C), and as per a future climate scenario (i.e., an increase in mean temperature of 4 °C). Acute toxicity was estimated on the basis of the median lethal concentration (at 24 h), and chronic toxicity was evaluated by measuring Artemia survival and growth under sublethal exposures (after 26 days). At 25 °C, native A. parthenogenetica from the highly polluted Odiel and Tinto estuary was much more resistant to acute As stress (LC50-24 h, 24.67 mg L(-1)) than A. franciscana (15.78 mg L(-1)) and A. parthenogenetica from unpolluted sites (12.04 mg L(-1))-suggesting that local adaptation to polluted conditions may occur. At 29 °C, resistance of A. parthenogenetica from Odiel decreased significantly, and there were no statistical differences in sensitivity between the three species/populations, suggesting that climate change may enhance the probability of invasion. Resistance increased with developmental stage from nauplii to adults, and was extremely high in cysts which still hatched at As concentrations of up to 6400 mg L(-1). Under sublethal chronic exposure A. franciscana performed better (survival and growth) than A. parthenogenetica, and both species experienced a faster growth when exposed to As, compared with unexposed (control) individuals, probably due to the hormesis. We discuss the ecological implications of our results. PMID:26925327

  3. Influence of a long duration exposure, 69 months, to the space flight factors in Artemia cysts, tobacco and rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planel, H.; Gaubin, Y.; Pianezzi, B.; Delpoux, M.; Bayonove, J.; Bès, J. C.; Heilmann, C.; Gasset, G.

    1994-10-01

    Three french laboratories have participated in the Free Flyer Biostack experiment. Artemia cysts, tobacco seeds and rice caryopsis and embryos were used. Biological objects in monolayers were dead. In opposite, a large fraction of samples used in bulk survived. A stimulatory effect occurred in the first steps of development in Artemia cysts. In fact, the larval survival was unchanged or slightly reduced. In tobacco a drastic decrease in germination and survival rate was observed. Space flight did not induce genetic changes. In rice, results depend on the variety which was investigated; the growth rate stimulation in flight samples is discussed with respect to controls.

  4. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  5. Sediment bioassays with oyster larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.M.; Morgan, J.D.

    1983-10-01

    Tests with naturally-occurring sediments are rare and sediment testing methodology is not standardized. The authors present a simple methodology for undertaking sediment bioassays with oyster larvae, and present data from a recent study to prove the utility of this method.

  6. Arsenate toxicity and metabolism in the halotolerant microalga Dunaliella salina under various phosphate regimes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Zheng, Yanheng; Liu, Cong; Xu, Pingping; Li, Hao; Lin, Qiaoyun; Zhang, Chunhua; Ge, Ying

    2016-06-15

    Microalgae play an important role in arsenic (As) biogeochemical cycles as they are capable of accumulating and metabolizing this metalloid efficiently. This study aimed to investigate the toxicity, accumulation and transformation of arsenate (As(v)) in Dunaliella salina, an exceptionally halotolerant microalga, under various phosphate (PO4(3-)) regimes. The results of the 72-h toxicity test showed that D. salina was tolerant to As(v). In addition, the toxicity of As(v) was mitigated by an increased PO4(3-) supply. D. salina resisted the adverse effects of As(v) through the suppression of As uptake, enhancement of As reduction, methylation in the cell and excretion from the cell. Our study revealed that D. salina reduced As(v) toxicity using different strategies, i.e., reduction of As uptake upon acute As stress (24 h) and increase of As efflux following chronic As exposure (9 day). Moreover, PO4(3-) strongly affected the adsorption, uptake and transformation of As(v) in D. salina. As(v) reduction, DMA production and As excretion were enhanced under P-limited conditions (0.112 mg L(-1)) or upon higher As(v) exposure (1120 μg L(-1)). Furthermore, PO4(3-) had a significant influence on the As removal ability of D. salina. A high As removal efficiency (>95.6%) was observed in the 5-day cultures at an initial As concentration of 11.2 μg L(-1) and PO4(3-) of 0.112 and 1.12 mg L(-1). However, only 10.9% of total As was removed under 11.2 mg L(-1) PO4(3-) after 9 days of incubation. The findings of this study illustrate the pivotal roles of extracellular PO4(3-) in As(v) toxicity and metabolism, and the results may be relevant for future research on the minimization of As contamination in algal products as well as on the enhancement of As removal from the environment. PMID:27243670

  7. Cytotoxicity screening of some South American Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Murillo, B; Fajardo, V M; Suárez, M

    2001-08-01

    Alcoholic extracts of seven plants belonging to the Solanaceae family were phytochemically screened and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity by Brine Shrimp Test (BST) with Artemia salina larvae, Inhibition of Cell Division Test (ICDT) on sea urchin Loxechinus albus fertilized eggs and inhibition of crown gall tumors on Potato Disk Bioassay (PDB). From Salpichroa diffusa, bioassay-guided chromatographic separation afforded some active fractions from which epi-katonic acid was identified. PMID:11543969

  8. Phototoxicity of non-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, J.; Kagan, E.D.; Kagan, I.A.; Kagan, P.A.; Quigley, S.

    1985-01-01

    Anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene are phototoxic in Daphnia magna, Artemia salina, first instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, late embryonic forms of Rana pipiens, and fish (Pimephales promelas). Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are generated in the combustion processes held responsible for the damages of acid rain, and they are introduced into the environment through other means as well, the high phototoxicity of the major pollutants, which are not carcinogenic, suggests that greater attention must be given to their environmental significance.

  9. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae

    PubMed Central

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host–pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp. PMID:22673627

  10. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host-pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp. PMID:22673627

  11. Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-control of microalgae blooms in solar salterns?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki

    2015-09-01

    The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.

  12. How the pilidium larva feeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

  13. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  14. Satellite DNA from the brine shrimp Artemia affects the expression of a flanking gene in yeast.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, D; Cece, R; Badaracco, G

    1997-04-11

    We have previously revealed that in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana an AluI DNA family of repeats, 113 bp in length, is the major component of the constitutive heterochromatin and that this repetitive DNA shows a stable curvature that confers a solenoidal geometry on the double helix in vitro. It was suggested that this particular structure may play a relevant role in determining the condensation of the heterochromatin. In this report we have cloned hexamers of highly-repetitive sequence (AluI-satellite DNA) in proximity to a yeast lacZ reporter gene on a plasmid. We find that the expression of the reporter gene is affected by the presence of this DNA in a dose- and orientation-dependent manner in the yeast, S. cerevisiae. We show that this effect is not dependent on under-replication or re-arrangements of the repetitive DNA in the cell but is due to decreased expression of the reporter gene. Our results indicate that the AluI-satellite DNA of Artemia per se is able to influence gene expression. PMID:9161405

  15. Diffusive properties of water in Artemia cysts as determined from quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Trantham, E C; Rorschach, H E; Clegg, J S; Hazlewood, C F; Nicklow, R M; Wakabayashi, N

    1984-01-01

    Results have been obtained on the quasi-elastic spectra of neutrons scattered from pure water, a 20% agarose gel (hydration four grams H2O per gram of dry solid) and cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia for hydrations between 0.10 and 1.2 grams H2O per gram of dry solids. The spectra were interpreted using a two-component model that included contributions from the covalently bonded protons and the hydration water, and a mobile water fraction. The mobile fraction was described by a jump-diffusion correlation function for the translation motion and a simple diffusive orientational correlation function. The results for the line widths gamma (Q2) for pure water were in good agreement with previous measurements. The agarose results were consistent with NMR measurements that show a slightly reduced translational diffusion for the mobile water fraction. The Artemia results show that the translational diffusion coefficient of the mobile water fraction was greatly reduced from that of pure water. The line width was determined mainly by the rotational motion, which was also substantially reduced from the pure water value as determined from dielectric relaxation studies. The translational and rotational diffusion parameters were consistent with the NMR measurements of diffusion and relaxation. Values for the hydration fraction and the mean square thermal displacement [u2] as determined from the Q-dependence of the line areas were also obtained. PMID:6733243

  16. Facile sand enhanced electro-flocculation for cost-efficient harvesting of Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiong; Pang, Qi; Pan, Xinwei; Chika, A Okonkwo; Wang, Liqing; Shi, Jia; Jia, Lishan; Chen, Changping; Gao, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption and water resource in the cultivation and harvesting steps still need to be minimized for the popularization of the microalgae-based products. An efficient electro-flocculation method for harvesting Dunaliella Salina integrated with local sand has been successfully applied. Sand was effective for speeding up the processes of flocculation and sedimentation of algal flocs and the electrolytic hydroxides was essential to bridge the sand and small flocs into large dense flocs. The maximal recovery effective improved from 95.13% in 6min to 98.09% in 4.5min and the optimal electrical energy consumption decreased 51.03% compared to conventional electro-flocculation in a laboratory ambient condition. Furthermore, reusing the flocculated medium in cultivation of the D. Salina with nitrogen supplemented performed no worse than using fresh medium. This sand enhanced electro-flocculation (SEF) technology provides a great potential for saving time and energy associated with improving microalgae harvesting. PMID:25863210

  17. Use of conditioned medium for efficient transformation and cost-effective cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Lee, Bongsoo; Shin, Sung-Eun; Jeon, Seungjib; Park, Min S; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-04-01

    The oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis sp. has been spotlighted as a promising candidate in genetic engineering research for biodiesel production. However, one of the major bottlenecks in the genetic manipulation against Nannochloropsis sp. is low transformation efficiency. Based on the idea that they grow rapidly in broth culture, the effect of conditioned medium on colonization and transformation efficiency of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated. Cells grown on agar plates with 20-40% conditioned medium produced colonies that were approximately 2.3-fold larger than cells grown without conditioned medium. More importantly, the transformation efficiency was about 2-fold greater on plates with 30% conditioned medium relative to those without conditioned medium. In addition, FAME productivity in liquid cultures with 100% conditioned medium increased up to 20% compared with cultures of control medium. These results suggest that conditioned medium can be applied for efficient transformation and cost-effective cultivation of N. salina for biodiesel production. PMID:25656867

  18. Effect of nitrate and phosphate on accumulation of β-carotene isomers in Dunaliella salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Wu, Chao-Yuan; Chen, Nian-Hong; Wang, Yu-Jun; Yu, Li-Dong

    1996-06-01

    Dunaliella salina, a halotolerant unicellular green alga, can accumulate a large amount of β-carotene under certain environmental conditions. The isomers of β-carotene extracted from D. salina cultured in medium with different nitrate and phosphate concentrations were analysed by HPLC with Alox-T alumina column. At least six isomers were found in different proportions depending on the culture media's nitrate and/or phosphate concentrations. Nitrate and/or phosphate deficiency was conducive to the accumulation of total cis isomers but not of all trans isomer. It is suggested that 1 mmol/L KNO3 and 0.1 mmol/L KH2 PO4 are favourable for accumulation of total cis β-carotene.

  19. Intentional introduction of Artemia sinica (Anostraca) in the high-altitude Tibetan lake Dangxiong Co: the new population and consequences for the environment and for humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qinxian; Anufriieva, Elena; Liu, Xifang; Kong, Fanjing; Shadrin, Nickolai

    2015-11-01

    The imbalance between supply and demand of Artemia cysts in China and around the world is increasing now. Salt lakes in Tibet may contribute to the solution of the problem. In Northern Tibet there are 26 saline lakes whose salinity and temperature may support Artemia survival at an altitude of 4 000-5 100 m. We found Artemia in 15 of these lakes. The saline lakes with Artemia populations mainly belong to the shallow basin lakes, and the majority of these lakes are small in area. The total area of lakes without Artemia is more than 1 000 km2. Lake Dangxiong Co (Co means lake in Tibet) was chosen for the intentional introduction of Artemia sinica. In 2004, 850 g of A. sinica cysts, originating from Qinghai, were introduced in the lake. Surveys in 2006-2014 showed that the average abundance of Artemia adults in the lake gradually increased from 20 ind./m3 in 2006 to 1950 ind./m3 in 2013. We assume that two subpopulations of A. sinica, separated by depth, may exist in the lake. The new Artemia population caused an increase in the number of species of phytoplankton and heterotrophic protozoa with a decrease of their total abundance. Water transparency also increased. Dominance in phytoplankton passed from cyanobacteria to diatoms. Changes occurred not only in the lake ecosystem; the number of water birds using the lakes also dramatically increased. Preliminary calculations showed that is it possible to harvest at least about 150 t cysts per year from the lake as well as 3.2 thousand tons of frozen or 350 t of dried biomass of adult Artemia.

  20. Susceptibility of the brine shrimp Artemia and its pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus to chlorine dioxide in contaminated sea-water.

    PubMed

    Puente, M E; Vega-Villasante, F; Holguin, G; Bashan, Y

    1992-12-01

    Adults and nauplii of the brine shrimp, Artemia, together with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, were placed in sewage-contaminated sea-water which had been treated with chlorine dioxide (Hallox E-100TM) to test its potential as a disinfectant for salt water aquaculture. The nauplii were very susceptible to low concentrations of chlorine dioxide (47 micrograms/l Cl-), but the adults were slightly more resistant. Sterile sea-water treated with lower concentrations of chlorine dioxide (less than 47 micrograms/l Cl-) had no effect on the shrimp, but inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus. In sewage-contaminated sea-water, chlorine dioxide levels of 285-2850 micrograms/l, necessary for the inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus and any native bacteria, destroyed the Artemia culture. Hallox E-100TM persisted in sea-water for 18 h, but later decayed. We conclude that: (i) Artemia nauplii are a sensitive and convenient test-organism to determine low concentrations of chlorine dioxide in sea-water; (ii) chlorine dioxide is efficient for controlling V. parahaemolyticus in sea-water; and (iii) chlorine dioxide should be further evaluated as a potential disinfectant for aquaculture, but, for higher organisms than Artemia. PMID:1490907

  1. Does a change from whole to powdered food (Artemia franciscana eggs) increase oviposition in the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The limited availability of alternative foods to replace natural prey hinders cost-effective mass production of ladybird beetles for augmentative biological control. We compared the effects of powdered versus whole Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) eggs with or without a dietary supplement on devel...

  2. Evaluation of commercial Artemia enrichment products on growth, survival, stress tolerance, and fatty acid composition of larval Florida pompano

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rearing live feed organisms represents the majority of time and labor associated with larviculture operations vital to the seed stock supply of marine finfish aquaculture production facilities. No information exists with respect to optimal Artemia enrichment protocols for Florida pompano Trachinotu...

  3. Morphological differentiation of seven parthenogenetic Artemia (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) populations from China, with special emphasis on ploidy degrees.

    PubMed

    Asem, Alireza; Sun, Shi-Chun

    2016-04-01

    Parthenogenetic Artemia from seven Chinese locations with different elevations and various ploidies are characterized by phenotypic and morphometric analyses. Our findings show that the studied populations exhibit dissimilar patterns of ovisac. Four phenotypic patterns of furca are qualified and one of them is shared among di-, tetra- and pentaploid Artemia. Results of discriminant analysis based on morphometric data reveal that tetra- and pentaploid populations are grouped together, but the Aqqikkol Lake population is clearly differentiated. Previous hypothesis/conclusion that polyploid Artemia are larger than diploids is only partly supported by the present results, which show that pentaploid and tetraploid populations are larger than the mostly diploid populations in terms of the total length, but the body size of the Aibi Lake triploids has not significant difference with the sympatric diploids and the mostly diploid Aqqikkol population that inhabit in very high altitude has the largest body size among all parthenogenetic populations. The founding confirms that body size of Artemia is following with Bergmann's rule. PMID:26777727

  4. Strategies for the allocation of resources under sulfur limitation in the green alga Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Giordano, M; Pezzoni, V; Hell, R

    2000-10-01

    The effect of sulfur limitation on the partitioning of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur was investigated in Dunaliella salina. D. salina was able to adapt to 6 microM sulfate; under these conditions, the cells showed reduced growth and photosynthetic rates. Whereas intracellular sulfate was depleted, phosphate, nitrate, and ammonium increased. Amino acids showed a general increase, and alanine became the most abundant amino acid. The activities of four key enzymes of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism were differentially regulated: Adenosine 5' triphosphate sulfurylase activity increased 4-fold, nitrate reductase and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase activities decreased 4- and 11-fold, respectively, whereas carbonic anhydrase activity remained unchanged. Sulfur limitation elicited specific increase or decrease of the abundance of several proteins, such us Rubisco, PEP carboxylase, and a light harvesting complex protein. The accumulation of potentially toxic ammonium indicates an insufficient availability of carbon skeletons. Sulfur deficiency thus induces an imbalance between carbon and nitrogen. The dramatic reduction in PEP carboxylase activity suggests that carbon was diverted away from anaplerosis and possibly channeled into C3 metabolism. These results indicate that it is the coordination of key steps and components of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolism that allows D. salina to adapt to prolonged sulfur limitation. PMID:11027733

  5. Ultrastructure and molecular phylogeny of thaumatomonads (Cercozoa) with emphasis on Thaumatomastix salina from Oslofjorden, Norway.

    PubMed

    Ota, Shuhei; Eikrem, Wenche; Edvardsen, Bente

    2012-07-01

    A culture of Thaumatomastix was isolated from a sediment sample collected in Oslofjorden and established as a monospecific strain (UIO286). Based on this culture, light and transmission electron microscopy and phylogenetic analyses were carried out. Thaumatomastix species are confined within the order Thaumatomonadida of the class Imbricatea and phylum Cercozoa. They are heterotrophic and their cell bodies are covered with silica scales. Observations of thin sections as well as whole mounts indicate that the morphology and ultrastructure of UIO286 is identical to T. salina, which was initially described from salt pools in Denmark. Detailed examination revealed some new features such as the presence of pseudopodia and silica deposition vesicles producing spine scales. The phylogeny presented here includes ribosomal DNA sequences from both imbricatean cultures and environmental samples. The 18S rDNA phylogenetic tree suggests that (i) Thaumatomastix is paraphyletic within the Thaumatomonadida clade, (ii) there is no close affinity between T. salina and other cultured and sequenced strains, but it is closely related to a sequence obtained from environmental DNA; we propose the present strain to serve as a reference culture of Thaumatomastix species and T. salina. Further, we discuss the distribution, habitats, and evolution of scale formation among euglyphids and thaumatomonads. PMID:22177453

  6. Effects of ionic strength on the production of short chain volatile hydrocarbons by Dunaliella salina (Teodoresco).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, J; Mudge, S M; Sandoval, A

    2004-02-01

    The effect of ionic strength on the production of short chain volatile hydrocarbons was studied in cultures of Dunaliella salina. Axenic cultures of D. salina were grown at three different ionic strengths 0.5, 2 and 3 M of NaCl in Johnson (J/1) culture medium [Journal of Bacteriology 95 (1968) 1461] under the following laboratory growth conditions: a 12:12 h photoperiod, 300 micromolm(-2)s(-1) of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) provided by a fluorescent lamp of 40 W combined with a 100 W incandescent lamp at 20 +/- 1 degrees C at pH 7.5. C1 to C5 hydrocarbons were detected using a head space technique and GC-FID. Cell numbers and growth rate was greatest at 2 M NaCl 4.3 x 10(6) cellml(-1) after a 15 days period of culture. Maximum hydrocarbon production was measured in the concentration of 0.5 NaCl with lower production rates in the more concentrated solutions. The principal hydrocarbon was pentane at 0.5 M but was ethane in 2 and 3 M solutions. Production rates for individual compounds ranged between 0.13 and 22 x 10(-15) microgCcell(-1)h(-1). It is suggested that the ability to produce and release volatile organic compounds of D. salina is related to osmotic conditions established by the ionic strength of growth solution. PMID:14664856

  7. Cloning and characterization of a phosphate transporter gene in Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-He; Xia, Bing-Bing; Zhang, Chi; Cao, Jiao; Bai, Lin-Han

    2012-08-01

    The full-length cDNA of a Na(+) -dependent Pi transport gene (DsSPT1) in Dunaliella salina was cloned by 3' and 5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding 716 predicted amino acids, which exhibited 60.5% identity to that of Na(+) -dependent Pi transport 1 (DvSPT1) from Dunaliella viridis. Hydrophobicity and secondary structure prediction revealed 11 conserved transmembrane domains similar to those found in DvSPT1 from D. viridis and PHO89 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The result of real-time quantitative PCR showed that expression level of DsSPT1 was enhanced at first and reached its peak at 90 min after salt stress; however, D. salina cells rapidly absorbed extracellular inorganic phosphorus which was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) during the first 5 min under salt stress. It suggested that D. salina on the absorption of inorganic phosphorus was regulated at DsSPTI posttranslational level. PMID:22052620

  8. In vivo NMR metabolic profiling of Fabrea salina reveals sequential defense mechanisms against ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Roberto; Paris, Debora; Melck, Dominique; Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Colombetti, Giuliano; Motta, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Fabrea salina is a hypersaline ciliate that is known to be among the strongest ultraviolet (UV)-resistant microorganisms; however, the molecular mechanisms of this resistance are almost unknown. By means of in vivo NMR spectroscopy, we determined the metabolic profile of living F. salina cells exposed to visible light and to polychromatic UV-B + UV-A + Vis radiation for several different exposure times. We used unsupervised pattern-recognition analysis to compare these profiles and discovered some metabolites whose concentration changed specifically upon UV exposure and in a dose-dependent manner. This variation was interpreted in terms of a two-phase cell reaction involving at least two different pathways: an early response consisting of degradation processes, followed by a late response activating osmoprotection mechanisms. The first step alters the concentration of formate, acetate, and saturated fatty-acid metabolites, whereas the osmoprotection modifies the activity of betaine moieties and other functionally related metabolites. In the latter pathway, alanine, proline, and sugars suggest a possible incipient protein synthesis as defense and/or degeneration mechanisms. We conclude that NMR spectroscopy on in vivo cells is an optimal approach for investigating the effect of UV-induced stress on the whole metabolome of F. salina because it minimizes the invasiveness of the measurement. PMID:21190674

  9. Treatment of cutaneous larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Caumes, E

    2000-05-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans caused by the larvae of animal hookworms is the most frequent skin disease among travelers returning from tropical countries. Complications (impetigo and allergic reactions), together with the intense pruritus and the significant duration of the disease, make treatment mandatory. Freezing the leading edge of the skin track rarely works. Topical treatment of the affected area with 10%-15% thiabendazole solution or ointment has limited value for multiple lesions and hookworm folliculitis, and requires applications 3 times a day for at least 15 days. Oral thiabendazole is poorly effective when given as a single dose (cure rate, 68%-84%) and is less well tolerated than either albendazole or ivermectin. Treatment with a single 400-mg oral dose of albendazole gives cure rates of 46%-100%; a single 12-mg oral dose of ivermectin gives cure rates of 81%-100%. PMID:10816151

  10. How the pilidium larva grows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For animal cells, ciliation and mitosis appear to be mutually exclusive. While uniciliated cells can resorb their cilium to undergo mitosis, multiciliated cells apparently can never divide again. Nevertheless, many multiciliated epithelia in animals must grow or undergo renewal. The larval epidermis in a number of marine invertebrate larvae, such as those of annelids, mollusks and nemerteans, consists wholly or in part of multiciliated epithelial cells, generally organized into a swimming and feeding apparatus. Many of these larvae must grow substantially to reach metamorphosis. Do individual epithelial cells simply expand to accommodate an increase in body size, or are there dividing cells amongst them? If some cells divide, where are they located? Results We show that the nemertean pilidium larva, which is almost entirely composed of multiciliated cells, retains pockets of proliferative cells in certain regions of the body. Most of these are found near the larval ciliated band in the recesses between the larval lobes and lappets, which we refer to as axils. Cells in the axils contribute both to the growing larval body and to the imaginal discs that form the juvenile worm inside the pilidium. Conclusions Our findings not only explain how the almost-entirely multiciliated pilidium can grow, but also demonstrate direct coupling of larval and juvenile growth in a maximally-indirect life history. PMID:24690541

  11. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Dunaliella (Chlorophyta) from Indian salinas and their diversity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Dunaliella (Class – Chlorophyceae) is widely studied for its tolerance to extreme habitat conditions, physiological aspects and many biotechnological applications, such as a source of carotenoids and many other bioactive compounds. Biochemical and molecular characterization is very much essential to fully explore the properties and possibilities of the new isolates of Dunaliella. In India, hyper saline lakes and salt pans were reported to bloom with Dunaliella spp. However, except for the economically important D. salina, other species are rarely characterized taxonomically from India. Present study was conducted to describe Dunaliella strains from Indian salinas using a combined morphological, physiological and molecular approach with an aim to have a better understanding on the taxonomy and diversity of this genus from India. Results Comparative phenotypic and genetic studies revealed high level of diversity within the Indian Dunaliella isolates. Species level identification using morphological characteristics clearly delineated two strains of D. salina with considerable β-carotene content (>20 pg/cell). The variation in 18S rRNA gene size, amplified with MA1-MA2 primers, ranged between ~1800 and ~2650 base pairs, and together with the phylogeny based on ITS gene sequence provided a pattern, forming five different groups within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Superficial congruency was observed between ITS and rbcL gene phylogenetic trees with consistent formation of major clades separating Indian isolates into two distinct clusters, one with D. salina and allied strains, and another one with D. viridis and allied strains. Further in both the trees, few isolates showed high level of genetic divergence than reported previously for Dunaliella spp. This indicates the scope of more numbers of clearly defined/unidentified species/sub-species within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Conclusion Present work illustrates Indian Dunaliella strains

  12. Quorum Sensing-Disrupting Brominated Furanones Protect the Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana from Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates†

    PubMed Central

    Defoirdt, Tom; Crab, Roselien; Wood, Thomas K.; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests. PMID:16957276

  13. Comparative Analysis on the Key Enzymes of the Glycerol Cycle Metabolic Pathway in Dunaliella salina under Osmotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    The glycerol metabolic pathway is a special cycle way; glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh), glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase (G3pp), dihydroxyacetone reductase (Dhar), and dihydroxyacetone kinase (Dhak) are the key enzymes around the pathway. Glycerol is an important osmolyte for Dunaliella salina to resist osmotic stress. In this study, comparative activities of the four enzymes in D. salina and their activity changes under various salt stresses were investigated, from which glycerol metabolic flow direction in the glycerol metabolic pathway was estimated. Results showed that the salinity changes had different effects on the enzymes activities. NaCl could stimulate the activities of all the four enzymes in various degrees when D. salina was grown under continuous salt stress. When treated by hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic shock, only the activity of G3pdh in D. salina was significantly stimulated. It was speculated that, under osmotic stresses, the emergency response of the cycle pathway in D. salina was driven by G3pdh via its response to the osmotic stress. Subsequently, with the changes of salinity, other three enzymes started to respond to osmotic stress. Dhar played a role of balancing the cycle metabolic pathway by its forward and backward reactions. Through synergy, the four enzymes worked together for the effective flow of the cycle metabolic pathways to maintain the glycerol requirements of cells in order to adapt to osmotic stress environments. PMID:22675484

  14. Intracellular localization of group 3 LEA proteins in embryos of Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Leaf C; Hand, Steven C

    2014-12-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are accumulated by anhydrobiotic organisms in response to desiccation and improve survivorship during water stress. In this study we provide the first direct evidence for the subcellular localizations of AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m (and its subforms) in anhydrobiotic embryos of Artemia franciscana. Immunohistochemistry shows AfrLEA2 to reside in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and the four AfrLEA3m proteins to be localized to the mitochondrion. Cellular locations are supported by Western blots of mitochondrial, nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. The presence of LEA proteins in multiple subcellular compartments of A. franciscana embryos suggests the need to protect biological structures in many areas of a cell in order for an organism to survive desiccation stress, and may explain in part why a multitude of different LEA proteins are expressed by a single organism. PMID:25311474

  15. Aerobic heat shock activates trehalose synthesis in embryos of Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Clegg, J S; Jackson, S A

    1992-05-25

    Encysted embryos (cysts) of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, contain large amounts of trehalose which they use as a major substrate for energy metabolism and biosynthesis for development under aerobic conditions at 25 degrees C. When cysts are placed at 42 degrees C (heat shock) these pathways stop, and the cysts re-synthesize the trehalose that was utilized during the previous incubation at 25 degrees C. Glycogen and glycerol, produced from trehalose at 25 degrees C, appear to be substrates for trehalose synthesis during heat shock. Anoxia prevents trehalose synthesis in cysts undergoing heat shock. These results are consistent with the view that trehalose may play a protective role in cells exposed to heat shock, and other environmental insults, in addition to being a storage form of energy and organic carbon for development. PMID:1592115

  16. Sharp Phylogeographic Breaks and Patterns of Genealogical Concordance in the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    Maniatsi, Stefania; Kappas, Ilias; Baxevanis, Athanasios D.; Farmaki, Theodora; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J.

    2009-01-01

    Genealogical concordance is a critical overlay of all phylogenetic analyses, irrespective of taxonomic level. To assess such patterns of congruence we have compiled and derived sequence data for two mitochondrial (16S rRNA, COI) and two nuclear (ITS1, p26) markers in 14 American populations of the hypersaline branchiopod Artemia franciscana. Cladistic analysis revealed three reciprocally monophyletic mitochondrial clades. For nuclear DNA, incomplete lineage sorting was evident presumably as a result of slower coalescence or male-mediated dispersal. Our findings capture the genealogical interval between gene splitting and population divergence. In this sense, strong indications are provided in favour of a superspecies status and ongoing speciation in A. franciscana. PMID:20054480

  17. The nature and origin of chemical shift for intracellular water nuclei in artemia cysts.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, S R; Hazlewood, C F; Yamanashi, W S; Dennis, L W

    1987-08-01

    We investigated the possible existence of chemical shift of water nuclei in Artemia cysts using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. The results conducted at 60, 200, and 500 MHz revealed an unusually large chemical shift for intracellular water protons. After correcting for bulk susceptibility effects, a residual downfield chemical shift of 0.11 ppm was observed in fully hydrated cysts. Similar results have been observed for the deuterium and (17)O nuclei.We have ruled out unusual intracellular pH, diamagnetic susceptibility of intracellular water, or interaction of water molecules with lipids, glycerol, and/or trehalose as possible origins of the residual chemical shift. We conclude that the residual chemical shift observed for water nuclei ((1)H, (2)H, and (17)O) is due to significant water-macromolecular interactions. PMID:19431702

  18. Genetic variation in parthenogenetic Artemia from the Shandong Peninsula, P.R.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Charles E.; Zhao, Yuqi; Liu, Xin; Li, Mingren

    1988-06-01

    Results are presented of a survey of isozyme frequencies in parthenogenetic Artimia from six salterns in the Shandong Peninsula, P.R.C. Three of the eleven enzymes we scored using polyacryamide gel electrophoresis proved to be useful for analysis of electromorph frequency variation. These enzymes are tetrazolium oxidase (TO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). Each of these systems showed extensive isozyme variation both within and between salterns. In addition, we have examined the possibility that electromorph frequencies may vary as the result of natural selection for adaptation to specific salinity, or salinity-associated environmental conditions. An indication of clinal variation was found in two series of ponds differing in salinity, however more extensive data are needed before it is possible to conclude that these patterns are the result of natural selection. Finally, the use of isozyme analyses such as ours, for unraveling taxonomic problems in Artemia is discussed.

  19. Interactive effect of selenium and mercury on development and mortality of brine shrimp, Artemia sp.

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, B.L. II; Bailey, F.C.; Klaine, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    The interactions between organic mercury and selenium derivatives are well documented. Inorganic mercury has been shown to have a deleterious effect on the development of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana while selenate has no effect. In this study, concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/l Hg (as Hg(NO{sub 3})2) slowed the rate of development. Selenate concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 mg/l as Se decreased the effect of Hg on brine shrimp developmental rate. Both selenate and inorganic mercury alone produced a dose-response with respect to nauplii mortality. Preliminary data suggest that combinations of selenate and inorganic mercury act antagonistically to lower this mortality.

  20. Can Artemia Hatching Assay Be a (Sensitive) Alternative Tool to Acute Toxicity Test?

    PubMed

    Rotini, A; Manfra, L; Canepa, S; Tornambè, A; Migliore, L

    2015-12-01

    Artemia sp. is extensively used in ecotoxicity testing, despite criticisms inherent to both acute and long-term tests. Alternative endpoints and procedures should be considered to support the use of this biological model. The hatching process comprises several developmental steps and the cyst hatchability seems acceptable as endpoint criterion. In this study, we assessed the reliability of the hatching assay on A. franciscana by comparing with acute and long-term mortality tests, using two chemicals: Diethylene Glycol (DEG), Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS). Both DEG and SDS tests demonstrated a dose dependent hatching inhibition. The hatching test resulted more sensitive than acute mortality test and less sensitive than the long-term one. Results demonstrate the reliability and high sensitivity of this hatching assay on a short time lag and support its useful application in first-tier risk assessment procedures. PMID:26245451

  1. Biology of Paenibacillus larvae, a deadly pathogen of honey bee larvae.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Julia; Knispel, Henriette; Hertlein, Gillian; Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke

    2016-09-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees, a notifiable disease in many countries. Hence, P. larvae can be considered as an entomopathogen of considerable relevance in veterinary medicine. P. larvae is a highly specialized pathogen with only one established host, the honey bee larva. No other natural environment supporting germination and proliferation of P. larvae is known. Over the last decade, tremendous progress in the understanding of P. larvae and its interactions with honey bee larvae at a molecular level has been made. In this review, we will present the recent highlights and developments in P. larvae research and discuss the impact of some of the findings in a broader context to demonstrate what we can learn from studying "exotic" pathogens. PMID:27394713

  2. Intracellular water in Artemia cysts (brine shrimp): Investigations by deuterium and oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, S R; Seitz, P K; Chang, D C; Hazlewood, C F

    1990-08-01

    The dormant cysts of Artemia undergo cycles of hydration-dehydration without losing viability. Therefore, Artemia cysts serve as an excellent intact cellular system for studying the dynamics of water-protein interactions as a function of hydration. Deuterium spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation times of water in cysts hydrated with D(2)O have been measured for hydrations between 1.5 and 0.1 g of D(2)O per gram of dry solids. When the relaxation rates (I/T(1), I/T(2)) of (2)H and (17)O are plotted as a function of the reciprocal of hydration (1/H), an abrupt change in slope is observed near 0.6 g of D(2)O (or H(2) (17)O)/gram of dry solids, the hydration at which conventional metabolism is activated in this system. The results have been discussed in terms of the two-site and multisite exchange models for the water-protein interaction as well as protein dynamics models. The (2)H and (17)O relaxation rates as a function of hydration show striking similarities to those observed for anisotropic motion of water molecules in protein crystals.It is suggested here that although the simple two-site exchange model or n-site exchange model could be used to explain our data at high hydration levels, such models are not adequate at low hydration levels (<0.6 g H(2)O/g) where several complex interactions between water and proteins play a predominant role in the relaxation of water nuclei. We further suggest that the abrupt change in the slope of I/T(1) as a function of hydration in the vicinity of 0.6 g H(2)O/g is due to a change in water-protein interactions resulting from a variation in the dynamics of protein motion. PMID:19431762

  3. A gene catalogue for post-diapause development of an anhydrobiotic arthropod Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wie-Hua; Ge, Xiaomeng; Wang, Weiwei; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian

    2009-01-01

    Background Diapause is a reversible state of developmental suspension and found among diverse taxa, from plants to animals, including marsupials and some other mammals. Although previous work has accumulated ample data, the molecular mechanism underlying diapause and reactivation from it remain elusive. Results Using Artemia franciscana, a model organism to study the development of post-diapause embryos in Arthropod, we sequenced random clones up to a total of 28,039 ESTs from four cDNA libraries made from dehydrated cysts and three time points after rehydration/reactivation, which were assembled into 8,018 unigene clusters. We identified 324 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs, P < 0.05) based on pairwise comparisons of the four cDNA libraries. We identified a group of genes that are involved in an anti-water-deficit system, including proteases, protease inhibitors, heat shock proteins, and several novel members of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family. In addition, we classified most of the up-regulated genes after cyst reactivation into metabolism, biosynthesis, transcription, and translation, and this result is consistent with the rapid development of the embryo. Some of the specific expressions of DEGs were confirmed experimentally based on quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusion We found that the first 5-hour period after rehydration is most important for embryonic reactivation of Artemia. As the total number of expressed genes increases significantly, the majority of DEGs were also identified in this period, including a group of water-deficient-induced genes. A group of genes with similar functions have been described in plant seeds; for instance, one of the novel LEA members shares ~70% amino-acid identity with an Arabidopsis EM (embryonic abundant) protein, the closest animal relative to plant LEA families identified thus far. Our findings also suggested that not only nutrition, but also mRNAs are produced and stored during cyst formation to

  4. Maladaptive Sex Ratio Adjustment in the Invasive Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Eva J P; Henriques, Gil J B; Michalakis, Yannis; Lenormand, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Sex allocation theory is often hailed as the most successful area of evolutionary theory due to its striking success as a predictor of empirical observations [1]. Most naturally occurring sex ratios can be explained by the principle of equal investment in the sexes [2-4] or by cases of "extraordinary" sex allocation [5]. Deviations from the expected sex ratio are often correlated with weak selection or low environmental predictability (e.g., [6, 7]); true cases of aberrant sex allocation are surprisingly rare [8]. Here, we present a case of long-lasting maladaptive sex allocation, which we discovered in invasive populations of the exclusively sexual brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. A. franciscana was introduced to Southern France roughly 500 generations ago [9]; since then, it has coexisted with the native asexual species Artemia parthenogenetica [10]. Although we expect A. franciscana to produce balanced offspring sex ratios, we regularly observed extremely male-biased sex ratios in invasive A. franciscana, which were significantly correlated to the proportion of asexuals in the overall population. We experimentally proved that both invasive- and native-range A. franciscana overproduced sons when exposed to excess females, without distinguishing between conspecific and asexual females. We conclude that A. franciscana adjust their offspring sex ratio in function of the adult sex ratio but are information limited in the presence of asexual females. Their facultative adjustment trait, which is presumably adaptive in their native range, has thus become maladaptive in the invasive range where asexuals occur. Despite this, it has persisted unchanged for hundreds of generations. PMID:27185556

  5. Effects of salinity and ultraviolet radiation on the bioaccumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids in Artemia from Lake Urmia (Iran).

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Khodabandeh, Saber; Agh, Naser; Bakhtiarian, Mahdieh

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of salinity and artificial UV radiation on the accumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in sexual and parthenogenetic Artemia from Lake Urmia. The nauplii hatched from the cysts were cultured until adulthood under two salinities (150 and 250 g L(-1) ) and two light treatments (PAR and PAR+UVR) in the laboratory. Finally, the Artemia were analyzed for their concentration of MAAs. In most of the cases, the higher salinity level applied was found to increase the MAA concentrations in both Artemia populations significantly. The acquisition efficiency of MAAs in both Artemia populations increased under exposure to UVR-supplemented photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) compared to those raised under PAR, except for Porphyra-334. It was observed that combination of UV radiation and elevated salinity significantly increased the bioaccumulation of MAAs. Thus, the presence of these compounds in these populations of Artemia may increase their adaptability for living in high-UV and high-salinity conditions prevailing in Lake Urmia. Higher concentrations of MAAs in the parthenogenetic population of Artemia could be probably attributed to its mono sex nature and higher adaptation capacities to extreme environmental conditions. PMID:22998644

  6. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Rist, Anna; Thum, Andreas S.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances. PMID:26528147

  7. Single stimulus learning in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    O'Neale, Ashley; Ellis, Joseph; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M

    2014-02-01

    Learning about a moving visual stimulus was examined in zebrafish larvae using an automated imaging system and a t1-t2 design. In three experiments, zebrafish larvae were exposed to one of two inputs at t1 (either a gray bouncing disk or an identical but stationary disk) followed by a common test at t2 (the gray bouncing disk). Using 7days post-fertilization (dpf) larvae and 12 stimulus exposures, Experiment 1 established that these different treatments produced differential responding to the moving disk during testing. Larvae familiar with the moving test stimulus were significantly less likely to be still in its presence than larvae that had been exposed to the identical but stationary stimulus. Experiment 2 confirmed this result in 7dpf larvae and extended the finding to 5 and 6dpf larvae. Experiment 3 found differential responding to the moving test stimulus with 4 or 8 stimulus exposures but not with just one exposure in 7dpf larvae. These results provide evidence for learning in very young zebrafish larvae. The merits and challenges of the t1-t2 framework to study learning are discussed. PMID:24012906

  8. Metalloprotease production by Paenibacillus larvae during the infection of honeybee larvae.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; Arredondo, Daniela; Anido, Matilde; Zunino, Pablo

    2011-05-01

    American foulbrood is a bacterial disease of worldwide distribution that affects larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The causative agent is the Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Several authors have proposed that P. larvae secretes metalloproteases that are involved in the larval degradation that occurs after infection. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the production of a metalloprotease by P. larvae during larval infection. First, the complete gene encoding a metalloprotease was identified in the P. larvae genome and its distribution was evaluated by PCR in a collection of P. larvae isolates from different geographical regions. Then, the complete gene was amplified, cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant metalloprotease was purified and used to generate anti-metalloprotease antibodies. Metalloprotease production was evaluated by immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The gene encoding a P. larvae metalloprotease was widely distributed in isolates from different geographical origins in Uruguay and Argentina. Metalloprotease was detected inside P. larvae vegetative cells, on the surface of P. larvae spores and secreted to the external growth medium. Its production was also confirmed in vivo, during the infection of honeybee larvae. This protein was able to hydrolyse milk proteins as described for P. larvae, suggesting that could be involved in larval degradation. This work contributes to the knowledge of the pathogenicity mechanisms of a bacterium of great economic significance and is one step in the characterization of potential P. larvae virulence factors. PMID:21330433

  9. A century of plant virus management in the Salinas valley of California, 'East of Eden'.

    PubMed

    Wisler, G C; Duffus, J E

    2000-11-01

    The mild climate of the Salinas Valley, CA lends itself well to a diverse agricultural industry. However, the diversity of weeds, crops and insect and fungal vectors also provide favorable conditions for plant virus disease development. This paper considers the incidence and management of several plant viruses that have caused serious epidemics and been significant in the agricultural development of the Salinas Valley during the 20th century. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) almost destroyed the newly established sugarbeet industry soon after its establishment in the 1870s. A combination of resistant varieties, cultural management of beet crops to provide early plant emergence and development, and a highly coordinated beet leafhopper vector scouting and spray programme have achieved adequate control of BCTV. These programmes were first developed by the USDA and still operate. Lettuce mosaic virus was first recognized as causing a serious disease of lettuce crops in the 1930s. The virus is still a threat but it is controlled by a lettuce-free period in December and a seed certification programme that allows only seed lots with less than one infected seed in 30000 to be grown. 'Virus Yellows' is a term used to describe a complex of yellows inducing viruses which affect mainly sugarbeet and lettuce. These viruses include Beet yellows virus and Beet western yellows virus. During the 1950s, the complex caused significant yield losses to susceptible crops in the Salinas Valley. A beet-free period was introduced and is still used for control. The fungus-borne rhizomania disease of sugarbeet caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was first detected in Salinas Valley in 1983. Assumed to have been introduced from Europe, this virus has now become widespread in California wherever beets are grown and crop losses can be as high as 100%. Movement of infested soil and beets accounts for its spread throughout the beet-growing regions of the United States. Control of rhizomania

  10. Ganzfeld ERG in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Mathias W; Rilk, Albrecht; Neuhauss, Stephan C F

    2002-01-01

    In developmental biology, zebrafish are widely used to study the impact of mutations. The fast pace of development allows for a definitive morphological evaluation of the phenotype usually 5 days post fertilization (dpf). At that age, a functional analysis is already feasible using electroretinographic (ERG) methods. Corneal Ganzfeld ERGs were recorded with a glass microelectrode in anaesthetized, dark-adapted larvae aged 5 dpf, using a platinum wire beneath a moist paper towel as reference. ERG protocols included flash, flicker, and ON/OFF stimuli, both under scotopic and photopic conditions. Repetitive, isoluminant stimuli were used to assess the dynamic effect of pharmacological agents on the ERG. Single flash, flicker, and ON/OFF responses had adequately matured at this point to be informative. Typical signs of the cone dominance were the small scotopic a-wave and the large OFF responses. The analysis of consecutive single traces was possible because of the lack of EKG, breathing, and blink artefacts. After application of APB, which selectively blocks the ON channel via the mGluR6 receptor, the successive loss of the b-wave could be observed, which was quite different from the deterioration of the ERG after a circulatory arrest. The above techniques allowed to reliably obtain Ganzfeld ERGs in larvae aged 5 dpf. This underlines the important role of the zebrafish as a model for the functional analysis of mutations disrupting the visual system. PMID:11949809

  11. Lipid Production by Dunaliella salina in Batch Culture: Effects of Nitrogen Limitation and Light Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Weldy, Chad S.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing and will cause unknown deleterious environmental effects if left unchecked. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted in its latest report a 2ºC to 4ºC increase in global temperatures even with the strictest CO2 mitigation practices. Global warming can be attributed to in large part to the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels, as the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is directly related to the burning of fossil fuels. Biofuels which do not add CO2 to the atmosphere are presently generated primarily from terrestrial plants, i.e., ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybean oil. The production of biofuels from terrestrial plants is severely limited by the availability of fertile land. Lipid production from microalgae and its corresponding biodiesel production have been studied since the late 1970’s but large scale production was determined to be economically unfeasible due to the large costs of sterile growing conditions required for many algal species. This study focuses on the potential to use the halophilic microalgae species Dunaliella salina as a source of lipids and subsequently for biodiesel production. The lipid production rates were compared for D. salina cultured in replicate photobioreactors under high light and low light as well as nitrogen sufficient and nitrogen deficient culture conditions. The results show (a) cellular lipid content ranging from 16 to 44% (wt), (b) a maximum culture lipid concentration of 450 mg lipid/L, and (c) a maximum integrated lipid production rate of 46 mg lipid/L culture*day. The high amount of lipids produced suggests that D. salina, which can be mass-cultured in non-sterile outdoor ponds, has a strong potential to be an economically valuable source for renewable oil and biodiesel production.

  12. LIPID PRODUCTION BY DUNALIELLA SALINA IN BATCH CULTURE: EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LIMITATION AND LIGHT INTENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Weldy, C.S.; Huesemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing and may cause unknown deleterious environmental effects if left unchecked. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted in its latest report a 2°C to 4°C increase in global temperatures even with the strictest CO2 mitigation practices. Global warming can be attributed in large part to the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels, as the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is directly related to the burning of fossil fuels. Biofuels which do not add CO2 to the atmosphere are presently generated primarily from terrestrial plants, i.e., ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybean oil. The production of biofuels from terrestrial plants is severely limited by the availability of fertile land. Lipid production from microalgae and its corresponding biodiesel production have been studied since the late 1970s but large scale production has remained economically infeasible due to the large costs of sterile growing conditions required for many algal species. This study focuses on the potential of the halophilic microalgae species Dunaliella salina as a source of lipids and subsequent biodiesel production. The lipid production rates under high light and low light as well as nitrogen suffi cient and nitrogen defi cient culture conditions were compared for D. salina cultured in replicate photobioreactors. The results show (a) cellular lipid content ranging from 16 to 44% (wt), (b) a maximum culture lipid concentration of 450mg lipid/L, and (c) a maximum integrated lipid production rate of 46mg lipid/L culture*day. The high amount of lipids produced suggests that D. salina, which can be mass-cultured in non-sterile outdoor ponds, has strong potential to be an economically valuable source for renewable oil and biodiesel production.

  13. Depositional and subrosional Salina halite-bed terminations in northeastern Ohio are structurally controlled

    SciTech Connect

    Coogan, A.H.; Peng, S. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    Halite bed-bearing Silurian Salina Group units B through F-4 occur in the subsurface of northeastern Ohio where they have been restudied in a five county (Ashtabula, Geauga, Lake, Portage, Trumbull) area of the eastern interior salt basin at the edge of the Appalachian Basin. Three major factors affect the distributional pattern of the salts. First is the underlying topography, especially the presence of thick (reef-like) Lockport Dolomite over a basement gravity and magnetic high on the west side of the study area. Second is the preferential subsidence along fault zones which bound the depositional limits of some salts, for example the southern B salt edge at the Suffield Fault Zone. Third is the patterned removal of salt in the subsurface in northeast Ashtabula County along northwest trending fault zones. The F-2, F-1 and D salts progressively disappear to the northeast in Ashtabula County, toward Lake Erie and the Pennsylvania border in northwest trending bands which coincide with identified lineaments in adjacent Pennsylvania, e.g. the Home-Gallizen lineament or are subparallel to it and similar ones e.g. the Blaisville-Broad Top and Tyrone-Mount Union lineaments. The cause of the progressively deeper removal of halite beds from the Salina F-2, F-1, D and B units can be attributed to fresh or brackish water influx and subrosion below the sub-Oriskany (Acadian) unconformity. No salt beds are found shallower than 300 feet below the Oriskany horizon base. It appears that maps of Salina salt beds reflect penecontemporaneous Paleozoic structural (hence topographic) features and hydrologic regimes.

  14. Species-specific RFLP pattern in the Heat Shock Protein26 gene (Hsp26): a single-locus tool for species identification and experimental testing of habitat-induced isolation in the New World Artemia species.

    PubMed

    Beristain, P; Gajardo, G; Bossier, P

    2010-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda), a paradigmatic inhabitant of hypersaline lakes, has molecular features to survive under stressful conditions, such as the p26 heat shock protein. We report the RFLP fingerprinting pattern (four restriction enzymes) of a 217 bp fragment of exon2 of the Hsp26 gene in six Artemia franciscana and four Artemia persimilis populations, the most genetically divergent Artemia species co-occurring in latitudinal extremes of Chile. The species-specific RFLP pattern observed is a simple and cost-effective single-locus tool for species delimitation and experimental testing the habitat-induced isolation barrier between them. PMID:21565017

  15. Map of the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones, Salinas River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, Lewis I.; Clark, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    The Rinconada Fault and its related faults constitute a major structural element of the Salinas River valley, which is known regionally, and referred to herein, as the 'Salinas Valley'. The Rinconada Fault extends 230 km from King City in the north to the Big Pine Fault in the south. At the south end of the map area near Santa Margarita, the Rinconada Fault separates granitic and metamorphic crystalline rocks of the Salinian Block to the northeast from the subduction-zone assemblage of the Franciscan Complex to the southwest. Northwestward, the Rinconada Fault lies entirely within the Salinian Block and generally divides this region into two physiographically and structurally distinct areas, the Santa Lucia Range to the west and the Salinas Valley to the east. The Reliz Fault, which continues as a right stepover from the Rinconada Fault, trends northwestward along the northeastern base of the Sierra de Salinas of the Santa Lucia Range and beyond for 60 km to the vicinity of Spreckels, where it is largely concealed. Aeromagnetic data suggest that the Reliz Fault continues northwestward another 25 km into Monterey Bay, where it aligns with a high-definition magnetic boundary. Geomorphic evidence of late Quaternary movement along the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones has been documented by Tinsley (1975), Dibblee (1976, 1979), Hart (1976, 1985), and Klaus (1999). Although definitive geologic evidence of Holocene surface rupture has not been found on these faults, they were regarded as an earthquake source for the California Geological Survey [formerly, California Division of Mines and Geology]/U.S. Geological Survey (CGS/USGS) Probabilistic Seismic Hazards Assessment because of their postulated slip rate of 1+-1 mm/yr and their calculated maximum magnitude of 7.3. Except for published reports by Durham (1965, 1974), Dibblee (1976), and Hart (1976), most information on these faults is unpublished or is contained in theses, field trip guides, and other types of reports

  16. Valorization of the aqueous phase obtained from hydrothermally treated Dunaliella salina remnant biomass.

    PubMed

    Pirwitz, Kristin; Rihko-Struckmann, Liisa; Sundmacher, Kai

    2016-11-01

    Up to 90% of Dunaliella salina biomass remains unused after extraction of the main product β-carotene. The potential of mild hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) to exploit this biomass as a source of valuable by-products was assessed. The results indicate that 80% of the remnant was converted into glucose by mild HTL (100°C, 0min). The recovered glucose was successfully used as a carbon source to cultivate biotechnologically relevant microorganisms, namely Chlorella vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, the analysis of energy demand and operating costs confirms the beneficial effect of mild liquefaction on the overall process economics of algal β-carotene production. PMID:27475332

  17. Changes in ultrastructure and responses of antioxidant systems of algae (Dunaliella salina) during acclimation to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiyuan; Yu, Juan

    2009-12-01

    Because of depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, levels of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm), which penetrates the water column to an ecologically-significant depth, are increasing. In order to assess changes in ultrastructure and responses of antioxidant systems of algae during acclimation to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation, Dunaliella salina was treated with higher dose of UV-B radiation (13.2 kJm(-2) d(-1) dose) in this study. As compared to the control panel (8.8 kJm(-2) d(-1)), the treatment D. salina had many changes in ultrastructures: (1) thylakoids became swelled, and some of them penetrated into the pyrenoid; (2) lipid globules accumulated; (3) the amounts of starch grains increased; (4) cristae of mitochondria disintegrated; (5) inclusions in vacuoles reduced; and (6) cisternae of Golgi dictyosomes became loose and swollen. Enhanced UV-B irradiation also induced different responses of the antioxidant systems in D. salina: (1) contents of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reacting substance) and H(2)O(2) increased significantly (p<0.05); (2) levels of MAAs (mycosporine-like amino acids) increased at the beginning and subsequently decreased, and finally they leveled off at lower values; (3) there were not apparent variations for carotenoid contents, and contents of chlorophyll a presented a trend of initial increase and ultimate decrease; (4) both ascorbate and glutathione contents increased significantly (p<0.05); and (5) for the enzyme activities, POD activities increased remarkably (p<0.05), and SOD activities declined apparently (p<0.05), and CAT activity in D. salina had slight variations (p>0.05). In addition, growth curve displayed that enhanced UV-B radiation prominently inhibited increase of cell concentration when compared with control panel (p<0.05). Our results indicated that enhanced UV-B radiation caused ultrastructural changes of D. salina and induced different responses of antioxidant systems in D. salina. PMID:19818642

  18. Characterization of PHB1 and Its Role in Mitochondrial Maturation and Yolk Platelet Degradation during Development of Artemia Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiang; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Ling-Ling; Sun, Yu-Xia; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background To cope with harsh environments, crustaceans such as Artemia produce diapause gastrula embryos (cysts) with suppressed metabolism. Metabolism and development resume during post-diapause development, but the mechanism behind these cellular events remains largely unknown. Principal Finding Our study investigated the role of prohibitin 1 (PHB1) in metabolic reinitiation during post-diapause development. We found that PHB1 was developmentally regulated via changes in phosphorylation status and localization. Results from RNA interference experiments demonstrated PHB1 to be critical for mitochondrial maturation and yolk degradation during development. In addition, PHB1 was present in yolk platelets, and it underwent ubiquitin-mediated degradation during the proteolysis of yolk protein. Conclusions/Significance PHB1 has an indispensable role in coordinating mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development in Artemia. This novel function of PHB1 provides new clues to comprehend the roles of PHB1 in metabolism and development. PMID:25310573

  19. Results on artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds in the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubin, Y.; Planel, H.; Gasset, G.; Pianezzi, B.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of space flight factors, in particular the heavy ion component of cosmic rays, on dormant stages of life forms were investigated as part of the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Cosmos 1129 biosatellite. Artemia cysts and seeds of tobacco and lettuce plants were placed in tubes and in monolayers sandwiched between layers of visual particle track detectors. Although Artemia cysts exposed in the dry state did not differ from ground controls, hydrated cysts exhibited a slight decrease in hatchability and reduced (C-14)O2 incorporation and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. For cysts held in the monolayers, hits by HZE particles were observed to stimulate emergence, hatching and survival. Higher proportions of chromosomal aberrations were found in lettuce seeds hit by HZE particles, while space flight produced a stimulatory effect on both germination rate and abnormality frequency in both hit and nonhit tobacco seeds. 9 references.

  20. Study of model systems to test the potential function of Artemia group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins.

    PubMed

    Warner, Alden H; Guo, Zhi-hao; Moshi, Sandra; Hudson, John W; Kozarova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, are genetically programmed to develop either ovoviparously or oviparously depending on environmental conditions. Shortly upon their release from the female, oviparous embryos enter diapause during which time they undergo major metabolic rate depression while simultaneously synthesize proteins that permit them to tolerate a wide range of stressful environmental events including prolonged periods of desiccation, freezing, and anoxia. Among the known stress-related proteins that accumulate in embryos entering diapause are the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. This large group of intrinsically disordered proteins has been proposed to act as molecular shields or chaperones of macromolecules which are otherwise intolerant to harsh conditions associated with diapause. In this research, we used two model systems to study the potential function of the group 1 LEA proteins from Artemia. Expression of the Artemia group 1 gene (AfrLEA-1) in Escherichia coli inhibited growth in proportion to the number of 20-mer amino acid motifs expressed. As well, clones of E. coli, transformed with the AfrLEA-1 gene, expressed multiple bands of LEA proteins, either intrinsically or upon induction with isopropyl-β-thiogalactoside (IPTG), in a vector-specific manner. Expression of AfrLEA-1 in E. coli did not overcome the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of NaCl and KCl but modulated growth inhibition resulting from high concentrations of sorbitol in the growth medium. In contrast, expression of the AfrLEA-1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not alter the growth kinetics or permit yeast to tolerate high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, or sorbitol. However, expression of AfrLEA-1 in yeast improved its tolerance to drying (desiccation) and freezing. Under our experimental conditions, both E. coli and S. cerevisiae appear to be potentially suitable hosts to study the function of Artemia group 1 LEA proteins under environmentally

  1. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  2. Multiple {gamma}-glutamylation: A novel type of post-translational modification in a diapausing Artemia cyst protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Mai; Ikeda, Yuka; Kanzawa, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Mika; Goto, Mina; Tsunasawa, Susumu; Uchiumi, Toshio; Odani, Shoji

    2010-03-26

    A highly hydrophilic, glutamate-rich protein was identified in the aqueous phenol extract from the cytosolic fraction of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) diapausing cysts and termed Artemia phenol soluble protein (PSP). Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many protein peaks around m/z 11,000, separated by 129 atomic mass units; this value corresponds to that of glutamate, which is strongly suggestive of heterogeneous polyglutamylation. Polyglutamylation has long been known as the functionally important post-translational modification of tubulins, which carry poly(L-glutamic acid) chains of heterogeneous length branching off from the main chain at the {gamma}-carboxy groups of a few specific glutamate residues. In Artemia PSP, however, Edman degradation of enzymatic peptides revealed that at least 13, and presumably 16, glutamate residues were modified by the attachment of a single L-glutamate, representing a hitherto undescribed type of post-translational modification: namely, multiple {gamma}-glutamylation or the addition of a large number of glutamate residues along the polypeptide chain. Although biological significance of PSP and its modification is yet to be established, suppression of in vitro thermal aggregation of lactate dehydrogenase by glutamylated PSP was observed.

  3. Salt sensitivity of the morphometry of Artemia franciscana during development: a demonstration of 3D critical windows.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Casey A; Willis, Eric; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-02-01

    A 3D conceptual framework of 'critical windows' was used to examine whether the morphometry of Artemia franciscana is altered by salinity exposure during certain key periods of development. Artemia franciscana were hatched at 20 ppt (designated control salinity) and were then exposed to 10, 30, 40 or 50 ppt either chronically (days 1-15) or only on days 1-6, 7-9, 10-12 or 13-15. On day 15, maturity was assessed and morphometric characteristics, including mass, total body length, tail length and width, length of the third swimming appendage and eye diameter, were measured. Maturation and morphometry on day 15 were influenced by the exposure window and salinity dose. Artemia franciscana were generally larger following exposure to 10 and 40 ppt during days 1-6 and 7-9 when compared with days 10-12 and 13-15, in part due to a higher percentage of mature individuals. Exposure to different salinities on days 1-6 produced the greatest differences in morphometry, and thus this appears to be a period in development when A. franciscana is particularly sensitive to salinity. Viewing the developmental window as three-dimensional allowed more effective visualization of the complex interactions between exposure window, stressor dose and the magnitude of morphometric changes in A. franciscana. PMID:26685168

  4. Design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network for the Salinas River basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showalter, P.K.; Akers, J.P.; Swain, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    A regional ground-water quality monitoring network for the entire Salinas River drainage basin was designed to meet the needs of the California State Water Resources Control Board. The project included phase 1--identifying monitoring networks that exist in the region; phase 2--collecting information about the wells in each network; and phase 3--studying the factors--such as geology, land use, hydrology, and geohydrology--that influence the ground-water quality, and designing a regional network. This report is the major product of phase 3. Based on the authors ' understanding of the ground-water-quality monitoring system and input from local offices, an ideal network was designed. The proposed network includes 317 wells and 8 stream-gaging stations. Because limited funds are available to implement the monitoring network, the proposed network is designed to correspond to the ideal network insofar as practicable, and is composed mainly of 214 wells that are already being monitored by a local agency. In areas where network wells are not available, arrangements will be made to add wells to local networks. The data collected by this network will be used to assess the ground-water quality of the entire Salinas River drainage basin. After 2 years of data are collected, the network will be evaluated to test whether it is meeting the network objectives. Subsequent network evaluations will be done very 5 years. (USGS)

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina with energy crops.

    PubMed

    Schwede, Sebastian; Kowalczyk, Alexandra; Gerber, Mandy; Span, Roland

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn silage with the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina was investigated under batch and semi-continuous conditions. Under batch conditions process stability and biogas yields significantly increased by microalgae addition. During semi-continuous long-term experiments anaerobic digestion was stable in corn silage mono- and co-digestion with the algal biomass for more than 200 days. At higher organic loading rates (4.7 kg volatile solids m(-3)d(-1)) inhibition and finally process failure occurred in corn silage mono-digestion, whereas acid and methane formation remained balanced in co-digestion. The positive influences in co-digestion can be attributed to an adjusted carbon to nitrogen ratio, enhanced alkalinity, essential trace elements and a balanced nutrient composition. The results suggest that N. salina biomass is a suitable feedstock for anaerobic co-digestion of energy crops, especially for regions with manure scarcity. Enhanced process stability may result in higher organic loading rates or lower digester volumes. PMID:24071442

  6. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phospholipase C and phosphomonoesterase in Dunaliella salina membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Einspahr, K.J.; Peeler, T.C.; Thompson, G.A. Jr. )

    1989-07-01

    In comparison with other cell organelles, the Dunaliella salina plasma membrane was found to be highly enriched in phospholipase C activity toward exogenous ({sup 3}H)phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}). Based on release of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates, the plasma membrane exhibited a PIP{sub 2}-phospholipase C activity nearly tenfold higher than the nonplasmalemmal, nonchloroplast bottom phase (BP) membrane fraction and 47 times higher than the chloroplast membrane fraction. The majority of phospholipase activity was clearly of a phospholipase C nature since over 80% of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates released were recovered as ({sup 3}H)inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}). These results suggest a plausible mechanism for the rapid breakdown of PIP{sub 2} and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) following hypoosmotic shock. The authors have also examined some of the in vitro characteristics of the plasma membrane phospholipase C activity and have found it to be calcium sensitive, reaching maximal activity at 10 micromolar free (Ca{sup 2+}). They also report here that 100 micromolar GTP{gamma}S stimulates phospholipase C activity over a range of free (Ca{sup 2+}). Together, these results provide evidence that the plasma membrane PIP{sub 2}-phospholipase C of D. salina may be subject to Ca{sup 2+} and G-protein regulation.

  7. Metabolic relationships between monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol molecular species in Dunaliella salina

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.H.; Thompson, G.A. Jr.

    1987-06-05

    Dunaliella salina cells were pulse-labeled for 2 min with (/sup 14/C)palmitic acid, (/sup 14/C)oleic acid, or (/sup 14/C)lauric acid in order to trace the pathway of galactolipid biosynthesis and desaturation. Through the use of high performance liquid chromatography it was possible to follow the movement of radioactivity through many individual molecular species of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) for periods of 24 h and, in some cases, as much as 120 h. Analysis of the fatty acid fluxes permitted us to refine current views regarding biosynthesis of the predominantly prokaryotic galactolipids. The initial D. salina MGDG molecular species, containing paired oleate and palmitate (18:1/16:0), can follow two metabolic routes. If the palmitoyl chain is desaturated to 16:1, the resulting 18:1/16:1 MGDG is subject to rapid further desaturation to varying degrees, and a part of these products is subsequently galactosylated to DGDG. Contrary to widely held opinions, these DGDG molecular species can themselves be further desaturated toward a 18:3/16:4 final product. In a separate series of reactions, a smaller portion of the nascent 18:1/16:0 MGDG is directly galactosylated to 18:1/16:0 DGDG. This molecular species can then be sequentially desaturated to 18:2/16:0 DGDG and 18:3/16:0 DGDG. However, there is only very limited desaturation of the palmitoyl group attached to these molecular species.

  8. Evaluation of hydrologic conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    A ground-water quality study to define the potential sources and concentration of nitrate in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer was conducted between January 2002 and March 2003. The study area covers about 3,600 hectares of the coastal plain within the municipality of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico, extending from the foothills to the Caribbean Sea. Agriculture is the principal land use and includes cultivation of diverse crops, turf grass, bioengineered crops for seed production, and commercial poultry farms. Ground-water withdrawal in the alluvial fan was estimated to be about 43,500 cubic meters per day, of which 49 percent was withdrawn for agriculture, 42 percent for public supply, and 9 percent for industrial use. Ground-water flow in the study area was primarily to the south and toward a cone of depression within the south-central part of the alluvial fan. The presence of that cone of depression and a smaller one located in the northeastern quadrant of the study area may contribute to the increase in nitrate concentration within a total area of about 545 hectares by 'recycling' ground water used for irrigation of cultivated lands. In an area that covers about 405 hectares near the center of the Salinas alluvial fan, nitrate concentrations increased from 0.9 to 6.7 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 1986 to 8 to 12 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 2002. Principal sources of nitrate in the study area are fertilizers (used in the cultivated farmlands) and poultry farm wastes. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found at poultry farms in the foothills area. In the area of disposed poultry farm wastes, nitrate concentrations in ground water ranged from 25 to 77 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Analyses for the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen-15/nitrogen-14 in nitrate were used to distinguish the source of nitrate in the coastal plain alluvial fan aquifer. Potential nitrate loads from areas under cultivation were estimated for the

  9. Characterization of cell-free protein-synthesis systems from undeveloped and developing Artemia embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, A; Mendez, R; de Haro, C

    1991-01-01

    We have developed and characterized translationally active cell-free systems from Artemia embryos at different developmental times. The optimized lysates from 16 h-developed embryos incorporated radiolabelled amino acids into polypeptides for up to 120 min. The polypeptides synthesized ranged in Mr from 150,000 to 10,000, suggesting that the endogenous mRNA was capable of directing the synthesis of complete polypeptides. Similar results were obtained by using lysates from early developmental stages; even the cell-free system prepared from 1 h-developed embryos was partially active in protein synthesis. Furthermore, all these lysates were capable of re-initiation, as demonstrated by inhibition of initiation with the inhibitors edeine and 7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate. Because we found no endogenous protein-synthetic activity in the corresponding lysates from undeveloped embryos, we have used cell-free translation systems from 0 h- and 16 h-developed Artemia embryos to analyse the mechanisms limiting protein synthesis at very early developmental stages. Undeveloped-embryo lysates supplemented with nuclease-treated reticulocyte lysate were capable of translating endogenous mRNAs to give products with a wide spectrum of Mr values, but lysates of 16 h-developed embryos supplemented in this way were not further stimulated. The nuclease-treated lysate appeared to be unnecessary 5 h after resumption of development. These results suggested that a component(s) limiting translation in the undeveloped-embryo lysate was provided by the nuclease-treated reticulocyte lysate, and that this component(s) no longer limited protein synthesis after development. In view of these results, partially fractionated reticulocyte lysates were tested for restoration of protein-synthetic activity in the undeveloped embryo lysate. A high-salt ribosomal wash devoid of ribosomal subunits, which is considered a crude polypeptide-initiation-factor preparation, also restored translation activity

  10. Directional flow sensing by passively stable larvae.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Heidi L; Christman, Adam J; Gerbi, Gregory P; Hunter, Elias J; Diez, F Javier

    2015-09-01

    Mollusk larvae have a stable, velum-up orientation that may influence how they sense and react to hydrodynamic signals applied in different directions. Directional sensing abilities and responses could affect how a larva interacts with anisotropic fluid motions, including those in feeding currents and in boundary layers encountered during settlement. Oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica) were exposed to simple shear in a Couette device and to solid-body rotation in a single rotating cylinder. Both devices were operated in two different orientations, one with the axis of rotation parallel to the gravity vector, and one with the axis perpendicular. Larvae and flow were observed simultaneously with near-infrared particle-image velocimetry, and behavior was quantified as a response to strain rate, vorticity and centripetal acceleration. Only flows rotating about a horizontal axis elicited the diving response observed previously for oyster larvae in turbulence. The results provide strong evidence that the turbulence-sensing mechanism relies on gravity-detecting organs (statocysts) rather than mechanosensors (cilia). Flow sensing with statocysts sets oyster larvae apart from zooplankters such as copepods and protists that use external mechanosensors in sensing spatial velocity gradients generated by prey or predators. Sensing flow-induced changes in orientation, rather than flow deformation, would enable more efficient control of vertical movements. Statocysts provide larvae with a mechanism of maintaining their upward swimming when rotated by vortices and initiating dives toward the seabed in response to the strong turbulence associated with adult habitats. PMID:26333930

  11. Behavior of Settling Marine Larvae in Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J.; Koehl, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many bottom-dwelling marine animals produce microscopic larvae that are dispersed by ambient water currents. These larvae can only recruit to habitats on which they have landed if they can resist being washed away by ambient water flow. We found that larvae on marine surfaces do not experience steady water flow, but rather are exposed to brief pulses of water movement as turbulent eddies sweep across them. We made video recordings of larvae of the tube worm, Hydroides elegans, (important members of the community of organisms growing on docks and ships) on surfaces subjected to measured realistic flow pulses to study factors that might affect their dislodgement from surfaces in nature. We found that the response of a larva of H. elegans to a realistic pulse of water flow depended on its behavior at the time of the pulse and on its recent history of exposure to flow pulses, and that stationary larvae were less likely than locomoting larvae to be blown away when hit by the first pulse of water flow.; ;

  12. PESTICIDES AND THEIR METABOLITES IN THE HOMES AND URINE OF FARMWORKER CHILDREN LIVING IN THE SALINAS VALLEY, CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a study to test field methods for characterizing pesticide exposures to 20 farmworker children aged 5-27 months old living in the Salinas Valley of Monterey County, California. Methods for collecting house dust, indoor and outdoor air, dislodgeable residues ...

  13. 78 FR 1210 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Telephone Meeting To Discuss the Salina Pumped Storage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Telephone Meeting To Discuss the Salina Pumped Storage Project Water Quality Study Results a. Date and Time of Meeting: Wednesday, January 16, 2013, 2 p.m. Central Standard Time, (3...

  14. Effect of outdoor conditions on Nannochloropsis salina cultivation in artificial seawater using nutrients from anaerobic digestion effluent.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Johnathon P; Ge, Xumeng; Park, Stephen Y; Li, Yebo

    2014-01-01

    The effects of simulated outdoor seasonal climatic conditions on Nannochloropsis salina (N. salina) grown using nutrients from anaerobic digestion (AD) effluent were evaluated in this study. Under various light exposure (LE) and temperature (10-30 °C) conditions, N. salina specific growth rate (μ) was strongly affected by LE. Light availability (LA) was observed to be crucial for biomass production, with μ values of 0.038±0.013 d(-1), 0.093±0.013 d(-1), and 0.151±0.021 d(-1) for 6-h, 12-h, and 24-h LA conditions, respectively. Temperature (10-25 °C) was not significant in affecting the light dependent growth coefficient (μ/LE), indicating the suitability of culturing this strain in the Ohio climate. Cultures exposed to low illumination had significantly higher unsaturated fatty acid content than those under high illumination, with nearly 29% higher eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) content. Using LE and light attenuation resulted in adequate prediction of N. salina growth in a 1000 L open raceway pond. PMID:24291316

  15. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy.

    PubMed

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  16. Cutaneous Larva Migrans in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans or creeping eruptions is a cutaneous dermatosis caused by hookworm larvae, Ancylostoma braziliense. A 2-month-old female child presented with a progressive rash over the left buttock of 4 days duration. Cutaneous examination showed an urticarial papule progressing to erythematous, tortuous, thread-like tract extending a few centimeters from papule over the left gluteal region. A clinical diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans was considered. Treatment with albendazole led to complete resolution, confirming the diagnosis. This is to the best of our knowledge, the youngest age at which this condition is being reported. PMID:26538729

  17. Toxicity of untreated wood leachates towards two saltwater organisms (Crassostrea gigas and Artemia franciscana).

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Losso, C; Ghirardini, A Volpi

    2007-06-01

    Wood is widely used in the development of freshwater, estuarine and marine coastlines. Timbers last according to their content of naturally occurring preservatives (mostly phenols and aldehydes), produced to prevent decay from biotic agents. When untreated woods are exposed to aquatic media, leachates are generated with likely toxic effects on the target environment. The potential impact on saltwaters of leachates from some untreated timbers of both native and tropical species has been assessed. The leaching procedure was set up considering British Standard test methods for paints and OECD guidelines for wood preservatives emission scenarios. Toxicity was monitored via the acute toxicity test with the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and the sub-chronic embryotoxicity test with the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Brine shrimps evidenced no toxic effects while oysters discriminated well among leachates: the tropical wood species showed similar or relatively lower toxic effects than the native ones according to both leaching cycles (24 and 72 h). The ecotoxicological data have been integrated with some physical and chemical parameters. PMID:17141956

  18. Experimental taphonomy of Artemia reveals the role of endogenous microbes in mediating decay and fossilization.

    PubMed

    Butler, Aodhán D; Cunningham, John A; Budd, Graham E; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-06-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils provide major insights into the evolutionary history of life. Microbial activity is thought to play a pivotal role in both the decay of organisms and the preservation of soft tissue in the fossil record, though this has been the subject of very little experimental investigation. To remedy this, we undertook an experimental study of the decay of the brine shrimp Artemia, examining the roles of autolysis, microbial activity, oxygen diffusion and reducing conditions. Our findings indicate that endogenous gut bacteria are the main factor controlling decay. Following gut wall rupture, but prior to cuticle failure, gut-derived microbes spread into the body cavity, consuming tissues and forming biofilms capable of mediating authigenic mineralization, that pseudomorph tissues and structures such as limbs and the haemocoel. These observations explain patterns observed in exceptionally preserved fossil arthropods. For example, guts are preserved relatively frequently, while preservation of other internal anatomy is rare. They also suggest that gut-derived microbes play a key role in the preservation of internal anatomy and that differential preservation between exceptional deposits might be because of factors that control autolysis and microbial activity. The findings also suggest that the evolution of a through gut and its bacterial microflora increased the potential for exceptional fossil preservation in bilaterians, providing one explanation for the extreme rarity of internal preservation in those animals that lack a through gut. PMID:25972468

  19. Impacts of harvesting on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Sura, Shayna A; Belovsky, Gary E

    2016-03-01

    Selective harvesting can cause evolutionary responses in populations via shifts in phenotypic characteristics, especially those affecting life history. Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts in Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA are commercially harvested with techniques that select against floating cysts. This selective pressure could cause evolutionary changes over time. Our objectives are to (1) determine if there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy, (2) determine if cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality have changed over time, and (3) to examine GSL environmental conditions over time to distinguish whether selective harvesting pressure or a trend in environmental conditions caused changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality. Mating crosses between floating and sinking parental phenotypes with two food concentrations (low and high) indicated there is a genetic basis to cyst buoyancy. Using cysts harvested from 1991-2011, we found cyst buoyancy decreased and nauplii mortality increased over time. Data on water temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll a concentration in GSL from 1994 to 2011 indicated that although water temperature has increased over time and chlorophyll a concentration has decreased over time, the selective harvesting pressure against floating cysts is a better predictor of changes in cyst buoyancy and nauplii mortality over time than trends in environmental conditions. Harvesting of GSL A. franciscana cysts is causing evolutionary changes, which has implications for the sustainable management and harvesting of these cysts. Monitoring phenotypic characteristics and life-history traits of the population should be implemented and appropriate responses taken to reduce the impacts of the selective harvesting. PMID:27209783

  20. Molecular approaches for improving desiccation tolerance: Insights from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Steven C.; Menze, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Organisms inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems frequently are confronted with the problem of water loss for multiple reasons – exposure to hypersalinity, evaporative water loss, and restriction of intracellular water due to freezing of extracellular fluids. Seasonal desiccation can become severe and lead to the production of tolerant propagules and entry into the state of anhydrobiosis at various stages of the life cycle. Such is the case for gastrula-stage embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Physiological and biochemical responses to desiccation are central for survival and are multifaceted. This review will evaluate the impact of multiple Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins originating from A. franciscana, together with the non-reducing sugar trehalose, on prevention of desiccation damage at multiple levels of biological organization. Survivorship of desiccation-sensitive cells during water stress can be improved by use of the above protective agents, coupled to metabolic preconditioning and rapid cell drying. However, obtaining long-term stability of cells in the dried state at room temperature has not been accomplished and will require continued efforts on both the physicochemical and biological fronts. PMID:25809151

  1. Experimental taphonomy of Artemia reveals the role of endogenous microbes in mediating decay and fossilization

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Aodhán D.; Cunningham, John A.; Budd, Graham E.; Donoghue, Philip C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils provide major insights into the evolutionary history of life. Microbial activity is thought to play a pivotal role in both the decay of organisms and the preservation of soft tissue in the fossil record, though this has been the subject of very little experimental investigation. To remedy this, we undertook an experimental study of the decay of the brine shrimp Artemia, examining the roles of autolysis, microbial activity, oxygen diffusion and reducing conditions. Our findings indicate that endogenous gut bacteria are the main factor controlling decay. Following gut wall rupture, but prior to cuticle failure, gut-derived microbes spread into the body cavity, consuming tissues and forming biofilms capable of mediating authigenic mineralization, that pseudomorph tissues and structures such as limbs and the haemocoel. These observations explain patterns observed in exceptionally preserved fossil arthropods. For example, guts are preserved relatively frequently, while preservation of other internal anatomy is rare. They also suggest that gut-derived microbes play a key role in the preservation of internal anatomy and that differential preservation between exceptional deposits might be because of factors that control autolysis and microbial activity. The findings also suggest that the evolution of a through gut and its bacterial microflora increased the potential for exceptional fossil preservation in bilaterians, providing one explanation for the extreme rarity of internal preservation in those animals that lack a through gut. PMID:25972468

  2. The size and conformation of Artemia (brine-shrimp) ribosomal RNA free in solution.

    PubMed

    Donceel, K; Nieuwenhuysen, P; Clauwaert, J

    1982-09-01

    The RNA was isolated from the large ribosomal subunits of the brine shrimp Artemia, and its conformation free in solution was studied by determining its sedimentation and diffusion coefficients. A comparison was made of the hydrodynamic radius of the ribosomal subunit and its isolated RNA in various buffers. The conformation of the rRNA free in solution is more extended than when it is incorporated in the ribosome. This is not only the case when the rRNA solution lacks bivalent and polyvalent cations, but even in the presence of Mg2+ and spermidine, which cause a tightening of RNA. Thus the ribosomal proteins should induce a further tightening of the rRNA during the assembly of the ribosome. In the discussion, the reported data on Escherichia coli rRNA species are presented in such a way that large discrepancies between various studied are revealed, and that they can be compared with the data reported here on the larger rRNA of an eukaryote. PMID:7150228

  3. TIME management by medicinal larvae.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, David I; Čeřovský, Václav; Nigam, Yamni; Pickles, Samantha F; Cazander, Gwendolyn; Nibbering, Peter H; Bültemann, Anke; Jung, Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is an integral part of the care programme for chronic wounds. The acronym TIME is used in the context of WBP and describes four barriers to healing in chronic wounds; namely, dead Tissue, Infection and inflammation, Moisture imbalance and a non-migrating Edge. Larval debridement therapy (LDT) stems from observations that larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata clean wounds of debris. Subsequent clinical studies have proven debriding efficacy, which is likely to occur as a result of enzymatically active alimentary products released by the insect. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of LDT have also been investigated, predominantly in a pre-clinical context. This review summarises the findings of investigations into the molecular mechanisms of LDT and places these in context with the clinical concept of WBP and TIME. It is clear from these findings that biotherapy with L. sericata conforms with TIME, through the enzymatic removal of dead tissue and its associated biofilm, coupled with the secretion of defined antimicrobial peptides. This biotherapeutic impact on the wound serves to reduce inflammation, with an associated capacity for an indirect effect on moisture imbalance. Furthermore, larval serine proteinases have the capacity to alter fibroblast behaviour in a manner conducive to the formation of granulation tissue. PMID:26179750

  4. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  5. What's eating you? Cutaneous larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Kyle A; Ferringer, Tammie C

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a focused update and clinical review on cutaneous larva migrans (CLM), including atypical clinical presentations and newer management recommendations. The results and recommendations are subject to modification based on future studies. PMID:25844779

  6. First evidence of fish larvae producing sounds

    PubMed Central

    Staaterman, Erica; Paris, Claire B.; Kough, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic ecology of marine fishes has traditionally focused on adults, while overlooking the early life-history stages. Here, we document the first acoustic recordings of pre-settlement stage grey snapper larvae (Lutjanus griseus). Through a combination of in situ and unprovoked laboratory recordings, we found that L. griseus larvae are acoustically active during the night, producing ‘knock’ and ‘growl’ sounds that are spectrally and temporally similar to those of adults. While the exact function and physiological mechanisms of sound production in fish larvae are unknown, we suggest that these sounds may enable snapper larvae to maintain group cohesion at night when visual cues are reduced. PMID:25274018

  7. Coral Larvae Move toward Reef Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Marhaver, Kristen L.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Simpson, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency. PMID:20498831

  8. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Mark J A; Marhaver, Kristen L; Huijbers, Chantal M; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Simpson, Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency. PMID:20498831

  9. Automated analysis of behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Creton, Robbert

    2009-10-12

    Zebrafish larvae have become a popular model system to examine genetic and environmental factors that affect behavior. However, studying complex behavior in large numbers of fish larvae can be challenging. The present study describes a novel high-resolution imaging system that is unique in its ability to automatically analyze the location and orientation of zebrafish larvae in multiwell plates. The system revealed behaviors in zebrafish larvae that would have been missed by more manual approaches, including a preference to face a threatening stimulus from a distance and a clockwise orientation in a two-fish assay. The clockwise orientation of the larvae correlates with a clockwise orientation of molecular structures during early development. Larvae with reversed embryonic asymmetries display a counter-clockwise orientation in the two-fish assay, suggesting that embryonic asymmetry and chiral behavior are regulated by the same developmental mechanisms. The developed imaging techniques may be used in large-scale screens to identify genes, pharmaceuticals, and environmental toxicants that influence complex behaviors. PMID:19409932

  10. Altered lipid accumulation in Nannochloropsis salina CCAP849/3 following EMS and UV induced mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Beacham, T.A.; Macia, V. Mora; Rooks, P.; White, D.A.; Ali, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have potential as a chemical feed stock in a range of industrial applications. Nannochloropsis salina was subject to EMS mutagenesis and the highest lipid containing cells selected using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Assessment of growth, lipid content and fatty acid composition identified mutant strains displaying a range of altered traits including changes in the PUFA content and a total FAME increase of up to 156% that of the wild type strain. Combined with a reduction in growth this demonstrated a productivity increase of up to 76%. Following UV mutagenesis, lipid accumulation of the mutant cultures was elevated to more than 3 fold that of the wild type strain, however reduced growth rates resulted in a reduction in overall productivity. Changes observed are indicative of alterations to the regulation of the omega 6 Kennedy pathway. The importance of these variations in physiology for industrial applications such as biofuel production is discussed. PMID:26753128

  11. Photomovement in Dunaliella salina: Fluence rate-response curves and action spectra.

    PubMed

    Wayne, R; Kadota, A; Watanabe, M; Furuya, M

    1991-07-01

    We determined the action spectra of the photophobic responses as well as the phototactic response in Dunaliella salina (Volvocales) using both single cells and populations. The action spectra of the photophobic responses have maxima at 510 nm, the spectrum for phototaxis has a maximum at 450-460 nm. These action spectra are not compatible with the hypothesis that flavoproteins are the photoreceptor pigments, and we suggest that carotenoproteins or rhodopsins act as the photoreceptor pigments. We also conclude that the phototactic response in Dunaliella is an elementary response, quite independent of the step-up and step-down photophobic responses. We also determined the action spectra of the photoaccumulation response in populations of cells adapted to two different salt conditions. Both action spectra have a peak a 490 nm. The photoaccumulation response may be a complex response composed of the phototactic and photophobic responses. Blue or blue-green light does not elicit a photokinetic response in Dunaliella. PMID:24194242

  12. Assessment of benthic changes during 20 years of monitoring the Mexican Salina Cruz Bay.

    PubMed

    González-Macías, C; Schifter, I; Lluch-Cota, D B; Méndez-Rodríguez, L; Hernández-Vázquez, S

    2009-02-01

    In this work a non-parametric multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of metals and organic compounds in the macro infaunal component of the mollusks benthic community using surface sediment data from several monitoring programs collected over 20 years in Salina Cruz Bay, Mexico. The data for benthic mollusks community characteristics (richness, abundance and diversity) were linked to multivariate environmental patterns, using the Alternating Conditional Expectations method to correlate the biological measurements of the mollusk community with the physicochemical properties of water and sediments. Mollusks community variation is related to environmental characteristics as well as lead content. Surface deposit feeders are increasing their relative density, while subsurface deposit feeders are decreasing with respect to time, these last are expected to be more related with sediment and more affected then by its quality. However gastropods with predatory carnivore as well as chemosymbiotic deposit feeder bivalves have maintained their relative densities along time. PMID:18253853

  13. Analysis of the Physiological and Molecular Responses of Dunaliella salina to Macronutrient Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Hexin; Cui, Xianggan; Wahid, Fazli; Xia, Feng; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    The halotolerant chlorophyte Dunaliella salina can accumulate up to 10% of its dry weight as β-carotene in chloroplasts when subjected to adverse conditions, including nutrient deprivation. However, the mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis are poorly understood. Here, the physiological and molecular responses to the deprivation of nitrogen (-N), sulfur (-S), phosphorus (-P) and different combinations of those nutrients (-N-P, -N-S, -P-S and -N-P-S) were compared to gain insights into the underlying regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis. The results showed that both the growth and photosynthetic rates of cells were decreased during nutrient deprivation, accompanied by lipid globule accumulation and reduced chlorophyll levels. The SOD and CAT activities of the cells were altered during nutrient deprivation, but their responses were different. The total carotenoid contents of cells subjected to multiple nutrient deprivation were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation and non-stressed cells. The β-carotene contents of cells subjected to -N-P, -N-S and -N-P-S were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation. Cells subjected to sulfur deprivation accumulated more lutein than cells subjected to nitrogen and phosphorous deprivation. In contrast, no cumulative effects of nutrient deprivation on the transcription of genes in the carotenogenic pathway were observed because MEP and carotenogenic pathway genes were up-regulated during single nutrient deprivation but were downregulated during multiple nutrient deprivation. Therefore, we proposed that the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of D. salina is regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels and that a complex crosstalk occurs at the physiological and molecular levels in response to the deprivation of different nutrients. PMID:27023397

  14. Analysis of the Physiological and Molecular Responses of Dunaliella salina to Macronutrient Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hexin; Cui, Xianggan; Wahid, Fazli; Xia, Feng; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    The halotolerant chlorophyte Dunaliella salina can accumulate up to 10% of its dry weight as β-carotene in chloroplasts when subjected to adverse conditions, including nutrient deprivation. However, the mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis are poorly understood. Here, the physiological and molecular responses to the deprivation of nitrogen (-N), sulfur (-S), phosphorus (-P) and different combinations of those nutrients (-N-P, -N-S, -P-S and -N-P-S) were compared to gain insights into the underlying regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis. The results showed that both the growth and photosynthetic rates of cells were decreased during nutrient deprivation, accompanied by lipid globule accumulation and reduced chlorophyll levels. The SOD and CAT activities of the cells were altered during nutrient deprivation, but their responses were different. The total carotenoid contents of cells subjected to multiple nutrient deprivation were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation and non-stressed cells. The β-carotene contents of cells subjected to -N-P, -N-S and -N-P-S were higher than those of cells subjected to single nutrient deprivation. Cells subjected to sulfur deprivation accumulated more lutein than cells subjected to nitrogen and phosphorous deprivation. In contrast, no cumulative effects of nutrient deprivation on the transcription of genes in the carotenogenic pathway were observed because MEP and carotenogenic pathway genes were up-regulated during single nutrient deprivation but were downregulated during multiple nutrient deprivation. Therefore, we proposed that the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of D. salina is regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels and that a complex crosstalk occurs at the physiological and molecular levels in response to the deprivation of different nutrients. PMID:27023397

  15. Bioflocculation of the oceanic microalga Dunaliella salina by the bloom-forming dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama, and its effect on biodiesel properties of the biomass.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kichul; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Chi-Heon; Ko, Kyungjun; Lee, Yeon-Ji; Kim, Kil-Nam; Kim, Moo-Sang; Chung, Young-Ho; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the flocculation by the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama as a means for harvesting three Chlorophyta species, Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis granulata, and Dunaliella salina. Relative fluorescence of D. salina culture significantly decreased along with 9.3-fold increased flocculation activity within 24 h when mixed with H. circularisquama. Lipid content of bioflocculated D. salina increased about 40%, while fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles exhibited higher levels of C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1, compared to harvest by centrifugation, suggesting higher energy content. Furthermore, bioflocculated D. salina biomass had more suitable biodiesel properties relative to both EN14214 and ASTMD6751, with a cetane number of 49.0 and an iodine value of 95.9. These results suggest that H. circularisquama-induced bioflocculation is applicable for the sustainable and qualitative production of algal biodiesel. PMID:26733439

  16. Identification of the glycerol kinase gene and its role in diapause embryo restart and early embryo development of Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Yao, Feng; Chu, Bing; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol kinase (GK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization by transferring a phosphate from ATP to glycerol, yielding glycerol 3-phosphate, which is an important intermediate for both energy metabolism and glycerolipid production. Artemia sinica has an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity, low temperature and lack of food. In the process, diapause embryos of A. sinica (brine shrimp) accumulate high concentrations of glycerol as a cryoprotectant to prevent low temperature damage to embryos. Upon embryo restart, glycerol is converted into glucose and other carbohydrates. Therefore, GK plays an important role in the diapause embryo restart process. However, the role of GK in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. In the present study, a 2096 bp full-length cDNA of gk from A. sinica (As-gk) was obtained, encoding putative 551 amino acids, 60.6 kDa protein. As a crucial enzyme in glycerol uptake and metabolism, GK has been conserved structurally and functionally during evolution. The expression pattern of As-gk was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Expression locations of As-gk were analyzed using in situ hybridization. As-gk was widely distributed in the early embryo and several main parts of Artemia after differentiation. The expression of As-GK was also induced by stresses such as cold exposure and high salinity. This initial research into the expression pattern and stress response of GK in Artemia provides a sound basis for further understanding of the function and regulation of genes in early embryonic development in A. sinica and the stress response. PMID:24365596

  17. beta-Hydroxybutyrate in developing nauplii of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana K.) under feeding and non-feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Weltzien, F A; Hemre, G I; Evjemo, J O; Olsen, Y; Fyhn, H J

    2000-01-01

    Body content of beta-hydroxybutyrate, and individual dry mass, carbon content, and survival rate, were studied in developing nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana K. from hatching to 96-97 h post hatching at 27 +/- 1 degrees C. The effect of two diets was studied in the experiment: Super Selco (SS) with a high lipid content; and Protein Selco (PS) with a high protein content. A starving group (S) was used as reference. The level of beta-hydroxybutyrate at hatching was 0.6 nmol.ind-1; it increased to 1.0-1.5 nmol.ind-1 in the SS- and S-groups, while in the PS-group it remained stable between 0.6-0.8 nmol.ind-1. At 60-80 h post hatch in the SS- and S-groups, the levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate were similar to the initial levels. The survival rate remained higher than 95% until 24 h post hatching in all groups. At the end of the experiment, the survival rate was 63% in the PS-group, 13% in the S-group and 3% in the SS-group. The Artemia nauplii individual dry mass and carbon content remained relatively stable in the SS-group; both parameters showed a significant increase in the PS-group and a significant decrease in the S-group. The results suggest that Artemia nauplii utilise ketone bodies as a fuel during development and growth, but that ketone catabolism may be overloaded by excessive lipid feeding resulting in increased mortality and possibly a ketotic acidosis. PMID:10840642

  18. The effects of feeding with synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    PubMed

    Azimirad, Mahmood; Meshkini, Saeed; Ahmadifard, Nasrollah; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding on synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia franciscana on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and growth performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial weight 3.2 ± 0.13 g were randomly divided into twelve aquaria (50 L) assigned to four groups in triplicates. Fish were fed for 7 weeks with dietary treatments, including treatment 1: feeding adult Artemia without enrichment (control group), treatment 2: feeding adult Artemia enriched with lyophilised probiotic P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)), 3: feeding adult Artemia enriched with prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) (100 mg L(-1)), group 4: feeding adult Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)) + FOS (100 mg L(-1))). Skin mucus immune responses (lysozyme activity, total Immunoglobulin and protease), stress resistance against environmental stress (acute decrease of temperature and increase salinity), intestinal microbiota as well as growth indices were measured at the end of feeding trial. Artemia enriched with synbiotic significantly improved growth performance compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). The highest weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in synbiotic fed fish (P < 0.05). Compared to the other treatments, the population of lactic acid bacteria was significantly higher in the intestinal microbiota of fish fed synbiotic supplemented diet (P < 0.05). In the environmental stress challenge test, the maximum resistance to abrupt decrease of temperature (17 °C) or elevation of salinity (12 g per liter) was observed in the synbiotic treatment. Also, the total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity level of skin mucus was significantly elevated in fish fed Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P < 0.05). These results revealed that feeding angelfish with synbiotic

  19. Naked eye instant reversible sensing of Cu(2+) and its in situ imaging in live brine shrimp Artemia.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ratish R; Raju, M; Patel, Neha P; Raval, Ishan H; Suresh, E; Haldar, Soumya; Chatterjee, Pabitra B

    2015-08-21

    A Cu(2+)-specific colorimetric reversible fluorescent receptor was designed and synthesized which showed a naked eye observable colour change from colourless to pink on addition of an aqueous buffer (pH 7.4) solution of 30 ppb Cu(2+). Short response time (≤5 s) and low detection limit (nearly 3 ppb) make suitable as a reliable "dip-in" open eye sensor for Cu(2+). Bio-imaging application in live brine shrimp Artemia enabled to detect Cu(2+) at as low as 10 ppb exposure. PMID:26145434

  20. Transcriptional response of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American foulbrood disease of honey bees is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Infection occurs per os in larvae and systemic infection requires a breaching of the host peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium. Genetic variation exists for both bacterial virulence and host resistance, and...

  1. Chronic toxicity of arsenic to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Cardwell, Rick D; Adams, William J

    2003-02-01

    We determined the chronic toxicity of arsenic (sodium arsenate) to the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Chronic toxicity was determined by measuring the adverse effects of arsenic on brine shrimp growth, survival, and reproduction under intermittent flow-through conditions. The study commenced with <24-h-old nauplii, continued through reproduction of the parental generation, and ended after 28 days of exposure. The concentrations tested were 4, 8, 15, 31, and 56mg/L dissolved arsenic. The test was conducted using water from the Great Salt Lake, Utah as the dilution water. Adult survival was the most sensitive biological endpoint, with growth and reproduction somewhat less sensitive than survival. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) for survival was 8mg/L, and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 15mg/L dissolved arsenic. The LOEC for growth and reproduction was greater than the highest concentration tested, 56mg/L. Based on survival, the final chronic value (geometric mean of the NOEC and LOEC) was 11mg/L dissolved arsenic. The F(1) generation appeared to acclimate to the prior arsenic exposure of the parental generation and was significantly less sensitive than the parental generation. For example, survival for the F(1) generation through day 12 was 100% in 56mg/L dissolved arsenic, compared to 26% for the parental generation. Growth of the F(1) generation was significantly less than that of the parental generation across all concentrations including the control, indicating a generational difference in brine shrimp growth rather than an arsenic effect. This study represents one of the few full life cycle toxicity tests conducted with brine shrimp. PMID:12550094

  2. Liposomes with diverse compositions are protected during desiccation by LEA proteins from Artemia franciscana and trehalose.

    PubMed

    Moore, Daniel S; Hansen, Richard; Hand, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins and the disaccharide trehalose is associated with cellular desiccation tolerance in a number of animal species. Two LEA proteins from anhydrobiotic embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were tested for the ability to protect liposomes of various compositions against desiccation-induced damage in the presence and absence of trehalose. Damage was assessed by carboxyfluorescein leakage after drying and rehydration. Further, using a cytoplasmic-localized (AfrLEA2) and a mitochondrial-targeted (AfrLEA3m) LEA protein allowed us to evaluate whether each may preferentially stabilize membranes of a particular lipid composition based on the protein's subcellular location. Both LEA proteins were able to offset damage during drying of liposomes that mimicked the lipid compositions of the inner mitochondrial membrane (with cardiolipin), outer mitochondrial membrane, and the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Thus liposome stabilization by AfrLEA3m or AfrLEA2 was not dependent on lipid composition, provided physiological amounts of bilayer and non-bilayer-forming lipids were present (liposomes with a non-biological composition of 100% phosphatidylcholine were not protected by either protein). Additive protection by LEA proteins plus trehalose was dependent on the lipid composition of the target membrane. Minimal additional damage occurred to liposomes stored at room temperature in the dried state for one week compared to liposomes rehydrated after 24h. Consistent with the ability to stabilize lipid bilayers, molecular modeling of the secondary structures for AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m revealed bands of charged amino acids similar to other amphipathic proteins that interact directly with membranes. PMID:26518519

  3. Metabolic Restructuring during Energy-Limited States: Insights from Artemia franciscana Embryos and Other Animals

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Steven C.; Menze, Michael A.; Borcar, Apu; Patil, Yuvraj; Covi, Joseph A.; Reynolds, Julie A.; Toner, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Many life history stages of animals that experience environmental insults enter developmental arrested states that are characterized by reduced cellular proliferation, with or without a concurrent reduction in overall metabolism. In the case of the most profound metabolic arrest reported in invertebrates, i.e., anaerobic quiescence in Artemia franciscana embryos, acidification of the intracellular milieu is a major factor governing catabolic and anabolic downregulation. Release of ion gradients from intracellular compartments is the source for approximately 50% of the proton equivalents needed for the 1.5 unit acidification that is observed. Recovery from the metabolic arrest requires re-sequestration of the protons with a vacuolar-type ATPase (V-ATPase). The remarkable facet of this mechanism is the ability of embryonic cells to survive the dissipation of intracellular ion gradients. Across many diapause-like states, the metabolic reduction and subsequent matching of energy demand is accomplished by shifting energy metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. Molecular pathways that are activated to induce these resilient hypometabolic states include stimulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin signaling via suite of daf (dauer formation) genes for diapause-like states in nematodes and insects. Contributing factors for other metabolically-depressed states involve hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and downregulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Metabolic similarities between natural states of stasis and some cancer phenotypes are noteworthy. Reduction of flux through oxidative phosphorylation helps prevent cell death in certain cancer types, similar to the way it increases viability of dauer stages in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mechanisms that underlie natural stasis are being used to precondition mammalian cells prior to cell biostabilization and storage. PMID:21335009

  4. Effect of specific light supply rate on photosynthetic efficiency of Nannochloropsis salina in a continuous flat plate photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Eleonora; Calvaruso, Claudio; Meneghesso, Andrea; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    In this work, Nannochloropsis salina was cultivated in a continuous-flow flat-plate photobioreactor, working at different residence times and irradiations to study the effect of the specific light supply rate on biomass productivity and photosynthetic efficiency. Changes in residence times lead to different steady-state cell concentrations and specific growth rates. We observed that cultures at steady concentration were exposed to different values of light intensity per cell. This specific light supply rate was shown to affect the photosynthetic status of the cells, monitored by fluorescence measurements. High specific light supply rate can lead to saturation and photoinhibition phenomena if the biomass concentration is not optimized for the selected operating conditions. Energy balances were applied to quantify the biomass growth yield and maintenance requirements in N. salina cells. PMID:26257264

  5. Quantifying and predicting Drosophila larvae crawling phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Günther, Maximilian N; Nettesheim, Guilherme; Shubeita, George T

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model for cell biology, development, disease, and neuroscience. The fly's power as a genetic model for disease and neuroscience can be augmented by a quantitative description of its behavior. Here we show that we can accurately account for the complex and unique crawling patterns exhibited by individual Drosophila larvae using a small set of four parameters obtained from the trajectories of a few crawling larvae. The values of these parameters change for larvae from different genetic mutants, as we demonstrate for fly models of Alzheimer's disease and the Fragile X syndrome, allowing applications such as genetic or drug screens. Using the quantitative model of larval crawling developed here we use the mutant-specific parameters to robustly simulate larval crawling, which allows estimating the feasibility of laborious experimental assays and aids in their design. PMID:27323901

  6. Quantifying and predicting Drosophila larvae crawling phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Maximilian N.; Nettesheim, Guilherme; Shubeita, George T.

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model for cell biology, development, disease, and neuroscience. The fly’s power as a genetic model for disease and neuroscience can be augmented by a quantitative description of its behavior. Here we show that we can accurately account for the complex and unique crawling patterns exhibited by individual Drosophila larvae using a small set of four parameters obtained from the trajectories of a few crawling larvae. The values of these parameters change for larvae from different genetic mutants, as we demonstrate for fly models of Alzheimer’s disease and the Fragile X syndrome, allowing applications such as genetic or drug screens. Using the quantitative model of larval crawling developed here we use the mutant-specific parameters to robustly simulate larval crawling, which allows estimating the feasibility of laborious experimental assays and aids in their design. PMID:27323901

  7. Sensorimotor structure of Drosophila larva phototaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Elizabeth A.; Gershow, Marc; Afonso, Bruno; Larderet, Ivan; Klein, Mason; Carter, Ashley R.; de Bivort, Benjamin L.; Sprecher, Simon G.; Samuel, Aravinthan D. T.

    2013-01-01

    The avoidance of light by fly larvae is a classic paradigm for sensorimotor behavior. Here, we use behavioral assays and video microscopy to quantify the sensorimotor structure of phototaxis using the Drosophila larva. Larval locomotion is composed of sequences of runs (periods of forward movement) that are interrupted by abrupt turns, during which the larva pauses and sweeps its head back and forth, probing local light information to determine the direction of the successive run. All phototactic responses are mediated by the same set of sensorimotor transformations that require temporal processing of sensory inputs. Through functional imaging and genetic inactivation of specific neurons downstream of the sensory periphery, we have begun to map these sensorimotor circuits into the larval central brain. We find that specific sensorimotor pathways that govern distinct light-evoked responses begin to segregate at the first relay after the photosensory neurons. PMID:24043822

  8. Arthropod larvae misidentified as parasitic worm infection.

    PubMed

    Munisamy, Sreetharan; Kilner, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    A healthy, asymptomatic man living in London, presented with seeing 'worms' in his toilet for two successive summer seasons. Repeated microscopic examination and cultures of both his faeces and urine were normal. He was empirically treated with multiple courses of antihelminthics without resolution of this problem. A sample of the worms was obtained, and positively identified as arthropod larvae under microscopic examination. These larvae do not parasitically colonise humans. It was subsequently deduced that a flying arthropod (most likely Culex pipiens mosquito) had laid eggs in standing toilet water, and the hatched larvae had been mistaken for parasitic worms. The patient was declared free of parasites and remains healthy. This case illustrates the dangers of starting empirical treatment without positive confirmation of causative organisms, which can result in unnecessary and potentially harmful treatment. PMID:22675109

  9. Effect of municipal waste water effluent upon the expression of Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes of brine shrimp Artemia.

    PubMed

    Grammou, Athina; Papadimitriou, Chrisa; Samaras, Peter; Vasara, Eleni; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I

    2011-06-01

    Multiple isoenzymes of the detoxification enzyme family Glutathione S-transferase are expressed in the brine shrimp Artemia. The number of the major ones detected in crude extract by means of chromatofocusing varied between three and four, depending on the age. Two isoenzymes, one alkaline and one neutral (with corresponding isoelectric points of 8.5 and 7.2) appear to be dominant in all three developmental stages studied, (24, 48, and 72 h after hatching). Culturing Artemia for 48 h after hatching, in artificial sea water prepared by municipal wastewater effluent resulted to significant alterations of the isoenzyme profile. In comparison to organisms cultured for the same period of time in artificial sea water prepared by filtered tap water, the expression of the alkaline isoenzyme decreased by 62% while that of the neutral isoenzyme increased by 58%. Furthermore, the enzyme activity of the major isoenzyme of the acidic area increased by more than two folds. It is worth mentioning that although the specific activity of the total enzyme in the whole body homogenate was elevated, no statistically significant alteration of the Km value was observed. These findings suggest that study of the isoenzyme profile of Glutathione S-transferase may offer high sensitivity in detecting environmental pollution and needs to be further investigated. PMID:21429555

  10. Effects of Surface-Engineered Nanoparticle-Based Dispersants for Marine Oil Spills on the Model Organism Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fine particles are under active consideration as alternatives to chemical dispersants for large-scale petroleum spills. Fine carbon particles with engineered surface chemistry have been shown to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions, but the environmental impacts of large-scale particle introduction to the marine environment are unknown. Here we study the impact of surface-engineered carbon-black materials on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) as a model marine microcrustacean. Mortality was characterized at 50–1000 mg/L, and levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were characterized at sublethal particle concentrations (25–50 mg/L). Functionalized carbon black (CB) nanoparticles were found to be nontoxic at all concentrations, while hydrophobic (annealed) and as-produced CB induced adverse effects at high concentrations. CB was also shown to adsorb benzene, a model hydrocarbon representing the more soluble and toxic low-molecular weight aromatic fraction of petroleum, but the extent of adsorption was insufficient to mitigate benzene toxicity to Artemia in coexposure experiments. At lower benzene concentrations (25–75 mg/L), coexposure with annealed and as-produced CB increased hsp70 protein levels. This study suggests that surface functionalization for increased hydrophilicity can not only improve the performance of CB-based dispersants but also reduce their adverse environmental impacts on marine organisms. PMID:24823274

  11. Inland hypersaline lakes and the brine shrimp Artemia as simple models for biodiversity analysis at the population level

    PubMed Central

    Gajardo, Gonzalo M; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Beardmore, John A

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity can be measured at different hierarchical levels, from genetic diversity within species to diversity of ecosystems, though policy-makers tend to use species richness. The 2010 goal of reducing biodiversity loss, agreed by the subscribers to the Convention on Biological Diversity, requires simple and reliable protocols to evaluate biodiversity at any level in a given ecosystem. Stakeholders, particularly policy makers, need to understand how ecosystem components interact to produce social and economic benefits on the long run, whilst scientists are expected to fulfil this demand by testing and modelling ideally simple (low diversity) ecosystems, and by monitoring key species. This work emphasizes the unique opportunity offered by inland, isolated salt lakes and the brine shrimp Artemia, an example of biodiversity contained at the intra-specific level, as simple models to understand and monitor biodiversity, as well as to assess its predicted positive association with ecosystem stability. In addition to having well identified species and strains and even clones, that allow to test reproductive effects (sexual versus asexual), Artemia benefits from the possibility to set up experimental testing at both laboratory scale and outdoor pond systems, for which a comprehensive cyst bank with sufficient amount of samples from all over the world is available. PMID:17132175

  12. Group 1 LEA proteins contribute to the desiccation and freeze tolerance of Artemia franciscana embryos during diapause.

    PubMed

    Toxopeus, Jantina; Warner, Alden H; MacRae, Thomas H

    2014-11-01

    Water loss either by desiccation or freezing causes multiple forms of cellular damage. The encysted embryos (cysts) of the crustacean Artemia franciscana have several molecular mechanisms to enable anhydrobiosis-life without water-during diapause. To better understand how cysts survive reduced hydration, group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, hydrophilic unstructured proteins that accumulate in the stress-tolerant cysts of A. franciscana, were knocked down using RNA interference (RNAi). Embryos lacking group 1 LEA proteins showed significantly lower survival than control embryos after desiccation and freezing, or freezing alone, demonstrating a role for group 1 LEA proteins in A. franciscana tolerance of low water conditions. In contrast, regardless of group 1 LEA protein presence, cysts responded similarly to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure, indicating little to no function for these proteins in diapause termination. This is the first in vivo study of group 1 LEA proteins in an animal and it contributes to the fundamental understanding of these proteins. Knowing how LEA proteins protect A. franciscana cysts from desiccation and freezing may have applied significance in aquaculture, where Artemia is an important feed source, and in the cryopreservation of cells for therapeutic applications. PMID:24846336

  13. Effects of surface-engineered nanoparticle-based dispersants for marine oil spills on the model organism Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Rodd, April L; Creighton, Megan A; Vaslet, Charles A; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Hurt, Robert H; Kane, Agnes B

    2014-06-01

    Fine particles are under active consideration as alternatives to chemical dispersants for large-scale petroleum spills. Fine carbon particles with engineered surface chemistry have been shown to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions, but the environmental impacts of large-scale particle introduction to the marine environment are unknown. Here we study the impact of surface-engineered carbon-black materials on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) as a model marine microcrustacean. Mortality was characterized at 50-1000 mg/L, and levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were characterized at sublethal particle concentrations (25-50 mg/L). Functionalized carbon black (CB) nanoparticles were found to be nontoxic at all concentrations, while hydrophobic (annealed) and as-produced CB induced adverse effects at high concentrations. CB was also shown to adsorb benzene, a model hydrocarbon representing the more soluble and toxic low-molecular weight aromatic fraction of petroleum, but the extent of adsorption was insufficient to mitigate benzene toxicity to Artemia in coexposure experiments. At lower benzene concentrations (25-75 mg/L), coexposure with annealed and as-produced CB increased hsp70 protein levels. This study suggests that surface functionalization for increased hydrophilicity can not only improve the performance of CB-based dispersants but also reduce their adverse environmental impacts on marine organisms. PMID:24823274

  14. Probing the phenomenon of trained immunity in invertebrates during a transgenerational study, using brine shrimp Artemia as a model system.

    PubMed

    Norouzitallab, Parisa; Baruah, Kartik; Biswas, Priyanka; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bossier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate's innate immune system was reported to show some form of adaptive features, termed trained immunity. However, the memory characteristics of innate immune system and the mechanisms behind such phenomena remain unclear. Using the invertebrate model Artemia, we verified the possibility or impossibility of trained immunity, examining the presence or absence of enduring memory against homologous and heterologous antigens (Vibrio spp.) during a transgenerational study. We also determined the mechanisms behind such phenomenon. Our results showed the occurrence of memory and partial discrimination in Artemia's immune system, as manifested by increased resistance, for three successive generations, of the progenies of Vibrio-exposed ancestors towards a homologous bacterial strain, rather than to a heterologous strain. This increased resistance phenotype was associated with elevated levels of hsp70 and hmgb1 signaling molecules and alteration in the expression of key innate immunity-related genes. Our results also showed stochastic pattern in the acetylation and methylation levels of H4 and H3K4me3 histones, respectively, in the progenies whose ancestors were challenged. Overall results suggest that innate immune responses in invertebrates have the capacity to be trained, and epigenetic reprogramming of (selected) innate immune effectors is likely to have central place in the mechanisms leading to trained immunity. PMID:26876951

  15. A note on the biogeographical origin of the brine shrimp Artemia urmiana Günther, 1899 from Urmia Lake, Iran.

    PubMed

    Eimanifar, Amin; Asem, Alireza; Djamali, Morteza; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia urmiana, an abundant inhabitant of the hypersaline Urmia Lake in northwestern Iran, has recently been described from Lake Koyashskoe, also a shallow hypersaline lake that is located on the Black Sea coast of the Crimean Peninsula (Ukraine). This discovery has questioned the endemicity of A. urmiana in Urmia Lake and has also brought into question the biogeographical origin of this species. In the present study, we combined recent genetic divergence data (mtDNA-COI) with palaeoecological evidence to address the biogeographical origin of A. urmiana. Calibration of the molecular clock of the COI region was set by assigning the age of the micro-crustacean Daphnia pulex minimally at 145 Mya. The divergence age of A. urmiana in Urmia Lake dates back to 383,000 years, whereas Ukrainian Artemia reflects a very young populations that diverged about 196,000 years ago. Palaeoecological evidence suggests that the age of the major habitat of A. urmiana i.e. Urmia Lake goes back to the Tertiary Period while the Ukranian habitats of the species are very young, by virtue of geological features of the Holocene age. We conclude that the biogeographical origin of A. urmiana is outside of Europe and the current state of knowledge strongly suggests that Urmia Lake has been the major source of its expansion into its modern habitats in Europe. PMID:27394547

  16. Thermal maturation and petroleum source rocks in Forest City and Salina basins, mid-continent, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, K.D.; Watney, W.L.; Hatch, J.R.; Xiaozhong, G.

    1986-05-01

    Shales in the Middle Ordovician Simpson Group are probably the source rocks for a geochemically distinct group of lower pristane and low phytane oils produced along the axis of the Forest City basin, a shallow cratonic Paleozoic basin. These oils, termed Ordovician-type oils, occur in some fields in the southern portion of the adjacent Salina basin. Maturation modeling by time-temperature index (TTI) calculations indicate that maturation of both basins was minimal during the early Paleozoic. The rate of maturation significantly increased during the Pennsylvanian because of rapid regional subsidence in response to the downwarping of the nearby Anadarko basin. When estimated thicknesses of eroded Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Cretaceous strata are considered, both basins remain relatively shallow, with maximum basement burial probably not exceeding 2 km. According to maturation modeling and regional structure mapping, the axes of both basins should contain Simpson rocks in the early stages of oil generation. The probability of finding commercial accumulations of Ordovician-type oil along the northwest-southeast trending axis of the Salina basin will decrease in a northwestward direction because of (1) westward thinning of the Simpson Group, and (2) lesser maturation due to lower geothermal gradients and shallower paleoburial depths. The optimum localities for finding fields of Ordovician-type oil in the southern Salina basin will be in down-plunge closures on anticlines that have drainage areas near the basin axis.

  17. Colorimetric Evaluation of the Viability of the Microalga Dunaliella Salina as a Test Tool for Nanomaterial Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Golubev, Alexander A; Prilepskii, Artur Y; Dykman, Lev A; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A

    2016-05-01

    A diagnostic test system was developed to determine the toxicity of nanomaterials to the saltwater microalga Dunaliella salina through evaluation of cell death and changes in the culture growth rate at various toxicant concentrations, providing LC50 and other toxicological metrics. The viability of cells was shown to decrease with decreasing chlorophyll absorption of red light by damaged cells. This correlation was confirmed by independent fluorescence microscopic measurements of live and dead cells in the population. Two standard colorless pollutants, hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde, were used to validate the colorimetric method. The method's performance is exemplified with three Ag-containing preparations (Ag nitrate, Ag proteinate, and 20-nm Ag nanoparticles) and with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) mixed with colloidal 15-nm Au and 20-nm Ag nanoparticles. The toxicity of the Ag-containing preparations to D. salina decreased in the order Ag nitrate ≥ Ag proteinate ≫ colloidal Ag. The toxicity of colloidal Au-CTAB mixtures was found to depend mostly on the content of free CTAB. The toxicity of colloidal Ag increased substantially in the presence of CTAB. The results suggest that our D. salina-based colorimetric test system can be used for simple and rapid preliminary screening of the toxicity of different nanomaterials. PMID:26865664

  18. Multicriteria analysis as a tool to investigate compatibility between conservation and development on Salina Island, Aeolian Archipelago, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodini, Antonio; Giavelli, Giovanni

    1992-09-01

    Several multicriteria evaluation techniques have been developed since the 1970s. The need to compare different territorial policies has justified their introduction into environmental research. These methods are based on the numerical manipulation of heterogeneous information, which varies in terms of reference scale and type of measure (continuous, ordinal, qualitative, binary, etc.). During recent years, diverse investigations have focused on general conditions on Salina, the “green island” of the Aeolian archipelago. Such studies, within an interdisciplinary project, aimed to explore the possibility of implementing conservation strategies that are compatible with human needs, landscape preservation, and sustainable economic development. Three different evaluation techniques are applied, namely multicriteria weighted concordance and discordance analysis and a qualitative procedure. They are used to compare four alternative plans for the socioeconomic development of Salina Island. These plans lie between extreme alternatives: total protection of natural resources and maximizing economic development based on tourism. The plans are compared to each other on the basis of 14 criteria that reflect the socioenvironmental perception of Salina's inhabitants. The approach used in this research seems particularly fruitful because of its flexibility: it offers decision makers the chance to manage heterogeneous data and information that is not easily quantifiable. Such “soft” information helps to evaluate environmental conditions more precisely, and to make a less damaging choice among alternative development plans.

  19. A first AFLP-Based Genetic Linkage Map for Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana and Its Application in Mapping the Sex Locus

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Stephanie; Bossier, Peter; Van Stappen, Gilbert; Vercauteren, Ilse; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Vuylsteke, Marnik

    2013-01-01

    We report on the construction of sex-specific linkage maps, the identification of sex-linked markers and the genome size estimation for the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Overall, from the analysis of 433 AFLP markers segregating in a 112 full-sib family we identified 21 male and 22 female linkage groups (2n = 42), covering 1,041 and 1,313 cM respectively. Fifteen putatively homologous linkage groups, including the sex linkage groups, were identified between the female and male linkage map. Eight sex-linked AFLP marker alleles were inherited from the female parent, supporting the hypothesis of a WZ–ZZ sex-determining system. The haploid Artemia genome size was estimated to 0.93 Gb by flow cytometry. The produced Artemia linkage maps provide the basis for further fine mapping and exploring of the sex-determining region and are a possible marker resource for mapping genomic loci underlying phenotypic differences among Artemia species. PMID:23469207

  20. [Stereotactic aspiration of Spirometra mansonides larvae].

    PubMed

    Caballero, Joel; Morales, Losmill; García, Diana; Alarcón, Idelmys; Torres, Anay; Sáez, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Brain sparganosis is a non-common parasite infection by Diphyllobothrium or Spirometra mansonoides larvae. This last one is responsible for most of the infestations in humans. We report a 19 years male patient bearer of a brain sparganosis. The patient presented with headache and left hemiparesis. CT diagnosis of right thalamic lesions was made and aspiration biopsy was performed using stereotactic system, obtaining a whole and death larvae. Histopathology confirms a CNS parasitism and it was treated initially with albendazol. ELISA test confirmed Spirometra spp. infestation. The patient developed asymptomatic with total remission of the lesions. It constitutes the second report in Cuba of brain sparganosis. PMID:26436792

  1. Oxygen and pH regulation of protein synthesis in mitochondria from Artemia franciscana embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Kwast, K E; Hand, S C

    1996-01-01

    To identify factors responsible for the down-regulation of mitochondrial biosynthetic processes during anoxia in encysted Artemia franciscana embryos, the effects of oxygen limitation and pH on protein synthesis were investigated in isolated mitochondria. At the optimal pH of 7.5, exposure of mitochondria to anoxia decreases the protein synthesis rate by 79%. Rates were suppressed by a further 10% at pH 6.8, the intracellular pH (pHi) measured under anoxia in vivo. Matrix pH, measured under identical conditions, was 8.43 +/- 0.01 at an extra-mitochondrial pH of 7.9 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3), 8.05 +/- 0.01 at pH 7.5, and 7.10 +/- 0.01 at pH 6.8. The matrix pH did not vary (P > or = 0.20) as a function of oxygen availability during the 1 h assays. Intramitochondrial purine nucleotides varied little as a function of pH. In contrast, after 1 h of protein synthesis under anoxia, ATP levels decreased by up to 40%, whereas AMP, ADP and GDP concentrations increased, and GTP and GMP concentrations remained relatively constant. The addition of 1 mM ATP at the onset of anoxia maintained the ATP/ADP ratio at the aerobic value, but did not stabilized the GTP/GDP ratio or rescue rates of protein synthesis. Thus, at present, we cannot eliminate the possibility that the decrease in the GTP/GDP ratio during anoxia may contribute to the suppression of protein synthesis. The effect of anoxia was reversible; the rate of protein synthesis upon reoxygenation after a 30 min bout of anoxia was comparable (P = 0.14) with the pre-anoxic rate (193 +/- 17 and 174 +/- 6 pmol of leucine per mg of protein respectively, mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3). The array of mitochondrial translation products did not differ qualitatively as a function of either oxygen availability or pH. Finally, similar pH profiles for protein synthesis were obtained with either [3H]leucine or [3H]histidine (known to use different transporters). Consequently, it is improbable that the pH-sensitivity of protein synthesis can be

  2. Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao-qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, termed as ocean acidification due to the elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on calcifying organisms such as marine crustacean are unclear. To understand the possible effects of ocean acidification on the physiological responses of a marine model crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, three groups of the cysts or animals were raised at different pH levels (8.2 as control; 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress according to the predictions for the end of this century and next century accordingly) for 24 h or two weeks, respectively, followed by examination of their hatching success, morphological appearance such as deformity and microstructure of animal body, growth (i.e. body length), survival rate, expression of selected genes (involved in development, immunity and cellular activity etc), and biological activity of several key enzymes (participated in antioxidant responses and physiological reactions etc). Our results clearly demonstrated that the cysts hatching rate, growth at late stage of acidification stress, and animal survival rate of brine shrimp were all reduced due to lower pH level (7.6 & 7.8) on comparison to the control group (pH 8.2), but no obvious change in deformity or microstructure of brine shrimp was present under these acidification stress by microscopy observation and section analysis. In addition, the animals subjected to a lower pH level of seawater underwent changes on their gene expressions, including Spätzle, MyD88, Notch, Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, prophenoloxidase, Apoptosis inhibitor 5, Trachealess, Caveolin-1 and Cyclin K. Meanwhile, several key enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, were also affected by acidified seawater stress. Taken together, our findings supports the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification indeed has a detrimental effect, in case of hatching success, growth and survival, on

  3. Effects of copper, cadmium, and zinc on the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).

    PubMed

    Brix, K V; Gerdes, R M; Adams, W J; Grosell, M

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts is surprisingly sensitive to ambient metal concentrations. These studies estimated median effective concentrations (EC50s) of 7, 5, and 28 microg l-1 for Cd, Cu, and Zn, suggesting that the hatching end point for A. franciscana is the most sensitive tested to date for Cd and Zn in saline environments and comparable in sensitivity with the most sensitive tested to date for Cu. Furthermore, these data suggest that brine shrimp are at significant risk from Cu and Zn in Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT, where ambient concentrations as high as 10 and 14 microg l-1, respectively, have been measured. Given that brine shrimp appear to be successfully reproducing in GSL, we hypothesized that these toxicity values were either biased low as a result of an artifact of the test method used or that site-specific water-quality conditions in the lake had decreased metal bioavailability such that brine shrimp could successfully reproduce. To test these hypotheses, we initiated a step-wise series of experiments. First we investigated the effects of pretreatment of brine shrimp cysts with antibiotics on brine shrimp sensitivity to metals because previous investigators as part of their test methods have used antibiotics. Next we considered the effect of ionic composition of the artificial test media on sensitivity. Finally, we evaluated the effects of the site-specific water quality of the GSL on metal bioavailability and toxicity. Results indicate that pretreatment of cysts with antibiotics had no effect on sensitivity. However, we were unable to repeat the previous values for Cd and Zn, obtaining EC50s of 11,859 and 289 microg l-1 for Cd and Zn, respectively. For Cu, however, we estimated an EC50 of 12 microg l-1, so we conducted further testing on the artificial media, adjusting the media composition to better reflect the Ca2+ and HCO3- concentration of normal seawater. This increased the EC50

  4. Quiescence in Artemia franciscana embryos: reversible arrest of metabolism and gene expression at low oxygen levels.

    PubMed

    Hand, S C

    1998-04-01

    Depression of the production and consumption of cellular energy appears to be a prerequisite for the survival of prolonged bouts of anoxia. A correlation exists between the degree of metabolic depression under anoxia and the duration of anoxia tolerance. In the case of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) embryos, oxygen deprivation induces a reversible quiescent state that can be tolerated for several years with substantial survivorship. A global arrest of cytoplasmic translation accompanies the transition into anoxia, and rates of protein synthesis in mitochondria from these embryos appears to be markedly reduced in response to anoxia. Previous evidence suggests that the acute acidification of intracellular pH (pHi) by over 1.0 unit during the transition into anoxia contributes to the depression of biosynthesis, but message limitation does not appear to play a role in the down-regulation in either cellular compartment. The ontogenetic increase in mRNA levels for a mitochondrial-encoded subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX I) and for nuclear-encoded actin is blocked by anoxia and aerobic acidosis (artificial quiescence imposed by intracellular acidification under aerobic conditions). Further, the levels of COX I and actin mRNA do not decline appreciably during 6 h bouts of quiescence, even though protein synthesis is acutely arrested across this same period. Thus, the constancy of mRNA levels during quiescence indicates that reduced protein synthesis is not caused by message limitation but, instead, is probably controlled at the translational level. This apparent stabilization of mRNA under anoxia is mirrored in an extension of protein half-life. The ubiquitin-dependent pathway for protein degradation is depressed under anoxia and aerobic acidosis, as judged by the acute drop in levels of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins. Mitochondrial protein synthesis is responsive to both acidification of pHi and removal of oxygen per se. Matrix pH declines in parallel with pHi, and

  5. Transcriptional initiation under conditions of anoxia-induced quiescence in mitochondria from Artemia franciscana embryos.

    PubMed

    Eads, Brian D; Hand, Steven C

    2003-02-01

    In response to anoxia, embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana are able coordinately to downregulate metabolism to levels low enough to permit survival for several years at room temperature. In addition to dramatic decreases in free ATP levels and heat production, intracellular pH drops from 7.8 to 6.3 overnight. Use of isolated mitochondria to study transcriptional responses to anoxia offers several advantages: (1). the localized nature of transcript initiation, processing and degradation, all of which may be followed in organello; (2). the relatively simple cis- and trans-machinery involved and (3). the ability to provide relevant physiological treatments in vitro. In response to anoxic incubation of embryos in vivo for 4 h followed by anoxic mitochondrial isolation and anoxic transcription assay at pH 6.4, a significant decrease in overall UTP incorporation (77%) was seen after 30 min relative to normoxic, pH 7.9 controls. A less severe inhibition of transcription under anoxia (52%) was observed compared with controls when pH was raised to 7.9. Similarly, under normoxia, the incubation at low pH (6.4) reduced transcription by 59%. Ribonuclease protection assays showed that the contribution of in vitro initiation during the assay fell from 78% at pH 7.9 to approximately 32% at pH 6.4 under either normoxic or anoxic conditions. DNA footprinting of putative transcriptional promoters revealed proteins at regular intervals upstream of the 12S rRNA in the control region, which previously had been indirectly inferred to contain promoters for H-strand transcription. The area between 1230 and 12065 contains a sequence in the tRNA(leu) gene believed to bind the transcription termination factor mTERF or TERM, and we provide the first evidence that this sequence is protein-bound in A. franciscana. However, our hypothesis that initiation is reduced at low pH because of a change in DNA binding by mitochondrial transcription factors was not confirmed. We propose that

  6. Comparison of pH-dependent allostery and dissociation for phosphofructokinases from Artemia embryos and rabbit muscle: nature of the enzymes acylated with diethylpyrocarbonate.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, J F; Hand, S C

    1986-07-01

    Purified Artemia phosphofructokinase (PFK), unlike the rabbit skeletal muscle enzyme, displays allosteric kinetics at pH 8, a feature that is functionally significant since the intracellular pH of the developing brine shrimp embryo is greater than or equal to 7.9. Catalytic activity of the Artemia enzyme is severely suppressed by acidic pH even when assayed at the adenylate nucleotide concentrations existing in anaerobic embryos, which is consistent with the lack of a Pasteur effect in these organisms. For both PFK homologs, carbethoxylation reduces the sensitivity to ATP and citrate inhibition, the cooperativity as a function of fructose 6-phosphate concentration and the degree of activation in the presence ADP, AMP, and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Considering the role of histidine protonation in PFK allosteric control, the capacity for regulatory kinetics seen at pH 8 in the Artemia enzyme could be explained in part by upward shifts in pKa values of ionizable residues. pH-induced dissociation of tetrameric Artemia PFK into inactive subunits does not occur during catalytic inhibition at acidic pH (pH 6.5, 6 degrees C), as judged by 90 degree light scattering. This observation contrasts markedly with the dimerization and inactivation of rabbit PFK, but is shown not to be unique when compared to other selected PFK homologs. Neither the acute pH sensitivity of Artemia PFK nor the pH-induced hysteretic inactivation displayed by the rabbit enzyme are altered by carbethoxylation, suggesting that ionizable residues involved in these two processes are not the same ones involved in allosteric kinetics. PMID:2942107

  7. EFFECTS OF THERMAL POLLUTION OF PELAGIC LARVAE OF CRUSTACEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larvae of six species, Cancer irroratus, C. borealis and Homarus americanus of coastal waters (high salinity), and Palaemonetes pugio, Pagurus longicarpus and Rhithropanopeus harrisii, from the estuarine region (variable salinity) were studied. Larvae were cultured at various com...

  8. Evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Kabra, Mayank; Branson, Kristin; Mirth, Christen

    2015-03-01

    Drosophilids, like other insects, go through a larval phase before metamorphosing into adults. Larvae increase their body weight by several orders of magnitude in a few days. We therefore hypothesized that foraging behavior is under strong evolutionary pressure to best fit the larval environment. To test our hypothesis we used a multidisciplinary approach to analyze foraging behavior across species and larval stages. First, we recorded several videos of larvae foraging for each of 47 Drosophilid species. Then, using a supervised machine learning approach, we automatically annotated the video collection for the foraging sub-behaviors, including crawling, turning, head casting or burrowing. We also computed over 100 features to describe the posture and dynamics of each animal in each video frame. From these data, we fit models to the behavior of each species. The models each had the same parametric form, but differed in the exact parameters. By simulating larva behavior in virtual arenas we can infer which properties of the environments are better for each species. Comparisons between these inferred environments and the actual environments where these animals live will give us a deeper understanding about the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae.

  9. Determination of Ion Content and Ion Fluxes in the Halotolerant Alga Dunaliella salina

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Uri; Karni, Leah; Avron, Mordhay

    1986-01-01

    A method to determine intracellular cation contents in Dunaliella by separation on cation-exchange minicolumns is described. The separation efficiency of cells from extracellular cations is over 99.9%; the procedure causes no apparent perturbation to the cells and can be applied to measure both fluxes and internal content of any desired cation. Using this technique it is demonstrated that the intracellular averaged Na+, K+, and Ca2+ concentrations in Dunaliella salina cultured at 1 to 4 molar NaCl, 5 millimolar K+, and 0.3 millimolar Ca2+ are 20 to 100 millimolar, 150 to 250 millimolar, and 1 to 3 millimolar, respectively. The intracellular K+ concentration is maintained constant over a wide range of media K+ concentrations (0.5-10 millimolar), leading to a ratio of K+ in the cells to K+ in the medium of 10 to 1,000. Severe limitation of external K+, induces loss of K+ and increase in Na+ inside the cells. The results suggest that Dunaliella cells possess efficient mechanisms to eliminate Na+ and accumulate K+ and that intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations are carefully regulated. The contribution of the intracellular Na+ and K+ salts to the total osmotic pressure of cells grown at 1 to 4 molar NaCl, is 5 to 20%. PMID:16664814

  10. Studies on the biochemistry and physiology of inositol phospholipids in Dunaliella salina

    SciTech Connect

    Einspahr, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the unicellular alga, Dunaliella salina, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}) comprise 14.8, 1.2, and 0.3 mol %, respectively, of cellular phospholipids. In isolated plasma membrane fractions, PIP and PIP{sub 2} are highly concentrated, together comprising 9.5 mol % of plasmalemma phospholipids. The metabolism of these inositol phospholipids and phosphatidic acid (PA) is very rapid under normal growth conditions, as illustrated by the fact that within 5 minutes after introduction of {sup 32}P{sub i} into the growth medium over 75% of lipid-bound label was found in these quantitatively minor phospholipids. Within 2 minutes after a sudden hypoosmotic shock, the levels of PIP{sub 2} and PIP dropped to 65 and 79%, respectively, of controls. Within the same time frame PA rose to 141% of control values. These data suggest that a rapid breakdown of the polyphosphoinositides may mediate the profound morphological and physiological changes which allow this organism to survive drastic hypoosmotic stress.

  11. Photomovement in Dunaliella salina: fluence rate-response curves and action spectra.

    PubMed

    Wayne, R; Kadota, A; Watanabe, M; Furuya, M

    1991-01-01

    We determined the action spectra of the photophobic responses as well as the phototactic response in Dunaliella salina (Volvocales) using both single cells and populations. The action spectra of the photophobic responses have maxima at 510 nm, the spectrum for phototaxis has a maximum at 450-460 nm. These action spectra are not compatible with the hypothesis that flavo-proteins are the photoreceptor pigments, and we suggest that carotenoproteins or rhodopsins act as the photoreceptor pigments. We also conclude that the phototactic response in Dunaliella is an elementary response, quite independent of the step-up and step-down photophobic responses. We also determined the action spectra of the photoaccumulation response in populations of cells adapted to two different salt conditions. Both action spectra have a peak at 490 nm. The photoaccumulation response may be a complex response composed of the phototactic and photophobic responses. Blue or blue-green light does not elicit a photokinetic response in Dunaliella. PMID:11538118

  12. PCR-identification of Dunaliella salina (Volvocales, Chlorophyta) and its growth characteristics.

    PubMed

    Raja, Rathinam; Hema Iswarya, Shanmugam; Balasubramanyam, Dakshanamoorthy; Rengasamy, Ramasamy

    2007-01-01

    The saline pond microalga, Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teod. maintained in De Walne's (basal) medium under laboratory conditions was confirmed by amplifying the chromosomal DNA of the microalga by PCR with specific primers MA1 and MA2. Seaweed extracts obtained from Sargassum wightii and Ulva lactuca were amended separately at 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% levels to the basal medium in order to assess their potential on the growth and concentration of pigments, viz. Chl a, Chl b and beta-carotene of the alga. beta-Carotene was isolated and visible absorption spectrum was taken at 443 and 475 nm confirmed the presence of 9-cis-beta-carotene and all-trans-beta-carotene isomers. Maximum yield, highest division rate (mu) and highest pigment concentrations were observed in the cells grown in 1.5% S. wightii and 2.0% U. lactuca amended medium and these cells were subjected to DAPI staining. The results of epifluorescence microscopy and image analysis revealed a significant enhancement of the cell and nuclear area of the microalgae. PMID:16697630

  13. Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2012-03-12

    Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

  14. Dietary β-glucan (MacroGard®) enhances survival of first feeding turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae by altering immunity, metabolism and microbiota.

    PubMed

    Miest, Joanna J; Arndt, Carmen; Adamek, Mikolaj; Steinhagen, Dieter; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting the natural biology of mass spawning fish aquaculture production of fish larvae is often hampered by high and unpredictable mortality rates. The present study aimed to enhance larval performance and immunity via the oral administration of an immunomodulator, β-glucan (MacroGard(®)) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) were incubated with or without yeast β-1,3/1,6-glucan in form of MacroGard(®) at a concentration of 0.5 g/L. Rotifers were fed to first feeding turbot larvae once a day. From day 13 dph onwards all tanks were additionally fed untreated Artemia sp. nauplii (1 nauplius ml/L). Daily mortality was monitored and larvae were sampled at 11 and 24 dph for expression of 30 genes, microbiota analysis, trypsin activity and size measurements. Along with the feeding of β-glucan daily mortality was significantly reduced by ca. 15% and an alteration of the larval microbiota was observed. At 11 dph gene expression of trypsin and chymotrypsin was elevated in the MacroGard(®) fed fish, which resulted in heightened tryptic enzyme activity. No effect on genes encoding antioxidative proteins was observed, whilst the immune response was clearly modulated by β-glucan. At 11 dph complement component c3 was elevated whilst cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, toll like receptor 3 and heat shock protein 70 were not affected. At the later time point (24 dph) an anti-inflammatory effect in form of a down-regulation of hsp 70, tnf-α and il-1β was observed. We conclude that the administration of MacroGard(®) induced an immunomodulatory response and could be used as an effective measure to increase survival in rearing of turbot. PMID:26564474

  15. An Introduction to the Identification of Chironomid Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, William T., Jr.

    This publication is an introductory guide to the identification of Chironomid (Midge) larvae. The larvae of these small flies are an important link in the food chain between algae and microinvertebrates. As a family, the larvae exhibit a wide range of tolerance to environmental factors such as amounts and types of pollutants. Much of this…

  16. Workbook on the Identification of Anopheles Larvae. Preliminary Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; Stojanovich, Chester J.

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable malarial control workers to identify the larvae of "Anopheles" species that are important malaria vectors. The morphological features of the larvae are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains an illustrated taxonomic key to 25 species of anopheline larvae. A glossary and a short…

  17. The Potential Role of As-sumo-1 in the Embryonic Diapause Process and Early Embryo Development of Artemia sinica

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Bing; Yao, Feng; Cheng, Cheng; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    During embryonic development of Artemia sinica, environmental stresses induce the embryo diapause phenomenon, required to resist apoptosis and regulate cell cycle activity. The small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO), a reversible post-translational protein modifier, plays an important role in embryo development. SUMO regulates multiple cellular processes, including development and other biological processes. The molecular mechanism of diapause, diapause termination and the role of As-sumo-1 in this processes and in early embryo development of Artemia sinica still remains unknown. In this study, the complete cDNA sequences of the sumo-1 homolog, sumo ligase homolog, caspase-1 homolog and cyclin B homolog from Artemia sinica were cloned. The mRNA expression patterns of As-sumo-1, sumo ligase, caspase-1, cyclin B and the location of As-sumo-1 were investigated. SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E proteins were analyzed during different developmental stages of the embryo of A. sinica. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to verify the function of sumo-1 in A. sinica. The full-length cDNA of As-sumo-1 was 476 bp, encoding a 92 amino acid protein. The As-caspases-1 cDNA was 966 bp, encoding a 245 amino-acid protein. The As-sumo ligase cDNA was 1556 bp encoding, a 343 amino acid protein, and the cyclin B cDNA was 739 bp, encoding a 133 amino acid protein. The expressions of As-sumo-1, As-caspase-1 and As-cyclin B were highest at the 10 h stage of embryonic development, and As-sumo ligase showed its highest expression at 0 h. The expression of As-SUMO-1 showed no tissue or organ specificity. Western blotting showed high expression of As-SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E at the 10 h stage. The siRNA caused abnormal development of the embryo, with increased malformation and mortality. As-SUMO-1 is a crucial regulation and modification protein resumption of embryonic diapause and early embryo development of A. sinica. PMID:24404204

  18. Primary structure and effect of pH on the expression of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase from Dunaliella acidophila and Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, M; Pick, U

    1996-01-01

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene was cloned and sequenced from the extremely acidophilic green alga Dunaliella acidophila and from the extremely halotolerant Dunaliella salina. A special feature of the Dunaliella H(+)-ATPase is an extended C-terminal domain. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two proteins are 75% identical but differ in their C terminus. A hydrophilic loop within this domain in D. salina, which presumably faces the cell exterior, has a high ratio of acidic over basic amino acids, typical of halophilic proteins. The amount of the ATPase protein in plasma membranes and the level of its mRNA transcript in D. acidophila are far higher than in D. salina, suggesting that D. acidophila overexpresses the enzyme. A pH shift from 9.0 to 7.0 induces in D. salina a large increase in the level of the H(+)-ATPase mRNA and in the amount of the H(+)-ATPase protein. This suggests that the expression of the H(+)-ATPase in D. salina is pH-regulated at the transcriptional level. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the adaptive pressures imposed on these algal species by their exceptional environmental conditions. PMID:8972605

  19. Quantitative proteomic analysis of thylakoid from two microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina) reveals two different high light-responsive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wenhui; Li, Huan; Zhao, Peipei; Yu, Ruixue; Pan, Guanghua; Gao, Shan; Xie, Xiujun; Huang, Aiyou; He, Linwen; Wang, Guangce

    2014-01-01

    Under high light (HL) stress, astaxanthin-accumulating Haematococcus pluvialis and β-carotene-accumulating Dunaliella salina showed different responsive patterns. To elucidate cellular-regulating strategies photosynthetically and metabolically, thylakoid membrane proteins in H. pluvialis and D. salina were extracted and relatively quantified after 0 h, 24 h and 48 h of HL stress. Proteomic analysis showed that three subunits of the cytochrome b6/f complex were greatly reduced under HL stress in H. pluvialis, while they were increased in D. salina. Additionally, the major subunits of both photosystem (PS) II and PSI reaction center proteins were first reduced and subsequently recovered in H. pluvialis, while they were gradually reduced in D. salina. D. salina also showed a greater ability to function using the xanthophyll-cycle and the cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer pathway compared to H. pluvialis. We propose a reoriented and effective HL-responsive strategy in H. pluvialis, enabling it to acclimate under HL. The promising metabolic pathway described here contains a reorganized pentose phosphate pathway, Calvin cycle and glycolysis pathway participating in carbon sink formation under HL in H. pluvialis. Additionally, the efficient carbon reorientation strategy in H. pluvialis was verified by elevated extracellular carbon assimilation and rapid conversion into astaxanthin. PMID:25335577

  20. Quantitative proteomic analysis of thylakoid from two microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina) reveals two different high light-responsive strategies.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenhui; Li, Huan; Zhao, Peipei; Yu, Ruixue; Pan, Guanghua; Gao, Shan; Xie, Xiujun; Huang, Aiyou; He, Linwen; Wang, Guangce

    2014-01-01

    Under high light (HL) stress, astaxanthin-accumulating Haematococcus pluvialis and β-carotene-accumulating Dunaliella salina showed different responsive patterns. To elucidate cellular-regulating strategies photosynthetically and metabolically, thylakoid membrane proteins in H. pluvialis and D. salina were extracted and relatively quantified after 0 h, 24 h and 48 h of HL stress. Proteomic analysis showed that three subunits of the cytochrome b6/f complex were greatly reduced under HL stress in H. pluvialis, while they were increased in D. salina. Additionally, the major subunits of both photosystem (PS) II and PSI reaction center proteins were first reduced and subsequently recovered in H. pluvialis, while they were gradually reduced in D. salina. D. salina also showed a greater ability to function using the xanthophyll-cycle and the cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer pathway compared to H. pluvialis. We propose a reoriented and effective HL-responsive strategy in H. pluvialis, enabling it to acclimate under HL. The promising metabolic pathway described here contains a reorganized pentose phosphate pathway, Calvin cycle and glycolysis pathway participating in carbon sink formation under HL in H. pluvialis. Additionally, the efficient carbon reorientation strategy in H. pluvialis was verified by elevated extracellular carbon assimilation and rapid conversion into astaxanthin. PMID:25335577

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus larvae MEX14, Isolated from Honey Bee Larvae from the Xochimilco Quarter in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Peréz de la Rosa, D; Pérez de la Rosa, J J; Cossio-Bayugar, R; Miranda-Miranda, E; Lozano, L; Bravo-Díaz, M A; Rocha-Martínez, M K; Sachman-Ruiz, B

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae strain MEX14 is a facultative anaerobic endospore-forming bacterium that infects Apis mellifera larvae. Strain MEX14 was isolated from domestic bee larvae collected in a backyard in Mexico City. The estimated genome size was determined to be 4.18 Mb, and it harbors 4,806 protein coding genes (CDSs). PMID:26316636

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus larvae MEX14, Isolated from Honey Bee Larvae from the Xochimilco Quarter in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Peréz de la Rosa, D.; Pérez de la Rosa, J. J.; Cossio-Bayugar, R.; Miranda-Miranda, E.; Lozano, L.; Bravo-Díaz, M. A.; Rocha-Martínez, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae strain MEX14 is a facultative anaerobic endospore-forming bacterium that infects Apis mellifera larvae. Strain MEX14 was isolated from domestic bee larvae collected in a backyard in Mexico City. The estimated genome size was determined to be 4.18 Mb, and it harbors 4,806 protein coding genes (CDSs). PMID:26316636

  3. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-01-01

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas. PMID:27395963

  4. Toxicity of dissolved ozone to fish eggs and larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Asbury, C.; Coler, R.

    1980-07-01

    To find levels of dissolved residual ozone lethal to fish eggs and larvae during brief exposures, continuous-flow toxicity tests were performed with eggs and larvae of yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), eggs of white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), and larvae of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). The 50 and 99% lethal concentrations with confidence limits were calculated. Eggs of the species tested were more tolerant than larvae, which were destroyed by very brief exposures (less than 2 minutes) to residuals less than 0.1 mg/1. Because of the sensitivity of the larvae, residual ozone concentrations in natural waters should remain well below 50 ..mu..g/1.

  5. Lethal and sublethal endpoints observed for Artemia exposed to two reference toxicants and an ecotoxicological concern organic compound.

    PubMed

    Manfra, Loredana; Canepa, Sara; Piazza, Veronica; Faimali, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Swimming speed alteration and mortality assays with the marine crustacean Artemia franciscana were carried out. EC50 and LC50 values after 24-48h exposures were calculated for two reference toxicants, copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O) and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS), and an ecotoxicological concern organic compound, Diethylene Glycol (DEG). Different end-points have been evaluated, in order to point out their sensitivity levels. The swimming speed alteration (SSA) was compared to mortality values and also to the hatching rate inhibition (literature data). SSA resulted to be more sensitive than the mortality and with a sensitivity comparable to (or even higher than) the hatching rate endpoint. PMID:26344887

  6. Encysted parasitic larvae in the mouth.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L S; Allard, R H

    1984-04-01

    Oral appearances of intestinal parasitic disease are rare. One such appearance is the presence in oral tissues of encysted or encapsulated larvae of organisms from the classes Cestoidea and Nematoda. Cestode larvae form cyst-like lesions that are often clinically diagnosed as mucoceles. In these lesions, the cyst cavity is lined by fibrous tissue with inflammatory cells, and contains fluid and the larval stage of a parasite. The diagnosis of these parasitic cysts is more frequently made in younger persons. The cysts may be treated by simple excision, but care must be taken that the cyst does not rupture, as in some parasites this may result in new cyst formation. Nematode infection in the oral cavity, the most common of which appears to be trichinosis, is rarely reported. Patients with oral or maxillofacial (or both) parasitic disease must undergo a thorough medical investigation to exclude possible life-threatening involvement in other parts of the body. PMID:6586809

  7. Visceral larva migrans (toxocariasis) in Toronto.

    PubMed Central

    Fanning, M; Hill, A; Langer, H M; Keystone, J S

    1981-01-01

    A 7-year-old child was admitted to Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children in 1976 with symptoms and laboratory findings compatible with visceral larva migrans, a disease usually caused by Toxocara canis. This prompted a search for other cases seen at the hospital during the period 1952 through 1978. Only 18 cases were discovered that met at least three of six criteria and thus were considered possible or probably cases of the disease. Three possible cases of ocular toxocariasis during the same period were also uncovered. Fever was the commonest presenting symptom. Eosinophilia, leukocytosis and hyperglobulinemia were the most frequent laboratory findings. In view of the small number of cases found in 27 years at this large pediatric hospital with a broad referral base, it is concluded that visceral larva migrans poses little risk to the health of children in the Toronto area. PMID:7459767

  8. Habitat of oil in the Lindsborg field, Salina basin, north-central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, K.D. )

    1991-03-01

    The Lindsborg field was discovered in 1938, and is now 14 mi in length and 1-2 mi in width. It has a projected ultimate recovery of 16 MMBO. Three pay zones (5-20 ft thick) produce in the field. The Simpson pay zone (Middle Ordovician) is a well-rounded, quartzitic sandstone that is interpreted to be a paralic, high-energy shelf deposit. The Viola pay (Middle Ordovician) appears to be a dolomitic, lime grainstone but no cores are available to confirm this. The uppermost pay zone, the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa, is a finely laminated, vuggy, cherry dolomite interpreted to have been deposited as a subtidal lime mudstone in a restricted lagoon. The Simpson and Viola pays are structurally trapped in culminations along the crest of the Lindsborg anticline. Although the Maquoketa pay is structurally trapped with the other pay zones in the southern half of the field, its locus of production in the north half of the fields extends 100 ft vertically down the western flank of the anticline. The trapping mechanism is unclear due to lack of core control and modern logging suites, but it may be subtle updip diagenetic change from vuggy to nonvuggy dolomite. The Simpson and Maquoketa oils are geochemically distinct. Both may reflect efficient local source-to-reservoir migration from originally rich but marginally mature Ordovician and Devonian shales that contact each pay zone. If oil in the Lindsborg field is locally generated, the prospectivity of the relatively unproductive and underexplored Salina basin may be enhanced.

  9. Effects of iron deficiency on iron binding and internalization into acidic vacuoles in Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Paz, Yakov; Shimoni, Eyal; Weiss, Meira; Pick, Uri

    2007-07-01

    Uptake of iron in the halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina is mediated by a transferrin-like protein (TTf), which binds and internalizes Fe(3+) ions. Recently, we found that iron deficiency induces a large enhancement of iron binding, which is associated with accumulation of three other plasma membrane proteins that associate with TTf. In this study, we characterized the kinetic properties of iron binding and internalization and identified the site of iron internalization. Iron deficiency induces a 4-fold increase in Fe binding, but only 50% enhancement in the rate of iron uptake and also increases the affinity for iron and bicarbonate, a coligand for iron binding. These results indicate that iron deprivation leads to accumulation and modification of iron-binding sites. Iron uptake in iron-sufficient cells is preceded by an apparent time lag, resulting from prebound iron, which can be eliminated by unloading iron-binding sites. Iron is tightly bound to surface-exposed sites and hardly exchanges with medium iron. All bound iron is subsequently internalized. Accumulation of iron inhibits further iron binding and internalization. The vacuolar inhibitor bafilomycin inhibits iron uptake and internalization. Internalized iron was localized by electron microscopy within vacuolar structures that were identified as acidic vacuoles. Iron internalization is accompanied by endocytosis of surface proteins into these acidic vacuoles. A novel kinetic mechanism for iron uptake is proposed, which includes two pools of bound/compartmentalized iron separated by a rate-limiting internalization stage. The major parameter that is modulated by iron deficiency is the iron-binding capacity. We propose that excessive iron binding in iron-deficient cells serves as a temporary reservoir for iron that is subsequently internalized. This mechanism is particularly suitable for organisms that are exposed to large fluctuations in iron availability. PMID:17513481

  10. Low Temperature-Induced Alterations in the Chloroplast and Microsomal Membranes of Dunaliella salina1

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Daniel V.; Thompson, Guy A.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolic regulation of membrane lipid composition has been examined using the cell wall-less, unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina (UTEX 1644) as a model system. Low temperature stress was employed to initiate and study the regulatory response. When cultures growing logarithmically at 30°C were chilled to 12°C, cell division ceased for approximately 100 hours, and then the cells resumed logarithmic growth at a slower rate. The phospholipid, glycolipid and protein content, on a per cell basis, was, in each case, approximately 20% higher in cells grown at 12°C. The volume of the 12°C-acclimated cells was 2.8 times that of 30°C-grown cells. The quantity of chloroplast membrane, as determined by morphometric analysis, was 20% greater, whereas the content of microsomal membrane material was more elevated, being approximately 2.8 times that of 30°C-grown cells. Lipid compositional analyses were carried out on purified chloroplasts and microsomes isolated from Dunaliella grown at 30 and 12°C and also from cells 12 and 60 hours following a shift from 30 to 12°C. In both chloroplast and microsomal phospholipids fatty acid unsaturation increased during acclimation to low temperature. Generally, microsomal phospholipids responded more quickly and to a greater extent than did chloroplast phospholipids. Despite these alterations, little change in the relative proportions of phospholipid classes was observed in either cell fraction. In sharp contrast to the pattern of phospholipid change, chloroplast glycolipids responded to low temperature by significantly increasing the proportion of one specific class, digalactosyl diglycerides, relative to monogalactosyl diglycerides, while showing minimal change in fatty acid distribution within any given glycolipid class. The ease and rapidity with which Dunaliella cells can be manipulated with respect to environmental stress and isolation of intact cell organelles makes it particularly well suited for research on

  11. Oxidative Stress Is a Mediator for Increased Lipid Accumulation in a Newly Isolated Dunaliella salina Strain

    PubMed Central

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cokol, Murat; Pastirmaci, Inanc; Erman, Batu; Cetiner, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Green algae offer sustainable, clean and eco-friendly energy resource. However, production efficiency needs to be improved. Increasing cellular lipid levels by nitrogen depletion is one of the most studied strategies. Despite this, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms of this response have not been well defined. Algae species adapted to hypersaline conditions can be cultivated in salty waters which are not useful for agriculture or consumption. Due to their inherent extreme cultivation conditions, use of hypersaline algae species is better suited for avoiding culture contamination issues. In this study, we identified a new halophilic Dunaliella salina strain by using 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We found that growth and biomass productivities of this strain were directly related to nitrogen levels, as the highest biomass concentration under 0.05 mM or 5 mM nitrogen regimes were 495 mg/l and 1409 mg/l, respectively. We also confirmed that nitrogen limitation increased cellular lipid content up to 35% under 0.05 mM nitrogen concentration. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of this phenomenon, we applied fluorometric, flow cytometric and spectrophotometric methods to measure oxidative stress and enzymatic defence mechanisms. Under nitrogen depleted cultivation conditions, we observed increased lipid peroxidation by measuring an important oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde and enhanced activation of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzymes. These observations indicated that oxidative stress is accompanied by increased lipid content in the green alga. In addition, we also showed that at optimum cultivation conditions, inducing oxidative stress by application of exogenous H2O2 leads to increased cellular lipid content up to 44% when compared with non-treated control groups. Our results support that oxidative stress and lipid overproduction are linked. Importantly, these results also suggest that

  12. Oxidative stress is a mediator for increased lipid accumulation in a newly isolated Dunaliella salina strain.

    PubMed

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cokol, Murat; Pastirmaci, Inanc; Erman, Batu; Cetiner, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Green algae offer sustainable, clean and eco-friendly energy resource. However, production efficiency needs to be improved. Increasing cellular lipid levels by nitrogen depletion is one of the most studied strategies. Despite this, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms of this response have not been well defined. Algae species adapted to hypersaline conditions can be cultivated in salty waters which are not useful for agriculture or consumption. Due to their inherent extreme cultivation conditions, use of hypersaline algae species is better suited for avoiding culture contamination issues. In this study, we identified a new halophilic Dunaliella salina strain by using 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We found that growth and biomass productivities of this strain were directly related to nitrogen levels, as the highest biomass concentration under 0.05 mM or 5 mM nitrogen regimes were 495 mg/l and 1409 mg/l, respectively. We also confirmed that nitrogen limitation increased cellular lipid content up to 35% under 0.05 mM nitrogen concentration. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of this phenomenon, we applied fluorometric, flow cytometric and spectrophotometric methods to measure oxidative stress and enzymatic defence mechanisms. Under nitrogen depleted cultivation conditions, we observed increased lipid peroxidation by measuring an important oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde and enhanced activation of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzymes. These observations indicated that oxidative stress is accompanied by increased lipid content in the green alga. In addition, we also showed that at optimum cultivation conditions, inducing oxidative stress by application of exogenous H2O2 leads to increased cellular lipid content up to 44% when compared with non-treated control groups. Our results support that oxidative stress and lipid overproduction are linked. Importantly, these results also suggest that

  13. The early stress responses in fish larvae.

    PubMed

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mola, Lucrezia

    2016-05-01

    During the life cycle of fish the larval stages are the most interesting and variable. Teleost larvae undergo a daily increase in adaptability and many organs differentiate and become active. These processes are concerted and require an early neuro-immune-endocrine integration. In larvae communication among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems utilizes several known signal molecule families which could be different from those of the adult fish. The immune-neuroendocrine system was studied in several fish species, among which in particular the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), that is a species of great commercial interest, very important in aquaculture and thus highly studied. Indeed the immune system of this species is the best known among marine teleosts. In this review the data on main signal molecules of stress carried out on larvae of fish are considered and discussed. For sea bass active roles in the early immunological responses of some well-known molecules involved in the stress, such as ACTH, nitric oxide, CRF, HSP-70 and cortisol have been proposed. These molecules and/or their receptors are biologically active mainly in the gut before complete differentiation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), probably acting in an autocrine/paracrine way. An intriguing idea emerges from all results of these researches; the molecules involved in stress responses, expressed in the adult cells of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, during the larval life of fish are present in several other localizations, where they perform probably the same role. It may be hypothesized that the functions performed by hypothalamic-pituitary system are particularly important for the survival of the larva and therefore they comprises several other localizations of body. Indeed the larval stages of fish are very crucial phases that include many physiological changes and several possible stress both internal and environmental. PMID:26968620

  14. Caffeine Taste Signaling in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Köhn, Saskia; Stehle, Bernhard; Lutz, Michael; Wüst, Alexander; Mazija, Lorena; Rist, Anna; Galizia, C. Giovanni; Lüdke, Alja; Thum, Andreas S.

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative co-receptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s). This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviors. PMID:27555807

  15. Caffeine Taste Signaling in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Köhn, Saskia; Stehle, Bernhard; Lutz, Michael; Wüst, Alexander; Mazija, Lorena; Rist, Anna; Galizia, C Giovanni; Lüdke, Alja; Thum, Andreas S

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative co-receptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s). This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviors. PMID:27555807

  16. Molecular detection of marine invertebrate larvae.

    PubMed

    Goffredi, Shana K; Jones, William J; Scholin, Christopher A; Marin, Roman; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    The ecological patterns of many invertebrate larvae remain an ongoing mystery, in large part owing to the difficult task of detecting them in the water column. The development of nucleic-acid-based technology has the potential to resolve this issue by direct identification and monitoring of embryonic and larval forms in situ. We report herein on the successful development and application of nucleic-acid-based sandwich hybridization assays that detect barnacles using rRNA-targeted probes with both group-(order Thoracica) and species-(Balanus glandula) specificity. Primary results include the determination of target 18S rRNA sequences and the construction of "capture" probes for detection of larvae using hybridization techniques. In addition, we modified existing protocols for whole cell hybridization of invertebrate larvae as confirmation of the sandwich hybridization results. We used both hybridization techniques successfully in the laboratory on a plankton time series collected over 3 months, as well as a week-long in situ deployment of the technique in Monterey Bay, CA. The adaptability of this technology promises to be further applicable to various organisms and could be used to enhance our understanding of larval presence in the world's oceans. PMID:16380809

  17. Horizontal anisotropy of the principal ground-water flow zone in the Salinas alluvial fan, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones-Aponte, V.

    1989-01-01

    Well drawdown data from an anisotropic aquifer in the Salinas alluvial fan were collected and analyzed with a computer program called TENSOR2D. The program uses ordinary and weighted least-squares optimization procedures to solve the system of simultaneous equations needed to define the theoretical transmissivity ellipse. Prediction of drawdown data was made by coupling the anisotropy ellipse with the Hantush modified leaky-confined or Theis model. Drawdown data predicted by using the theoretical directional diffusivity obtained with the weighted least-squared fit gave a more accurate representation of the actual drawdown data than when using the test-data directional diffusivity. -from Author

  18. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    PubMed Central

    Safafar, Hamed; Hass, Michael Z.; Møller, Per; Holdt, Susan L.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scale using a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large-scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark. The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good source of protein (amino acids), tocopherols and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry. PMID:27483291

  19. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium.

    PubMed

    Safafar, Hamed; Hass, Michael Z; Møller, Per; Holdt, Susan L; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scale using a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large-scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark. The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good source of protein (amino acids), tocopherols and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry. PMID:27483291

  20. Biochemical characterization of different genotypes of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, a honey bee bacterial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Neuendorf, Sandra; Hedtke, Kati; Tangen, Gerhard; Genersch, Elke

    2004-07-01

    Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (P. l. larvae) is the aetiological agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most virulent bacterial disease of honey bee brood worldwide. In many countries AFB is a notifiable disease since it is highly contagious, in most cases incurable and able to kill affected colonies. Genotyping of field isolates of P. l. larvae revealed at least four genotypes (AB, Ab, ab and alpha B) present in Germany which are genotypically different from the reference strain DSM 7030. Therefore, based on these data, five different genotypes of P. l. larvae are now identified with genotype AB standing out with a characteristic brown-orange and circled two-coloured colony morphology. Analysing the metabolic profiles of three German genotypes (AB, Ab and ab) as well as of the reference strain using the Biolog system, a characteristic biochemical fingerprint could be obtained for each strain. Cluster analysis showed that while genotypes Ab, ab and the reference strain DSM 7030 are rather similar, genotype AB is clearly different from the others. Analysis of all isolates for plasmid DNA revealed two different plasmids present only in isolates belonging to genotype AB. Therefore, genotype AB is remarkable in all aspects analysed so far. Future analysis will show whether or not these differences will expand to differences in virulence. PMID:15256579

  1. Bioactive polychlorinated bibenzyls from the liverwort Riccardia polyclada.

    PubMed

    Labbé, Cecilia; Faini, Francesca; Villagrán, Carolina; Coll, Josep; Rycroft, David S

    2007-12-01

    GC-MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopic profiling of a CDCl 3 extract of the liverwort Riccardia polyclada (syn. R. umbrosa) revealed the presence of four main compounds bearing several chlorine atoms on a bibenzyl skeleton. Separation of a CH 2Cl 2 extract was achieved using preparative TLC, and structures 1- 4 were proposed on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Compounds 1- 4 were active in a brine shrimp lethality bioassay ( Artemia salina). In addition, 2 and 4 displayed moderate antifeedant activity in disk-choice bioassays with Spodoptera littoralis larvae and inhibited the growth of Cladosporium herbarum cultures on TLC plates. PMID:18020419

  2. Sannastatin, a novel toxic macrolactam polyketide glycoside produced by actinomycete Streptomyces sannanensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhang, An-Ling; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2011-07-01

    A new rare 20-membered macrocyclic lactam incorporating a diene conjugated olefin, designated sannastatin (1), together with the known structurally related vicenistatin (2), has been isolated from the cultures of Streptomyces sannanensis, a bacteria found in the feces of Ailuropoda melanoleuca. The structure of the new compound was established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D- and 2D-NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed significant growth inhibitory activity against the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. PMID:21640585

  3. In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara

    PubMed Central

    Pour, Badakhshan Mahdi; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara (L. Camara) in Artemia salina. Methods The methanol extracts of L. camara were tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality assay. Results All the tested extract exhibited very low toxicity on brine shrimp larva. The results showed that the root extract was the most toxic part of L. camara and may have potential as anticancer agent. Conclusions Methanolic extract of L. camara is relatively safe on short-term exposure. PMID:23569765

  4. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  5. Drosophila larvae: Thermal ecology in changing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, George

    Temperature affects almost all aspects of life. Although much work has been done to assess the impact of temperature on organismal performance, relatively little is known about how organisms behaviorally regulate temperature, how these behaviors effect population fitness, or how changing climate may interact with these behaviors. I explore these questions with the model system Drosophila larvae. Larvae are small, with a low thermal mass and limited capacity for physiological thermoregulation. Mortality is generally high in larvae, with large potential impacts on population growth rate. Thus behavioral thermoregulation in larvae should be of critical selective importance. I present a review of the current knowledge of Drosophila thermal preference. I describe quantifiable thermoregulatory behaviors ( TMV and TW) unique to larvae. I show interspecific variation of these behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster and several close relatives, and intraspecific variation between populations collected from different environments. I also investigate these behaviors in two mutant lines, ssa and biz, to investigate the genetic basis of these behaviors. I show that larval thermoregulatory systems are independent of those of adults. Further these thermoregulatory behaviors differ between two sister species, D. yakuba and D. santomea. Although these two species readily hybridize in laboratory conditions, very few hybrids are observed in the field. The surprising result that hybrids of D. yakuba and D. santomea seem to inherit TMV from D. yakuba suggests a novel extrinsic isolation mechanism between the two species. I explore how fitness is the result of the interaction between genetics and the environment. I utilize Monte Carlo simulation to show how non-linear norms of reaction generate variation in populations even in the absence of behavior or epigenetic evolutionary mechanisms. Finally I investigate the global distribution of temperatures in which these organisms exist using

  6. Physiological characteristics and stress resistance of great sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles fed with vitamins C, E, and HUFA-enriched Artemia urmiana nauplii.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza

    2010-09-01

    This study was carried out to examine the effect of Artemia urmiana nauplii enriched with HUFA, and vitamins C and E on stress tolerance, hematocrit, and biochemical parameters of great sturgeon, Huso huso juveniles. Cod liver oil (EPA 18% and DHA 12%), ascorbyl-6-palmitate and alpha-tocopherol acetate were used as lipid, and vitamin C and E sources, respectively. Beluga juveniles at the stage of first feeding (69.7 +/- 5.9 mg body weight) were randomly divided into five treatments and three tanks were assigned to each diet. All fish groups were fed non-enriched Artemia for the initial 5 days and then fed enriched Artemia for 7 days. Juveniles were fed with Artemia enriched with HUFA + 20% vitamin C (C group); HUFA + 20% vitamin E-enriched Artemia nauplii (E group); HUFA + 20% vitamin C + 20% vitamin E (C and E group); HUFA without vitamins (HUFA) and non-enriched Artemia (control). After the period of enrichment, Juveniles were fed with Daphnia sp. from the 13th to the 40th day. At day 40, the fish were transferred directly from fresh water (0.5 ppt) to brackish water (6 ppt for 4 days and 12 ppt for 2 days) and warm water (from 27 to 33 degrees C) to evaluate juvenile resistance to salinity and thermal shocks. Moreover, all treatments were separately exposed to freshwater in tanks with the same capacity as used for osmotic and thermal tests (as fresh water control). The addition of vitamins C, E, and C + E to HUFA significantly increased fish resistance to 12 ppt salinity and temperature stress tests, whereas survival was not significantly different among challenges at 6 ppt. There was no significant difference in the hematocrit index under stress conditions. Enrichment had significant influence on plasma Na(+) level in the C group on the 4th day at 6 ppt. Na(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations in C, E, and C and E groups on the 1st day at 12 ppt, and Ca(2+) level in E group on the 2nd day at 12 ppt were lower than the other groups. The glucose level in the C and C and

  7. Requirements for in vitro germination of Paenibacillus larvae spores.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Israel; Phui, Andy; Elekonich, Michelle M; Abel-Santos, Ernesto

    2013-03-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), a disease affecting honey bee larvae. First- and second-instar larvae become infected when they ingest food contaminated with P. larvae spores. The spores then germinate into vegetative cells that proliferate in the midgut of the honey bee. Although AFB affects honey bees only in the larval stage, P. larvae spores can be distributed throughout the hive. Because spore germination is critical for AFB establishment, we analyzed the requirements for P. larvae spore germination in vitro. We found that P. larvae spores germinated only in response to l-tyrosine plus uric acid under physiologic pH and temperature conditions. This suggests that the simultaneous presence of these signals is necessary for spore germination in vivo. Furthermore, the germination profiles of environmentally derived spores were identical to those of spores from a biochemically typed strain. Because l-tyrosine and uric acid are the only required germinants in vitro, we screened amino acid and purine analogs for their ability to act as antagonists of P. larvae spore germination. Indole and phenol, the side chains of tyrosine and tryptophan, strongly inhibited P. larvae spore germination. Methylation of the N-1 (but not the C-3) position of indole eliminated its ability to inhibit germination. Identification of the activators and inhibitors of P. larvae spore germination provides a basis for developing new tools to control AFB. PMID:23264573

  8. Interactions among Drosophila larvae before and during collision.

    PubMed

    Otto, Nils; Risse, Benjamin; Berh, Dimitri; Bittern, Jonas; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Klämbt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In populations of Drosophila larvae, both, an aggregation and a dispersal behavior can be observed. However, the mechanisms coordinating larval locomotion in respect to other animals, especially in close proximity and during/after physical contacts are currently only little understood. Here we test whether relevant information is perceived before or during larva-larva contacts, analyze its influence on behavior and ask whether larvae avoid or pursue collisions. Employing frustrated total internal reflection-based imaging (FIM) we first found that larvae visually detect other moving larvae in a narrow perceptive field and respond with characteristic escape reactions. To decipher larval locomotion not only before but also during the collision we utilized a two color FIM approach (FIM(2c)), which allowed to faithfully extract the posture and motion of colliding animals. We show that during collision, larval locomotion freezes and sensory information is sampled during a KISS phase (german: Kollisions Induziertes Stopp Syndrom or english: collision induced stop syndrome). Interestingly, larvae react differently to living, dead or artificial larvae, discriminate other Drosophila species and have an increased bending probability for a short period after the collision terminates. Thus, Drosophila larvae evolved means to specify behaviors in response to other larvae. PMID:27511760

  9. Interactions among Drosophila larvae before and during collision

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Nils; Risse, Benjamin; Berh, Dimitri; Bittern, Jonas; Jiang, Xiaoyi; Klämbt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In populations of Drosophila larvae, both, an aggregation and a dispersal behavior can be observed. However, the mechanisms coordinating larval locomotion in respect to other animals, especially in close proximity and during/after physical contacts are currently only little understood. Here we test whether relevant information is perceived before or during larva-larva contacts, analyze its influence on behavior and ask whether larvae avoid or pursue collisions. Employing frustrated total internal reflection-based imaging (FIM) we first found that larvae visually detect other moving larvae in a narrow perceptive field and respond with characteristic escape reactions. To decipher larval locomotion not only before but also during the collision we utilized a two color FIM approach (FIM2c), which allowed to faithfully extract the posture and motion of colliding animals. We show that during collision, larval locomotion freezes and sensory information is sampled during a KISS phase (german: Kollisions Induziertes Stopp Syndrom or english: collision induced stop syndrome). Interestingly, larvae react differently to living, dead or artificial larvae, discriminate other Drosophila species and have an increased bending probability for a short period after the collision terminates. Thus, Drosophila larvae evolved means to specify behaviors in response to other larvae. PMID:27511760

  10. From trochophore to pilidium and back again - a larva's journey.

    PubMed

    Maslakova, Svetlana A; Hiebert, Terra C

    2014-01-01

    Nemerteans, a phylum of marine lophotrochozoan worms, have a biphasic life history with benthic adults and planktonic larvae. Nemertean larval development is traditionally categorized into direct and indirect. Indirect development via a long-lived planktotrophic pilidium larva is thought to have evolved in one clade of nemerteans, the Pilidiophora, from an ancestor with a uniformly ciliated planuliform larva. Planuliform larvae in a member of a basal nemertean group, the Palaeonemertea, have been previously shown to possess a vestigial prototroch, homologous to the primary larval ciliated band in the trochophores of other spiralian phyla, such as annelids and mollusks. We review literature on nemertean larval development, and include our own unpublished observations. We highlight recent discoveries of numerous pilidiophoran species with lecithotrophic larvae. Some of these larvae superficially resemble uniformly ciliated planuliform larvae of other nemerteans. Others possess one or two transverse ciliary bands, which superficially resemble the prototroch and telotroch of some spiralian trochophores. We also summarize accumulating evidence for planktotrophic feeding by larvae of the order Hoplonemertea, which until now were considered to be lecithotrophic. We suggest that 1) non-feeding pilidiophoran larval forms are derived from a feeding pilidium; 2) such forms have likely evolved many times independently within the Pilidiophora; 3) any resemblance of such larvae to the trochophores of other spiralians is a result of convergence and that 4) the possibility of planktotrophy in hoplonemertean larvae may influence estimates of pelagic larval duration, dispersal, and population connectivity in this group. PMID:25690972

  11. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b) mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b), Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles. PMID:26313007

  12. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Francisco; Jara, Claudia; Pino, Luis; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Alvarez, Eduardo; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b) mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b), Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles. PMID:26313007

  13. The Small Heat Shock Protein p26 Aids Development of Encysting Artemia Embryos, Prevents Spontaneous Diapause Termination and Protects against Stress

    PubMed Central

    King, Allison M.; MacRae, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Artemia franciscana embryos enter diapause as encysted gastrulae, a physiological state of metabolic dormancy and enhanced stress resistance. The objective of this study was to use RNAi to investigate the function of p26, an abundant, diapause-specific small heat shock protein, in the development and behavior of encysted Artemia embryos (cysts). RNAi methodology was developed where injection of Artemia females with dsRNA specifically eliminated p26 from cysts. p26 mRNA and protein knock down were, respectively, confirmed by RT-PCR and immuno-probing of western blots. ArHsp21 and ArHsp22, diapause-related small heat shock proteins in Artemia cysts sharing a conserved α-crystallin domain with p26, were unaffected by injection of females with dsRNA for p26, demonstrating the specificity of protein knock down. Elimination of p26 delayed cyst release from females demonstrating that this molecular chaperone influences the development of diapause-destined embryos. Although development was slowed the metabolic activities of cysts either containing or lacking p26 were similar. p26 inhibited diapause termination after prolonged incubation of cysts in sea water perhaps by a direct effect on termination or indirectly because p26 is necessary for the preservation of diapause maintenance. Cyst diapause was however, terminated by desiccation and freezing, a procedure leading to high mortality within cyst populations lacking p26 and indicating the protein is required for stress tolerance. Cysts lacking p26 were also less resistant to heat shock. This is the first in vivo study to show that knock down of a small heat shock protein slows the development of diapause-destined embryos, suggesting a role for p26 in the developmental process. The same small heat shock protein prevents spontaneous termination of diapause and provides stress protection to encysted embryos. PMID:22952748

  14. A case study to optimise and validate the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana immobilisation assay with silver nanoparticles: The role of harmonisation.

    PubMed

    Kos, Monika; Kahru, Anne; Drobne, Damjana; Singh, Shashi; Kalčíková, Gabriela; Kühnel, Dana; Rohit, Rekulapelly; Gotvajn, Andreja Žgajnar; Jemec, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Brine shrimp Artemia sp. has been recognised as an important ecotoxicity and nanotoxicity test model organism for salt-rich aquatic environments, but currently there is still no harmonised testing protocol which would ensure the comparable results for hazard identification. In this paper we aimed to design the harmonised protocol for nanomaterial toxicity testing using Artemia franciscana and present a case study to validate the protocol with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We (i) revised the existing nanotoxicity test protocols with Artemia sp. (ii) optimised certain methodological steps based on the experiments with AgNPs and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as a soluble reference chemical and (iii) tested the optimised protocol in an international inter-laboratory exercise conducted within the EU FP7 NanoValid project. The intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the proposed protocol with a soluble reference chemical K2Cr2O7 was good, which confirms the suitability of this assay for conventional chemicals. However, the variability of AgNPs toxicity results was very high showing again that nanomaterials are inherently challenging for toxicity studies, especially those which toxic effect is linked to shed metal ions. Among the identified sources for this variability were: the hatching conditions, the type of test plate incubation and the illumination regime. The latter induced variations assumingly due to the changes in bioavailable silver species concentrations. Up to our knowledge this is the first inter-laboratory comparison of the Artemia sp. toxicity study involving nanomaterials. Although the inter-laboratory exercise revealed poor repeatability of AgNPs toxicity results, this study provides valuable information regarding the importance of harmonisation of all steps in the test procedure. Also, the presented AgNPs toxicity case study may serve as a platform for further validation steps with other types of NMs. PMID:26895539

  15. Transcriptional response of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    PubMed

    Cornman, Robert Scott; Lopez, Dawn; Evans, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    American foulbrood disease of honey bees is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Infection occurs per os in larvae and systemic infection requires a breaching of the host peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium. Genetic variation exists for both bacterial virulence and host resistance, and a general immunity is achieved by larvae as they age, the basis of which has not been identified. To quickly identify a pool of candidate genes responsive to P. larvae infection, we sequenced transcripts from larvae inoculated with P. larvae at 12 hours post-emergence and incubated for 72 hours, and compared expression levels to a control cohort. We identified 75 genes with significantly higher expression and six genes with significantly lower expression. In addition to several antimicrobial peptides, two genes encoding peritrophic-matrix domains were also up-regulated. Extracellular matrix proteins, proteases/protease inhibitors, and members of the Osiris gene family were prevalent among differentially regulated genes. However, analysis of Drosophila homologs of differentially expressed genes revealed spatial and temporal patterns consistent with developmental asynchrony as a likely confounder of our results. We therefore used qPCR to measure the consistency of gene expression changes for a subset of differentially expressed genes. A replicate experiment sampled at both 48 and 72 hours post infection allowed further discrimination of genes likely to be involved in host response. The consistently responsive genes in our test set included a hymenopteran-specific protein tyrosine kinase, a hymenopteran specific serine endopeptidase, a cytochrome P450 (CYP9Q1), and a homolog of trynity, a zona pellucida domain protein. Of the known honey bee antimicrobial peptides, apidaecin was responsive at both time-points studied whereas hymenoptaecin was more consistent in its level of change between biological replicates and had the greatest increase in expression by RNA-seq analysis

  16. Probing the protective mechanism of poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate against vibriosis by using gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana and Vibrio campbellii as host-pathogen model.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Kartik; Huy, Tran T; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Niu, Yufeng; Gupta, Sanjay K; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The compound poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a polymer of the short chain fatty acid ß-hydroxybutyrate, was shown to protect experimental animals against a variety of bacterial diseases, (including vibriosis in farmed aquatic animals), albeit through undefined mechanisms. Here we aimed at unraveling the underlying mechanism behind the protective effect of PHB against bacterial disease using gnotobiotically-cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and pathogenic Vibrio campbellii as host-pathogen model. The gnotobiotic model system is crucial for such studies because it eliminates any possible microbial interference (naturally present in any type of aquatic environment) in these mechanistic studies and furthermore facilitates the interpretation of the results in terms of a cause effect relationship. We showed clear evidences indicating that PHB conferred protection to Artemia host against V. campbellii by a mechanism of inducing heat shock protein (Hsp) 70. Additionally, our results also showed that this salutary effect of PHB was associated with the generation of protective innate immune responses, especially the prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase immune systems - phenomena possibly mediated by PHB-induced Hsp70. From overall results, we conclude that PHB induces Hsp70 and this induced Hsp70 might contribute in part to the protection of Artemia against pathogenic V. campbellii. PMID:25822312

  17. Comparison of Artemia-bacteria associations in brines, laboratory cultures and the gut environment: a study based on Chilean hypersaline environments.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Mauricio; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O; Gajardo, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia (Crustacea) and a diversity of halophilic microorganisms coexist in natural brines, salterns and laboratory cultures; part of such environmental microbial diversity is represented in the gut of Artemia individuals. Bacterial diversity in these environments was assessed by 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting. Eight natural locations in Chile, where A. franciscana or A. persimilis occur, were sampled for analysis of free-living and gut-associated bacteria in water from nature and laboratory cultures. The highest ecological diversity (Shannon's index, H') was found in brines, it decreased in the gut of wild and laboratory animals, and in laboratory water. Significant differences in H' existed between brines and laboratory water, and between brines and gut of wild animals. The greatest similarity of bacterial community composition was between brines and the gut of field animals, suggesting a transient state of the gut microbiota. Sequences retrieved from DGGE patterns (n = 83) exhibited an average of 97.8% identity with 41 bacterial genera from the phyla Proteobacteria (55.4% of sequences match), Bacteroidetes (22.9%), Actinobacteria (16.9%) and Firmicutes (4.8%). Environment-exclusive genera distribution was seen in Sphingomonas and Paenibacillus (gut of field animals), Amaricoccus and Ornithinimicrobium (gut of laboratory animals), and Hydrogenophaga (water of laboratory cultures). The reported ecological and physiological capabilities of such bacteria can help to understand Artemia adaptation to natural and laboratory conditions. PMID:25239570

  18. Effects of genotoxicity and its consequences at the population level in sexual and asexual Artemia assessed by analysis of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR).

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Sandhya; Grant, Alastair

    2013-09-18

    There is considerable evidence that genetic damage in organisms occurs in the environment as a result of exposure to genotoxins and ionising radiation, but we have limited understanding of the extent to which this results in adverse consequences at a population level. We used inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to quantify genotoxic effects of the mutagen ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) on a sexual (Artemia franciscana) and an asexual (Artemia parthenogenetica) species of brine shrimp. The method provides information similar to that obtained with assessment of RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) but is more robust. Genetic damage was transmitted to the F1 generation in both Artemia species, but the sexual species showed a greater degree of recovery, as shown by higher values of genomic template stability. There was a strong correlation between DNA damage and effects on individual fitness parameters: size, survival, reproduction and population growth. These effects persisted into the F2 generation in A. parthenogenetica, but in the sexual A. franciscana only effects on fecundity continued beyond the exposed generation, even though there were substantial alterations in ISSR patterns in the F1 generation. Genetic biomarkers can thus be indicative of effects at the population level, but sexually reproducing species have a considerable assimilative capacity for the effects of genotoxins. PMID:23872504

  19. Liquid chromatographic determination of efficacy of incorporation of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) used for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish.

    PubMed

    Nelis, H J; Léger, F; Sorgeloos, P; De leenheer, A P

    1991-12-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia, an excellent live food source in aquaculture, has been studied as a carrier to deliver selected chemotherapeutic agents to fish for prophylactic treatment of infectious diseases. To monitor the efficiency of incorporation of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in Artemia franciscana, a sensitive and specific analytical method was developed. It is based on homogenization of Artemia nauplii in methanol, extraction of lipids with hexane, solid-phase cleanup on C18 cartridges, and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with detection at 210 nm. The method is sensitive (detection limit, on the order of 3 micrograms/g with a sample quantity of 30 mg [dry weight]) and reproducible (coefficients of variation, 2.2 and 1.8% for trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole at levels of 79.6 and 257 micrograms/g of body weight, respectively). Preliminary quantitative data indicated excellent uptake and persistence of both therapeutic agents in A. franciscana, with levels of 115 micrograms/g for trimethoprim and 277 micrograms/g for sulfamethoxazole. PMID:1810182

  20. Probing the protective mechanism of poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate against vibriosis by using gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana and Vibrio campbellii as host-pathogen model

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Kartik; Huy, Tran T.; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Niu, Yufeng; Gupta, Sanjay K.; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The compound poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a polymer of the short chain fatty acid ß-hydroxybutyrate, was shown to protect experimental animals against a variety of bacterial diseases, (including vibriosis in farmed aquatic animals), albeit through undefined mechanisms. Here we aimed at unraveling the underlying mechanism behind the protective effect of PHB against bacterial disease using gnotobiotically-cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and pathogenic Vibrio campbellii as host-pathogen model. The gnotobiotic model system is crucial for such studies because it eliminates any possible microbial interference (naturally present in any type of aquatic environment) in these mechanistic studies and furthermore facilitates the interpretation of the results in terms of a cause effect relationship. We showed clear evidences indicating that PHB conferred protection to Artemia host against V. campbellii by a mechanism of inducing heat shock protein (Hsp) 70. Additionally, our results also showed that this salutary effect of PHB was associated with the generation of protective innate immune responses, especially the prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase immune systems – phenomena possibly mediated by PHB-induced Hsp70. From overall results, we conclude that PHB induces Hsp70 and this induced Hsp70 might contribute in part to the protection of Artemia against pathogenic V. campbellii. PMID:25822312

  1. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    Castilla Casadiego, D. A.; Albis Arrieta, A. R.; Angulo Mercado, E. R.; Cervera Cahuana, S. J.; Baquero Noriega, K. S.; Suárez Escobar, A. F.; Morales Avendaño, E. D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained “Nutrifoliar,” a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using “Nutrifoliar” as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3) and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6) from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9) were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids. PMID:27376085

  2. Induced carotenoid accumulation in Dunaliella salina and Tetraselmis suecica by plant hormones and UV-C radiation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faruq; Fanning, Kent; Netzel, Michael; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-11-01

    Carotenoids prevent different degenerative diseases and improve human health. Microalgae are commercially exploited for carotenoids, including astaxanthin and β-carotene. Two commercially important microalgae, Dunaliella salina and Tetraselmis suecica, were treated with plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), or by UV-C radiation (T. suecica only) and a combination thereof. Significant increases in total carotenoids were found for D. salina and T. suecica after treatment with MJ (10 μmol/L) and SA (70-250 μmol/L), respectively. T. suecica also had significant increases in total carotenoids following UV-C radiation compared to control cultures. Among the carotenoids, lutein was the highest induced carotenoid. A combination of these two treatments also showed a significant increase in total carotenoids and lutein for T. suecica, when compared to controls. Plant hormones and UV-C radiation may be useful tools for increasing carotenoid accumulation in green microalgae although the responses are species- and dose-specific and should be trialed in medium to large scale to explore commercial production. PMID:26201492

  3. TFA and EPA Productivities of Nannochloropsis salina Influenced by Temperature and Nitrate Stimuli in Turbidostatic Controlled Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Maren; Marxen, Kai; Schulz, Rüdiger; Vanselow, Klaus Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    The influence of different nitrate concentrations in combination with three cultivation temperatures on the total fatty acids (TFA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated. This was done by virtue of turbidostatic controlled cultures. This control mode enables the cultivation of microalgae under defined conditions and, therefore, the influence of single parameters on the fatty acid synthesis of Nannochloropsis salina can be investigated. Generally, growth rates decreased under low nitrate concentrations. This effect was reinforced when cells were exposed to lower temperatures (from 26 °C down to 17 °C). Considering the cellular TFA concentration, nitrate provoked an increase of TFA under nitrate limitation up to 70% of the biological dry mass (BDM). In contrast to this finding, the EPA content decreased under low nitrate concentrations. Nevertheless, both TFA and EPA contents increased under a low culture temperature (17 °C) compared to moderate temperatures of 21 °C and 26 °C. In terms of biotechnological production, the growth rate has to be taken into account. Therefore, for both TFA and EPA production, a temperature of 17 °C and a nitrate concentration of 1800 μmol L−1 afforded the highest productivities. Temperatures of 21 °C and 26 °C in combination with 1800 μmol L−1 nitrate showed slightly lower TFA and EPA productivities. PMID:20948904

  4. Equipment for transporting live black fly larvae (Diptera: Simuliiae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarshis, I.B.; Adkins, T.R.

    1971-01-01

    In studies relating to the biology and ecology of black flies, live larvae of at least 70 species of Simuliidae have been collected from their natural breeding sites and transported in containers with nonagitated water for short distances to the laboratory. One of us (Tarshis 1966) found, however, that even small numbers of simuliid larvae cannot survive in containers with nonagitated water for more than 6 hr. Additionally, when massive numbers of larvae are introduced into transport containers in which the water is not agitated, the larvae perish because they become entangled within the masses of silken threads they emit whenever disturbed (Tarshis and Neil 1970). Therefore, when transporting larvae long distances or when transporting large numbers of larvae any distance, it is essential to agitate the water in the transport containers.

  5. Validation of daily increments in otoliths of northern squawfish larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wertheimer, R.H.; Barfoot, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Otoliths from laboratory-reared northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, larvae were examined to determine the periodicity of increment deposition. Increment deposition began in both sagittae and lapilli after hatching. Reader counts indicated that increment formation was daily in sagittae of 1-29-day-old larvae. However, increment counts from lapilli were significantly less than the known ages of northern squawfish larvae, possibly because some increments were not detectable. Otolith readability and age agreement among readers were greatest for young (<11 days) northern squawfish larvae. This was primarily because a transitional zone of low-contrast material began forming in otoliths of 8-11-day-old larvae and persisted until approximately 20 days after hatching. Formation of the transition zone appeared to coincide with the onset of exogenous feeding and continued through yolk sac absorption. Our results indicate that aging wild-caught northern squawfish larvae using daily otolith increment counts is possible.

  6. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting.

    PubMed

    Lalander, C; Senecal, J; Gros Calvo, M; Ahrens, L; Josefsson, S; Wiberg, K; Vinnerås, B

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (<10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. PMID:27177134

  7. Microsporidium Infecting Anopheles supepictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Seyed-Mohammad; Moosavi, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Manouchehri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microsporidia are known to infect a wide variety of animals including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In a recent study on the mosquito fauna of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province, at the central western part of Iran, a few larvae of Anopheles superpictus were infected with a microsporidium-resembled microorganism. Current investigation deals with the identification of the responsible microorganism at the genus level. Methods: Fresh infected larvae were collected from the field. After determining the species identity they were dissected to extract their infective contents. Wet preparations were checked for general appearance and the size of the pathogenic microorganism. Fixed preparations were stained with Geimsa and Ryan-Blue modified Trichrome techniques to visualize further morphological characters. The obtained light microscopy data were used in the identification process. Results: The infected larvae were bulged by a whitish material filling the involved segments corresponding to a microsporidium infection. Bottle-shaped semioval spores ranged 4.33±0.19×2.67±0.12 and 4.18±0.43×2.45±0.33 micron in wet and fixed preparations, respectively. They were mostly arranged in globular structures comprised of 8 spores. These data was in favor of a species from the genus Parathelohania in the family Ambliosporidae. Conclusion: This is the first report of a microsporidium infection in An. superpictus. The causative agent is diagnosed as a member of the genus Parathelohania. Further identification down to the species level needs to determine its ultrastructural characteristics and the comparative analysis of ss rRNA sequence data. It is also necessary to understand the detail of the components of the transmission cycle. PMID:27308299

  8. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  9. Dichloromethane attracts diabroticite larvae in a laboratory behavioral bioassay.

    PubMed

    Jewett, D K; Bjostad, L B

    1996-07-01

    A two-choice laboratory behavioral bioassay was used to demonstrate that dichloromethane elicits the dose-dependent attraction of secondinstar western and southern corn rootworms. Preliminary data suggest that second-instar banded cucumber beetles are also attracted to dichloromethane. An eluotropic series of 10 materials, including distilled water, ethanol, methanol, acetone, ethyl dichloroacetate, dichloromethane, diethyl ether, benzene, hexadecane, and hexane, was tested for attraction of western corn rootworm larvae. Dichloromethane was the only one attractive at all doses tested, and orthogonal comparisons revealed a quadratic trend (convex) for responses of larvae to increasing dose. Benzene and hexadecane also attracted larvae, but significantly fewer than dichloromethane, and only at three doses and one dose, respectively. Orthogonal comparisons revealed no linear or quadratic trend for responses of larvae to increasing doses of either compound. Dichloromethane is the first organic compound demonstrated to attract western corn rootworm larvae in the absence of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide has previously been reported to attract western corn rootworm larvae either independently or when combined with other organic compounds, and the sensitivity of our bioassay was tested by demonstrating the dose-dependent attraction of western corn rootworm larvae to carbonated water as a carbon dioxide source. We have also demonstrated the attraction of southern corn rootworm larvae to carbon dioxide and propose that carbon dioxide and dichloromethane behave analogously when they interact with chemoreceptor sites on larvae. PMID:24226089

  10. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    PubMed

    Kloezen, Wendy; van Helvert-van Poppel, Marilyn; Fahal, Ahmed H; van de Sande, Wendy W J

    2015-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future. PMID:26173126

  11. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Kloezen, Wendy; van Helvert-van Poppel, Marilyn; Fahal, Ahmed H.; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future. PMID:26173126

  12. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E.

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Chromium (VI) induced oxidative stress in halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina and D. tertiolecta isolated from sambhar salt lake of Rajasthan (India).

    PubMed

    Arun, N; Vidyalaxmi; Singh, D P

    2014-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) is one of the most serious pollutants in aquatic systems. This study was performed to understand the effect of Cr (VI) on halophilic algal strains of D. salina and D. tertiolecta. The results revealed good tolerance of D. salina towards chromium (VI) up to 8 ppm concentration, whereas tolerance level in D. tertiolecta was up to 2 ppm concentration. Cr (VI) not only inhibited the growth of D. tertiolecta, but also showed increased inhibition in the level of photosynthetic pigments, protein and carbohydrate. Results have revealed that chromium (VI) induced higher increase in lipid peroxidation and H2O2 production in D. tertiolecta than the D. salina, particularly at higher concentration of chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) induced increase in the rate of RNO bleaching, loss of pigments and thiol (-SH) group was relatively higher in D. tertiolecta than the D. salina, which is indicating that D. tertiolecta was prone to Cr (VI) induced oxidative stress. Results on RNO bleaching in the presence of radical quenchers suggested that OH° radical played an important role in the chromium (VI)-induced general oxidative stress in D. tertiolecta. PMID:25535718

  14. Sensitivity of Mytilus galloprovincialis larvae to ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1994-12-31

    Free ammonia is a constituent of some marine effluents and sediments. The authors evaluated the sensitivity of the larval stage of the marine bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to concentrations of ammonium sulfate, as well as to suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) preparations of marine sediments and petroleum-based marine effluents. Mytilus larvae are commonly used test organisms because of their sensitivity to toxicants and their use in evaluation of water-column impacts of dredged material disposal. Ammonia-only EC{sub 50} values were between 3 mg/L NH{sub 3} and 8 mg/L NH{sub 3}; LC{sub 50} values ranged from 66 mg/L NH{sub 3} to 100 mg/L NH{sub 3}. Abnormalities included exogastrulation and arrested development at early gastrulation. The EC{sub 50} values for ammonia in SPP and effluents were within similar ranges, which indicates that ammonia may contribute significantly to toxicity of these materials. Exposure of larvae during different developmental stages and time periods will also be discussed.

  15. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Alex; Louis, Matthieu; Webb, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays. PMID:26600460

  16. Distribution of metals during digestion by cutthroat trout fed benthic invertebrates contaminated in the Clark Fork River, Montana and the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, U.S.A., and fed artificially contaminated Artemia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, A.M.; Suedkamp, M.J.; Meyer, J.S.; Barrows, R.; Woodward, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of essential amino acids in three, undigested invertebrate diets collected from the Clark Fork River (CFR) for cutthroat trout were similar to each other, but were c. 25-75% less than Artemia that were exposed to a mixture of arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead and zinc in the laboratory. The Artemia diet appeared less palatable and the texture, quantity and appearance of the intestinal contents differed between fish fed the Artemia and CFR diets. The Pb% in the fluid fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (29%) than for the CFR diets (10-17%), and the Cu% in the amino acid plus metal fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (78%) than for two of the three CFR diets (67% and 70%). Intestinal contents of fish fed invertebrate diets collected from various sites on the Coeur d'Alene River (CDA), Idaho, were similar in texture, quantity, and appearance. For fish fed the CDA diets, differences in the distribution of metals among fractions of the digestive fluids appeared to be related to concentrations of metals in the invertebrate diets. Pb% was lowest of all metals in the fluid portion of the intestinal contents. However, >80% of all metals in the hind gut were associated with the particulate fraction where they may still be available for uptake through pinocytosis. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Coupling Between the Changes in CO2 Concentration and Sediment Biogeochemistry in the Salinas De San Pedro Mudflat, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie Boroon, M.; Diaz, S.; Torres, V.; Lazzaretto, T.; Dehyn, D.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide [CO2] on biogeochemistry of marsh sediment including speciation of selected heavy metals in Salinas de San Pedro mudflat in California. The Salinas de San Pedro mudflat has higher carbon (C) content than the vast majority of fully-vegetated salt marshes even with the higher tidal action in the mudflat. Sources for CO2 were identified as atmospheric CO2 as well as due to local fault degassing process. We measured carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], total organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and heavy metal concentration in various salt marsh locations. Overall, our results showed that CO2 concentration ranging from 418.7 to 436.9 [ppm], which are slightly different in various chambers but are in good agreement with some heavy metal concentrations values in mudflat at or around the same location. The selected metal concentration values (ppm) ranging from 0.003 - 0.011(As); 0.001-0.005 (Cd); 0.04-0.02 (Cr); 0.13-0.38 (Cu); 0.11-0.38 (Pb); 0.0009-0.020 (Se); and 0.188-0.321 (Zn). The low dissolved O2 [ppm] in the pore water sediment indicates suboxic environment. Additionally, CO2 [ppm] and loss on ignition (LOI) [%] correlated inversely; the higher CO2 content, the lower was the LOI; that is to say the excess CO2 may caused higher rates of decomposition and therefore it leads to lower soil organic matter (LOI) [%] on the mudflat surface. It appears that the elevated CO2 makes changes in salt marsh pore water chemistry for instance the free ionic metal (Cu2+, Pb2+, etc.) speciation is one of the most reactive form because simply assimilated by the non-decayed or alive organisms in sediment of salt marsh and/or in water. This means that CO2 not only is a sign of improvement in plant productivity, but also activates microbial decomposition through increases in dissolved organic carbon availability. CO2 also increases acidification processes such as anaerobic degradation of microorganism and oxidation of

  18. Reporting a new siderophore based Ca(2+) selective chemosensor that works as a staining agent in the live organism Artemia.

    PubMed

    Raju, M; Nair, Ratish R; Raval, Ishan H; Haldar, Soumya; Chatterjee, Pabitra B

    2015-11-21

    A Ca(2+)-specific chemosensor involving acyclic non-ether and non-carboxylato-type metal chelating ligands is rare. The tetradentate OONO artificial receptor, HL, possessing a sulfur-containing intermediate siderophore aeruginic acid, tethered to a rhodamine 6G based signalling unit in a single molecule has been synthesized. The fluoroionophore required excitation in the visible wavelength (510 nm) and showed highly selective and sensitive detection of Ca(2+) ions in 100% water solution in HEPES buffer at physiological pH (7.4). The probe HL, with LOD as low as 70 nM, behaves reversibly and showed nearly 17-fold enhanced selectivity for Ca(2+) over other cell abundant alkali and alkaline metal ions such as Na(+), K(+), Li(+), and Mg(2+) without any intervention. Job's plot, (1)H NMR titration and ESI-MS data provided corroborative evidence in support of 1 : 1 association between HL and Ca(2+). From a wide range of transition and heavy metal ions series, HL also binds Cu(2+). However, the use of l-cysteine removes the interference from Cu(2+) and results in highly selective detection specificity of HL for Ca(2+). As a reversible "off-on-off" fluorescent chemosensor, it is possible to detect Ca(2+) at as low as 5 μM in the midgut region of the gastrointestinal tract of the live animal Artemia, a brine shrimp. PMID:26460620

  19. Probing the phenomenon of trained immunity in invertebrates during a transgenerational study, using brine shrimp Artemia as a model system

    PubMed Central

    Norouzitallab, Parisa; Baruah, Kartik; Biswas, Priyanka; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bossier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate’s innate immune system was reported to show some form of adaptive features, termed trained immunity. However, the memory characteristics of innate immune system and the mechanisms behind such phenomena remain unclear. Using the invertebrate model Artemia, we verified the possibility or impossibility of trained immunity, examining the presence or absence of enduring memory against homologous and heterologous antigens (Vibrio spp.) during a transgenerational study. We also determined the mechanisms behind such phenomenon. Our results showed the occurrence of memory and partial discrimination in Artemia’s immune system, as manifested by increased resistance, for three successive generations, of the progenies of Vibrio-exposed ancestors towards a homologous bacterial strain, rather than to a heterologous strain. This increased resistance phenotype was associated with elevated levels of hsp70 and hmgb1 signaling molecules and alteration in the expression of key innate immunity-related genes. Our results also showed stochastic pattern in the acetylation and methylation levels of H4 and H3K4me3 histones, respectively, in the progenies whose ancestors were challenged. Overall results suggest that innate immune responses in invertebrates have the capacity to be trained, and epigenetic reprogramming of (selected) innate immune effectors is likely to have central place in the mechanisms leading to trained immunity. PMID:26876951

  20. Depression of nuclear transcription and extension of mRNA half-life under anoxia in Artemia franciscana embryos.

    PubMed

    van Breukelen, F; Maier, R; Hand, S C

    2000-04-01

    Transcriptional activity, as assessed by nuclear run-on assays, was constant during 10 h of normoxic development for embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Exposure of embryos to only 4 h of anoxia resulted in a 79.3+/-1 % decrease in levels of in-vivo-initiated transcripts, and transcription was depressed by 88. 2+/-0.7 % compared with normoxic controls after 24 h of anoxia (means +/- s.e.m., N=3). Initiation of transcription was fully restored after 1 h of normoxic recovery. Artificially lowering the intracellular pH of aerobic embryos to the value reflective of anoxia (pH 6.7) showed that acidification alone explained over half the transcriptional arrest. Initiation of transcription was not rescued by application of 80 % carbon monoxide under anoxia, which suggests that heme-based oxygen sensing is not involved in this global arrest. When these transcriptional data are combined with the finding that mRNA levels are unchanged for at least 6 h of anoxia, it is clear that the half-life of mRNA is extended at least 8.5-fold compared with that in aerobic embryos. In contrast to the activation of compensatory mechanisms to cope with anoxia that occurs in mammalian cells, A. franciscana embryos enter a metabolically depressed state in which gene expression and mRNA turnover are cellular costs apparently not compatible with survival and in which extended tolerance supercedes the requirement for continued metabolic function. PMID:10708633

  1. Purification and characterization of a proteolytic active fragment of DNA topoisomerase I from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana (Crustacea Anostraca).

    PubMed Central

    Badaracco, G; Landsberger, N; Benfante, R

    1992-01-01

    The ATP-independent type I topoisomerase from the crustacean Artemia franciscana was purified to near-homogeneity. Its activity was measured by an assay that uses the formation of an enzyme-cleaved DNA complex in the presence of the specific inhibitor camptothecin. The purification procedure is reported. Purified topoisomerase is a single-subunit enzyme with a molecular mass of 63 kDa. Immunoblot performed on the different steps of purification shows that the purified 63 kDa peptide is a proteolytic fragment of a protein with a molecular mass of 110 kDa. Similarly to the other purified eukaryotic topoisomerases, the crustacean enzyme does not require a bivalent cation for activity, but is stimulated in the presence of 10 mM-MgCl2; moreover, it can relax both negative and positive superhelical turns. The enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by the antitumour drug camptothecin. The enzyme inhibition is related to the stabilization of the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1311554

  2. Polymorphism and structure of the gene coding for the alpha 1 subunit of the Artemia franciscana Na/K-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáez, A; Perona, R; Sastre, L

    1997-01-01

    Genomic clones coding for one of the two identified Artemia franciscana Na/K-ATPase alpha subunits, the alpha 1 subunit, have been isolated. Several overlapping clones were obtained, although their restriction maps showed a large heterogeneity. Sequencing of their exons showed that they differ in up to 3.46% of their nucleotides in translated regions and 8.18% in untranslated regions. Southern blot analysis of DNA purified from different lots of A. franciscana cysts and from isolated individuals suggests that the variation is due to the existence of multiple Na/K-ATPase alpha 1 subunit alleles in A. franciscana. The Na/K-ATPase alpha 1 subunit gene is divided into 15 exons. Ten of the 14 introns are located in identical positions in this gene as in the human Na/K-ATPase alpha 3 subunit gene. Analysis of the 5' flanking region of the gene has allowed identification of the transcription-initiation sites. The adjacent upstream region has been shown to have functional promoter activity in cultured mammalian cells, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of some of the promoter regulatory sequences. PMID:9020888

  3. Reducing Vibrio load in Artemia nauplii using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic application in shrimp larviculture

    PubMed Central

    Asok, Aparna; Arshad, Esha; Jasmin, C.; Somnath Pai, S.; Bright Singh, I. S.; Mohandas, A.; Anas, Abdulaziz

    2012-01-01

    Summary We propose antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems. The growth of a multiple antibiotic resistant Vibrio harveyi strain was effectively controlled by treating the cells with Rose Bengal and photosensitizing for 30 min using a halogen lamp. This resulted in the death of > 50% of the cells within the first 10 min of exposure and the 50% reduction in the cell wall integrity after 30 min could be attributed to the destruction of outer membrane protein of V. harveyi by reactive oxygen intermediates produced during the photosensitization. Further, mesocosm experiments with V. harveyi and Artemia nauplii demonstrated that in 30 min, the aPDT could kill 78.9% and 91.2% of heterotrophic bacterial and Vibrio population respectively. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that aPDT with its rapid action and as yet unreported resistance development possibilities could be a propitious strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems and thereby, avoid their hazardous effects on human health and the ecosystem at large. PMID:21951316

  4. Does a Change from Whole to Powdered Food (Artemia franciscana eggs) Increase Oviposition in the Ladybird Coleomegilla maculata?

    PubMed Central

    Riddick, Eric W.; Wu, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    The limited availability of alternative foods to replace natural prey hinders cost-effective mass production of ladybird beetles for augmentative biological control. We compared the effects of powdered vs. whole Artemia franciscana (A. franciscana) (brine shrimp) eggs with or without a dietary supplement on development and reproduction of Coleomegilla maculata (C. maculata) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We tested the hypotheses that (1) powdered A. franciscana eggs are more suitable than whole eggs; and (2) palmitic acid, a common fatty acid in natural prey, i.e., aphids, is an effective dietary supplement. Development time, pre-imaginal survival, sex ratio, and body weight of adults did not differ significantly amongst individuals fed powdered vs. whole eggs, with or without 5% palmitic acid. Significantly more oviposition occurred when females were fed powdered eggs than whole eggs and powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid than whole eggs with or without 5% palmitic acid. A weak functional relationship was found between pre-oviposition time and total oviposition by females fed powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid; pre-oviposition time decreased as oviposition increased. Food treatments had no significant differential effect on progeny (egg) hatch rate. In conclusion, a simple change in A. franciscana egg texture and particle size (i.e., blending whole eggs into a dust-like powder) increases oviposition in C. maculata. Supplementing powdered eggs with 5% palmitic acid might accelerate oogenesis (egg maturation) in some females. PMID:26466902

  5. Estimate of the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the mortality of Artemia franciscana in naupliar and adult stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattilo, Arduino M.; Bracchini, Luca; Carlini, Laura; Loiselle, Steven; Rossi, Claudio

    2005-07-01

    The impact of different doses of artificial ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the growth stages of a marine zooplankton was investigated using laboratory microcosms. Mortality percentages of naupliar and adult samples of Artemia franciscana were recorded in relation to different UV doses (single exposure: 75, 150, 300, 600, 1,200, 2,400, 3,900, 7,800 J m-2) at specific observation times after exposure (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h). The relationship between mortality percentage and UV dose showed significant differences in relation to the zooplankton growth stage. The elevated susceptibility of the naupliar samples to UV radiation is described through a mortality model based on a logistic equation. The data analysis shows that the slope of mortality versus dose remains the same for the two growth stages while the lethal dose in the naupliar stage was 3.3 smaller than that determined for the adult stage. The slope of the UV mortality rate versus post-incubation time was found to be significantly different (P<0.05) at low UV doses for the two life stages examined, i.e. naupliar and adult. The lower value of LD50 in naupliar stages compared to that for adults confirms that in the early growth stage this marine zooplankton is more susceptible to UV radiation.

  6. Complete Genome Sequences of Five Paenibacillus larvae Bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sheflo, Michael A; Gardner, Adam V; Merrill, Bryan D; Fisher, Joshua N B; Lunt, Bryce L; Breakwell, Donald P; Grose, Julianne H; Burnett, Sandra H

    2013-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is a pathogen of honeybees that causes American foulbrood (AFB). We isolated bacteriophages from soil containing bee debris collected near beehives in Utah. We announce five high-quality complete genome sequences, which represent the first completed genome sequences submitted to GenBank for any P. larvae bacteriophage. PMID:24233582

  7. Trail marking by larvae of the eastern tent caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D

    1976-11-26

    Eastern tent caterpillars that are successful foragers deposit trails as they return to the tent that are more attractive than the exploratory trails of the unfed larvae. The trails of these fed returning larvae attract unfed tentmates to food finds anre chemical factors account for the attractiveness of these trails. PMID:982055

  8. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  9. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado: Colorado River: III. Larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) larvae from adults exposed to selenium at three sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, for 9 months were used in a 30-day waterborne and dietary selenium study. Selenium concentrations in water averaged <1.6 ??g/L from 24-Road, 0.9 ??g/L from Horsethief, 5.5 ??g/L from Adobe Creek, and 10.7 ??g/L from the North Pond. Selenium in dietary items averaged 2.7 ??g/g in brine shrimp, 5.6 ??g/g in zooplankton from Horsethief east wetland, 20 ??g/g in zooplankton from Adobe Creek, and 39 ??g/g in zooplankton from North Pond. The lowest survival occurred in larvae fed zooplankton rather than brine shrimp. Survival of larvae at Adobe Creek and North Pond was lower in site water than in reference water. Survival of brood stock larvae was higher than Horsethief larvae even though they received the same water and dietary treatments. Arsenic concentrations in brine shrimp may have resulted in an antagonistic interaction with selenium and reduced adverse effects in larvae. Deformities in larvae from North Pond were similar to those reported for selenium-induced teratogenic deformities in other fish species. Selenium concentrations of ???4.6 ??g/g in food resulted in rapid mortality of larvae from Horsethief, Adobe Creek, and North Pond, and suggested that selenium toxicity in the Colorado River could limit recovery of this endangered fish.

  10. Rapid bioassay to screen potential biopesticides in Tenebrio molitor larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simplified assay was devised to evaluate the response of Tenebrio molitor larvae to potential insect control products. The assay incorporates punched disks of flattened whole-grain bread placed in 96-well plates, with treatments applied topically, and neonate larvae added to each well. To evalua...

  11. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado: Colorado River III. Larvae.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Steven J; Holley, Kathy M; Buhl, Kevin J; Bullard, Fern A

    2005-06-01

    Razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) larvae from adults exposed to selenium at three sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, for 9 months were used in a 30-day waterborne and dietary selenium study. Selenium concentrations in water averaged <1.6 microg/L from 24-Road, 0.9 microg/L from Horsethief, 5.5 microg/L from Adobe Creek, and 10.7 microg/L from the North Pond. Selenium in dietary items averaged 2.7 microg/g in brine shrimp, 5.6 microg/g in zooplankton from Horsethief east wetland, 20 microg/g in zooplankton from Adobe Creek, and 39 microg/g in zooplankton from North Pond. The lowest survival occurred in larvae fed zooplankton rather than brine shrimp. Survival of larvae at Adobe Creek and North Pond was lower in site water than in reference water. Survival of brood stock larvae was higher than Horsethief larvae even though they received the same water and dietary treatments. Arsenic concentrations in brine shrimp may have resulted in an antagonistic interaction with selenium and reduced adverse effects in larvae. Deformities in larvae from North Pond were similar to those reported for selenium-induced teratogenic deformities in other fish species. Selenium concentrations of 4.6 microg/g in food resulted in rapid mortality of larvae from Horsethief, Adobe Creek, and North Pond, and suggested that selenium toxicity in the Colorado River could limit recovery of this endangered fish. PMID:15883090

  12. The effects of dissolved gas supersaturation on white sturgeon larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Mesa, M.G.; Parsley, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Spill at dams has caused supersaturation of atmospheric gas in waters of the Columbia and Snake rivers and raised concerns about the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation (DGS) on white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus. The timing and location of white sturgeon spawning and the dispersal of white sturgeon larvae from incubation areas makes the larval stage potentially vulnerable to the effects of DGS. To assess the effects of DGS on white sturgeon larvae, we exposed larvae to mean total dissolved gas (TDG) levels of 118% and 131% saturation in laboratory bioassay tests. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) was manifested as a gas bubble in the buccal cavity, nares, or both and it first occurred at developmental stages characterized by the formation of the mouth and gills. Exposure times of 15 min were sufficient to elicit these signs in larvae in various stages of development. No mortality was observed in larvae exposed to 118% TDG for 10 d, but 50% mortality occurred after a 13-d exposure to 131% TDG. The signs of GBT we observed resulted in positive buoyancy and alterations in behavior that may affect the dispersal and predation vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae. The exact depth distribution of dispersing white sturgeon larvae in the Columbia River currently is unknown. Thus, our results may represent a worst-case scenario if white sturgeon larvae are dispersed at depths with insufficient hydrostatic pressure to compensate for high TDG levels.

  13. Loeffler's Syndrome Following Cutaneous Larva Migrans: An Uncommon Sequel

    PubMed Central

    Podder, Indrashis; Chandra, Somodyuti; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is characterized by the formation of distinctive, tortuous, and serpentine skin lesions occurring as a result of epidermal burrowing by certain helminthic larvae. Although this condition is usually uneventful, rarely it may result in patchy pulmonary infiltration with peripheral eosinophilia, also called Loeffler's syndrome. This association is fairly uncommon and is thus being reported. PMID:27057020

  14. Loeffler's Syndrome Following Cutaneous Larva Migrans: An Uncommon Sequel.

    PubMed

    Podder, Indrashis; Chandra, Somodyuti; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is characterized by the formation of distinctive, tortuous, and serpentine skin lesions occurring as a result of epidermal burrowing by certain helminthic larvae. Although this condition is usually uneventful, rarely it may result in patchy pulmonary infiltration with peripheral eosinophilia, also called Loeffler's syndrome. This association is fairly uncommon and is thus being reported. PMID:27057020

  15. In vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activities of some plants traditionally used in Guatemala against malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, F F; Smeijsters, L J; Berger, I; Medinilla Aldana, B E

    1997-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic effects of four plants commonly used in Guatemalan folk medicine against malaria. Methanol extracts of Simarouba glauca D. C., Sansevieria guineensis Willd, Croton guatemalensis Lotsy, and Neurolaena lobata (L.)R.Br. significantly reduced parasitemias in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Dichloromethane fractions were screened for their cytotoxicities on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) larvae, and 50% inhibitory concentrations were determined for Plasmodium falciparum in in vitro cultures. Both chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant strains of P. falciparum were significantly inhibited by these extracts. Of all dichloromethane extracts, only the S. glauca cortex extract was considered to be toxic to nauplii of A. salina in the brine shrimp test. PMID:9210673

  16. In vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activities of some plants traditionally used in Guatemala against malaria.

    PubMed

    Franssen, F F; Smeijsters, L J; Berger, I; Medinilla Aldana, B E

    1997-07-01

    We present an evaluation of the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic effects of four plants commonly used in Guatemalan folk medicine against malaria. Methanol extracts of Simarouba glauca D. C., Sansevieria guineensis Willd, Croton guatemalensis Lotsy, and Neurolaena lobata (L.)R.Br. significantly reduced parasitemias in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Dichloromethane fractions were screened for their cytotoxicities on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) larvae, and 50% inhibitory concentrations were determined for Plasmodium falciparum in in vitro cultures. Both chloroquine-susceptible and -resistant strains of P. falciparum were significantly inhibited by these extracts. Of all dichloromethane extracts, only the S. glauca cortex extract was considered to be toxic to nauplii of A. salina in the brine shrimp test. PMID:9210673

  17. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    PubMed Central

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Wilamowski, Amos; Schnur, Heather; Akad, Fouad; Naftali, Modi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO) is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis) and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus) botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma) larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation. PMID:24455366

  18. Bacteria Present in Comadia redtenbacheri Larvae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Flores, L; Llanderal-Cázares, C; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Aranda-Ocampo, S

    2015-09-01

    The external and internal culturable bacterial community present in the larvae of Comadia redtenbacheri Hammerschmidt, an edible insect, was studied. Characterization of the isolates determined the existence of 18 morphotypes and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the existence of Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus safensis, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus pseudomycoides, Corynebacterium variabile, Enterococcus sp., Gordonia sp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Arthrobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cereus. Greater diversity of bacteria was found in those larvae obtained from vendors than in those directly taken from Agave plants in nature. Many of the larvae obtained from vendors presented signs of potential disease, and after the analysis, results showed a greater bacterial community compared with the larvae with a healthy appearance. This indicates that bacterial flora can vary in accordance with how the larvae are handled during extraction, collection, and transport. PMID:26336239

  19. Distribution, enrichment and accumulation of heavy metals in coastal sediments of Salina Cruz Bay, méxico.

    PubMed

    González-Macías, C; Schifter, I; Lluch-Cota, D B; Méndez-Rodríguez, L; Hernández-Vázquez, S

    2006-07-01

    Surface sediment samples collected from the Salina Cruz Bay in the last twenty years, were analyzed for the total available trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, V, and Zn) to evaluate metal contamination due to possible anthropogenic inputs. Normalization of metals to iron and fine-grained fraction (< 63 microm) indicated relatively high enrichment factors for lead during the last two decades. Sediment Quality Guidelines suggest that lead must be considered as a chemical of potential concern in the marine and estuarine ecosystem. Concentration levels of lead ranged from 5-124 microg/g, while Ni and V below 70 and 30 microg/g, respectively. Geoaccumulation and enrichment factors for the rest of elements show comparable values to those reported for sites with similar activities in the world. Spatial distribution suggests that in addition to harbor activities, a transboundary source for Pb must account for the observed trends. PMID:16897543

  20. Identification of protein phosphatases dephosphorylating mRNP proteins from cryptobiotic gastrulae of the brine shrimp A. salina.

    PubMed

    Thoen, C; Van Hove, L; Cohen, P; Slegers, H

    1985-08-30

    In the cytosol of A. salina cryptobiotic gastrulae at least five protein phosphatases active on phosphorylase a have been detected by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Only two of these enzymes (PP-X and PP-Y) are active in mRNP dephosphorylation. Both enzymes are insensitive to inhibitor-1 and -2 and stimulation of enzymatic activity (2.5-fold with PP-X and 6.5-fold with PP-Y) can be accomplished by ethanol treatment of the native enzymes, or freeze-thawing in the presence of 1.7% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol. These properties allow PP-X and PP-Y to be classified as type-2A enzymes according to the nomenclature of Cohen. This paper is the first report of protein phosphatases capable of dephosphorylating mRNP proteins. PMID:2994667

  1. A study of the larvicidal and molluscicidal activities of some medicinal plants from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de S Luna, J; dos Santos, A F; de Lima, M R F; de Omena, M C; de Mendonça, F A C; Bieber, L W; Sant'Ana, A E G

    2005-02-28

    In a search for natural products that could be used to control the vectors of tropical diseases, 23 extracts of medicinal plants from the northeast of Brazil have been tested for molluscicidal activity against egg masses and adults of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, for larvicidal activity against the larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, and for general toxicity against the larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Of these extracts, two were active against the adult snail, one against snail egg masses, eight against the larvae of the mosquito, and 16 showed toxicity towards the brine shrimp. Chemical tests indicated that a wide variety of natural product classes were present in those extracts that showed significant activities in the bioassays. PMID:15707752

  2. Changes in the Structure of the Microbial Community Associated with Nannochloropsis salina following Treatments with Antibiotics and Bioactive Compounds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Geng, Haifeng; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary B.; Lane, Todd W.; Sale, Kenneth L.; Yu, Eizadora T.

    2016-07-26

    Open microalgae cultures host a myriad of bacteria, creating a complex system of interacting species that influence algal growth and health. Many algal microbiota studies have been conducted to determine the relative importance of bacterial taxa to algal culture health and physiological states, but these studies have not characterized the interspecies relationships in the microbial communities. Here we subjected Nanochroloropsis salina cultures to multiple chemical treatments (antibiotics and quorum sensing compounds) and obtained dense time-series data on changes to the microbial community using 16S gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing (21,029,577 reads for 23 samples) to measure microbial taxa-taxa abundance correlations. Short-termmore » treatment with antibiotics resulted in substantially larger shifts in the microbiota structure compared to changes observed following treatment with signaling compounds and glucose. We also calculated operational taxonomic unit (OTU) associations and generated OTU correlation networks to provide an overview of possible bacterial OTU interactions. This analysis identified five major cohesive modules of microbiota with similar co-abundance profiles across different chemical treatments. The Eigengenes of OTU modules were examined for correlation with different external treatment factors. This correlation-based analysis revealed that culture age (time) and treatment types have primary effects on forming network modules and shaping the community structure. Additional network analysis detected Alteromonadeles and Alphaproteobacteria as having the highest centrality, suggesting these species are “keystone” OTUs in the microbial community. Furthermore, we illustrated that the chemical tropodithietic acid, which is secreted by several species in the Alphaproteobacteria taxon, is able to drastically change the structure of the microbiota within 3 h. Lastly, taken together, these results provide valuable insights into the structure

  3. On-line stable isotope gas exchange reveals an inducible but leaky carbon concentrating mechanism in Nannochloropsis salina.

    PubMed

    Hanson, David T; Collins, Aaron M; Jones, Howland D T; Roesgen, John; Lopez-Nieves, Samuel; Timlin, Jerilyn A

    2014-09-01

    Carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are common among microalgae, but their regulation and even existence in some of the most promising biofuel production strains is poorly understood. This is partly because screening for new strains does not commonly include assessment of CCM function or regulation despite its fundamental role in primary carbon metabolism. In addition, the inducible nature of many microalgal CCMs means that environmental conditions should be considered when assessing CCM function and its potential impact on biofuels. In this study, we address the effect of environmental conditions by combining novel, high frequency, on-line (13)CO2 gas exchange screen with microscope-based lipid characterization to assess CCM function in Nannochloropsis salina and its interaction with lipid production. Regulation of CCM function was explored by changing the concentration of CO2 provided to continuous cultures in airlift bioreactors where cell density was kept constant across conditions by controlling the rate of media supply. Our isotopic gas exchange results were consistent with N. salina having an inducible "pump-leak" style CCM similar to that of Nannochloropsis gaditana. Though cells grew faster at high CO2 and had higher rates of net CO2 uptake, we did not observe significant differences in lipid content between conditions. Since the rate of CO2 supply was much higher for the high CO2 conditions, we calculated that growing cells bubbled with low CO2 is about 40 % more efficient for carbon capture than bubbling with high CO2. We attribute this higher efficiency to the activity of a CCM under low CO2 conditions. PMID:24844569

  4. Changes in the Structure of the Microbial Community Associated with Nannochloropsis salina following Treatments with Antibiotics and Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Geng, Haifeng; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary B; Lane, Todd W; Sale, Kenneth L; Yu, Eizadora T

    2016-01-01

    Open microalgae cultures host a myriad of bacteria, creating a complex system of interacting species that influence algal growth and health. Many algal microbiota studies have been conducted to determine the relative importance of bacterial taxa to algal culture health and physiological states, but these studies have not characterized the interspecies relationships in the microbial communities. We subjected Nanochroloropsis salina cultures to multiple chemical treatments (antibiotics and quorum sensing compounds) and obtained dense time-series data on changes to the microbial community using 16S gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing (21,029,577 reads for 23 samples) to measure microbial taxa-taxa abundance correlations. Short-term treatment with antibiotics resulted in substantially larger shifts in the microbiota structure compared to changes observed following treatment with signaling compounds and glucose. We also calculated operational taxonomic unit (OTU) associations and generated OTU correlation networks to provide an overview of possible bacterial OTU interactions. This analysis identified five major cohesive modules of microbiota with similar co-abundance profiles across different chemical treatments. The Eigengenes of OTU modules were examined for correlation with different external treatment factors. This correlation-based analysis revealed that culture age (time) and treatment types have primary effects on forming network modules and shaping the community structure. Additional network analysis detected Alteromonadeles and Alphaproteobacteria as having the highest centrality, suggesting these species are "keystone" OTUs in the microbial community. Furthermore, we illustrated that the chemical tropodithietic acid, which is secreted by several species in the Alphaproteobacteria taxon, is able to drastically change the structure of the microbiota within 3 h. Taken together, these results provide valuable insights into the structure of the microbiota

  5. Changes in the Structure of the Microbial Community Associated with Nannochloropsis salina following Treatments with Antibiotics and Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Haifeng; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary B.; Lane, Todd W.; Sale, Kenneth L.; Yu, Eizadora T.

    2016-01-01

    Open microalgae cultures host a myriad of bacteria, creating a complex system of interacting species that influence algal growth and health. Many algal microbiota studies have been conducted to determine the relative importance of bacterial taxa to algal culture health and physiological states, but these studies have not characterized the interspecies relationships in the microbial communities. We subjected Nanochroloropsis salina cultures to multiple chemical treatments (antibiotics and quorum sensing compounds) and obtained dense time-series data on changes to the microbial community using 16S gene amplicon metagenomic sequencing (21,029,577 reads for 23 samples) to measure microbial taxa-taxa abundance correlations. Short-term treatment with antibiotics resulted in substantially larger shifts in the microbiota structure compared to changes observed following treatment with signaling compounds and glucose. We also calculated operational taxonomic unit (OTU) associations and generated OTU correlation networks to provide an overview of possible bacterial OTU interactions. This analysis identified five major cohesive modules of microbiota with similar co-abundance profiles across different chemical treatments. The Eigengenes of OTU modules were examined for correlation with different external treatment factors. This correlation-based analysis revealed that culture age (time) and treatment types have primary effects on forming network modules and shaping the community structure. Additional network analysis detected Alteromonadeles and Alphaproteobacteria as having the highest centrality, suggesting these species are “keystone” OTUs in the microbial community. Furthermore, we illustrated that the chemical tropodithietic acid, which is secreted by several species in the Alphaproteobacteria taxon, is able to drastically change the structure of the microbiota within 3 h. Taken together, these results provide valuable insights into the structure of the microbiota

  6. The influence of photoperiod and light intensity on the growth and photosynthesis of Dunaliella salina (chlorophyta) CCAP 19/30.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanan; Ibrahim, Iskander M; Harvey, Patricia J

    2016-09-01

    The green microalga Dunaliella salina survives in a wide range of salinities via mechanisms involving glycerol synthesis and degradation and is exploited for large amounts of nutraceutical carotenoids produced under stressed conditions. In this study, D. salina CCAP 19/30 was cultured in varying photoperiods and light intensities to study the relationship of light with different growth measurement parameters, with cellular contents of glycerol, starch and carotenoids, and with photosynthesis and respiration. Results show CCAP 19/30 regulated cell volume when growing under light/dark cycles: cell volume increased in the light and decreased in the dark, and these changes corresponded to changes in cellular glycerol content. The decrease in cell volume in the dark was independent of cell division and biological clock and was regulated by the photoperiod of the light/dark cycle. When the light intensity was increased to above 1000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), cells displayed evidence of photodamage. However, these cells also maintained the maximum level of photosynthesis efficiency and respiration possible, and the growth rate increased as light intensity increased. Significantly, the intracellular glycerol content also increased, >2-fold compared to the content in light intensity of 500 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), but there was no commensurate increase in the pool size of carotenoids. These data suggest that in CCAP 19/30 glycerol stabilized the photosynthetic apparatus for maximum performance in high light intensities, a role normally attributed to carotenoids. PMID:27231875

  7. Influence of PbS nanoparticle polymer coating on their aggregation behavior and toxicity to the green algae Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Hajar; Moradshahi, Ali; Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-09-01

    The potential hazards of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment and to living organisms need to be considered for a safe development of nanotechnology. In the present study, the potential toxic effects of uncoated and gum Arabic-coated lead sulfide nanoparticles (GA-coated PbS NPs) on the growth, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total carotenoid content of the hypersaline unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina were investigated. Coatings of PbS NPs with GA, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduced the toxicity of PbS NPs. Uncoated PbS NP toxicity to D. salina was attributed to higher algal cell-NP agglomerate formation, higher lipid peroxidation, lower content of total reducing substances and lower total carotenoid content. Low levels of Pb(2+) in the growth culture media indicate that PbS NP dissolution does not occur in the culture. Also, the addition of 100 μM Pb(2+) to the culture media had no significant (P>0.05) effect on algal growth. The shading of light (shading effect) by PbS NPs, when simulated using activated charcoal, did not contribute to the overall toxic effect of PbS NPs which was evident by insignificant (P>0.05) reduction in the growth and antioxidant capacity of the algae. When PbS NP aggregation in culture media (without algal cells) was followed for 60 min, uncoated form aggregated rapidly reaching aggregate sizes with hydrodynamic diameter of over 2500 nm within 60 min. Effective particle-particle interaction was reduced in the GA-coated NPs. Aggregates of about 440 nm hydrodynamic diameter were formed within 35 min. Afterwards the aggregate size remained constant. It is concluded that PbS NPs have a negative effect on aquatic algae and their transformation by GA capping affects NPs aggregation properties and toxicity. PMID:24907922

  8. Neuromechanics of crawling in D. melanogaster larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehlevan, Cengiz; Paoletti, Paolo; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-03-01

    Nervous system, body and environment interact in non-trivial ways to generate locomotion and thence behavior in an organism. Here we present a minimal integrative mathematical model to describe the simple behavior of forward crawling in Drosophila larvae. Our model couples the excitation-inhibition circuits in the nervous system to force production in the muscles and body movement in a frictional environment, which in turn leads to a proprioceptive signal that feeds back to the nervous system. Our results explain the basic observed phenomenology of crawling with or without proprioception, and elucidate the stabilizing role of proprioception in crawling with respect to external and internal perturbations. Our integrated approach allows us to make testable predictions on the effect of changing body-environment interactions on crawling, and serves as a substrate for the development of hierarchical models linking cellular processes to behavior.

  9. How to kill the honey bee larva: genomic potential and virulence mechanisms of Paenibacillus larvae.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Marvin; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Fünfhaus, Anne; Voss, Jörn; Gollnow, Kathleen; Poppinga, Lena; Liesegang, Heiko; Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Genersch, Elke; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram positive bacterial pathogen, causes American Foulbrood (AFB), which is the most serious infectious disease of honey bees. In order to investigate the genomic potential of P. larvae, two strains belonging to two different genotypes were sequenced and used for comparative genome analysis. The complete genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25430 (genotype ERIC II) consisted of 4,056,006 bp and harbored 3,928 predicted protein-encoding genes. The draft genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25719 (genotype ERIC I) comprised 4,579,589 bp and contained 4,868 protein-encoding genes. Both strains harbored a 9.7 kb plasmid and encoded a large number of virulence-associated proteins such as toxins and collagenases. In addition, genes encoding large multimodular enzymes producing nonribosomally peptides or polyketides were identified. In the genome of strain DSM 25719 seven toxin associated loci were identified and analyzed. Five of them encoded putatively functional toxins. The genome of strain DSM 25430 harbored several toxin loci that showed similarity to corresponding loci in the genome of strain DSM 25719, but were non-functional due to point mutations or disruption by transposases. Although both strains cause AFB, significant differences between the genomes were observed including genome size, number and composition of transposases, insertion elements, predicted phage regions, and strain-specific island-like regions. Transposases, integrases and recombinases are important drivers for genome plasticity. A total of 390 and 273 mobile elements were found in strain DSM 25430 and strain DSM 25719, respectively. Comparative genomics of both strains revealed acquisition of virulence factors by horizontal gene transfer and provided insights into evolution and pathogenicity. PMID:24599066

  10. How to Kill the Honey Bee Larva: Genomic Potential and Virulence Mechanisms of Paenibacillus larvae

    PubMed Central

    Fünfhaus, Anne; Voss, Jörn; Gollnow, Kathleen; Poppinga, Lena; Liesegang, Heiko; Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Genersch, Elke; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram positive bacterial pathogen, causes American Foulbrood (AFB), which is the most serious infectious disease of honey bees. In order to investigate the genomic potential of P. larvae, two strains belonging to two different genotypes were sequenced and used for comparative genome analysis. The complete genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25430 (genotype ERIC II) consisted of 4,056,006 bp and harbored 3,928 predicted protein-encoding genes. The draft genome sequence of P. larvae strain DSM 25719 (genotype ERIC I) comprised 4,579,589 bp and contained 4,868 protein-encoding genes. Both strains harbored a 9.7 kb plasmid and encoded a large number of virulence-associated proteins such as toxins and collagenases. In addition, genes encoding large multimodular enzymes producing nonribosomally peptides or polyketides were identified. In the genome of strain DSM 25719 seven toxin associated loci were identified and analyzed. Five of them encoded putatively functional toxins. The genome of strain DSM 25430 harbored several toxin loci that showed similarity to corresponding loci in the genome of strain DSM 25719, but were non-functional due to point mutations or disruption by transposases. Although both strains cause AFB, significant differences between the genomes were observed including genome size, number and composition of transposases, insertion elements, predicted phage regions, and strain-specific island-like regions. Transposases, integrases and recombinases are important drivers for genome plasticity. A total of 390 and 273 mobile elements were found in strain DSM 25430 and strain DSM 25719, respectively. Comparative genomics of both strains revealed acquisition of virulence factors by horizontal gene transfer and provided insights into evolution and pathogenicity. PMID:24599066

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of surface proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae and intestinal infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruo Dan; Cui, Jing; Liu, Xiao Lin; Jiang, Peng; Sun, Ge Ge; Zhang, Xi; Long, Shao Rong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2015-10-01

    The critical step for Trichinella spiralis infection is that muscle larvae (ML) are activated to intestinal infective larvae (IIL) and invade intestinal epithelium to further develop. The IIL is its first invasive stage, surface proteins are directly exposed to host environment and are crucial for larval invasion and development. In this study, shotgun LC-MS/MS was used to analyze surface protein profiles of ML and IIL. Totally, 41 proteins common to both larvae, and 85 ML biased and 113 IIL biased proteins. Some proteins (e.g., putative scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain protein and putative onchocystatin) were involved in host-parasite interactions. Gene ontology analysis revealed that proteins involved in generation of precursor metabolites and energy; and nucleobase, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolic process were enriched in IIL at level 4. Some IIL biased proteins might play important role in larval invasion and development. qPCR results confirmed the high expression of some genes in IIL. Our study provides new insights into larval invasion, host-Trichinella interaction and for screening vaccine candidate antigens. PMID:26184560

  12. [Migration and transposition of Oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum larvae from feces].

    PubMed

    Barutzki, D; Gothe, R

    1998-05-01

    Investigations on the migration and translation of free-living stages of Oesophagostomum quadrispinulatum, using faeces containing eggs as starting material, revealed that mostly third stage larvae and very few second stage larvae migrated out of faeces, whereas first stage larvae remained in the faeces. The emigration rates depended on ambient relative humidity. Compared with the control, third stage larvae emigrated out of faeces at rates of 0.3%, 1.6% and 12.2% at 50%, 75% and 100% relative humidity, respectively. Offering helminth-free faeces, emigrated third stage larvae returned into faces at rates of 0.4-1.2%, 5.8-17.7%, 39.0-52.7%, and 45.2-60.7% after 1 h, 24 h, 5 days and 14 days, respectively. After a period of 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks staying out of faeces, emigrated third stage larvae returned into faeces at rates of 23.3%, 8.8%, 22.1% and 6.0%, respectively. An examination of the horizontal translation revealed that most of the third stage larvae migrated distances up to 80 cm and a few even up to 150 cm returning into helminth-free faeces. PMID:9640103

  13. Nociceptive neurons protect Drosophila larvae from parasitoid wasps

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yifan; Johnson, Trevor; Zhang, Feng; Deisseroth, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Natural selection has resulted in a complex and fascinating repertoire of innate behaviors that are produced by insects. One puzzling example occurs in fruitfly larvae that have been subjected to a noxious mechanical or thermal sensory input. In response, the larvae “roll” using a motor pattern that is completely distinct from the style of locomotion that is used for foraging. Results We have precisely mapped the sensory neurons that are used by the Drosophila larvae to detect nociceptive stimuli. Using complementary optogenetic activation and targeted silencing of sensory neurons, we have demonstrated that a single class of neuron (Class IV multidendritic neuron) is sufficient and necessary for triggering the unusual rolling behavior. In addition, we find that larvae have an innately encoded directional preference in the directionality of rolling. Surprisingly, the initial direction of rolling locomotion is towards the side of the body that has been stimulated. We propose that directional rolling might provide a selective advantage in escape from parasitoid wasps that are ubiquitously present in the natural environment of Drosophila. Consistent with this hypothesis, we have documented that larvae can escape attack of Leptopilina boulardi parasitoid wasps by rolling, occasionally flipping the attacker onto its back. Conclusions The Class IV multidendritic neurons of Drosophila larvae are nociceptive. The nociception behavior of Drosophila melanagaster larvae includes an innately encoded directional preference. Nociception behavior is elicited by the ecologically relevant sensory stimulus of parasitoid wasp attack. PMID:18060782

  14. [Toxicity and influencing factors of liquid chlorine on chironomid larvae].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xing-Bin; Cui, Fu-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song; Guo, Zhao-Hai; Xu, Feng; Liu, Li-Jun

    2005-09-01

    The excessive propagation of Chironomid larvae (red worm) in the sedimentation tanks is a difficult problem for the normal function of waterworks. The toxic effect of liquid chlorine on the different instar larvae of Chironomid was studied using distilled water as test sample. Furthermore, the effect of pH value, organic matter content, ammonia nitrogen, and algae content on toxicity of liquid chlorine was observed. The results show that the tolerance of Chironomid larvae to liquid chlorine is strengthened with the increase in instar. The 24h semi-lethal concentration (LC50) of liquid chlorine to the 4th instar larvae of Chironomid is 3.39 mg/L. Low pH value and high algae content are helpful to improve the toxic effect of liquid chlorine to Chironomid larvae. In neutral water body, the increase in organic matter content results in the decrease in the death rate of Chironomid larvae. The toxicity of liquid chlorine differs greatly in different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen. The death rate of the 4th instar larvae of Chironomid in raw water is higher by contrast with that in sedimentation tanks water for 24h disposal with various amount of liquid chlorine. PMID:16366477

  15. The phylogenetic significance of colour patterns in marine teleost larvae.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C

    2013-07-01

    Ichthyologists, natural-history artists, and tropical-fish aquarists have described, illustrated, or photographed colour patterns in adult marine fishes for centuries, but colour patterns in marine fish larvae have largely been neglected. Yet the pelagic larval stages of many marine fishes exhibit subtle to striking, ephemeral patterns of chromatophores that warrant investigation into their potential taxonomic and phylogenetic significance. Colour patterns in larvae of over 200 species of marine teleosts, primarily from the western Caribbean, were examined from digital colour photographs, and their potential utility in elucidating evolutionary relationships at various taxonomic levels was assessed. Larvae of relatively few basal marine teleosts exhibit erythrophores, xanthophores, or iridophores (i.e. nonmelanistic chromatophores), but one or more of those types of chromatophores are visible in larvae of many basal marine neoteleosts and nearly all marine percomorphs. Whether or not the presence of nonmelanistic chromatophores in pelagic marine larvae diagnoses any major teleost taxonomic group cannot be determined based on the preliminary survey conducted, but there is a trend toward increased colour from elopomorphs to percomorphs. Within percomorphs, patterns of nonmelanistic chromatophores may help resolve or contribute evidence to existing hypotheses of relationships at multiple levels of classification. Mugilid and some beloniform larvae share a unique ontogenetic transformation of colour pattern that lends support to the hypothesis of a close relationship between them. Larvae of some tetraodontiforms and lophiiforms are strikingly similar in having the trunk enclosed in an inflated sac covered with xanthophores, a character that may help resolve the relationships of these enigmatic taxa. Colour patterns in percomorph larvae also appear to diagnose certain groups at the interfamilial, familial, intergeneric, and generic levels. Slight differences in generic

  16. The phylogenetic significance of colour patterns in marine teleost larvae

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C

    2013-01-01

    Ichthyologists, natural-history artists, and tropical-fish aquarists have described, illustrated, or photographed colour patterns in adult marine fishes for centuries, but colour patterns in marine fish larvae have largely been neglected. Yet the pelagic larval stages of many marine fishes exhibit subtle to striking, ephemeral patterns of chromatophores that warrant investigation into their potential taxonomic and phylogenetic significance. Colour patterns in larvae of over 200 species of marine teleosts, primarily from the western Caribbean, were examined from digital colour photographs, and their potential utility in elucidating evolutionary relationships at various taxonomic levels was assessed. Larvae of relatively few basal marine teleosts exhibit erythrophores, xanthophores, or iridophores (i.e. nonmelanistic chromatophores), but one or more of those types of chromatophores are visible in larvae of many basal marine neoteleosts and nearly all marine percomorphs. Whether or not the presence of nonmelanistic chromatophores in pelagic marine larvae diagnoses any major teleost taxonomic group cannot be determined based on the preliminary survey conducted, but there is a trend toward increased colour from elopomorphs to percomorphs. Within percomorphs, patterns of nonmelanistic chromatophores may help resolve or contribute evidence to existing hypotheses of relationships at multiple levels of classification. Mugilid and some beloniform larvae share a unique ontogenetic transformation of colour pattern that lends support to the hypothesis of a close relationship between them. Larvae of some tetraodontiforms and lophiiforms are strikingly similar in having the trunk enclosed in an inflated sac covered with xanthophores, a character that may help resolve the relationships of these enigmatic taxa. Colour patterns in percomorph larvae also appear to diagnose certain groups at the interfamilial, familial, intergeneric, and generic levels. Slight differences in generic

  17. Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant proteins from embryos of Artemia franciscana: structural properties and protective abilities during desiccation.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Leaf C; Menze, Michael A; Hand, Steven C

    2014-01-01

    Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are highly hydrophilic, and their expression is associated with desiccation tolerance in both plants and animals. Here we show that two LEA proteins from embryos of Artemia franciscana, AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m, are intrinsically disordered in solution but upon desiccation gain secondary structure, as measured by circular dichroism. Trifluoroethanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate are both shown to induce α-helical structure in AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m. Bioinformatic predictions of secondary-structure content for both proteins correspond most closely to conformations measured in the dry state. Because some LEA proteins afford protection to desiccation-sensitive proteins during drying and subsequent rehydration, we tested for this capacity in AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m. The protective capacities vary, depending on the target enzyme. For the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, neither AfrLEA2 nor AfrLEA3m, with or without trehalose present, was able to afford protection better than that provided by bovine serum albumin (BSA) under the same conditions. However, for another cytoplasmic enzyme, phosphofructokinase, both AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m in the presence of trehalose were able to afford protection far greater than that provided by BSA with trehalose. Finally, for the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase, 400-μg/mL AfrLEA3m without trehalose provided significantly more protection than the same concentration of either AfrLEA2 or BSA. PMID:25244376

  18. Heat dissipation during long-term anoxia in Artemia franciscana embryos: identification and fate of metabolic fuels.

    PubMed

    Hand, S C

    1990-01-01

    Microcalorimetric measurements of brine shrimp embryos during 6 days of anoxia indicated that heat dissipation was rapidly suppressed to 2.7% of control (aerobic) values over the first 9 h. Energy flow continued to decline slowly to 31 microW.g dry mass-1 (0.4% of control) during the subsequent 5.5 days. Within 2 h after returning anoxic embryos to aerobic conditions, heat dissipation rose to 77% of control rates. The calorimetric/respirometric (CR) ratio across this 2-h recovery period increased steadily from -226 to -346 kJ.mol O2-1). Prior to the anoxic exposures, hydrated embryos were incubated aerobically for 10 h to insure full initiation of carbohydrate metabolism (CR ratio = -484 kJ.mol O2-1). During the 6-day asymptotic approach to a nearly ametabolic state, trehalose and glycogen levels declined 18% and 13%, respectively. The majority of this utilization occurred within the first three days. Thermochemical calculations showed that carbohydrate catabolism accounted for 84% of the total heat dissipation measured over the 6-day anoxic bout; only 3% of the heat could be explained by the catabolism of diguanosine tetraphosphate (Gp4G). Analyses of embryo extracts by high performance liquid chromatography indicated that multiple acid end products were accumulated. Lactate and propionate reached 4.5 mM and 1.0 mM, respectively, but these compounds did not account quantitatively for the amount of carbohydrate utilized. However, the largest chromatographic peak that accumulated under anoxia has not been successfully identified. Fumarate and pyruvate levels decreased as anoxia proceeded. Thus, a perceptible energy flow in Artemia franciscana embryos still remained after 6 days of anoxia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2292613

  19. Profiles of nuclear and mitochondrial encoded mRNAs in developing and quiescent embryos of Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Hardewig, I; Anchordoguy, T J; Crawford, D L; Hand, S C

    1996-05-24

    Embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana are able to withstand long bouts of environmental anoxia by entering a quiescent state during which metabolism is greatly depressed. Recent evidence supports a global arrest of protein synthesis during quiescence. In this study we measured the amounts of mRNA for a mitochondrial-encoded subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX I) and for nuclear-encoded actin during aerobic development, anaerobiosis, and aerobic acidosis (artificial quiescence imposed by intracellular acidification under aerobic conditions). The levels of both COX I and actin transcripts increased significantly during aerobic development. COX I mRNA levels were tightly correlated with previous measures of COX catalytic activity, which suggests that COX synthesis could be regulated by message concentration during aerobic development. The ontogenetic increase for these mRNAs was blocked by anoxia and aerobic acidosis. Importantly, the levels of COX I and actin mRNA did not decline appreciably during the 6 h bouts of quiescence, even though protein synthesis is acutely arrested by these same treatments. Thus, the constancy of mRNA levels during quiescence indicate that reduced protein synthesis is not caused by message limitation, but rather, is likely controlled at the translational level. One advantage of this regulatory mechanism is the conservation of mRNA molecules during quiescence, which would potentially favor a quick resumption of translation as soon as oxygen is returned to the embryos. Finally, because anoxia and aerobic acidosis are both characterized by acidic intracellular pH, the reduction in pH may serve, directly or indirectly, as one signal regulating levels of mRNA in this embryo during quiescence. PMID:8817476

  20. Mitochondrial mRNA stability and polyadenylation during anoxia-induced quiescence in the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Eads, Brian D; Hand, Steven C

    2003-10-01

    Polyadenylation of messenger RNA is known to be an important mechanism for regulating mRNA stability in a variety of systems, including bacteria, chloroplasts and plant mitochondria. By comparison, little is known about the role played by polyadenylation in animal mitochondrial gene expression. We have used embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana to test hypotheses regarding message stability and polyadenylation under conditions simulating anoxia-induced quiescence. In response to anoxia, these embryos undergo a profound and acute metabolic downregulation, characterized by a steep drop in intracellular pH (pH(i)) and ATP levels. Using dot blots of total mitochondrial RNA, we show that during in organello incubations both O(2) deprivation and acidic pH (pH 6.4) elicit increases in half-lives of selected mitochondrial transcripts on the order of five- to tenfold or more, relative to normoxic controls at pH 7.8. Polyadenylation of these transcripts was measured under the same incubation conditions using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based assay. The results demonstrate that low pH and anoxia promote significant deadenylation of the stabilized transcripts in several cases, measured either as change over time in the amount of polyadenylation within a given size class of poly(A)(+) tail, or as the total amount of polyadenylation at the endpoint of the incubation. This study is the first direct demonstration that for a metazoan mitochondrion, polyadenylation is associated with destabilized mRNA. This pattern has also been demonstrated in bacteria, chloroplasts and plant mitochondria and may indicate a conserved mechanism for regulating message half-life that differs from the paradigm for eukaryotic cytoplasm, where increased mRNA stability is associated with polyadenylation. PMID:12966060

  1. Bird migratory flyways influence the phylogeography of the invasive brine shrimp Artemia franciscana in its native American range

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Joaquín; Amat, Francisco; Green, Andy J.; Figuerola, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Since Darwin’s time, waterbirds have been considered an important vector for the dispersal of continental aquatic invertebrates. Bird movements have facilitated the worldwide invasion of the American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, transporting cysts (diapausing eggs), and favouring rapid range expansions from introduction sites. Here we address the impact of bird migratory flyways on the population genetic structure and phylogeography of A. franciscana in its native range in the Americas. We examined sequence variation for two mitochondrial gene fragments (COI and 16S for a subset of the data) in a large set of population samples representing the entire native range of A. franciscana. Furthermore, we performed Mantel tests and redundancy analyses (RDA) to test the role of flyways, geography and human introductions on the phylogeography and population genetic structure at a continental scale. A. franciscana mitochondrial DNA was very diverse, with two main clades, largely corresponding to Pacific and Atlantic populations, mirroring American bird flyways. There was a high degree of regional endemism, with populations subdivided into at least 12 divergent, geographically restricted and largely allopatric mitochondrial lineages, and high levels of population structure (ΦST of 0.92), indicating low ongoing gene flow. We found evidence of human-mediated introductions in nine out of 39 populations analysed. Once these populations were removed, Mantel tests revealed a strong association between genetic variation and geographic distance (i.e., isolation-by-distance pattern). RDA showed that shared bird flyways explained around 20% of the variance in genetic distance between populations and this was highly significant, once geographic distance was controlled for. The variance explained increased to 30% when the factor human introduction was included in the model. Our findings suggest that bird-mediated transport of brine shrimp propagules does not result in substantial

  2. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aladawi, M. A.; Albarodi, H.; Hammoudeh, A.; Shamma, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  3. Anguilliform larvae collected off North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, S.W.; Casazza, T.L.; Quattrini, A.M.; Sulak, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    The distinctive larval stage of eels (leptocephalus) facilitates dispersal through prolonged life in the open ocean. Leptocephali are abundant and diverse off North Carolina, yet data on distributions and biology are lacking. The water column (from surface to 1,293 m) was sampled in or near the Gulf Stream off Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout, and Cape Fear, North Carolina during summer through fall of 1999-2005, and leptocephali were collected by neuston net, plankton net, Tucker trawl, and dip net. Additional samples were collected nearly monthly from a transect across southern Onslow Bay, North Carolina (from surface to 91 m) from April 2000 to December 2001 by bongo and neuston nets, Methot frame trawl, and Tucker trawl. Overall, 584 tows were completed, and 224 of these yielded larval eels. The 1,295 eel leptocephali collected (combining all methods and areas) represented at least 63 species (nine families). Thirteen species were not known previously from the area. Dominant families for all areas were Congridae (44% of individuals, 11 species), Ophichthidae (30% of individuals, 27 species), and Muraenidae (22% of individuals, ten species). Nine taxa accounted for 70% of the overall leptocephalus catches (in order of decreasing abundance): Paraconger caudilimbatus (Poey), Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz complex, Ariosoma balearicum (Delaroche), Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau), Callechelys muraena Jordan and Evermann, Letharchus aliculatus McCosker, Rhynchoconger flavus (Goode and Bean), Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode and Bean), Rhynchoconger gracilior (Ginsburg). The top three species represented 52% of the total eel larvae collected. Most leptocephali were collected at night (79%) and at depths > 45 m. Eighty percent of the eels collected in discrete depth Tucker trawls at night ranged from mean depths of 59-353 m. A substantial number (38% of discrete depth sample total) of larval eels were also collected at the surface (neuston net) at night. Daytime leptocephalus

  4. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Brandon J; Hancock, Bryan M; Cid, Natasha Del; Bermudez, Andres; Traver, David; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is an encapsulated, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis, and an emerging aquaculture pathogen. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a genetically tractable model vertebrate that has been used to analyze the pathogenesis of both aquatic and human bacterial pathogens. We have developed a larval zebrafish model of GBS infection to study bacterial and host factors that contribute to disease progression. GBS infection resulted in dose dependent larval death, and GBS serotype III, ST-17 strain was observed as the most virulent. Virulence was dependent on the presence of the GBS capsule, surface anchored lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and toxin production, as infection with GBS mutants lacking these factors resulted in little to no mortality. Additionally, interleukin-1β il1b and CXCL-8 (cxcl8a) were significantly induced following GBS infection compared to controls. We also visualized GBS outside the brain vasculature, suggesting GBS penetration into the brain during the course of infection. Our data demonstrate that zebrafish larvae are a valuable model organism to study GBS pathogenesis. PMID:25617657

  5. Cerebral Baylisascaris larva migrans in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Shoieb, Ahmed; Radi, Zaher A

    2014-08-01

    An incidental, asymptomatic, focal inflammatory lesion was detected in brain cerebrum of an approximately 6-year-old, female cynomolgus macaque from a chronic toxicology study. No gross lesions were noted at necropsy. Microscopically, the lesion contained a cross-section of larvae approximately 70-80 μm in diameter, a centrally located intestine flanked on either side by large triangular excretory columns, and prominent single lateral cuticular alae. Mixed inflammatory cells of eosinophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes admixed with abundant connective tissue stroma and necrosis surrounded the larvae. Histochemical stains for trichrome revealed significant amount of fibrous connective tissue. The morphology of the larvae was compatible with Baylisascaris spp. Based on the microscopic and histochemical examination, a diagnosis of neural Baylisascaris spp. larva migrans was made. PMID:24795276

  6. Culturing Embryos and Larvae of Marine Molluscs and Protochordates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, R.; Turner, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a description for maintaining adult forms of molluscs and protochordates in order to obtain gametes for laboratory studies of animal development. The methods also include those for culturing embryonic larvae forms in vitro. (Author/SA)

  7. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    PubMed Central

    Kitvatanachai, S; Apiwathnasorn, C; Leemingsawat, S; Wongwit, W; Overgaard, HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories, and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms. Methods Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx. gelidus. The levels of lead were higher in the Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.08-47.47 µg/g), than in the wastewaters surface (0.01-0.78 µg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the criteria for lead determination. Conclusions The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination, to complemente conventional techniques. PMID:23569727

  8. Improved Software for Quantifying the Behavior of Drosophila Larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernat, Natalie; Gershow, Marc

    A key advantage of small crawling organisms like C elegans and the Drosophila larva is that their behaviors may be assayed automatically using computer vision software. Current state of the art software is capable of detecting the positions and postures of crawling larvae and automatically categorize their behaviors in parallel. However, these algorithms, which are based on frame-by-frame analysis of thresholded black and white images, fail to correctly describe the postures of larvae executing sharp bends and have difficulty separating multiple larvae that are physically touching. We present new tracking software that uses intensity information in grayscale images and applies temporal smoothness constraints to positions and postures. We implemented this software as an ImageJ plugin, extending its portability and applicability.

  9. Microbial modulation of behavior and stress responses in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Bryda, Elizabeth C; Gillespie, Catherine H; Ericsson, Aaron C

    2016-09-15

    The influence of the microbiota on behavior and stress responses is poorly understood. Zebrafish larvae have unique characteristics that are advantageous for neuroimmune research, however, they are currently underutilized for such studies. Here, we used germ-free zebrafish to determine the effects of the microbiota on behavior and stress testing. The absence of a microbiota dramatically altered locomotor and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, characteristic responses to an acute stressor were also obliterated in larvae lacking exposure to microbes. Lastly, treatment with the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum was sufficient to attenuate anxiety-related behavior in conventionally-raised zebrafish larvae. These results underscore the importance of the microbiota in communicating to the CNS via the microbiome-gut-brain axis and set a foundation for using zebrafish larvae for neuroimmune research. PMID:27217102

  10. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the reindeer warble fly larva.

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, M S; Nilssen, A C; Lyslo, A; Syrdalen, P; Dannevig, L

    1991-01-01

    Two boys with ophthalmomyiasis caused by the first instar larva of the reindeer warble fly Hypoderma tarandi are reported. Both were 9 years old and came from the coast of northern Norway. One had ophthalmomyiasis interna posterior and one eye had been removed because of progressive pain and blindness. Histological examination showed the remains of a fly larva. The second boy had ophthalmomyiasis externa with a tumour in the upper eyelid, and histological examination showed a warble with a well preserved larva. Identification of the parasite in the histological material was based on the finding of cuticular spines and parts of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton identical with those of the first instar larva of H tarandi. Images PMID:2030144

  11. EFFECTS OF CHLORINATED SEAWATER ON DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS AND 'MULINIA' LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eggs and larvae of decapod crustaceans and embryos of Mulinia lateralis were exposed to chlorinated seawater for varying periods in continuous flow systems. Mortality, developmental rate, and general behavior were recorded. Panopeus herbstii zoeae were more sensitive to chlorine-...

  12. [Toxic effects of plant extracts on mosquito larvae].

    PubMed

    Rageau, J; Delaveau, P

    1979-01-01

    Vegetable extracts prepared with 530 species belonging to 120 botanical families are biologically screened with fourth stage larvae of Aedes aegypti. About twenty species are selected. Eight species of Convolvulaceae are specially toxic. PMID:527161

  13. Molecular Clone and Expression of a NAD+-Dependent Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Isozyme Gene from the Halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ma; He, Li-Hong; Yu, Tu-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is an important osmotically compatible solute in Dunaliella. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) is a key enzyme in the pathway of glycerol synthesis, which converts dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol-3-phosphate. Generally, the glycerol-DHAP cycle pathway, which is driven by G3PDH, is considered as the rate-limiting enzyme to regulate the glycerol level under osmotic shocks. Considering the peculiarity in osmoregulation, the cDNA of a NAD+-dependent G3PDH was isolated from D. salina using RACE and RT-PCR approaches in this study. Results indicated that the length of the cDNA sequence of G3PDH was 2,100 bp encoding a 699 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose computational molecular weight was 76.6 kDa. Conserved domain analysis revealed that the G3PDH protein has two independent functional domains, SerB and G3PDH domains. It was predicted that the G3PDH was a nonsecretory protein and may be located in the chloroplast of D. salina. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the D. salina G3PDH had a closer relationship with the G3PDHs from the Dunaliella genus than with those from other species. In addition, the cDNA was subsequently subcloned in the pET-32a(+) vector and was transformed into E. coli strain BL21 (DE3), a expression protein with 100 kDa was identified, which was consistent with the theoretical value. PMID:23626797

  14. Molecular taxonomy of Dunaliella (Chlorophyceae), with a special focus on D. salina: ITS2 sequences revisited with an extensive geographical sampling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We used an ITS2 primary and secondary structure and Compensatory Base Changes (CBCs) analyses on new French and Spanish Dunallela salina strains to investigate their phylogenetic position and taxonomic status within the genus Dunaliella. Our analyses show a great diversity within D. salina (with only some clades not statistically supported) and reveal considerable genetic diversity and structure within Dunaliella, although the CBC analysis did not bolster the existence of different biological groups within this taxon. The ITS2 sequences of the new Spanish and French D. salina strains were very similar except for two of them: ITC5105 "Janubio" from Spain and ITC5119 from France. Although the Spanish one had a unique ITS2 sequence profile and the phylogenetic tree indicates that this strain can represent a new species, this hypothesis was not confirmed by CBCs, and clarification of its taxonomic status requires further investigation with new data. Overall, the use of CBCs to define species boundaries within Dunaliella was not conclusive in some cases, and the ITS2 region does not contain a geographical signal overall. PMID:22520929

  15. Inhibitory effects of hypo-osmotic stress on extracellular carbonic anhydrase and photosynthetic efficiency of green alga Dunaliella salina possibly through reactive oxygen species formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenhua; Ming, Yao; Li, Ping; Huang, Zhongwen

    2012-05-01

    In this study, Dunaliella salina (D. salina) maintained in 30‰ salinity for more than two years was exposed to the salinities of 5‰, 10‰, 20‰, 30‰ (control) in order to investigate oxidative burst and it's possible connection with extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) under hypo-osmotic stress (low salinity). The results indicated that intracellular ROS contents increased significantly when cells were exposed to salinity of 5 and 10‰, and the increase also occurred at 20‰ salinity. The activity of extracellular CA and its gene (P60) expression decreased significantly when cells were exposed to salinity of 5-20‰. Data from H₂O₂ treatments hinted that ROS production was possibly one of the factors affecting CA, including enzyme activity and gene expression levels. Significant inhibition of effective quantum efficiency of PSII and photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate were observed with the increase of ROS production and decline of CA activities. Taken together, hypo-osmotic stresses could induce ROS production in D. salina, and CA enzyme activities and expression levels were consequently inhibited. As a result, algal photosynthesis and oxygen evolution were inhibited. PMID:22377429

  16. Characterization of secreted proteases of Paenibacillus larvae, potential virulence factors in honeybee larval infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), the most severe bacterial disease that affects honeybee larvae. AFB causes a significant decrease in the honeybee population affecting the beekeeping industry and agricultural production. After infection of larvae, P. larvae se...

  17. Fatty acids in anopheline mosquito larvae and their habitats.

    PubMed

    Komínková, Dana; Rejmánková, Eliška; Grieco, John; Achee, Nicole

    2012-12-01

    Larvae of the three important Central American malaria vectors, Anopheles albimanus, An. vestitipennis, and An. darlingi, are found in distinctly different habitats broadly defined by hydrology and aquatic vegetation, but little is known about the actual food quality and quantity of these habitats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are of special interest, because mosquitoes require 20:5ω3 (EPA), 20:4ω6 (ARA), and 22:6ω3 (DHA) and without an adequate supply of these PUFAs they are not able to complete their life cycle. We collected samples of larvae and their corresponding habitats and analyzed their fatty acid (FA) composition to reveal if there are any species-specific and habitat-specific differences in FA composition, and if habitat FA differences can be linked to differences in the mosquito FA pattern and, ultimately, mosquito performance. We also assessed how FA of wild larvae compare to the laboratory-reared larvae. Habitats were generally low in essential PUFAs and there were no significant differences among the FA composition of habitat samples. There were significant differences in FA composition of larvae. An. darlingi contained significantly higher amounts of FA, specifically a higher content of ω-6 PUFA, represented mainly by the linoleic acid (18:2ω-6). Large differences were found between field-collected and laboratory-reared An. vestitipennis larvae, especially in the content of PUFAs. The laboratory-reared larvae contained significantly more of the total FA, ω3 PUFA, and MUFA. The laboratory-reared larvae contained three to five times more essential PUFAs, EPA, and DHA. However, there were no differences in the total dry weight of the 4(th) instar larvae between the wild vs laboratory-reared larvae. Total FA in both larvae and habitats of An. albimanus and An. darlingi were positively correlated with the concentration of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC, PON) in their respective habitats, but no such correlation was found for An

  18. Rearing gymnolaemate bryozoan larvae for cellular and molecular analyses.

    PubMed

    Temkin, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Gymnolaemates represent the largest group of extant bryozoans, having more than 3,000 described species. Gymnolaemates display a diverse array of reproductive and developmental patterns including planktotrophy, lecithotrophy, and matrotrophy. The larvae of gymnolaemates have been broadly grouped into three types, cyphonautes (shelled, feeding), pseudocyphonautes (shelled, nonfeeding), and coronate (unshelled, nonfeeding), although each group is heterogeneous and probably includes various morphologies that are largely undescribed. Here, methods for rearing bryozoan colonies and larvae are presented. PMID:24567208

  19. Parasites of fish larvae: do they follow metabolic energetic laws?

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gabriela; Landaeta, Mauricio F; Palacios-Fuentes, Pamela; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Eumetazoan parasites in fish larvae normally exhibit large body sizes relative to their hosts. This observation raises a question about the potential effects that parasites might have on small fish. We indirectly evaluated this question using energetic metabolic laws based on body volume and the parasite densities. We compared the biovolume as well as the numeric and volumetric densities of parasites over the host body volume of larval and juvenile-adult fish and the average of these parasitological descriptors for castrator parasites and the parasites found in the fish studied here. We collected 5266 fish larvae using nearshore zooplankton sampling and 1556 juveniles and adult fish from intertidal rocky pools in central Chile. We considered only the parasitized hosts: 482 fish larvae and 629 juvenile-adult fish. We obtained 31 fish species; 14 species were in both plankton and intertidal zones. Fish larvae exhibited a significantly smaller biovolume but larger numeric and volumetric densities of parasites than juvenile-adult fish. Therefore, fish larvae showed a large proportion of parasite biovolume per unit of body host (cm(3)). However, the general scaling of parasitological descriptors and host body volume were similar between larvae and juvenile-adult fish. The ratio between the biovolume of parasites and the host body volume in fish larvae was similar to the proportion observed in castrator parasites. Furthermore, the ratios were different from those of juvenile-adult fish, which suggests that the presence of parasites implies a high energetic cost for fish larvae that would diminish the fitness of these small hosts. PMID:26193824

  20. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  1. Cloning and expression patterns of the brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) glycogen phosphorylase (GPase) gene during development and in response to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Hou, Ming; Wang, Ting; Chen, Yifei; Lv, Ying; Li, Zengrong; Zhang, Rui; Xin, Wenting; Zou, Xiangyang; Hou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen serves as a metabolic reserve and is involved in macromolecular synthesis. Glycogen phosphorylase (GPase) is a key enzyme involved in intracellular glycogen catabolism, catalyzing the first step in glycogen degradation. In the diapause, GPase catalyzes glycogen into the closely related molecule, sorbitol. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the GPase gene (2,790 bp) was isolated from Artemia sinica for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology. The GPase gene encoded a protein of 853 amino acids belonging to the Glycosyltransferase GTB type superfamily. The expression pattern and location of GPase were investigated at various stages during the embryonic development of A. sinica using real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. High GPase expression was detected at the 0 and 5 h stages. Subsequently, expression declined and was maintained at a low level during the stages from 10 to 40 h following by a small increase at day 3. Expression was downregulated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 20 °C and was subsequently upregulated in the range 15-5 °C. In situ hybridization assays showed wide distribution of the GPase gene during different developmental stages. From the results of this study, we conclude that the GPase gene expression is stress-related and might play an important role in Artemia development and metabolism. PMID:24323193

  2. Differentiation of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the Cause of American Foulbrood of Honeybees, by Using PCR and Restriction Fragment Analysis of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Alippi, Adriana M.; López, Ana Claudia; Aguilar, O. Mario

    2002-01-01

    A rapid procedure for the identification of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood (AFB) disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), based on PCR and restriction fragment analysis of the 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) is described. Eighty-six bacterial strains belonging to 39 species of the genera Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, and Virgibacillus were characterized. Amplified rDNA was digested with seven restriction endonucleases. The combined data from restriction analysis enabled us to distinguish 35 profiles. Cluster analysis revealed that P. larvae subsp. larvae and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens formed a group with about 90% similarity; however, the P. larvae subsp. larvae restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern produced by endonuclease HaeIII was found to be unique and distinguishable among other closely related bacteria. This pattern was associated with DNA extracted directly from honeybee brood samples showing positive AFB clinical signs that yielded the restriction profile characteristic of P. larvae subsp. larvae, while no amplification product was obtained from healthy larvae. The method described here is particularly useful because of the short time required to carry it out and because it allows the differentiation of P. larvae subsp. larvae-infected larvae from all other species found in apiarian sources. PMID:12089057

  3. Sun-Compass Orientation in Mediterranean Fish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Faillettaz, Robin; Blandin, Agathe; Paris, Claire B.; Koubbi, Philippe; Irisson, Jean-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Mortality is very high during the pelagic larval phase of fishes but the factors that determine recruitment success remain unclear and hard to predict. Because of their bipartite life history, larvae of coastal species have to head back to the shore at the end of their pelagic episode, to settle. These settlement-stage larvae are known to display strong sensory and motile abilities, but most work has been focused on tropical, insular environments and on the influence of coast-related cues on orientation. In this study we quantified the in situ orientation behavior of settlement-stage larvae in a temperate region, with a continuous coast and a dominant along-shore current, and inspected both coast-dependent and independent cues. We tested six species: one Pomacentridae, Chromis chromis, and five Sparidae, Boops boops, Diplodus annularis, Oblada melanura, Spicara smaris and Spondyliosoma cantharus. Over 85% of larvae were highly capable of keeping a bearing, which is comparable to the orientation abilities of tropical species. Sun-related cues influenced the precision of bearing-keeping at individual level. Three species, out of the four tested in sufficient numbers, oriented significantly relative to the sun position. These are the first in situ observations demonstrating the use of a sun compass for orientation by wild-caught settlement-stage larvae. This mechanism has potential for large-scale orientation of fish larvae globally. PMID:26308915

  4. Quantification of vestibular-induced eye movements in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Vestibular reflexes coordinate movements or sensory input with changes in body or head position. Vestibular-evoked responses that involve the extraocular muscles include the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), a compensatory eye movement to stabilize retinal images. Although an angular VOR attributable to semicircular canal stimulation was reported to be absent in free-swimming zebrafish larvae, recent studies reveal that vestibular-induced eye movements can be evoked in zebrafish larvae by both static tilts and dynamic rotations that tilt the head with respect to gravity. Results We have determined herein the basis of sensitivity of the larval eye movements with respect to vestibular stimulus, developmental stage, and sensory receptors of the inner ear. For our experiments, video recordings of larvae rotated sinusoidally at 0.25 Hz were analyzed to quantitate eye movements under infrared illumination. We observed a robust response that appeared as early as 72 hours post fertilization (hpf), which increased in amplitude over time. Unlike rotation about an earth horizontal axis, rotation about an earth vertical axis at 0.25 Hz did not evoke eye movements. Moreover, vestibular-induced responses were absent in mutant cdh23 larvae and larvae lacking anterior otoliths. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a functional vestibulo-oculomotor circuit in 72 hpf zebrafish larvae that relies upon sensory input from anterior/utricular otolith organs. PMID:20815905

  5. Larva migrans in squirrel monkeys experimentally infected with Baylisascaris potosis.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Tsugo, Kosuke; Nakamura, Shohei; Taira, Kensuke; Une, Yumi

    2015-10-01

    Roundworms of the genus Baylisascaris are natural parasites primarily of wild carnivores, and they can occasionally cause infection in humans and animals. Infection results in visceral larva migrans and/or neural larva migrans, which can be severe or fatal in some animals. Recently, Baylisascaris nematodes isolated from kinkajous (Potos flavus) and previously referred to as Baylisascaris procyonis were renamed as Baylisascaris potosis; however, data regarding the pathogenicity of B. potosis towards animals and humans are lacking. In the present study, we experimentally infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with B. potosis to determine the suitability of the monkey as a primate model. We used embryonated eggs of B. potosis at two different doses (10,000 eggs and 100,000 eggs) and examined the animals at 30 days post-infection. Histopathological examination showed the presence of B. potosis larvae and infiltration of inflammatory cells around a central B. potosis larvae in the brain, intestines, and liver. Nevertheless, the monkeys showed no clinical signs associated with infection. Parasitological examination revealed the presence of B. potosis larvae in the intestines, liver, lung, muscles, brain, kidney, and diaphragm. Our findings extend the range of species that are susceptible to B. potosis and provide evidence for the zoonotic potential of larva migrans in high dose infections. PMID:25796550

  6. Guppies as predators of common mosquito larvae in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Saleeza, S N R; Norma-Rashid, Y; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2014-03-01

    Observation on predation activities of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) on the larvae of three species of mosquito, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out under laboratory conditions. Male and female guppies were used as predators for predation experiments on the 4th instars of mosquito larvae. The daily feeding rates comparing male and female guppies on mosquito larvae were different; the female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae than male guppies did. The daily feeding rates of female guppies were 121.3 for Ae. aegypti, 105.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 72.3 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The daily feeding rates of male guppies were 98.6 for Ae. aegypti, 73.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 47.6 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In terms of prey preference, there was greater preference towards mosquito larvae of Ae. aegypti, followed by Ae. albopictus, and the least preferred was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Male and female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae during lights on (day time) compared with lights off (night time). The water volume, prey species, number of fish predators available, prey densities, and prey's sex also influenced the predation activities. PMID:24968669

  7. Incorporation of bacterial extracellular polysaccharide by black fly larvae (Simuliidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Couch, C.A.; Meyer, J.L.; Hall, R.O., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Black fly larvae (Simulium) assimilated, with high efficiency (80-90%), bacterial extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) extracted from laboratory cultures of a pseudomonad isolated from the Ogeechee River. Incorporation was traced using 13C-labelled EPS offered to larvae as a coating on a mixture of 1-??m latex beads and kaolin particles. These EPS-coated particles were used to simulate natural particles, both living and dead. Solubility, protein, and nitrogen content of the EPS suggested it was a slime rather than a capsular polysaccharide. Glycosyl composition of the EPS was glucose and galactose in ?? and ?? linkages, with pyruvate, succinate, and possibly malonate constituent groups. To evaluate the incorporation of C derived from protein associated with the EPS matrix, feeding experiments were conducted using EPS with and without proteins extracted. Black fly larvae incorporated 7.2 ??g EPS C larva-1 d-1 from EPS that did not have proteins extracted, and 19.5 ??g EPS C larva-1 d-1 from EPS with proteins extracted. Carbon in protein that is typically associated with EPS was not solely or selectively incorporated. EPS incorporation rates are similar to rates of cellular bacterial carbon incorporation previously estimated for Ogeechee River black fly larvae. If EPS is generally available as a food resource, the importance of bacteria in detrital food webs may be underestimated by studies that examine only the consumption of bacterial cells.

  8. On the escape of infective filarial larvae from the mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zielke, E

    1977-12-01

    Experimentally infected females of Culex pipiens fatigans carrying infective larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti were fed, on the 16th day p.i., on four different solutions, which were offered "cold" (24 degrees C) or "warm" (34 degrees C) in Petri dishes as open fluids. Thus the sucking mosquitoes did not have to bend their labia. Only the "warm" human serum stimulated any considerable number of infective larvae (24.8%) to leave the mouthparts of the mosquitoes. 1289 infective C. fatigens females lost only an estimated 6.4% of their infective larvae of W. bancrofti, when they were maintained on sugar-water until their natural death. Most of the more heavily infected mosquitoes died relatively soon after the filarial larvae had reached maturity (15-20 days p.i.). The main stimulus provoking the filarial larvae to migrate into the labium is believed to be the movement of the muscles of the pharyngeal pump. Mature larvae protrude their anterior ends from the tip of the labellum. There they seem able to distinguish between suitable and unsuitable external conditions and accordingly they will either leave the proboscis completely or retract into the labium. PMID:601855

  9. Effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions, time dependence, and climate cycles on the suspended sediment load of the Salinas River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Andrew B.; Pasternack, Gregory B.; Watson, Elizabeth B.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Goñi, Miguel A.

    2015-06-01

    Previous estimations of sediment flux for the Salinas River of central California were based on data collected in the 1970s and assumptions of time invariant suspended sediment-discharge behavior. The goals of this study were to estimate sediment flux from the Salinas River using data from 1967-2011 by incorporating time dependent behavior and reassess the role of El Niño Southern Oscillation patterns in inter-decadal sediment load. This study builds on previous findings that time-dependent suspended sediment behavior in this system is controlled in part by antecedent hydrologic conditions. The condition of temporal dependence was further tested herein through comparison of flux estimates obtained using time-dependent formulations and a multivariate approach incorporating hydrologic factors. Longer sampling records and incorporation of decadal scale behavior or antecedent hydrologic conditions resulted in average annual load estimates of 2.0-2.9 Mt/yr with 95% confidence intervals of ±25 to 202%, in comparison to earlier estimates of ∼3.3 Mt/yr. Previous overestimation of sediment load is due largely to the extrapolation of suspended sediment behavior from a decade of high sediment concentrations to the entire record, and the use of log-linear regression techniques on a non-linear system. The use of LOESS methods lowered QSS estimates and decreased confidence interval size. The inclusion of time-stratified and antecedent flow indices further decreased QSS estimates, but increased confidence interval size. However, temporal dependence of the CSS-Q relationship violates the assumptions of single base period regression, which suggests that time-stratified rating curves provide more realistic estimates of sediment flux means and uncertainty. The majority of suspended sediment was transported by flows of ∼25-90 times mean discharge depending on transport constituent (fines or sand) and estimation method. Periods of differential suspended sediment behavior changed

  10. Geodynamic evolution of the Salinas de Añana diapir in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Western Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankovic, Allen; Eguiluz, Luis; Martínez-Torres, Luis M.

    2016-02-01

    The Salinas de Añana diapir is located in the Basque-Cantabrian basin part of the great evaporite basin, along with the Gulf of Mexico and the Central European basin, when the fragmentation of Pangea started. The evolution of these basins can only be achieved by understanding the control of salt in the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of these basins. Sedimentation began with clastic Buntsandstein sediments and minor Muschelkalk limestones. Subsequent Keuper evaporites are the bottom of sedimentary cover constituted by Jurassic limestones and marls, a clastic Lower Cretaceous and an alternant limestone and marl Upper Cretaceous, whose deposition has been conditioned by salt tectonics. The emplacement of salt extends from the Aptian until now, favored by the duplication of the salt thickness associated with the thrust of Sierra Cantabria, so it is an excellent example to study changes in the regime of intrusion along the time. The geodynamic evolution of the Salinas de Añana diapir was determined through the interpretation of 45 reprocessed seismic lines, along with information from three wells. Migration of the salt in this diapir, conditioned by N120E and N30E pre-Alpine basement lineations, was determined using time isopach maps of the various rock layers. Vertical evolution of the diapir was determined through the reconstruction of a north-south section at various geologic times by flattening the respective seismic horizons. A minimum of salt flow into the diapir coincides with a minimum rate of sedimentation during the Turonian. Similarly, maximum flows of salt into the diapir occurred during the Coniacian and Lower Santonian and again from the end of the Lower Miocene to the present, coinciding with maximum rates of sedimentation during these times. In the Tertiary, probably during the Oligocene, the diapir was displaced to the south by the Sierra Cantabria thrust, maintaining the contact between the evaporites of diapir and the same evaporites of the

  11. Acute toxicity of sodium metabisulphite in larvae and post-larvae of the land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi.

    PubMed

    Galli, Orlando B S; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Abrunhosa, Fernando A

    2012-08-01

    Sodium metabisulphite (SMB) is used in marine shrimp aquaculture to prevent the occurrence of black spot. The release SMB into the estuarine environment from shrimp farm pond effluents has been reported. This study evaluated the susceptibility of larvae and post-larvae of land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi to this salt. A decrease in dissolved oxygen and pH occurred with increasing concentration of SMB and exposure time. LC(50) values after 48 h of exposure were 34 ± 1.1 mg/L, 31.1 ± 1.9 mg/L, and 30.6 ± 0.5 mg/L for I zoea larvae, megalopa larvae and stage I juveniles, respectively. PMID:22644045

  12. Differential immunological responses induced by infection with female muscle larvae and newborn larvae of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Nagano, I; Asano, K; Liu, M Y; Takahashi, Y

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella pseudospiralis infection can modulate the immunological response of autoimmune and allergic diseases leading to the amelioration of these diseases. The present study was undertaken to compare immunity induced by adult worms and muscle larvae. Higher eosinophilia was observed from newborn larva (NBL) infection than from adult females while higher levels of IgE were observed in adult female infections over those induced by NBL. The IgG1 response to ES antigen was more prominent in infections with adult females. The IgG2 responses to larval crude antigen were prominent against NBL. The Th2 cytokine, IL-4 cytokine was elevated in adult female infection following re-stimulation with adult crude antigen and ES. Both infections induced strong IFN-γ responses. The present study demonstrates that adult female worms induced stronger Th2 responses (IgG1, IgE and IL-4 responses) than NBL. Further examination of the mechanisms involved in immune modulation may be helpful for identifying Trichinella-derived molecules responsible for regulating autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:23433605

  13. The central nervous system of ascidian larvae.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates. Their tadpole larvae contain a dorsal tubular nervous system, resulting from the rolling up of a neural plate. Along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis, the central nervous system (CNS) is organized into a sensory vesicle, neck, trunk ganglion, and tail nerve cord and consists of approximately only 330 cells, of which around 100 are thought to be neurons. The organization of distinct neuronal cell types and neurotransmitter gene expression within the CNS has been described. The unique developmental mode of ascidians, with a small number of cells and a fixed cell division pattern, allows individual cells to be traced throughout development. This feature has led to the complete documentation of the cell lineages of certain cell types in the CNS. Thus, a step-by-step understanding of nervous system development from the initial stages of neural induction to the neurogenesis of individual neurons is a feasible goal. The genetic control of neural fate induction and early neural plate patterning are now well understood. The molecular mechanisms specifying the cholinergic neurons of the trunk ganglion as well as the pigment cells of the sensory organs are also well elucidated. In addition, studies have begun on the morphogenetic processes of neurulation. Remaining challenges include building an embryonic atlas integrating gene expression patterns, cell lineage, and neuronal cell types as well as developing the gene regulatory networks of cell fate specification and integrating them with the genetic control of morphogenesis. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:538-561. doi: 10.1002/wdev.239 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27328318

  14. Loss of surface coat by Strongyloides ratti infective larvae during skin penetration: evidence using larvae radiolabelled with /sup 67/gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, D.I.; Northern, C.; Warwick, A.; Lovegrove, F.T.

    1984-10-01

    The optimal conditions for labelling infective larvae of Strongyloides ratti with /sup 67/Ga citrate were determined. Radiolabelled larvae were injected s.c. into normal and previously infected rats. The distribution of radioactivity in these animals was compared with that in rats infected subcutaneously with a similar dose of free /sup 67/Ga by using a gamma camera linked to a computer system. Whereas free /sup 67/Ga was distributed throughout the body and excreted via the hepatobiliary system, the bulk of radioactivity in rats injected with radiolabelled larvae remained at the injection sites. Direct microscopical examination of these sites, however, revealed only minimal numbers of worms. When rats were infected percutaneously with radiolabelled larvae, it was found that most radioactivity remained at the surface, despite penetration of worms. When infective larvae were exposed to CO/sub 2/ in vitro and examined carefully by light microscopy, loss of an outer coat was observed. It was concluded that infective larvae lose an outer coat on skin penetration.

  15. Enhancement of Landsat images for lineament analysis in the area of the Salina Basin, New York and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1979-01-01

    Digital image processing of Landsat images of New York and Pennsylvania was undertaken to provide optimum images for lineament analysis in the area of the Salina Basin. Preliminary examination of Landsat images from photographic prints indicated sufficient differences between the spectral bands of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) to warrant digital processing of both MSS band 7 and MSS band 5. Selective contrast stretching based on analysis of the Landsat MSS histograms proved to be the most important factor affecting the appearance of the images. A three-point linear stretch using the two end points and a middle point to the Landsat frequency distribution was most successful. The flexibility of the REMAPP image processing system was helpful in creating such custom-tailored stretches. An edge enhancement was tested on the MSS band 5 image, but was not used. Stereoscopic Landsat images acquired from adjacent orbits aided recognition of topographic features; the area of stereoscopic coverage could be increased by utilizing the precession of Landsat-1?s orbit . Improvements in the digitally processed scenes did affect the analysis of lineaments for the New York area; on the enhanced MSS band 5 image, an ENE trending set of lineaments is visible, which was not recognized from other images.

  16. Growth, antioxidant capacity and total carotene of Dunaliella salina DCCBC15 in a low cost enriched natural seawater medium.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duc; Doan, Nguyen; Louime, Clifford; Giordano, Mario; Portilla, Sixto

    2014-01-01

    Dunaliella is currently drawing worldwide attention as an alternative source of nutraceuticals. Commercially, β-carotene making up over 10% of Dunaliella biomass is generating the most interest. These compounds, because of their non-toxic properties, have found applications in the food, drug and cosmetic industry. The β-carotene content of Dunaliella cells, however, depends heavily on the growth conditions and especially on the availability of nutrients, salinity, irradiance and temperature in the growth medium. A chemically well defined medium is usually required, which significantly contributes to the cost of pigment production; hence a desire for low cost marine media. The present study aimed at evaluating the suitability of six different media, especially exploiting local potential resources, for the mass production of Dunaliella salina DCCBC15 as functional food and medicine. The efficacy of a new selected low-cost enriched natural seawater medium (MD4), supplemented with industrial N-P-K fertilizer, was investigated with respect to biomass production, chlorophyll, antioxidant capacity, and total carotene by Dunaliella though culture conditions were not optimized yet. This new medium (MD4) appears extremely promising, since it affords a higher production of Dunaliella biomass and pigments compared with the control, a common artificial medium (MD1), while allowing a substantial reduction in the production costs. The medium is also recommended for culturing other marine algae. PMID:23821128

  17. Growth of mono- and mixed cultures of Nannochloropsis salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum on struvite as a nutrient source.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ryan W; Siccardi, Anthony J; Huysman, Nathan D; Wyatt, Nicholas B; Hewson, John C; Lane, Todd W

    2015-12-01

    The suitability of crude and purified struvite (MgNH4PO4), a major precipitate in wastewater streams, was investigated for renewable replacement of conventional nitrogen and phosphate resources for cultivation of microalgae. Bovine effluent wastewater stone, the source of crude struvite, was characterized for soluble N/P, trace metals, and biochemical components and compared to the purified mineral. Cultivation trials using struvite as a major nutrient source were conducted using two microalgae production strains, Nannochloropsis salina and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, in both lab and outdoor pilot-scale raceways in a variety of seasonal conditions. Both crude and purified struvite-based media were found to result in biomass productivities at least as high as established media formulations (maximum outdoor co-culture yield ∼20±4gAFDW/m(2)/day). Analysis of nutrient uptake by the alga suggest that struvite provides increased nutrient utilization efficiency, and that crude struvite satisfies the trace metals requirement and results in increased pigment productivity for both microalgae strains. PMID:26433155

  18. Industry-wide studies report of walk-through survey of Schilling, McCormick and Company, Incorporated, Salinas, California

    SciTech Connect

    Morawetz, J.; Steenland, K.

    1986-11-01

    A walk-through survey was conducted to determine the suitability of including Schilling, McCormick and Company, Salinas, California, in an industry-wide mortality and industrial hygiene study concerning workers with potential exposure to ethylene oxide. At this facility, spices are ground, milled, blended, mixed and filled for various customers. Et0 is used to treat unprocessed poppy seeds and Brazilian pepper as they arrive at the facility. Other spices are treated when necessary. A review of personal data on exposure levels showed that jobs where workers are exposed to 1 part per million or greater on the average include bottle dumper, receiving clerk, safety supervisor, forklift driver at warehouse, forklift driver at receiving, and Et0 chamber operator. Medical, industrial hygiene, and safety programs in effect at the facility were examined. The authors concluded that this facility meets the requirements for entry into the larger study; however, due to the limited number of person years (3000) at this facility compared to others in the study, and the cost of data collection and coding, the decision was made not to include this facility.

  19. Galactolipids of Thylakoid Pigment Protein Complexes Separated Electrophoretically from Thylakoids of Dunaliella salina Labeled with Radioactive Fatty Acids 1

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Ho; Thompson, Guy A.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to determine whether mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDG and DGDG) labeled by short term exposure of the green alga Dunaliella salina to exogenous radioactive lauric, myristic, or palmitic acids are preferentially recovered in one or more thylakoid protein complexes separated by electrophoresis on nondenaturing gels. A selective retention of certain lipid classes and molecular species by the major electrophoretically separable fractions, oligomeric form (LHCP-1) and monomeric form (LHCP-3) of hight-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex, and major photosystem I protein complex (CPla), and nonprotein-bound lipids, was indicated. After 5 min of labeling with 3H-palmitate the specific radioactivities of MGDG and DGDG molecular species recovered from LHCP-3 and CPla were slightly higher and lower, respectively, than specific radioactivities of equivalent molecular species from LHCP-1 and nonprotein-bound lipid. However, the differences were smaller than those which have been observed between whole thylakoids and the more highly labeled chloroplast envelopes from briefly labeled cells. Images Figure 1 PMID:16666816

  20. A water-resources data-network evaluation for Monterey County, California; Phase 3, Northern Salinas River drainage basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, W.E.; Schluter, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report evaluates existing data collection networks and possible additional data collection to monitor quantity and quality of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in the northern Salinas River drainage basin, California. Of the 34 precipitation stations identified, 20 were active and are concentrated in the northwestern part of the study area. No precipitation quality networks were identified, but possible data collection efforts include monitoring for acid rain and pesticides. Six of ten stream-gaging stations are active. Two surface water quality sites are sampled for suspended sediment, specific conductance, and chloride; one U.S. Geological Survey NASOAN site and one site operated by California Department of Water Resources make up the four active sampling locations; reactivation of 45 inactive surface water quality sites might help to achieve objectives described in the report. Three local networks measure water levels in 318 wells monthly, during peak irrigation, and at the end of the irrigation season. Water quality conditions are monitored in 379 wells; samples are collected in summer to monitor saltwater intrusion near Castroville and are also collected annually throughout the study area for analysis of chloride, specific conductance, and nitrate. An ideal baseline network would be an evenly spaced grid of index wells with a density of one per section. When baseline conditions are established, representative wells within the network could be monitored periodically according to specific data needs. (USGS)