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Sample records for larval wound healing

  1. How wounds heal

    MedlinePlus

    ... How puncture wounds heal; How burns heal; How pressure sores heal; How lacerations heal ... bleed. For example, burns, some puncture wounds, and pressure sores don't bleed. Once the scab forms, your ...

  2. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  3. Metalloproteinases and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Caley, Matthew P.; Martins, Vera L.C.; O'Toole, Edel A.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are present in both acute and chronic wounds. They play a pivotal role, with their inhibitors, in regulating extracellular matrix degradation and deposition that is essential for wound reepithelialization. The excess protease activity can lead to a chronic nonhealing wound. The timed expression and activation of MMPs in response to wounding are vital for successful wound healing. MMPs are grouped into eight families and display extensive homology within these families. This homology leads in part to the initial failure of MMP inhibitors in clinical trials and the development of alternative methods for modulating the MMP activity. MMP-knockout mouse models display altered wound healing responses, but these are often subtle phenotypic changes indicating the overlapping MMP substrate specificity and inter-MMP compensation. Recent Advances: Recent research has identified several new MMP modulators, including photodynamic therapy, protease-absorbing dressing, microRNA regulation, signaling molecules, and peptides. Critical Issues: Wound healing requires the controlled activity of MMPs at all stages of the wound healing process. The loss of MMP regulation is a characteristic of chronic wounds and contributes to the failure to heal. Future Directions: Further research into how MMPs are regulated should allow the development of novel treatments for wound healing. PMID:25945285

  4. Saliva and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I

    2013-01-01

    Wounds in the oral cavity heal faster and with less scarring than wounds in other parts of the body. One of the factors implicated in this phenomenon is the presence of saliva, which promotes the healing of oral wounds in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, which improves the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. Furthermore, saliva contains a variety of proteins that play a role in the various stages of the intraoral wound healing. Tissue factor, present in salivary exosomes, accelerates the clotting of blood dramatically. The subsequent proliferation of epithelial cells is promoted by growth factors in saliva, especially epidermal growth factor. The importance of secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor is demonstrated by the observation that in the absence of this salivary protein, oral wound healing is considerably delayed. Members of the salivary histatin family promote wound closure in vitro by enhancing cell spreading and cell migration. Cell proliferation is not enhanced by histatin. Cyclization of histatin increased its biological activity approximately 1,000-fold compared to linear histatin. These studies suggest that histatins could potentially be used for the development of new wound healing medications. PMID:23878824

  5. Wound healing in urology.

    PubMed

    Ninan, Neethu; Thomas, Sabu; Grohens, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Wound healing is a dynamic and complex phenomenon of replacing devitalized tissues in the body. Urethral healing takes place in four phases namely inflammation, proliferation, maturation and remodelling, similar to dermal healing. However, the duration of each phase of wound healing in urology is extended for a longer period when compared to that of dermatology. An ideal wound dressing material removes exudate, creates a moist environment, offers protection from foreign substances and promotes tissue regeneration. A single wound dressing material shall not be sufficient to treat all kinds of wounds as each wound is distinct. This review includes the recent attempts to explore the hidden potential of growth factors, stem cells, siRNA, miRNA and drugs for promoting wound healing in urology. The review also discusses the different technologies used in hospitals to treat wounds in urology, which make use of innovative biomaterials synthesised in regenerative medicines like hydrogels, hydrocolloids, foams, films etc., incorporated with growth factors, drug molecules or nanoparticles. These include surgical zippers, laser tissue welding, negative pressure wound therapy, and hyperbaric oxygen treatment. PMID:25500273

  6. Phytochemicals in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L.; Sharad, Shashwat; Maheshwari, Radha K.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Traditional therapies, including the use of dietary components for wound healing and skin regeneration, are very common in Asian countries such as China and India. The increasing evidence of health-protective benefits of phytochemicals, components derived from plants is generating a lot of interest, warranting further scientific evaluation and mechanistic studies. Recent Advances: Phytochemicals are non-nutritive substances present in plants, and some of them have the potential to provide better tissue remodeling when applied on wounds and to also act as proangiogenic agents during wound healing. Critical Issues: In this review, we briefly discuss the current understanding, important molecular targets, and mechanism of action(s) of some of the phytochemicals such as curcumin, picroliv, and arnebin-1. We also broadly review the multiple pathways that these phytochemicals regulate to enhance wound repair and skin regeneration. Future Directions: Recent experimental data on the effects of phytochemicals on wound healing and skin regeneration establish the potential clinical utility of plant-based compounds. Additional research in order to better understand the exact mechanism and potential targets of phytochemicals in skin regeneration is needed. Human studies a2nd clinical trials are pivotal to fully understand the benefits of phytochemicals in wound healing and skin regeneration. PMID:27134766

  7. Integrins in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, Leeni; Heino, Jyrki; Häkkinen, Lari; Larjava, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Regulation of cell adhesions during tissue repair is fundamentally important for cell migration, proliferation, and protein production. All cells interact with extracellular matrix proteins with cell surface integrin receptors that convey signals from the environment into the nucleus, regulating gene expression and cell behavior. Integrins also interact with a variety of other proteins, such as growth factors, their receptors, and proteolytic enzymes. Re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation are crucially dependent on the temporospatial function of multiple integrins. This review explains how integrins function in wound repair. Recent Advances: Certain integrins can activate latent transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) that modulates wound inflammation and granulation tissue formation. Dysregulation of TGF-β1 function is associated with scarring and fibrotic disorders. Therefore, these integrins represent targets for therapeutic intervention in fibrosis. Critical Issues: Integrins have multifaceted functions and extensive crosstalk with other cell surface receptors and molecules. Moreover, in aberrant healing, integrins may assume different functions, further increasing the complexity of their functionality. Discovering and understanding the role that integrins play in wound healing provides an opportunity to identify the mechanisms for medical conditions, such as excessive scarring, chronic wounds, and even cancer. Future Directions: Integrin functions in acute and chronic wounds should be further addressed in models better mimicking human wounds. Application of any products in acute or chronic wounds will potentially alter integrin functions that need to be carefully considered in the design. PMID:25493210

  8. Nutritional aspects of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ayello, E A; Thomas, D R; Litchford, M A

    1999-01-01

    Proper nutrition is essential to prevent the development of pressure ulcers and to support adequate and timely wound healing. Additionally, research and clinical observation suggest nutrients play a major role in wound healing. How the nutrients Vitamin A, Vitamin C, zinc, calories, protein, and fluids are used in wound healing and recommendations regarding use of supplements are discussed in this article. PMID:10855131

  9. Healing Invisible Wounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Erica J.

    2010-01-01

    As many as 9 in 10 justice-involved youth are affected by traumatic childhood experiences. According to "Healing Invisible Wounds: Why Investing in Trauma-Informed Care for Children Makes Sense," between 75 and 93 percent of youth currently incarcerated in the justice system have had at least one traumatic experience, including sexual abuse, war,…

  10. Wound healing for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Zitelli, J

    1987-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex sequence of events, beginning with tissue injury, mediated by inflammation, and ending long after reepithelialization is complete. Research and controlled clinical experience have provided a better understanding so that clinicians can influence the events of healing to decrease pain, control bleeding, infection, and cosmetic result as well as speed the time for complete healing. The following is a summary of guidelines for the management of wound healing: (1) wound creation; wounds should be created with minimal necrosis of tissue in order to prevent delays in healing. Electrosurgical, cryosurgical, and laser surgical wounds heal more slowly than wounds created by scalpel excision or curettage. Electro-coagulation should be used sparingly in sutured wounds. Large lesions are best treated in a single stage rather than in divided treatments since the rate of wound healing is not proportional to the area but instead to the logarithm of the area. Thus, the total healing time is much shorter if done in a single treatment session. (2) use of drugs; corticosteroids given before or within three days of wounding in dose of prednisone 40 mg or greater will inhibit wound healing. Vitamin A topically or systemically may reverse this inhibition. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are more important for their effects on platelet function and bleeding than on wound healing. (3) wound dressings; the use of occlusive dressings to promote moist wound healing is the most significant advance in wound management. Occlusive dressings shorten the time for healing, decrease pain, reduce wound contamination, and improve the cosmetic result. (4) control of wound contraction and scar formation; at the time of wound formation, guiding sutures may be helpful in wound healing by secondary intention in order to control the direction of wound contraction and prevent distortion. Intralesional steroids may be useful for hypertrophic scars and keloids

  11. Radiotherapy and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Devalia, Haresh L; Mansfield, Lucy

    2008-03-01

    This review article discusses basic radiation physics and effects of radiation on wounds. It examines various postulated hypothesis on the role of circulatory decrease and radiation-induced direct cellular damage. The new concept related to the radiation pathogenesis proposes that there is a cascade of cytokines initiated immediately after the radiation. Sustained activation of myofibroblasts in the wound accounts for its chronicity. Recent advances highlight that transforming growth factor beta1 is the master switch in pathogenesis of radiation fibrosis. This articles overviews its role and summarises the available evidences related to radiation damage. The goal of this article was to provide its modern understanding, as future research will concentrate on antagonising the effects of cytokines to promote wound healing. PMID:18081782

  12. Wound Healing Devices Brief Vignettes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Caesar A.; Hare, Marc A.; Perdrizet, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: The demand for wound care therapies is increasing. New wound care products and devices are marketed at a dizzying rate. Practitioners must make informed decisions about the use of medical devices for wound healing therapy. This paper provides updated evidence and recommendations based on a review of recent publications. Recent Advances: The published literature on the use of medical devices for wound healing continues to support the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, negative pressure wound therapy, and most recently electrical stimulation. Critical Issue: To inform wound healing practitioners of the evidence for or against the use of medical devices for wound healing. This information will aid the practitioner in deciding which technology should be accepted or rejected for clinical use. Future Directions: To produce high quality, randomized controlled trials or acquire outcome-based registry databases to further test and improve the knowledge base as it relates to the use of medical devices in wound care. PMID:27076996

  13. Wound healing in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tisi, Alessandra; Angelini, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CuAO) and flavin-containing amine oxidases (PAO) are hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing enzymes responsible for the oxidative de-amination of polyamines. Currently, a key role has been ascribed to apoplastic amine oxidases in plants, i.e., to behave as H2O2-delivering systems in the cell wall during cell growth and differentiation as well as in the context of host-pathogen interactions. Indeed, H2O2 is the co-substrate for the peroxidase-driven reactions during cell-wall maturation and a key signalling molecule in defence mechanisms. We recently demonstrated the involvement of an apoplastic PAO in the wound-healing process of the Zea mays mesocotyl. Experimental evidence indicated a similar role for an apoplastic PAO in Nicotiana tabacum. In this addendum we suggest that a CuAO activity is also involved in this healing event. PMID:19704660

  14. Nutritional support for wound healing.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Douglas; Miller, Alan L

    2003-11-01

    Healing of wounds, whether from accidental injury or surgical intervention, involves the activity of an intricate network of blood cells, tissue types, cytokines, and growth factors. This results in increased cellular activity, which causes an intensified metabolic demand for nutrients. Nutritional deficiencies can impede wound healing, and several nutritional factors required for wound repair may improve healing time and wound outcome. Vitamin A is required for epithelial and bone formation, cellular differentiation, and immune function. Vitamin C is necessary for collagen formation, proper immune function, and as a tissue antioxidant. Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in the skin; however, the effect of vitamin E on surgical wounds is inconclusive. Bromelain reduces edema, bruising, pain, and healing time following trauma and surgical procedures. Glucosamine appears to be the rate-limiting substrate for hyaluronic acid production in the wound. Adequate dietary protein is absolutely essential for proper wound healing, and tissue levels of the amino acids arginine and glutamine may influence wound repair and immune function. The botanical medicines Centella asiatica and Aloe vera have been used for decades, both topically and internally, to enhance wound repair, and scientific studies are now beginning to validate efficacy and explore mechanisms of action for these botanicals. To promote wound healing in the shortest time possible, with minimal pain, discomfort, and scarring to the patient, it is important to explore nutritional and botanical influences on wound outcome. PMID:14653765

  15. Wound Healing and Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... heal through natural scar formation. continue The Healing Process Before healing begins, the body gears up to ... dry at all times to help the healing process. As the body does its healing work on ...

  16. Chemokines and diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Oscar; Torres, Francis M; Shireman, Paula K

    2007-01-01

    Chemokines are critical for white blood cell recruitment to injured tissues and play an important role in normal wound healing processes. In contrast, impaired wound healing in diabetic patients is accompanied by decreased early inflammatory cell infiltration but persistence of neutrophils and macrophages in the chronic, nonhealing wounds. These changes in inflammatory cell recruitment occur in conjunction with alterations in chemokine and growth factor expression. In addition to leukocyte trafficking, many different cell types, including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes, produce and respond to chemokines, and these interactions are altered in diabetic wounds. Thus, the chemokine system may have both direct and inflammatory-mediated effects on many different aspects of diabetic wound healing. The potential roles of chemokines and inflammatory or immune cells in nonhealing diabetic wounds, including impairments in growth factor expression, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix formation, and reepithelialization, are examined. PMID:18053419

  17. [Wound healing in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Eming, S A; Wlaschek, M; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K

    2016-02-01

    Restoration of tissue integrity is essential for host defense and protection of the organism. The efficacy and quality of skin repair varies significantly over a person's lifetime. Whereas prenatal wound healing is characterized by regeneration and scarless healing, scarring, fibrosis, and loss of function are features of postnatal repair. In fact, aging is the prominent risk factor for chronic wounds, skin fragility, infections, comorbidities, and decreased quality of life. Current strategies for restoration of tissue integrity and wound therapy are not sufficient and require further investigation of the underlying pathomechanisms and the development of causal-based concepts. PMID:26728073

  18. Extracellular matrix and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maquart, F X; Monboisse, J C

    2014-04-01

    Extracellular matrix has been known for a long time as an architectural support for the tissues. Many recent data, however, have shown that extracellular matrix macromolecules (collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and connective tissue glycoproteins) are able to regulate many important cell functions, such as proliferation, migration, protein synthesis or degradation, apoptosis, etc., making them able to play an important role in the wound repair process. Not only the intact macromolecules but some of their specific domains, that we called "Matrikines", are also able to regulate many cell activities. In this article, we will summarize main findings showing the effects of extracellular matrix macromolecules and matrikines on connective tissue and epithelial cells, particularly in skin, and their potential implication in the wound healing process. These examples show that extracellular matrix macromolecules or some of their specific domains may play a major role in wound healing. Better knowledge of these interactions may suggest new therapeutic targets in wound healing defects. PMID:24650524

  19. Factors That Impair Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristin; Hamm, Rose L.

    2014-01-01

    The body's response to tissue injury in a healthy individual is an intricate, sequential physiologic process that results in timely healing with full re-epithelialization, resolution of drainage, and return of function to the affected tissue. Chronic wounds, however, do not follow this sequence of events and can challenge the most experienced clinician if the underlying factors that are impairing wound healing are not identified. The purpose of this article is to present recent information about factors that impair wound healing with the underlying pathophysiological mechanism that interferes with the response to tissue injury. These factors include co-morbidities (diabetes, obesity, protein energy malnutrition), medications (steroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, anti-rejection medications), oncology interventions (radiation, chemotherapy), and life style habits (smoking, alcohol abuse). Successful treatment of any chronic wound depends upon identification and management of the factors for each individual. PMID:26199879

  20. Healing in the irradiated wound

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. )

    1990-07-01

    Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.

  1. Current concepts in wound management and wound healing products.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Jacqueline R

    2015-05-01

    Current concepts in wound management are summarized. The emphasis is on selection of the contact layer of the bandage to promote a moist wound environment. Selection of an appropriate contact layer is based on the stage of wound healing and the amount of wound exudate. The contact layer can be used to promote autolytic debridement and enhance wound healing. PMID:25744144

  2. Progress in corneal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ljubimov, Alexander V; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-11-01

    Corneal wound healing is a complex process involving cell death, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Many similarities are observed in the healing processes of corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells, as well as cell-specific differences. Corneal epithelial healing largely depends on limbal stem cells and remodeling of the basement membrane. During stromal healing, keratocytes get transformed to motile and contractile myofibroblasts largely due to activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) system. Endothelial cells heal mostly by migration and spreading, with cell proliferation playing a secondary role. In the last decade, many aspects of wound healing process in different parts of the cornea have been elucidated, and some new therapeutic approaches have emerged. The concept of limbal stem cells received rigorous experimental corroboration, with new markers uncovered and new treatment options including gene and microRNA therapy tested in experimental systems. Transplantation of limbal stem cell-enriched cultures for efficient re-epithelialization in stem cell deficiency and corneal injuries has become reality in clinical setting. Mediators and course of events during stromal healing have been detailed, and new treatment regimens including gene (decorin) and stem cell therapy for excessive healing have been designed. This is a very important advance given the popularity of various refractive surgeries entailing stromal wound healing. Successful surgical ways of replacing the diseased endothelium have been clinically tested, and new approaches to accelerate endothelial healing and suppress endothelial-mesenchymal transformation have been proposed including Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor eye drops and gene therapy to activate TGF-β inhibitor SMAD7. Promising new technologies with potential for corneal wound healing manipulation including microRNA, induced pluripotent stem cells to generate corneal

  3. Modeling of anisotropic wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, C.; Javierre, E.; García-Aznar, J. M.; Gómez-Benito, M. J.; Menzel, A.

    2015-06-01

    Biological soft tissues exhibit non-linear complex properties, the quantification of which presents a challenge. Nevertheless, these properties, such as skin anisotropy, highly influence different processes that occur in soft tissues, for instance wound healing, and thus its correct identification and quantification is crucial to understand them. Experimental and computational works are required in order to find the most precise model to replicate the tissues' properties. In this work, we present a wound healing model focused on the proliferative stage that includes angiogenesis and wound contraction in three dimensions and which relies on the accurate representation of the mechanical behavior of the skin. Thus, an anisotropic hyperelastic model has been considered to analyze the effect of collagen fibers on the healing evolution of an ellipsoidal wound. The implemented model accounts for the contribution of the ground matrix and two mechanically equivalent families of fibers. Simulation results show the evolution of the cellular and chemical species in the wound and the wound volume evolution. Moreover, the local strain directions depend on the relative wound orientation with respect to the fibers.

  4. [Phlebology and wound healing].

    PubMed

    Hafner, Jürg; Läuchli, Severin; French, Lars E

    2010-04-01

    Venous diseases are highly prevalent and chronic wounds cause high morbidity and costs. Prevalence of severe forms of chronic venous insufficiency is on the decline. This is due to improved diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism, and to improved surgery of varicose veins and their sequelae. The spectrum of chronic wounds has shifted from venous ulcers towards more complex pathologies. At the same time, new treatment options are available. Modern phlebology effectively treats varicose veins, prevents sequelae of varicosis and deep venous thrombosis, and offers help to the great majority of patients with chronic wounds. PMID:20336620

  5. [Fascial healing and wound failure].

    PubMed

    Fackeldey, V; Höer, J; Klinge, U

    2004-05-01

    The difficulties of acute or delayed failure of fascial healing after laparotomies are of great socioeconomic relevance. Despite a plurality of publications in the last decades, the incidence of burst abdomen (1-3%) and incisional hernia (10-15%) remained unchanged. The generally accepted cause is a multifactorial event with a large number of influencing factors. Therefore, only interdisciplinary cooperations are a match for the scientific complexity of this topic. A still underestimated problem is the description of wound healing factors influencing the microclimate in fascial healing. New aspects of pharmacotherapy and better understanding of collagen synthesis and dynamics of closure tension might improve the clinical situation in the future. PMID:15071734

  6. Skin substitutes and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Auger, F A; Lacroix, D; Germain, L

    2009-01-01

    Medical science has vastly improved on the means and methods available for the treatment of wounds in the clinic. The production and use of various types of skin substitutes has led to dramatic improvements in the odds of survival for severely burned patients, but they have also shown promise for many other applications, including cases involving chronic wounds that are not life threatening. Nowadays, more than 20 products are commercially available, more are undergoing clinical trials and a large number of new models are being investigated in various research laboratories worldwide. Many of the current products do not contain any living cells and vary in their capacity to harness the innate capacity of the body to heal itself. Others include living cells, of allogeneic or autologous origin, and are often referred to as 'cellular therapy' or 'tissue-engineered' products. Modifications and improvements are currently investigated that aim at improving the healing potential of those products through the use of recombinant growth factors and additional features such as microvascularization. Fundamental research into wound healing and scar-free regeneration raises the hope that we will eventually be able to restore almost completely the appearance and function of skin after the healing of wounds. PMID:19188757

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen and wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Bhutani, Sourabh; Vishwanath, Guruswamy

    2012-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the use of 100% oxygen at pressures greater than atmospheric pressure. Today several approved applications and indications exist for HBOT. HBOT has been successfully used as adjunctive therapy for wound healing. Non-healing wounds such as diabetic and vascular insufficiency ulcers have been one major area of study for hyperbaric physicians where use of HBOT as an adjunct has been approved for use by way of various studies and trials. HBOT is also indicated for infected wounds like clostridial myonecrosis, necrotising soft tissue infections, Fournier's gangrene, as also for traumatic wounds, crush injury, compartment syndrome, compromised skin grafts and flaps and thermal burns. Another major area of application of HBOT is radiation-induced wounds, specifically osteoradionecrosis of mandible, radiation cystitis and radiation proctitis. With the increase in availability of chambers across the country, and with increasing number of studies proving the benefits of adjunctive use for various kinds of wounds and other indications, HBOT should be considered in these situations as an essential part of the overall management strategy for the treating surgeon. PMID:23162231

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Sourabh; Vishwanath, Guruswamy

    2012-05-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the use of 100% oxygen at pressures greater than atmospheric pressure. Today several approved applications and indications exist for HBOT. HBOT has been successfully used as adjunctive therapy for wound healing. Non-healing wounds such as diabetic and vascular insufficiency ulcers have been one major area of study for hyperbaric physicians where use of HBOT as an adjunct has been approved for use by way of various studies and trials. HBOT is also indicated for infected wounds like clostridial myonecrosis, necrotising soft tissue infections, Fournier's gangrene, as also for traumatic wounds, crush injury, compartment syndrome, compromised skin grafts and flaps and thermal burns. Another major area of application of HBOT is radiation-induced wounds, specifically osteoradionecrosis of mandible, radiation cystitis and radiation proctitis. With the increase in availability of chambers across the country, and with increasing number of studies proving the benefits of adjunctive use for various kinds of wounds and other indications, HBOT should be considered in these situations as an essential part of the overall management strategy for the treating surgeon. PMID:23162231

  9. Principles of Wound Management and Wound Healing in Exotic Pets.

    PubMed

    Mickelson, Megan A; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A

    2016-01-01

    The care of wounds in exotic animal species can be a challenging endeavor. Special considerations must be made in regard to the animal's temperament and behavior, unique anatomy and small size, and tendency toward secondary stress-related health problems. It is important to assess the entire patient with adequate systemic evaluation and consideration of proper nutrition and husbandry, which could ultimately affect wound healing. This article summarizes the general phases of wound healing, factors that affect healing, and principles of wound management. Emphasis is placed on novel methods of treating wounds and species differences in wound management and healing. PMID:26611923

  10. Gene Therapy and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Eming, Sabine A.; Krieg, Thomas; Davidson, Jeffrey M

    2007-01-01

    Wound repair involves the sequential interaction of various cell types, extracellular matrix molecules, and soluble mediators. During the past 10 years, much new information on signals controlling wound cell behavior has emerged. This knowledge has led to a number of novel_therapeutic strategies. In particular, the local delivery of pluripotent growth factor molecules to the injured tissue has been intensively investigated over the past decade. Limited success of clinical trails indicates that a crucial aspect of the growth factor wound-healing strategy is the effective delivery of these polypeptides to the wound site. A molecular approach in which genetically modified cells synthesize and deliver the desired growth factor in regulated fashion has been used to overcome the limitations associated with the (topical) application of recombinant growth factor proteins. We have summarized the molecular and cellular basis of repair mechanisms and their failure, and we give an overview of techniques and studies applied to gene transfer in tissue repair. PMID:17276205

  11. Wound healing and treating wounds: Chronic wound care and management.

    PubMed

    Powers, Jennifer G; Higham, Catherine; Broussard, Karen; Phillips, Tania J

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, chronic ulcers--including decubitus, vascular, inflammatory, and rheumatologic subtypes--affect >6 million people, with increasing numbers anticipated in our growing elderly and diabetic populations. These wounds cause significant morbidity and mortality and lead to significant medical costs. Preventative and treatment measures include disease-specific approaches and the use of moisture retentive dressings and adjunctive topical therapies to promote healing. In this article, we discuss recent advances in wound care technology and current management guidelines for the treatment of wounds and ulcers. PMID:26979353

  12. Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing. PMID:23577275

  13. Amyloidogenesis in Healing Wound

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Ken; Brownstein, Martin H.

    1972-01-01

    Clinically and histologically typical skin lesions of macular and lichenoid amyloidoses were biopsied. Rebiopsies were performed after 2 to 16 weeks, and the sequence of amyloid reproduction in granulation tissue was followed. Initially, medium electron-dense proteinaceous substance with fine filaments was produced within or in close relation to the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum of fibroblasts and subsequently discharged. Typical amyloid filaments emerged within and in the vicinity of this substance. A significant number of collagen fibrils were admixed in the centers of some amyloid islands. Predominantly amorphous amyloid substance was seen in contact with the basal laminae. No plasma cells were observed in foci of amyloid. Nonepithelialized wounds did not contain amyloid. It was suggested that, in the primary skin amyloidoses, abnormal dermal fibroblasts produce amyloid precursors under the influence of the epidermis. ImagesFig 9Fig 10Fig 4Fig 5Fig 11Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 8Fig 3 PMID:5049430

  14. Biosurgery in wound healing--the renaissance of maggot therapy.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Karte, K; Herold, C; Looks, A

    2000-07-01

    Chronic wounds are a challenge for modern health care. A basic principle of treatment is the removal of sloughy, necrotic, devitalized tissue to prevent wound infection and delayed healing. Biosurgery (syn. maggot or larval therapy) is a promising adjunct to the whole spectrum of topical treatment methods, in particular for debridement. The term 'biosurgery' describes the use of living maggots on wounds to remove devitalized tissue, decrease the risk of infection and improve wound healing. The present paper gives a brief review of history, entomology, biochemistry and medical indications of biosurgery and the practical handling of maggots. We also provide some clinical data from the literature and our own experience in a wound care unit. Biosurgery is an effective and safe treatment option for debridement and disinfection. PMID:11204517

  15. Photobiomodulation in promoting wound healing: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuffler, Damien P

    2016-01-01

    Despite diverse methods being applied to induce wound healing, many wounds remain recalcitrant to all treatments. Photobiomodulation involves inducing wound healing by illuminating wounds with light emitting diodes or lasers. While used on different animal models, in vitro, and clinically, wound healing is induced by many different wavelengths and powers with no optimal set of parameters yet being identified. While data suggest that simultaneous multiple wavelength illumination is more efficacious than single wavelengths, the optimal single and multiple wavelengths must be better defined to induce more reliable and extensive healing of different wound types. This review focuses on studies in which specific wavelengths induce wound healing and on their mechanisms of action. PMID:26681143

  16. Engineered Biopolymeric Scaffolds for Chronic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Laura E.; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Skin regeneration requires the coordinated integration of concomitant biological and molecular events in the extracellular wound environment during overlapping phases of inflammation, proliferation, and matrix remodeling. This process is highly efficient during normal wound healing. However, chronic wounds fail to progress through the ordered and reparative wound healing process and are unable to heal, requiring long-term treatment at high costs. There are many advanced skin substitutes, which mostly comprise bioactive dressings containing mammalian derived matrix components, and/or human cells, in clinical use. However, it is presently hypothesized that no treatment significantly outperforms the others. To address this unmet challenge, recent research has focused on developing innovative acellular biopolymeric scaffolds as more efficacious wound healing therapies. These biomaterial-based skin substitutes are precisely engineered and fine-tuned to recapitulate aspects of the wound healing milieu and target specific events in the wound healing cascade to facilitate complete skin repair with restored function and tissue integrity. This mini-review will provide a brief overview of chronic wound healing and current skin substitute treatment strategies while focusing on recent engineering approaches that regenerate skin using synthetic, biopolymeric scaffolds. We discuss key polymeric scaffold design criteria, including degradation, biocompatibility, and microstructure, and how they translate to inductive microenvironments that stimulate cell infiltration and vascularization to enhance chronic wound healing. As healthcare moves toward precision medicine-based strategies, the potential and therapeutic implications of synthetic, biopolymeric scaffolds as tunable treatment modalities for chronic wounds will be considered. PMID:27547189

  17. Bioelectrical impedance assessment of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, Henry C; Moore, Micheal

    2012-01-01

    Objective assessment of wound healing is fundamental to evaluate therapeutic and nutritional interventions and to identify complications. Despite availability of many techniques to monitor wounds, there is a need for a safe, practical, accurate, and effective method. A new method is localized bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that noninvasively provides information describing cellular changes that occur during healing and signal complications to wound healing. This article describes the theory and application of localized BIA and provides examples of its use among patients with lower leg wounds. This promising method may afford clinicians a novel technique for routine monitoring of interventions and surveillance of wounds. PMID:22401341

  18. Current wound healing procedures and potential care

    PubMed Central

    Dreifke, Michael B.; Jayasuriya, Amil A.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we describe current and future potential wound healing treatments for acute and chronic wounds. The current wound healing approaches are based on autografts, allografts, and cultured epithelial autografts, and wound dressings based on biocompatible and biodegradable polymers. The Food and Drug Administration approved wound healing dressings based on several polymers including collagen, silicon, chitosan, and hyaluronic acid. The new potential therapeutic intervention for wound healing includes sustained delivery of growth factors, and siRNA delivery, targeting micro RNA, and stem cell therapy. In addition, environment sensors can also potentially utilize to monitor and manage micro environment at wound site. Sensors use optical, odor, pH, and hydration sensors to detect such characteristics as uric acid level, pH, protease level, and infection – all in the hopes of early detection of complications. PMID:25579968

  19. Acceleration Of Wound Healing Ny Photodynamic Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Tayyaba; Hamblin, Michael R.; Trauner, Kenneth

    2000-08-22

    Disclosed is a method for accelerating wound healing in a mammal. The method includes identifying an unhealed wound site or partially-healed wound site in a mammal; administering a photosensitizer to the mammal; waiting for a time period wherein the photosensitizer reaches an effective tissue concentration at the wound site; and photoactivating the photosensitizer at the wound site. The dose of photodynamic therapy is selected to stimulate the production of one or more growth factor by cells at the wound site, without causing tissue destruction.

  20. Safety, effectiveness and economic aspects of maggot debridement therapy for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Arabloo, Jalal; Grey, Serajaddin; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza; Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Hamouzadeh, Pejman; Khamisabadi, Kiumars

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maggot therapy has recently attracted considerable attention as an emerging debridement technique for wound healing. This study aimed to review the safety, effectiveness and economic evaluations of Maggot Debridement Therapy for wound healing. Methods: To retrieve the relevant evidences, the Cochrane Library (until September 2014) was searched by appropriate keywords, using free text and Mesh. Systematic reviews, HTA reports and economic evaluation studies that compared larval therapy with other debridement therapies, such as hydrogel in patients with various kinds of ulcers in terms of side effects, the wound healing rate, the healing time, and cost per QALY, were included. Results: Five studies met the inclusion criteria which showed that healing with larval therapy happened a little earlier than the usual methods and that pain perception in larval therapy was a little more than usual methods (as by anesthetic conventional methods). However, the quality of life of those patients who received larval therapy was better and they showed a greater tendency to larval therapy as it was relatively safe and had a low rate of side effects. Conclusion: It seems that larval therapy has several advantages such as rapid wound debridement, infection elimination, pain control and ulcer healing. The use of larval therapy has the potential to reduce side effects and decrease the need for amputation. PMID:27390689

  1. Wound Healing in PatientsWith Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Wyatt G.; Naidu, Deepak K.; Wheeler, Chad K.; Barkoe, David; Mentis, Marni; Salas, R. Emerick; Smith, David J.; Robson, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The treatment of patients with cancer has advanced into a complex, multimodal approach incorporating surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Managing wounds in this population is complicated by tumor biology, the patient's disease state, and additional comorbidities, some of which may be iatrogenic. Radiation therapy, frequently employed for local-regional control of disease following surgical resection, has quantifiable negative healing effects due to local tissue fibrosis and vascular effects. Chemotherapeutic agents, either administered alone or as combination therapy with surgery and radiation, may have detrimental effects on the rapidly dividing tissues of healing wounds. Overall nutritional status, often diminished in patients with cancer, is an important aspect to the ability of patients to heal after surgical procedures and/or treatment regimens. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed to gather pertinent information on the topic of wound healing in patients with cancer. The effects that surgical procedures, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and nutritional deficits play in wound healing in these patients were reviewed and collated. Results: The current knowledge and treatment of these aspects of wound healing in cancer patients are discussed, and observations and recommendations for optimal wound healing results are considered. Conclusion: Although wound healing may proceed in a relatively unimpeded manner for many patients with cancer, there is a potential for wound failure due to the nature and effects of the oncologic disease process and its treatments. PMID:18264518

  2. Ultraviolet light and hyperpigmentation in healing wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemer, D.R.; Spira, M.

    1983-10-01

    The concept of permanent hyperpigmentation in wounds following ultraviolet light exposure during the postoperative period has found a place in plastic surgical literature but has not been documented. This study evaluates the effect of ultraviolet light on healing wounds in paraplegics. It failed to confirm permanent alteration in pigmentation response to ultraviolet exposure and suggests that other factors are of greater importance in the development of hyperpigmentation in the healing wound.

  3. Rapid identification of slow healing wounds.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kenneth; Covington, Scott; Sen, Chandan K; Januszyk, Michael; Kirsner, Robert S; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Shah, Nigam H

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nonhealing wounds have a prevalence of 2% in the United States, and cost an estimated $50 billion annually. Accurate stratification of wounds for risk of slow healing may help guide treatment and referral decisions. We have applied modern machine learning methods and feature engineering to develop a predictive model for delayed wound healing that uses information collected during routine care in outpatient wound care centers. Patient and wound data was collected at 68 outpatient wound care centers operated by Healogics Inc. in 26 states between 2009 and 2013. The dataset included basic demographic information on 59,953 patients, as well as both quantitative and categorical information on 180,696 wounds. Wounds were split into training and test sets by randomly assigning patients to training and test sets. Wounds were considered delayed with respect to healing time if they took more than 15 weeks to heal after presentation at a wound care center. Eleven percent of wounds in this dataset met this criterion. Prognostic models were developed on training data available in the first week of care to predict delayed healing wounds. A held out subset of the training set was used for model selection, and the final model was evaluated on the test set to evaluate discriminative power and calibration. The model achieved an area under the curve of 0.842 (95% confidence interval 0.834-0.847) for the delayed healing outcome and a Brier reliability score of 0.00018. Early, accurate prediction of delayed healing wounds can improve patient care by allowing clinicians to increase the aggressiveness of intervention in patients most at risk. PMID:26606167

  4. Acceleration of cutaneous wound healing by brassinosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Debora; Rathinasabapathy, Thirumurugan; Schmidt, Barbara; Shakarjian, Michael P.; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Brassinosteroids are plant growth hormones involved in cell growth, division and differentiation. Their effects in animals are largely unknown, although recent studies showed the anabolic properties of brassinosteroids possibly mediated through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. Here we examined biological activity of homobrassinolide (HB) and its synthetic analogues on in vitro proliferation and migration assays in murine fibroblast and primary keratinocyte cell culture. HB stimulated fibroblast proliferation and migration, and weakly induced keratinocyte proliferation in vitro. The effects of topical HB administration on progression of wound closure were further tested in the mouse model of cutaneous wound healing. C57BL/6J mice were given a full thickness dermal wound, and the rate of wound closure was assessed daily for 10 d alongside adenosine receptor agonist CGS-21680 as a positive control. Topical application of brassinosteroid significantly reduced wound size and accelerated wound healing in treated animals. mRNA levels of TGF-β and ICAM-1 were significantly lower, while TNF-α was nearly suppressed in the wounds from treated mice. Our data suggest that topical brassinosteroids accelerate wound healing by positively modulating inflammatory and re-epithelialization phases of the wound-repair process, in partby enhancing Akt signaling in the skin at the edges of the wound and enhancing migration of fibroblasts in a wounded area. Targeting this signaling pathway with brassinosteroids may represent a promising approach to the therapy of delayed wound healing. PMID:23937635

  5. Functionalized silk biomaterials for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Gil, Eun Seok; Panilaitis, Bruce; Bellas, Evangelia; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    Silk protein-biomaterial wound dressings with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and silver sulfadiazine were studied with a cutaneous excisional mouse wound model. Three different material designs and two different drug incorporation techniques were studied to compare wound healing responses. Material formats included silk films, lamellar porous silk films and electrospun silk nanofibers, each studied with the silk matrix alone and with drug loading or drug coatings on the silk matrices. Changes in wound size and histological assessments of wound tissues showed that the functionalized silk biomaterial wound dressings increased wound healing rate, including reepithelialization, dermis proliferation, collagen synthesis and reduced scar formation, when compared to air-permeable Tegaderm tape (3M) (- control) and a commercial wound dressing, Tegaderm Hydrocolloid dressing (3M) (+ control). All silk biomaterials were effective for wound healing, while the lamellar porous films and electrospun nanofibers and the incorporation of EGF/silver sulfadiazine, via drug loading or coating, provided the most rapid wound healing responses. This systematic approach to evaluating functionalized silk biomaterial wound dressings demonstrates a useful strategy to select formulations for further study towards new treatment options for chronic wounds. PMID:23184644

  6. Biomarkers for wound healing and their evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patel, S; Maheshwari, A; Chandra, A

    2016-01-01

    A biological marker (biomarker) is a substance used as an indicator of biological state. Advances in genomics, proteomics and molecular pathology have generated many candidate biomarkers with potential clinical value. Research has identified several cellular events and mediators associated with wound healing that can serve as biomarkers. Macrophages, neutrophils, fibroblasts and platelets release cytokines molecules including TNF-α, interleukins (ILs) and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) holds the greatest importance. As a result, various white cells and connective tissue cells release both matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Studies have demonstrated that IL-1, IL-6, and MMPs, levels above normal, and an abnormally high MMP/TIMP ratio are often present in non-healing wounds. Clinical examination of wounds for these mediators could predict which wounds will heal and which will not, suggesting use of these chemicals as biomarkers of wound healing. There is also evidence that the application of growth factors like PDGF will alleviate the recuperating process of chronic, non-healing wounds. Finding a specific biomarker for wound healing status would be a breakthrough in this field and helping treat impaired wound healing. PMID:26762498

  7. Placenta Growth Factor in Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cianfarani, Francesca; Zambruno, Giovanna; Brogelli, Laura; Sera, Francesco; Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Pesce, Maurizio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Failla, Cristina Maria; Napolitano, Monica; Odorisio, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Reduced microcirculation and diminished expression of growth factors contribute to wound healing impairment in diabetes. Placenta growth factor (PlGF), an angiogenic mediator promoting pathophysiological neovascularization, is expressed during cutaneous wound healing and improves wound closure by enhancing angiogenesis. By using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, we here demonstrate that PlGF induction is strongly reduced in diabetic wounds. Diabetic transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF in the skin displayed accelerated wound closure compared with diabetic wild-type littermates. Moreover, diabetic wound treatment with an adenovirus vector expressing the human PlGF gene (AdCMV.PlGF) significantly accelerated the healing process compared with wounds treated with a control vector. The analysis of treated wounds showed that PlGF gene transfer improved granulation tissue formation, maturation, and vascularization, as well as monocytes/macrophages local recruitment. Platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels were increased in AdCMV.PlGF-treated wounds, possibly enhancing PlGF-mediated effects. Finally, PlGF treatment stimulated cultured dermal fibroblast migration, pointing to a direct role of PlGF in accelerating granulation tissue maturation. In conclusion, our data indicate that reduced PlGF expression contributes to impaired wound healing in diabetes and that PlGF gene transfer to diabetic wounds exerts therapeutic activity by promoting different aspects of the repair process. PMID:17003476

  8. Regenerative materials that facilitate wound healing.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Gerit; Wallin, Kelly; Tenenhaus, Mayer

    2012-07-01

    Wounds and damaged tissue become problematic when the tissue repair process does not proceed in a normal manner. Standard treatment of wounds entails topical dressings and devices in conjunction with good wound care practices. Good practices adequately support healing in most patients. Difficult, chronic, or recalcitrant wounds may require the use of more advanced technologies. Wounds that are full thickness or present with the absence of a matrix, may particularly benefit from regenerative materials. This article focuses on the use of cellular and acellular materials as well as chemical constructs to support granulation, tissue repair, and wound closure. PMID:22732374

  9. microRNA and Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jaideep; Sen, Chandan K

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules which play pivotal roles in wound healing. The increased expression of certain genes and expression of some others represent a key component of the wound biology and are largely under the regulation of naturally occurring miRNAs. Understanding the dysregulated miRNAs in chronic wound biology will therefore enable the development of newer therapies. This chapter focuses on the miRNAs that can be potentially targeted for improving skin wound healing and the challenges in miRNA therapy, including considerations in miRNA target identification and delivery. PMID:26663189

  10. Thrombomodulin Promotes Corneal Epithelial Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Hsun; I, Ching-Chang; Kuo, Cheng-Hsiang; Hsu, Yun-Yan; Lee, Fang-Tzu; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Tseng, Sung-Huei; Wu, Hua-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the role of thrombomodulin (TM) in corneal epithelial wound healing, and to investigate whether recombinant TM epidermal growth factor-like domain plus serine/threonine-rich domain (rTMD23) has therapeutic potential in corneal epithelial wound healing. Methods TM localization and expression in the murine cornea were examined by immunofluorescence staining. TM expression after injury was also studied. The effect of rTMD23 on corneal wound healing was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo assays. Results TM was expressed in the cornea in normal adult mice. TM expression increased in the early phase of wound healing and decreased after wound recovery. In the in vitro study, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) induced TM expression in murine corneal epithelial cells by mediating E26 transformation-specific sequence-1 (Ets-1) via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The administration of rTMD23 increased the rate of corneal epithelial wound healing. Conclusions TM expression in corneal epithelium was modulated during the corneal wound healing process, and may be regulated by PDGF-BB. In addition, rTMD23 has therapeutic potential in corneal injury. PMID:25816372

  11. Systems-based approaches toward wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Buganza-Tepole, Adrian; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing in the pediatric patient is of utmost clinical and social importance, since hypertrophic scarring can have aesthetic and psychological sequelae, from early childhood to late adolescence. Wound healing is a well-orchestrated reparative response affecting the damaged tissue at the cellular, tissue, organ, and system scales. While tremendous progress has been made towards understanding wound healing at the individual temporal and spatial scales, its effects across the scales remain severely understudied and poorly understood. Here we discuss the critical need for systems-based computational modeling of wound healing across the scales, from short-term to long-term and from small to large. We illustrate the state of the art in systems modeling by means of three key signaling mechanisms: oxygen tension regulating angiogenesis and revascularization; TGF-β kinetics controlling collagen deposition; and mechanical stretch stimulating cellular mitosis and extracellular matrix remodeling. The complex network of biochemical and biomechanical signaling mechanisms and the multi-scale character of the healing process make systems modeling an integral tool in exploring personalized strategies for wound repair. A better mechanistic understanding of wound healing in the pediatric patient could open new avenues in treating children with skin disorders such as birth defects, skin cancer, wounds, and burn injuries. PMID:23314298

  12. Mast Cells Regulate Wound Healing in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tellechea, Ana; Leal, Ermelindo C; Kafanas, Antonios; Auster, Michael E; Kuchibhotla, Sarada; Ostrovsky, Yana; Tecilazich, Francesco; Baltzis, Dimitrios; Zheng, Yongjun; Carvalho, Eugénia; Zabolotny, Janice M; Weng, Zuyi; Petra, Anastasia; Patel, Arti; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Pradhan-Nabzdyk, Leena; Theoharides, Theoharis C; Veves, Aristidis

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a severe complication of diabetes that lacks effective treatment. Mast cells (MCs) contribute to wound healing, but their role in diabetes skin complications is poorly understood. Here we show that the number of degranulated MCs is increased in unwounded forearm and foot skin of patients with diabetes and in unwounded dorsal skin of diabetic mice (P < 0.05). Conversely, postwounding MC degranulation increases in nondiabetic mice, but not in diabetic mice. Pretreatment with the MC degranulation inhibitor disodium cromoglycate rescues diabetes-associated wound-healing impairment in mice and shifts macrophages to the regenerative M2 phenotype (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, nondiabetic and diabetic mice deficient in MCs have delayed wound healing compared with their wild-type (WT) controls, implying that some MC mediator is needed for proper healing. MCs are a major source of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse skin, but the level of VEGF is reduced in diabetic mouse skin, and its release from human MCs is reduced in hyperglycemic conditions. Topical treatment with the MC trigger substance P does not affect wound healing in MC-deficient mice, but improves it in WT mice. In conclusion, the presence of nondegranulated MCs in unwounded skin is required for proper wound healing, and therapies inhibiting MC degranulation could improve wound healing in diabetes. PMID:27207516

  13. Cellular events and biomarkers of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jumaat Mohd. Yussof; Omar, Effat; Pai, Dinker R.; Sood, Suneet

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have identified several of the cellular events associated with wound healing. Platelets, neutrophils, macrophages, and fibroblasts primarily contribute to the process. They release cytokines including interleukins (ILs) and TNF-α, and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is perhaps the most important. The cytokines and growth factors manipulate the inflammatory phase of healing. Cytokines are chemotactic for white cells and fibroblasts, while the growth factors initiate fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation. Inflammation is followed by the proliferation of fibroblasts, which lay down the extracellular matrix. Simultaneously, various white cells and other connective tissue cells release both the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of these metalloproteinases (TIMPs). MMPs remove damaged structural proteins such as collagen, while the fibroblasts lay down fresh extracellular matrix proteins. Fluid collected from acute, healing wounds contains growth factors, and stimulates fibroblast proliferation, but fluid collected from chronic, nonhealing wounds does not. Fibroblasts from chronic wounds do not respond to chronic wound fluid, probably because the fibroblasts of these wounds have lost the receptors that respond to cytokines and growth factors. Nonhealing wounds contain high levels of IL1, IL6, and MMPs, and an abnormally high MMP/TIMP ratio. Clinical examination of wounds inconsistently predicts which wounds will heal when procedures like secondary closure are planned. Surgeons therefore hope that these chemicals can be used as biomarkers of wounds which have impaired ability to heal. There is also evidence that the application of growth factors like PDGF will help the healing of chronic, nonhealing wounds. PMID:23162220

  14. Practices in Wound Healing Studies of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Rupesh; Jain, Nitika; Pathak, Raghvendra; Sandhu, Sardul Singh

    2011-01-01

    Wounds are the result of injuries to the skin that disrupt the other soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and protracted process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. Various plant products have been used in treatment of wounds over the years. Wound healing herbal extracts promote blood clotting, fight infection, and accelerate the healing of wounds. Phytoconstituents derived from plants need to be identified and screened for antimicrobial activity for management of wounds. The in vitro assays are useful, quick, and relatively inexpensive. Small animals provide a multitude of model choices for various human wound conditions. The study must be conducted after obtaining approval of the Ethics Committee and according to the guidelines for care and use of animals. The prepared formulations of herbal extract can be evaluated by various physicopharmaceutical parameters. The wound healing efficacies of various herbal extracts have been evaluated in excision, incision, dead space, and burn wound models. In vitro and in vivo assays are stepping stones to well-controlled clinical trials of herbal extracts. PMID:21716711

  15. Electrical stimulation to accelerate wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Thakral, Gaurav; LaFontaine, Javier; Najafi, Bijan; Talal, Talal K.; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are several applications of electrical stimulation described in medical literature to accelerate wound healing and improve cutaneous perfusion. This is a simple technique that could be incorporated as an adjunctive therapy in plastic surgery. The objective of this review was to evaluate the results of randomized clinical trials that use electrical stimulation for wound healing. Method We identified 21 randomized clinical trials that used electrical stimulation for wound healing. We did not include five studies with treatment groups with less than eight subjects. Results Electrical stimulation was associated with faster wound area reduction or a higher proportion of wounds that healed in 14 out of 16 wound randomized clinical trials. The type of electrical stimulation, waveform, and duration of therapy vary in the literature. Conclusion Electrical stimulation has been shown to accelerate wound healing and increase cutaneous perfusion in human studies. Electrical stimulation is an adjunctive therapy that is underutilized in plastic surgery and could improve flap and graft survival, accelerate postoperative recovery, and decrease necrosis following foot reconstruction. PMID:24049559

  16. Curcumin as a wound healing agent.

    PubMed

    Akbik, Dania; Ghadiri, Maliheh; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Rohanizadeh, Ramin

    2014-10-22

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a popular Indian spice that has been used for centuries in herbal medicines for the treatment of a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, diabetic ulcers, anorexia, cough and sinusitis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid present in turmeric and responsible for its yellow color. Curcumin has been shown to possess significant anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, anti-coagulant and anti-infective effects. Curcumin has also been shown to have significant wound healing properties. It acts on various stages of the natural wound healing process to hasten healing. This review summarizes and discusses recently published papers on the effects of curcumin on skin wound healing. The highlighted studies in the review provide evidence of the ability of curcumin to reduce the body's natural response to cutaneous wounds such as inflammation and oxidation. The recent literature on the wound healing properties of curcumin also provides evidence for its ability to enhance granulation tissue formation, collagen deposition, tissue remodeling and wound contraction. It has become evident that optimizing the topical application of curcumin through altering its formulation is essential to ensure the maximum therapeutical effects of curcumin on skin wounds. PMID:25200875

  17. Wound Healing Essentials: Let There Be Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Chandan K.

    2009-01-01

    The state of wound oxygenation is a key determinant of healing outcomes. From a diagnostic standpoint, measurements of wound oxygenation are commonly used to guide treatment planning such as amputation decision. In preventive applications, optimizing wound perfusion and providing supplemental O2 in the peri-operative period reduces the incidence of post-operative infections. Correction of wound pO2 may, by itself, trigger some healing responses. Importantly, approaches to correct wound pO2 favorably influence outcomes of other therapies such as responsiveness to growth factors and acceptance of grafts. Chronic ischemic wounds are essentially hypoxic. Primarily based on the tumor literature, hypoxia is generally viewed as being angiogenic. This is true with the condition that hypoxia be acute and mild to modest in magnitude. Extreme near-anoxic hypoxia, as commonly noted in problem wounds, is not compatible with tissue repair. Adequate wound tissue oxygenation is required but may not be sufficient to favorably influence healing outcomes. Success in wound care may be improved by a personalized health care approach. The key lies in our ability to specifically identify the key limitations of a given wound and in developing a multifaceted strategy to specifically address those limitations. In considering approaches to oxygenate the wound tissue it is important to recognize that both too little as well as too much may impede the healing process. Oxygen dosing based on the specific need of a wound therefore seems prudent. Therapeutic approaches targeting the oxygen sensing and redox signaling pathways are promising. PMID:19152646

  18. Potential benefits of pentoxifylline on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Motahareh; Khalili, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this review, potential benefits of pentoxifylline (PTX) on wound healing have been evaluated. All available experimental and clinical studies examined effects of PTX on wound healing have been included. No time limitation was considered and all studies up to writing the manuscript were included. Administration of oral or parenteral PTX showed beneficial effects on the healing of colorectal anastomosis, post burn scar, radiation-induced skin/soft tissue injury, venous ulcers, recurrent aphthous stomatitis and cutaneous/mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Data regarding effect of PTX on skin flap survival are conflicting. Only few evidences support promising effects of PTX in pressure ulcer, skin developing injury and burn. PMID:26558813

  19. Mechanoregulation of Wound Healing and Skin Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rosińczuk, Joanna; Taradaj, Jakub; Dymarek, Robert; Sopel, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Basic and clinical studies on mechanobiology of cells and tissues point to the importance of mechanical forces in the process of skin regeneration and wound healing. These studies result in the development of new therapies that use mechanical force which supports effective healing. A better understanding of mechanobiology will make it possible to develop biomaterials with appropriate physical and chemical properties used to treat poorly healing wounds. In addition, it will make it possible to design devices precisely controlling wound mechanics and to individualize a therapy depending on the type, size, and anatomical location of the wound in specific patients, which will increase the clinical efficiency of the therapy. Linking mechanobiology with the science of biomaterials and nanotechnology will enable in the near future precise interference in abnormal cell signaling responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and restoration of the biological balance. The objective of this study is to point to the importance of mechanobiology in regeneration of skin damage and wound healing. The study describes the influence of rigidity of extracellular matrix and special restrictions on cell physiology. The study also defines how and what mechanical changes influence tissue regeneration and wound healing. The influence of mechanical signals in the process of proliferation, differentiation, and skin regeneration is tagged in the study. PMID:27413744

  20. Stem Cells for Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Giles T. S.; Mills, Stuart J.; Cowin, Allison J.; Smith, Louise E.

    2015-01-01

    Optimum healing of a cutaneous wound involves a well-orchestrated cascade of biological and molecular processes involving cell migration, proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, and remodelling. When the normal biological process fails for any reason, this healing process can stall resulting in chronic wounds. Wounds are a growing clinical burden on healthcare systems and with an aging population as well as increasing incidences of obesity and diabetes, this problem is set to increase. Cell therapies may be the solution. A range of cell based approaches have begun to cross the rift from bench to bedside and the supporting data suggests that the appropriate administration of stem cells can accelerate wound healing. This review examines the main cell types explored for cutaneous wound healing with a focus on clinical use. The literature overwhelmingly suggests that cell therapies can help to heal cutaneous wounds when used appropriately but we are at risk of clinical use outpacing the evidence. There is a need, now more than ever, for standardised methods of cell characterisation and delivery, as well as randomised clinical trials. PMID:26137471

  1. [Actin in the wound healing process].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dorota; Popow-Woźniak, Agnieszka; Raźnikiewicz, Linda; Malicka-Błaszkiewicz, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Wound healing is an important biological process of crucial value for organisms survival and retention of its proper functions. The recognition of molecular mechanisms of these phenomenon is still under investigation. The transition of mesenchymal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts is a key point in wound healing. The contraction ability of myofibroblast enables the shrinkage of a wound and closes its edges. Alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), one of six actin isoforms, is a marker of compeletely differentiated myofibroblast. The regulation of differentiation process depends on many growth factors (especially TGF beta 1), the level of active thymosin beta 4, extracellular matrix proteins--including fibronectin, and also on specificity of microenvironment. Thymosin beta 4 is responsible for maintenance of pool of monomeric actin and actin filaments depolymerization. It can also act as a transcription factor, migration stimulator and immunomodulator, so this protein deserves for more attention in wound healing research field. PMID:19824469

  2. Scarless wound healing: chasing the holy grail.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, Graham G; Maan, Zeshaan N; Wong, Victor W; Duscher, Dominik; Hu, Michael S; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Wearda, Taylor; Muhonen, Ethan; McArdle, Adrian; Tevlin, Ruth; Atashroo, David A; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Lorenz, H Peter; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T

    2015-03-01

    Over 100 million patients acquire scars in the industrialized world each year, primarily as a result of elective operations. Although undefined, the global incidence of scarring is even larger, extending to significant numbers of burn and other trauma-related wounds. Scars have the potential to exert a profound psychological and physical impact on the individual. Beyond aesthetic considerations and potential disfigurement, scarring can result in restriction of movement and reduced quality of life. The formation of a scar following skin injury is a consequence of wound healing occurring through reparative rather than regenerative mechanisms. In this article, the authors review the basic stages of wound healing; differences between adult and fetal wound healing; various mechanical, genetic, and pharmacologic strategies to reduce scarring; and the biology of skin stem/progenitor cells that may hold the key to scarless regeneration. PMID:25719706

  3. Complement Activation and Inhibition in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Jukema, Gerrolt N.; Nibbering, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Complement activation is needed to restore tissue injury; however, inappropriate activation of complement, as seen in chronic wounds can cause cell death and enhance inflammation, thus contributing to further injury and impaired wound healing. Therefore, attenuation of complement activation by specific inhibitors is considered as an innovative wound care strategy. Currently, the effects of several complement inhibitors, for example, the C3 inhibitor compstatin and several C1 and C5 inhibitors, are under investigation in patients with complement-mediated diseases. Although (pre)clinical research into the effects of these complement inhibitors on wound healing is limited, available data indicate that reduction of complement activation can improve wound healing. Moreover, medicine may take advantage of safe and effective agents that are produced by various microorganisms, symbionts, for example, medicinal maggots, and plants to attenuate complement activation. To conclude, for the development of new wound care strategies, (pre)clinical studies into the roles of complement and the effects of application of complement inhibitors in wound healing are required. PMID:23346185

  4. Curbing Inflammation in Skin Wound Healing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rosique, Rodrigo G.; Rosique, Marina J.; Farina Junior, Jayme A.

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex regulated process that results in skin scar formation in postnatal mammals. Chronic wounds are major medical problems that can confer devastating consequences. Currently, there are no treatments to prevent scarring. In the early fetus wounds heal without scarring and the healing process is characterized by relatively less inflammation compared to adults; therefore, research aimed at reducing the inflammatory process related to wound healing might speed healing and improve the final scar appearance. PMID:26356299

  5. Nutrient support of the healing wound.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N A; Muller, M J; Herndon, D N

    1994-05-01

    Wound healing is a series of complex physicochemical interactions that require various micronutrients at every step. In the critically ill or severely injured patient, wound healing is impaired by the protein-catabolic, hypermetabolic response to stress. The hypothalamus responds to cytokine stimulation by increasing the thermoregulatory set-point and by augmenting elaboration of stress hormones (catecholamines, cortisol, and glucagon). In turn, the stress hormones induce thermogenic futile substrate cycling, lipolysis, and proteolysis. Increased glucose production results at the expense of skeletal muscle degradation, producing amino acid substrate for hepatic gluconeogenesis. Nutritional support of the hypermetabolic state is an essential part of ensuring efficient wound healing in these patients. Protein catabolism cannot be reversed by increased amino acid availability alone, due partly to a defect in amino acid transport. This defect can be reversed by anabolic agents, such as growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Growth hormone treatment dramatically improves wound healing in severely burned children. Supplementation with protein and vitamins, specifically arginine and vitamins A, B, and C, provides optimum nutrient support of the healing wound. PMID:7922445

  6. Wound Healing and the Dressing*

    PubMed Central

    Scales, John T.

    1963-01-01

    The evolution of surgical dressings is traced from 1600 b.c. to a.d. 1944. The availability of an increasing variety of man-made fibres and films from 1944 onwards has stimulated work on wound dressings, and some of the more important contributions, both clinical and experimental, are discussed. The functions of a wound dressing and the properties which the ideal wound dressing should possess are given. The necessity for both histological and clinical evaluation of wound dressings in animals and in man is stressed. Wound dressings are the most commonly used therapeutic agents, but there is no means whereby their performance can be assessed. An attempt should be made either nationally or internationally to establish a standard method of assessing the performance of wound dressings. For this it is necessary to have an internationally agreed standard dressing which could be used as a reference or control dressing in all animal and human work. The only animal with skin morphologically similar to that of man is the domestic pig. Three types of wounds could be used: (1) partial-thickness wounds; (2) full-thickness excisions; and (3) third-degree burns. The development of standard techniques for the assessment of the efficiency of wound dressings would be of considerable benefit to the research worker, the medical profession, the patient, and the surgical dressings industry. PMID:13976490

  7. Forces driving epithelial wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugués, Agustí; Anon, Ester; Conte, Vito; Veldhuis, Jim H.; Gupta, Mukund; Colombelli, Julien; Muñoz, José J.; Brodland, G. Wayne; Ladoux, Benoit; Trepat, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    A fundamental feature of multicellular organisms is their ability to self-repair wounds through the movement of epithelial cells into the damaged area. This collective cellular movement is commonly attributed to a combination of cell crawling and `purse-string’ contraction of a supracellular actomyosin ring. Here we show by direct experimental measurement that these two mechanisms are insufficient to explain force patterns observed during wound closure. At early stages of the process, leading actin protrusions generate traction forces that point away from the wound, showing that wound closure is initially driven by cell crawling. At later stages, we observed unanticipated patterns of traction forces pointing towards the wound. Such patterns have strong force components that are both radial and tangential to the wound. We show that these force components arise from tensions transmitted by a heterogeneous actomyosin ring to the underlying substrate through focal adhesions. The structural and mechanical organization reported here provides cells with a mechanism to close the wound by cooperatively compressing the underlying substrate.

  8. Forces driving epithelial wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Jim H.; Gupta, Mukund; Colombelli, Julien; Muñoz, José J.; Brodland, G. Wayne; Ladoux, Benoit; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental feature of multicellular organisms is their ability to self-repair wounds through the movement of epithelial cells into the damaged area. This collective cellular movement is commonly attributed to a combination of cell crawling and “purse-string” contraction of a supracellular actomyosin ring. Here we show by direct experimental measurement that these two mechanisms are insufficient to explain force patterns observed during wound closure. At early stages of the process, leading actin protrusions generate traction forces that point away from the wound, showing that wound closure is initially driven by cell crawling. At later stages, we observed unanticipated patterns of traction forces pointing towards the wound. Such patterns have strong force components that are both radial and tangential to the wound. We show that these force components arise from tensions transmitted by a heterogeneous actomyosin ring to the underlying substrate through focal adhesions. The structural and mechanical organization reported here provides cells with a mechanism to close the wound by cooperatively compressing the underlying substrate. PMID:27340423

  9. Boundary crossing in epithelial wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Eileen; Tzlil, Shelly; Tirrell, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The processes of wound healing and collective cell migration have been studied for decades. Intensive research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms involved in wound healing, but the role of cell-substrate interactions is still not thoroughly understood. Here we probe the role of cell-substrate interactions by examining in vitro the healing of monolayers of human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells cultured on artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) proteins. We find that the rate of wound healing is dependent on the concentration of fibronectin-derived (RGD) cell-adhesion ligands in the aECM substrate. The wound closure rate varies nearly sixfold on the substrates examined, despite the fact that the rates of migration and proliferation of individual cells show little sensitivity to the RGD concentration (which varies 40-fold). To explain this apparent contradiction, we study collective migration by means of a dynamic Monte Carlo simulation. The cells in the simulation spread, retract, and proliferate with probabilities obtained from a simple phenomenological model. The results indicate that the overall wound closure rate is determined primarily by the rate at which cells cross the boundary between the aECM protein and the matrix deposited under the cell sheet. PMID:20974917

  10. Epithelialization in Wound Healing: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Pastar, Irena; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Yin, Natalie C.; Ramirez, Horacio; Nusbaum, Aron G.; Sawaya, Andrew; Patel, Shailee B.; Khalid, Laiqua; Isseroff, Rivkah R.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Keratinocytes, a major cellular component of the epidermis, are responsible for restoring the epidermis after injury through a process termed epithelialization. This review will focus on the pivotal role of keratinocytes in epithelialization, including cellular processes and mechanisms of their regulation during re-epithelialization, and their cross talk with other cell types participating in wound healing. Recent Advances: Discoveries in epidermal stem cells, keratinocyte immune function, and the role of the epidermis as an independent neuroendocrine organ will be reviewed. Novel mechanisms of gene expression regulation important for re-epithelialization, including microRNAs and histone modifications, will also be discussed. Critical Issues: Epithelialization is an essential component of wound healing used as a defining parameter of a successful wound closure. A wound cannot be considered healed in the absence of re-epithelialization. The epithelialization process is impaired in all types of chronic wounds. Future Directions: A comprehensive understanding of the epithelialization process will ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to promote wound closure. PMID:25032064

  11. Cutaneous wound healing: Current concepts and advances in wound care

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kenneth C; Guha, Somes Chandra

    2014-01-01

    A non-healing wound is defined as showing no measurable signs of healing for at least 30 consecutive treatments with standard wound care.[1] It is a snapshot of a patient's total health as well as the ongoing battle between noxious factors and the restoration of optimal macro and micro circulation, oxygenation and nutrition. In practice, standard therapies for non-healing cutaneous wounds include application of appropriate dressings, periodic debridement and eliminating causative factors.[2] The vast majority of wounds would heal by such approach with variable degrees of residual morbidity, disability and even mortality. Globally, beyond the above therapies, newer tools of healing are selectively accessible to caregivers, for various logistical or financial reasons. Our review will focus on the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), as used at our institution (CAMC), and some other modalities that are relatively accessible to patients. HBOT is a relatively safe and technologically simpler way to deliver care worldwide. However, the expense for including HBOT as standard of care for recognized indications per UHMS(Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society) may vary widely from country to country and payment system.[3] In the USA, CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services) approved indications for HBOT vary from that of the UHMS for logistical reasons.[1] We shall also briefly look into other newer therapies per current clinical usage and general acceptance by the medical community. Admittedly, there would be other novel tools with variable success in wound healing worldwide, but it would be difficult to include all in this treatise. PMID:25593414

  12. The Presence of Oxygen in Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Howard M; Grant, Anthony; Ditata, James

    2016-08-01

    Oxygen must be tightly governed in all phases of wound healing to produce viable granulation tissue. This idea of tight regulation has yet to be disputed; however, the role of oxygen at the cellular and molecular levels still is not fully understood as it pertains to its place in healing wounds. In an attempt to better understand the dynamics of oxygen on living tissue and its potential role as a therapy in wound healing, a substantial literature review of the role of oxygen in wound healing was performed and the following key points were extrapolated: 1) During energy metabolism, oxygen is needed for mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase as it produces high-energy phosphates that are needed for many cellular functions, 2) oxygen is also involved in the hydroxylation of proline and lysine into procollagen, which leads to collagen maturation, 3) in angiogenesis, hypoxia is required to start the process of wound healing, but it has been shown that if oxygen is administered it can accelerate and sustain vessel growth, 4) the antimicrobial action of oxygen occurs when nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-linked oxygenase acts as a catalyst for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a superoxide ion which kills bacteria, and 5) the level of evidence is moderate for the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for diabetic foot ulcers, crush injuries, and soft-tissue infections. The authors hypothesized that HBOT would be beneficial to arterial insufficiency wounds and other ailments, but at this time further study is needed before HBOT would be indicated. PMID:27560469

  13. Wound Healing in Potato Tuber Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Borchert, R.; McChesney, J. D.; Watson, D.

    1974-01-01

    Several aspects of wound healing in tuber tissue of potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Kennebec), known to require protein synthesis, are inhibited by 2,4-dichlorobenzyltributylphosphonium chloride (Phosphon D). Cell division was completely blocked by 60 μm Phosphon and markedly reduced by concentrations as low as 3 μm. When applied at the time of wounding, 0.25mm Phosphon completely prevented the wound-induced respiratory increase. Application at 15 hours after wounding arrested respiration at the rate present at that time. The same concentrations of Phosphon inhibited auxin-induced cell expansion of the tissue, protein synthesis as measured by the incorporation of leucine-14C into the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction of tissue disks, and the appearance of wound-induced peroxidase isozymes. None of these inhibitory effects of Phosphon could be prevented or reversed by the application of gibberellic acid. All wound-induced processes inhibited by Phosphon are also inhibited by cycloheximide. It is suggested that inhibitory effects of Phosphon on wound healing in potato and on other developmental processes in excised plant tissues which cannot be reversed by gibberellin are due to interference with protein synthesis. PMID:16658674

  14. Cold temperature delays wound healing in postharvest sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage temperature affects the rate and extent of wound-healing in a number of root and tuber crops. The effect of storage temperature on wound-healing in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots, however, is largely unknown. Wound-healing of sugarbeet roots was investigated using surface-abraded roots s...

  15. Signals Involved in Tuber Wound-Healing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The induction and regulation of wound-healing (WH) processes in potato tubers and other vegetables are of great nutritional and economic importance. The rapid accumulation of waxes to restrict water vapor loss and formation of suberin barriers to block infection are crucial components of WH. Recen...

  16. Biomechanics and Wound Healing in the Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Dupps, William J.; Wilson, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    The biomechanical and wound healing properties of the cornea undermine the predictability and stability of refractive surgery and contribute to discrepancies between attempted and achieved visual outcomes after LASIK, surface ablation and other keratorefractive procedures. Furthermore, patients predisposed to biomechanical failure or abnormal wound healing can experience serious complications such as keratectasia or clinically significant corneal haze, and more effective means for the identification of such patients prior to surgery are needed. In this review, we describe the cornea as a complex structural composite material with pronounced anisotropy and heterogeneity, summarize current understanding of major biomechanical and reparative pathways that contribute to the corneal response to laser vision correction, and review the role of these processes in ectasia, intraocular pressure measurement artifact, diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) and corneal haze. The current understanding of differences in the corneal response after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), LASIK and femtosecond-assisted LASIK are reviewed. Surgical and disease models that integrate corneal geometric data, substructural anatomy, elastic and viscoelastic material properties and wound healing behavior have the potential to improve clinical outcomes and minimize complications but depend on the identification of preoperative predictors of biomechanical and wound healing responses in individual patients. PMID:16720023

  17. Mucopolysaccharides from psyllium involved in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, W; Das, P K; Middelkoop, E; Verschoor, J; Storey, L; Regnier, C

    2001-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharides derived from the husk of psyllium (Plantago ovata) have properties beneficial for wound cleansing and wound healing. Recent studies indicate that these mucopolysaccharides also limit scar formation. Our in vitro and in vivo studies aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved, e.g., fluid absorption, bacterial adherence and in vitro stimulatory effects on macrophages, which are pivotal in wound healing. The mucopolysaccharides contained in a sachet (Askina Cavity) or in a hydrocolloid mixture (Askina Hydro) were found to have a gradual and sustained absorbency over a period of 7 days, amounting to 4-6 times their weight in water. The swelling index was 9 mm after 312 h. Adherence of wound bacteria to the mucopolysaccharides started after 2 h and was more pronounced after 3 h. Semiquantitative measurements of bacterial adherence used centrifugation and subsequent optical density determinations of supernatant. These confirmed the strong adherence potential of psyllium particles. Lactic acid dehydrogenase staining of pretreated cultured human skin explants did not reveal toxicity of the mucopolysaccharides derived from psyllium husk. Langerhans' cell migration from the epidermis was negligible and interleukin-1 beta expression in the explants was not significant, supporting the very low allergenic potential of psyllium. The characteristics of mucopolysaccharide granulate derived from psyllium husk in Askina Cavity and Askina Hydro related to fluid absorption, bacterial adherence, biocompatibility, stimulation of macrophages, irritancy response and allergenicity showed an optimal profile, supporting the good clinical performance of wound healing products containing psyllium husk. PMID:11951574

  18. Skin wound healing and phytomedicine: a review.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Yaghoobi, Reza; Rafiee, Esmail; Mehrabian, Abolfath; Feily, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Skin integrity is restored by a physiological process aimed at repairing the damaged tissues. The healing process proceeds in four phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling. Phytomedicine presents remedies, which possess significant pharmacological effects. It is popular amongst the general population in regions all over the world. Phytotherapeutic agents have been largely used for cutaneous wound healing. These include Aloe vera, mimosa, grape vine, Echinacea, chamomile, ginseng, green tea, jojoba, tea tree oil, rosemary, lemon, soybean, comfrey, papaya, oat, garlic, ginkgo, olive oil and ocimum. Phytotherapy may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention on cutaneous wounds. This article provides a review of the common beneficial medicinal plants in the management of skin wounds with an attempt to explain their mechanisms. PMID:24993834

  19. Autologous Bone Marrow Aspirate Therapy in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Nandhagopal, Vijayaraghavan; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Thiruvoth, Friji Meethale; Sivakumar, Dinesh Kumar; Asokan, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of autologous bone marrow aspirate therapy (ABMAT) in wound healing. Approach: This is a retrospective analysis of 9 patients (11 chronic nonhealing wounds) in whom ABMAT was used. Patients (wounds) were grouped into two groups. Group 1 included 4 patients (5 wounds) refusing/unfit for reconstruction and managed only with ABMAT. Group 2 included 5 patients (6 wounds) who agreed/fit for reconstruction after wound bed preparation with ABMAT. End point of the study was complete wound healing. Results: ABMAT helped in complete healing of chronic nonhealing wounds by secondary intention in group 1 patients and enhanced process of wound bed preparation for reconstruction in group 2 patients. Innovation: This study highlights the importance of ABMAT in the management of chronic nonhealing wounds. Conclusion: ABMAT helps in wound bed preparation to allow the wound to heal completely or cover by skin graft/flap. PMID:26989576

  20. The Role of Neuromediators and Innervation in Cutaneous Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Mohammed; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2016-06-15

    The skin is densely innervated with an intricate network of cutaneous nerves, neuromediators and specific receptors which influence a variety of physiological and disease processes. There is emerging evidence that cutaneous innervation may play an important role in mediating wound healing. This review aims to comprehensively examine the evidence that signifies the role of innervation during the overlapping stages of cutaneous wound healing. Numerous neuropeptides that are secreted by the sensory and autonomic nerve fibres play an essential part during the distinct phases of wound healing. Delayed wound healing in diabetes and fetal cutaneous regeneration following wounding further highlights the pivotal role skin innervation and its associated neuromediators play in wound healing. Understanding the mechanisms via which cutaneous innervation modulates wound healing in both the adult and fetus will provide opportunities to develop therapeutic devices which could manipulate skin innervation to aid wound healing. PMID:26676806

  1. In vivo analysis of wound healing by optical methods

    PubMed Central

    Alborova, Alena; Lademann, Jürgen; Kramer, Axel; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Sterry, Wolfram; Koch, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of wound healing is important for the therapy control and for the development of drugs stimulating the healing process. Wounds cause damage to the skin barrier. A damaged stratum corneum leads to an increased water loss through the skin barrier. The standard measuring procedure for characterization of wound healing is the measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The disadvantage of this method is that it can be easily disturbed by the perspiration of the volunteers and by topically applied substances, for instance wound healing creams. In the study presented, in vivo laser scanning microscopy and optical coherent tomography were compared concerning the application for their analysis of wound healing processes. The laser scanning microscopy allows the analysis of the healing process on a cellular level. The course of wound healing determined by laser scanning microscopy was correlated with numerical values, allowing the numerical characterization of the wound healing process. PMID:20204112

  2. Grand challenge in Biomaterials-wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, Joseph C.; Salamone, Ann Beal; Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn; Leung, Kelly Xiaoyu-Chen; McMahon, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Providing improved health care for wound, burn and surgical patients is a major goal for enhancing patient well-being, in addition to reducing the high cost of current health care treatment. The introduction of new and novel biomaterials and biomedical devices is anticipated to have a profound effect on the future improvement of many deleterious health issues. This publication will discuss the development of novel non-stinging liquid adhesive bandages in healthcare applications developed by Rochal Industries. The scientists/engineers at Rochal have participated in commercializing products in the field of ophthalmology, including rigid gas permeable contact lenses, soft hydrogel contact lenses, silicone hydrogel contact lenses, contact lens care solutions and cleaners, intraocular lens materials, intraocular controlled drug delivery, topical/intraocular anesthesia, and in the field of wound care, as non-stinging, spray-on liquid bandages to protect skin from moisture and body fluids and medical adhesive-related skin injuries. Current areas of entrepreneurial activity at Rochal Industries pertain to the development of new classes of biomaterials for wound healing, primarily in regard to microbial infection, chronic wound care, burn injuries and surgical procedures, with emphasis on innovation in product creation, which include cell-compatible substrates/scaffolds for wound healing, antimicrobial materials for opportunistic pathogens and biofilm reduction, necrotic wound debridement, scar remediation, treatment of diabetic ulcers, amelioration of pressure ulcers, amelioration of neuropathic pain and adjuvants for skin tissue substitutes. PMID:27047680

  3. Grand challenge in Biomaterials-wound healing.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Joseph C; Salamone, Ann Beal; Swindle-Reilly, Katelyn; Leung, Kelly Xiaoyu-Chen; McMahon, Rebecca E

    2016-06-01

    Providing improved health care for wound, burn and surgical patients is a major goal for enhancing patient well-being, in addition to reducing the high cost of current health care treatment. The introduction of new and novel biomaterials and biomedical devices is anticipated to have a profound effect on the future improvement of many deleterious health issues. This publication will discuss the development of novel non-stinging liquid adhesive bandages in healthcare applications developed by Rochal Industries. The scientists/engineers at Rochal have participated in commercializing products in the field of ophthalmology, including rigid gas permeable contact lenses, soft hydrogel contact lenses, silicone hydrogel contact lenses, contact lens care solutions and cleaners, intraocular lens materials, intraocular controlled drug delivery, topical/intraocular anesthesia, and in the field of wound care, as non-stinging, spray-on liquid bandages to protect skin from moisture and body fluids and medical adhesive-related skin injuries. Current areas of entrepreneurial activity at Rochal Industries pertain to the development of new classes of biomaterials for wound healing, primarily in regard to microbial infection, chronic wound care, burn injuries and surgical procedures, with emphasis on innovation in product creation, which include cell-compatible substrates/scaffolds for wound healing, antimicrobial materials for opportunistic pathogens and biofilm reduction, necrotic wound debridement, scar remediation, treatment of diabetic ulcers, amelioration of pressure ulcers, amelioration of neuropathic pain and adjuvants for skin tissue substitutes. PMID:27047680

  4. Effect of medicinal plants on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Budovsky, Arie; Yarmolinsky, Ludmila; Ben-Shabat, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    In the United States alone, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. It is expected that the number of chronic wounds will increase worldwide due to the increase in age-related conditions and pathologies such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. An estimated excess of US$25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds, and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing healthcare costs, an aging population, and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes and obesity worldwide. While current therapeutic agents have generally inadequate efficacy and number of serious adverse effects, the medicinal plants have been used in medicine since ancient times and are well known for their abilities to promote wound healing and prevent infection without grave side effects. Thus, herbal therapy may be an alternative strategy for treatment of wounds. The purpose of this review is to provide the verified data on the medicinal plants of the world flora with wound healing activity including the biologically active substances belonging to these herbal preparations and describe in detail the various cellular and molecular mechanisms of their actions. PMID:25703533

  5. A comprehensive review of advanced biopolymeric wound healing systems.

    PubMed

    Mayet, Naeema; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2014-08-01

    Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that involves the mediation of many initiators effective during the healing process such as cytokines, macrophages and fibroblasts. In addition, the defence mechanism of the body undergoes a step-by-step but continuous process known as the wound healing cascade to ensure optimal healing. Thus, when designing a wound healing system or dressing, it is pivotal that key factors such as optimal gaseous exchange, a moist wound environment, prevention of microbial activity and absorption of exudates are considered. A variety of wound dressings are available, however, not all meet the specific requirements of an ideal wound healing system to consider every aspect within the wound healing cascade. Recent research has focussed on the development of smart polymeric materials. Combining biopolymers that are crucial for wound healing may provide opportunities to synthesise matrices that are inductive to cells and that stimulate and trigger target cell responses crucial to the wound healing process. This review therefore outlines the processes involved in skin regeneration, optimal management and care required for wound treatment. It also assimilates, explores and discusses wound healing drug-delivery systems and nanotechnologies utilised for enhanced wound healing applications. PMID:24985412

  6. The Electrical Response to Injury: Molecular Mechanisms and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Brian; Zhao, Min

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Natural, endogenous electric fields (EFs) and currents arise spontaneously after wounding of many tissues, especially epithelia, and are necessary for normal healing. This wound electrical activity is a long-lasting and regulated response. Enhancing or inhibiting this electrical activity increases or decreases wound healing, respectively. Cells that are responsible for wound closure such as corneal epithelial cells or skin keratinocytes migrate directionally in EFs of physiological magnitude. However, the mechanisms of how the wound electrical response is initiated and regulated remain unclear. Recent Advances: Wound EFs and currents appear to arise by ion channel up-regulation and redistribution, which are perhaps triggered by an intracellular calcium wave or cell depolarization. We discuss the possibility of stimulation of wound healing via pharmacological enhancement of the wound electric signal by stimulation of ion pumping. Critical Issues: Chronic wounds are a major problem in the elderly and diabetic patient. Any strategy to stimulate wound healing in these patients is desirable. Applying electrical stimulation directly is problematic, but pharmacological enhancement of the wound signal may be a promising strategy. Future Directions: Understanding the molecular regulation of wound electric signals may reveal some fundamental mechanisms in wound healing. Manipulating fluxes of ions and electric currents at wounds might offer new approaches to achieve better wound healing and to heal chronic wounds. PMID:24761358

  7. Scar tissue orientation in unsutured and sutured corneal wound healing.

    PubMed Central

    Melles, G R; Binder, P S; Beekhuis, W H; Wijdh, R H; Moore, M N; Anderson, J A; SundarRaj, N

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--This study aimed to evaluate stromal wound healing morphology in short term unsutured compared with sutured corneal wounds, to define regional variation in healing within radial keratotomy wounds. METHODS--Stromal scar tissue orientation (fibroblast and collagen fibre orientation) was analysed in unsutured and adjacent sutured keratotomy wounds in monkeys, 2 to 9 weeks after surgery, using light and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS--At 2 to 4 weeks, scar tissue orientation was transverse to the wound edge in unsutured wounds, but sagittal in sutured wounds. At 5 to 9 weeks, a reorientation of scar tissue sagittal to the wound was seen in the unsutured wounds, proceeding from the posterior to anterior wound regions. In sutured wounds, a scar tissue reorientation transverse to the wound was seen, proceeding from the anterior wound region in a posterior direction. CONCLUSIONS--Within the same cornea, sutured and unsutured wounds showed opposite patterns of healing. Sutured wounds initially healed more slowly, but obtained pseudolamellar continuity over time. In contrast, healing of unsutured wounds was characterised by an early approximation towards lamellar repair that was followed by an ineffective reorganisation of the scar. This latter pattern of healing, that may be associated with a variable weakening of the wound, may relate to the clinical findings of unpredictability and/or progression of refractive effect following radial keratotomy. Images PMID:7547789

  8. Quantifying cell behaviors during embryonic wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashburn, David; Ma, Xiaoyan; Crews, Sarah; Lynch, Holley; McCleery, W. Tyler; Hutson, M. Shane

    2011-03-01

    During embryogenesis, internal forces induce motions in cells leading to widespread motion in tissues. We previously developed laser hole-drilling as a consistent, repeatable way to probe such epithelial mechanics. The initial recoil (less than 30s) gives information about physical properties (elasticity, force) of cells surrounding the wound, but the long-term healing process (tens of minutes) shows how cells adjust their behavior in response to stimuli. To study this biofeedback in many cells through time, we developed tools to quantify statistics of individual cells. By combining watershed segmentation with a powerful and efficient user interaction system, we overcome problems that arise in any automatic segmentation from poor image quality. We analyzed cell area, perimeter, aspect ratio, and orientation relative to wound for a wide variety of laser cuts in dorsal closure. We quantified statistics for different regions as well, i.e. cells near to and distant from the wound. Regional differences give a distribution of wound-induced changes, whose spatial localization provides clues into the physical/chemical signals that modulate the wound healing response. Supported by the Human Frontier Science Program (RGP0021/2007 C).

  9. Mechanoregulation of Angiogenesis in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Lancerotto, Luca; Orgill, Dennis P.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Mechanical forces are important regulators of cell and tissue function. Endothelial cells proliferate in response to tissue stretch and the mechanical properties of the environment direct capillary sprouting and growth. As the vascular network is a key factor in physiology and disease, control of the vascularity by means of mechanical forces could lead to the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. Recent Advances: Increased understanding of mechanobiology has stimulated translational research and allowed the development and optimization of clinical devices that exploit mechanical forces for the treatment of diseases, in particular in the field of wound healing. Stretching in distraction osteogenesis and tissue expansion induces neogenesis of well-vascularized tissues. In micro-deformational wound therapy, micro-mechanical distortions of the wound bed stimulate cell proliferation and angiogenesis by stretching resident cells to improve healing of difficult wounds. Relief from tension antagonizes proliferation and angiogenesis in primarily closed wounds allowing for better scar quality. Critical Issues: The integration of mechanobiology into traditional cell biology and pathophysiology in general is not yet complete and further research is needed to fill existing gaps, in particular in the complexity of in vivo conditions. Future Directions: Still largely unexplored approaches based on mechanical perturbation of the micro-/macro-environment can be devised to overcome the limits of current strategies in a broad spectrum of clinical conditions. PMID:25302137

  10. [Wound healing and wound irrigation in cesarean section of cattle].

    PubMed

    de Kruif, A; van den Brand, L P; van Kuyk, M M; Raymakers, R J; Sietsma, C; Westerbeek, A J

    1987-09-01

    Calves were delivered by Caesarean section in 128 cases during the early months of 1984. All animals were allocated alternately to a trial group and a group of controls. When the peritoneum and transverse muscle had been sutured, the wounds of the animals in the trial group were irrigated and washed with 300 ml. of Betadine (10 per cent of PVP-iodine in water). This was followed by closure of the wound. The animals of the group of controls were not treated. The procedure was performed in ninety-four primiparae (73 per cent) and thirty-four multiparae (27 per cent). The indication for Caesarean section consisted in fetal oversize in 119 cases (93 per cent). Eight calves (6 per cent) were stillborn or died immediately post partum. The proportion of animals in which the placentae were retained, was 9 per cent. Two animals died from peritonitis and intra-abdominal haemorrhage respectively. Irrigation of the wound did not have any effect on the number of wound infections (Table 3). Wound infection occurred in nineteen animals (15 per cent). The operations were performed by six veterinary surgeons (Table 4). The trial group and group of controls treated by each veterinarian did not differ essentially as regards wound healing. PMID:3672464

  11. Stem cells in cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jisun; Falanga, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of chronic wounds remains difficult, in spite of better understanding of pathophysiologic principles and greater adherence to recognized standards of care. Even with recent advances stemming from breakthroughs in recombinant growth factors and bioengineered skin, up to almost 50% of chronic wounds that have been present for more than a year remain resistant to treatment. Because of these realities, there is excitement in the use of stem cells to offset impaired healing. Early data appear encouraging, but much work remains to be done. Although pilot studies suggest that multipotent adult stem cells can accelerate wound repair or even reconstitute the wound bed, the answers will need to come from randomized clinical trials. Thus far, considerable focus has been placed on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and there are now promising approaches for introducing them into the wound. It might turn out, however, that other types of stem cells will be more effective, including those derived from hair follicles or, perhaps, subsets of bone marrow-derived cultured cells. Still, proper wound care and adherence to basic principles cannot be bypassed, even by the most sophisticated approaches. PMID:17276204

  12. Wound Healing Activity of Elaeis guineensis Leaf Extract Ointment

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Logeswaran, Selvarasoo; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2012-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis of the Arecaceae family is widely used in the traditional medicine of societies in West Africa for treating various ailments. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied. The results showed that E. guineensis leaf extract had potent wound healing capacity as evident from the better wound closure (P < 0.05), improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinases expression correlated well with the results thus confirming efficacy of E. guineensis in the treatment of the wound. E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting its traditional use. The result of this study suggested that, used efficiently, oil palm leaf extract is a renewable resource with wound healing properties. PMID:22312255

  13. Wound healing activity of honey: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya, Kumari K.; Nishteswar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Vrana (wound) and its sequels play a major concern in the field of surgery as Vrana Ropana (wound healing) requires uneventful healing. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in physical and morphological properties due to topical application of Madhu (honey) on fresh traumatic wounds or cutaneous wounds. Ten patients of wounds of either sex were randomly selected. Site of the wound, shape, size, floor, and margin were recorded on day 0 and observed on day 7, 15, 20, and till the end of the healing for the progression of granulation, scar type, shape, size, and clinical symptoms. There was significant improvement in the healing process as Madhu possesses antibacterial, wound cleansing, wound healing properties and showed beneficiary effects. PMID:23723644

  14. Regulatory involvement of ABA in potato tuber wound-healing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid wound-healing is crucial in protecting potato tubers from infection and dehydration. Wound-induced suberization and the accumulation of hydrophobic barriers to reduce water vapor conductance/loss are principle protective wound-healing processes. However, little is known about the biological ...

  15. Skin-set and wound-healing/suberization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology and biochemistry of resistance and susceptibility to tuber skinning/excoriation wounds and wound-healing are of global importance because of the magnitude of the resulting food and financial losses. This work is intended to concisely describe skin-set and wound-healing including their...

  16. Understanding the role of nutrition and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Stechmiller, Joyce K

    2010-02-01

    Optimal wound healing requires adequate nutrition. Nutrition deficiencies impede the normal processes that allow progression through stages of wound healing. Malnutrition has also been related to decreased wound tensile strength and increased infection rates. Malnourished patients can develop pressure ulcers, infections, and delayed wound healing that result in chronic nonhealing wounds. Chronic wounds are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for many patients and therefore constitute a serious clinical concern. Because most patients with chronic skin ulcers suffer micronutrient status alterations and malnutrition to some degree, current nutrition therapies are aimed at correcting nutrition deficiencies responsible for delayed wound healing. This review provides current information on nutrition management for simple acute wounds and complex nonhealing wounds and offers some insights into innovative future treatments. PMID:20130158

  17. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results

  18. New insights into microRNAs in skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Fatima; Bi, Xinling; Yu, Fu-Shin; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Chronic wounds are a major burden to overall healthcare cost and patient morbidity. Chronic wounds affect a large portion of the US, and billions of healthcare dollars are spent in their treatment and management. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding double-stranded RNAs that post-transcriptionally downregulate the expression of protein-coding genes. Studies have identified miRNAs involved in all three phases of wound healing including inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Some miRNAs have been demonstrated in vitro with primary keratinocyte wound healing model and in vivo with mouse wound healing model through regulation of miRNA expression to affect the wound healing process. This review updates the current miRNAs involved in wound healing and discusses the future therapeutic implications and research directions. PMID:26596866

  19. Chronic wound caring ... a long journey toward healing.

    PubMed

    Orsted, H L; Campbell, K E; Keast, D H; Coutts, P; Sterling, W

    2001-10-01

    Healthcare professionals use words like "frustrating," "expensive," and "time-consuming" to describe chronic wound care. Healing a wound that has been present for an extended period of time is difficult. Often the problem is not just the wound but also the "woundedness" of the individual with the wound. The patient's needs in chronic wound care often continue over months, years, or even a lifetime. This article addresses more than the wound--it offers healthcare professionals' accounts of patient stories and their active involvement in the long journey toward chronic wound healing. PMID:11890076

  20. Case 5: non-healing traumatic wound colonised with MRSA.

    PubMed

    Simon, Deborah

    2016-03-01

    A traumatic wound colonised with MRSA failed to respond to topical antimicrobial dressings. Following the combined use of octenilin Wound Gel and octenilin Wound Irrigation Solution, the MRSA was removed in 4 weeks, the necrotic tissue was debrided and the wound started healing. PMID:26949849

  1. SKIN-SET, WOUND-HEALING AND RELATED DEFECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiology and biochemistry of resistance and susceptibility to tuber skinning/excoriation wounds, wound-healing and wound-related defects are of global importance because of the magnitude of the resulting food and financial losses. Wound related losses are difficult to determine because of the...

  2. Chemokine Involvement in Fetal and Adult Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Swathi; Watson, Carey L.; Ranjan, Rajeev; King, Alice; Bollyky, Paul L.; Keswani, Sundeep G.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Fetal wounds heal with a regenerative phenotype that is indistinguishable from surrounding skin with restored skin integrity. Compared to this benchmark, all postnatal wound healing is impaired and characterized by scar formation. The biologic basis of the fetal regenerative phenotype can serve as a roadmap to recapitulating regenerative repair in adult wounds. Reduced leukocyte infiltration, likely mediated, in part, through changes in the chemokine milieu, is a fundamental feature of fetal wound healing. Recent Advances: The contributions of chemokines to wound healing are a topic of active investigation. Recent discoveries have opened the possibility of targeting chemokines therapeutically to treat disease processes and improve healing capability, including the possibility of achieving a scarless phenotype in postnatal wounds. Critical Issues: Successful wound healing is a complex process, in which there is a significant interplay between multiple cell types, signaling molecules, growth factors, and extracellular matrix. Chemokines play a crucial role in this interplay and have been shown to have different effects in various stages of the healing process. Understanding how these chemokines are locally produced and regulated during wound healing and how the chemokine milieu differs in fetal versus postnatal wounds may help us identify ways in which we can target chemokine pathways. Future Directions: Further studies on the role of chemokines and their role in the healing process will greatly advance the potential for using these molecules as therapeutic targets. PMID:26543680

  3. Inflammation and Neuropeptides: The Connection in Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Leena; Nabzdyk, Christoph; Andersen, Nicholas D; LoGerfo, Frank W; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a broad overview of the interaction between neuropeptides and inflammatory mediators as it pertains to diabetic wound healing. Abnormal wound healing is a major complication of both type I and type II diabetes and is the most frequent cause of non-traumatic lower limb amputation. Wound healing requires the orchestrated integration of complex biological and molecular events. Inflammation, proliferation and migration of cells followed by angiogenesis and re-epithelization are essential phases of wound healing. The link between wound healing and the nervous system is clinically apparent as peripheral neuropathy is reported in 30–50% of diabetic patients and is the most common and sensitive predictor of foot ulceration. The bidirectional connection between the nervous and the immune systems and the role it plays in wound healing has emerged as one of the focal features of the wound healing dogma. The mediators of this connection include neuropeptides and the cytokines released from different cells including immune and cutaneous cells. Therefore, to develop successful wound healing therapies, it is vital to understand in depth the signaling pathways in the neuro-immune axis and their implication in diabetic wound healing. PMID:19138453

  4. Cellular and molecular facets of keratinocyte reepithelization during wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, Massimo M. . E-mail: msantoro@unipmn.it; Gaudino, Giovanni

    2005-03-10

    Cutaneous wound healing is a highly coordinated physiological process that rapidly and efficiently restores skin integrity. Reepithelization is a crucial step during wound healing, which involves migration and proliferation of keratinocytes to cover the denuded dermal surface. Recent advances in wound biology clarified the molecular pathways governing keratinocyte reepithelization at wound sites. These new findings point towards novel therapeutic targets and provide suitable methods to promote faster tissue regeneration in vivo.

  5. Collagen-Based Biomaterials for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Sayani; Raines, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    With its wide distribution in soft and hard connective tissues, collagen is the most abundant of animal proteins. In vitro, natural collagen can be formed into highly organized, three-dimensional scaffolds that are intrinsically biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic upon exogenous application, and endowed with high tensile strength. These attributes make collagen the material of choice for wound healing and tissue engineering applications. In this article, we review the structure and molecular interactions of collagen in vivo; the recent use of natural collagen in sponges, injectables, films and membranes, dressings, and skin grafts; and the on-going development of synthetic collagen mimetic peptides as pylons to anchor cytoactive agents in wound beds. PMID:24633807

  6. Platelet gel for healing cutaneous chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Crovetti, Giovanni; Martinelli, Giovanna; Issi, Marwan; Barone, Marilde; Guizzardi, Marco; Campanati, Barbara; Moroni, Marco; Carabelli, Angelo

    2004-04-01

    Wound healing is a specific host immune response for restoration of tissue integrity. Experimental studies demonstrated an alteration of growth factors activity due to their reduced synthesis, increased degradation and inactivation. In wound healing platelets play an essential role since they are rich of alpha-granules growth factors (platelet derived growth factor--PDGF; transforming growth factor-beta--TGF-beta; vascular endothelial growth factor--VEGF). Topical use of platelet gel (PG), hemocomponent obtained from mix of activated platelets and cryoprecipitate, gives the exogenous and in situ adding of growth factors (GF). The hemocomponents are of autologous or homologous origin. We performed a technique based on: multicomponent apheretic procedure to obtain plasma rich platelet and cryoprecipitate; manual processing in an open system, in sterile environment, for gel activation. Every step of the gel synthesis was checked by a quality control programme. The therapeutic protocol consists of the once-weekly application of PG. Progressive reduction of the wound size, granulation tissue forming, wound bed detersion, regression and absence of infective processes were considered for evaluating clinical response to hemotherapy. 24 patients were enrolled. They had single or multiple cutaneous ulcers with different ethiopathogenesis. Only 3 patients could perform autologous withdrawal; in the others homologous hemocomponent were used, always considering suitability and traceability criteria for transfusional use of blood. Complete response was observed in 9 patients, 2 were subjected to cutaneous graft, 4 stopped treatment, 9 had partial response and are still receiving the treatment. In each case granulation tissue forming increased following to the first PG applications, while complete re-epithelization was obtained later. Pain was reduced in every treated patient. Topical haemotherapy with PG may be considered as an adjuvant treatment of a multidisciplinary process

  7. Epithelial mechanobiology, skin wound healing, and the stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nicholas D; Oreffo, Richard O C; Healy, Eugene; Thurner, Philipp J; Man, Yu Hin

    2013-12-01

    Skin wound healing is a vital process that is important for re-establishing the epithelial barrier following disease or injury. Aberrant or delayed skin wound healing increases the risk of infection, causes patient morbidity, and may lead to the formation of scar tissue. One of the most important events in wound healing is coverage of the wound with a new epithelial layer. This occurs when keratinocytes at the wound periphery divide and migrate to re-populate the wound bed. Many approaches are under investigation to promote and expedite this process, including the topical application of growth factors and the addition of autologous and allogeneic tissue or cell grafts. The mechanical environment of the wound site is also of fundamental importance for the rate and quality of wound healing. It is known that mechanical stress can influence wound healing by affecting the behaviour of cells within the dermis, but it remains unclear how mechanical forces affect the healing epidermis. Tensile forces are known to affect the behaviour of cells within epithelia, however, and the material properties of extracellular matrices, such as substrate stiffness, have been shown to affect the morphology, proliferation, differentiation and migration of many different cell types. In this review we will introduce the structure of the skin and the process of wound healing. We will then discuss the evidence for the effect of tissue mechanics in re-epithelialisation and, in particular, on stem cell behaviour in the wound microenvironment and in intact skin. We will discuss how the elasticity, mechanical heterogeneity and topography of the wound extracellular matrix impact the rate and quality of wound healing, and how we may exploit this knowledge to expedite wound healing and mitigate scarring. PMID:23746929

  8. Enhanced susceptibility to infections in a diabetic wound healing model

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Tobias; Spielmann, Malte; Zuhaili, Baraa; Koehler, Till; Fossum, Magdalena; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Yao, Feng; Steinstraesser, Lars; Onderdonk, Andrew B; Eriksson, Elof

    2008-01-01

    Background Wound infection is a common complication in diabetic patients. The progressive spread of infections and development of drug-resistant strains underline the need for further insights into bacterial behavior in the host in order to develop new therapeutic strategies. The aim of our study was to develop a large animal model suitable for monitoring the development and effect of bacterial infections in diabetic wounds. Methods Fourteen excisional wounds were created on the dorsum of diabetic and non-diabetic Yorkshire pigs and sealed with polyurethane chambers. Wounds were either inoculated with 2 × 108 Colony-Forming Units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus or injected with 0.9% sterile saline. Blood glucose was monitored daily, and wound fluid was collected for bacterial quantification and measurement of glucose concentration. Tissue biopsies for microbiological and histological analysis were performed at days 4, 8, and 12. Wounds were assessed for reepithelialization and wound contraction. Results Diabetic wounds showed a sustained significant infection (>105 CFU/g tissue) compared to non-diabetic wounds (p < 0.05) over the whole time course of the experiment. S. aureus-inoculated diabetic wounds showed tissue infection with up to 8 × 107 CFU/g wound tissue. Non-diabetic wounds showed high bacterial counts at day 4 followed by a decrease and no apparent infection at day 12. Epidermal healing in S. aureus-inoculated diabetic wounds showed a significant delay compared with non-inoculated diabetic wounds (59% versus 84%; p < 0.05) and were highly significant compared with healing in non-diabetic wounds (97%; p < 0.001). Conclusion Diabetic wounds developed significantly more sustained infection than non-diabetic wounds. S. aureus inoculation leads to invasive infection and significant wound healing delay and promotes invasive co-infection with endogenous bacteria. This novel wound healing model provides the opportunity to closely assess infections during

  9. Inhibition of SDF-1α further impairs diabetic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Dustin M.; Xu, Junwang; Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Radu, Antoneta; Mitchell, Marc E.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Impaired diabetic wound healing is associated with abnormal SDF-1α production, decreased angiogenesis, and chronic inflammation. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of SDF-1α can correct the impairments in angiogenesis and healing in diabetic wounds. We hypothesized that SDF-1α is a critical component of the normal wound healing response and that inhibition of SDF-1α would further delay the wound-healing process. Design of study Db/Db diabetic mice and Db/+ non-diabetic mice were wounded with an 8mm punch biopsy and the wounds treated with a lentiviral vector containing either the GFP or SDF-1α inhibitor transgene. The inhibitor transgene is a mutant form of SDF-1α that binds, but does not activate, the CXCR4 receptor. Computerized planimetry was used to measure wound size daily. Wounds were analyzed at 3 and 7 days by histology and for production of inflammatory markers using real-time PCR. The effect of the SDF-1α inhibitor on cellular migration was also assessed. Results Inhibition of SDF-1α resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of diabetic wound healing, (3.8 cm2/day versus 6.5 cm2/day in GFP-treated wounds p=0.04), and also impaired the early phase of non-diabetic wound healing. SDF-1α inhibition also resulted in fewer small-caliber vessels, less granulation tissue formation, and increased proinflammatory gene expression (IL-6 and MIP-2) in the diabetic wounds. Conclusions The relative level of SDF-1α in the wound plays a key role in the wound healing response. Alterations in the wound level of SDF-1α, as seen in diabetes or by SDF-1α inhibition, impair healing by decreasing cellular migration and angiogenesis, leading to increased production of inflammatory cytokines and inflammation. PMID:21211927

  10. The wound healing, chronic fibrosis, and cancer progression triad

    PubMed Central

    Rybinski, Brad; Franco-Barraza, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    For decades tumors have been recognized as “wounds that do not heal.” Besides the commonalities that tumors and wounded tissues share, the process of wound healing also portrays similar characteristics with chronic fibrosis. In this review, we suggest a tight interrelationship, which is governed as a concurrence of cellular and microenvironmental reactivity among wound healing, chronic fibrosis, and cancer development/progression (i.e., the WHFC triad). It is clear that the same cell types, as well as soluble and matrix elements that drive wound healing (including regeneration) via distinct signaling pathways, also fuel chronic fibrosis and tumor progression. Hence, here we review the relationship between fibrosis and cancer through the lens of wound healing. PMID:24520152

  11. Traditional Therapies for Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Rúben F.; Bártolo, Paulo J.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: The regeneration of healthy and functional skin remains a huge challenge due to its multilayer structure and the presence of different cell types within the extracellular matrix in an organized way. Despite recent advances in wound care products, traditional therapies based on natural origin compounds, such as plant extracts, honey, and larvae, are interesting alternatives. These therapies offer new possibilities for the treatment of skin diseases, enhancing the access to the healthcare, and allowing overcoming some limitations associated to the modern products and therapies, such as the high costs, the long manufacturing times, and the increase in the bacterial resistance. This article gives a general overview about the recent advances in traditional therapies for skin wound healing, focusing on the therapeutic activity, action mechanisms, and clinical trials of the most commonly used natural compounds. New insights in the combination of traditional products with modern treatments and future challenges in the field are also highlighted. Recent Advances: Natural compounds have been used in skin wound care for many years due to their therapeutic activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cell-stimulating properties. The clinical efficacy of these compounds has been investigated through in vitro and in vivo trials using both animal models and humans. Besides the important progress regarding the development of novel extraction methods, purification procedures, quality control assessment, and treatment protocols, the exact mechanisms of action, side effects, and safety of these compounds need further research. Critical Issues: The repair of skin lesions is one of the most complex biological processes in humans, occurring throughout an orchestrated cascade of overlapping biochemical and cellular events. To stimulate the regeneration process and prevent the wound to fail the healing, traditional therapies and natural products have been used

  12. Advanced Therapeutic Dressings for Effective Wound Healing--A Review.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Joshua; Catanzano, Ovidio

    2015-11-01

    Advanced therapeutic dressings that take active part in wound healing to achieve rapid and complete healing of chronic wounds is of current research interest. There is a desire for novel strategies to achieve expeditious wound healing because of the enormous financial burden worldwide. This paper reviews the current state of wound healing and wound management products, with emphasis on the demand for more advanced forms of wound therapy and some of the current challenges and driving forces behind this demand. The paper reviews information mainly from peer-reviewed literature and other publicly available sources such as the US FDA. A major focus is the treatment of chronic wounds including amputations, diabetic and leg ulcers, pressure sores, and surgical and traumatic wounds (e.g., accidents and burns) where patient immunity is low and the risk of infections and complications are high. The main dressings include medicated moist dressings, tissue-engineered substitutes, biomaterials-based biological dressings, biological and naturally derived dressings, medicated sutures, and various combinations of the above classes. Finally, the review briefly discusses possible prospects of advanced wound healing including some of the emerging physical approaches such as hyperbaric oxygen, negative pressure wound therapy and laser wound healing, in routine clinical care. PMID:26308473

  13. The Epigenetic Regulation of Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Christopher J; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Sharov, Andrey A; Fessing, Michael Y; Botchkarev, Vladimir A

    2014-07-01

    Significance: Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are essential for epidermal homeostasis and contribute to the pathogenesis of many skin diseases, including skin cancer and psoriasis. However, while the epigenetic regulation of epidermal homeostasis is now becoming active area of research, the epigenetic mechanisms controlling the wound healing response remain relatively untouched. Recent Advances: Substantial progress achieved within the last two decades in understanding epigenetic mechanisms controlling gene expression allowed defining several levels, including covalent DNA and histone modifications, ATP-dependent and higher-order chromatin chromatin remodeling, as well as noncoding RNA- and microRNA-dependent regulation. Research pertained over the last few years suggests that epigenetic regulatory mechanisms play a pivotal role in the regulation of skin regeneration and control an execution of reparative gene expression programs in both skin epithelium and mesenchyme. Critical Issues: Epigenetic regulators appear to be inherently involved in the processes of skin repair, and are able to dynamically regulate keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, and migration, together with influencing dermal regeneration and neoangiogenesis. This is achieved through a series of complex regulatory mechanisms that are able to both stimulate and repress gene activation to transiently alter cellular phenotype and behavior, and interact with growth factor activity. Future Directions: Understanding the molecular basis of epigenetic regulation is a priority as it represents potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of both acute and chronic skin conditions. Future research is, therefore, imperative to help distinguish epigenetic modulating drugs that can be used to improve wound healing. PMID:25032066

  14. Hyperbaric Oxygen, Vasculogenic Stem Cells, and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Fosen, Katina M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress is recognized as playing a role in stem cell mobilization from peripheral sites and also cell function. Recent Advances: This review focuses on the impact of hyperoxia on vasculogenic stem cells and elements of wound healing. Critical Issues: Components of the wound-healing process in which oxidative stress has a positive impact on the various cells involved in wound healing are highlighted. A slightly different view of wound-healing physiology is adopted by departing from the often used notion of sequential stages: hemostatic, inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling and instead organizes the cascade of wound healing as overlapping events or waves pertaining to reactive oxygen species, lactate, and nitric oxide. This was done because hyperoxia has effects of a number of cell signaling events that converge to influence cell recruitment/chemotaxis and gene regulation/protein synthesis responses which mediate wound healing. Future Directions: Our alternative perspective of the stages of wound healing eases recognition of the multiple sites where oxidative stress has an impact on wound healing. This aids the focus on mechanistic events and the interplay among various cell types and biochemical processes. It also highlights the areas where additional research is needed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1634–1647. PMID:24730726

  15. Potato tuber wounding induces responses associated with various healing processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding induces an avalanche of biological responses involved in the healing and protection of internal tuber tissues exposed by mechanical damage and seed cutting. Collectively, our studies have framed a portrait of the mechanisms and regulation of potato tuber wound-healing, but much more is req...

  16. Wound Healing of Cutaneous Sulfur Mustard Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Graham, John S.; Chilcott, Robert P.; Rice, Paul; Milner, Stephen M.; Hurst, Charles G.; Maliner, Beverly I.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is an alkylating chemical warfare agent that primarily affects the eyes, skin, and airways. Sulfur mustard injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in significant cosmetic and/or functional deficits. Historically, blister aspiration and/or deroofing (epidermal removal), physical debridement, irrigation, topical antibiotics, and sterile dressings have been the main courses of action in the medical management of cutaneous sulfur mustard injuries. Current treatment strategy consists of symptomatic management and is designed to relieve symptoms, prevent infections, and promote healing. There are currently no standardized or optimized methods of casualty management that prevent or minimize deficits and provide for speedy wound healing. Several laboratories are actively searching for improved therapies for cutaneous vesicant injury, with the aim of returning damaged skin to optimal appearance and normal function in the shortest time. Improved treatment will result in a better cosmetic and functional outcome for the patient, and will enable the casualty to return to normal activities sooner. This editorial gives brief overviews of sulfur mustard use, its toxicity, concepts for medical countermeasures, current treatments, and strategies for the development of improved therapies. PMID:16921406

  17. Effect of Propolis on Experimental Cutaneous Wound Healing in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates clinically the effect of propolis paste on healing of cutaneous wound in dogs. Under general anesthesia and complete aseptic conditions, two full thickness skin wounds (3 cm diameter) were created in each side of the chest in five dogs, one dorsal and one ventral, with 10 cm between them. These wounds were randomly allocated into two groups, control group (10 wounds) and propolis group (10 wounds). Both groups were represented in each dog. The wounds were cleaned with normal saline solution and dressed with macrogol ointment in control group and propolis paste in propolis group, twice daily till complete wound healing. Measurement of the wound area (cm2) was monitored planimetrically at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after injury. The data were analyzed statistically. The results revealed a significant reduction in the wound surface area in the propolis group after 14 and 21 days compared to control group. The wound reepithelization, contraction, and total wound healing were faster in propolis group than in control group during five weeks of study. In conclusion, propolis paste has a positive impact on cutaneous wound healing and it may be suggested for treating various types of wounds in animals. PMID:26783495

  18. Predicting complex acute wound healing in patients from a wound expertise centre registry: a prognostic study.

    PubMed

    Ubbink, Dirk T; Lindeboom, Robert; Eskes, Anne M; Brull, Huub; Legemate, Dink A; Vermeulen, Hester

    2015-10-01

    It is important for caregivers and patients to know which wounds are at risk of prolonged wound healing to enable timely communication and treatment. Available prognostic models predict wound healing in chronic ulcers, but not in acute wounds, that is, originating after trauma or surgery. We developed a model to detect which factors can predict (prolonged) healing of complex acute wounds in patients treated in a large wound expertise centre (WEC). Using Cox and linear regression analyses, we determined which patient- and wound-related characteristics best predict time to complete wound healing and derived a prediction formula to estimate how long this may take. We selected 563 patients with acute wounds, documented in the WEC registry between 2007 and 2012. Wounds had existed for a median of 19 days (range 6-46 days). The majority of these were located on the leg (52%). Five significant independent predictors of prolonged wound healing were identified: wound location on the trunk [hazard ratio (HR) 0·565, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·405-0·788; P = 0·001], wound infection (HR 0·728, 95% CI 0·534-0·991; P = 0·044), wound size (HR 0·993, 95% CI 0·988-0·997; P = 0·001), wound duration (HR 0·998, 95% CI 0·996-0·999; P = 0·005) and patient's age (HR 1·009, 95% CI 1·001-1·018; P = 0·020), but not diabetes. Awareness of the five factors predicting the healing of complex acute wounds, particularly wound infection and location on the trunk, may help caregivers to predict wound healing time and to detect, refer and focus on patients who need additional attention. PMID:24007311

  19. Healing times and prediction of wound healing in neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zimny, S; Pfohl, M

    2005-02-01

    Time line of wound healing and prediction of healing times in diabetic foot ulcers is an important issue. Usually, the percentage of wounds healed within a defined period is used for characterization of wound healing. R=sqrtA/pi (R, radius; A, planimetric wound area; pi, constant 3.14), and the wound radius reduction was 0.39 mm/week which was previously established. The initial average wound area was 96.9+/-13.1 mm2 (mean+/-SEM), and 3.61+/-1.6 mm 2 after ten weeks with an average healing time of 75.9 (95 %-CI 71-81) days. Using the equation mentioned above and the calculated weekly wound radius reduction, the predicted healing time in the test group was 86.9 (95 %-CI 73-101) days. The predicted and the observed healing times were significantly correlated with each other (r=0.55, p=0.0002). Providing standard care, the time needed for wound healing can reliably be predicted in neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. This may be a useful tool in daily clinical practice to predict wound healing and recognize ulcers who do not respond adequately to the treatment. PMID:15772900

  20. Enhancement of wound healing by curcumin in animals.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, G S; Singh, A K; Thaloor, D; Banaudha, K K; Patnaik, G K; Srimal, R C; Maheshwari, R K

    1998-01-01

    Tissue repair and wound healing are complex processes that involve inflammation, granulation, and remodeling of the tissue. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effects of curcumin (difeurloylmethane), a natural product obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa on wound healing in rats and guinea pigs. We observed faster wound closure of punch wounds in curcumin-treated animals in comparison with untreated controls. Biopsies of the wound showed reepithelialization of the epidermis and increased migration of various cells including myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, and macrophages in the wound bed. Multiple areas within the dermis showed extensive neovascularization, and Masson's Trichrome staining showed greater collagen deposition in curcumin-treated wounds. Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor-beta1 showed an increase in curcumin-treated wounds as compared with untreated wounds. In situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analysis also showed an increase in the mRNA transcripts of transforming growth factor-beta1 and fibronectin in curcumin-treated wounds. Because transforming growth factor-beta1 is known to enhance wound healing, it may be possible that transforming growth factor-beta1 plays an important role in the enhancement of wound healing by curcumin. PMID:9776860

  1. A new mouse model of impaired wound healing after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tsumano, Tomoko; Kawai, Kenichiro; Ishise, Hisako; Nishimoto, Soh; Fukuda, Kenji; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Kakibuchi, Masao

    2013-04-01

    Radiation has many benefits and is an important treatment for cancer therapy. However, it also has unfavourable side-effects. Among these side-effects, the impairment of wound healing in the skin is a major problem in clinics. Although many attempts have been made to overcome this shortcoming, there are few effective treatments for impaired wound healing after irradiation. One reason for this is that it is hard to obtain good animal models for researching this topic. In this study, two different models were created and investigated. In one model, rectangular flaps were created on the backs of mice and irradiated while the other parts of their bodies were covered with a lead board. In another model, the lower limbs were exposed to radiation. In each model, several doses of irradiation were tested. Skin ulcers were created in the irradiated area, and the wound healing process was observed. In order to verify the usefulness of the model, adipose derived stromal cells were injected into the wound and the healing rate was calculated. In the flap model, the flaps contracted and formed linear scars. On the other hand, in the thigh model, 15 Gy irradiation resulted in slow wound healing but no strong inflammation or necrosis. The transplantation of adipose tissue derived stromal cells into the irradiated thigh wound improved the wound healing. This study suggested that irradiation of the lower limb at ∼ 15 Gy might be an appropriate model for basic research into wound healing in irradiated skin. PMID:23406401

  2. Diabetes primes neutrophils to undergo NETosis, which impairs wound healing.

    PubMed

    Wong, Siu Ling; Demers, Melanie; Martinod, Kimberly; Gallant, Maureen; Wang, Yanming; Goldfine, Allison B; Kahn, C Ronald; Wagner, Denisa D

    2015-07-01

    Wound healing is impaired in diabetes, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Neutrophils are the main leukocytes involved in the early phase of healing. As part of their anti-microbial defense, neutrophils form extracellular traps (NETs) by releasing decondensed chromatin lined with cytotoxic proteins. NETs, however, can also induce tissue damage. Here we show that neutrophils isolated from type 1 and type 2 diabetic humans and mice were primed to produce NETs (a process termed NETosis). Expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4, encoded by Padi4 in mice), an enzyme important in chromatin decondensation, was elevated in neutrophils from individuals with diabetes. When subjected to excisional skin wounds, wild-type (WT) mice produced large quantities of NETs in wounds, but this was not observed in Padi4(-/-) mice. In diabetic mice, higher levels of citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit, a NET marker) were found in their wounds than in normoglycemic mice and healing was delayed. Wound healing was accelerated in Padi4(-/-) mice as compared to WT mice, and it was not compromised by diabetes. DNase 1, which disrupts NETs, accelerated wound healing in diabetic and normoglycemic WT mice. Thus, NETs impair wound healing, particularly in diabetes, in which neutrophils are more susceptible to NETosis. Inhibiting NETosis or cleaving NETs may improve wound healing and reduce NET-driven chronic inflammation in diabetes. PMID:26076037

  3. Temporal effects of topical morphine application on cutaneous wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Rook, Jerri M.; Hasan, Wohaib; McCarson, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that topical administration of exogenous opioid drugs impairs wound healing by inhibiting the peripheral release of neuropeptides, thereby inhibiting neurogenic inflammation. This delay is immediate and peaks during the first days of wound closure. This study examined the effects of topical morphine treatment in a cutaneous wound healing model in the rat. Methods Full-thickness 4mm diameter wounds were placed on the periscapular region of rats that subsequently received twice-daily topical applications of IntraSite Gel (Smith+Nephew, Hull, United Kingdom) alone or gel infused with 5 mM morphine sulfate on days 0–3 or 4–10 post-wounding or throughout the time course. Wound tissue was taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8, and 18 post-wounding and immunostained for myofibroblast and macrophage markers or stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results Delays in wound closure observed during morphine application on days 0–3 post-wounding mimicked those seen in wounds treated with morphine throughout the entire healing process. However, no significant delays in closure were seen in wounds treated with morphine beginning on day 4 post-wounding. Treatment of wounds with morphine significantly reduced the number of myofibroblasts and macrophages in the closing wound. Additionally, morphine application resulted in decreases in skin thickness and an increase in residual scar tissue in healed skin. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the time-dependent and persistent nature of the detrimental effects of topical morphine on cutaneous wound healing. The data identify specific limitations that could be ameliorated to optimize topical opioid administration as an analgesic therapeutic strategy in the treatment of painful cutaneous wounds. PMID:18580183

  4. HoxD3 accelerates wound healing in diabetic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Scott L.; Myers, Connie A.; Charboneau, Aubri; Young, David M.; and Boudreau, Nancy

    2003-12-01

    Poorly healing diabetic wounds are characterized by diminished collagen production and impaired angiogenesis. HoxD3, a homeobox transcription factor that promotes angiogenesis and collagen synthesis, is up-regulated during normal wound repair whereas its expression is diminished in poorly healing wounds of the genetically diabetic (db/db) mouse. To determine whether restoring expression of HoxD3 would accelerate diabetic wound healing, we devised a novel method of gene transfer, which incorporates HoxD3 plasmid DNA into a methylcellulose film that is placed on wounds created on db/db mice. The HoxD3 transgene was expressed in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes of the wounds for up to 10 days. More importantly, a single application of HoxD3 to db/db mice resulted in a statistically significant acceleration of wound closure compared to control-treated wounds. Furthermore, we also observed that the HoxD3-mediated improvement in diabetic wound repair was accompanied by increases in mRNA expression of the HoxD3 target genes, Col1A1 and beta 3-integrin leading to enhanced angiogenesis and collagen deposition in the wounds. Although HoxD3-treated wounds also show improved re-epithelialization as compared to control db/db wounds, this effect was not due to direct stimulation of keratinocyte migration by HoxD3. Finally, we show that despite the dramatic increase in collagen synthesis and deposition in HoxD3-treated wounds, these wounds showed normal remodeling and we found no evidence of abnormal wound healing. These results indicate that HoxD3 may provide a means to directly improve collagen deposition, angiogenesis and closure in poorly healing diabetic wounds.

  5. Revisiting the essential role of oxygen in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Gayle M; Sen, Chandan K

    2003-09-01

    Hypoxemia, caused by disrupted vasculature, is a key factor that limits wound healing. Correcting hypoxemia through the administration of supplemental oxygen (O(2)) can have significant beneficial impact on wound healing in the perioperative and outpatient settings. Beyond its role as a nutrient and antibiotic, O(2) may support vital processes such as angiogenesis, cell motility, and extracellular matrix formation. Recent discoveries highlight a novel aspect, addressing the role of O(2) in wound healing via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Almost all wound-related cells possess specialized enzymes that generate ROS (including free radicals and H(2)O(2)) from O(2). Defect in these enzymes is associated with impaired healing. Low wound pO(2) is expected to compromise the function of these enzymes. At low concentrations, ROS serve as cellular messengers to support wound healing. The use of systemic hyperbaric O(2) therapy presents potential advantages, as well as risks. There is evidence to suspect that the use of pressure and systemic pure O(2) may not be essential in wound care. Elimination of these factors by using sub-pure systemic O(2) under normobaric conditions may significantly minimize the risk of O(2) toxicity. Furthermore, opportunities to treat dermal wounds using topical O(2) therapy warrant further investigation. Given that many growth factors require ROS for their function, it is reasonable to assume that approaches to correct wound pO(2) will serve as an effective adjunct in treating chronic wounds. PMID:12946829

  6. Electrospun nitric oxide releasing bandage with enhanced wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lowe, A; Bills, J; Verma, R; Lavery, L; Davis, K; Balkus, K J

    2015-02-01

    Research has shown that nitric oxide (NO) enhances wound healing. The incorporation of NO into polymers for medical materials and surgical devices has potential benefits for many wound healing applications. In this work, acrylonitrile (AN)-based terpolymers were electrospun to form non-woven sheets of bandage or wound dressing type materials. NO is bound to the polymer backbone via the formation of a diazeniumdiolate group. In a 14 day NO release study, the dressings released 79 μmol NO g(-1) polymer. The NO-loaded dressings were tested for NO release in vivo, which demonstrate upregulation of NO-inducible genes with dressing application compared to empty dressings. Studies were also conducted to evaluate healing progression in wounds with dressing application performed weekly and daily. In two separate studies, excisional wounds were created on the dorsa of 10 mice. Dressings with NO loaded on the fibers or empty controls were applied to the wounds and measurements of the wound area were taken at each dressing change. The data show significantly enhanced healing progression in the wounds with weekly NO application, which is more dramatic with daily application. Further, the application of daily NO bandages results in improved wound vascularity. These data demonstrate the potential for this novel NO-releasing dressing as a valid wound healing therapy. PMID:25463501

  7. Wound healing modeling: investigating ambient gas plasma treatment efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orazov, Marat; Sakiyama, Yukinori; Graves, David B.

    2012-11-01

    Chronic wounds are thought to be caused, in part, by the presence and persistence of aerobic microbes that deplete the local oxygen concentration and prevent or slow the rate of oxygen-dependent healing. Atmospheric-pressure gas plasmas have been shown to be strong bactericidal agents and there is evidence that plasma treatment can safely kill bacteria in wounds and speed wound healing. In this study, we adapted a six-species reaction-diffusion model of epithelial wound healing and used it to predict the efficacy of various plasma treatment protocols. We assume that the only effect of plasma application to the wound is to reduce the bacterial load and that this in turn reduces the bacterial oxygen consumption in the wound. The model follows the spatial and temporal concentration or density profiles within the wound of oxygen, chemoattractants, capillary sprouts, blood vessels, fibroblasts and extracellular matrix material. We highlight the importance of the effects of plasma application on the rate of bacterial regrowth in the wound. Even a relatively large initial reduction in the bacterial wound population may not be sufficient for improved healing if bacterial regrowth is not limited. Although it is clear that current efforts to model wound healing in general and the effects of plasma in particular are in their early stage, the present results suggest several important directions for coupling plasma models with models of tissue biochemical responses.

  8. Xanthine Oxidoreductase Function Contributes to Normal Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Michael C; McEnaney, Ryan M; Shukla, Ankur J; Hong, Guiying; Kelley, Eric E; Tarpey, Margaret M; Gladwin, Mark; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Tzeng, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Chronic, nonhealing wounds result in patient morbidity and disability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are both required for normal wound repair, and derangements of these result in impaired healing. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has the unique capacity to produce both ROS and NO. We hypothesize that XOR contributes to normal wound healing. Cutaneous wounds were created in C57Bl6 mice. XOR was inhibited with dietary tungsten or allopurinol. Topical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 0.15%) or allopurinol (30 μg) was applied to wounds every other day. Wounds were monitored until closure or collected at d 5 to assess XOR expression and activity, cell proliferation and histology. The effects of XOR, nitrite, H2O2 and allopurinol on keratinocyte cell (KC) and endothelial cell (EC) behavior were assessed. We identified XOR expression and activity in the skin and wound edges as well as granulation tissue. Cultured human KCs also expressed XOR. Tungsten significantly inhibited XOR activity and impaired healing with reduced ROS production with reduced angiogenesis and KC proliferation. The expression and activity of other tungsten-sensitive enzymes were minimal in the wound tissues. Oral allopurinol did not reduce XOR activity or alter wound healing but topical allopurinol significantly reduced XOR activity and delayed healing. Topical H2O2 restored wound healing in tungsten-fed mice. In vitro, nitrite and H2O2 both stimulated KC and EC proliferation and EC migration. These studies demonstrate for the first time that XOR is abundant in wounds and participates in normal wound healing through effects on ROS production. PMID:25879627

  9. An Assessment of Wound Healing Potential of Argyreia speciosa Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Rawat, Bindu; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Shanker, Karuna; Venkateswara Rao, Chandana

    2014-01-01

    In North India, poultice of young unfolded leaves of Argyreia speciosa Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is used for healing wounds. In order to find scientific evidence for the traditional utilization of leaves of A. speciosa in wound healing, this investigation was carried out. A linear incision wound of about 3 cm in length and 2 mm in depth and circular excision wound of 177 mm2 full thickness were made on the dorsal region of separate groups (n = 5) of anesthetized Swiss albino mice. A simple ointment, developed by including ethanol, ethanol-water, and water extracts (10% each, separately) of A. speciosa, was applied topically to mice once daily for 14 days after wounding. To evaluate the effect of each extract, wound contraction, epithelization period, wound breaking strength, and hydroxyproline content were determined. The water extract of A. speciosa showed accelerated wound healing activity as evidenced by fast wound contraction (96.30 ± 0.52%; P < 0.01), rapid epithelization period (11.40 ± 0.60 days; P < 0.001), greater wound breaking strength (376.56 ± 21.16 g; P < 0.001), and higher hydroxyproline content (16.49 ± 1.12 mg/g; P < 0.05) of granulation tissue. The present report supports the traditional use of Argyreia speciosa leaves for wound healing and signify its relevant therapeutic potential. PMID:24688387

  10. Silver-based wound dressings reduce bacterial burden and promote wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsin; Hsu, Wei-Shan; Chung, Wan-Yu; Ko, Tse-Hao; Lin, Jui-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    Various types of wound dressings have been designed for different purposes and functions. Controlling bacterial burden in a wound during the early phase is important for successful wound repair. Once bacterial burden is under control, the active promotion of wound healing is another important factor for efficient wound healing. This study investigated the potential of three silver-containing dressings, namely KoCarbonAg(®) , Aquacel(®) Ag and Acticoat 7, in reducing bacterial survival and promoting wound healing. The ability of these dressings to block the entry of bacteria from external environment and retain intrinsic bacteria was studied in vitro. In addition, the study used a rat model to compare the healing efficiencies of the three dressings and investigate the quantity of collagen synthesis in vivo. In vitro results indicated that the silver-containing dressings prevented bacterial growth in wounds by blocking the entry of external bacteria and by retaining the bacteria in the dressing. In vivo study indicated that reduction in bacterial burden accelerated wound healing. Wounds treated by the silver-containing dressings showed better healing than those treated with gauze. Moreover, KoCarbonAg(®) further accelerated wound healing by promoting collagen synthesis and arrangement. PMID:26043261

  11. Macrophage PPARγ and impaired wound healing in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Rita E; Fang, Milie M; Novak, Margaret L; Urao, Norifumi; Sui, Audrey; Ennis, William J; Koh, Timothy J

    2015-08-01

    Macrophages undergo a transition from pro-inflammatory to healing-associated phenotypes that is critical for efficient wound healing. However, the regulation of this transition during normal and impaired healing remains to be elucidated. In our studies, the switch in macrophage phenotypes during skin wound healing was associated with up-regulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and its downstream targets, along with increased mitochondrial content. In the setting of diabetes, up-regulation of PPARγ activity was impaired by sustained expression of IL-1β in both mouse and human wounds. In addition, experiments with myeloid-specific PPARγ knockout mice indicated that loss of PPARγ in macrophages is sufficient to prolong wound inflammation and delay healing. Furthermore, PPARγ agonists promoted a healing-associated macrophage phenotype both in vitro and in vivo, even in the diabetic wound environment. Importantly, topical administration of PPARγ agonists improved healing in diabetic mice, suggesting an appealing strategy for down-regulating inflammation and improving the healing of chronic wounds. PMID:25875529

  12. Leptin Promotes Wound Healing in the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Umeki, Hirochika; Tokuyama, Reiko; Ide, Shinji; Okubo, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Susumu; Tezuka, Mitsuki; Tatehara, Seiko; Satomura, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leptin, a 16 kDa circulating anti-obesity hormone, exhibits many physiological properties. Recently, leptin was isolated from saliva; however, its function in the oral cavity is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of leptin in the oral cavity by focusing on its effect on wound healing in the oral mucosa. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis was used to examine the expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) in human/rabbit oral mucosa. To investigate the effect of leptin on wound healing in the oral mucosa, chemical wounds were created in rabbit oral mucosa, and leptin was topically administered to the wound. The process of wound repair was histologically observed and quantitatively analyzed by measuring the area of ulceration and the duration required for complete healing. The effect of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human oral mucosal epithelial cells (RT7 cells) was investigated using crystal violet staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a wound healing assay, respectively. Results Ob-R was expressed in spinous/granular cells in the epithelial tissue and vascular endothelial cells in the subepithelial connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Topical administration of leptin significantly promoted wound healing and shortened the duration required for complete healing. Histological analysis of gingival tissue beneath the ulceration showed a denser distribution of blood vessels in the leptin-treated group. Although the proliferation and differentiation of RT7 cells were not affected by leptin, the migration of these cells was accelerated in the presence of leptin. Conclusion Topically administered leptin was shown to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa by accelerating epithelial cell migration and enhancing angiogenesis around the wounded area. These results strongly suggest that topical administration of leptin may be useful as a treatment to promote wound

  13. Efficacy of Butea monosperma on dermal wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Sumitra, Miriyala; Manikandan, Panchatcharam; Suguna, Lochin

    2005-03-01

    Wound healing occurs as a fundamental response to tissue injury. Several natural products have been shown to accelerate the healing process. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the efficacy of topical administration of an alcoholic bark extract of Butea monosperma (B. monosperma) on cutaneous wound healing in rats. Full-thickness excision wounds were made on the back of rat and B. monosperma extract was administered topically. The granulation tissue formed on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 (post-wound) was used to estimate total collagen, hexosamine, protein, DNA and uronic acid. The extract increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, total protein and total collagen content of granulation tissues. The extract treated wounds were found to heal much faster as indicated by improved rates of epithelialization and wound contraction, also confirmed by histopathological examinations. Also, the tensile strength of drug-treated wounds was increased significantly. In addition, we show that B. monosperma possesses antioxidant properties, by its ability to reduce lipid peroxidation. The results clearly substantiate the beneficial effects of the topical application of B. monosperma in the acceleration of wound healing. PMID:15618014

  14. Effects of topical oxygen therapy on ischemic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Congqiang; Xiao, Liling; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Shenghong; Lu, Jinqiang; Li, Jiangxuan; Gu, Shixing

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of topical oxygen therapy on the hind limb wounds of rats under ischemic conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve injured rats were treated with topical oxygen on skin wounds located on the hind limb and compared with twelve injured control rats. Indexes including gross morphology of the wound, wound healing time, wound healing rate, and histological and immunohistochemical staining of sections of wound tissue were examined at different time points after intervention. [Results] The wound healing time was shorter in the topical oxygen therapy group than the control group. The wound healing rate and granulation tissue formation in the topical oxygen therapy group showed significant improvement on days 3, 7, and 14. Through van Gieson staining, the accumulation of collagen fiber in the topical oxygen therapy group was found to have improved when compared with the control group on day 7. Through semiquantitative immunohistochemical staining, many more new vessels were found in the topical oxygen therapy group compared with the model control group on day 7. [Conclusion] The results of the experiment showed that topical oxygen therapy improved ischemic wound healing. PMID:26957741

  15. Pollution dilemma in Asian population: CNG and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Sohail; Chekarova, Irina; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Nasir, Amir; Ashraf, Muhammad; Lim, Chae Woong

    2009-11-01

    Automobile exhaust constituents contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas and compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered one of the most promising fuel alternatives for the future. CNG-powered four-stroke engine auto-rickshaws are ubiquitous in South Asian cities as taxi and for commercial transportation. Automotive exhaust contains several toxins, which are overwhelmingly toxic to the processes of wound healing. By utilizing the in vivo mouse model of wound healing, this report analyzes the effects of CNG-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws smoke solution (4SARSS) on different events of wound healing; dermal matrix regeneration, re-epithelialization and neovascularization. A total of 72 adult mice, divided in eight groups were exposed to 4SARSS for 12 days. A highly significant reduction (P<0.001) in wound closure was observed among all 4SARSS treated groups, at each time point of the experiment. An immature development in both the neoepidermis and the neodermis was observed among all 4SARSS treated wounds with defective re-epithelialization, dermal matrix regeneration and maturation of collagen bundles. Abbott curve, angular spectrum, 3D surface topographies, and histological investigations of wounds explicated highly significant activation (P<0.001) of delayed-neovascularization among 4SARSS treated wounds. All these annotations advocate excessive toxicity of emission from CNG-powered auto-rickshaws to the process of wound healing and people occupationally exposed to this toxic emissions may suffer varying degree of delayed wound healing. PMID:21784023

  16. Wounding the Cornea to Learn How it Heals

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Mary Ann; Zieske, James D.; Trinkaus-Randall, Vickery; Kyne, Briana; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Tadvalkar, Gauri; Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah

    2014-01-01

    Corneal wound healing studies have a long history and rich literature that describes the data obtained over the past 70 years using many different species of animals and methods of injury. These studies have lead to reduced suffering and provided clues to treatments that are now helping patients live more productive lives. In spite of the progress made, further research is required since blindness and reduced quality of life due to corneal scarring still happens. The purpose of this review is to summarize what is known about different types of wound and animal models used to study corneal wound healing. The subject of corneal wound healing is broad and includes chemical and mechanical wound models. This review focuses on mechanical injury models involving debridement and keratectomy wounds to reflect the authors’ expertise. PMID:24607489

  17. Chitosan as a starting material for wound healing applications.

    PubMed

    Patrulea, V; Ostafe, V; Borchard, G; Jordan, O

    2015-11-01

    Chitosan and its derivatives have attracted great attention due to their properties beneficial for application to wound healing. The main focus of the present review is to summarize studies involving chitosan and its derivatives, especially N,N,N-trimethyl-chitosan (TMC), N,O-carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC) and O-carboxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-chitosan (CMTMC), used to accelerate wound healing. Moreover, formulation strategies for chitosan and its derivatives, as well as their in vitro, in vivo and clinical applications in wound healing are described. PMID:26614560

  18. Evaluation of Tectona grandis leaves for wound healing activity.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Mrityunjoy; Nayeem, Naira; Kamath, Jagadish V; Asad, Mohammed

    2007-04-01

    The frontal leaves of Tectona grandis (Verabinaceae) are widely used in the folklore for the treatment of various kinds of wounds, especially burn wound. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of hydrochloric extract of Tectona grandis on experimentally induced wounds in rats and compare the effects observed with a known wound healing agent, Aloe vera. The models selected were excision wound, incision wound, burn wound and dead space wound. A suitable gel formulation was selected for the application using cellophane membrane penetration. In the excision wound and burn wound models, animals treated with Tectona grandis leaf extract showed significant reduction in period of epithelisation and wound contraction 50%. In the incision wound model, a significant increase in the breaking strength was observed. Tectona grandis leaf extract treatment orally produced a significant increase in the breaking strength, dry weight and hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue in dead space wound. It was concluded that Tectona grandis leaf extract applied topically (5% and 10% gel formulation) or administered orally (250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight) possesses wound healing activity. PMID:17416566

  19. Healing of Chronic Wounds through Systemic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo, L.; Trigos, I.; García-Cantú, R.; Godina-Nava, J. J.; Serrano, G.

    2002-08-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) were configured to interact with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). These ELF were applied in the arm to five patients with chronic wounds resistant to medical and surgical treatment. Wound healing began in all patients during the first two weeks after ELF exposure permiting their previously unresponsive chronic wounds to function as internal controls. All lesions were cured or healed >70% in less than four months. Systemic effects were explained by ELF activation of PBMC and their transportation through the blood to the affected site. This therapy is effective in selected patients with chronic wounds.

  20. Alterations in proteoglycan synthesis common to healing wounds and tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, T. K.; Brown, L.; Dvorak, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    Wound healing and tumor stroma generation share several important properties, including hyperpermeable blood vessels, extravasation of fibrinogen, and extravascular clotting. In both, the deposits of fibrin gel serve initially as provisional stroma and later are replaced by granulation tissue. Proteoglycans (PG) are also important constituents of the extracellular matrix, but their composition and role in healing wounds and tumor stroma generation are poorly understood. The authors used immunohistochemical and biochemical methods to investigate the dermatan sulfate proteoglycan (DSPG) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) composition of healing skin wounds and solid tumors. By immunohistochemistry, the great majority of normal guinea pig and human dermis stained weakly for CSPG and strongly for decorin. In contrast, the granulation tissue of healing skin wounds and scars stained intensely for CSPG and weakly or not at all for decorin; however decorin staining was restored to normal intensity after digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase, suggesting that decorin antigenic sites had been masked by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. Like wounds, the stroma of several carcinomas (line 1 guinea pig, human breast, colon, basal cell, and squamous) stained strongly for CSPG and weakly or not at all for decorin, but decorin staining developed after chondroitin ABC lyase digestion. Thus healing wounds and tumor stroma express a common pattern of altered PG staining, adding another to the properties these pathologic entities share. Proteoglycans extracted from healing wounds after in situ labelling with [35S] Na sulfate contained more CSPG than normal dermis with significantly longer GAG chains. Granulation tissue also synthesized more DSPG than normal skin, with greater heterogeneity and longer GAG chains. These alterations in PG synthesis correlate with the cell proliferation, migration, and collagen synthesis that accompany wound healing and may provide clues to the

  1. Fibroblast-specific upregulation of Flightless I impairs wound healing.

    PubMed

    Turner, Christopher T; Waters, James M; Jackson, Jessica E; Arkell, Ruth M; Cowin, Allison J

    2015-09-01

    The cytoskeletal protein Flightless (Flii) is a negative regulator of wound healing. Upregulation of Flii is associated with impaired migration, proliferation and adhesion of both fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Importantly, Flii translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to wounding in fibroblasts but not keratinocytes. This cell-specific nuclear translocation of Flii suggests that Flii may directly regulate gene expression in fibroblasts, providing one potential mechanism of action for Flii in the wound healing response. To determine whether the tissue-specific upregulation of Flii in fibroblasts was important for the observed inhibitory effects of Flii on wound healing, an inducible fibroblast-specific Flii overexpressing mouse model was generated. The inducible ROSA26 system allowed the overexpression of Flii in a temporal and tissue-specific manner in response to tamoxifen treatment. Wound healing in the inducible mice was impaired, with wounds at day 7 postwounding significantly larger than those from non-inducible controls. There was also reduced collagen maturation, increased myofibroblast infiltration and elevated inflammation. The impaired healing response was similar in magnitude to that observed in mice with non-tissue-specific upregulation of Flii suggesting that fibroblast-derived Flii may have an important role in the wound healing response. PMID:25959103

  2. Plasminogen is a critical regulator of cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Sulniute, Rima; Shen, Yue; Guo, Yong-Zhi; Fallah, Mahsa; Ahlskog, Nina; Ny, Lina; Rakhimova, Olena; Broden, Jessica; Boija, Hege; Moghaddam, Aliyeh; Li, Jinan; Wilczynska, Malgorzata; Ny, Tor

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing is a complicated biological process that consist of partially overlapping inflammatory, proliferation and tissue remodelling phases. A successful wound healing depends on a proper activation and subsequent termination of the inflammatory phase. The failure to terminate the inflammation halts the completion of wound healing and is a known reason for formation of chronic wounds. Previous studies have shown that wound closure is delayed in plasminogen-deficient mice, and a role for plasminogen in dissection of extracellular matrix was suggested. However, our finding that plasminogen is transported to the wound by inflammatory cells early during the healing process, where it potentiates inflammation, indicates that plasminogen may also have other roles in the wound healing process. Here we report that plasminogen-deficient mice have extensive fibrin and neutrophil depositions in the wounded area long after re-epithelialisation, indicating inefficient debridement and chronic inflammation. Delayed formation of granulation tissue suggests that fibroblast function is impaired in the absence of plasminogen. Therefore, in addition to its role in the activation of inflammation, plasminogen is also crucial for subsequent steps, including resolution of inflammation and activation of the proliferation phase. Importantly, supplementation of plasminogen-deficient mice with human plasminogen leads to a restored healing process that is comparable to that in wild-type mice. Besides of being an activator of the inflammatory phase during wound healing, plasminogen is also required for the subsequent termination of inflammation. Based on these results, we propose that plasminogen may be an important future therapeutic agent for wound treatment. PMID:26791370

  3. New Guar Biopolymer Silver Nanocomposites for Wound Healing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Md Farooque; Das, Suvadra; Roy, Partha; Datta, Sriparna; Mukherjee, Arup

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing is an innate physiological response that helps restore cellular and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Selective biodegradable and biocompatible polymer materials have provided useful scaffolds for wound healing and assisted cellular messaging. In the present study, guar gum, a polymeric galactomannan, was intrinsically modified to a new cationic biopolymer guar gum alkylamine (GGAA) for wound healing applications. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Agnp) were further impregnated in GGAA for extended evaluations in punch wound models in rodents. SEM studies showed silver nanoparticles well dispersed in the new guar matrix with a particle size of ~18 nm. In wound healing experiments, faster healing and improved cosmetic appearance were observed in the new nanobiomaterial treated group compared to commercially available silver alginate cream. The total protein, DNA, and hydroxyproline contents of the wound tissues were also significantly higher in the treated group as compared with the silver alginate cream (P < 0.05). Silver nanoparticles exerted positive effects because of their antimicrobial properties. The nanobiomaterial was observed to promote wound closure by inducing proliferation and migration of the keratinocytes at the wound site. The derivatized guar gum matrix additionally provided a hydrated surface necessary for cell proliferation. PMID:24175306

  4. Muscle wound healing in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J G; Andersen, E W; Ersbøll, B K; Nielsen, M E

    2016-01-01

    We followed the progression of healing of deep excisional biopsy punch wounds over the course of 365 days in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by monitoring visual wound healing and gene expression in the healing muscle at regular intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 38 and 100 days post-wounding). In addition, we performed muscle texture analysis one year after wound infliction. The selected genes have all previously been investigated in relation to vertebrate wound healing, but only few specifically in fish. The selected genes were interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and -β3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9 and -13, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), fibronectin (FN), tenascin-C (TN-C), prolyl 4-hydroxylase α1-chain (P4Hα1), lysyl oxidase (LOX), collagen type I α1-chain (ColIα1), CD41 and CD163. Wound healing progressed slowly in the presented study, which is at least partially due to the low temperature of about 8.5 °C during the first 100 days. The inflammation phase lasted more than 14 days, and the genes relating to production and remodeling of new extracellular matrix (ECM) exhibited a delayed but prolonged upregulation starting 1-2 weeks post-wounding and lasting until at least 100 days post-wounding. The gene expression patterns and histology reveal limited capacity for muscle regeneration in rainbow trout, and muscle texture analyses one year after wound infliction confirm that wounds heal with fibrosis. At 100 dpw epidermis had fully regenerated, and dermis partially regenerated. Scales had not regenerated even after one year. CD163 is a marker of "wound healing"-type M2c macrophages in mammals. M2 macrophage markers are as yet poorly described in fish. The pattern of CD163 expression in the present study is consistent with the expected timing of presence of M2c macrophages in the wound. CD163 may thus potentially prove a valuable marker of M2 macrophages - or a subset hereof - in fish. We subjected a group of fish to

  5. Orientation and shape dependence of embryonic wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Holley; Ma, Xiaoyan; Hutson, M. Shane

    2007-11-01

    Wounds in embryonic epithelia heal without scarring. They do so via the combined action of two cytoskeletal structures: an actin-rich supracellular purse-string at the wound margin; and actin-based projections like filopodia. Neither structure is absolutely required for wound closure and their relative importance depends strongly on wound shape. To further investigate this dependence, we have followed the healing process in fruit fly embryos using confocal microscopy after precise laser incisions. The wound shape and rate of healing depend on the orientation of the incision. Cuts along the long axis of the embryo initially expand to greater areas and round up. Cuts along the short axis expand less and remain elliptical. These short-axis wounds heal more quickly and in a different manner. For such cuts, cellular projections tend to bridge across the ends of the wound. After such bridges are formed, the smaller holes (towards the ends of the wound) close quickly. On the other hand, for cuts along the long axis, the cellular projections tend to bridge across the middle of the wound -- often leaving two to three holes of similar size that then close independently at similar rates.

  6. Investigating Wound Healing in Plant Cells: This Spud's for You!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norm

    2000-01-01

    Presents classroom inquiry-based investigations to investigate wound healing in plant tissues and cells. Students create their own research problems and the investigations can be related to the National Science Standards. (SAH)

  7. Wound-healing error model for radon carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Sohei

    1995-12-31

    Epidemiological studies of lung cancer in uranium miners exposed to radon suggest that radon is a tumor promoter. I will refine this notion by applying the wound-healing error model proposed for radiation carcinogenesis in general.

  8. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Repair in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Michael S.; Maan, Zeshaan N.; Wu, Jen-Chieh; Rennert, Robert C.; Hong, Wan Xing; Lai, Tiffany S.; Cheung, Alexander T. M.; Walmsley, Graham G.; Chung, Michael T.; McArdle, Adrian; Longaker, Michael T.; Lorenz, H. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a highly evolved defense mechanism against infection and further injury. It is a complex process involving multiple cell types and biological pathways. Mammalian adult cutaneous wound healing is mediated by a fibroproliferative response leading to scar formation. In contrast, early to mid-gestational fetal cutaneous wound healing is more akin to regeneration and occurs without scar formation. This early observation has led to extensive research seeking to unlock the mechanism underlying fetal scarless regenerative repair. Building upon recent advances in biomaterials and stem cell applications, tissue engineering approaches are working towards a recapitulation of this phenomenon. In this review, we describe the elements that distinguish fetal scarless and adult scarring wound healing, and discuss current trends in tissue engineering aimed at achieving scarless tissue regeneration. PMID:24788648

  9. Use of a topical emulsion for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Jorizzo, Joseph L; Kircik, Leon H

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of skin trauma following removal of actinic keratoses and skin cancer lesions and following radiation therapy for breast cancer is an often under-treated problem compared to the primary condition. However, skin trauma can cause patients significant discomfort, pain, and loss of quality of life. Palliative treatments such as lotions and ointments may help soothe the skin trauma, but helping the healing process is the best way to treat the wound and relieve patients of their discomfort. In clinical trials, the use of Biafine, a topical emulsion, promoted wound healing following these clinical situations by increasing the number of macrophages recruited to a wound and thus enhancing healing. This topical emulsion has also been proven to be soothing for the patient. This review will discuss the molecular mechanisms of wound healing and the uses of Biafine in the treatment of skin damage caused by procedures for various conditions such as actinic keratosis, skin cancer lesions, and radiation dermatitis. PMID:18338743

  10. Negative pressure wound therapy promotes vessel destabilization and maturation at various stages of wound healing and thus influences wound prognosis

    PubMed Central

    MA, ZHANJUN; SHOU, KANGQUAN; LI, ZONGHUAN; JIAN, CHAO; QI, BAIWEN; YU, AIXI

    2016-01-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been observed to accelerate the wound healing process in humans through promoting angiogenesis. However, the potential biological effect and relevant molecular mechanisms, including microvessel destabilization, regression and endothelial cell proliferation in the early stage (1–3 days), and the neovascular stabilization and maturation in the later stage (7–15 days), have yet to be fully elucidated. The current study aimed to research the potential effect of NPWT on angiogenesis and vessel maturation, and investigate relevant association between mature microvessels and wound prognosis, as well as the regulatory mechanisms in human wound healing. Patients in the present study (n=48) were treated with NPWT or a petrolatum gauze, and relevant growth factors and vessel changes were detected using various experimental methods. NPWT increased the expression levels of angiogenin-2 (Ang-2), and decreased the expression levels of Ang-1 and ratios of Ang-1/Ang-2 in the initial stages of wound healing. However, in the latter stages of wound healing, NPWT increased the expression levels of Ang-1 and ratios of Ang-1/Ang-2, as well as the phosphorylation level of tyrosine kinase receptor-2. Consequently, microvessel pericyte coverage was gradually elevated, and the basement membrane was gradually supplied with new blood at the later stage of wound healing. In conclusion, NPWT may preferentially stimulate microvessel destabilization and regression in the early stage of wound healing, and as a consequence, increase angiogenesis. Subsequently, in the later stage of wound healing, NPWT may preferentially promote microvessel stabilization, thereby promoting microvessel maturation in human wounds through the angiogenin/tyrosine kinase receptor-2 signaling pathway. The results of the present study results demonstrated that NPWT was able to accelerate wound healing speed, and thus influence wound prognosis, as a result of an abundance of

  11. Vitamin E and wound healing: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin E has been demonstrated to modulate cellular signalling, gene expression and affect wounds infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), thus influencing wound healing. This evidence-based review aimed to identify and evaluate current research assessing the properties of vitamin E in relation to wound healing, through its role as an antioxidant and its influence on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), MRSA and gene transcription. Literature dated from 1996 to 2012, published in English, involving either animals or adult humans with an acute or chronic wound were included. The databases that contained relevant articles were narrowed down to four, and a total of 33 identified studies were included. The literature review revealed that there is a significant dearth of robust studies establishing the effects of vitamin E on wound healing, and further research is clearly warranted. PMID:25124164

  12. Potential implications of interleukin-7 in chronic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    BARTLETT, ANNIE; SANDERS, ANDREW J.; RUGE, FIONA; HARDING, KEITH G.; JIANG, WEN G.

    2016-01-01

    Methods of identifying chronic wounds that will heal in a timely, coordinated fashion and those that will not, together with novel therapeutic strategies, are vital for progression in the field of wound healing. Interleukin (IL)-7 has been associated with various biological and pathological processes. The present study explored the potential role of IL-7 in wound healing. IL-7 expression levels were examined in a clinical cohort of chronic wounds using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining analysis. The impact of recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) on the growth and migrational rates of HaCaT keratinocyte cells was subsequently examined using in vitro growth and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing functional assays. The mRNA expression levels of IL-7 were increased in the healed chronic wound tissue samples, compared with non-healed chronic wound tissue samples, although the difference was not statistically significant. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a greater staining intensity of IL-7 in the healed chronic wound tissue sections compared with the non-healed tissue sections. Treatment with rhIL-7 did not affect HaCaT cell growth rates, but was shown to enhance cell migration, an effect that could be further enhanced through the addition of inhibitors of neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and protein kinase B. The data of the present study suggest that the expression levels of IL-7 may be increased in healing chronic wounds, and thus IL-7 may have a role in this process, potentially through its effects on the cellular migration of keratinocytes. PMID:27347014

  13. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing. PMID:26677006

  14. Active Silver Nanoparticles for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Rigo, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Tocco, Ilaria; Roman, Marco; Munivrana, Ivan; Gardin, Chiara; Cairns, Warren R. L.; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Azzena, Bruno; Barbante, Carlo; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)-based dressing, Acticoat™ Flex 3, has been applied to a 3D fibroblast cell culture in vitro and to a real partial thickness burn patient. The in vitro results show that Ag NPs greatly reduce mitochondrial activity, while cellular staining techniques show that nuclear integrity is maintained, with no signs of cell death. For the first time, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses were carried out on skin biopsies taken from a single patient during treatment. The results show that Ag NPs are released as aggregates and are localized in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. No signs of cell death were observed, and the nanoparticles had different distributions within the cells of the upper and lower dermis. Depth profiles of the Ag concentrations were determined along the skin biopsies. In the healed sample, most of the silver remained in the surface layers, whereas in the unhealed sample, the silver penetrated more deeply. The Ag concentrations in the cell cultures were also determined. Clinical observations and experimental data collected here are consistent with previously published articles and support the safety of Ag NP-based dressing in wound treatment. PMID:23455461

  15. Active silver nanoparticles for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Tocco, Ilaria; Roman, Marco; Munivrana, Ivan; Gardin, Chiara; Cairns, Warren R L; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Azzena, Bruno; Barbante, Carlo; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)-based dressing, Acticoat™ Flex 3, has been applied to a 3D fibroblast cell culture in vitro and to a real partial thickness burn patient. The in vitro results show that Ag NPs greatly reduce mitochondrial activity, while cellular staining techniques show that nuclear integrity is maintained, with no signs of cell death. For the first time, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses were carried out on skin biopsies taken from a single patient during treatment. The results show that Ag NPs are released as aggregates and are localized in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. No signs of cell death were observed, and the nanoparticles had different distributions within the cells of the upper and lower dermis. Depth profiles of the Ag concentrations were determined along the skin biopsies. In the healed sample, most of the silver remained in the surface layers, whereas in the unhealed sample, the silver penetrated more deeply. The Ag concentrations in the cell cultures were also determined. Clinical observations and experimental data collected here are consistent with previously published articles and support the safety of Ag NP-based dressing in wound treatment. PMID:23455461

  16. Wound healing and hyper-hydration: a counterintuitive model.

    PubMed

    Rippon, M G; Ousey, K; Cutting, K F

    2016-02-01

    Winter's seminal work in the 1960s relating to providing an optimal level of moisture to aid wound healing (granulation and re-epithelialisation) has been the single most effective advance in wound care over many decades. As such the development of advanced wound dressings that manage the fluidic wound environment have provided significant benefits in terms of healing to both patient and clinician. Although moist wound healing provides the guiding management principle, confusion may arise between what is deemed to be an adequate level of tissue hydration and the risk of developing maceration. In addition, the counter-intuitive model 'hyper-hydration' of tissue appears to frustrate the moist wound healing approach and advocate a course of intervention whereby tissue is hydrated beyond what is a normally acceptable therapeutic level. This paper discusses tissue hydration, the cause and effect of maceration and distinguishes these from hyper-hydration of tissue. The rationale is to provide the clinician with a knowledge base that allows optimisation of treatment and outcomes and explains the reasoning behind wound healing using hyper-hydration. Declaration of interest: K. Cutting is a Clinical Research Consultant to the medical device and biotechnology industry. M. Rippon is Visiting Clinical Research Fellow, University of Huddersfield and K. Ousey provides consultancy for a range of companies through the University of Huddersfield including consultancy services for Paul Hartmann Ltd on HydroTherapy products. PMID:26878298

  17. NeutroPhase® in chronic non-healing wounds

    PubMed Central

    Crew, John; Varilla, Randell; Rocas, Thomas Allandale; Debabov, Dmitri; Wang, Lu; Najafi, Azar; Rani, Suriani Abdul; Najafi, Ramin (Ron); Anderson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Chronic non-healing wounds, such as venous stasis ulcers, diabetic ulcers, and pressure ulcers are serious unmet medical needs that affect a patient’s morbidity and mortality. Common pathogens observed in chronic non-healing wounds are Staphylococcus including MRSA, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Stenotrophomonas, and Serratia spp. Topical and systemically administered antibiotics do not adequately decrease the level of bacteria or the associated biofilm in chronic granulating wounds and the use of sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics can lead to resistant phenotypes. Furthermore, topical antiseptics may not be fully effective and can actually impede wound healing. We show 5 representative examples from our more than 30 clinical case studies using NeutroPhase® as an irrigation solution with chronic non-healing wounds with and without the technique of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). NeutroPhase® is pure 0.01% hypochlorous acid (i.e. >97% relative molar distribution of active chlorine species as HOCl) in a 0.9% saline solution at pH 4-5 and is stored in glass containers. NovaBay has three FDA cleared 510(k)s. Patients showed a profound improvement and marked accelerated rates of wound healing using NeutroPhase® with and without NPWT. NeutroPhase® was non-toxic to living tissues. PMID:23272294

  18. NeutroPhase(®) in chronic non-healing wounds.

    PubMed

    Crew, John; Varilla, Randell; Rocas, Thomas Allandale; Debabov, Dmitri; Wang, Lu; Najafi, Azar; Rani, Suriani Abdul; Najafi, Ramin Ron; Anderson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Chronic non-healing wounds, such as venous stasis ulcers, diabetic ulcers, and pressure ulcers are serious unmet medical needs that affect a patient's morbidity and mortality. Common pathogens observed in chronic non-healing wounds are Staphylococcus including MRSA, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Stenotrophomonas, and Serratia spp. Topical and systemically administered antibiotics do not adequately decrease the level of bacteria or the associated biofilm in chronic granulating wounds and the use of sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics can lead to resistant phenotypes. Furthermore, topical antiseptics may not be fully effective and can actually impede wound healing. We show 5 representative examples from our more than 30 clinical case studies using NeutroPhase(®) as an irrigation solution with chronic non-healing wounds with and without the technique of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). NeutroPhase(®) is pure 0.01% hypochlorous acid (i.e. >97% relative molar distribution of active chlorine species as HOCl) in a 0.9% saline solution at pH 4-5 and is stored in glass containers. NovaBay has three FDA cleared 510(k)s. Patients showed a profound improvement and marked accelerated rates of wound healing using NeutroPhase(®) with and without NPWT. NeutroPhase(®) was non-toxic to living tissues. PMID:23272294

  19. Phototherapy promotes healing of cutaneous wounds in undernourished rats*

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Saulo Nani; de Andrade, Thiago Antônio Moretti; Masson-Meyers, Daniela dos Santos; Leite, Marcel Nani; Enwemeka, Chukuka S.; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Various studies have shown that phototherapy promotes the healing of cutaneous wounds. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of phototherapy on healing of cutaneous wounds in nourished and undernourished rats. METHODS Forty rats, 20 nourished plus 20 others rendered marasmus with undernourishment, were assigned to four equal groups: nourished sham, nourished Light Emitting Diode treated, undernourished sham and undernourished Light Emitting Diode treated. In the two treated groups, two 8-mm punch wounds made on the dorsum of each rat were irradiated three times per week with 3 J/cm2 sq cm of combined 660 and 890nm light; wounds in the other groups were not irradiated. Wounds were evaluated with digital photography and image analysis, either on day 7 or day 14, with biopsies obtained on day 14 for histological studies. RESULTS Undernourishment retarded the mean healing rate of the undernourished sham wounds (p < 0.01), but not the undernourished Light emission diode treated wounds, which healed significantly faster (p < 0.001) and as fast as the two nourished groups. Histological analysis showed a smaller percentage of collagen in the undernourished sham group compared with the three other groups, thus confirming our photographic image analysis data. CONCLUSION Phototherapy reverses the adverse healing effects of undernourishment. Similar beneficial effects may be achieved in patients with poor nutritional status. PMID:25387494

  20. A Chemical Biological Strategy to Facilitate Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Gooyit, Major; Peng, Zhihong; Wolter, William R.; Ping, Hualiang; Ding, Derong; Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Boggess, Bill; Champion, Matthew M.; Suckow, Mark A.; Mobashery, Shahriar; Chang, Mayland

    2013-01-01

    A complication of diabetes is the inability of wounds to heal in diabetic patients. Diabetic wounds are refractory to healing due to the involvement of activated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which remodel the tissue resulting in apoptosis. There are no readily available methods that identify active unregulated MMPs. With the use of a novel inhibitor-tethered resin that binds exclusively to the active forms of MMPs, coupled with proteomics, we quantified MMP-8 and MMP-9 in a mouse model of diabetic wounds. Topical treatment with a selective MMP-9 inhibitor led to acceleration of wound healing, re-epithelialization, and significantly attenuated apoptosis. In contrast, selective pharmacological inhibition of MMP-8 delayed wound healing, decreased re-epithelialization, and exhibited high apoptosis. The MMP-9 activity makes the wounds refractory to healing, whereas that of MMP-8 is beneficial. The treatment of diabetic wounds with a selective MMP-9 inhibitor holds great promise in providing heretofore-unavailable opportunities for intervention of this disease. PMID:24053680

  1. Mathematical models of wound healing and closure: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Stephanie N; Sanders, Jonathan R

    2016-09-01

    Wound healing is a complex process comprised of overlapping phases and events that work to construct a new, functioning tissue. Mathematical models describe these events and yield understanding about the overall process of wound healing. Generally, these models are focused on only one phase (or a few phases) to explain healing for a specific system. A review of the literature reveals insights as reported on herein regarding the variety of overlapping inputs and outputs for any given type of model. Specifically, these models have been characterized with respect to the phases of healing and their mathematical/physical basis in an effort to shed light on new opportunities for model development. Though all phases of wound healing have been modeled, previous work has focused mostly on the proliferation and related contraction phases of healing with fewer results presented regarding other phases. As an example, a gap in the literature has been identified regarding models to describe facilitated wound closure techniques (e.g., suturing and its effect on resultant scarring). Thus, an opportunity exists to create models that tie the transient processes of wound healing, such as cell migration, to resultant scarring when considering tension applied to skin with given suturing techniques. PMID:26718553

  2. Study on wound healing activity of Punica granatum peel.

    PubMed

    Murthy, K N Chidambara; Reddy, Vittal K; Veigas, Jyothi M; Murthy, Uma D

    2004-01-01

    The methanolic extract of dried pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels showed the presence of a high content of phenolic compounds (44.0%) along with other constituents. This extract was formulated as a 10% (wt/wt) water-soluble gel and was studied for its wound healing property against an excision wound on the skin of Wistar rats. The activity was compared with that of a commercial topical antibacterial applicant. The wound healing activity was assessed by measuring the percent contraction in skin and estimation of collagen content in terms of hydroxyproline content. Healed skin was also subjected to histopathological studies to examine the microscopic changes. The animals treated with 2.5% gel showed moderate healing (55.8% and 40.8% healing compared with negative and positive controls, respectively), whereas the group treated with 5.0% gel showed good healing (59.5% and 44.5% healing compared with negative and positive controls, respectively). The amount of hydroxyproline increased by twofold in the group treated with 5.0% gel. Histopathological studies also supported the wound healing on application of the gels. The group of rats that received 5.0% gel showed complete healing after 10 days, whereas in rats treated with 2.5% gel, healing was observed on day 12, in contrast to the positive control animals receiving the blank gel, which took 16-18 days for complete healing. The results of this study may be extended to different types of wounds so that the formulation could be exploited to develop it as a topical dermatological formulation. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the extract showed the presence of gallic acid and catechin as major components. PMID:15298776

  3. Involvement of ABA in potato tuber wound-healing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid suberization of tubers wounded during harvest, handling and seed cutting is crucial in protecting against infections, dehydration and defect development. Research at this laboratory is directed at determining the biological factors that regulate wound-healing and which may facilitate the deve...

  4. Gene Expression Associated with Tuber Wound-Healing/Suberization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wounding of potatoes during harvest and handling operations results in tuber shrinkage, market quality defects and infection. Suberization and other wound-healing processes that mitigate these losses are of great agricultural importance. Previously, we determined that suberin poly(phenolics) and s...

  5. Effect of novel blend nanofibrous scaffolds on diabetic wounds healing.

    PubMed

    Gholipour-Kanani, Adeleh; Bahrami, S Hajir; Rabbani, Shahram

    2016-02-01

    Chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) (Cs: PVA) (2:3) and poly (caprolactone)-chitosan-poly (vinyl alcohol) (PCL: Cs: PVA) (2:1:1.5) nanofibrous blend scaffolds were fabricated using the electrospinning technique in the authors' previous studies. The results of the previous studies confirmed the high biological properties of the scaffolds and their ability in healing of burn and excision wounds on rat model. In the present study, the biological scaffolds were applied on diabetic dorsum skin wounds and diabetic foot wound on rat models (n = 16). Macroscopic and microscopic investigations were carried out using digital images and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining respectively, to measure the wound areas and to track wound healing rate. It was found that at all time points the areas of wounds treated with nanofibrous scaffolds were smaller compared with the controls. Pathological results showed much better healing efficacy for the test samples compared with the control ones. Pathological investigations proved the presence of more pronounced granulation tissues in the scaffold-treated wounds compared with the control ones. At 20 days post excision, the scaffold-treated groups achieved complete repair. The results indicated that Cs: PVA and PCL: Cs: PVA nanofibrous webs could be considered to be promising materials for burn, excision and diabetic wounds healing. PMID:26766866

  6. Extracellular Matrix and Dermal Fibroblast Function in the Healing Wound

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Lauren E.; Minasian, Raquel A.; Caterson, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Fibroblasts play a critical role in normal wound healing. Various extracellular matrix (ECM) components, including collagens, fibrin, fibronectin, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and matricellular proteins, can be considered potent protagonists of fibroblast survival, migration, and metabolism. Recent Advances: Advances in tissue culture, tissue engineering, and ex vivo models have made the examination and precise measurements of ECM components in wound healing possible. Likewise, the development of specific transgenic animal models has created the opportunity to characterize the role of various ECM molecules in healing wounds. In addition, the recent characterization of new ECM molecules, including matricellular proteins, dermatopontin, and FACIT collagens (Fibril-Associated Collagens with Interrupted Triple helices), further demonstrates our cursory knowledge of the ECM in coordinated wound healing. Critical Issues: The manipulation and augmentation of ECM components in the healing wound is emerging in patient care, as demonstrated by the use of acellular dermal matrices, tissue scaffolds, and wound dressings or topical products bearing ECM proteins such as collagen, hyaluronan (HA), or elastin. Once thought of as neutral structural proteins, these molecules are now known to directly influence many aspects of cellular wound healing. Future Directions: The role that ECM molecules, such as CCN2, osteopontin, and secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine, play in signaling homing of fibroblast progenitor cells to sites of injury invites future research as we continue investigating the heterotopic origin of certain populations of fibroblasts in a healing wound. Likewise, research into differently sized fragments of the same polymeric ECM molecule is warranted as we learn that fragments of molecules such as HA and tenascin-C can have opposing effects on dermal fibroblasts. PMID:26989578

  7. Effects of systemic erythropoietin on ischemic wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Arslantaş, Mustafa Kemal; Arslantaş, Reyhan; Tozan, Emine Nur

    2015-03-01

    Results of in vivo studies have shown erythropoietin (EPO) is associated with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and cell protective effects on wound healing. These effects are dose-dependent. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the duration of EPO treatment affects the healing process in the ischemic wound. Forty-two (42) Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, wounded with H-shaped flaps, and randomized to 2 groups; Group 1 received 400 u/kg/day EPO and Group 2 received a saline solution, both via intraperitoneal injection following the wounding. All substances were administered once daily at the same time for up to 10 days after surgery. At days 3, 5, and 10, 7 rats from each group were sacrificed. Skin samples were stained with hematoxylin/eosin, viewed under an optical microscope at 10X and 40X magnification, and analyzed by blinded investigators for re-epithelialization, neovascularization amount and maturation of granulation tissue, inflammatory cells, and ulcer healing using an evaluation scale where 0 = none; 1 = partial; 2 = complete, but immature/thin: and 4 = complete and mature. Blood hemoglobin and hematocrit levels also were measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA one-way test (P <0.05). Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels rose while subsequent doses of EPO were administered over time, accompanied by a transient surge in healing on day 5, when differences in healing scores were significant. Flap necrosis, ulceration, and abscess were noted on post-wounding day 10 near the pedicle. The study showed EPO therapy can improve wound healing early in the post-wounding period but can reduce wound healing after post-injury treatment day 5. Further research is necessary, particularly to establish how EPO influences the microcirculation and rheology. PMID:25751848

  8. Wound healing and treatments for people with diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jeffcoate, William J; Price, Patricia; Harding, Keith G

    2004-01-01

    The factors that delay wound healing are multiple and relate both to diabetes and to the effect of its complications. Diabetic foot ulcers readily become chronic, and chronic ulcers have biological properties that differ substantially from acute ones. Much of the available information on the biology of wound healing relates to acute and experimental wounds and may not be directly relevant. It follows that there is limited evidence currently available to underpin protocols for the management of diabetic foot ulcers, or to guide choice of applications and dressings 1. Nevertheless, it is possible to define certain principles.GLYCAEMIC CONTROL: The first relates to glycaemic control. While chronic complications of diabetes such as peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy may be largely irreversible, aspects of structure and function of connective tissue and cells may be impaired by hyperglycaemia, and their function should be improved if normoglycaemia is achieved. PROMOTION OF HEALING: The second principle concerns attempts at active promotion of wound healing by (1) surgical revascularization, and (2) specific attempts to correct defined biological abnormalities thought to be hindering the healing process. These include the use of a variety of applications, dressings and technologies, which may stimulate healing by applying, or stimulating the release of, growth factors and cytokines. While this approach holds the greatest promise for the future, it will be dependent on defining defects which need correction in specific individuals, and having technologies available to address them. This field is in its infancy. WOUND CARE: The third broad principle concerns the management of the wound and its surrounding tissue in order to promote healing. This includes regular inspection, cleansing and removal of surface debris, elimination of pathogenic bacteria and creation of an appropriate environment to facilitate endogenous tissue regeneration. There are many applications

  9. Secretome of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhances Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Thomas; Gschwandtner, Maria; Werba, Gregor; Barresi, Caterina; Zimmermann, Matthias; Golabi, Bahar; Tschachler, Erwin; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2013-01-01

    Non-healing skin ulcers are often resistant to most common therapies. Treatment with growth factors has been demonstrated to improve closure of chronic wounds. Here we investigate whether lyophilized culture supernatant of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is able to enhance wound healing. PBMC from healthy human individuals were prepared and cultured for 24 hours. Supernatants were collected, dialyzed and lyophilized (SECPBMC). Six mm punch biopsy wounds were set on the backs of C57BL/6J-mice and SECPBMC containing emulsion or controls were applied daily for three days. Morphology and neo-angiogenesis were analyzed by H&E-staining and CD31 immuno-staining, respectively. In vitro effects on diverse skin cells were investigated by migration assays, cell cycle analysis, and tube formation assay. Signaling pathways were analyzed by Western blot analysis. Application of SECPBMC on 6 mm punch biopsy wounds significantly enhanced wound closure. H&E staining of the wounds after 6 days revealed that wound healing was more advanced after application of SECPBMC containing emulsion. Furthermore, there was a massive increase in CD31 positive cells, indicating enhanced neo-angiogenesis. In primary human fibroblasts (FB) and keratinocytes (KC) migration but not proliferation was induced. In endothelial cells (EC) SECPBMC induced proliferation and tube-formation in a matrigel-assay. In addition, SECPBMC treatment of skin cells led to the induction of multiple signaling pathways involved in cell migration, proliferation and survival. In summary, we could show that emulsions containing the secretome of PBMC derived from healthy individuals accelerates wound healing in a mouse model and induce wound healing associated mechanisms in human primary skin cells. The formulation and use of such emulsions might therefore represent a possible novel option for the treatment of non-healing skin ulcers. PMID:23533667

  10. Effects of tretinoin on wound healing in aged skin.

    PubMed

    de Campos Peseto, Danielle; Carmona, Erica Vilaça; Silva, Kellyn Cristina da; Guedes, Flavia Roberta Valente; Hummel Filho, Fernando; Martinez, Natalia Peres; Pereira, José Aires; Rocha, Thalita; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Aged and adult populations have differences in the structural, biological, and healing properties of skin. Comparative studies of healing under the influence of retinoids in both these populations are very important and, to the best of our knowledge, have not been performed to date. The purpose of this study was to compare the activities of topical tretinoin in aged and adult animal models of wound healing by secondary intention. Male aged rats (24 months old, n = 7) and adult rats (6 months old, n = 8) were used. The rats were assigned to the following groups according to the dates on which wound samples were excised (day 14 or 21 after model creation): treated group, control group, and naive group. Topical application of tretinoin cream was used only on the proximal wound and was applied daily for 7 days. Wound healing areas were measured using metal calipers, and morphological analysis was performed. Slides were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson's trichrome, and periodic acid-Schiff stains. Statistical analysis adopted a 5% coefficient for rejection of the null hypothesis. Although aged animals showed skin repair, complete reepithelialization was found on day 21 in some animals of both groups (treated and control). In aged rats, the wound area was significantly smaller in treated wounds than in untreated wounds, resulting in a larger scar area compared with the adult group. When treated wounds were compared, no differences were found between the wound areas in adult and aged rats. As expected, the collagen concentration was higher in normal skin from adult rats than in normal skin from aged animals, but there was no difference when aged skin was treated with tretinoin. These results indicate that tretinoin increases collagen synthesis in aged skin and returns the healing process to a normal state of skin healing. PMID:26834030

  11. Topical tacrolimus does not negatively impact acute skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Sun; Chung, Jimin; Yoo, Jiyeon; Jung, Minyoung; Gye, Jiwon; Kim, Ji Seok; Kim, Jee Young; Ahn, Sung Ku; Park, Byung Cheol; Kim, Myung Hwa; Hong, Seung Phil

    2013-05-01

    Despite the increasing use of topical tacrolimus, there is little information about its effect on skin wound healing. To determine effects on acute cutaneous wound healing, two full-thickness skin wounds were imparted on the backs of 45 hairless mice, which were then divided into vehicle-, topical tacrolimus- and topical steroid-treated group. Each drug was topically applied once daily. The wound area was assessed by using dermoscopic images every two days after wounding. At 3, 7 and 11 days after wounding, 10 wounds in each group were collected for semi-quantitative analysis of histological features including re-epithelialization, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, fibroblasts and collagen. We also checked the mRNA expression levels of EGF, TGF-β, TNF-α and IL-1α. While topical application of clobetasol propionate was found to delay re-epithelialization and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocyte, topical treatment with tacrolimus showed patterns similar to that of the vehicle. In the tacrolimus-treated group, mRNA expression levels of IL-1α and TGF-β were slightly decreased, while the others were similar with the vehicle-treated group. Unlike steroid, topical tacrolimus, therefore, did not disturb the wound healing process in a murine skin wound model. PMID:23614749

  12. Silver Nanoparticles as Real Topical Bullets for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekaran, Thirumurugan; Nigusse, Tadele; Dhanaraju, Magharla Dasaratha

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is on the threshold of providing a host of new materials and approaches, revolutionizing the medical and pharmaceutical fields. Several areas of medical care are already profiting from the advantage that nanotechnology offers. Recently, silver nanoparticles are attracting interest for a clinical application because of its potential biological properties such as antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and wound healing efficacy, which could be exploited in developing better dressings for wounds and ulcers. This article reviews the role of silver nanoparticles in wound healing. PMID:24527370

  13. Wound healing and cancer progression in Opisthorchis viverrini associated cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Monica C; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Infection with the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini induces cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). It was shown previously that O. viverrini-secreted proteins accelerate wound resolution in human cholangiocytes. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 (O. viverrini-derived gene encoding granulin-like growth factor) induced angiogenesis and accelerated mouse wound healing. Given the striking similarities of wound healing and cancer progression, here we discuss the major implications of this finding for an infection-induced cancer of major public health significance in the developing world. PMID:27130317

  14. Antimicrobial peptides and wound healing: biological and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Mangoni, Maria Luisa; McDermott, Alison M; Zasloff, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Repair of tissue wounds is a fundamental process to re-establish tissue integrity and regular function. Importantly, infection is a major factor that hinders wound healing. Multicellular organisms have evolved an arsenal of host-defense molecules, including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), aimed at controlling microbial proliferation and at modulating the host's immune response to a variety of biological or physical insults. In this brief review, we provide the evidence for a role of AMPs as endogenous mediators of wound healing and their promising therapeutic potential for the treatment of non-life-threatening skin and other epithelial injuries. PMID:26738772

  15. Electrical stimulation for pressure sore prevention and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bogie, K M; Reger, S I; Levine, S P; Sahgal, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews applications of therapeutic electrical stimulation (ES) specific to wound healing and pressure sore prevention. The application of ES for wound healing has been found to increase the rate of healing by more than 50%. Furthermore, the total number of wounds healed is also increased. However, optimal delivery techniques for ES therapy have not been established to date. A study of stimulation current effects on wound healing in a pig model has shown that direct current (DC) stimulation is most effective in wound area reduction and alternating current (AC) stimulation for wound volume reduction at current densities of 127 microA/cm2 and 1,125 microA/cm2, respectively. Preliminary studies have been carried out at two research centers to assess the role of ES in pressure sore prevention. Surface stimulation studies have shown that ES can produce positive short-term changes in tissue health variables such as regional blood flow and pressure distribution. The use of an implanted stimulation system consisting of intramuscular electrodes with percutaneous leads has been found to produce additional long-term changes. Specifically, gluteal muscle thickness increased by 50% with regular long-term ES application concurrent with a 20% decrease in regional interface pressures and increased tissue oxygen levels. These findings indicate that an implantable ES system may have great potential for pressure sore prevention, particularly for individuals who lack sensation or who are physically unable to perform regular independent pressure relief. PMID:11067577

  16. Wound healing potential of Pterocarpus santalinus linn: a pharmacological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan; Mukherjee, Biswapati

    2004-09-01

    The need for new therapeutics for wound healing has encouraged the drive to examine the nature and value of plant products. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine, mentions the values of medicinal plants for wound healing. One of these is Pterocarpus santalinus. This article describes a pharmacological study to evaluate its toxicity as well as wound-healing potential in animal studies. Powder made from the wood of the P. santalinus tree was used to make up an ointment in a petroleum jelly base. No toxic effects were observed in 72 hours. Studies were done on punch and burn wound models on normal and diabetic rats using the test ointment, untreated and vehicle controls, and standard therapy. Physical and biochemical measurements were made. The test ointment-treated wounds healed significantly faster. On healing, collagenesis and biochemical measurements yielded supportive data. These studies permit the conclusion that the P. santalinus ointment is safe and effective in treating acute wounds in animal models. PMID:15866805

  17. Dual therapeutic functions of F-5 fragment in burn wounds: preventing wound progression and promoting wound healing in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Ayesha; O'Brien, Kathryn; Chen, Mei; Wong, Alex; Garner, Warren; Woodley, David T; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity including prolonged hospitalization, disfigurement, and disability. Currently there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved burn therapeutics. A clinical distinction of burn injuries from other acute wounds is the event of the so-called secondary burn wound progression within the first week of the injury, in which a burn expands horizontally and vertically from its initial boundary to a larger area. Therefore, an effective therapeutics for burns should show dual abilities to prevent the burn wound progression and thereafter promote burn wound healing. Herein we report that topically applied F-5 fragment of heat shock protein-90α is a dual functional agent to promote burn wound healing in pigs. First, F-5 prevents burn wound progression by protecting the surrounding cells from undergoing heat-induced caspase 3 activation and apoptosis with increased Akt activation. Accordingly, F-5-treated burn and excision wounds show a marked decline in inflammation. Thereafter, F-5 accelerates burn wound healing by stimulating the keratinocyte migration-led reepithelialization, leading to wound closure. This study addresses a topical agent that is capable of preventing burn wound progression and accelerating burn wound healing. PMID:27382602

  18. Dual therapeutic functions of F-5 fragment in burn wounds: preventing wound progression and promoting wound healing in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Ayesha; O’Brien, Kathryn; Chen, Mei; Wong, Alex; Garner, Warren; Woodley, David T.; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity including prolonged hospitalization, disfigurement, and disability. Currently there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved burn therapeutics. A clinical distinction of burn injuries from other acute wounds is the event of the so-called secondary burn wound progression within the first week of the injury, in which a burn expands horizontally and vertically from its initial boundary to a larger area. Therefore, an effective therapeutics for burns should show dual abilities to prevent the burn wound progression and thereafter promote burn wound healing. Herein we report that topically applied F-5 fragment of heat shock protein-90α is a dual functional agent to promote burn wound healing in pigs. First, F-5 prevents burn wound progression by protecting the surrounding cells from undergoing heat-induced caspase 3 activation and apoptosis with increased Akt activation. Accordingly, F-5–treated burn and excision wounds show a marked decline in inflammation. Thereafter, F-5 accelerates burn wound healing by stimulating the keratinocyte migration-led reepithelialization, leading to wound closure. This study addresses a topical agent that is capable of preventing burn wound progression and accelerating burn wound healing. PMID:27382602

  19. The neglected role of copper ions in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Kornblatt, Allison Paige; Nicoletti, Vincenzo Giuseppe; Travaglia, Alessio

    2016-08-01

    Wound healing is a complex biological process that aims to repair damaged tissue. Even though many biological and biochemical mechanisms associated with the steps of physiological wound healing are known, there is still significant morbidity and mortality due to dysregulation of physiological mechanisms. It might be useful to revise the activity of old players and their links with new, often neglected, molecular entities. This review revises new findings supporting the hypothesis that copper ions regulate the activity and/or the expression of proteins crucially involved in the wound repair process. A better understanding of these interactions might suggest potential new targets for therapeutic intervention on scars or non-healing wounds. PMID:26920228

  20. The effects of cancer and cancer therapies on wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    McCaw, D.L.

    1989-11-01

    Based on experimental evidence in rodents, most of the antineoplastic agents will affect wound healing. With most of the agents, this impairment is not sufficient to produce increased morbidity based on the clinical reports in humans. Radiation therapy appears to inhibit healing in both experimental animals and during clinical trials. In spite of this, it is reported that wounds in animals will heal when they are receiving radiation therapy after surgery. Based on the information presented here and experience at the University of Missouri, the decision to use adjuvant therapy should depend on the surgery performed. With a single incision that had no increased tension, there should be no hesitation to use adjuvant therapy. If removal of the tumor required reconstructive surgery, no radiation or chemotherapy should be used until the wound has healed. 30 references.

  1. Quantification of MSCs involved in wound healing: use of SIS to transfer MSCs to wound site and quantification of MSCs involved in skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Yeum, Chung Eun; Park, Eun Young; Lee, Seong-Beom; Chun, Heung-Jae; Chae, Gue-Tae

    2013-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to be effective in wound healing, but not much has been reported on quantitative correlations between MSCs injected into the wound site and MSCs that actually participate in wound healing. This study traced MSCs participating in wound healing by using small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a cell carrier, identified their moving path and calculated the number of MSCs involved in wound healing. First, MSCs were isolated from the nude mouse and 1 × 10(6) cells were seeded onto the centre of the SIS. MSC-seeded SIS complexes were injected onto full-thickness skin wounds made on the dorsum of nude mice. Tracing of MSC-seeded SIS complex transplanted to the wound site revealed that 27.6% of the MSCs were migrated to the wound site at the first attempt. Second, repeated injection of additional MSCs did not increase the number of MSCs participating in wound healing beyond a certain constant maximum amount. The number of MSCs present in the wound site remains constant in the range 2-3 × 10(5) from day 1 to day 10. The expression of skin regeneration-related growth factors was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MSCs participating in wound healing were found not only to suppress inflammation of the wound but also to increase the skin regeneration-related growth factors that enable the recovery of the skin. An optimal number of about 3 × 10(5) MSCs injected into the site was found to adapt themselves to the skin wound-healing process effectively. PMID:22278819

  2. Fast calcium wave inhibits excessive apoptosis during epithelial wound healing.

    PubMed

    Justet, Cristian; Hernández, Julio A; Torriglia, Alicia; Chifflet, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    Successful wound closure is mainly the result of two cellular processes: migration and proliferation. Apoptosis has also been suggested to play a role in the mechanisms of wound healing. The fast calcium wave (FCW), triggered immediately after a wound is produced, has been proposed to be involved in determining healing responses in epithelia. We have explored the effects of the reversible inhibition of FCW on the apoptotic and proliferative responses of healing bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells in culture. The most important findings of this study are that caspase-dependent apoptosis occurs during the healing process, that the amount of apoptosis has a linear dependence on the migrated distance, and that FCW inhibition greatly increases the apoptotic index. We have further been able to establish that FCW plays a role in the control of cell proliferation during BCE wound healing. These results indicate that one of the main roles of the wave is to inhibit an excessive apoptotic response of the healing migrating cells. This property might represent a basic mechanism to allow sufficient migration and proliferation of the healing cells to assure proper restitution of the injured tissue. PMID:26987821

  3. Immobilized thrombin receptor agonist peptide accelerates wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Strukova, S M; Dugina, T N; Chistov, I V; Lange, M; Markvicheva, E A; Kuptsova, S; Zubov, V P; Glusa, E

    2001-10-01

    To accelerate the healing processes in wound repair, attempts have been repeatedly made to use growth factors including thrombin and its peptide fragments. Unfortunately, the employment of thrombin is limited because of its high liability and pro-inflammatory actions at high concentrations. Some cellular effects of thrombin in wound healing are mediated by the activation of protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1). The thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP:SFLLRN) activates this receptor and mimics the effects of thrombin, but TRAP is a relatively weak agonist. We speculated that the encapsulated peptide may be more effective for PAR-1 activation than nonimmobilized peptide and developed a novel method for TRAP encapsulation in hydrogel films based on natural and synthetic polymers. The effects of an encapsulated TRAP in composite poly(N-vinyl caprolactam)-calcium alginate (PVCL) hydrogel films were investigated in a mouse model of wound healing. On day 7 the wound sizes decreased by about 60% under TRAP-chitosan-containing PVCL films, as compared with control films without TRAP. In the case of TRAP-polylysine-containing films no significant decrease in wound sizes was found. The fibroblast/macrophage ratio increased under TRAP-containing films on day 3 and on day 7. The number of proliferating fibroblasts increased to 150% under TRAP-chitosan films on day 7 as compared with control films. The number of [3H]-thymidine labeled endothelial and epithelial cells in granulation tissues was also enhanced. Thus, the immobilized TRAP to PVCL-chitosan hydrogel films were found to promote wound healing following the stimulation of fibroblast and epithelial cell proliferation and neovascularization. Furthermore, TRAP was shown to inhibit the secretion of the inflammatory mediator PAF from stimulated rat peritoneal mast cells due to augmentation of NO release from the mast cells. The encapsulated TRAP is suggested to accelerate wound healing due to the anti-inflammatory effects

  4. Wound healing stimulation in mice by low-level light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, Tatiana N.; Herman, Ira M.; Salomatina, Elena V.; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2006-02-01

    It has been known for many years that low levels of laser or non-coherent light (LLLT) accelerate some phases of wound healing. LLLT can stimulate fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation and migration. It is thought to work via light absorption by mitochondrial chromophores leading to an increase in ATP, reactive oxygen species and consequent gene transcription. However, despite many reports about the positive effects of LLLT on wound healing, its use remains controversial. Our laboratory has developed a model of a full thickness excisional wound in mice that allows quantitative and reproducible light dose healing response curves to be generated. We have found a biphasic dose response curve with a maximum positive effect at 2 J/cm2 of 635-nm light and successively lower beneficial effects from 3-25 J/cm2, the effect is diminished at doses below 2J/cm2 and gradually reaches control healing levels. At light doses above 25 J/cm2 healing is actually worse than controls. The two most effective wavelengths of light were found to be 635 and 820-nm. We found no difference between filtered 635+/-15-nm light from a lamp and 633-nm light from a HeNe laser. The strain and age of the mouse affected the magnitude of the effect. Light treated wounds start to contract after illumination while control wounds initially expand for the first 24 hours. Our hypothesis is that a single brief light exposure soon after wounding affects fibroblast cells in the margins of the wound. Cells may be induced to proliferate, migrate and assume a myofibroblast phenotype. Our future work will be focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying effects of light on wound healing processes.

  5. Evaluation of wound healing property of Terminalia catappa on excision wound models in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, A A; Kumar, V; Singh, B K; Singh, R

    2014-05-01

    Wound is defined as the loss of breaking cellular and functional continuity of the living tissues. Management of wounds is frequently encountered with different problems. Drug resistance and toxicity hindered the development of synthetic antimicrobial agents with wound healing activity. Many plants with potent pharmacological activities may offer better treatment options viz. Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Phyllanthus emblica formulations have shown healing activities on wounds.The present study was planned to investigate the wound healing activity of Terminalia catappa on excision wound model in rats. Ointment was prepared by using bark extract of Terminalia catappa in soft paraffin and preservative. Wistar albino rats (200-250 gm) of either sex were used in the present study. A circular wound of 2 cm in diameter was made on the depilated dorsal thoracic region of the rats under ether anesthesia in aseptic conditions. The ointment was applied for 18 days and percent wound closure observed along with the parameters viz. Epithelization, granuloma weight and scar formation. Animals were observed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th and 18th post-wounding day.Wound healing activity was compared with that of control and Betadine ointment as standard drug. Animals treated with Terminalia catappa ointment exhibited 97% reduction in wound area as compared to the control animals (81%). Ointment treated wounds were found to induce epithelization faster compared to the control. In conclusion, Terminalia catappa ointment promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:24132703

  6. Wound healing. New modalities for a new millennium.

    PubMed

    Williams, R L; Armstrong, D G

    1998-01-01

    Common to all studies of wound healing modalities is the need to convert the chronic wound into an acute wound and to maintain the wound in an acute state while subsequently using adjunctive therapy. Hence, precise control and documentation of wound care is extremely important in order to avoid contamination of the effects of a specific modality with the effects of good wound care. Falanga has noted that neuropathy of diabetes has been given wide support as the primary pathogenic component of diabetic ulcers, whereas less recognition has been made of the wound-healing failure component. The therapies discussed in this article considered the wound-healing failure component. Oxygen is a drug. The use of oxygen under normobaric conditions at higher than normal inspired partial pressures is standard operating procedure when clinicians are faced with patients with respiratory embarrassment or heart failure. The use of oxygen under hyperbaric conditions, however, remains estranged from the mainstream thoughts of most clinicians. Abnormally hypoxic wounds may benefit from specific oxygen therapy in hyperbaric dosage ranges. However, correction of abnormal wound oxygen tension alone does not guarantee healing. Hyperbaric studies have been criticized for the lack of well-defined wound care protocols, the absence of precise wound healing measures, and poorly defined wound healing endpoints. Studies with growth factors and human skin equivalents exclude patients typically referred for hyperbaric therapy. Patients referred for hyperbaric therapy often have larger wounds with greater severity of peripheral vascular disease with ABIs < 0.7 and TcPO2 < 30 to 40 mm Hg, are often on medications known to inhibit wound healing (e.g., steroids), or have concomitant medical disorders (collagen vascular disease, renal failure) associated with poor healing. No hyperbaric study has controlled stringently for all of these factors. Nevertheless, HBO2 is more specific and successful for the

  7. Taking the trauma out of wound care: the importance of undisturbed healing.

    PubMed

    Rippon, M; Davies, P; White, R

    2012-08-01

    Significant advances in wound dressing technology have resulted in a myriad of dressing choices for wound-care clinicians, providing more than just an inert wound cover. The establishment of a moist wound environment under modern wound dressings and the optimisation of the healing response are now the goals expected of these dressings. However, the use of wound dressings, particularly traditional dressings such as gauze, frequently results in wound and peri-wound tissue damage that impairs the wound healing response, counteracting any of the dressings' healing benefits. Therefore, in order to maximise the healing benefits wounds covered by today's wound dressings must minimise tissue disturbance (physical as well as chemical). This review aims to consider the ways traditional, as well as modern, wound dressings may disturb wounds, summarising the potential areas of wound disturbance, and suggesting how best to address this aspect of the use of wound dressings to treat acute as well as chronic wounds. PMID:22885308

  8. Burn wound healing property of Cocos nucifera: An appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pallavi; Durgaprasad, S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study was undertaken to evaluate the burn wound healing property of oil of Cocos nucifera and to compare the effect of the combination of oil of Cocos nucifera and silver sulphadiazine with silver sulphadiazine alone. Materials and Methods: Partial thickness burn wounds were inflicted upon four groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control, Group II received the standard silver sulphadiazine. Group III was given pure oil of Cocos nucifera , and Group IV received the combination of the oil and the standard. The parameters observed were epithelialization period and percentage of wound contraction. Results: It was noted that there was significant improvement in burn wound contraction in the group treated with the combination of Cocos nucifera and silver sulphadiazine. The period of epithelialization also decreased significantly in groups III and IV. Conclusion: It is concluded that oil of Cocos nucifera is an effective burn wound healing agent. PMID:20040946

  9. A physiologically active polysaccharide hydrogel promotes wound healing.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Diao, Huajia; Xia, Suhua; Dong, Lei; Chen, Jiangning; Zhang, Junfeng

    2010-07-01

    When the skin is injured, the subcutaneous tissues and organs are threatened by pathogens and excessive water loss. Wound dressings are, therefore, needed to protect the wound site from infection and improve the wound closure. Natural polysaccharides have been applied for various biomaterials including wound dressings, which show their advantages in biocompatibility, low toxicity, and pharmaceutical biomedical activity. In this study, a natural polysaccharide Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP) hydrogel is prepared by an oxidation and crosslinking methods. This BSP hydrogel represents preferable swelling ability and appropriate water vapor transmission rate. Using a full-thickness trauma mouse model, the hydrogel is applied on the in vivo cutaneous wound healing. Compared with the control groups, the BSP hydrogel achieves the much better healing results. The quantification of the infiltrating inflammatory cells and the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the BSP group are attenuated, whereas the secretion of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is highly elevated. On the 11th day after surgery, the wound area in the BSP hydrogel group is only 1/5-1/3 of those in the control groups. This new BSP hydrogel is proved to control the inflammatory responses and accelerate the wound closure and has potential application in wound healing. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2010. PMID:20128009

  10. Epidermal Wound Healing in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Healing of epidermal wounds is a fundamentally conserved process found in essentially all multicellular organisms. Studies of anatomically simple and genetically tractable model invertebrates can illuminate the roles of key genes and mechanisms in wound healing. Recent Advances: The nematode skin is composed of a simple epithelium, the epidermis (also known as hypodermis), and an associated extracellular cuticle. Nematodes likely have a robust capacity for epidermal repair; yet until recently, relatively few studies have directly analyzed wound healing. Here we review epidermal wound responses and repair in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Critical Issues: Wounding the epidermis triggers a cutaneous innate immune response and wound closure. The innate immune response involves upregulation of a suite of antimicrobial peptides. Wound closure involves a Ca2+-triggered rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. These processes appear to be initiated independently, yet, their coordinated activity allows the animal to survive otherwise fatal skin wounds. Future Directions: Unanswered questions include the nature of the damage-associated molecular patterns sensed by the epidermis, the signaling pathways relaying Ca2+ to the cytoskeleton, and the mechanisms of permeability barrier repair. PMID:25945288

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells enhance wound healing through differentiation and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaojiong; Chen, Liwen; Scott, Paul G; Tredget, Edward E

    2007-10-01

    Although chronic wounds are common, treatment for these disabling conditions remains limited and largely ineffective. In this study, we examined the benefit of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in wound healing. Using an excisional wound splinting model, we showed that injection around the wound and application to the wound bed of green fluorescence protein (GFP)(+) allogeneic BM-MSCs significantly enhanced wound healing in normal and diabetic mice compared with that of allogeneic neonatal dermal fibroblasts or vehicle control medium. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of cells derived from the wound for GFP-expressing BM-MSCs indicated engraftments of 27% at 7 days, 7.6% at 14 days, and 2.5% at 28 days of total BM-MSCs administered. BM-MSC-treated wounds exhibited significantly accelerated wound closure, with increased re-epithelialization, cellularity, and angiogenesis. Notably, BM-MSCs, but not CD34(+) bone marrow cells in the wound, expressed the keratinocyte-specific protein keratin and formed glandular structures, suggesting a direct contribution of BM-MSCs to cutaneous regeneration. Moreover, BM-MSC-conditioned medium promoted endothelial cell tube formation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 in BM-MSCs and significantly greater amounts of the proteins in BM-MSC-treated wounds. Thus, our data suggest that BM-MSCs promote wound healing through differentiation and release of proangiogenic factors. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. PMID:17615264

  12. Wound healing complications in brain tumor patients on Bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Ladha, Harshad; Pawar, Tushar; Gilbert, Mark R; Mandel, Jacob; O-Brien, Barbara; Conrad, Charles; Fields, Margaret; Hanna, Teresa; Loch, Carolyn; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-09-01

    Bevacizumab (BEV) is commonly used for treating recurrent glioblastoma (GBM), and wound healing is a well-established adverse event. Retrospective analysis of GBM patients with and without wound healing complications while on BEV treatment is reported. 287 patients identified, majority were males (60 %) with median age of 52.5 years. 14 cases identified with wound healing problems, related to either craniotomy (n = 8) or other soft tissue wounds (n = 6). Median duration of BEV treatment to complication was 62 days (range 6-559). Majority received 10 mg/kg (n = 11) and nine (64.3 %) were on corticosteroids, with median daily dose of 6 mg (range 1-16 mg) for median of 473 days before starting BEV. For dehisced craniotomy wounds, median time for starting BEV from last surgery was 29 days (range 27-345). Median time from starting BEV to developing wound complication was 47 days (range 16-173). Seven (87.5 %) had infected wounds requiring antibiotics, hospitalization. Four (50 %) required plastic surgery. BEV stopped and safely resumed in 6 (75 %) patients; median delay was 70 days (range 34-346). Soft tissue wounds included decubitus ulcer, dehisced striae, herpes simplex, trauma to hand and back, and abscess. Median time from starting BEV to wound issues was 72 days (range 6-559). Five (83.3 %) were infected, requiring antibiotics. While three (50 %) required hospitalization, none required plastic surgery. Treatment stopped in five (83.3 %) and restarted in two (median delay 48 days, range 26-69). Wound healing complications are uncommon but associated with significant morbidity. Identifying those at risk and contributing factors warrants further investigation. PMID:26298437

  13. Compromised Wound Healing in Ischemic Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tianyi; Chang, Qingxuan; Wang, Di; Gao, Min; Zhang, Xiong; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia is one of the main epidemic factors and characteristics of diabetic chronic wounds, and exerts a profound effect on wound healing. To explore the mechanism of and the cure for diabetic impaired wound healing, we established a type 2 diabetic rat model. We used an 8weeks high fat diet (HFD) feeding regimen followed by multiple injections of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 10mg/kg to induce Wister rat to develop type 2 diabetes. Metabolic characteristics were assessed at the 5th week after the STZ injections to confirm the establishment of diabetes mellitus on the rodent model. A bipedicle flap, with length to width ratio 1.5, was performed on the back of the rat to make the flap area ischemic. Closure of excisional wounds on this bipedicle flap and related physiological and pathological changes were studied using histological, immunohistochemical, real time PCR and protein immunoblot approaches. Our results demonstrated that a combination of HFD feeding and a low dose of STZ is capable of inducing the rats to develop type 2 diabetes with noticeable insulin resistance, persistent hyperglycemia, moderate degree of insulinemia, as well as high serum cholesterol and high triglyceride levels. The excision wounds on the ischemic double pedicle flap showed deteriorative healing features comparing with non-ischemic diabetic wounds, including: delayed healing, exorbitant wound inflammatory response, excessive and prolonged ROS production and excessive production of MMPs. Our study suggested that HFD feeding combined with STZ injection could induce type 2 diabetes in rat. Our ischemic diabetic wound model is suitable for the investigation of human diabetic related wound repair; especically for diabetic chronic wounds. PMID:27028201

  14. Irradiation at 660 nm modulates different genes central to wound healing in wounded and diabetic wounded cell models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houreld, Nicolette N.

    2014-02-01

    Wound healing is a highly orchestrated process and involves a wide variety of cellular components, chemokines and growth factors. Laser irradiation has influenced gene expression and release of various growth factors, cytokines and extracellular matrix proteins involved in wound healing. This study aimed to determine the expression profile of genes involved in wound healing in wounded and diabetic wounded fibroblast cells in response to irradiation at a wavelength of 660 nm. Human skin fibroblast cells (WS1) were irradiated with a diode laser (wavelength 660 nm; fluence 5 J/cm2; power output 100 mW; power density 11 mW/cm2; spot size 9.1 cm2; exposure duration 7 min 35 s). Total RNA was isolated and 1 μg reverse transcribed into cDNA which was used as a template in real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eighty four genes involved in wound healing (extracellular matrix and cell adhesion; inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; growth factors; and signal transduction) were evaluated in wounded and diabetic wounded cell models. Forty eight hours post-irradiation, 6 genes were significantly upregulated and 8 genes were down-regulated in irradiated wounded cells, whereas 1 gene was up-regulated and 33 genes down-regulated in irradiated diabetic wounded cells. Irradiation of stressed fibroblast cells to a wavelength of 660 nm and a fluence of 5 J/cm2 modulated the expression of different genes involved in wound healing in different cell models. Modulation of these genes leads to the effects of laser irradiation seen both in vivo and in vitro, and facilitates the wound healing process.

  15. Antimicrobials and Non-healing Wounds Evidence, controversies and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Gottrup, F; Apelqvist, J; Bjansholt, T; Cooper, R; Moore, Z; Peters, E J G; Probst, S

    2013-05-01

    Non-healing wounds are a significant problem for health-care systems worldwide. In the industrialised world, almost 1-1.5% of the population will have a problem wound at any one time. Furthermore, wound management is expensive; in Europe, the average cost per episode is 6650 euros for leg ulcers and 10 000 euros for foot ulcers, and wound management accounts for 2-4% of health-care budgets. These figures are expected to rise along with an increased elderly and diabetic population.1-4. PMID:23921580

  16. Cutaneous wound healing through paradoxical MAPK activation by BRAF inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Escuin-Ordinas, Helena; Li, Shuoran; Xie, Michael W; Sun, Lu; Hugo, Willy; Huang, Rong Rong; Jiao, Jing; de-Faria, Felipe Meira; Realegeno, Susan; Krystofinski, Paige; Azhdam, Ariel; Komenan, Sara Marie D; Atefi, Mohammad; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Pellegrini, Matteo; Cochran, Alistair J; Modlin, Robert L; Herschman, Harvey R; Lo, Roger S; McBride, William H; Segura, Tatiana; Ribas, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    BRAF inhibitors are highly effective therapies for the treatment of BRAF(V600)-mutated melanoma, with the main toxicity being a variety of hyperproliferative skin conditions due to paradoxical activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in BRAF wild-type cells. Most of these hyperproliferative skin changes improve when a MEK inhibitor is co-administered, as it blocks paradoxical MAPK activation. Here we show how the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib accelerates skin wound healing by inducing the proliferation and migration of human keratinocytes through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and cell cycle progression. Topical treatment with vemurafenib in two wound-healing mice models accelerates cutaneous wound healing through paradoxical MAPK activation; addition of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor reverses the benefit of vemurafenib-accelerated wound healing. The same dosing regimen of topical BRAF inhibitor does not increase the incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in mice. Therefore, topical BRAF inhibitors may have clinical applications in accelerating the healing of skin wounds. PMID:27476449

  17. Cutaneous wound healing through paradoxical MAPK activation by BRAF inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Escuin-Ordinas, Helena; Li, Shuoran; Xie, Michael W.; Sun, Lu; Hugo, Willy; Huang, Rong Rong; Jiao, Jing; de-Faria, Felipe Meira; Realegeno, Susan; Krystofinski, Paige; Azhdam, Ariel; Komenan, Sara Marie D.; Atefi, Mohammad; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Pellegrini, Matteo; Cochran, Alistair J.; Modlin, Robert L.; Herschman, Harvey R.; Lo, Roger S.; McBride, William H.; Segura, Tatiana; Ribas, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    BRAF inhibitors are highly effective therapies for the treatment of BRAFV600-mutated melanoma, with the main toxicity being a variety of hyperproliferative skin conditions due to paradoxical activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in BRAF wild-type cells. Most of these hyperproliferative skin changes improve when a MEK inhibitor is co-administered, as it blocks paradoxical MAPK activation. Here we show how the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib accelerates skin wound healing by inducing the proliferation and migration of human keratinocytes through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and cell cycle progression. Topical treatment with vemurafenib in two wound-healing mice models accelerates cutaneous wound healing through paradoxical MAPK activation; addition of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor reverses the benefit of vemurafenib-accelerated wound healing. The same dosing regimen of topical BRAF inhibitor does not increase the incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in mice. Therefore, topical BRAF inhibitors may have clinical applications in accelerating the healing of skin wounds. PMID:27476449

  18. Gallic Acid Promotes Wound Healing in Normal and Hyperglucidic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong Joo; Moh, Sang Hyun; Son, Dong Hwee; You, Seunghoon; Kinyua, Ann W; Ko, Chang Mann; Song, Miyoung; Yeo, Jinhee; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    Skin is the outermost layer of the human body that is constantly exposed to environmental stressors, such as UV radiation and toxic chemicals, and is susceptible to mechanical wounding and injury. The ability of the skin to repair injuries is paramount for survival and it is disrupted in a spectrum of disorders leading to skin pathologies. Diabetic patients often suffer from chronic, impaired wound healing, which facilitate bacterial infections and necessitate amputation. Here, we studied the effects of gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid; a plant-derived polyphenolic compound) on would healing in normal and hyperglucidic conditions, to mimic diabetes, in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Our study reveals that GA is a potential antioxidant that directly upregulates the expression of antioxidant genes. In addition, GA accelerated cell migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in both normal and hyperglucidic conditions. Further, GA treatment activated factors known to be hallmarks of wound healing, such as focal adhesion kinases (FAK), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk), underpinning the beneficial role of GA in wound repair. Therefore, our results demonstrate that GA might be a viable wound healing agent and a potential intervention to treat wounds resulting from metabolic complications. PMID:27399667

  19. Stem Cells in Skin Wound Healing: Are We There Yet?

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueira, Mariana Teixeira; Pirraco, Rogério Pedro; Marques, Alexandra Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Cutaneous wound healing is a serious problem worldwide that affects patients with various wound types, resulting from burns, traumatic injuries, and diabetes. Despite the wide range of clinically available skin substitutes and the different therapeutic alternatives, delayed healing and scarring are often observed. Recent Advances: Stem cells have arisen as powerful tools to improve skin wound healing, due to features such as effective secretome, self-renewal, low immunogenicity, and differentiation capacity. They represent potentially readily available biological material that can particularly target distinct wound-healing phases. In this context, mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to promote cell migration, angiogenesis, and a possible regenerative rather than fibrotic microenvironment at the wound site, mainly through paracrine signaling with the surrounding cells/tissues. Critical Issues: Despite the current insights, there are still major hurdles to be overcome to achieve effective therapeutic effects. Limited engraftment and survival at the wound site are still major concerns, and alternative approaches to maximize stem cell potential are a major demand. Future Directions: This review emphasizes two main strategies that have been explored in this context. These comprise the exploration of hypoxic conditions to modulate stem cell secretome, and the use of adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction as a source of multiple cells, including stem cells and factors requiring minimal manipulation. Nonetheless, the attainment of these approaches to target successfully skin regeneration will be only evident after a significant number of in vivo works in relevant pre-clinical models. PMID:27076994

  20. Stem Cell-Based Therapeutics to Improve Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Michael S.; Leavitt, Tripp; Malhotra, Samir; Duscher, Dominik; Pollhammer, Michael S.; Walmsley, Graham G.; Maan, Zeshaan N.; Cheung, Alexander T. M.; Schmidt, Manfred; Huemer, Georg M.; Longaker, Michael T.; Lorenz, H. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Issues surrounding wound healing have garnered deep scientific interest as well as booming financial markets invested in novel wound therapies. Much progress has been made in the field, but it is unsurprising to find that recent successes reveal new challenges to be addressed. With regard to wound healing, large tissue deficits, recalcitrant wounds, and pathological scar formation remain but a few of our most pressing challenges. Stem cell-based therapies have been heralded as a promising means by which to surpass current limitations in wound management. The wide differentiation potential of stem cells allows for the possibility of restoring lost or damaged tissue, while their ability to immunomodulate the wound bed from afar suggests that their clinical applications need not be restricted to direct tissue formation. The clinical utility of stem cells has been demonstrated across dozens of clinical trials in chronic wound therapy, but there is hope that other aspects of wound care will inherit similar benefit. Scientific inquiry into stem cell-based wound therapy abounds in research labs around the world. While their clinical applications remain in their infancy, the heavy investment in their potential makes it a worthwhile subject to review for plastic surgeons, in terms of both their current and future applications. PMID:26649195

  1. Raman spectroscopy and the spectral correlation index for predicting wound healing outcome: towards in vivo application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Adam G.; Crane, Nicole J.; Elster, Eric A.

    2016-03-01

    Combat wounds are sometimes confounded by healing complications that are not as prevalent in civilian wounds due to their high energy etiology. One complication of wound healing is dehiscence, where a surgically closed wound reopens after closure. This complication can have serious consequences for the patient, but knowledge about the molecular composition of the wound bed beyond what is readily visible may help clinicians mitigate these complications. It is necessary to develop techniques that can be used in vivo to assess and predict wound healing pointof- care so that care-takers can decide the best way to make informed clinical decisions regarding their patient's healing. Raman spectroscopy is a perfect candidate for predicting wound healing due to its ability to provide a detailed molecular fingerprint of the wound bed noninvasively. Here, we study the spectral correlation index, a measure of orthogonality, with ten reference tissue components to stratify wounds based on how they heal. We analyze these indexes over time to show the modulation of these tissue components over the wound healing process. Results show that qualitative observation of the spectra cannot reveal major differences between the dehisced and normal healing wounds, but the spectral correlation index can. Analysis of the spectral correlations across the wound healing process demonstrates the changes throughout the wound healing process, showing that early differences in tissue components may portend wound healing. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy coupled with the spectral correlation index presents as a possible point-of-care tool for enabling discrimination of wounds with impaired healing.

  2. Effects of mouse genotype on bone wound healing and irradiation-induced delay of healing.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Julie; Mizuno, Shuichi; Kung, Jason; Goff, Julie; Epperly, Michael; Dixon, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Greenberger, Joel S

    2014-01-01

    We tested the effects of mouse genotype (C57BL/6NHsd, NOD/SCID, SAMR1, and SAMP6) and ionizing irradiation on bone wound healing. Unicortical wounds were made in the proximal tibiae, and the time course of spontaneous healing and effects of irradiation were monitored radiographically and histologically. There was reproducible healing beginning with intramedullary osteogenesis, subsequent bone resorption by osteoclasts, gradual bridging of the cortical wound, and re-population of medullary hematopoietic cells. The most rapid wound closure was noted in SAMR1 mice, followed by SAMP6, C57BL/6NHsd, and NOD/SCID. Ionizing irradiation (20 Gy) to the leg significantly delayed bone wound healing in mice of all four genotypes. Mice with genetically-determined predisposition to early osteopenia (SAMP6) or with immune deficiency (NOD/SCID) had impairments in bone wound healing. These mouse models should be valuable for determining the effects of irradiation on bone healing and also for the design and testing of novel bone growth-enhancing drugs and mitigators of ionizing irradiation. PMID:24632972

  3. Hyaluronidase modulates inflammatory response and accelerates the cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Fronza, Marcio; Caetano, Guilherme F; Leite, Marcel N; Bitencourt, Claudia S; Paula-Silva, Francisco W G; Andrade, Thiago A M; Frade, Marco A C; Merfort, Irmgard; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronidases are enzymes that degrade hyaluronan an important constituent of the extracellular matrix. They have been used as a spreading agent, improving the absorption of drugs and facilitating the subcutaneous infusion of fluids. Here, we investigated the influence of bovine testes hyaluronidase (HYAL) during cutaneous wound healing in in vitro and in vivo assays. We demonstrated in the wound scratch assay that HYAL increased the migration and proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro at low concentration, e.g. 0.1 U HYAL enhanced the cell number by 20%. HYAL presented faster and higher reepithelialization in in vivo full-thickness excisional wounds generated on adult Wistar rats back skin already in the early phase at 2nd day post operatory compared to vehicle-control group. Wound closured area observed in the 16 U and 32 U HYAL treated rats reached 38% and 46% compared to 19% in the controls, respectively. Histological and biochemical analyses supported the clinical observations and showed that HYAL treated wounds exhibited increased granulation tissue, diminished edema formation and regulated the inflammatory response by modulating the release of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines, growth factor and eicosanoids mediators. Moreover, HYAL increased gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) γ and PPAR β/δ, the collagen content in the early stages of healing processes as well as angiogenesis. Altogether these data revealed that HYAL accelerates wound healing processes and might be beneficial for treating wound disorders. PMID:25393024

  4. Effects of Topically Applied Vitamin D during Corneal Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Reins, Rose Y.; Hanlon, Samuel D.; Magadi, Sri; McDermott, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important regulator of immune function and largely acts to dampen chronic inflammatory events in a variety of tissues. There is also accumulating evidence that vitamin D acts to enhance initial inflammation, beneficial during both infection and wound healing, and then promotes resolution and prevention of chronic, damaging inflammation. The current study examines the effect of topical vitamin D in a mouse of model of corneal epithelial wound healing, where acute inflammation is necessary for efficient wound closure. At 12 and 18 hours post-wounding, vitamin D treatment significantly delayed wound closure by ~17% and increased infiltration of neutrophils into the central cornea. Basal epithelial cell division, corneal nerve density, and levels of VEGF, TGFβ, IL-1β, and TNFα were unchanged. However, vitamin D increased the production of the anti-microbial peptide CRAMP 12 hours after wounding. These data suggest a possible role for vitamin D in modulating corneal wound healing and have important implications for therapeutic use of vitamin D at the ocular surface. PMID:27035345

  5. Vitamin C promotes wound healing through novel pleiotropic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Bassem M; Fisher, Bernard J; Kraskauskas, Donatas; Ward, Susan; Wayne, Jennifer S; Brophy, Donald F; Fowler, Alpha A; Yager, Dorne R; Natarajan, Ramesh

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin C (VitC) or ascorbic acid (AscA), a cofactor for collagen synthesis and a primary antioxidant, is rapidly consumed post-wounding. Parenteral VitC administration suppresses pro-inflammatory responses while promoting anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution effects in human/murine sepsis. We hypothesised that VitC could promote wound healing by altering the inflammatory, proliferative and remodelling phases of wound healing. Mice unable to synthesise VitC (Gulo(-/-) ) were used in this study. VitC was provided in the water (sufficient), withheld from another group (deficient) and supplemented by daily intra-peritoneal infusion (200 mg/kg, deficient + AscA) in a third group. Full thickness excisional wounds (6 mm) were created and tissue collected on days 7 and 14 for histology, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting. Human neonatal dermal fibroblasts (HnDFs) were used to assess effects of In conclusion, VitC favorably on proliferation. Histological analysis showed improved wound matrix deposition and organisation in sufficient and deficient +AscA mice. Wounds from VitC sufficient and deficient + AscA mice had reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and higher expression of wound healing mediators. Supplementation of HnDF with AscA induced the expression of self-renewal genes and promoted fibroblast proliferation. VitC favourably impacts the spatiotemporal expression of transcripts associated with early resolution of inflammation and tissue remodelling. PMID:26290474

  6. Hyaluronidase Modulates Inflammatory Response and Accelerates the Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Fronza, Marcio; Caetano, Guilherme F.; Leite, Marcel N.; Bitencourt, Claudia S.; Paula-Silva, Francisco W. G.; Andrade, Thiago A. M.; Frade, Marco A. C.; Merfort, Irmgard; Faccioli, Lúcia H.

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronidases are enzymes that degrade hyaluronan an important constituent of the extracellular matrix. They have been used as a spreading agent, improving the absorption of drugs and facilitating the subcutaneous infusion of fluids. Here, we investigated the influence of bovine testes hyaluronidase (HYAL) during cutaneous wound healing in in vitro and in vivo assays. We demonstrated in the wound scratch assay that HYAL increased the migration and proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro at low concentration, e.g. 0.1 U HYAL enhanced the cell number by 20%. HYAL presented faster and higher reepithelialization in in vivo full-thickness excisional wounds generated on adult Wistar rats back skin already in the early phase at 2nd day post operatory compared to vehicle-control group. Wound closured area observed in the 16 U and 32 U HYAL treated rats reached 38% and 46% compared to 19% in the controls, respectively. Histological and biochemical analyses supported the clinical observations and showed that HYAL treated wounds exhibited increased granulation tissue, diminished edema formation and regulated the inflammatory response by modulating the release of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines, growth factor and eicosanoids mediators. Moreover, HYAL increased gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) γ and PPAR β/δ, the collagen content in the early stages of healing processes as well as angiogenesis. Altogether these data revealed that HYAL accelerates wound healing processes and might be beneficial for treating wound disorders. PMID:25393024

  7. The quantitative and qualitative impairment of wound healing by adriamycin.

    PubMed

    Devereux, D F; Thibault, L; Boretos, J; Brennan, M F

    1979-03-01

    Clinical impression suggests that Adriamycin (ADR) interferes with wound healing. To examine the effects of ADR on wound healing, male Fischer rats were subjected to a dorsal, midline, full-thickness longitudinal incision (day 0). Wound clips were removed on day +7. Twenty animals per group were given intravenous ADR on day -7, day 0, day +3 and day +7. Twenty animals served as non-treated, wounded controls (C). Five animals/group were sacrificed on days +7, +14 and +21, at which time two 9.5 mm wide strips were taken from each animal perpendicular to the wound axis and submitted for wound breaking strength (WBS) measurements and load-extension curve analysis. WBS differed most markedly at Day 21 between C(1671 +/- 59g) and ADR day -7(1360 + 71 g) p less than 0.01; C and ADR day 0 (1051 +/- 108 g) p less than 0.001; C and ADR day + 3(1134 +/- 176 g) p less than 0.02. No difference existed between C and day +7 (1790 +/- 153 g). A point of inflection always occurred between 55-60% elongation in ADR treated animals only. This portion of the curve has been previously shown to represent collagen content. It is concluded that perioperative ADR administration (day -7 through day +3) significantly and substantially impairs skin wound healing in the rat. A form of collagen yielding underlies and may contribute to this defect. PMID:427732

  8. The effect of suramin on healing adult rodent dermal wounds.

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, J; Shah, M; Ferguson, M W

    1995-01-01

    Scarring, leading to impaired function, growth and appearance, is a major problem following many forms of surgery. Fetal wounds, unlike those in the adult, are characterised by a reduced growth factor profile and the absence of scar tissue (Whitby & Ferguson, 1991 a, b). The antiparasitic drug, suramin (a heparin analogue) inhibits binding of various growth factors (e.g. PDGF, bFGF, TGF-beta, EGF, IGF-I, IGF-II) to their receptors in vitro. These growth factors play key roles in wound healing. We attempted to manipulate experimentally their effectiveness in healing adult rat dermal incisional wounds by injecting suramin into the wound margins and comparing the resultant healing with an unmanipulated control wound in the same animal. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that, on d 7 and 14 postwounding, the numbers of monocytes/macrophages and blood vessels are markedly increased in suramin treated wounds compared with controls. Extracellular matrix deposition is lower, although very compact in organisation, lacking the usual honeycombed appearance of normal skin. These effects are widespread, being present not only in the wound area, but also in the surrounding tissue. No difference was detected at 70 d postwounding between the scars of suramin-treated and unmanipulated control wounds in the same animals. All such effects are increased slightly through the concentration range of 0.04-40 mg/kg suramin, with no significant change as concentrations greater than 40 mg/kg are applied. This suggests that suramin has marked effects on the early stages of wound healing, which plateau at 40 mg/kg concentration, but has no effect on scar formation. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7649820

  9. Profiling wound healing with wound effluent: Raman spectroscopic indicators of infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Nicole J.; Elster, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    The care of modern traumatic war wounds remains a significant challenge for clinicians. Many of the extremity wounds inflicted during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom are colonized or infected with multi-drug resistant organisms, particularly Acinetobacter baumannii. Biofilm formation and resistance to current treatments can significantly confound the wound healing process. Accurate strain identification and targeted drug administration for the treatment of wound bioburden has become a priority for combat casualty care. In this study, we use vibrational spectroscopy to examine wound exudates for bacterial load. Inherent chemical differences in different bacterial species and strains make possible the high specificity of vibrational spectroscopy.

  10. [New directions of research related to chronic wound healing].

    PubMed

    Rusak, Agnieszka; Rybak, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition, immunological state and psychological condition play an important role in the process of chronic wound healing. Infections caused by pathogens resistant to commonly used antibiotics additionally complicate and disturb regeneration of wounds. As part of the treatment, modern wound dressings are used, for example designed on the basis of alginates, dextranomers, hydrogels, hydrofiber, polyurethanes foams, hydrocolloids and liquids for wound debridement such us 0.9% NaCl, the PWE liquid, Ringer's liquid, octenidine. Owing to their features, treatment in accordance with TIME concept could be realized, because they provide moisture wound bed, protection against contamination, gas exchange, protection of wound edges and infection control. Repairing process in chronic wounds is dependent on blood flow in tissues, which may be insufficient. The result is a permanent hypoxia. Natural occurring antioxidants are becoming more crucial in chronic wound treatment. They decrease oxygen radical concentration, increase angiogenesis, reduce inflammatory response, stimulate fibroblasts and keratinocytes proliferation, possess antibacterial properties against chemotherapeutic resistant strains. There are a lot of antioxidants in honey, papaya fruit (Carrica papaia L.), transgenic flax (Linum usitatissimum), and in orange oil (Citrus sinensis), stem of acanthus (Acanthus ebracteatus), leafs of tea (Camellia sinensis). Application of biologically active, natural derived compounds is nowadays a direction of intense in vitro and in vivo research focused on the chronic wound treatment. Results suggest beneficial influence of antioxidant on wound repairing process. Clinical research are needed to state effective influence of natural compound in the chronic wound treatment. PMID:24377187

  11. Cold Temperature Delays Wound Healing in Postharvest Sugarbeet Roots.

    PubMed

    Fugate, Karen K; Ribeiro, Wellington S; Lulai, Edward C; Deckard, Edward L; Finger, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Storage temperature affects the rate and extent of wound-healing in a number of root and tuber crops. The effect of storage temperature on wound-healing in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots, however, is largely unknown. Wound-healing of sugarbeet roots was investigated using surface-abraded roots stored at 6 and 12°C for 28 days. Surface abrasions are common injuries of stored roots, and the storage temperatures used are typical of freshly harvested or rapidly cooled roots. Transpiration rate from the wounded surface and root weight loss were used to quantify wound healing. At 12°C, transpiration rate from the wounded surface declined within 14 days and wounded roots lost weight at a rate similar to unwounded controls. At 6°C, transpiration rate from the wounded surface did not decline in the 28 days after injury, and wounded roots lost 44% more weight than controls after 28 days storage. Melanin formation, lignification, and suberization occurred more rapidly at 12°C than at 6°C, and a continuous layer of lignified and suberized cells developed at 12°C, but not at 6°C. Examination of enzyme activities involved in melanin, lignin, and suberin formation indicated that differences in melanin formation at 6 and 12°C were related to differences in polyphenol oxidase activity, although no relationships between suberin or lignin formation and phenylalanine ammonia lyase or peroxidase activity were evident. Wound-induced respiration was initially greater at 12°C than at 6°C. However, with continued storage, respiration rate of wounded roots declined more rapidly at 12°C, and over 28 days, the increase in respiration due to injury was 52% greater in roots stored at 6°C than in roots stored at 12°C. The data indicate that storage at 6°C severely slowed and impaired wound-healing of surface-abraded sugarbeet roots relative to roots stored at 12°C and suggest that postharvest losses may be accelerated if freshly harvested roots are cooled too quickly. PMID

  12. Cold Temperature Delays Wound Healing in Postharvest Sugarbeet Roots

    PubMed Central

    Fugate, Karen K.; Ribeiro, Wellington S.; Lulai, Edward C.; Deckard, Edward L.; Finger, Fernando L.

    2016-01-01

    Storage temperature affects the rate and extent of wound-healing in a number of root and tuber crops. The effect of storage temperature on wound-healing in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots, however, is largely unknown. Wound-healing of sugarbeet roots was investigated using surface-abraded roots stored at 6 and 12°C for 28 days. Surface abrasions are common injuries of stored roots, and the storage temperatures used are typical of freshly harvested or rapidly cooled roots. Transpiration rate from the wounded surface and root weight loss were used to quantify wound healing. At 12°C, transpiration rate from the wounded surface declined within 14 days and wounded roots lost weight at a rate similar to unwounded controls. At 6°C, transpiration rate from the wounded surface did not decline in the 28 days after injury, and wounded roots lost 44% more weight than controls after 28 days storage. Melanin formation, lignification, and suberization occurred more rapidly at 12°C than at 6°C, and a continuous layer of lignified and suberized cells developed at 12°C, but not at 6°C. Examination of enzyme activities involved in melanin, lignin, and suberin formation indicated that differences in melanin formation at 6 and 12°C were related to differences in polyphenol oxidase activity, although no relationships between suberin or lignin formation and phenylalanine ammonia lyase or peroxidase activity were evident. Wound-induced respiration was initially greater at 12°C than at 6°C. However, with continued storage, respiration rate of wounded roots declined more rapidly at 12°C, and over 28 days, the increase in respiration due to injury was 52% greater in roots stored at 6°C than in roots stored at 12°C. The data indicate that storage at 6°C severely slowed and impaired wound-healing of surface-abraded sugarbeet roots relative to roots stored at 12°C and suggest that postharvest losses may be accelerated if freshly harvested roots are cooled too quickly. PMID

  13. Wound-healing properties of nut oil from Pouteria lucuma

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Leonel E; Villano, Caren M; Joseph, Gili; Schmidt, Barbara; Shulaev, Vladimir; Shuman, Joel L; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Cell migration, angiogenesis, inflammation, and extracellular matrix remodeling are key events in wound healing. Natural products, including fatty acids (FAs), can accelerate wound healing by modulating the aforementioned events. Aims This study aims to evaluate the effect of lucuma (Pouteria lucuma O Kezte) nut oil (LNO) on fibroblasts migration, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and fungal growth, and wound healing. Methods GC–MS analysis of FAs methyl esters (FAMES) was used for chemical characterization of LNO. In vitro studies were carried out with LNO investigating the induction of cell migration, cytoskeleton remodeling of human fibroblasts, inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide production in macrophages, and antibacterial and antifungal effects. Two in vivo studies were carried out to study LNO’s effect on angiogenesis and wound healing: (i) tail fin regeneration in transgenic zebrafish larvae expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in vascular endothelial cells was used to study vessel sprouting and wound healing and (ii) the closure of wounds was evaluated in CD-1 mice after topical applications of LNO-containing formulations. Results Lucuma nut oil is a mixture of FAs, 99.7% of which were characterized. Major components of LNO (w/w) are linoleic acid (38.9%), oleic acid (27.9%), palmitic acid (18.6%), stearic acid (8.9%), and γ linolenic acid (2.9%). In vitro studies showed that LNO significantly promoted migration and vinculin expression in human fibroblasts. LNO decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide production and did not display significant antibacterial or antifungal effects. LNO induced tail fin regeneration in transgenic zebrafish larvae 48 h after tail fin amputation and significantly accelerated cutaneous wound closure in CD-1 mice. Conclusions Natural FAs from P. lucuma nut promote skin regeneration and, thus, may have applications in medicine and skin care. PMID:20883291

  14. The efficacy of absorbable polysaccharide haemostats in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Ertan; Turkdogan, Kenan A; Civelek, Cemil; Dur, Ali; Gulen, Bedia; Karayel, Eda; Gucin, Zuhal; Sogut, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing represents an ancient problem for humans, and various materials and methods have been tried for wound dressing. A dressing should protect against infection and shorten healing; moreover, it should not cause tissue damage and should be nonallergenic, cost effective and easy to apply. These are characteristics that may be found in herbal extracts. An absorbable polysaccharide haemostat (APH) is a plant-based haemostatic agent. We aimed to evaluate the effect of APH on wound healing. A total of 24 Wistar rats were divided into three groups, each consisting of eight rats. We generated triangular tissue defects on the dorsal regions of the rats. The wound size of each rat was drawn on acetate paper on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days and dressed with APH, saline and wheat meal. Wound healing rates were calculated using planimetric software. Scar tissue excision was performed on the 14th day and histopathological examination was carried out. The mean wound contraction rate was statistically higher in the APH group than in the wheat meal and saline groups on the 14th day (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in polymorphonuclear leukocytes intensity between the saline and APH groups when stained with haematoxylin and eosin (P > 0.05). However, the intensities of fibroblasts (P < 0.01), vascular proliferation (P = 0.01) and inflammatory score (P = 0.02) were significantly different in the saline and APH groups. APH has favourable effect on wound healing. In addition to its blood-stopping effect, APH may be useful for tissue defects, which arise after trauma or surgical procedures. PMID:25158986

  15. Hyperoxia, Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization, and Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-Jun

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Diabetic foot disease is a major health problem, which affects 15% of the 200 million patients with diabetes worldwide. Diminished peripheral blood flow and decreased local neovascularization are critical factors that contribute to the delayed or nonhealing wounds in these patients. The correction of impaired local angiogenesis may be a key component in developing therapeutic protocols for treating chronic wounds of the lower extremity and diabetic foot ulcers. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the key cellular effectors of postnatal neovascularization and play a central role in wound healing, but their circulating and wound-level numbers are decreased in diabetes, implicating an abnormality in EPC mobilization and homing mechanisms. The deficiency in EPC mobilization is presumably due to impairment of eNOS-NO cascade in bone marrow (BM). Hyperoxia, induced by a clinically relevant hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) protocol, can significantly enhance the mobilization of EPCs from the BM into peripheral blood. However, increased circulating EPCs failed to reach to wound tissues. This is partly a result of downregulated production of SDF-1α in local wound lesions with diabetes. Administration of exogenous SDF-1α into wounds reversed the EPC homing impairment and, with hyperoxia, synergistically enhanced EPC mobilization, homing, neovascularization, and wound healing. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10, 1869–1882. PMID:18627349

  16. Wound healing: a new perspective on glucosylated tetrahydrocurcumin

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar Rao, Adari; Prasad, Ernala; Deepthi, Seelam Siva; Haritha, Vennapusa; Ramakrishna, Sistla; Madhusudan, Kuncha; Surekha, Mullapudi Venkata; Venkata Rao, Yerramilli Sri Rama

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing represents a dynamic set of coordinated physiological processes observed in response to tissue injury. Several natural products are known to accelerate the process of wound healing. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), an in vivo biotransformed product/metabolite of curcumin, is known to exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities similar to those of native curcuminoids. The poor bioavailability of these curcuminoids limits their clinical applications. The present study highlights the percutaneous absorption and wound healing activity of glucosyl-conjugated THC (glucosyl-THC) in male Wistar rats. A high plasma concentration of glucosyl-THC (4.35 μg/mL) was found in rats 3 hours after application. A significant enhanced wound healing activity and reduced epithelialization time were observed in rats that received glucosyl-THC. This may have been due to the improved bioavailability of the glucosyl compound. The nonstaining and lack of skin-sensitive side effects render the bioconjugated glucosyl-THC a promising therapeutic compound in the management of excision wounds and in cosmetic applications, in the near future. PMID:26203224

  17. Burn wound healing properties of asiaticoside and madecassoside

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qiang; Li, Ming; Lu, Yan-Hua; Liu, Dong-Hong; Li, Cheng-Cun

    2016-01-01

    The healing of burn wounds has been widely characterized to be highly intricate, involving processes such as neo-vascularization, granulation, re-epithelialization, inflammation and wound contraction. Various therapies are available for the management of burn wounds; however, a truly effective therapeutic strategy has yet to be identified due to safety issues. The aim of the present study was to assess and confirm the burn wound healing properties of the compounds asiaticoside (AE) and madecassoside (MA), which are found in the herb Centella asiatica. The cytotoxic nature of the AE and MA were inspected and were confirmed to be non-toxic up to 500 ppm. The compounds AE and MA increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production, but caused no significant effect on vascular endothelial growth factor production. In addition, an in vivo animal burn model was employed to represent the features of burn wound healing. Hence, the present results warrant the further investigation of C. asiatica extracts for use in burn healing. PMID:27588048

  18. An Essential Role of NRF2 in Diabetic Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Long, Min; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Wen, Qing; Bharara, Manish; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Shiwen; Wong, Pak K; Wondrak, Georg T; Zheng, Hongting; Zhang, Donna D

    2016-03-01

    The high mortality and disability of diabetic nonhealing skin ulcers create an urgent need for the development of more efficacious strategies targeting diabetic wound healing. In the current study, using human clinical specimens, we show that perilesional skin tissues from patients with diabetes are under more severe oxidative stress and display higher activation of the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated antioxidant response than perilesional skin tissues from normoglycemic patients. In a streptozotocin-induced diabetes mouse model, Nrf2(-/-) mice have delayed wound closure rates compared with Nrf2(+/+) mice, which is, at least partially, due to greater oxidative DNA damage, low transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and high matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) expression, and increased apoptosis. More importantly, pharmacological activation of the NRF2 pathway significantly improves diabetic wound healing. In vitro experiments in human immortalized keratinocyte cells confirm that NRF2 contributes to wound healing by alleviating oxidative stress, increasing proliferation and migration, decreasing apoptosis, and increasing the expression of TGF-β1 and lowering MMP9 under high-glucose conditions. This study indicates an essential role for NRF2 in diabetic wound healing and the therapeutic benefits of activating NRF2 in this disease, laying the foundation for future clinical trials using NRF2 activators in treating diabetic skin ulcers. PMID:26718502

  19. The Role of Chemokines in Fibrotic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Main dermal forms of fibroproliferative disorders are hypertrophic scars (HTS) and keloids. They often occur after cutaneous wound healing after skin injury, or keloids even form spontaneously in the absence of any known injury. HTS and keloids are different in clinical performance, morphology, and histology, but they all lead to physical and psychological problems for survivors. Recent Advances: Although the mechanism of wound healing at cellular and tissue levels has been well described, the molecular pathways involved in wound healing, especially fibrotic healing, is incompletely understood. Critical Issues: Abnormal scars not only lead to increased health-care costs but also cause significant psychological problems for survivors. A plethora of therapeutic strategies have been used to prevent or attenuate excessive scar formation; however, most therapeutic approaches remain clinically unsatisfactory. Future Directions: Effective care depends on an improved understanding of the mechanisms that cause abnormal scars in patients. A thorough understanding of the roles of chemokines in cutaneous wound healing and abnormal scar formation will help provide more effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for dermal fibrosis as well as for other proliferative disorders. PMID:26543681

  20. Portable microwave air plasma device for wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S. K.; Kim, H. Y.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, J. K.

    2015-06-01

    A portable microwave air plasma has been developed for safe and effective wound healing. The device is operated by a fixed microwave power and two different air gas flows (main and cooling air flow). It was found that the speeds of the two air flows determine the stability of the plasma jet and gas temperature and thereby regulate the concentrations of the individual reactive species. Two different regimes, i.e. the NO abundant (0.1 slm main air flow) and ozone abundant regimes (4 slm main air flow), were identified as suitable for wound healing without thermal damage and toxicity. These regimes show similar plasma characteristics (e.g. less than 40 °C at the treatment point, less than 4 ppm of NO2) except for different NO and ozone amounts. Both regimes show more than twice as fast wound healing speed compared with the untreated case without any histological damages. Faster healing speed with intrinsic ozone safety make the NO abundant regime the best operation regime for wound healing. Finally, the stability of the developed device was demonstrated by a one-hour continuous operation test with a 24 V battery.

  1. FOXO1 differentially regulates both normal and diabetic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenying; Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Tian, Chen; Xu, Fanxing; Tarapore, Rohinton; Batres, Angelika; Alsadun, Sarah; Lim, Jason; Dong, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    Healing is delayed in diabetic wounds. We previously demonstrated that lineage-specific Foxo1 deletion in keratinocytes interfered with normal wound healing and keratinocyte migration. Surprisingly, the same deletion of Foxo1 in diabetic wounds had the opposite effect, significantly improving the healing response. In normal glucose media, forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) enhanced keratinocyte migration through up-regulating TGFβ1. In high glucose, FOXO1 nuclear localization was induced but FOXO1 did not bind to the TGFβ1 promoter or stimulate TGFβ1 transcription. Instead, in high glucose, FOXO1 enhanced expression of serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 2 (SERPINB2), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20). The impact of high glucose on keratinocyte migration was rescued by silencing FOXO1, by reducing SERPINB2 or CCL20, or by insulin treatment. In addition, an advanced glycation end product and tumor necrosis factor had a similar regulatory effect on FOXO1 and its downstream targets and inhibited keratinocyte migration in a FOXO1-dependent manner. Thus, FOXO1 expression can positively or negatively modulate keratinocyte migration and wound healing by its differential effect on downstream targets modulated by factors present in diabetic healing. PMID:25918228

  2. Neurolaena lobata L. promotes wound healing in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramlogan, Surrin; Chalapathi Rao, AV; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Background: The leaves of the Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae) plant are used to control diabetes and heal wounds and infections. Aim: The ethanolic extract of N. lobata leaf was evaluated for its ability to heal inflicted wounds in rats using the excision wound model. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into three groups of six each. Test group animals were treated topically with an ethanolic extract of N. lobata (1:1 with petroleum jelly, 100 mg/kg/day). Standard and control group animals were treated with mupirocin and petroleum jelly, respectively. Treatment was given for 13 days and the wound area was measured on alternate days. Parameters of healing assessed were the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization and hydroxyproline content. Antimicrobial activity of the extract was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results: Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavanoids. Extract-treated animals exhibited 87% reduction in the wound area over 13 days when compared with the control (78%) and standard (83%) groups (P < 0.05). A significant decrease in the epithelialization period was noticed with the extract-treated test group animals compared with the controls and the standard group animals (P < 0.008). The hydroxyproline content of the extract-treated animals was higher (230.5 ± 42.1) when evaluated against the control and (79.0 ± 32.2) and the standard (115.0 ± 44.5) groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Increase in the rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content with decrease in epithelialization time in extract-treated animals support further evaluation of N. lobata as a pharmacotherapy for wound healing. PMID:25143886

  3. Proper care of early wounds to optimize healing and prevent complications.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Geoffrey B; Patel, Krishna G

    2011-08-01

    Proper wound care has broad applications for all clinicians. Much of the future direction for enhancing wound repair focuses on key cells and growth factors, which is why possessing a strong understanding of the basic physiology of wound healing is imperative. This article first provides a thorough review of the phases of wound healing followed by a discussion on the latest wound management strategies. Wound conditions and surgical techniques are important components for optimizing wound healing and preventing complications. Special consideration has been given to the unique settings of contaminated wounds, open wounds, or avulsed tissue. PMID:21856537

  4. [Enhance the connotation of establishment of wound healing department].

    PubMed

    Lu, Shu-liang

    2012-02-01

    Following the development of social economy, the acceleration of aging problem, and the changes in disease spectrum, the incidence of various chronic wound diseases increased significantly, and it has become one of the most frequently encountered diseases that affect the people's health. The contradiction between the increase of medical need of wound diseases and the insufficiency of the medical service in our country is becoming increasingly conspicuous. Wound healing department, as a new cross subject that has emerged as the times require, needs to be perfected in its diagnostic and treatment strategies and methods. At present time, how to explore the new theory and pathologic mechanism of various chronic wounds, in order to establish the clinical guidelines in diagnosis and treatment that conform to national conditions of our country, and to establish efficient clinical pathway and medical-seeking model have become serious challenges to the establishment of wound healing department in our country. Thus, it is imperative for us to enhance the connotation of establishment of wound healing department. For this purpose, this article mainly elaborates on three aspects, including "enriching traditional diagnostic system with new theory and new technology", "improving treatment effect by ameliorating traditional methods and absorbing new technology from relating subspecialty", "establishing a new medical-seeking model by applying digital technology and vertically integrating medical resources". PMID:22490530

  5. Regulation of wound healing by growth factors and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Werner, Sabine; Grose, Richard

    2003-07-01

    Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process involving blood clotting, inflammation, new tissue formation, and finally tissue remodeling. It is well described at the histological level, but the genes that regulate skin repair have only partially been identified. Many experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated varied, but in most cases beneficial, effects of exogenous growth factors on the healing process. However, the roles played by endogenous growth factors have remained largely unclear. Initial approaches at addressing this question focused on the expression analysis of various growth factors, cytokines, and their receptors in different wound models, with first functional data being obtained by applying neutralizing antibodies to wounds. During the past few years, the availability of genetically modified mice has allowed elucidation of the function of various genes in the healing process, and these studies have shed light onto the role of growth factors, cytokines, and their downstream effectors in wound repair. This review summarizes the results of expression studies that have been performed in rodents, pigs, and humans to localize growth factors and their receptors in skin wounds. Most importantly, we also report on genetic studies addressing the functions of endogenous growth factors in the wound repair process. PMID:12843410

  6. Calcium-Based Nanoparticles Accelerate Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ishise, Hisako; Carre, Antoine Lyonel; Nishimoto, Soh; Longaker, Michael; Lorenz, H. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Nanoparticles (NPs) are small entities that consist of a hydroxyapatite core, which can bind ions, proteins, and other organic molecules from the surrounding environment. These small conglomerations can influence environmental calcium levels and have the potential to modulate calcium homeostasis in vivo. Nanoparticles have been associated with various calcium-mediated disease processes, such as atherosclerosis and kidney stone formation. We hypothesized that nanoparticles could have an effect on other calcium-regulated processes, such as wound healing. In the present study, we synthesized pH-sensitive calcium-based nanoparticles and investigated their ability to enhance cutaneous wound repair. Methods Different populations of nanoparticles were synthesized on collagen-coated plates under various growth conditions. Bilateral dorsal cutaneous wounds were made on 8-week-old female Balb/c mice. Nanoparticles were then either administered intravenously or applied topically to the wound bed. The rate of wound closure was quantified. Intravenously injected nanoparticles were tracked using a FLAG detection system. The effect of nanoparticles on fibroblast contraction and proliferation was assessed. Results A population of pH-sensitive calcium-based nanoparticles was identified. When intravenously administered, these nanoparticles acutely increased the rate of wound healing. Intravenously administered nanoparticles were localized to the wound site, as evidenced by FLAG staining. Nanoparticles increased fibroblast calcium uptake in vitro and caused contracture of a fibroblast populated collagen lattice in a dose-dependent manner. Nanoparticles also increased the rate of fibroblast proliferation. Conclusion Intravenously administered, calcium-based nanoparticles can acutely decrease open wound size via contracture. We hypothesize that their contraction effect is mediated by the release of ionized calcium into the wound bed, which occurs when the p

  7. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds. PMID:24130382

  8. Wnt signaling induces epithelial differentiation during cutaneous wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Houschyar, Khosrow S; Momeni, Arash; Pyles, Malcolm N; Maan, Zeshaan N; Whittam, Alexander J; Siemers, Frank

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cutaneous wound repair in adult mammals typically does not regenerate original dermal architecture. Skin that has undergone repair following injury is not identical to intact uninjured skin. This disparity may be caused by differences in the mechanisms that regulate postnatal cutaneous wound repair compared to embryonic skin development and thus we seek a deeper understanding of the role that Wnt signaling plays in the mechanisms of skin repair in both fetal and adult wounds. The influence of secreted Wnt signaling proteins in tissue homeostasis has galvanized efforts to identify small molecules that target Wnt-mediated cellular responses. Wnt signaling is activated by wounding and participates in every subsequent stage of the healing process from the control of inflammation and programmed cell death, to the mobilization of stem cell reservoirs within the wound site. Endogenous Wnt signaling augmentation represents an attractive option to aid in the restoration of cutaneous wounds, as the complex mechanisms of the Wnt pathway have been increasingly investigated over the years. In this review, we summarize recent data elucidating the roles that Wnt signaling plays in cutaneous wound healing process. PMID:26309090

  9. Survey of Wound-Healing Centers and Wound Care Units in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yufeng; Xia, Lei; Jia, Lijing; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the Chinese experience of establishing hospital-based wound care centers over 15 years. A total of 69 wound-healing centers (WHCs) and wound care units (WCUs) were involved. Questionnaires were diverged to the principal directors of these sites; data extracted for this study included origin, year of establishment, medical staff, degree of hospitals, wound etiology, wound-healing rate, hospital stay, and outcomes data. The period of data extraction was defined as before and after 1 year of the establishment of WHCs and WCUs. The earliest WHC was established in 1999, and from 2010 the speeds of establishing WHCs and WCUs rapidly increased. The majority of WHCs were divisions of burn departments, and all WHCs came from departments of outpatient dressing rooms. Full-time multidisciplinary employees of WHCs differed greatly to WCUs. Types of wound and outcomes vary with those of centers reported from Western countries and the United States. Improvement in wound healing caused by the establishment of WHCs and WCUs in China occurred without doubt. Some advices include the following: rearrange and reorganize the distribution of WHCs and WCUs; enact and generalize Chinese guidelines for chronic wounds; utilize medical resources reasonably; improve multidisciplinary medical staff team; draw up and change some medical and public policies and regulations. PMID:25724595

  10. Low energy laser irradiation treatment for second intention wound healing in horses

    PubMed Central

    Fretz, Peter B.; Li, Zhong

    1992-01-01

    Low energy helium-neon laser irradiation was administered to full thickness skin wounds (3 cm × 3 cm) on the dorsal surface of the metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joints and cranial surface of the tarsocrural joints of eight horses. The effects on wound healing were analyzed statistically. There were no differences (p > 0.55) observed in the rate of wound healing between the low energy laser irradiated wounds and the control wounds. There was a significant difference (p < 0.006) observed in the rate of healing between the anatomical sites. Tarsal wounds healed more rapidly than fetlock wounds. PMID:17424089

  11. Silk sericin ameliorates wound healing and its clinical efficacy in burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Palapinyo, Sirinoot; Srichana, Teerapol; Chottanapund, Suthat; Muangman, Pornprom

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silk sericin, a protein from silkworm cocoon, on scratch wound healing in vitro. For applicable result in clinical use, we also study the efficacy of sericin added to a standard antimicrobial cream, silver zinc sulfadiazine, for open wound care in the treatment of second-degree burn wounds. In vitro scratch assays show that sericin at concentration 100 μg/mL can promote the migration of fibroblast L929 cells similar to epidermal growth factor (positive control) at 100 μg/mL. After 1 day of treatment, the length of scratch in wounds treated with sericin was significantly shorter than the length of negative control wounds (culture medium without sericin). For clinical study, a total of 29 patients with 65 burn wounds which covered no less than 15 % of total body surface area were randomly assigned to either control (wounds treated with silver zinc sulfadiazine cream) or treatment (wounds treated with silver zinc sulfadiazine with added sericin cream) group in this randomized, double-blind, standard-controlled study. The results showed that the average time to reach 70 % re-epithelialization of the burned surface and complete healing in the treatment group was significantly shorter, approximately 5-7 days, than in the control group. Regarding time for complete healing, control wounds took approximately 29.28 ± 9.27 days, while wounds treated with silver zinc sulfadiazine with added sericin cream took approximately 22.42 ± 6.33 days, (p = 0.001). No infection or severe reaction was found in any wounds. This is the first clinical study to show that silk sericin is safe and beneficial for burn wound treatment when it is added to silver sulfadiazine cream. PMID:23748948

  12. Recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor accelerates wound healing.

    PubMed

    McGee, G S; Davidson, J M; Buckley, A; Sommer, A; Woodward, S C; Aquino, A M; Barbour, R; Demetriou, A A

    1988-07-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) stimulates extracellular matrix metabolism, growth, and movement of mesodermally derived cells. We have previously shown that collagen content in polyvinyl alcohol sponges increased after bFGF treatment. We hypothesized that bFGF-treated incisional wounds would heal more rapidly. After intraperitoneal pentobarbital anesthesia, male, 200- to 250-g, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 27) each underwent two sets of paired, transverse, dorsal incisions closed with steel sutures. On Day 3 postwounding, 0.4 ml of bFGF (recombinant, 400 ng. Synergen) or normal saline was injected into one of each paired incisions. Animals were killed with ether on postwounding Days 5, 6, and 7 and their dorsal pelts were excised. Fresh or formalin-fixed wound strips were subjected to tensile strength measurements using a tensiometer. Breaking energy was calculated. Wound collagen content (hydroxyproline) was measured in wound-edge samples following hydrolysis using high-performance liquid chromatography. There was an overall significant increase in fresh wound tensile strength (13.7 +/- 1.06 vs 19.1 +/- 1.99 g/mm, P less than 0.01) and wound breaking energy (476 +/- 47 vs 747 +/- 76 mm2, P less than 0.001) in bFGF-treated incisions. There was an increase in wound collagen content which was not statistically significant and there was no difference in fixed incisional tensile strength. Histologic examination showed better organization and maturation in bFGF wounds. Recombinant bFGF accelerates normal rat wound healing. This may be due to earlier accumulation of collagen and fibroblasts and/or to greater collagen crosslinking in bFGF-treated wounds. PMID:3392988

  13. Stimulation of wound healing by helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile Nastuta, Andrei; Topala, Ionut; Grigoras, Constantin; Pohoata, Valentin; Popa, Gheorghe

    2011-03-01

    New experiments using atmospheric pressure plasma have found large application in treatment of living cells or tissues, wound healing, cancerous cell apoptosis, blood coagulation on wounds, bone tissue modification, sterilization and decontamination. In this study an atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated using a cylindrical dielectric-barrier discharge was applied for treatment of burned wounds on Wistar rats' skin. The low temperature plasma jet works in helium and is driven by high voltage pulses. Oxygen and nitrogen based impurities are identified in the jet by emission spectroscopy. This paper analyses the natural epithelization of the rats' skin wounds and two methods of assisted epithelization, a classical one using polyurethane wound dressing and a new one using daily atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of wounds. Systemic and local medical data, such as haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, were monitored during entire period of study. Increased oxidative stress was observed for plasma treated wound. This result can be related to the presence in the plasma volume of active species, such as O and OH radicals. Both methods, wound dressing and plasma-assisted epithelization, provided positive medical results related to the recovery process of burned wounds. The dynamics of the skin regeneration process was modified: the epidermis re-epitelization was accelerated, while the recovery of superficial dermis was slowed down.

  14. Putting on the brakes: Bacterial impediment of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Kimberly M.; Stella, Nicholas A.; Hunt, Kristin M.; Romanowski, Eric G.; Liu, Xinyu; Klarlund, Jes K.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

    2015-01-01

    The epithelium provides a crucial barrier to infection, and its integrity requires efficient wound healing. Bacterial cells and secretomes from a subset of tested species of bacteria inhibited human and porcine corneal epithelial cell migration in vitro and ex vivo. Secretomes from 95% of Serratia marcescens, 71% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 29% of Staphylococcus aureus strains, and other bacterial species inhibited epithelial cell migration. Migration of human foreskin fibroblasts was also inhibited by S. marcescens secretomes indicating that the effect is not cornea specific. Transposon mutagenesis implicated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core biosynthetic genes as being required to inhibit corneal epithelial cell migration. LPS depletion of S. marcescens secretomes with polymyxin B agarose rendered secretomes unable to inhibit epithelial cell migration. Purified LPS from S. marcescens, but not from Escherichia coli or S. marcescens strains with mutations in the waaG and waaC genes, inhibited epithelial cell migration in vitro and wound healing ex vivo. Together these data suggest that S. marcescens LPS is sufficient for inhibition of epithelial wound healing. This study presents a novel host-pathogen interaction with implications for infections where bacteria impact wound healing and provides evidence that secreted LPS is a key factor in the inhibitory mechanism. PMID:26365869

  15. Hemostatic and Wound Healing Properties of Chromolaena odorata Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Pandith, Hataichanok; Liggett, Jason; Min, Kyung-Won; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Baek, Seung Joon

    2013-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (Siam weed) extract has been used to stop bleeding and in wound healing in many tropical countries. However, its detailed mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which Siam weed extract (SWE) affected hemostatic and wound healing activities. SWE promoted Balb/c 3T3 fibroblast cell migration and proliferation. Subsequently, we found that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the accelerating wound healing enzyme, was increased at the transcriptional and translational levels by SWE treatments. The HO-1 promoter analyzed with luciferase assay was also increased by treatment of SWE in a dose-dependent manner. This induction may be mediated by several kinase pathways including MEK, p38MAPK, AKT, and JNK. Quantitative real-time PCR using undifferentiated promonocytic cell lines revealed that thromboxane synthase (TXS), a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator, was increased and MMP-9, an anti platelet aggregator, was decreased in the presence of SWE. Our studies presented that SWE accelerated hemostatic and wound healing activities by altering the expression of genes, including HO-1, TXS, and MMP-9. PMID:23984087

  16. Hemostatic and Wound Healing Properties of Chromolaena odorata Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Pandith, Hataichanok; Zhang, Xiaobo; Liggett, Jason; Min, Kyung-Won; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Baek, Seung Joon

    2013-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (Siam weed) extract has been used to stop bleeding and in wound healing in many tropical countries. However, its detailed mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which Siam weed extract (SWE) affected hemostatic and wound healing activities. SWE promoted Balb/c 3T3 fibroblast cell migration and proliferation. Subsequently, we found that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the accelerating wound healing enzyme, was increased at the transcriptional and translational levels by SWE treatments. The HO-1 promoter analyzed with luciferase assay was also increased by treatment of SWE in a dose-dependent manner. This induction may be mediated by several kinase pathways including MEK, p38MAPK, AKT, and JNK. Quantitative real-time PCR using undifferentiated promonocytic cell lines revealed that thromboxane synthase (TXS), a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator, was increased and MMP-9, an anti platelet aggregator, was decreased in the presence of SWE. Our studies presented that SWE accelerated hemostatic and wound healing activities by altering the expression of genes, including HO-1, TXS, and MMP-9. PMID:23984087

  17. Obesity and Surgical Wound Healing: A Current Review

    PubMed Central

    Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Dinh, Trish Phuong; Salas, R. Emerick; Johnson, Erika L.; Wright, Terry G.; Robson, Martin C.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The correlation between obesity and deficient wound healing has long been established. This review examines the current literature on the mechanisms involved in obesity-related perioperative morbidity. Methods. A literature search was performed using Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Internet searches. Keywords used include obesity, wound healing, adipose healing, and bariatric and surgical complications. Results. Substantial evidence exists demonstrating that obesity is associated with a number of postoperative complications. Specifically in relation to wound healing, explanations include inherent anatomic features of adipose tissue, vascular insufficiencies, cellular and composition modifications, oxidative stress, alterations in immune mediators, and nutritional deficiencies. Most recently, advances made in the field of gene array have allowed researchers to determine a few plausible alterations and deficiencies in obese individuals that contribute to their increased risk of morbidity and mortality, especially wound complications. Conclusion. While the literature discusses how obesity may negatively affect health on various of medical fronts, there is yet to be a comprehensive study detailing all the mechanisms involved in obesity-related morbidities in their entirety. Improved knowledge and understanding of obesity-induced physiological, cellular, molecular, and chemical changes will facilitate better assessments of surgical risks and outcomes and create efficient treatment protocols for improved patient care of the obese patient population. PMID:24701367

  18. Regenerative Medicine: Charting a New Course in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Chapman, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Chronic wounds are a prevalent and costly problem in the United States. Improved treatments are needed to heal these wounds and prevent serious complications such as infection and amputation. Recent Advances: In wound healing, as in other areas of medicine, technologies that have the potential to regenerate as opposed to repair tissue are gaining ground. These include customizable nanofiber matrices incorporating novel materials; a variety of autologous and allogeneic cell types at various stages of differentiation (e.g., pluripotent, terminally differentiated); peptides; proteins; small molecules; RNA inhibitors; and gene therapies. Critical Issues: Wound healing is a logical target for regenerative medicine due to the accessibility and structure of skin, the regenerative nature of healing, the lack of good limb salvage treatments, and the current use of cell therapies. However, more extensive knowledge of pathophysiologic targets is needed to inform regenerative strategies, and new technologies must demonstrate value in terms of outcomes and related health economic measures to achieve successful market access and penetration. Future Directions: Due to similarities in cell pathways and developmental mechanisms, regenerative technologies developed in one therapeutic area may be applicable to others. Approaches that proceed from human genomic or other big data sources to models are becoming increasingly common and will likely suggest novel therapeutic avenues. To fully capitalize on the advances in regenerative medicine, studies must demonstrate the value of new therapies in identified patient populations, and sponsors must work with regulatory agencies to develop appropriate dossiers supporting timely approval. PMID:27366592

  19. Effects of Angiotensin II Receptor Signaling during Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Hikaru; Katagata, Yohtaro; Hozumi, Yutaka; Kondo, Shigeo

    2004-01-01

    The tissue angiotensin (Ang) system, which acts independently of the circulating renin Ang system, is supposed to play an important role in tissue repair in the heart and kidney. In the skin, the role of the system for wound healing has remained to be ascertained. Our study demonstrated that oral administration of selective AngII type-1 receptor (AT1) blocker suppressed keratinocyte re-epithelization and angiogenesis during skin wound healing in rats. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis indicated the existence of AT1 and AngII type-2 receptor (AT2) in cultured keratinocytes and myofibroblasts. In a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation study, induction of AT1 signaling enhanced the incorporation into keratinocytes and myofibroblasts. Wound healing migration assays revealed that induction of AT1 signaling accelerated keratinocyte re-epithelization and myofibroblasts recovering. In these experiments, induction of AT2 signaling acted vice versa. Taken together, our study suggests that skin wound healing is regulated by balance of opposing signals between AT1 and AT2. PMID:15509535

  20. Histological patterns in healing chronic wounds using Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae and other therapeutic measures.

    PubMed

    de Masiero, Franciéle Souza; Nassu, Mariana Prado; Soares, Mauro Pereira; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    The healing process occurs due to the interaction of cellular, molecular, and biochemical events. Regarding lesions difficult to heal, especially in immunocompromised patients, monitoring and intervention to promote healing is a constant focus of research. Another aggravating factor is the increase in the number of reported cases of microbial resistance, indicating that various dressings and drugs have been increasingly inefficient. Larval therapy (LT) involves the application of sterile fly larvae on chronic and/or infected wounds, and it is an area emerging as an alternative therapy. Before the 1940s, the LT was widely used, but fell into disuse after the appearance of antibiotics. High cost and the development of resistance by certain groups of pathogenic bacteria to these drugs encouraged the resurgence of LT, currently used in approximately 20 countries and more recently in Brazil. However, many mechanisms of action of the larvae in this system remain poorly understood. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate histopathological findings and to evaluate possible mechanisms of action of dipteran larvae during tissue repair. Lesions were induced in 24 male Wistar rats, to evaluate the effect of the type of treatment applied. The animals were divided into four groups: larval therapy (LT), LT associated with foam dressing with silver release (LTSIL), mechanical debridement and silver foam dressing (DEBSIL), and no treatment (CONT). Skin samples were collected for histopathological analysis. In LT, inflammatory response and angiogenesis were abundant; in LTSIL, inflammatory response with neutrophil infiltration was observed; in DEBSIL, scarce inflammatory response, small numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes, and bacterial colonization in depth; and in CONT, there was bacterial colonization in deeper tissues. The observed histological events show that the larvae had an important role in promoting the inflammatory response in the wound bed, drawing the

  1. Tumors: Wounds that do not heal--Redux

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Harold F.

    2014-01-01

    Similarities between tumors and the inflammatory response associated with wound healing have been recognized for more than 150 years and continue to intrigue. Some years ago, based on our then recent discovery of vascular permeability factor (VPF)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), I suggested that tumors behaved as wounds that do not heal. More particularly, I proposed that tumors co-opted the wound healing response in order to induce the stroma they required for maintenance and growth. Work over the past few decades has supported this hypothesis and has put it on a firmer molecular basis. In outline, VPF/VEGF initiates a sequence of events in both tumors and wounds that includes the following: increased vascular permeability; extravasation of plasma, fibrinogen and other plasma proteins; activation of the clotting system outside the vascular system; deposition of an extravascular fibrin gel which serves as a provisional stroma and a favorable matrix for cell migration; induction of angiogenesis and arterio-venogenesis; subsequent degradation of fibrin and its replacement by “granulation tissue” (highly vascular connective tissue); and, finally, vascular resorption and collagen synthesis, resulting in the formation of dense fibrous connective tissue (called “scar tissue” in wounds and “desmoplasia” in cancer). A similar sequence of events also takes place in a variety of important inflammatory diseases that involve cellular immunity. PMID:25568067

  2. The Influence of Anger Expression on Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; Malarkey, William B.; Glaser, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Certain patterns of anger expression have been associated with maladaptive alterations in cortisol secretion, immune functioning, and surgical recovery. We hypothesized that outward and inward anger expression and lack of anger control would be associated with delayed wound healing. A sample of 98 community-dwelling participants received standardized blister wounds on their non-dominant forearm. After blistering, the wounds were monitored daily for eight days to assess speed of repair. Logistic regression was used to distinguish fast and slow healers based on their anger expression pattern. Individuals exhibiting lower levels of anger control were more likely to be categorized as slow healers. The anger control variable predicted wound repair over and above differences in hostility, negative affectivity, social support, and health behaviors. Furthermore, participants with lower levels of anger control exhibited higher cortisol reactivity during the blistering procedure. This enhanced cortisol secretion was in turn related to longer time to heal. These findings suggest that the ability to regulate the expression of one’s anger has a clinically relevant impact on wound healing. PMID:18078737

  3. Epidermal Differentiation in Barrier Maintenance and Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2014-03-01

    Significance: The epidermal barrier prevents water loss and serves as the body's first line of defense against toxins, chemicals, and infectious microbes. Disruption of the barrier, either through congenital disorders of barrier formation or through wounds, puts the individual at risk for dehydration, hypersensitivity, infection, and prolonged inflammation. Epidermal barrier disorders affect millions of patients in the United States, causing loss of productivity and diminished quality of life for patients and their families, and represent a burden to the health-care system and society. Recent Advances: The genetic basis of many congenital barrier disorders has been identified in recent years, and great advances have been made in the molecular mechanisms of the formation and homeostasis of epidermal barrier, as well as acute and chronic wound healing. Progress in stem cell (SC) biology, particularly in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), has opened new doors for cell-based therapy of chronic wounds. Critical Issues: Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of barrier homeostasis in health and disease, as well as contributions of iPSCs and allogeneic MSCs to wound healing, will lead to the identification of novel targets for developing therapeutics for congenital barrier and wound healing disorders. Future Directions: Future studies should focus on better understanding of molecular mechanisms leading to disrupted homeostasis of epidermal barrier to identify potential therapeutic targets to combat its associated diseases. PMID:24669361

  4. Endogenous N-acyl taurines regulate skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Oscar; Pontis, Silvia; Armirotti, Andrea; Cardinali, Giorgia; Kovacs, Daniela; Migliore, Marco; Summa, Maria; Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo; Picardo, Mauro; Piomelli, Daniele

    2016-07-26

    The intracellular serine amidase, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), degrades a heterogeneous family of lipid-derived bioactive molecules that include amides of long-chain fatty acids with taurine [N-acyl-taurines (NATs)]. The physiological functions of the NATs are unknown. Here we show that genetic or pharmacological disruption of FAAH activity accelerates skin wound healing in mice and stimulates motogenesis of human keratinocytes and differentiation of human fibroblasts in primary cultures. Using untargeted and targeted lipidomics strategies, we identify two long-chain saturated NATs-N-tetracosanoyl-taurine [NAT(24:0)] and N-eicosanoyl-taurine [NAT(20:0)]-as primary substrates for FAAH in mouse skin, and show that the levels of these substances sharply decrease at the margins of a freshly inflicted wound to increase again as healing begins. Additionally, we demonstrate that local administration of synthetic NATs accelerates wound closure in mice and stimulates repair-associated responses in primary cultures of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, through a mechanism that involves tyrosine phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and an increase in intracellular calcium levels, under the permissive control of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptors. The results point to FAAH-regulated NAT signaling as an unprecedented lipid-based mechanism of wound-healing control in mammalian skin, which might be targeted for chronic wound therapy. PMID:27412859

  5. [Wound healing by homeopathic silica dilutions in mice].

    PubMed

    Oberbaum, M; Markovits, R; Weisman, Z; Kalinkevits, A; Bentwich, Z

    1992-08-01

    Highly diluted solutions of silica are widely used in homeopathic medicine to treat lesions such as chronic wounds, ulcers, and abscesses. We tested the therapeutic effects of homeopathic dilutions of silica on induced chronic wounds. Holes were made in the ears of mice by dental wire, which then remained hanging from the ear to cause persistent mechanical irritation. In each experiment 3 or 4 groups of 10 mice each were treated by adding homeopathic dilutions of silica (10(-10), 10(-60), 10(-400)) and of saline (10(-10), respectively, to the drinking water of the mice for 4-20 days. The size of the wound holes was measured every second day (grades 0-4) and/or by an objective image analysis system. The results showed that in 7/11 experiments the ear holes of the silica-treated animals were significantly smaller (p less than 0.05-0.001) and healed faster than in those treated with saline. Also the therapeutic effect increased progressively with increase in dilution of the silica (10(-10) less than 10(-60) less than 10(-400)). These results show that homeopathic dilutions of silica (even well beyond Avogadro's number) clearly have a therapeutic effect on wound healing and that our experimental model for studying wound healing is a very useful tool for such studies. PMID:1325402

  6. Antitumor and Wound Healing Properties of Rubus ellipticus Smith.

    PubMed

    George, Blassan Plackal; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj; Kumar, Yamini T; Sajeesh, Thankarajan

    2015-06-01

    The present investigation has been undertaken to study the antioxidant, antitumor, and wound healing properties of Rubus ellipticus. The R. ellipticus leaves were extracted using organic solvents in Soxhlet and were subjected to in vitro antioxidant assays. R. ellipticus leaf methanol (RELM) extract, which showed higher in vitro antioxidant activity, was taken for the evaluation of in vivo antioxidant, antitumor, and wound healing properties. Acute oral and dermal toxicity studies showed the safety of RELM up to a dose of 2 g/kg. A significant wound healing property was observed in incision, excision, and Staphylococcus aureus-induced infected wound models in the treatment groups compared to the control group. A complete epithelialization period was noticed during the 13(th) day and the 19(th) day. A 250-mg/kg treatment was found to prolong the life span of mice with Ehrlich ascite carcinoma (EAC; 46.76%) and to reduce the volume of Dalton's lymphoma ascite (DLA) solid tumors (2.56 cm(3)). The present study suggests that R. ellipticus is a valuable natural antioxidant and that it is immensely effective for treating skin diseases, wounds, and tumors. PMID:26100067

  7. Substance P enhances EPC mobilization for accelerated wound healing.

    PubMed

    Um, Jihyun; Jung, Nunggum; Chin, Sukbum; Cho, Younggil; Choi, Sanghyuk; Park, Ki-Sook

    2016-03-01

    Wound healing is essential for the survival and tissue homeostasis of unicellular and multicellular organisms. The current study demonstrated that the neuropeptide substance P (SP) accelerated the wound healing process, particularly in the skin. Subcutaneous treatment of SP accelerated wound closing, increased the population of α-smooth muscle actin positive myofibroblasts, and increased extracellular matrix deposition at the wound site. Moreover, SP treatment enhances angiogenesis without a local increase in the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and stromal cell-derived factor-1. Importantly, SP treatment increased both the population of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in the peripheral blood and in CD31 positive cells in Matrigel plugs. The tube forming potential of endothelial cells was also enhanced by SP treatment. The results suggested that the subcutaneous injection of SP accelerated the wound healing in the skin via better reconstitution of blood vessels, which possibly followed an increase in the systemic mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells and a more effective assembly of endothelial cells into tubes. PMID:26749197

  8. Therapeutic utility of antibacterial peptides in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Otvos, Laszlo; Ostorhazi, Eszter

    2015-07-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides were first thought to fight infection in animal models by disintegrating bacterial peptides and later by inhibiting bacteria-specific intracellular processes. However, ever increasing evidences indicate that cationic peptides accumulate around and modulate the immune system both systemically and in cutaneous and mucosal surfaces where injuries and infections occur. Native and designer antibacterial peptides as well as cationic peptides, never considered as antibiotics, promote wound healing at every step of cutaneous tissue regeneration. This article provides an introductory list of examples of how cationic peptides are involved in immunostimulation and epithelial tissue repair, eliminating wound infections and promoting wound healing in potential therapeutic utility in sight. Although a few antimicrobial peptides reached the Phase II clinical trial stage, toxicity concerns limit the potential administration routes. Resistance induction to both microbiology actions and the integrity of the innate immune system has to be carefully monitored. PMID:25835521

  9. Increased collagen synthesis rate during wound healing in muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shaobo; Salisbury, Jonathan; Preedy, Victor R; Emery, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing in muscle involves the deposition of collagen, but it is not known whether this is achieved by changes in the synthesis or the degradation of collagen. We have used a reliable flooding dose method to measure collagen synthesis rate in vivo in rat abdominal muscle following a surgical incision. Collagen synthesis rate was increased by 480% and 860% on days 2 and 7 respectively after surgery in the wounded muscle compared with an undamaged area of the same muscle. Collagen content was increased by approximately 100% at both day 2 and day 7. These results demonstrate that collagen deposition during wound healing in muscle is achieved entirely by an increase in the rate of collagen synthesis. PMID:23526975

  10. Simultaneous irrigation and negative pressure wound therapy enhances wound healing and reduces wound bioburden in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kathryn; Bills, Jessica; Barker, Jenny; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Infected foot wounds are one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and amputation among persons with diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate a new wound therapy system that employs negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with simultaneous irrigation therapy. For this study, we used a porcine model with full-thickness excisional wounds, inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wounds were treated for 21 days of therapy with either NPWT, NPWT with simultaneous irrigation therapy using normal saline or polyhexanide biguanide (PHMB) at low or high flow rates, or control. Data show that NPWT with either irrigation condition improved wound healing rates over control-treated wounds, yet did not differ from NPWT alone. NPWT improved bioburden over control-treated wounds. NPWT with simultaneous irrigation further reduced bioburden over control and NPWT-treated wounds; however, flow rate did not affect these outcomes. Together, these data show that NPWT with simultaneous irrigation therapy with either normal saline or PHMB has a positive effect on bioburden in a porcine model, which may translate clinically to improved wound healing outcomes. PMID:24134060