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Sample records for laryngeal nerve paralysis

  1. [Esophagomediastinal fistula and recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after radiotherapy of Hodgkin's disease].

    PubMed

    Rosanowski, F; Tigges, M; Eysholdt, U

    1995-08-01

    The case of a female patient 21 years old at the time of diagnosis is reported. The patient suffered from stage IV Hodgkin's disease of the nodular sclerotic type with head and neck manifestations in cervical lymph nodes and in the esophagus. After radiotherapy; she suffered from an esophageal/mediastinal fistula and unilateral paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Fifteen years later, there are no signs of recurrent tumor growth or a secondary neoplasm. Dysphonia was ameliorated by speech therapy, and surgery was not necessary. PMID:7575906

  2. Cricothyroid Muscle Botulinum Toxin Injection to Improve Airway for Bilateral Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Paralysis, A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Michael S; Hanick, Andrea; Hicks, Douglas M

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral vocal fold paralysis most commonly results from iatrogenic trauma to the recurrent laryngeal nerve during surgical procedures in the anterior neck. Patients may require tracheostomy because of acute or gradual onset of dyspnea and airway compromise. The intralaryngeal injection of Botox has been considered as a possible therapy for these airway symptoms of bilateral vocal fold paralysis. Chronic unopposed activity of intact cricothyroid muscles could potentially result in gradual medialization of the vocal folds in patients with bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. This case series describes three patients who successfully underwent injections of botulinum toxin into the bilateral cricothyroid muscles to offer sustained relief of dyspnea resulting from bilateral vocal fold paralysis. PMID:25814315

  3. Surgical Treatment of Laryngeal Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Unilateral arytenoid lateralization is the most commonly used technique to treat laryngeal paralysis. It is important not to overabduct the arytenoid cartilage during the unilateral lateralization to minimize exposure of the rima glottides. Dogs with laryngeal paralysis treated with unilateral lateralization have a good long-term prognosis. Idiopathic polyneuropathy is the most common cause of laryngeal paralysis in dogs. PMID:26947115

  4. Irregular vocal fold dynamics incited by asymmetric fluid loading in a model of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, David; Erath, Byron D.; Zanartu, Matias; Peterson, Sean D.

    2011-11-01

    Voiced speech is produced by dynamic fluid-structure interactions in the larynx. Traditionally, reduced order models of speech have relied upon simplified inviscid flow solvers to prescribe the fluid loadings that drive vocal fold motion, neglecting viscous flow effects that occur naturally in voiced speech. Viscous phenomena, such as skewing of the intraglottal jet, have the most pronounced effect on voiced speech in cases of vocal fold paralysis where one vocal fold loses some, or all, muscular control. The impact of asymmetric intraglottal flow in pathological speech is captured in a reduced order two-mass model of speech by coupling a boundary-layer estimation of the asymmetric pressures with asymmetric tissue parameters that are representative of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Nonlinear analysis identifies the emergence of irregular and chaotic vocal fold dynamics at values representative of pathological speech conditions.

  5. Laryngeal nerve damage

    MedlinePlus

    Vocal cord paralysis ... The doctor will check to see how your vocal cords move. Abnormal movement may mean that a laryngeal ... is to change the position of the paralyzed vocal cord to improve the voice. This can be done ...

  6. Juvenile laryngeal paralysis in three Siberian husky x Alaskan malamute puppies.

    PubMed

    Polizopoulou, Z S; Koutinas, A F; Papadopoulos, G C; Saridomichelakis, M N

    2003-11-15

    Three three-month-old Siberian husky x Alaskan malamute crossbreds had suffered episodic inspiratory dyspnoea and stridor for four to eight weeks and their endurance had decreased. In two of them bilateral, and in the other unilateral, laryngeal paralysis was diagnosed by laryngoscopy. In the nucleus ambiguus of the dogs there was a depletion of motor neurons, neuronal degeneration and mild gliosis, but there were no lesions in the root and peripheral segments of the recurrent laryngeal nerves. PMID:14653342

  7. Facial nerve paralysis in children.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-12-16

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  8. Facial nerve paralysis in children

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  9. [Phrenic nerve paralysis following lung transplantation].

    PubMed

    Sano, Yoshifumi; Oto, T; Toyooka, S; Yamane, M; Okazaki, M; Date, H

    2007-10-01

    Phrenic nerve paralysis is a well-documented complication of cardiac operation, but there is less commonly reported after lung transplantation. A retrospective study of 49 lung transplantation was done at Okayama University Hospital. Phrenic nerve paralysis (unilateral in 3 patients and bilateral in 1) was found in 4 patients (8.2%). All of these paralyses were transiently recovered. The average length of ventilation, intensive care unit stay and hospitalization for recipients with phrenic nerve paralysis was not significantly longer than the other (no diaphragmatic paralysis) recipients, but there was a tendency to be longer. Diaphragmatic paralysis is most likely related to difficulty in detecting the phrenic nerve caused by adhesions, injury due to dissection, thermal injury by electrocartery, or local topical hypothermia using ice-slush. Therefore, it is important to take care of avoiding the injury of the nerve during the operation. PMID:17926903

  10. A Case of Associated Laryngeal Paralysis Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus without Eruption.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Keishi; Furuta, Yasushi; Fukuda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient with significant weakness of the left soft palate, paralysis of the left vocal cord, and left facial nerve palsy. Although the patient showed no herpetic eruption in the pharyngolaryngeal mucosa and auricle skin, reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) was confirmed by serological examination. She was diagnosed with zoster sine herpete. After treatment with antiviral drugs and corticosteroids, her neurological disorder improved completely. When we encounter a patient with associated laryngeal paralysis, we should consider the possibility of reactivation of VZV even when no typical herpetic eruption is observed. PMID:24715925

  11. A Case of Associated Laryngeal Paralysis Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus without Eruption

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Keishi; Furuta, Yasushi; Fukuda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient with significant weakness of the left soft palate, paralysis of the left vocal cord, and left facial nerve palsy. Although the patient showed no herpetic eruption in the pharyngolaryngeal mucosa and auricle skin, reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) was confirmed by serological examination. She was diagnosed with zoster sine herpete. After treatment with antiviral drugs and corticosteroids, her neurological disorder improved completely. When we encounter a patient with associated laryngeal paralysis, we should consider the possibility of reactivation of VZV even when no typical herpetic eruption is observed. PMID:24715925

  12. Recurrent largngeal nerve paralysis: a laryngographic and computed tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Agha, F.P.

    1983-07-01

    Vocal cord paralysis is a relatively common entity, usually resulting from a pathologic process of the vagus nerve or its recurrent larynegeal branch. It is rarely caused by intralargngeal lesions. Four teen patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RLNP) were evaluated by laryngography, computed tomography (CT), or both. In the evaluation of the paramedian cord, CT was limited in its ability to differentiate between tumor or RLNP as the cause of the fixed cord, but it yielded more information than laryngography on the structural abnormalities of the larynx and pre-epiglottic and paralaryngeal spaces. Laryngography revealed distinct features of RLNP and is the procedure of choice for evaluation of functional abnormalities of the larynx until further experience with faster CT scanners and dynamic scanning of the larynx is gained.

  13. A systematic review of variations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xing Yao; Smoll, Nicolas Roydon

    2016-01-01

    With thyroid cancer fast becoming one of the most common endocrine cancers, the frequency of thyroid surgery has increased. A common and debilitating concern with thyroid surgery is recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) paralysis leading to glottal obstruction and airway compromise. A systematic review regarding the anatomical variation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve was performed to determine the position of anatomical variants of the RLN in relation to the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) as well as the prevalence of nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve (NRLN). MEDLINE, Web of Science, MEDITEXT, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane, ProQuest, Pubmed, and ScienceDirect. Databases were searched using the search terms "inferior thyroid artery," "recurrent laryngeal nerve," "nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve," and "anatomical variation." The reference sections of the articles found were searched for additional reports. The references of all articles were searched to find articles missed in the database search. A total of 8,655 RLN sides were included in this study. One thousand eight hundred and thirteen (20.95%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.09, 2,182) showed a Type A configuration of RLN in relation to the ITA, 2,432 (28.10%; 95% CI 27.15, 29.06) showed a Type B configuration and 4,410 (50.95%; 95% CI 49.89, 52.01) showed a Type C configuration between the RLN and the ITA. The second search returned with 38,568 recurrent laryngeal sides and only 221 (0.57%; 95%CI 0.5, 0.65) NRLN documented. The RLN is most commonly found in the posterior position, relative to the ITA. The incidence of the NRLN is low, only occurring in 0.57% of people. Clin. Anat. 29:104-110, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26297484

  14. Electrophysiological neural monitoring of the laryngeal nerves in thyroid surgery: review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Deniwar, Ahmed; Randolph, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is one of the most common complications of thyroid surgery. RLN injury can cause vocal cord paralysis, affecting the patient’s voice and the quality of life. Injury of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) can cause cricothyroid muscle denervation affecting high vocal tones. Thus, securing the laryngeal nerves in these surgeries is of utmost importance. Visual identification of the nerves has long been the standard method for this precaution. Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) has been introduced as a novel technology to improve the protection of the laryngeal nerves and reduce the rate of RLN injury. The aim of this article is to provide a brief description of the technique and review the literature to illustrate the value of IONM. IONM can provide early identification of anatomical variations and unusual nerve routes, which carry a higher risk of injury if not detected. IONM helps in prognosticating postoperative nerve function. Moreover, by detecting nerve injury intraoperatively, it aids in staging bilateral surgeries to avoid bilateral vocal cord paralysis and tracheostomy. The article will discuss the value of continuous IONM (C-IOMN) that may prevent nerve injury by detecting EMG waveform changes indicating impending nerve injury. Herein, we are also discussing anatomy of laryngeal nerves and aspects of its injury. PMID:26425449

  15. Ramsay Hunt syndrome and zoster laryngitis with multiple cranial nerve involvement

    PubMed Central

    Shinha, Takashi; Krishna, Pasala

    2015-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome is characterized by varicella zoster virus infection affecting the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. It typically presents with vesicles in the external auditory canal associated with auricular pain and peripheral facial nerve paralysis. Although vestibulocochlear nerve is frequently co-involved during the course of Ramsay Hunt syndrome, multiple lower cranial nerve involvement has rarely been described in the literature. In addition, laryngitis due to varicella zoster virus is a diagnostic challenge due to its unfamiliarity among clinicians. We report a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome with laryngitis involving multiple lower cranial nerves. PMID:26793453

  16. Biomechanical Properties of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve in the Piglet

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Megan J.; Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M.; Vande Geest, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVP) results from damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). The most common causes of UVP are associated with compromised RLN tissue. The purpose of this research was to investigate the biomechanical properties of piglet RLN and identify differences in these properties along its length and in between the left and right side. Quasi-static uniaxial tensile testing and isotropic constitutive modeling was performed on seven piglet RLNs. Stiffness and other biomechanical parameters were derived from these tests and compared from conducting two different statistical analysis for the between and within nerve comparisons. Results showed higher stiffness values in the left RLN segment than for the right. Descriptive data demonstrated a higher stiffness in RLN segments surrounding the aortic arch, indicating a more protective role of the extracellular matrix in these nerves. This research offers insight regarding the protective function of the RLN connective tissues and structural compromise due to its environment. PMID:20369296

  17. The superior laryngeal nerve injury of a famous soprano, Amelita Galli-Curci.

    PubMed

    Marchese-Ragona, R; Restivo, D A; Mylonakis, I; Ottaviano, G; Martini, A; Sataloff, R T; Staffieri, A

    2013-02-01

    The superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) has been attributed much less clinical significance than the recurrent laryngeal nerve. It has sometimes been described as the 'neglected' nerve in thyroid surgery, although injury to this nerve can cause significant disability. The external branch of the SLN is the only motor supply to the cricothyroid muscle, which increases the tension of the ipsilateral vocal fold during highfrequency phonation, particularly in women and voice professionals. Damage to this nerve can manifest as ipsilateral cricothyroid muscle paralysis, and clinical symptoms may include a hoarse, breathy voice, frequent throat clearing, vocal fatigue or diminished vocal frequency range, especially when rising pitch. SLN paralysis can be a significant issue for those whose careers depend largely on a full range of voice. The famous opera soprano, Amelita Galli-Curci, suffered SLN injury during thyroid surgery with distressing consequences. PMID:23620644

  18. Laryngeal Adductor Function in Experimental Models of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Paniello, Randal C.; Rich, Jason T.; Debnath, Nick L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Most patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis experience some degree of spontaneous reinnervation, which depends upon the type and severity of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury. After partial recovery, the paretic vocal fold may or may not adduct adequately to allow glottic closure, which in turn affects phonatory and swallowing outcomes. This process was studied in a series of canine laryngeal nerve injury models. Study Design Animal (canine) experiments. Methods Maximum stimulable laryngeal adductor pressure (LAP) was measured pre-treatment (baseline) and at 6 months following experimental RLN injuries (total n=59). The 9 study groups were designed to simulate a range of severities of RLN injury. Results The greatest LAP recovery, at 108% of original baseline, was seen in a 50% transection model; the least recovery was seen when the RLN underwent complete transection with repair, at 56% with precise alignment and 50% with alignment reversed. Intermediate models (partial RLN injuries) gave intermediate results. Crush models recovered 105% of LAP, while a half-transection, half-crush injury recovered 72% and cautery injuries recovered 61%. Controls (complete transection without repair) had no measurable recovery. Conclusions The injured RLN has a strong tendency to recover. Restoration of adductor strength, as determined by the LAP, was predictably related to the severity of RLN injury. The model RLN injuries studied provide a range of expected outcomes that can be used for future experiments exploring interventions that may improve post-injury adductor function. PMID:25283381

  19. Laryngeal paralysis in immature and mature dogs as one sign of a more diffuse polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Braund, K G; Steinberg, H S; Shores, A; Steiss, J E; Mehta, J R; Toivio-Kinnucan, M; Amling, K A

    1989-06-15

    Six dogs with laryngeal paralysis had clinical, electrophysiologic, and pathologic evidence of a more generalized polyneuropathy. Three of the dogs were young Dalmatians, one was a young Bouvier des Flandres, and two were older, large-breed dogs. The results of this study suggest that laryngeal paralysis in dogs may frequently be one clinical sign of an underlying, more generalized polyneuropathy. Two forms of this generalized polyneuropathy may exist: an early form, as seen in young dogs with congenital or hereditary disease, and a delayed-onset form that is usually found in older dogs with so-called idiopathic laryngeal paralysis, some of which may have hypothyroidism. PMID:2546908

  20. [Facial nerve paralysis and mandibular fracture].

    PubMed

    Salonna, I; Fanizzi, P; Quaranta, A

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe three cases of peripheral facial nerve paralysis in patients with a mandibular fracture. In two cases, in which the onset of palsy was uncertain, the facial nerve injury was contralateral to the fractured side. Topodiagnostic tests showed neural damage at the third intrapetrosal portion and at the genicular ganglion. In one of the two patients tomography revealed a fracture line through the anterio-superior wall of the external auditory canal homolateral to the facial palsy. In the third subject palsy set in immediately after the trauma and was ipsilateral to the mandibular fracture; the facial lesion was localized at the genicular ganglion. In the first two cases, functional recovery was spontaneous (40 and 0 days after the trauma respectively). In the third subject, the nerve was decompressed surgically with a complete functional recovery two months later. The functional and clinical findings of these three cases show that a contralateral facial palsy secondary to a mandibular fracture resolves spontaneously while the traumatic displacement of the mandibular condyle may determine a temporal bone fracture sometimes followed by a lesion in the intratemporal portion of the facial nerve. An event such as the latter may delay functional recovery and thus warrant surgery such as in cases of Bell's palsy. PMID:1298156

  1. Neurological Complications in Thyroid Surgery: A Surgical Point of View on Laryngeal Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Varaldo, Emanuela; Ansaldo, Gian Luca; Mascherini, Matteo; Cafiero, Ferdinando; Minuto, Michele N.

    2014-01-01

    The cervical branches of the vagus nerve that are pertinent to endocrine surgery are the superior and the inferior laryngeal nerves: their anatomical course in the neck places them at risk during thyroid surgery. The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EB) is at risk during thyroid surgery because of its close anatomical relationship with the superior thyroid vessels and the superior thyroid pole region. The rate of EB injury (which leads to the paralysis of the cricothyroid muscle) varies from 0 to 58%. The identification of the EB during surgery helps avoiding both an accidental transection and an excessive stretching. When the nerve is not identified, the ligation of superior thyroid artery branches close to the thyroid gland is suggested, as well as the abstention from an indiscriminate use of energy-based devices that might damage it. The inferior laryngeal nerve (RLN) runs in the tracheoesophageal groove toward the larynx, close to the posterior aspect of the thyroid. It is the main motor nerve of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles, and also provides sensory innervation to the larynx. Its injury finally causes the paralysis of the omolateral vocal cord and various sensory alterations: the symptoms range from mild to severe hoarseness, to acute airway obstruction, and swallowing impairment. Permanent lesions of the RNL occur from 0.3 to 7% of cases, according to different factors. The surgeon must be aware of the possible anatomical variations of the nerve, which should be actively searched for and identified. Visual control and gentle dissection of RLN are imperative. The use of intraoperative nerve monitoring has been safely applied but, at the moment, its impact in the incidence of RLN injuries has not been clarified. In conclusion, despite a thorough surgical technique and the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring, the incidence of neurological complications after thyroid surgery cannot be suppressed, but should be maintained in a low range. PMID:25076936

  2. Transtympanic Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Nathan; O’Donohue, Peter; French, Heath; Griffin, Aaron; Gochee, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Facial nerve paralysis because of penetrating trauma through the external auditory canal is extremely rare, with a paucity of published literature. The objective of this study is to review the literature on transtympanic facial nerve paralysis and increase physician awareness of this uncommon injury through discussion of its clinical presentation, management and prognosis. We also aim to improve patient outcomes in those that have sustained this type of injury by suggesting an optimal management plan. In this case report, we present the case of a 46-year-old white woman who sustained a unilateral facial nerve paresis because of a garfish penetrating her tympanic membrane and causing direct damage to the tympanic portion of her facial nerve. On follow-up after 12 months, her facial nerve function has largely returned to normal. Transtympanic facial nerve paralysis is a rare injury but can have a favorable prognosis if managed effectively. PMID:26090278

  3. Influence of Asymmetric Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Stimulation on Vibration, Acoustics, and Aerodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Neubauer, Juergen; Sofer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Evaluate the influence of asymmetric recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) stimulation on the vibratory phase, acoustics and aerodynamics of phonation. Study Design Basic science study using an in vivo canine model. Methods The RLNs were symmetrically and asymmetrically stimulated over eight graded levels to test a range of vocal fold activation conditions from subtle paresis to paralysis. Vibratory phase, fundamental frequency (F0), subglottal pressure, and airflow were noted at phonation onset. The evaluations were repeated for three levels of symmetric superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) stimulation. Results Asymmetric laryngeal adductor activation from asymmetric left-right RLN stimulation led to a consistent pattern of vibratory phase asymmetry, with the more activated vocal fold leading in the opening phase of the glottal cycle and in mucosal wave amplitude. Vibratory amplitude asymmetry was also observed, with more lateral excursion of the glottis of the less activated side. Onset fundamental frequency was higher with asymmetric activation because the two RLNs were synergistic in decreasing F0, glottal width, and strain. Phonation onset pressure increased and airflow decreased with symmetric RLN activation. Conclusion Asymmetric laryngeal activation from RLN paresis and paralysis has consistent effects on vocal fold vibration, acoustics, and aerodynamics. This information may be useful in diagnosis and management of vocal fold paresis. PMID:24913182

  4. Amblyopia Associated with Congenital Facial Nerve Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Iwamura, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kenji; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Baba, Shintaro; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The association between congenital facial paralysis and visual development has not been thoroughly studied. Of 27 pediatric cases of congenital facial paralysis, we identified 3 patients who developed amblyopia, a visual acuity decrease caused by abnormal visual development, as comorbidity. These 3 patients had facial paralysis in the periocular region and developed amblyopia on the paralyzed side. They started treatment by wearing an eye patch immediately after diagnosis and before the critical visual developmental period; all patients responded to the treatment. Our findings suggest that the incidence of amblyopia in the cases of congenital facial paralysis, particularly the paralysis in the periocular region, is higher than that in the general pediatric population. Interestingly, 2 of the 3 patients developed anisometropic amblyopia due to the hyperopia of the affected eye, implying that the periocular facial paralysis may have affected the refraction of the eye through yet unspecified mechanisms. Therefore, the physicians who manage facial paralysis should keep this pathology in mind, and when they see pediatric patients with congenital facial paralysis involving the periocular region, they should consult an ophthalmologist as soon as possible. PMID:27003874

  5. Unilateral laryngeal and hypoglossal paralysis (Tapia’s syndrome) following rhinoplasty in general anaesthesia: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tesei, F; Poveda, LM; Strali, W; Tosi, L; Magnani, G; Farneti, G

    2006-01-01

    Summary Extracranial involvement of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the hypoglossal nerve is known as Tapia’s syndrome. Ipsilateral paralysis of the vocal cord and tongue is present. Lesion of these nerves may be a rare complication of airway management. Herein, a case of Tapia’s Syndrome complicating transoral intubation during general anaesthesia in a rhinoplasty operation, together with a review of pertinent literature to evaluate the incidence and the possible pathogenic mechanism of the lesion. There are recent reports in the literature on mono or bilateral paralysis of the XII or laryngeal recurrent nerve after use of laryngeal mask with a pathogenic mechanism of compression. Furthermore, there are reports, following oro-tracheal intubation, of recurrent laryngeal paralysis, likely legacies to the compression of the anterior branch of inferior laryngeal nerve by the cuff of the oro-tracheal tube against the postero-medial part of the thyroid cartilage. Hypoglossal nerve damage could be caused by a stretching of the nerve against the greater horn of the hyoid bone by a laryngeal mask or oro-tracheal tube or compression of the posterior part of the laryngoscope or oro-tracheal tube. In our case, the lesion probably occurred as the result of a two-fold compressive mechanism: on one hand, compression by the cuff of the endo-tracheal tube due to excessive throat pack in the oro-pharynx; on the other hand a prolonged stretching mechanism of these nerves may have occurred due to excessive anterior and lateral flexion of the head. From the data reported in the literature, as in our case, complete recovery of function is generally achieved within the first six months. This progressive recovery of function suggests nerve damage of a neuro-praxic type, which is typical of compression injury. In conclusion, the response of this rare complication confirms the importance not only of the position of the head and patient on the operating table but also the meticulous and correct performance of the routine manoeuvres of airway management. PMID:18236639

  6. Peripheral facial nerve paralysis after upper third molar extraction.

    PubMed

    Cakarer, Sirmahan; Can, Taylan; Cankaya, Burak; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Yazici, Sinem; Ayintap, Emre; Özden, Ali Veysel; Keskin, Cengizhan

    2010-11-01

    Peripheral facial nerve paralysis (PFNP) after mandibular interventions has been reported in the literature. In most cases, paralysis begins immediately after the injection of the mandibular anesthesia, and duration of facial weakness is less than 12 hours. However, there are few documented cases of PFNP after maxillary dental or surgical procedures. A variety of mechanisms have been associated to PFNP, including viral reactivation, demyelination, edema, vasospasm, and trauma. The purpose of this presentation was to report a rare case of facial paralysis that occurred after an upper third molar extraction. The cause of the PFNP and the importance of the multidisciplinary approach in the management are emphasized. PMID:21119431

  7. Neurotrophin expression and laryngeal muscle pathophysiology following recurrent laryngeal nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    WANG, BAOXIN; YUAN, JUNJIE; XU, JIAFENG; XIE, JIN; WANG, GUOLIANG; DONG, PIN

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal palsy often occurs as a result of recurrent laryngeal or vagal nerve injury during oncological surgery of the head and neck, affecting quality of life and increasing economic burden. Reinnervation following recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is difficult despite development of techniques, such as neural anastomosis, nerve grafting and creation of a laryngeal muscle pedicle. In the present study, due to the limited availability of human nerve tissue for research, a rat model was used to investigate neurotrophin expression and laryngeal muscle pathophysiology in RLN injury. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent right RLN transection with the excision of a 5-mm segment. Vocal fold movements, vocalization, histology and immunostaining were evaluated at different time-points (3, 6, 10 and 16 weeks). Although vocalization was restored, movement of the vocal fold failed to return to normal levels following RLN injury. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor differed in the thyroarytenoid (TA) and posterior cricoarytenoid muscles. The number of axons did not increase to baseline levels over time. Furthermore, normal muscle function was unlikely with spontaneous reinnervation. During regeneration following RLN injury, differences in the expression levels of neurotrophic factors may have resulted in preferential reinnervation of the TA muscles. Data from the present study indicated that neurotrophic factors may be applied for restoring the function of the laryngeal nerve following recurrent injury. PMID:26677138

  8. Neurotrophin expression and laryngeal muscle pathophysiology following recurrent laryngeal nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baoxin; Yuan, Junjie; Xu, Jiafeng; Xie, Jin; Wang, Guoliang; Dong, Pin

    2016-02-01

    Laryngeal palsy often occurs as a result of recurrent laryngeal or vagal nerve injury during oncological surgery of the head and neck, affecting quality of life and increasing economic burden. Reinnervation following recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is difficult despite development of techniques, such as neural anastomosis, nerve grafting and creation of a laryngeal muscle pedicle. In the present study, due to the limited availability of human nerve tissue for research, a rat model was used to investigate neurotrophin expression and laryngeal muscle pathophysiology in RLN injury. Twenty‑five male Sprague‑Dawley rats underwent right RLN transection with the excision of a 5‑mm segment. Vocal fold movements, vocalization, histology and immunostaining were evaluated at different time‑points (3, 6, 10 and 16 weeks). Although vocalization was restored, movement of the vocal fold failed to return to normal levels following RLN injury. The expression of brain‑derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line‑derived neurotrophic factor differed in the thyroarytenoid (TA) and posterior cricoarytenoid muscles. The number of axons did not increase to baseline levels over time. Furthermore, normal muscle function was unlikely with spontaneous reinnervation. During regeneration following RLN injury, differences in the expression levels of neurotrophic factors may have resulted in preferential reinnervation of the TA muscles. Data from the present study indicated that neurotrophic factors may be applied for restoring the function of the laryngeal nerve following recurrent injury. PMID:26677138

  9. Recovery of laryngeal function after intraoperative injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Hydman, Jonas; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function in the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroid/parathyroid surgery, despite a macroscopically intact nerve, is a challenge which highlights the sensitivity and complexity of laryngeal innervation. Furthermore, the uncertain prognosis stresses a lack of capability to diagnose the reason behind the impaired function. There is a great deal of literature considering risk factors, surgical technique and mechanisms outside the nerve affecting the incidence of RLN paresis during surgery. To be able to prognosticate recovery in cases of laryngeal dysfunction and voice changes after thyroid surgery, the surgeon would first need to define the presence, location, and type of laryngeal nerve injury. There is little data describing the events within the nerve and the neurobiological reasons for the impaired function related to potential recovery and prognosis. In addition, very little data has been presented in order to clarify any differences between the transient and permanent injury of the RLN. This review aims, from an anatomical and neurobiological perspective, to provide an update on the current understandings of surgically-induced injury to the laryngeal nerves. PMID:25713777

  10. Laryngeal elevation by selective stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadley, Aaron J.; Kolb, Ilya; Tyler, Dustin J.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Laryngeal elevation protects the airway and assists opening of the esophagus during swallowing. The GH, thyrohyoid, and MH muscles provide a majority of this elevatory motion. This study applied functional electrical stimulation to the XII/C1 nerve complex using a nerve cuff electrode to determine the capabilities of neural stimulation to induce laryngeal elevation. Approach. Multi-contact FINE electrodes were implanted onto the XII/C1 nerve complex at locations proximal and distal to the thyrohyoid branching point in five anesthetized canines. Motion of the thyroid cartilage and the hyoid bone was recorded during stimulation of nerve cuffs and intramuscular electrodes. Main Results. Nerve stimulation induced 260% more laryngeal elevation than intramuscular stimulation (18.8 mm versus 5.2 mm, p ≪ 0.01), and 228% higher velocity (143.8 versus 43.9 mm s-1, p ≪ 0.01). While stimulation at all cuff and electrode locations elevated the larynx, only the proximal XII/C1 nerve cuff significantly elicited both thyroid-hyoid approximation and hyoid elevation. In all proximal XII/C1 nerve cuffs (n = 7), stimulation was able to obtain selectivity of greater than 75% of at least one elevatory muscle. Significance. These results support the hypothesis that an implanted neural interface system can produce increased laryngeal elevation, a significant protective mechanism of deglutition.

  11. Monitoring the Laryngeal Nerves During Thyroidectomy. Initial 115 Cases Experience.

    PubMed

    Popescu, R; Ponoran, D; Ignat, O; Constantinoiu, S

    2015-01-01

    The lesions of the laryngeal nerves, despite low incidence, are the most severe long term complications after thyroidectomy. Visualization after careful dissection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is now the golden standard among thyroid surgeons. We assessed traditional landmarks for the identification of RLN and anatomic high risk situation. The study also presented our initial experience using neuro monitoring of RLN (IONM) during surgery. The results show a recognizable Zuckerkandl tubercle in 162 of the 222 cases (72,97%). After dissection RLN was found posterior from TZ in 154 cases (95,06%) and lateral from TZ in 8 cases (4,93%). The identification of the Zuckerkandl tubercle is a useful landmark for RLN localization. As concerning high risk situations we found 2 non recurrent laryngeal nerves (both on the right side). Extra laryngeal ramification of RLN is an anatomical reality with significant incidence (23,8% in our study) and major surgical involvement. Extra laryngeal ramification of RLN occurs more often between the cross point with inferior thyroid artery and larynx entry point. Monitoring the branches of RLN we obtain major EMG signal on the anterior one. The surgical meaning is that the anterior branch carries the most important motor fibers and we have to pay extra care in the correct identification and preservation of it. From a total of 222 visually identified RLN we have 215 nerves (96,84%) with positive EMG signal on monitoring. For 7 nerves (3,15%) we had no EMG signal. In 3 cases (2 total thyroidectomies and 1 lobectomy) involving 5 RLN there was a false negative result caused by electrode malposition or desoldering from endotracheal tube. Our initial experience shows that IONM is harmless, easy to handle and a useful tool for identifying the nerve and confirm its integrity. More extended studies are needed to show if intraoperative monitoring decreases the rate of RLN iatrogenic injury. PMID:26305195

  12. A case of isolated abducens nerve paralysis in maxillofacial trauma

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Elif Seda; Keskin, Ekrem; Atik, Bekir; Koçer, Abdülkadir

    2015-01-01

    Nervus abducens is a pure motor nerve located in the pons. It retracts the eyeball laterally by stimulating rectus lateralis muscle. In case of their paralysis, diplopia and restriction in the eye movements while looking sideways, are seen. Since the same signs are seen due to the muscle entrapment in blowout fractures, its differential diagnosis has importance in terms of the treatment protocol and avoiding unnecessary operations. In this article, we present a 22-year-old male patient who was referred to our department due to the prediagnosis of blowout fracture following maxillofacial trauma. However, he was diagnosed with abducens nerve paralysis after the consultations and analysis and his restriction of movement was resolved via systemic steroid treatment instead of unnecessary operation.

  13. Update in Facial Nerve Paralysis: Tissue engineering and new technologies

    PubMed Central

    Langhals, Nicholas B.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.; Ray, Amrita; Brenner, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To present recent advances in treatment of facial paralysis, emphasizing emerging technologies. This review will summarize the current state of the art in the management of facial paralysis and discuss advances in nerve regeneration, facial reanimation, and use of novel biomaterials. The review includes surgical innovations in re-innervation and reanimation as well as progress with bioelectrical interfaces. Recent Findings The past decade has witnessed major advances in understanding of nerve injury and approaches for management. Key innovations include strategies to accelerate nerve regeneration, provide tissue-engineered constructs that may replace nonfunctional nerves, approaches to influence axonal guidance, limiting of donor-site morbidity, and optimization of functional outcomes. Approaches to muscle transfer continue to evolve, and new technologies allow for electrical nerve stimulation and use of artificial tissues. Summary The fields of biomedical engineering and facial reanimation increasingly intersect, with innovative surgical approaches complementing a growing array of tissue engineering tools. The goal of treatment remains the predictable restoration of natural facial movement, with acceptable morbidity and long-term stability. Advances in bioelectrical interfaces and nanotechnology hold promise for widening the window for successful treatment intervention and for restoring both lost neural inputs and muscle function. PMID:24979369

  14. Effect of laminin-binding BDNF on induction of recurrent laryngeal nerve regeneration by miR-222 activation of mTOR signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jin; Jin, Bin; Li, Da-Wei; Shen, Bin; Gong, Ning; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Dong, Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury is a common severe complication in neck surgery, which can cause varying degrees of vocal fold paralysis and respiratory tract problems. In present study, the effects of laminin-binding brain derived neurotrophic factor (LBD-BDNF) on recurrent laryngeal nerve regeneration were explored and its possible mechanism was investigated. Methods: LBD-BDNF or NAT-BDNF (BDNF without LBD binding) treatment was performed in laryngeal nerve injured rabbits for sixteen weeks. The laryngeal nerve was removed, and histological examination as well as laryngeal electromyography was employed to evaluate its morphology and function of conduction. PC12 cells were cultured to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of LBD-BDNF. Neurite outgrowth, proliferation and migration were determined in nerve cells. The expression of miRNAs and protein of mTOR was quantified by real-time PCR and western blotting respectively. Results: In vivo experiments, LBD-BDNF significantly improved the histological structure and function of recurrent laryngeal nerve compared with NAT-BDNF. LBD-BDNF also markedly promoted neurite outgrowth, proliferation and migration in PC12 cells in vitro experiments. The levels of miR-222 and p-mTOR were up-regulated by LBD-BDNF treatment in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. miR-222 inhibitor attenuated the expression of phosphorylated mTOR and miR-222 mimic enhanced its expression in PC12 cells. In addition, the improved nerve conduction by LBD-BDNF was canceled by miR-222 inhibitor, and the mTOR inhibitor reversed the effects of miR-222 inhibitor on LBD-BDNF treated cells. Conclusions: The present study revealed that LBD-BDNF promoted the recurrent laryngeal nerve regeneration in laryngeal nerve injured rabbits. The underlying mechanism was closely related to activation of p-mTOR by miR-222. PMID:26279751

  15. Quantification of vocal fold motion using echography: application to recurrent nerve paralysis detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Mike-Ely; Lefort, Muriel; Bergeret-Cassagne, Héloïse; Hachi, Siham; Li, Ang; Russ, Gilles; Lazard, Diane; Menegaux, Fabrice; Leenhardt, Laurence; Trésallet, Christophe; Frouin, Frédérique

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent nerve paralysis (RP) is one of the most frequent complications of thyroid surgery. It reduces vocal fold mobility. Nasal endoscopy, a mini-invasive procedure, is the conventional way to detect RP. We suggest a new approach based on laryngeal ultrasound and a specific data analysis was designed to help with the automated detection of RP. Ten subjects were enrolled for this feasibility study: four controls, three patients with RP and three patients without RP according to nasal endoscopy. The ultrasound protocol was based on a ten seconds B-mode acquisition in a coronal plane during normal breathing. Image processing included three steps: 1) automated detection of two consecutive closing and opening images, corresponding to extreme positions of vocal folds in the sequence of B-mode images, using principal component analysis of the image sequence; 2) positioning of three landmarks and robust tracking of these points using a multi-pyramidal refined optical flow approach; 3) estimation of quantitative parameters indicating left and right fractions of mobility, and motion symmetry. Results provided by automated image processing were compared to those obtained by an expert. Detection of extreme images was accurate; tracking of landmarks was reliable in 80% of cases. Motion symmetry indices showed similar values for controls and patients without RP. Fraction of mobility was reduced in cases of RP. Thus, our CAD system helped in the detection of RP. Laryngeal ultrasound combined with appropriate image processing helped in the diagnosis of recurrent nerve paralysis and could be proposed as a first-line method.

  16. Superior laryngeal nerve monitoring using laryngeal surface electrodes and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Hodnett, Benjamin L; Schmitt, Nicole C; Clayburgh, Daniel R; Burkowsky, Alex; Balzer, Jeffrey; Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to establish normative waveform data for the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) utilizing laryngeal surface electrodes and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) in conjunction with a clinical neurophysiologist. A retrospective chart review of 91 consecutive at-risk SLN were identified in 51 patients in whom IONM using laryngeal surface electrodes was performed by a clinical neurophysiologist using Dragonfly (Neurovision Medical Products, Ventura, CA) recording electrodes and a Protektor (Natus Medical Inc., San Carlos, CA)16 channel- intraoperative nerve monitoring system. Inclusion criteria were met for 30 SLN. Data collected included preoperative diagnosis, surgical procedure, rates of nerve identification and stimulation, and waveform characteristics. Waveform analysis for 30 SLN yielded a peak latency of 4.0 ± 0.2 ms, onset latency 2.3 ± 0.1 ms, peak-to-peak amplitude of 220.4 ± 31.1 µV, onset-to-peak amplitude of 186.0 ± 25.0 µV, and stimulation current threshold of 0.55 ± 0.03 mA (data = mean ± SEM). Two patients had abnormal SLN function documented clinically on postoperative laryngoscopic examination. Laryngeal surface electrodes were successfully utilized to identify and monitor SLN function intraoperatively. IONM using laryngeal surface electrodes enables analysis of waveform morphology and latency in addition to threshold and amplitude data obtained with the traditional NIM system, potentially improving the performance of nerve monitoring during thyroid surgery. PMID:25425500

  17. Assessment of recurrent laryngeal nerve function during thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, J; Smith, B; Dougherty, T; Ayshford, C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is disparity in the reported incidence of temporary and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy following thyroidectomy. Much of the disparity is due to the method of assessing vocal cord function. We sought to identify the incidence and natural history of temporary and permanent vocal cord palsy following thyroid surgery. The authors wanted to establish whether intraoperative nerve monitoring and stimulation aids in prognosis when managing vocal cord palsy. Methods Prospective data on consecutive thyroid operations were collected. Intraoperative nerve monitoring and stimulation, using an endotracheal tube mounted device, was performed in all cases. Endoscopic examination of the larynx was performed on the first postoperative day and at three weeks. Results Data on 102 patients and 123 nerves were collated. Temporary and permanent RLN palsy rates were 6.1% and 1.7%. Most RLN palsies were identified on the first postoperative day with all recognised at the three-week review. No preoperative clinical risk factors were identified. Although dysphonia at the three-week follow-up visit was the only significant predictor of vocal cord palsy, only two-thirds of patients with cord palsies were dysphonic. Intraoperative nerve monitoring and stimulation did not predict outcome in terms of vocal cord function. Conclusions Temporary nerve palsy rates were consistent with other series where direct laryngoscopy is used to assess laryngeal function. Direct laryngoscopy is the only reliable measure of cord function, with intraoperative monitoring being neither a reliable predictor of cord function nor a predictor of eventual laryngeal function. The fact that all temporary palsies recovered within four months has implications for staged procedures. PMID:24780671

  18. The central projections of the laryngeal nerves in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Pascual-Font, Arn; Hernndez-Morato, Ignacio; McHanwell, Stephen; Vzquez, Teresa; Maranillo, Eva; Saudo, Jose; Valderrama-Canales, Francisco J

    2011-01-01

    The larynx serves respiratory, protective, and phonatory functions. The motor and sensory innervation to the larynx controlling these functions is provided by the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Classical studies state that the SLN innervates the cricothyroid muscle and provides sensory innervation to the supraglottic cavity, whereas the RLN supplies motor innervation to the remaining intrinsic laryngeal muscles and sensory innervation to the infraglottic cavity, but recent data suggest a more complex anatomical and functional organisation. The current neuroanatomical tracing study was undertaken to provide a comprehensive description of the central brainstem connections of the axons within the SLN and the RLN, including those neurons that innervate the larynx. The study has been carried out in 41 adult male SpragueDawley rats. The central projections of the laryngeal nerves were labelled following application of biotinylated dextran amines onto the SLN, the RLN or both. The most remarkable result of the study is that in the rat the RLN does not contain any afferent axons from the larynx, in contrast to the pattern observed in many other species including man. The RLN supplied only special visceromotor innervation to the intrinsic muscles of the larynx from motoneurons in the nucleus ambiguus (Amb). All the afferent axons innervating the larynx are contained within the SLN, and reach the nucleus of the solitary tract. The SLN also contained secretomotor efferents originating from motoneurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and special visceral efferent fibres from the Amb. In conclusion, the present study shows that in the rat the innervation of the larynx differs in significant ways from that described in other species. PMID:21599662

  19. The central projections of the laryngeal nerves in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Font, Arn; Hernndez-Morato, Ignacio; McHanwell, Stephen; Vzquez, Teresa; Maranillo, Eva; Saudo, Jose; Valderrama-Canales, Francisco J

    2011-08-01

    The larynx serves respiratory, protective, and phonatory functions. The motor and sensory innervation to the larynx controlling these functions is provided by the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Classical studies state that the SLN innervates the cricothyroid muscle and provides sensory innervation to the supraglottic cavity, whereas the RLN supplies motor innervation to the remaining intrinsic laryngeal muscles and sensory innervation to the infraglottic cavity, but recent data suggest a more complex anatomical and functional organisation. The current neuroanatomical tracing study was undertaken to provide a comprehensive description of the central brainstem connections of the axons within the SLN and the RLN, including those neurons that innervate the larynx. The study has been carried out in 41 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The central projections of the laryngeal nerves were labelled following application of biotinylated dextran amines onto the SLN, the RLN or both. The most remarkable result of the study is that in the rat the RLN does not contain any afferent axons from the larynx, in contrast to the pattern observed in many other species including man. The RLN supplied only special visceromotor innervation to the intrinsic muscles of the larynx from motoneurons in the nucleus ambiguus (Amb). All the afferent axons innervating the larynx are contained within the SLN, and reach the nucleus of the solitary tract. The SLN also contained secretomotor efferents originating from motoneurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and special visceral efferent fibres from the Amb. In conclusion, the present study shows that in the rat the innervation of the larynx differs in significant ways from that described in other species. PMID:21599662

  20. Outcomes of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury following congenital heart surgery: A contemporary experience

    PubMed Central

    Alfares, Fahad A.; Hynes, Conor F.; Ansari, Ghedak; Chounoune, Reginald; Ramadan, Manelle; Shaughnessy, Conner; Reilly, Brian K.; Zurakowski, David; Jonas, Richard A.; Nath, Dilip S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve can lead to significant morbidity during congenital cardiac surgery. The objective is to expand on the limited understanding of the severity and recovery of this iatrogenic condition. Design A six-year retrospective review of all congenital heart operations at a single institution from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013 was performed. All patients with documented vocal cord paralysis on laryngoscopic examination comprised the study cohort. Evaluation of time to vocal cord recovery and need for further surgical intervention was the primary focus. Results The incidence of post-operative vocal cord paralysis was 1.1% (32 out of 3036 patients; 95% confidence interval: 0.7–1.5%). The majority were left-sided injuries (71%). Overall rate of recovery was 61% with a median time of 10 months in those who recovered, and a total follow up of 46 months. Due to feeding complications, 45% of patients required gastrostomy tube after the injury, and these patients were found to have longer duration of post-operative days of intubation (median 10 vs. 5 days, p = 0.03), ICU length of stay (50 vs. 8 days, p = 0.002), and hospital length of stay (92 vs. 41 days, p = 0.01). No pre-operative variables were identified as predictive of recovery or need for gastrostomy placement. Conclusion Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury is a serious complication of congenital heart surgery that impacts post-operative morbidity, in some cases leading to a need for further intervention, in particular, gastrostomy tube placement. A prospective, multi-center study is needed to fully evaluate factors that influence severity and time to recovery. PMID:26778899

  1. [Ductus arteriosus apertus as the cause of recurrent nerve paralysis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Schneider, B; Czerny, C; Baumgartner, H; Zehetgruber, M; Bigenzahn, W

    2001-05-01

    There are various reasons for paralysis of the vocal folds, which consequently imposes great demands on differential diagnostics. Angiocardiopathies are regarded as very rare cases of etiopathogenesis. In the present case, a persistent arterial duct could be identified as the reason for the paralysis of the left recurrent nerve of a 59-year-old female patient. The necessity of interdisciplinary diagnostics going beyond the field of otorhinolaryngology is emphasized, especially in cases of a paralysis of the recurrent nerve. PMID:11405148

  2. Fiber components of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in the cat.

    PubMed

    Gacek, R R; Lyon, M J

    1976-01-01

    Experimental neuroanatomical methods were employed in 21 adult cats to determine 1) the number and size of myelinated motor and sensory fibers in the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), and 2) the fiber components originating in the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and retrofacial nucleus (RFN) of the brain stem. Intracranial transection of the X and XI cranial nerves and selective destruction of the NA or RFN were the experimental lesions inflicted in order to obtain the following results. About 55% (312) of the right RLN (565 fibers) is composed of myelinated motor nerve fibers which measure 4 mu - 9 mu in diameter. Nine percent come from the RFN and are smaller (4-6 mu) than the 46% which emanate from the NA and measure 6-9 mu in diameter. The remaining 45% of the RLN is made up of sensory neurons which can be divided into three groups. 1) The largest numerical group (32%) is very small in caliber (1-3 mu) and supplies extralaryngeal regions (trachea, esophagus). 2) The intermediate size fiber group (4-9 mu) comprises 11% of the RLN and probably supplies the subglottic mucosa. 3) The smallest group (2%) of sensory fibers is the largest in diameter (10-15 mu) and may represent either the innervation of muscle spindles or afferents from the superior laryngeal nerve coursing down into the chest. PMID:949153

  3. A Closer Look at Laryngeal Nerves during Thyroid Surgery: A Descriptive Study of 584 Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Pradeep, P. V.; Jayashree, B.; Harshita, Skandha S.

    2012-01-01

    Morbidity after thyroidectomy is related to injuries to the parathyroids, recurrent laryngeal (RLN) and external branch of superior laryngeal nerves (EBSLN). Mostly these are due to variations in the surgical anatomy. In this study we analyse the surgical anatomy of the laryngeal nerves in Indian patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods. Retrospective study (February 2008 to February 2010). Patients undergoing surgery for benign goitres, T1, T2 thyroid cancers without lymph node involvement were included. Data on EBSLN types, RLN course and its relation to the TZ & LOB were recorded. Results. 404 thyroid surgeries (180 total & 224 hemithyroidectomy) were performed. Data related to 584 EBSLN and RLN were included (324 right sided & 260 left sided). EBSLN patterns were Type 1 in 71.4%, Type IIA in 12.3%, and Type IIB in 7.36%. The nerve was not seen in 4.3% cases. RLN had one branch in 69.34%, two branches in 29.11% and three branches in 1.36%. 25% of the RLN was superficial to the inferior thyroid artery, 65% deep to it and 8.2% between the branches. TZ was Grade 1 in 65.2%, Grade II in 25.1% and Grade III in 9.5%. 31.16% of the RLN passes through the LOB. Conclusions. A thorough knowledge of the laryngeal nerves and anatomical variations is necessary for safe thyroid surgery. PMID:22737584

  4. Laryngeal and tracheal afferent nerve stimulation evokes swallowing in anaesthetized guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Udemgba, Chioma; Inoue, Makoto; Canning, Brendan J

    2013-01-01

    We describe swallowing reflexes evoked by laryngeal and tracheal vagal afferent nerve stimulation in anaesthetized guinea pigs. The swallowing reflexes evoked by laryngeal citric acid challenges were abolished by recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) transection and mimicked by electrical stimulation of the central cut ends of an RLN. By contrast, the number of swallows evoked by upper airway/pharyngeal distensions was not significantly reduced by RLN transection but they were virtually abolished by superior laryngeal nerve transection. Laryngeal citric acid-evoked swallowing was mimicked by laryngeal capsaicin challenges, implicating transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-expressing laryngeal afferent nerves arising from the jugular ganglia. The swallowing evoked by citric acid and capsaicin and evoked by electrical stimulation of either the tracheal or the laryngeal mucosa occurred at stimulation intensities that were typically subthreshold for evoking cough in these animals. Swallowing evoked by airway afferent nerve stimulation also desensitized at a much slower rate than cough. We speculate that swallowing is an essential component of airway protection from aspiration associated with laryngeal and tracheal afferent nerve activation. PMID:23858010

  5. Surgical treatment of posterior interosseous nerve paralysis in a tennis player☆

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Tsunemi, Kenjiro; Tsukamoto, Yoshitane; Oi, Takanori; Takagi, Yohei; Tanaka, Juichi; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) paralysis in a tennis player. The PIN, a 2 cm section from a bifurcation point of the radial nerve, presented increased stiffness in the surgical findings and treated with free sural nerve grafting after excision of the degenerative portion of the PIN. We speculate that PIN paralysis associated with hourglass-like constriction can be caused and exacerbated by repetitive forearm pronation and supination in playing tennis. PMID:25104896

  6. Tuberculous Otitis Media Leading to Sequentialib Bilateral Facial Nerve Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Dass, Arjun; Goel, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is an uncommon, insidious, and frequently misdiagnosed form of tuberculosis (TB). In particular, TOM is usually secondary to direct transmission from adjacent organs, while the primary form has been rarely reported. The main aim of treatment is to start the patient on an antitubercular regime and early surgical intervention to decompress the facial nerve if involved. Case Report: The case report of a twenty year-old male with bilateral tuberculous otitis media, who presented himself with fever followed by sequential bilateral facial nerve paralysis, bilateral profound hearing loss, and abdominal tuberculosis leading to intestinal perforation, is presented. To the best available knowledge and after researching literature, no such case depicting the extensive otological complications of tuberculosis has been reported till date. Conclusion: Tuberculosis of the ear is a rare entity and in most cases the clinical features resemble that of chronic otitis media. The diagnosis is often delayed due to varied clinical presentations and this can lead to irreversible complications. Early diagnosis is essential for prompt administration of antitubercular therapy and to prevent complications. PMID:26082906

  7. Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Paralysis is the loss of muscle function in part of your body. It happens when something goes ... way messages pass between your brain and muscles. Paralysis can be complete or partial. It can occur ...

  8. Sarcoidosis Presenting as Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis due to Bilateral Vagal Nerve Involvement.

    PubMed

    Yamasue, Mari; Nureki, Shin-Ichi; Ushijima, Ryoichi; Mukai, Yutaka; Goto, Akihiko; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a rare case of sarcoidosis presenting as bilateral vocal cord paralysis due to bilateral vagal nerve involvement. A 72-year-old woman with uveitis of the left eye complained of hoarseness and aspiration due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. An endobronchial needle aspiration biopsy specimen of the mediastinal lymph nodes showed non-caseating epithelioid cell granuloma. Total protein and cell concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were increased. We diagnosed her to have sarcoidosis with bilateral vagal nerve involvement. Corticosteroid therapy improved her symptoms of hoarseness and aspiration. Sarcoidosis should therefore be taken into consideration as a potential cause of bilateral vocal cord paralysis. PMID:27150886

  9. Aerodynamic and Nonlinear Dynamic Acoustic Analysis of Tension Asymmetry in Excised Canine Larynges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Erin E.; Bulleit, Erin E.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To model tension asymmetry caused by superior laryngeal nerve paralysis (SLNP) in excised larynges and apply perturbation, nonlinear dynamic, and aerodynamic analyses. Method: SLNP was modeled in 8 excised larynges using sutures and weights to mimic cricothyroid (CT) muscle function. Weights were removed from one side to create tension…

  10. Aerodynamic and Nonlinear Dynamic Acoustic Analysis of Tension Asymmetry in Excised Canine Larynges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Erin E.; Bulleit, Erin E.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To model tension asymmetry caused by superior laryngeal nerve paralysis (SLNP) in excised larynges and apply perturbation, nonlinear dynamic, and aerodynamic analyses. Method: SLNP was modeled in 8 excised larynges using sutures and weights to mimic cricothyroid (CT) muscle function. Weights were removed from one side to create tension

  11. Reorganization of laryngeal motoneurons after crush injury in the recurrent laryngeal nerve of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Hernndez-Morato, Ignacio; Valderrama-Canales, Francisco J; Berdugo, Gabriel; Arias, Gonzalo; McHanwell, Stephen; Saudo, Jos; Vzquez, Teresa; Pascual-Font, Arn

    2013-01-01

    Motoneurons innervating laryngeal muscles are located in the nucleus ambiguus (Amb), but there is no general agreement on the somatotopic representation and even less is known on how an injury in the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) affects this pattern. This study analyzes the normal somatotopy of those motoneurons and describes its changes over time after a crush injury to the RLN. In the control group (control group 1, n = 9 rats), the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) and thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles were injected with cholera toxin-B. In the experimental groups the left RLN of each animal was crushed with a fine tip forceps and, after several survival periods (1, 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks; minimum six rats per time), the PCA and TA muscles were injected as described above. After each surgery, the motility of the vocal folds was evaluated. Additional control experiments were performed; the second control experiment (control group 2, n = 6 rats) was performed labeling the TA and PCA immediately prior to the section of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), in order to eliminate the possibility of accidental labeling of the cricothyroid (CT) muscle by spread from the injection site. The third control group (control group 3, n = 5 rats) was included to determine if there is some sprouting from the SLN into the territories of the RLN after a crush of this last nerve. One week after the crush injury of the RLN, the PCA and TA muscles were injected immediately before the section of the SLN. The results show that a single population of neurons represents each muscle with the PCA in the most rostral position followed caudalwards by the TA. One week post-RLN injury, both the somatotopy and the number of labeled motoneurons changed, where the labeled neurons were distributed randomly; in addition, an area of topographical overlap of the two populations was observed and vocal fold mobility was lost. In the rest of the survival periods, the overlapping area is larger, but the movement of the vocal folds tends to recover. After 12 weeks of survival, the disorganization within the Amb is the largest, but the number of motoneurons is similar to control, and all animals recovered the movement of the left vocal fold. Our additional controls indicate that no tracer spread to the CT muscle occurred, and that many of the labeled motoneurons from the PCA after 1 week post-RLN injury correspond to motoneurons whose axons travel in the SLN. Therefore, it seems that after RLN injury there is a collateral sprouting and collateral innervation. Although the somatotopic organization of the Amb is lost after a crush injury of the RLN and does not recover in the times studied here, the movement of the vocal folds as well as the number of neurons that supply the TA and the PCA muscles recovered within 8 weeks, indicating that the central nervous system of the rat has a great capacity of plasticity. PMID:23444899

  12. Reorganization of laryngeal motoneurons after crush injury in the recurrent laryngeal nerve of the rat.

    PubMed

    Hernndez-Morato, Ignacio; Valderrama-Canales, Francisco J; Berdugo, Gabriel; Arias, Gonzalo; McHanwell, Stephen; Saudo, Jos; Vzquez, Teresa; Pascual-Font, Arn

    2013-04-01

    Motoneurons innervating laryngeal muscles are located in the nucleus ambiguus (Amb), but there is no general agreement on the somatotopic representation and even less is known on how an injury in the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) affects this pattern. This study analyzes the normal somatotopy of those motoneurons and describes its changes over time after a crush injury to the RLN. In the control group (control group 1, n?=?9 rats), the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) and thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles were injected with cholera toxin-B. In the experimental groups the left RLN of each animal was crushed with a fine tip forceps and, after several survival periods (1, 2, 4, 8, 12?weeks; minimum six rats per time), the PCA and TA muscles were injected as described above. After each surgery, the motility of the vocal folds was evaluated. Additional control experiments were performed; the second control experiment (control group 2, n?=?6 rats) was performed labeling the TA and PCA immediately prior to the section of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), in order to eliminate the possibility of accidental labeling of the cricothyroid (CT) muscle by spread from the injection site. The third control group (control group 3, n?=?5 rats) was included to determine if there is some sprouting from the SLN into the territories of the RLN after a crush of this last nerve. One week after the crush injury of the RLN, the PCA and TA muscles were injected immediately before the section of the SLN. The results show that a single population of neurons represents each muscle with the PCA in the most rostral position followed caudalwards by the TA. One week post-RLN injury, both the somatotopy and the number of labeled motoneurons changed, where the labeled neurons were distributed randomly; in addition, an area of topographical overlap of the two populations was observed and vocal fold mobility was lost. In the rest of the survival periods, the overlapping area is larger, but the movement of the vocal folds tends to recover. After 12?weeks of survival, the disorganization within the Amb is the largest, but the number of motoneurons is similar to control, and all animals recovered the movement of the left vocal fold. Our additional controls indicate that no tracer spread to the CT muscle occurred, and that many of the labeled motoneurons from the PCA after 1?week post-RLN injury correspond to motoneurons whose axons travel in the SLN. Therefore, it seems that after RLN injury there is a collateral sprouting and collateral innervation. Although the somatotopic organization of the Amb is lost after a crush injury of the RLN and does not recover in the times studied here, the movement of the vocal folds as well as the number of neurons that supply the TA and the PCA muscles recovered within 8?weeks, indicating that the central nervous system of the rat has a great capacity of plasticity. PMID:23444899

  13. Masseteric-facial nerve transposition for reanimation of the smile in incomplete facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Incomplete facial paralysis occurs in about a third of patients with Bell's palsy. Although their faces are symmetrical at rest, when they smile they have varying degrees of disfigurement. Currently, cross-face nerve grafting is one of the most useful techniques for reanimation. Transfer of the masseteric nerve, although widely used for complete paralysis, has not to our knowledge been reported for incomplete palsy. Between December 2008 and November 2013, we reanimated the faces of 9 patients (2 men and 7 women) with incomplete unilateral facial paralysis with transposition of the masseteric nerve. Sex, age at operation, cause of paralysis, duration of denervation, recipient nerves used, and duration of follow-up were recorded. Commissural excursion, velocity, and patients' satisfaction were evaluated with the FACIAL CLIMA and a questionnaire, respectively. The mean (SD) age at operation was 39 (±6) years and the duration of denervation was 29 (±19) months. There were no complications that required further intervention. Duration of follow-up ranged from 6-26 months. FACIAL CLIMA showed improvement in both commissural excursion and velocity of more than two thirds in 6 patients, more than one half in 2 patients and less than one half in one. Qualitative evaluation showed a slight or pronounced improvement in 7/9 patients. The masseteric nerve is a reliable alternative for reanimation of the smile in patients with incomplete facial paralysis. Its main advantages include its consistent anatomy, a one-stage operation, and low morbidity at the donor site. PMID:26143295

  14. Restoration of shoulder function and elbow flexion by nerve transfer for poliomyelitis-like paralysis caused by enterovirus 71 infection.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, S; Nagano, A; Sano, M; Ogihara, H; Omura, T

    2007-02-01

    We report the case of an eight-month-old girl who presented with a poliomyelitis-like paralysis in her left upper limb caused by enterovirus 71 infection. She recovered useful function after nerve transfers performed six months after the onset of paralysis. Early neurotisation can be used successfully in the treatment of poliomyelitis-like paralysis in children. PMID:17322446

  15. Quantitative PCR Analysis of Laryngeal Muscle Fiber Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Daele, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Voice and swallowing dysfunction as a result of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis can be improved with vocal fold injections or laryngeal framework surgery. However, denervation atrophy can cause late-term clinical failure. A major determinant of skeletal muscle physiology is myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression, and previous protein analyses

  16. Quantitative PCR Analysis of Laryngeal Muscle Fiber Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Daele, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Voice and swallowing dysfunction as a result of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis can be improved with vocal fold injections or laryngeal framework surgery. However, denervation atrophy can cause late-term clinical failure. A major determinant of skeletal muscle physiology is myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression, and previous protein analyses…

  17. Management of bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Sanapala, Anitha; Nagaraju, Male; Rao, Lella Nageswara; Nalluri, Koteswar

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is rare for benign thyroid lesions (0.2%). After extubation-stridor, respiratory distress, aphonia occurs due to the closure of the glottic aperture necessitating immediate intervention and emergency intubation or tracheostomy. Intra-operative identification and preservation of the RLN minimizes the risk of injury. It is customary to expect RLN problems after thyroid surgery especially if malignancy, big thyroid, distorted anatomical problems and difficult airway that can lead to intubation trauma. Soon after extubating, it is essential to the anesthetist to check the vocal cord movements on phonation and oropharyngeal reflexes competency. But this case is specially mentioned to convey the message that in spite of absence of above mentioned predisposing factors for complications and good recovery profile specific to thyroid, there can be unanticipated airway compromise that if not attended to immediately may cost patient's life. This is a case of postextubation stridor following subtotal thyroidectomy due to bilateral RLN damage and its management. PMID:26417137

  18. Losing Your Voice: Etiologies and Imaging Features of Vocal Fold Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Vachha, Behroze; Cunnane, Mary Beth; Mallur, Pavan; Moonis, Gul

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenic compromise of vocal fold function exists along a continuum encompassing vocal cord hypomobility (paresis) to vocal fold immobility (paralysis) with varying degrees and patterns of reinnervation. Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) may result from injury to the vagus or the recurrent laryngeal nerves anywhere along their course from the brainstem to the larynx. In this article, we review the anatomy of the vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves and examine the various etiologies of VFP. Selected cases are presented with discussion of key imaging features of VFP including radiologic findings specific to central vagal neuropathy and peripheral recurrent nerve paralysis. PMID:23814687

  19. Facial Nerve Paralysis in Patients With Chronic Ear Infections: Surgical Outcomes and Radiologic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Woong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features, radiologic findings, and treatment outcomes in patients of facial nerve paralysis with chronic ear infections. And we also aimed to evaluate for radiologic sensitivities on facial canal, labyrinth and cranial fossa dehiscences in middle ear cholesteatomas. Methods A total of 13 patients were enrolled in this study. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for clinical features, radiologic findings, surgical findings, and recovery course. In addition, retrospective review of temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and operative records in 254 middle ear cholesteatoma patients were also performed. Results Of the 13 patients, eight had cholesteatomas in the middle ear, while two patients exhibited external auditory canal cholesteatomas. Chronic suppurative otitis media, petrous apex cholesteatoma and tuberculous otitis media were also observed in some patients. The prevalence of facial paralysis in middle ear cholesteatoma patients was 3.5%. The most common involved site of the facial nerve was the tympanic segment. Labyrinthine fistulas and destruction of cranial bases were more frequently observed in facial paralysis patients than nonfacial paralysis patients. The radiologic sensitivity for facial canal dehiscence was 91%. The surgical outcomes for facial paralysis were relatively satisfactory in all patients except in two patients who had petrous apex cholesteatoma and requiring conservative management. Conclusion Facial paralyses associated with chronic ear infections were observed in more advanced lesions and the surgical outcomes for facial paralysis were relatively satisfactory. Facial canal dehiscences can be anticipated preoperatively with high resolution CTs. PMID:26330915

  20. Masseteric nerve for reanimation of the smile in short-term facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego; Cabello, Alvaro

    2014-02-01

    Our aim was to describe our experience with the masseteric nerve in the reanimation of short term facial paralysis. We present our outcomes using a quantitative measurement system and discuss its advantages and disadvantages. Between 2000 and 2012, 23 patients had their facial paralysis reanimated by masseteric-facial coaptation. All patients are presented with complete unilateral paralysis. Their background, the aetiology of the paralysis, and the surgical details were recorded. A retrospective study of movement analysis was made using an automatic optical system (Facial Clima). Commissural excursion and commissural contraction velocity were also recorded. The mean age at reanimation was 43(8) years. The aetiology of the facial paralysis included acoustic neurinoma, fracture of the skull base, schwannoma of the facial nerve, resection of a cholesteatoma, and varicella zoster infection. The mean time duration of facial paralysis was 16(5) months. Follow-up was more than 2 years in all patients except 1 in whom it was 12 months. The mean duration to recovery of tone (as reported by the patient) was 67(11) days. Postoperative commissural excursion was 8(4)mm for the reanimated side and 8(3)mm for the healthy side (p=0.4). Likewise, commissural contraction velocity was 38(10)mm/s for the reanimated side and 43(12)mm/s for the healthy side (p=0.23). Mean percentage of recovery was 92(5)mm for commissural excursion and 79(15)mm/s for commissural contraction velocity. Masseteric nerve transposition is a reliable and reproducible option for the reanimation of short term facial paralysis with reduced donor site morbidity and good symmetry with the opposite healthy side. PMID:24148699

  1. Nicolaus A. Friedreich's description of peripheral facial nerve paralysis in 1798.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, T D

    1979-01-01

    In 1798, Nicolaus A. Friedreich of Wurzburg published a detailed clinical account of three patients with idopathic peripheral facial nerve paralysis. His astute observations of onset, physical findings, natural course, treatment, and recovery preceded those of Charles Bell by 23 years. PMID:368292

  2. Anatomical variations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in Chinese patients: a prospective study of 2,404 patients

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Tanglei; Qiu, Weihua; Yang, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) shows some anatomical variations that can potentially compromise the safety of thyroid surgery. The purpose of this prospective study was to identify the anatomical variations of the RLN in Chinese patients undergoing thyroid surgery. Between January 2007 and December 2013, 2,404 Chinese patients were hospitalized for thyroid surgery with dissecting of the RLN unilaterally or bilaterally. The patients consisted of 510 men and 1,894 women, with a median age of 45.0 years. Overall 3,275 RLNs, including 1,576 left- and 1,699 right-side nerves, were dissected. The anatomical variations were identified in 690 RLNs, including 305 left- and 385 right-side nerves. We identified as many as seven RLN anatomical variations in Chinese patients. These findings indicate that anatomical variations of the RLN are common, and the identification of these anatomical variations of the RLN can help to minimize the risk of post-operative RLN paralysis. PMID:27146369

  3. [A case of Churg-Strauss syndrome with subarachnoid hemorrhage and left phrenic nerve paralysis].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kyoko; Ohoba, Hiromi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Yukihisa; Jinn, Yasuto; Yoshimura, Nobuyuki

    2011-09-01

    A 60-year-old woman was given a diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) in 2000 because of peripheral blood eosinophilia, eosinophilic pneumonia, asthma, polyarticular pain, and limb numbness. She was treated with prednisolone (PSL), and the above symptoms improved but then relapsed on tapering of PSL. In September 2009, after 7 days of tapering of PSL to 5mg/day, the patient developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage and was admitted. MRA and cerebral angiography revealed no aneurysm; the source of bleeding could not be determined, but her symptoms indicated a benign course. A chest X-ray 27 days after admission showed left diaphragmatic elevation, and left phrenic nerve paralysis was diagnosed by a phrenic nerve stimulation test. Peripheral blood eosinophilia had progressed gradually during the admission period, and although it is rare for subarachnoid hemorrhage and phrenic nerve paralysis to be associated with CSS, we regarded these as vasculitis symptoms related to CSS. PMID:22073608

  4. Non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Iorgulescu, R; Bistriceanu, I; Badanoiu, D; Calin, C; Capatana, C; Iordache, N

    2014-01-01

    Total thyroidectomy is nowadays the operation of choice in the majority of endocrine surgery centers, whether the pathology is benign or malignant. To obtain good results, a thorough knowledge of local anatomy and a profound respect for hemostasis are necessary. Routine, at least visual, identification of the inferior laryngeal nerve (ILN) is considered gold standard and is strongly recommended. Surgeons are generally aware of the variations the nerve can have, especially on the right side. Although very rare, one such variation, with possible great impact on outcomes, is the non-recurrent route of the nerve. We present the case of a middle-aged woman with a multinodular goiter scheduled for elective surgery. During total thyroidectomy, on the right side, we were not able to find the inferior laryngeal nerve in its usual position, using the customary anatomical landmarks. Instead, we encountered it emerging directly from the right vagus nerve, at a rather right angle and entering the larynx as a unique non-bifurcating nerve. Thus, it could be spared from any injury and protected, although it could have been easily confounded with a vascular structure, given its transverse course.We think it is never overmuch to repeat that the routine identification and exposure of the inferior laryngeal nerve is a must for the thyroid surgeon in order to safely preserve its integrity.

  5. [Variations in the course of the inferior laryngeal nerve. Surgical anatomy, classification, diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Weiand, G; Mangold, G

    2004-02-01

    Because of multiple variations in course, the inferior laryngeal nerve shows a great variety of topographic relations to adjacent cervical structures. It may recur in the tracheoesophageal groove or anteriorly or posteriorly to it. It can pass under, over, or through the ramifications of the inferior thyroid artery. If Zuckerkandl's tubercle is enlarged, the nerve may be luxated. It is firmly fixed to the ligament of Berry by tight adhesions. Before entering the larynx, the nerve may show multiple ramifications. It may also recur around the inferior thyroid or vertebral artery. On the right, a nonrecurrent nerve is found in 0.6-0.8% of individuals, always in coincidence with a "lusorian" artery. Three course variations can be distinguished: descending (type I), horizontal (II), and ascending (III). A nonrecurrent nerve on the left is extremely rare, as it can only be found as a combination anomaly of a right-sided lusorian artery with situs inversus viscerum. The divided inferior laryngeal nerve shows recurrent and nonrecurrent ramifications. A nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve can be indirectly ruled out preoperatively by demonstration of a normally developed brachiocephalic trunk via colour-coded duplex ultrasound. PMID:14991182

  6. Effect of corrective make-up training on patients with facial nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, J; Ohshiro, K; Abe, T

    1998-04-01

    Two women who suffered from facial nerve paralysis following surgical resection of a posterior fossa tumor were instructed by an expert beautician in the application of make-up to correct their facial imbalances. The results of a personality assessment administered before and after instruction showed positive changes including reductions in depression and feelings of inferiority. Postoperative restoration of normal facial appearance and recovery of physiologic function are related and important concerns to patients. It is noteworthy that daily use of simple low-cost make-up techniques can significantly reduce the "psychological load" of patients with facial paralysis during the recovery period. PMID:9581393

  7. Thyrocricotracheal separation with bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve transsection: report of a survivor.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dongbin; Choi, Jae Hyuk; Sohn, Jin Ho

    2015-12-01

    Thyrocricotracheal separation is an extremely fatal injury that has not been reported in the literature. Although timely and proper management of this injury is paramount to preserve the patient's life, airway, and voice, its rarity has resulted in a lack of consensus regarding the best management option. We report a case of thyrocricotracheal separation with bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve transsection caused by a self-inflicted injury, which was treated with reanastomosis in conjunction with transverse laser cordotomy. The patient could achieve both decannulation and a serviceable voice and could return to a normal social life. The present case is the first report of a survivor with thyrocricotracheal separation with bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve transsection. This findings show that appropriate management of the airway is the first step to ensure a successful outcome, and a step-by-step approach to detect and manage the associated injuries is paramount in cases showing the most severe form of laryngeal trauma. PMID:25976270

  8. Using NU-KNIT for hemostasis around recurrent laryngeal nerve during transthoracic esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We thought that using electrocautery for hemostasis caused recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. We reflected the prolonged use of electrocautery and employed NU-KNIT to achieve hemostasis nearby the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We assessed that using NU-KNIT hemostasis prevented or not postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, retrospectively. The present study was evaluated to compare using electrocautery hemostasis with using NU-KNIT hemostasis during lymphadenectomy along recurrent laryngeal nerve. The variables compared were morbidity rate of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, operation time, and blood loss. Results We use NU-KNIT to achieve hemostasis without strong compression. This group is named group N. On the other hand, we use electrocautery to achieve hemostasis. This group is named group E. Complication rate of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy was higher in group E (55.6%) than group N (5.3%) (p?=?0.007). Conclusions Even hemostasis using NU-KNIT was slightly more time-consuming than using electrocautery, we concluded that it would be useful to prevent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. PMID:24602313

  9. An uncommon case of dyspnea with unilateral laryngeal paralysis in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Lerat, Justine; Lacoste, Marie; Prechoux, Jean-Marc; Aubry, Karine; Nadalon, Sylvie; Ly, Kim Heang; Bessede, Jean-Pierre

    2016-02-01

    A 61-year-old man with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and normal BMI complained of dyspnea. Nasofibroscopy revealed a global and major oedema of the glottis and supraglottis and also a paralysis of the left vocal fold. CT-scan pointed out a spontaneous hyperdensity of the left arytenoid cartilage. A tracheostomy was performed. Clinical examination revealed large hands and macroglossy with high IGF1 rate. MRI confirmed a supracentimetric pituitary adenoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a case of acute respiratory distress due to unilateral larynx paralysis leading to acromegaly diagnosis. This is due to submucosal hypertrophy and vocal cord immobility. PMID:26142980

  10. [Bilateral phrenic nerve paralysis, dysautonomia and restrictive cardiomyopathy in a case of POEMS syndrome].

    PubMed

    Delalande, S; Stojkovic, T; Rose, C; Millaire, A; Hurtevent, J F; Vermersch, P

    2002-07-01

    We report a case of POEMS syndrome (Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, M protein and Skin changes) with unusual clinical features. A 62-year-old woman presented a severe polyneuropathy with dysphonia and vegetative symptoms, including bradycardia and sphincterial disorders. The clinical examination showed facial hyperpigmentation, cachexia, anasarca and splenomegaly. She also presented restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocrine disturbances. Nerve conduction studies revealed a severe demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed an elevated protein level. We detected a biclonal gammapathy (Ig G and Ig A with lambda light chain) and lytic pelvic bone lesions. Later, she developed a severe ventilatory failure due to a bilateral phrenic nerve paralysis leading to a mechanical ventilation. Steroids followed by localized radiotherapy partially improved the respiratory status and stabilized the neuropathy. Phrenic nerve paralysis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, vegetative symptoms and cranial nerve palsy are exceptional in POEMS syndrome. Moreover, this case emphasizes the importance of radiological investigations since the discover of plasmocytoma may improve the prognosis of POEMS syndrome. PMID:12486906

  11. A Preclinical Study of Laryngeal Motor-Evoked Potentials as a Marker Vagus Nerve Activation.

    PubMed

    Grimonprez, Annelies; Raedt, Robrecht; De Taeye, Leen; Larsen, Lars Emil; Delbeke, Jean; Boon, Paul; Vonck, Kristl

    2015-12-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a treatment for refractory epilepsy and depression. Previous studies using invasive recording electrodes showed that VNS induces laryngeal motor-evoked potentials (LMEPs) through the co-activation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and subsequent contractions of the laryngeal muscles. The present study investigates the feasibility of recording LMEPs in chronically VNS-implanted rats, using a minimally-invasive technique, to assess effective current delivery to the nerve and to determine optimal VNS output currents for vagal fiber activation. Three weeks after VNS electrode implantation, signals were recorded using an electromyography (EMG) electrode in the proximity of the laryngeal muscles and a reference electrode on the skull. The VNS output current was gradually ramped up from 0.1 to 1.0 mA in 0.1 mA steps. In 13/27 rats, typical LMEPs were recorded at low VNS output currents (median 0.3 mA, IQR 0.2-0.3 mA). In 11/27 rats, significantly higher output currents were required to evoke electrophysiological responses (median 0.7 mA, IQR 0.5-0.7 mA, p < 0.001). The latencies of these responses deviated significantly from LMEPs (p < 0.05). In 3/27 rats, no electrophysiological responses to simulation were recorded. Minimally invasive LMEP recordings are feasible to assess effective current delivery to the vagus nerve. Furthermore, our results suggest that low output currents are sufficient to activate vagal fibers. PMID:26510476

  12. Identification alone versus intraoperative neuromonitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroid surgery: experience of 2034 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of intraoperative neuromonitoring in reducing the postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy rate by a comparison between patients submitted to thyroidectomy with intraoperative neuromonitoring and with routine identification alone. Methods Between June 2007 and December 2012, 2034 consecutive patients underwent thyroidectomy by a single surgical team. We compared patients who have had neuromonitoring and patients who have undergone surgery with nerve visualization alone. Patients in which neuromonitoring was not utilized (Group A) were 993, patients in which was utilized (group B) were 1041. Results In group A 28 recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries were observed (2.82%), 21 (2.11%) transient and 7 (0.7%) permanent. In group B 23 recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries were observed (2.21%), in 17 cases (1.63%) transient and in 6 (0.58%) permanent. Differences were not statistically significative. Conclusions Visual nerve identification remains the gold standard of recurrent laryngeal nerve management in thyroid surgery. Neuromonitoring helps to identify the nerve, in particular in difficult cases, but it did not decrease nerve injuries compared with visualization alone. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the benefit of intraoperative neuromonitoring in thyroidectomy, especially in conditions in which the recurrent nerve is at high risk of injury. PMID:24942225

  13. Phrenic Nerve Paralysis as the Initial Presentation in Pleural Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Makimoto, Go; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Yamadori, Ichiro; Sato, Toshio; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of persistent cough. A chest radiograph revealed an elevation of the right diaphragm. Computed tomography (CT) images revealed a small nodule localized on the right mediastinum. Five months later, the nodule had grown and was diagnosed as malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) by a CT-guided needle biopsy. The patient underwent combined chemotherapy, but the disease progressed rapidly and he passed away. On autopsy, microscopic findings and immunohistological examinations supported the diagnosis of sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Therefore, we diagnosed this rare case as localized sarcomatoid MPM showing phrenic nerve paralysis as an initial presentation. PMID:25076889

  14. Vocal cord paralysis caused by stingray.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Jin; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Foreign bodies in the oral cavity and pharynx are commonly encountered in the emergency room and outpatient departments, and the most frequently observed of these foreign bodies are fish bones. Among the possible complications resulting from a pharyngeal foreign body, vocal cord fixation is extremely rare, with only three cases previously reported in the English literature. The mechanisms of vocal cord fixation can be classified into mechanical articular fixation, direct injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis secondary to inflammation. The case discussed here is different from previous cases. We report a rare case of vocal cord paralysis caused by the venom of a stingray tail in the hypopharynx. PMID:24077868

  15. Morphology of P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings in the rat laryngeal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Natsumi; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2016-02-01

    The morphological characteristics of P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings in the laryngeal mucosa were herein examined using immunohistochemistry with confocal laser microscopy. Ramified intraepithelial nerve endings immunoreactive to P2X3 were distributed in the epiglottis and arytenoid region. The axon terminals of P2X3-immunoreactive ramified endings were beaded or flat in shape. These endings were also immunoreactive to P2X2 and not identical to the nerve endings immunoreactive to Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α3-subunit, substance P (SP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). P2X3-immunoreactive axon terminals were also immunoreactive to vGLUT1, vGLUT2, and vGLUT3. In addition to ramified endings, P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings were associated with α-gustducin-immunoreactive solitary chemosensory cells and/or SNAP25-immunoreactive neuroendocrine cells. Furthermore, P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings were also observed in the taste bud-like chemosensory cell clusters of the stratified squamous epithelium covering epiglottic and arytenoid cartilage. The P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings that associated with sensory and/or endocrine cells and chemosensory cell clusters were also immunoreactive to P2X2, vGLUT1, vGLUT2, and vGLUT3, but not to SP or CGRP. In conclusion, P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings may be classified into two types, i.e., intraepithelial ramified nerve endings and nerve endings associated with chemosensory cells and neuroendocrine cells. PMID:26475709

  16. Creating eye closure in patients with facial nerve paralysis using an implantable solenoid actuator.

    PubMed

    Hasmat, Shaheen; Lovell, Nigel H; Eviston, Timothy; Ekmejian, Rafael; Suaning, Gregg J; Clark, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes the use of an implantable solenoid actuator to create a more natural eyelid closure over current lid loading therapies in patients with facial nerve paralysis (FNP). The actuator works by moving a magnet when a solenoid is activated. This is used to tension a sling applied to the upper eyelid which closes the eye. The sling design has been described elsewhere and creating eye closure using it requires a force of 627 (± 128) mN over a movement of approximately 6 mm. The actuator described here was able to successfully achieve these parameters and repeatedly perform eyelid closure in a cadaveric rabbit model. Device limitations and future improvements have also been identified and discussed. PMID:26736520

  17. Vocal cord paralysis after vagus nerve stimulator battery replacement successfully treated with medialization thyroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hoerth, Matthew; Drazkowski, Joseph; Sirven, Joseph; Hinni, Michael; Smith, Benn; Labiner, David

    2007-11-01

    The vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) has been used effectively for partial seizure disorders, however many patients suffer from side effects of alterations in voice. This case describes a new remediable adverse effect of the VNS. A patient with medically intractable epilepsy had improvement of his seizure control with VNS therapy after titrating him to a high output and rapid cycling paradigm with essentially no side effects. After a battery replacement, he was restarted on his previous settings and subsequently developed a hoarse voice. He was found to have complete left vocal cord paralysis, an adverse effect attributed to a rapid titration to his previous high output and rapid cycling paradigm. This side effect has not been previously described in the literature. The patient subsequently had a medialization thyroplasty with resolution of his hoarse voice. PMID:17697747

  18. Cystic schwannoma of the recurrent laryngeal nerve: a rare finding posing diagnostic difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Knulst, Rowan; Bosman, Willem-Maarten; Ritchie, Ewan D; da Costa, Andy

    2014-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman with a painless mass in the neck was examined by the surgeon. Imaging and cytology prior to surgery suggested the mass to be either a thyroid cyst or a branchial cleft cyst. After surgery, the patient reported a hoarse voice and the pathologist confirmed the removed lesion to be a cystic schwannoma of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. The inconclusive imaging results, combined with colloid-like material in the punctate should prompt the investigator to include cystic schwannoma in the differential diagnosis. With the probability of a neurogenic origin of the mass in mind, nerve-sparing surgery can be performed. As a future prospect, positron emission tomography scans are mentioned as a modality with possibilities to discriminate a cystic schwannoma from other common cystic lesions. PMID:24769666

  19. Recognition and Surgical Techniques for Management of Nonrecurrent Laryngeal Nerve during Carotid Endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Jabori, Sinan; Gelabert, Hugh A; Moore, Wesley S; Quinones-Baldrich, William J; O'Connell, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    The presence of a nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve (NRLN) during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) may significantly limit the exposure of the surgical field during this operation. Although its reported incidence is rare, NRLN typically overlies the carotid bifurcation and failure to recognize this anatomic variation increases the risk of NRLN injury. A retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent CEA for hemodynamically significant extracranial carotid stenosis between January 2005 and December 2014 was performed. All patients with NRLN encountered intraoperatively were identified. Clinical outcomes, surgical techniques, and complications were reviewed and reported. Four left-sided NRLN were identified and 4 were right sided. No cranial nerve deficits or injuries occurred after CEA in patients where NRLN was encountered. Two distinct surgical techniques were used to manage patients with NRLN and they are discussed in detail. PMID:26965812

  20. Laryngeal reinnervation with the hypoglossal nerve. I. Physiology, histochemistry, electromyography, and retrograde labeling in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Paniello, R C; West, S E; Lee, P

    2001-06-01

    This study was performed to determine whether the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XI [XII]) would serve as a useful donor for laryngeal reinnervation by anastomosis to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Twenty hemilarynges in 10 dogs were studied prospectively after XII-RLN anastomosis (group A; n = 5), split XII-RLN anastomosis (group B; n = 3), XII-RLN anastomosis with a 2-cm interposition graft (group C; n = 2), no treatment (group D; n = 5), RLN section (group E; n = 2), or ansa cervicalis-RLN anastomosis (group F; n = 3). Spontaneous activity was observed monthly by infraglottic examination through permanent tracheostomies and was recorded by electromyography. Laryngeal adductory pressure and induced phonation were obtained by stimulating the RLN while passing a pressure transducer balloon or humidified air through the glottis. At sacrifice, the laryngeal muscles were stained for adenosine triphosphatase to determine the ratio of type I to type II fibers. Retrograde labeling of the brain stem was performed with horseradish peroxidase. Infraglottic examination at 6 months showed a full range of adductory motion in groups A and B during the swallow reflex, comparable with that in group D. Groups C and F showed good bulk and tone, but little spontaneous motion. Group E remained paralyzed. Stimulation of the transferred nerves caused more activity in groups A and B than in the other groups; groups C and F partially adducted at high levels. The laryngeal adductory pressure responses of groups A and B were similar to those of group D. The XII-reinnervated larynges were capable of producing normal induced phonation. Retrograde labeling of the RLN showed that the reinnervating axons originated only in the hypoglossal nucleus. Electromyography of the reinnervated adductor muscles confirmed spontaneous activity in the dogs (awake). Histochemical analysis confirmed slow-to-fast transformation of both the posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles, indicating that significant reinnervation occurred. We conclude that the hypoglossal nerve functions well as a donor for adductory reinnervation of the larynx. PMID:11407844

  1. Phrenic nerve paralysis from recurrence of stage I thymoma with myasthenia gravis 10 years after complete resection.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hironori; Takasaki, Chihiro; Okubo, Kenichi

    2015-06-01

    A 34-year-old woman underwent thymo-thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG) and was diagnosed with type B3 Masaoka stage I thymoma. Phrenic nerve paralysis developed 8 years after surgery, and a left-sided mediastinal mass was seen on a chest radiograph 10 years after surgery. Chest computed tomography revealed a tumor measuring 57 21 28 mm beside the aortic arch. Surgical resection of the tumor with partial resection of phrenic and recurrent nerve, the left upper lobe, and the pericardium was performed through a left thoracotomy. Histological examination confirmed recurrent thymoma invading the resected surrounding organs. The patient received radiation therapy postoperatively and was alive with stable symptoms of MG at the 2-year follow-up. Symptomatic relapse of thymoma is very rare and an occult recurrent thymoma should be considered in patients with unilateral phrenic nerve paralysis even after complete resection of thymoma. Detailed examination with careful follow-up should be considered. PMID:23949090

  2. Preoperative diagnosis and intraoperative protection of nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve: A review of 5 cases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ping; He, Liang; Dong, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve (NRLN) is a risk factor for nerve injury during thyroidectomy or parathyroidectomy. It is usually associated with abnormal vasculature that can be identified by several imaging methods. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the preoperative diagnosis and intraoperative protection of NRLN. Material/Methods Of the 7169 patients who underwent thyroid surgery at our hospital between August 2008 and January 2013, 5 patients with NRLN were identified. Preoperative chest X-rays, neck ultrasonography (US), and computed tomography (CT) findings were reviewed. NRLNs were carefully and systematically searched for in surgery. Results Preoperative CT predicted NRLN in all 5 cases (100% accuracy). The detection rate of NRLN by CT was 0.4% (5/1170). NRLNs were confirmed in surgery. All of them were right-sided NRLN with type IIA variant. The CT scans clearly revealed the vascular anomalies. The review of US images suggested that vascular anomalies could be identified on the images in 1 patient. No postoperative complications occurred in any patient. Conclusions The preoperative CT scan was a reliable and effective method for identifying abnormal vasculature to indirectly predict NRLN. Combining the CT and US findings with adequate surgical technique may help to reduce the risk of nerve damage, in addition to preventing nerve palsy. PMID:24518037

  3. Nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerves and anatomical findings during thyroid surgery: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kumiko; Toriumi, Yasuo; Kamio, Makiko; Nogi, Hiroko; Shioya, Hisashi; Takeyama, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    A nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (NRILN) is found more frequently on the right side than on the left, and it is closely associated with an aberrant right subclavian artery. The presence of the aberrant right subclavian artery on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan suggests NRILN; however, different types of branching locations and pathways exist. Here, we report three NRILN cases with different pathways where the vagus nerve arises more medial than usual and a review of the literature. Case 1: A 30-year-old Japanese female presented with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Preoperative CT scan revealed an aberrant right subclavian artery, and an operation was performed under suspicion of NRILN. During the operation, the vagus nerve was found to arise more medially than usual and two NRILNs originated from it at the level of the cricoid cartilage and at a more caudal position; the two NRILNs were preserved. Case 2: A 33-year-old Japanese female with a thyroid nodule of increased size underwent surgery. Preoperative CT scan revealed an aberrant right subclavian artery, which suggested NRILN. During the operation, the vagus nerve was identified to run more medially than usual and NRILN was found to originate at the level of the cricoid cartilage; NRILN was preserved. Case 3: A 78-year-old Japanese female underwent an operation with a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Preoperative CT scan showed an aberrant right subclavian artery. During the operation, NRILN was found to originate from the vagus nerve at the level of the lower pole of the thyroid gland, and the vagus nerve ran medial to the common carotid artery at the caudal level. PMID:27188389

  4. The effect of routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade on adequacy of recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation during thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Marshall, S D; Boden, E; Serpell, J

    2015-07-01

    Testing of the integrity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroid surgery has become routine practice for many surgeons to aid dissection and minimise the chance of inadvertent nerve injury. We hypothesised that routine reversal of an intermediate-acting, non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agent would improve conditions for stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We conducted a single-centre, randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of patients undergoing thyroid surgery by the same surgeon. After randomisation, the participants received either neostigmine 2.5 mg with glycopyrrolate 0.4 mg or placebo, at 30 minutes after induction of anaesthesia and administration of 0.4 mg/kg of atracurium. The primary outcome was the subjective assessment by the surgeon as to whether the neuromuscular function was adequate for stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve using a neuromuscular integrity monitor (NIM). Time to NIM stimulation was 44.6 minutes in the placebo group and 41.4 minutes in the intervention group (P=0.268). Of the 21 patients who received the neuromuscular blockade reversal, 20 (95.2%) had adequate surgical conditions for NIM stimulation, compared to 9 out of 18 patients (50%) in the placebo group (P=0.002). Three of the ten patients (30%) with inadequate reversal showed no evidence of residual blockade assessed peripherally. The routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade at 30 minutes post induction appears to result in adequate surgical conditions for safe stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Return of neuromuscular function at a peripheral site does not guarantee adequate laryngeal muscle function for use of the NIM. PMID:26099761

  5. Properties of postganglionic sympathetic fibers isolated from the right recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    PubMed

    Bałkowiec, A; Szulczyk, P

    1995-08-01

    The pattern of response of 45 single postganglionic sympathetic axons dissected from the right recurrent laryngeal nerve was examined in chloralose-anesthetized cats. Both vagoaortic nerves were cut, and both sinus nerves were left intact. Each neuron, based on the presence of cardiac and respiratory rhythmicities in its resting activity and reaction to systemic hypoxia (10% O2 in N2 for 2 min), was classified into one of three classes. Class I neurons (n = 29, 64%) were activated during systemic hypoxia and had a pronounced cardiac and inspiration-related rhythmicity in their resting activity. Class II neurons (n = 12,27%) were inhibited during systemic hypoxia, and their cardiac and respiratory rhythmicities were either negligible or totally absent. Class III neurons (n = 4,9%), similarly to class I, had a pronounced cardiac and inspiratory rhythmicity but were not affected by systemic hypoxia. The systemic hypoxia was always accompanied by an increase in blood pressure. We conclude that class I and possibly class III neurons innervate the arteries of upper airways. We also discuss the possibility that class II neurons are responsible for regulating the smooth muscles of upper airways. PMID:7592223

  6. [Acute negative pressure pulmonary edema: illustration from a unusual clinical case following a postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy].

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, Y; Kichna, H; Boughalem, M; Drissi Kamili, N

    2012-05-01

    Acute postoperative negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) is a respiratory complication due to upper airway obstruction occurring most commonly in the postoperative period. Pathophysiologically, NPPE is explained by the abrupt generation of highly negative intrathoracic pressure that lead to fluid transudation from the pulmonary capillaries. This observation reports an unusual case of a young patient who has undergone total thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter. The postoperative period was marked by the occurrence of bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy that was complicated by a NPPE. The outcome was favorable after mechanical ventilation with reversal of NPPE and recovery of the recurrent laryngeal nerve function. This article stresses the importance of prevention of recurrent nerve palsy during thyroid surgery. It also highlights a little known respiratory complication: the NPPE. Understanding the pathophysiology of NPPE, rapid diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic measures could prevent its potential lethal consequences. PMID:22465642

  7. Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and substernal goiter. An Italian multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Testini, M; Gurrado, A; Bellantone, R; Brazzarola, P; Cortese, R; De Toma, G; Fabiola Franco, I; Lissidini, G; Pio Lombardi, C; Minerva, F; Di Meo, G; Pasculli, A; Piccinni, G; Rosato, L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to verify whether the substernal goiter and the type of surgical access could be risk factors for recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy during total thyroidectomy. Between 1999-2008, 14,993 patients underwent total thyroidectomy. Patients were divided into three groups: group A (control; n=14.200, 94.7%), cervical goiters treated through collar incision; group B (n=743, 5.0%) substernal goiters treated by cervical approach; group C (n=50, 0.3%) in which a manubriotomy was performed. Transient and permanent unilateral palsy occurred significantly more frequently in B+C vs. A (P≤.001) and in B vs. A (P≤.001). Transient bilateral palsy was significantly more frequent in B+C vs. A (P≤.043) and in C vs. A (P≤.016). Permanent bilateral palsy was significantly more frequent in B+C vs. A (P≤.041), and in B vs. A (P≤.037). Extension of the goiter into the mediastinum was associated to increased risk of recurrent nerve palsy during total thyroidectomy. PMID:24880605

  8. Intraoperative neuromonitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in robotic thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Bae, Dong Sik; Kim, Su-jin

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the technical feasibility and efficacy of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) to aid its identification and preservation during robotic thyroidectomy (RoT). IONM of the RLN was evaluated in 30 consecutive patients undergoing RoT. All patients underwent an indirect laryngoscope examination to objectively assess vocal cord function. Their Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) was measured to subjectively assess vocal cord function preoperatively and at postoperative months 1 and 3. Of the 56 RLNs at risk in 30 patients undergoing RoT, all were visualized and identified by IONM. The IONM sensitivity for postoperative permanent RLN palsy was 100%, with a positive predictive value of 100%. The mean VHI-10 scores preoperatively and at postoperative months 1 and 3 were 0.20±0.66, 3.47±5.04, and 1.53±2.47, respectively (P<0.001). IONM of the RLN during RoT is technically feasible and effective for identifying this nerve. PMID:25238177

  9. The usefulness of preoperative computed tomography and intraoperative neuromonitoring identification of the nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qian; Guan, Zhong; Huang, Xiaoming; Yuan, Jianpeng; Pan, Yong; Zheng, Yiqing; Liang, Maojin; Fan, Shaochong

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to avoid the nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (NRLN) injury during surgery, we performed preoperative CT examinations to determine the variation in abnormal course of the right subclavian artery as an indictor of the presence of the NRLN and used intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) to identify nerve. Preoperative thyroid CT examinations were performed in 783 thyroid surgery patients. The imaging characteristics that suggested the presence of the NRLN were the following: (1) the arteria lusoria arising from the dorsal side of the aortic arch and passing through the trachea and esophagus posteriorly, and the CT image showing the characteristic "hook-like" morphology; (2) that the arteria lusoria imaging could be observed posteriorly to the trachea and esophagus; and (3) that the arteria lusoria traveled transversely from the rear of the right common carotid artery to the right subaxillary region. IONM has been applied to localize and identify NRLN. The brachiocephalic trunk was shown in 779 cases and not in the remaining four cases (0.5 %, 4/783), and these four were assumed to have the arteria lusoria. The separation point and path of the NRLNs were localized and identified precisely with IONM. The NRLN was observed during all surgeries. These four cases did not exhibit hoarseness after surgery. In conclusion, understanding of the course variations of the right subclavian artery using a preoperative CT examination provides an indicator of the presence of a NRLN. Combining these evaluation methods with IONM can avoid NRLN injury. PMID:23269396

  10. Effectively Axonal-supercharged Interpositional Jump-Graft with an Artificial Nerve Conduit for Rat Facial Nerve Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Niimi, Yosuke; Takeuchi, Yuichi; Sasaki, Ryo; Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Yamato, Masayuki; Miyata, Mariko; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interpositional jump graft (IPJG) is a nerve graft axonally supercharged from the hypoglossal nerve. However, for using the technique, an autologous nerve, which should contain the great auricular and sural nerves, must be obtained. Depending on the donor site, unavoidable issues such as nerve disorders and postoperative scarring may appear. To reduce the issues, in this study, the authors developed an end-to-side neurorrhaphy technique with the recipient nerve and an artificial nerve conduit and investigated the efficacy of an IPJG with an artificial nerve conduit in a rat facial nerve paresis model. Methods: A ligature clip was used to crush the facial nerve trunk, thereby creating a partial facial nerve paresis model. An artificial nerve conduit was then prepared with a 10-mm-long silicone tube containing 10 μL type I collagen and used to create an IPJG between the facial nerve trunk and the hypoglossal nerve (the silicone tube group). Thirteen weeks after the surgery, the outcome was histologically and physiologically compared with conventional IPJG with autograft using the great auricular nerve. Results: Retrograde tracer test confirmed a double innervation by the facial and hypoglossal nerve nuclei. In the autograft and silicone tube groups, the regeneration of myelinated axons was observed. Conclusion: In this study, the authors successfully developed an end-to-side neurorrhaphy technique with the recipient nerve and an artificial nerve conduit, and revealed that an IPJG in the conduit was effective in the rat facial nerve paresis model. PMID:26180717

  11. Central nervous system integration of sensorimotor signals in oral and pharyngeal structures: oropharyngeal kinematics response to recurrent laryngeal nerve lesion.

    PubMed

    Gould, Francois D H; Ohlemacher, Jocelyn; Lammers, Andrew R; Gross, Andrew; Ballester, Ashley; Fraley, Luke; German, Rebecca Z

    2016-03-01

    Safe, efficient liquid feeding in infant mammals requires the central coordination of oropharyngeal structures innervated by multiple cranial and spinal nerves. The importance of laryngeal sensation and central sensorimotor integration in this system is poorly understood. Recurrent laryngeal nerve lesion (RLN) results in increased aspiration, though the mechanism for this is unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of unilateral RLN lesion on the motor coordination of infant liquid feeding. We hypothesized that 1) RLN lesion results in modified swallow kinematics, 2) postlesion oropharyngeal kinematics of unsafe swallows differ from those of safe swallows, and 3) nonswallowing phases of the feeding cycle show changed kinematics postlesion. We implanted radio opaque markers in infant pigs and filmed them pre- and postlesion with high-speed videofluoroscopy. Markers locations were digitized, and swallows were assessed for airway protection. RLN lesion resulted in modified kinematics of the tongue relative to the epiglottis in safe swallows. In lesioned animals, safe swallow kinematics differed from unsafe swallows. Unsafe swallow postlesion kinematics resembled prelesion safe swallows. The movement of the tongue was reduced in oral transport postlesion. Between different regions of the tongue, response to lesion was similar, and relative timing within the tongue was unchanged. RLN lesion has a pervasive effect on infant feeding kinematics, related to the efficiency of airway protection. The timing of tongue and hyolaryngeal kinematics in swallows is a crucial locus for swallow disruption. Laryngeal sensation is essential for the central coordination in feeding of oropharyngeal structures receiving motor inputs from different cranial nerves. PMID:26679618

  12. Migration and differentiation of neural progenitor cells after recurrent laryngeal nerve avulsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wan; Xu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate migration and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from the ependymal layer to the nucleus ambiguus (NA) after recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) avulsion. All of the animals received a CM-DiI injection in the left lateral ventricle. Forty-five adult rats were subjected to a left RLN avulsion injury, and nine rats were used as controls. 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected intraperitoneally. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed in the brain stems at different time points after RLN injury. After RLN avulsion, the CM-DiI+ NPCs from the ependymal layer migrated to the lesioned NA. CM-DiI+/GFAP+ astrocytes, CM-DiI+/DCX+ neuroblasts and CM-DiI+/NeuN+ neurons were observed in the migratory stream. However, the ipsilateral NA included only CM-DiI+ astrocytes, not newborn neurons. After RLN avulsion, the NPCs in the ependymal layer of the 4th ventricle or central canal attempt to restore the damaged NA. We first confirm that the migratory stream includes both neurons and glia differentiated from the NPCs. However, only differentiated astrocytes are successfully incorporated into the NA. The presence of both cell types in the migratory process may play a role in repairing RLN injuries. PMID:25202908

  13. Facial nerve paralysis and partial brachial plexopathy after epidural blood patch: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shahien, Radi; Bowirrat, Abdalla

    2011-01-01

    We report a complication related to epidural analgesia for delivery in a 24- year-old woman who was admitted with mild pre-eclampsia and for induction of labor. At the first postpartum day she developed a postdural puncture headache, which was unresponsive to conservative measures. On the fifth day an epidural blood patch was done, and her headache subsided. Sixteen hours later she developed paralysis of the right facial nerve, which was treated with prednisone. Seven days later she complained of pain in the left arm and the posterior region of the shoulder. She was later admitted and diagnosed with partial brachial plexopathy. PMID:21386953

  14. Reproducibility of normal facial motor nerve conduction studies and their relevance in the electrophysiological assessment of peripheral facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, P; Logullo, F; Lagalla, G; Sirolla, C; Provinciali, L

    1997-09-01

    To determine the intra-examiner intertrial reproducibility of normal facial motor nerve conduction studies (FNCS) and their relevance in electrophysiological assessments of peripheral facial paralysis, 52 patients with acute unilateral Bell's palsy were examined on two separate occasions 1 months apart. Three electroneurographic methods were assessed. On the unaffected side of the face, FNCS are reliable when performed by a single examiner over time. Nevertheless, compound muscle action potential (CMAP) baseline-to-peak and peak-to-peak amplitude showed a rather high intertrial variability. Reproducibility of the assessed surface electrode recording procedures was similar. Regarding the affected side, in patients with mild axonotmesis of the facial nerve variations of electroneurographic parameters 1 months apart fell within the range of normal intertrial variability. In patients with severe or moderate axonotmesis, the distal latency and the M wave amplitude variations showed significant intertrial variations. Reproducibility of FNCS appears to be similar to that found in limb motor nerves. Normal variability curtails the sensitivity of FNCS in detecting mild facial nerve axonotmesis, although this technique remains useful in severe cases. PMID:9350062

  15. Analysis of the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute expert decisions on recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries due to thyroidectomy between 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Karakaya, M. Arif; Koç, Okay; Ekiz, Feza; Ağaçhan, A. Feran; Göret, Nuri Emrah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the approach of Forensic Medicine Institution for recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries. In addition, parameters that were taken into consideration by Forensic Medicine Institution in the differentiation of complication and malpractice were evaluated. Material and Methods: The files of 38 patients, with recurrent laryngeal nerve injury following thyroidectomy, that were referred to Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute with request of expert opinion between 2008–2012 were retrospectively investigated. Data regarding expert decisions, age, gender, diagnosis, hospital type, preoperative vocal cord examination, intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM), identification of nerve injury during operation, repair of nerve during operation, and type of injury were assessed. Results: Surgeons were found to be faulty in all files with bilateral nerve injury, however, one-sided injury files were considered as a medical complication. Twenty-one (55.2%) patients were female, and 17 (44.8%) were male, with a mean age of 35,8 in women, and 34,1 in men. None of these patients had undergone preoperative vocal cord assessment. The recurrent laryngeal nerve was intraoperatively identified in 21 (55.2%) patients, while it was not seen in 17 (44.8%) patients. IONM was not applied in any patients. There was no attempt for nerve repair during any operation. Nineteen patients had unilateral, and 19 patients had bilateral nerve damage. Conclusion: Bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries are considered as malpractice, when imaging or pathology reports fail to state a cause for difficulty in nerve identification. PMID:26985157

  16. Effect of Paralysis at the Time of ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway Insertion on Pharyngolaryngeal Morbidities. A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun-Jung; Oh, Ah-Young; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Hwang, Jung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular block results in the loss of muscular tone in the upper airway, which might contribute to the increased postoperative airway morbidity followed by ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) insertion. We compared the pharyngolaryngeal discomfort exerted by the PLMA according to the neuromuscular block. One hundred sixty patients undergoing surgery for breast disease or inguinal hernia were anesthetized with propofol and remifentanil by target controlled infusion. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg (NMBA group, n = 80) or normal saline (No-NMBA group, n = 80) was administered after the loss of consciousness, and one anesthesiologist inserted the PLMA. Postoperative pharyngolaryngeal discomfort was evaluated at postoperative 1 h. Traumatic event was recorded based on the blood trace on the surface of the PLMA cuff. Insertion time, insertion attempt number, sealing pressure, and fiberoptic brochoscopic grades were evaluated. Patients’ characteristics and the PLMA insertion condition (insertion time, successful insertion attempt number, fiberoptic bronchoscopic grade, and sealing pressure) were similar between the two groups. The PLMA can be successfully inserted in non-paralyzed patients with less postoperative pharyngolaryngeal discomfort than when a neuromuscular blocking agent is used (13.8% vs. 30.0%, P = 0.021). The incidence of traumatic events is also reduced when no neuromuscular blocking agent is used (16.3% vs. 32.5%, P = 0.026). Regardless of whether or not a surgical procedure requires muscular relaxation, there is no need to administer neuromuscular blocking agents solely for the purpose of PLMA insertion. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01035021 PMID:26252522

  17. Initial assessment of facial nerve paralysis based on motion analysis using an optical flow method.

    PubMed

    Samsudin, Wan Syahirah W; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahmad, Amirozi; Salleh, Hasriah

    2016-03-14

    An initial assessment method that can classify as well as categorize the severity of paralysis into one of six levels according to the House-Brackmann (HB) system based on facial landmarks motion using an Optical Flow (OF) algorithm is proposed. The desired landmarks were obtained from the video recordings of 5 normal and 3 Bell's Palsy subjects and tracked using the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) method. A new scoring system based on the motion analysis using area measurement is proposed. This scoring system uses the individual scores from the facial exercises and grades the paralysis based on the HB system. The proposed method has obtained promising results and may play a pivotal role towards improved rehabilitation programs for patients. PMID:26578273

  18. Intraoperative neuromonitoring of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve during robotic thyroid surgery: a preliminary prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-jin; Oh, Byung-Mo; Oh, Eun Mee; Bae, Dong Sik; Choi, June Young; Myong, Jun Pyo; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) during robotic thyroid surgery. Methods A total of 10 patients undergoing bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) robotic thyroid surgery were enrolled. The nerve integrity monitor (NIM Response 2.0 System) was used for EBSLN monitoring. We performed voice assessments preoperatively and at 1 and 3 months postoperatively using Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10), maximal phonation time (MPT), phonation efficient index (PEI), and laryngeal electromyography (EMG). Results A total of 19 EBSLNs were at risk and 14 EBSLNs (73.7%) were identified using neuromonitoring. VHI-10 showed a change of voice over time (0.1 vs. 3.6 vs. 1.3); however, this was not statistically significant. VHI-10 scores normalized at 3 months postoperatively compared to the preoperative scores. MPT (a) (16.0 vs. 15.6 vs. 15.4), and MPT (e) (20.1 vs. 15.4 vs. 18.5) showed no significant differences preoperatively compared to the values obtained 1 and 3 months postoperatively. There was a significant change of PEI over time (4.8 vs. 1.1 vs. 4.6) (P = 0.036); however, the values normalized at 3 months postoperatively. Laryngeal EMG results showed 4 cases (21.2%) of neuropathy of EBSLNs at 1 month postoperatively, and electrodiagnostic studies revealed nearly complete recovery of the function of EBSLNs in 4 patients at 3 months postoperatively Conclusion It is suggested that neuromonitoring of EBSLNs during BABA robotic thyroid surgery is feasible and might be helpful to preserve voice quality. PMID:26576402

  19. Quasi-trapezoidal pulses to selectively block the activation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles during vagal nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosato, M.; Yoshida, K.; Toft, E.; Struijk, J. J.

    2007-09-01

    The stimulation of the vagus nerve has been used as an anti-epileptic treatment for over a decade, and its use for depression and chronic heart failure is currently under investigation. Co-activation of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles may limit the clinical use of vagal stimulation, especially in the case of prolonged activation. To prevent this, the use of a selective stimulation paradigm has been tested in seven acute pig experiments. Quasi-trapezoidal pulses successfully blocked the population of the largest and fastest vagal myelinated fibers being responsible for the co-activation. The first response in the vagus compound action potential was reduced by 75 ± 22% (mean ± SD) and the co-activated muscle action potential by 67 ± 25%. The vagal bradycardic effects remained unchanged during the selective block, confirming the leading role of thin nerve fibers for the vagal control of the heart. Quasi-trapezoidal pulses may be an alternative to rectangular pulses in clinical vagal stimulation when the co-activation of laryngeal muscles must be avoided.

  20. [Advances in diagnosis of facial nerve paralysis: pathophysiology and clinical symptoms].

    PubMed

    Krukowska, Jolanta; Czernicki, Jan

    2003-09-01

    Facial palsy is important clinical and social problem because of frequently appearance and to cause facial symmetry troubles which are visible for surroundings. Clinical picture of facial palsy, independently of its reason, contains a lot of symptoms depending on degree and place of nerve damage. The most visible and unpleasant for sick person unpleasant symptoms are abolition (in palsy) or considerably handicap (in paresis) function of facial countenance muscles which are hard to endure for patients. In special accidents patients demand psychology consultation and antidepression treatment to modify imagination about role of appearance in shape social relation. In place of damage nerve for particular attention deserve objective treatment the stapedius muscle reflex. It allows to objective estimation the facial nerve damage. Regress in paresis of this nerve decides on treatment. This treatment has a prognostic sense too--return of the stapedius muscle reflex announces return the function of damage nerve. PMID:14679859

  1. [Lymphadenectomy performed along the left recurrent laryngeal nerve after anterior detachment of the esophagus via thoracoscopic esophagectomy in the prone position under artificial pneumothorax].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinichi; Ohshima, Hisami; Katsumori, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Hiromitsu; Tsukamoto, Yukika; Iwanaga, Tomohiro

    2014-11-01

    Thoracoscopic esophagectomy was performed in the prone position under artificial pneumothorax and did not affect the surgical area during lung ventilation; tracheal mobility was also improved. Lymphadenectomy around the left recurrent laryngeal nerve was performed by separating the left main bronchus and trachea between the esophagus and pericardium before detaching the dorsal side of the esophagus. PMID:25731225

  2. Perinatal development of laryngeal function.

    PubMed

    Harding, R

    1984-06-01

    The resistance of the upper airway is strongly influenced by the action of opposing sets of laryngeal muscles. Expiratory airflow may be retarded by active adduction of the arytenoid cartilages or by a reduction in the activity of abductor muscles. In developing sheep the adductor muscles appear to represent the principal means by which lung recoil is opposed. This mechanism, which is most pronounced during non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, is regulated by afferent traffic from the lungs. In fetal sheep the laryngeal muscles are also influenced by breathing movements and sleep states. The adductor muscles are normally tonically active during non-rapid-eye-movement sleep when rhythmical breathing movements are absent. It is possible that this activity is at least partially responsible for elevated tracheal pressures and depressed flow of tracheal fluid during fetal apnea. This hypothesis has been tested by observing the effects of fetal paralysis and recurrent laryngeal nerve section. These experiments suggest that in the fetus near term the larynx makes a major contribution to upper airway resistance and hence to the maintenance of pulmonary expansion which has been shown to influence lung development. PMID:6747226

  3. [Acoustic study of sustained vowels made by patients with recurrent nerve paralysis after thyroidectomy].

    PubMed

    Fauth, C; Vaxelaire, B; Rodier, J F; Volkmar, P P; Sock, R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the consequences of thyroid surgery on the voice of patients suffering from recurrent paralysis. The consequences of the surgery are evaluated using a corpus of sustained vowels in order to identify the various disruptions that this procedure may produce. This research also looks for possible compensatory and/or readjustment strategies that can be used by a patient alone and with the help of speech therapy. Acoustic measurements considered are fundamental frequency (F0), Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio (HNR), and vowel space area. This is a longitudinal study, as all patients are recorded once a month during three months after surgery. Results reveal a modification of all parameters in the early recording stages. However, time and speech therapy contribute to obtaining expected values of the measured parameters, and thus to improvement of vocal quality. PMID:23074822

  4. Similarities in the surface area/volume ratio in the fibers of the recurrent laryngeal nerve can explain the symmetry in the vocal fold mobility?

    PubMed

    de Campos, Deivis; Xavier, Léder Leal; Goulart, Guilherme Reghelin; Thomaz, Leonardo Dalla Giacomassa Rocha; Malysz, Tais; Jotz, Geraldo Pereira

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate in this paper that although there are statistical differences for all morphometric data [axon length, axon diameter, myelinated fiber diameter and degree of the myelination (g-Ratio)] between the fibers of recurrent laryngeal nerve right and left, the surface area/volume ratio in the fibers of both nerves is exactly the same (1/1.7). Thereby, this paper presents the hypothesis that this similarity between the nerves can actually trigger a considerable synchrony in mobility of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx that control of the vocal folds. PMID:26362729

  5. Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis after Anterior Cervical Discectomy Following Cervical Spine Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nikandish, Reza; Zareizadeh, Alireza; Motazedian, Siavash; Zeraatian, Sam; Zakeri, Habib; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral vocal cord paralysis is a rare and preventable complication of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Herein, we report a fatal case of bilateral vocal cord paralysis after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACD/F). A 65-year-old man with cervical spine trauma and anterior cord syndrome, following car overturn presented to our emergency department. The patient had C6-T10 prolapsed discs for which ACD/F was performed. In the recovery room he developed stridor and respiratory distress immediately after extubation, and was reintubated. Otolaryngological evaluation revealed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. He later required a tracheostomy but finally died in a rehabilitation center after an acute coronary event. Awake fibroptic intubation is recommended in patients at high risk for preoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Intraoperative tracheal tube cuff pressure monitoring and modification of surgical approach to neck are recommended to prevent bilateral nerve damage.

  6. Cross-face nerve grafting for reanimation of incomplete facial paralysis: quantitative outcomes using the FACIAL CLIMA system and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego; Cabello, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Although in most cases Bell palsy resolves spontaneously, approximately one-third of patients will present sequela including facial synkinesis and paresis. Currently, the techniques available for reanimation of these patients include hypoglossal nerve transposition, free muscle transfer, and cross-face nerve grafting (CFNG). Between December 2008 and March 2012, eight patients with incomplete unilateral facial paralysis were reanimated with two-stage CFNG. Gender, age at surgery, etiology of paralysis denervation time, donor and recipient nerves, presence of facial synkinesis, and follow-up were registered. Commissural excursion and velocity and patient satisfaction were evaluated with the FACIAL CLIMA and a questionnaire, respectively. Mean age at surgery was 33.8 ± 11.5 years; mean time of denervation was 96.6 ± 109.8 months. No complications requiring surgery were registered. Follow-up period ranged from 7 to 33 months with a mean of 19 ± 9.7 months. FACIAL CLIMA showed improvement of both commissural excursion and velocity greater than 75% in 4 patients, greater than 50% in 2 patients, and less than 50% in the remaining two patients. Qualitative evaluation revealed a high grade of satisfaction in six patients (75%). Two-stage CFNG is a reliable technique for reanimation of incomplete facial paralysis with a high grade of patient satisfaction. PMID:23818253

  7. Vesalius on the anatomy and function of the recurrent laryngeal nerves: medical illustration and reintroduction of a physiological demonstration from Galen.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the anatomical illustrations and physiological demonstrations of sixteenth-century Flemish-born anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius concerning the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Although Vesalius was primarily an anatomist, he also used vivisection as a pedagogical device to help his students understand the function of structures within the fabric of the body that they had previously studied in anatomical detail. Vesalius's masterwork, De humani corporis fabrica or simply the Fabrica (1543, 1555), was ostensibly an anatomy text, but Vesalius included textual and figural references to his use of vivisection to explicate the function of specific structures. Even as he began to criticize the errors in Galen's anatomical works, Vesalius nevertheless adopted some of Galen's classic physiological demonstrations, in particular the ligation (and subsequent release) of the recurrent laryngeal nerves of a pig to demonstrate their role in generating the pig's squeal. Vesalius's illustrations concerning the recurrent laryngeal nerve in the Fabrica were of two types: elegant anatomical woodcut plates-unsurpassed for their clarity, accuracy, and detail - and the distinctly inelegant historiated initial Q, depicting a throng of putti busily engaged in vivisecting a pig. Vesalius' anatomical plates were heavily plagiarized while the historiated initials, showing the rough work of an anatomist or surgeon, were largely ignored and remain little recognized today. While Vesalius' anatomical illustrations of the recurrent laryngeal nerves contained some errors, they were a dramatic departure from prior meager efforts at medical illustration and indeed far surpassed all contemporary published illustrations by others. Vesalius was also influential in reviving Galen's approach to vivisection, at least for pedagogical purposes, if not really then yet as a full-fledged investigative technique. PMID:24870272

  8. Combined spinal/general anesthesia with postoperative femoral nerve block for total knee replacement in a patient with familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Barker, Maria C

    2010-06-01

    Familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP) is a rare genetic disorder in which the sodium channels in skeletal muscle cells have altered structure and function. Small elevations in serum potassium lead to inactivation of sodium channels, causing episodic weakness or paralysis. Exposure to cold, anesthesia, fasting, emotional stress, potassium ingestion, and rest after exercise can stimulate an attack. This case report describes a 65-year-old man with HYPP who was admitted for a right total knee arthroplasty. He had a history of arteriosclerotic heart disease and stenting 8 years earlier, previous inferior wall myocardial infarction with ejection fraction of 65%, anxiety, degenerative joint disease, well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a body mass index of 53.3 kg/m2. A combined spinal/general anesthetic with a femoral nerve block for postoperative pain control was chosen. Careful attention was given to monitoring and maintenance of core temperature, use of insulin and glucose to maintain normokalemia, and carbohydrate loading the night before surgery. The patient recovered from the anesthetic without complication and had pain relief for approximately 22 hours postoperatively because of the femoral nerve block. The patient was without weakness or paralysis related to HYPP in the postanesthesia care unit or throughout his hospitalization. PMID:20572404

  9. Residual Chemoresponsiveness to Acids in the Superior Laryngeal Nerve in “Taste-Blind” (P2X2/P2X3 Double-KO) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Horio, Nao; Stratford, Jennifer M.; Finger, Thomas E.; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2012-01-01

    Mice lacking both the P2X2 and the P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X-dblKO) exhibit loss of responses to all taste qualities in the taste nerves innervating the tongue. Similarly, these mice exhibit a near total loss of taste-related behaviors in brief access tests except for a near-normal avoidance of acidic stimuli. This persistent avoidance of acids despite the loss of gustatory neural responses to sour was postulated to be due to continued responsiveness of the superior laryngeal (SL) nerve. However, chemoresponses of the larynx are attributable both to taste buds and to free nerve endings. In order to test whether the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice remains responsive to acids but not to other tastants, we recorded responses from the SL nerve in wild-type (WT) and P2X-dblKO mice. WT mice showed substantial SL responses to monosodium glutamate, sucrose, urea, and denatonium—all of which were essentially absent in P2X-dblKO animals. In contrast, the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice exhibited near-normal responses to citric acid (50 mM) although responsiveness of both the chorda tympani and the glossopharyngeal nerves to this stimulus were absent or greatly reduced. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the residual avoidance of acidic solutions by P2X-dblKO mice may be attributable to the direct chemosensitivity of nerve fibers innervating the laryngeal epithelium and not to taste. PMID:22362867

  10. [Differential diagnosis of unilateral paresis and paralysis of the larynx].

    PubMed

    Chernobel'ski?, S I

    1996-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of laryngeal paresis and paralysis using electron glottography (EGG) was tried in 57 patients and 30 healthy controls. Measurements were made of speed quotient (SQ) and open quotient (OQ) at piano and forte. It was found that in patients and controls SQ and OQ were not similar. SQ and OQ differed also in paralysis and paresis. Tonicity of the inner laryngeal muscles seems to decline more in paralysis than in paresis. Aerodynamic properties of the larynx are damaged more in paralysis and remain unchanged in paresis. Reduced SQ and high OQ at forte indicate unilateral laryngeal paralysis. OQ should be measured both at piano and forte. Thus, EGG is an effective procedure for differential diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis and paresis. It is especially convenient when laryngostroboscopy is problematic. PMID:8711839

  11. Todd's Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Todd's Paralysis Information Page Synonym(s): Epileptic Hemiplegia Table of Contents ( ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Todd's Paralysis? Todd's paralysis is a neurological condition experienced by ...

  12. Electrophysiologic recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: international standards guideline statement.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Gregory W; Dralle, Henning; Abdullah, Hisham; Barczynski, Marcin; Bellantone, Rocco; Brauckhoff, Michael; Carnaille, Bruno; Cherenko, Sergii; Chiang, Fen-Yu; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Finck, Camille; Hartl, Dana; Kamani, Dipti; Lorenz, Kerstin; Miccolli, Paolo; Mihai, Radu; Miyauchi, Akira; Orloff, Lisa; Perrier, Nancy; Poveda, Manuel Duran; Romanchishen, Anatoly; Serpell, Jonathan; Sitges-Serra, Antonio; Sloan, Tod; Van Slycke, Sam; Snyder, Samuel; Takami, Hiroshi; Volpi, Erivelto; Woodson, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) during thyroid and parathyroid surgery has gained widespread acceptance as an adjunct to the gold standard of visual nerve identification. Despite the increasing use of IONM, review of the literature and clinical experience confirms there is little uniformity in application of and results from nerve monitoring across different centers. We provide a review of the literature and cumulative experience of the multidisciplinary International Neural Monitoring Study Group with IONM spanning nearly 15 years. The study group focused its initial work on formulation of standards in IONM as it relates to important areas: 1) standards of equipment setup/endotracheal tube placement and 2) standards of loss of signal evaluation/intraoperative problem-solving algorithm. The use of standardized methods and reporting will provide greater uniformity in application of IONM. In addition, this report clarifies the limitations of IONM and helps identify areas where additional research is necessary. This guideline is, at its forefront, quality driven; it is intended to improve the quality of neural monitoring, to translate the best available evidence into clinical practice to promote best practices. We hope this work will minimize inappropriate variations in monitoring rather than to dictate practice options. PMID:21181860

  13. [Pretherapeutic and posttherapeutic laryngeal imaging].

    PubMed

    Becker, M; Burkhardt, K; Allal, A S; Dulguerov, P; Ratib, O; Becker, C D

    2009-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging with CT, MRI and more recently PET CT plays an indispensable complementary role to endoscopy in the pretherapeutic diagnostic and staging of laryngeal neoplasms and in the evaluation of the operated or irradiated larynx. Adequate interpretation of the CT, PET CT and MR images requires a thorough knowledge of the patterns of submucosal spread and familiarity with the diagnostic signs of neoplastic invasion as seen with each modality. In addition, one should be aware of the implications of imaging for staging and treatment. Both CT and MR imaging are highly sensitive for the detection of neoplastic invasion of the preepiglottic and paraglottic spaces, subglottic region and cartilage. The high negative predictive value of both CT and MRI allows a relatively reliable exclusion of neoplasm cartilage invasion. The specificity of both CT and MRI is, however, moderately high and both methods may, therefore, overestimate the extent of tumor spread. However, recent investigations have shown that the specificity of MRI may be significantly improved by using new diagnostic criteria which allow differentiation of tumor from peritumoral inflammation in many instances. Both cross-sectional imaging methods also significantly improve the pretherapeutic staging accuracy of laryngeal tumors if used in addition to clinical examination and endoscopic biopsy. In the presence of a submucosal mass, CT and MRI play a key role for the diagnosis, as they may characterize the lesion, reliably depict its submucosal extent and guide the endoscopist to perform deep biopsies which allow the definitive histological diagnosis. Cross-sectional imaging also plays a key role in the evaluation of laryngoceles, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis and fractures. PMID:19050845

  14. Effect of Dissection of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerves on Parathyroid Insufficiency during Total Thyroidectomy for Multinodular Goitre

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Vengayil; Avula, Sreekant; Pavuluru, Jagadeesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Total thyroidectomy is the accepted standard treatment for benign goitrous enlargements. The surgical skill and technique is one of the most important factor which affect the outcome in thyroid surgery. Hypocalcaemia due to parathyroid insufficiency remains a significant postoperative morbidity after total thyroidectomy. The primary cause is unintentional damage to, or devascularization of, one or more parathyroid glands during surgery. Aim To study the risk of hypocalcaemia due to recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLNs) dissection during total thyroidectomy for benign multinodular goitre (MNG). Materials and Methods The study is a non-randomized control trial, where 100 patients with benign MNG were divided into two groups (group A and group B) each consisting of 50 patients. All 100 patients underwent total thyroidectomy by a subcapsular dissection. In patients of group A, both RLNs were clearly dissected for a minimum length of 2cm down from its entry into the larynx before total thyroidectomy was performed. In group B, each patient had total thyroidectomy without making any deliberate attempt to dissect and demonstrate the RLNs. The patients in the two groups were followed up for the incidence of clinically significant hypocalcaemia in the postoperative period. Results A total of 30% of patients in group A developed clinical and biochemical manifestations of hypocalcaemia but the incidence of hypocalcaemia was only 6% in the group B. Three (6%) patients out of those who developed hypocalcaemia in group A had a prolonged hypocalcaemia for upto six months. p-value is 0.003 and odds ratio is 6.59. Conclusion Routine dissection to identify the RLNs could predispose to a higher incidence of postop hypocalcaemia. Subcapsular dissection of the thyroid safely preserves the parathyroid glands. PMID:27042514

  15. Unilateral Superior Laryngeal Nerve Lesion in an Animal Model of Dysphagia and Its Effect on Sucking and Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Malone, Regina; Holman, Shaina D.; Lukasik, Stacey L.; Fukuhara, Takako; Gierbolini-Norat, Estela M.; Thexton, Allan J.; German, Rebecca Z.

    2013-01-01

    We tested two hypotheses relating to the sensory deficit that follows a unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) lesion in an infant animal model. We hypothesized that it would result in (1) a higher incidence of aspiration and (2) temporal changes in sucking and swallowing. We ligated the right-side SLN in six 2–3-week-old female pigs. Using videofluoroscopy, we recorded swallows in the same pre- and post-lesion infant pigs. We analyzed the incidence of aspiration and the duration and latency of suck and swallow cycles. After unilateral SLN lesioning, the incidence of silent aspiration during swallowing increased from 0.7 to 41.5 %. The durations of the suck containing the swallow, the suck immediately following the swallow, and the swallow itself were significantly longer in the post-lesion swallows, although the suck prior to the swallow was not different. The interval between the start of the suck containing a swallow and the subsequent epiglottal movement was longer in the post-lesion swallows. The number of sucks between swallows was significantly greater in post-lesion swallows compared to pre-lesion swallows. Unilateral SLN lesion increased the incidence of aspiration and changed the temporal relationships between sucking and swallowing. The longer transit time and the temporal coordinative dysfunction between suck and swallow cycles may contribute to aspiration. These results suggest that swallow dysfunction and silent aspiration are common and potentially overlooked sequelae of unilateral SLN injury. This validated animal model of aspiration has the potential for further dysphagia studies. PMID:23417250

  16. Central orexin inhibits reflex swallowing elicited by the superior laryngeal nerve via caudal brainstem in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Motoi; Mizutani, Satoshi; Fujita, Masako; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Shimatani, Yuichi; Matsuo, Ryuji

    2014-05-10

    We examined the effects of orexins on the reflex swallowing using anesthetized rats. Orexins were administered into the fourth ventricle. Swallowing was induced by repeated electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and was identified by the electromyogram lead penetrated the mylohyoid muscle through bipolar electrodes. The frequency of swallowing during the electrical stimulation of the SLN decreased after the administration of orexin-A in a dose-dependent manner. The latency of the first swallowing tended to be extended after the administration of orexin-A. The administration of orexin-B did not affect swallowing frequency. Pre-administration of SB334867, an orexin-1 receptor antagonist, attenuated the degree of inhibition of swallowing frequency induced by the administration of orexin-A. To identify the effective site of orexin-A, the effect of a microinjection of orexin-A into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) was evaluated. Orexin-A was injected into one of the lateral DVC, the intermediate DVC, or the medial DVC. Microinjection of orexin-A into the medial DVC but not the other two sites decreased swallowing frequency. Pre-injection of SB334867 into the medial DVC disrupted the inhibitory response induced by fourth ventricular administration of orexin-A. The electrical lesion of the commissural part of the NTS, but not ablation of the AP, abolished the inhibition of reflex swallowing induced by fourth ventricular administration of orexin-A. These results suggest that orexin-A inhibits reflex swallowing via orexin-1 receptors situated in the commissural part of the NTS and/or its vicinity. PMID:24637063

  17. A novel method for lymphadenectomy along the left laryngeal recurrent nerve during thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Yong; Ma, Zhenkai; Shen, Yaxing; Wang, Hao; Feng, Mingxiang; Wang, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to limited space in the left upper mediastinum, complete dissection of lymph nodes (LN) along left recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is difficult. We herein present a novel method for lymphadenectomy along the left RLN during thoracoscopic esophagectomy in the semi-prone position for esophageal carcinoma. The method, suspension the esophagus and push aside trachea, allows en bloc lymphadenectomy along the left RLN from the below aortic arch to the thoracic inlet. Methods Between September 2014 and September 2015, a total of 110 consecutive patients with esophageal carcinoma were treated with thoraco-laparoscopic esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis in the semi-prone position. Outcomes between those who received surgery with the novel method and conventional surgery were compared. Results Fifty patients underwent the novel method and sixty received conventional surgery. The operative field around the left RLN was easier to explore with the novel method. The estimated blood loss was less (23.78.2 vs. 34.210.3 g, P=0.001), and the number of harvested LNs along the left RLN was greater (6.43.2 vs. 4.12.8 min, P=0.028) in the novel method group, while the duration of lymphadenectomy along left RLN was longer in the novel method group (28.23.9 vs. 20.32.8 min, P=0.005). The rate of hoarseness in the novel and conventional groups was 10% and 16.7%, respectively. No significant difference in postoperative morbidity related to the left RLN was noted between the groups. Conclusions The novel method during semi-prone esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma is associated with better surgeon ergonomics and operative exposure. PMID:26904208

  18. Application of Endobronchial Ultrasonography for the Preoperative Detecting Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Lymph Node Metastasis of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Rong; Li, Yin; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Shi-Yong; Luo, Guang-Yu; Li, Jian-Jun; Xu, Guo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background The preoperative detection of recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node (RLN LN) metastasis provides important information for the treatment of esophageal cancer. We investigated the possibility of applying endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) with conventional preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and computerized tomography (CT) examination to evaluate RLN LN metastasis in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods A total of 115 patients with advanced thoracic esophageal cancer underwent EBUS examinations. Patients also underwent EUS and CT imaging as reference diagnostic methods. Positron emission tomography /computed tomography (PET/CT) was also introduced in partial patients as reference method. The preoperative evaluation of RLN LN metastasis was compared with the surgical and pathological staging in 94 patients who underwent radical surgery. Results The sensitivities of the preoperative evaluations of RLN LN metastasis by EBUS, EUS and CT were 67.6%, 32.4% and 29.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of EBUS was significantly different from that of EUS or CT, especially in the detection of right RLN LNs. In addition, according to the extra data from reference method, PET/CT was not superior to EBUS or EUS in detecting RLN LN metastasis. Among all 115 patients, 21 patients who were diagnosed with tracheal invasions by EUS or EBUS avoided radical surgery. Another 94 patients who were diagnosed as negative for tracheobronchial tree invasion by EUS and EBUS had no positive findings in radical surgery. Conclusions EBUS can enhance the preoperative sensitivity of the detection of RLN LN metastasis in cases of thoracic esophageal cancer and is a useful complementary examination to conventional preoperative EUS and CT, which can alert thoracic surgeons to the possibility of a greater range of preoperative lymph node dissection. EBUS may also indicate tracheal invasion in cases of esophageal stricture. PMID:26372339

  19. Laryngeal Paraganglioma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharifkashany, Shervin; Yazdani, Nasrin; Ghazavi, Hossein; Tajdini, Ardavan

    2014-01-01

    Paragangliomas in the head and neck are found typically in the region of the carotid body, jugular body, and along the 9th and 10th cranial nerves. They can occur in multicenteric forms, but generally, laryngeal paragangliomas are not found in these patients. Only two cases of laryngeal paraganglioma have been reported with a synchronous lesion elsewhere. We report an additional case of a 34-year-old female with multiple paragangliomas beginning with laryngeal involvement. PMID:25763080

  20. Facial paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Paralysis of the face ... from the brain to the muscles of the face Damage to the area of the brain that sends signals to the muscles of the face In people who are otherwise healthy, facial paralysis ...

  1. Facial Paralysis Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Razfar, Ali; Lee, Matthew K; Massry, Guy G; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Facial nerve paralysis is a devastating condition arising from several causes with severe functional and psychological consequences. Given the complexity of the disease process, management involves a multispecialty, team-oriented approach. This article provides a systematic approach in addressing each specific sequela of this complex problem. PMID:26902979

  2. Laryngeal reinnervation in the horse.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Ian C; Stick, John A; Derksen, Fredrik J

    2003-04-01

    Left laryngeal hemiplegia is a frustrating condition for the equine athlete and equine veterinarian. Treatment for the past 30 years has centered on the prosthetic laryngoplasty ("tie-back") with or without ventriculectomy. Laryngeal reinnervation has been used successfully in people and has been shown experimentally to benefit affected horses. This article reviews equine laryngeal reinnervation using the nerve muscle pedicle graft and describes the surgical technique, its complications, and the follow-up in 146 cases treated over the past 10 years. Also discussed is ongoing research into stimulation studies to improve the success of equine laryngeal reinnervation. PMID:12747668

  3. Analysis of normal and denerved laryngeal vocalization in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio; Taboada-Picazo, Verónica; Mota-Rojas, Daniel; Alonso-Spilsbury, Maria de Lourdes; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Paralysis of the left vocal chord is frequent in human clinical practice; because of its anatomic similarity with human, the guinea pig might be a suitable biological model to analyze the phoniatric behavior in denerved animals. Forty newborn guinea pigs were used (20 control and 20 experimental); an incision was made in the ventricular region with the animals under general anesthesia over the middle line of the neck, until the lower left laryngeal nerve was found, the same was secured with alligator clips so that afterward a two-part dissection could be performed and the middle section could be removed (1cm) from the nerve endings (distal and proximal) before they were separated from the laryngeal structure. After recovery from surgery, vocal emissions were recorded in solitary for 6 minutes. The animals that had nerves removed showed an increase in fundamental vocalization frequency compared with the controls. F test was carried out (P=0.05) and no significant difference was found. When analyzing functional recovery, we found that the guinea pigs compensated vocal emissions at 20 days. With regard to the unilateral paralysis, the motility was frequently compensated by the healthy vocal chord, improving voice emission, and loss of air inhalation. PMID:18023326

  4. Comparison of hemihypoglossal-facial nerve transposition with a cross-facial nerve graft and muscle transplant for the rehabilitation of facial paralysis using the facial clima method.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Vila, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    To compare quantitatively the results obtained after hemihypoglossal nerve transposition and microvascular gracilis transfer associated with a cross facial nerve graft (CFNG) for reanimation of a paralysed face, 66 patients underwent hemihypoglossal transposition (n = 25) or microvascular gracilis transfer and CFNG (n = 41). The commissural displacement (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) in the two groups were compared using the system known as Facial clima. There was no inter-group variability between the groups (p > 0.10) in either variable. However, intra-group variability was detected between the affected and healthy side in the transposition group (p = 0.036 and p = 0.017, respectively). The transfer group had greater symmetry in displacement of the commissure (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) than the transposition group and patients were more satisfied. However, the transposition group had correct symmetry at rest but more asymmetry of CCV and CD when smiling. PMID:22455573

  5. Potential of laryngeal muscle regeneration using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dirja, Bayu Tirta; Yoshie, Susumu; Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Otsuki, Koshi; Nomoto, Yukio; Wada, Ikuo; Hazama, Akihiro; Omori, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may be a new potential cell source for laryngeal muscle regeneration in the treatment of vocal fold atrophy after recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Objectives Unilateral vocal fold paralysis can lead to degeneration, atrophy, and loss of force of the thyroarytenoid muscle. At present, there are some treatments such as thyroplasty, arytenoid adduction, and vocal fold injection. However, such treatments cannot restore reduced mass of the thyroarytenoid muscle. iPS cells have been recognized as supplying a potential resource for cell transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of iPS cells for the regeneration of laryngeal muscle through the evaluation of both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods Skeletal muscle cells were generated from tdTomato-labeled iPS cells using embryoid body formation. Differentiation into skeletal muscle cells was analyzed by gene expression and immunocytochemistry. The tdTomato-labeled iPS cell-derived skeletal muscle cells were transplanted into the left atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle. To evaluate the engraftment of these cells after transplantation, immunohistochemistry was performed. Results The tdTomato-labeled iPS cells were successfully differentiated into skeletal muscle cells through an in vitro experiment. These cells survived in the atrophied thyroarytenoid muscle after transplantation. PMID:26824385

  6. Paralysis: Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Rehabilitation Rehabilitation Rehabilitation and exercise are key to enhancing your health and quality of life. Find a rehabilitation center near you and become familiar with different ...

  7. Delayed onset neuropathy along with recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy due to organophosphate poisoning and the role of physiotherapy rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Shetye, Jaimala Vijay; Surkar, Swati M.; Karnik, Niteen D.; Mehta, Amita A.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphorus poisoning is a major global cause of health problems and the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developing countries. In this, the inhibition of acetyl-choline esterase and neurotoxic esterase along with nicotinic receptor involvement produces three well-identified and documented clinical phases: The initial cholinergic phase, which is a medical emergency often requiring management in an intensive care unit; the intermediate syndrome, during which prolonged ventilator care is necessary; and finally delayed neurotoxicity. Vocal cord paralysis is rare and leads to aphonia. Role of physiotherapy rehabilitation is substantial in all three stages and aims at early weaning off from mechanical ventilator until the functional independence and community integration of the patient. PMID:24678153

  8. Reconstructive procedures for impaired upper airway function: laryngeal respiration

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The larynx is the "bottleneck" of the human airway. For this reason, the effects of stenosing laryngeal pathologies on the vital factor respiratory gas exchange are particularly critical. Internal stabilization is a prerequisite for recovery of the laryngeal respiratory function in severe forms of inspiratory collapse (laryngomalacia). Effective laser surgery techniques have been developed to this end in recent years. Glottis-dilating surgery in cases of bilateral vocal cord motion impairment is now moving in the direction of endoscopic laser cordotomy or cordectomy, whereas arytenoidectomy and open surgical procedures are now used only rarely due to higher secondary morbidity rates. In individual cases, in particular if functional recovery is expected, temporary laterofixation of a vocal cord using an endoscopic suturing technique can be a helpful approach. Extensive laryngeal defects can be covered by means of composite grafts with mucosal lining, a supporting skeleton and their own vascularization. Autologous transplantation of the larynx, with its complex surgical and immunological problems, has become a manageable procedure. The problems of post-transplantation reinnervation and risk assessment of immunosuppression-induced recurrence of the tumor are still under consideration. Reanimation of the bilaterally paralyzed larynx by means of neurorrhaphy (neurosuture), neural grafting and, more recently, functional electrostimulation (pacemaker) represents a challenge for the coming years. In most cases of paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a part of the muscles is maintained by synkinetic reinnervation when therapy is carried out, which however also prevents effective vocal cord movement due to simultaneous activity of agonists and antagonists. Modulation of reinnervation by means of electrostimulation and modern genetic therapy approaches justify hopes of better outcomes in the future. PMID:22073057

  9. The effect of patient age on the success of laryngeal reinnervation.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Chen, Donghui; Song, Xianmin; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Minhui; Liu, Fei; Li, Yan; Chen, Shicai; Zheng, Hongliang

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of patient age on the efficacy of laryngeal reinnervation with ansa cervicalis in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) patients. We retrospectively reviewed 349 consecutive UVFP cases of laryngeal reinnervation with ansa cervicalis to the recurrent laryngeal nerve anastomosis. Preoperative and postoperative videostroboscopy, perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis, maximum phonation time (MPT) and laryngeal electromyography (EMG) data were collected. Gender, age, preoperative EMG status [preoperative voluntary motor unit recruitment (VMUR)] and denervation duration were analyzed in previous multivariable logistic regression analysis. Stratification analysis was performed on patient age in the present study. All patients were divided into four groups according to their age: Group A included patients with an age less than 30 years; Group B, 30-44 years; Group C, 45-59 years; Group D, ?60 years. Stratification analysis on patient age showed significant differences between Group A and D, Group B and D, Group C and D (P < 0.05), but no significant difference between Group A and B, Group A and C, Group B and C (P > 0.05), respectively, with regard to parameters including glottal closure, overall grade, shimmer, noise-to-harmonics ratio; but there are no significant differences among the four groups with regard to jitter. However, for MPT and postoperative VMUR, there are significant differences among the four groups expect between Group A and B. In addition, glottal closure, perceptual and acoustic parameters, MPT values and VMUR data, were significantly improved postoperatively in each age group (P < 0.01). The data from this study indicate that patient age is an influential factor of the surgical outcome of laryngeal reinnervation for UVFP patients. Laryngeal reinnervation is less effective when patient age is more than 60 years. PMID:24913623

  10. [Facial paralysis in children].

    PubMed

    Muler, H; Paquelin, F; Cotin, G; Luboinski, B; Henin, J M

    1975-01-01

    Facial paralyses in children may be grouped under headings displaying a certain amount of individuality. Chronologically, first to be described are neonatal facial paralyses. These are common and are nearly always cured within a few days. Some of these cases are due to the mastoid being crushed at birth with or without the use of forceps. The intra-osseous pathway of the facial nerve is then affected throughout its length. However, a cure is often spontaneous. When this desirable development does not take place within three months, the nerve should be freed by decompressive surgery. The special anatomy of the facial nerve in the new-born baby makes this a delicate operation. Later, in all stages of acute otitis, acute mastoiditis or chronic otitis, facial paralysis can be seen. Treatment depends on the stage reached by the otitis: paracentesis, mastoidectomy, various scraping procedures, and, of course, antibiotherapy. The other causes of facial paralysis in children are very much less common: a frigore or viral, traumatic, occur ring in the course of acute poliomyelitis, shingles or tumours of the middle ear. To these must be added exceptional causes such as vitamin D intoxication, idiopathic hypercalcaemia and certain haemopathies. PMID:1217818

  11. The Effect of Bilateral Superior Laryngeal Nerve Lesion on Swallowing – A Novel Method to Quantitate Aspirated Volume and Pharyngeal Threshold in Videofluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    DING, Peng; FUNG, George Shiu-Kai; LIN, Ming De; HOLMAN, Shaina D.; GERMAN, Rebecca Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of bilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) lesion on swallowing threshold volume and the occurrence of aspiration, using a novel measurement technique for videofluorscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). Methods and Materials We used a novel radiographic phantom to assess volume of the milk containing barium from fluoroscopy. The custom made phantom was firstly calibrated by comparing image intensity of the phantom with known cylinder depths. Secondly, known volume pouches of milk in a pig cadaver were compared to volumes calculated with the phantom. Using these standards, we calculated the volume of milk in the valleculae, esophagus and larynx, for 205 feeding sequences from four infant pigs feeding before and after had bilateral SLN lesions. Swallow safety was assessed using the IMPAS scale. Results The log-linear correlation between image intensity values from the phantom filled with barium milk and the known phantom cylinder depths was strong (R2>0.95), as was the calculated volumes of the barium milk pouches. The threshold volume of bolus in the valleculae during feeding was significantly larger after bilateral SLN lesion than in control swallows (p<0.001). The IMPAS score increased in the lesioned swallows relative to the controls (p<0.001). Conclusion Bilateral SLN lesion dramatically increased the aspiration incidence and the threshold volume of bolus in valleculae. The use of this phantom permits quantification of the aspirated volume of fluid. The custom made phantom and calibration allow for more accurate 3D volume estimation from 2D x-ray in VFSS. PMID:25270532

  12. [The history of facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Glicenstein, J

    2015-10-01

    Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques. PMID:26088742

  13. Vocal Fold Paralysis: Improved Adductor Recovery by Vincristine Blockade of Posterior Cricoarytenoid

    PubMed Central

    Paniello, Randal C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS A new treatment for acute unilateral vocal fold paralysis was proposed, in which a drug is injected into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) shortly after nerve injury, before the degree of natural recovery is known, to prevent antagonistic synkinetic reinnervation. This concept was tested in a series of canine experiments using vincristine as the blocking agent. STUDY DESIGN Animal experiments. METHODS Laryngeal adductor function was measured at baseline and at 6 months following experimental recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injuries, including complete transection, crush injury, and cautery. In the treatment animals, the PCA was injected with vincristine at the time of RLN injury. RESULTS Adductor function in the vincristine-treated hemilarynges was significantly improved compared with injury-matched noninjected controls (total n=43). Transection/repair controls recovered 56.1% of original adductor strength, vincristine-treated hemilarynges recovered to 73.1% (p=0.002). Cautery injuries also improved with vincristine block (60.7% vs 88.7%, p=0.031). Crush injuries recovered well even without vincristine (104.8% vs 111.2%, p=0.35). CONCLUSIONS These findings support a new paradigm of early, pre-emptive blockade of the antagonist muscle (PCA) to improve ultimate net adductor strength, which could potentially improve functional recovery in many UVFP patients and avoid the need for medialization procedures. Possible clinical aspects of this new approach are discussed. PMID:25267697

  14. Isolated sleep paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes. During these episodes the person is unable to move ...

  15. Facial paralysis for the plastic surgeon

    PubMed Central

    Kosins, Aaron M; Hurvitz, Keith A; Evans, Gregory RD; Wirth, Garrett A

    2007-01-01

    Facial paralysis presents a significant and challenging reconstructive problem for plastic surgeons. An aesthetically pleasing and acceptable outcome requires not only good surgical skills and techniques, but also knowledge of facial nerve anatomy and an understanding of the causes of facial paralysis. The loss of the ability to move the face has both social and functional consequences for the patient. At the Facial Palsy Clinic in Edinburgh, Scotland, 22,954 patients were surveyed, and over 50% were found to have a considerable degree of psychological distress and social withdrawal as a consequence of their facial paralysis. Functionally, patients present with unilateral or bilateral loss of voluntary and nonvoluntary facial muscle movements. Signs and symptoms can include an asymmetric smile, synkinesis, epiphora or dry eye, abnormal blink, problems with speech articulation, drooling, hyperacusis, change in taste and facial pain. With respect to facial paralysis, surgeons tend to focus on the surgical, or ‘hands-on’, aspect. However, it is believed that an understanding of the disease process is equally (if not more) important to a successful surgical outcome. The purpose of the present review is to describe the anatomy and diagnostic patterns of the facial nerve, and the epidemiology and common causes of facial paralysis, including clinical features and diagnosis. Treatment options for paralysis are vast, and may include nerve decompression, facial reanimation surgery and botulinum toxin injection, but these are beyond the scope of the present paper. PMID:19554190

  16. Functional Electrical Stimulation of Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles under Varying Loads in Exercising Horses

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Jon; Regner, Abby; Jarvis, Jonathan C.; Priest, David; Sanders, Ira; Soderholm, Leo V.; Mitchell, Lisa M.; Ducharme, Norm G.

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVCP) is a life threatening condition and appears to be a good candidate for therapy using functional electrical stimulation (FES). Developing a working FES system has been technically difficult due to the inaccessible location and small size of the sole arytenoid abductor, the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle. A naturally-occurring disease in horses shares many functional and etiological features with BVCP. In this study, the feasibility of FES for equine vocal fold paralysis was explored by testing arytenoid abduction evoked by electrical stimulation of the PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were determined for innervated PCA muscle. We then tested the hypothesis that direct muscle stimulation can maintain airway patency during strenuous exercise in horses with induced transient conduction block of the laryngeal motor nerve. Six adult horses were instrumented with a single bipolar intra-muscular electrode in the left PCA muscle. Rheobase and chronaxie were within the normal range for innervated muscle at 0.55±0.38 v and 0.38±0.19 ms respectively. Intramuscular stimulation of the PCA muscle significantly improved arytenoid abduction at all levels of exercise intensity and there was no significant difference between the level of abduction achieved with stimulation and control values under moderate loads. The equine larynx may provide a useful model for the study of bilateral fold paralysis. PMID:21904620

  17. [Management of a foot deformity, caused by paralysis of the peroneal nerve, by transfer of the tendon of the posterior tibial muscle].

    PubMed

    Simonka, J A

    1991-01-01

    Author describes two cases: in the first, in consequence of a lesion of the deep peroneal nerve during operation, the development a paralytic drop foot, in the second, in consequence of a lesion of unknown etiology of the common peroneal nerve, paralytic club foot could be observed. In both cases the intraosseal transposition of the tendon of the posterior tibial muscle on the second cuneiform bone was performed with good result. PMID:1681153

  18. Using Laryngeal Electromyography to Differentiate Presbylarynges from Paresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stager, Sheila V.; Bielamowicz, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Differential diagnosis of patients over 64 years of age reporting hoarseness is challenging. Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) was used to determine the status of the recurrent and superior laryngeal nerves. The authors hypothesized that individuals with hoarseness but normal LEMG would have measures similar to those of patients from…

  19. Modified thyroplasty for unilateral vocal fold paralysis using an adjustable titanium implant.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wu; Sun, Guangbin; Sun, Bifeng; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Mingxing

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to describe a new titanium thyroplasty implant that can be adjusted with a screw. Six Beagle dogs were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n = 3). The titanium screw was implanted in the experimental group after the left recurrent laryngeal nerve was cut off under general anaesthesia. This procedure caused arytenoid cartilage internal shift, allowing the vocal cord to locate at the median and the glottis to close during phonation. No other operation was conducted in the control group. Each group, respectively, underwent video laryngoscopy, CT scan and histopathology before and after operation. After 4 months of follow-up, the video laryngoscopy results showed that the left arytenoid cartilage in the experimental group underwent internal adduct and shift, whereas the left vocal cords in the control group located at the paramedian position and exhibited fissure during phonation. CT scan results showed that the adjustable titanium screw was in proper position. Postoperative pathological examination showed that, in addition to early local inflammation, the laryngeal muscle may atrophy. The adjustable titanium screw requires a simple operation and can be significantly adjusted. The effect of the operation can be immediately observed without rejection. Therefore, this method is an efficient treatment for unilateral vocal cord paralysis. PMID:24728279

  20. Evaluating the timing of injection laryngoplasty for vocal fold paralysis in an attempt to avoid future type 1 thyroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether immediate (less than 3 months from time of nerve injury), early (from 3 to 6 months from time of nerve injury) or late (more than 6 months from time of nerve injury) vocal fold injection influences the long-term outcomes for patients with permanent unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Methods A total of 250 patients with documented unilateral vocal fold paralysis were identified in this retrospective chart review. 66 patients met the inclusion criteria, having undergone awake trancervical injection with gelfoam™, collagen, perlane™ or a combination. Patients with documented recovery of vocal fold mobility, or patients with less than one year of follow-up after the onset of paralysis were excluded. Patients were stratified into immediate (<3 months), early (3-6 months) and late (>6 months) groups denoting the time from suspected injury to injection. The need for open surgery as determined by a persistently immobile vocal fold with insufficient glottic closure following injection was the primary outcome. Results 1 out of 21 (4.8%) in the immediate group, 2 out of 17 (11.8%) in the early group and 20 out of 28 (71.4%) in the late group required type 1 thyroplasty procedures to restore glottic competence. There was significance when comparing late injection to both early and immediate injection (p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences were seen when comparing the number of injections needed to restore glottic competence. Conclusions This 10-year longitudinal assessment revealed that early medialization of a permanent paralyzed, abducted vocal fold with a temporary material appears to diminish the likelihood of requiring permanent laryngeal framework surgery. PMID:24499514

  1. Anatomic study of human laryngeal ganglia: number and distribution.

    PubMed

    Maranillo, Eva; Vazquez, Teresa; Ibanez, Marta; Hurtado, Miguel; Pascual-Font, Aran; McHanwell, Stephen; Valderrama-Canales, Francisco; Sanudo, Jose

    2008-10-01

    We have studied 12 laryngeal nerves: six internal branches of the superior laryngeal nerve (ILN) and six recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN) from three human adult larynges (two males and one female). After dissection of each individual laryngeal nerve using a surgical microscope, the nerves were preserved in 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin wax, serially sectioned transversely at a thickness of 10 microm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. We found 2-4 ganglia associated with the ILN. At least two ganglia were always present (six out of six cases), the largest one being associated with the branch of the nerve innervating the vestibule and the smallest one associated with the branch innervating the aryepiglottic fold. Other ganglia were found associated with the branches for the glosso-epiglottic fold and vallecula (four out of six cases) and interarytenoid muscle (three out of six cases). The RLN showed from two to six ganglia, all of them located in its anterior terminal division. Two of the ganglia were located in the part of the nerve between the origin of the branches for the interarytenoid and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles (three out of six cases). The remaining ganglia were located close to or at the origin of the muscular branches innervating the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. The cytology of the ganglia reported suggests that they were all autonomic in nature, probably parasympathetic. PMID:18773473

  2. Paralysis: Secondary Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5pm ET. 1-800-539-7309 ☰ Living with Paralysis Get Support Get Involved Research Events Blog & Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Health > Secondary conditions Secondary conditions Secondary conditions refer ...

  3. Periocular Reconstruction in Patients with Facial Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shannon S; Joseph, Andrew W; Douglas, Raymond S; Massry, Guy G

    2016-04-01

    Facial paralysis can result in serious ocular consequences. All patients with orbicularis oculi weakness in the setting of facial nerve injury should undergo a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation. The main goal of management in these patients is to protect the ocular surface and preserve visual function. Patients with expected recovery of facial nerve function may only require temporary and conservative measures to protect the ocular surface. Patients with prolonged or unlikely recovery of facial nerve function benefit from surgical rehabilitation of the periorbital complex. Current reconstructive procedures are most commonly intended to improve coverage of the eye but cannot restore blink. PMID:27040589

  4. Management of the Eye in Facial Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Chi, John J

    2016-02-01

    The preoperative assessment of the eye in facial paralysis is a critical component of surgical management. The degree of facial nerve paralysis, lacrimal secretion, corneal sensation, and lower eyelid position must be assessed accurately. Upper eyelid loading procedures are standard management of lagophthalmos. Lower eyelid tightening repositions the lower eyelid and helps maintain the aqueous tear film. Eyelid reanimation allows an aesthetic symmetry with blinking and restores protective functions vital to ocular preservation. Patients often have multiple nervous deficits, including corneal anesthesia. Other procedures include tarsorrhaphy, spring implantation, and temporalis muscle transposition; associated complications have rendered them nearly obsolete. PMID:26611698

  5. Isolated sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Neena S; Parkar, Shubhangi R; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-10-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months. PMID:20711316

  6. Isolated sleep paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Neena S.; Parkar, Shubhangi R.; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months. PMID:20711316

  7. Laryngeal schwannoma as an acute airway presentation.

    PubMed

    Markou, Konstantinos; Dova, Stamatia; Poulios, Christos; Karkos, Petros

    2016-01-01

    A schwannoma is a neurogenic tumour arising from nerve sheaths. Between 25% and 45% of schwannomas occur in the head and neck region. Schwannomas of the larynx are extremely rare. They usually occur in women during the fourth and fifth decades of life. We present a case of a laryngeal schwannoma in a 76-year-old patient with acute stridor, hoarseness and dysphagia. Laryngeal conservation surgery was performed without the need for a tracheostomy. One year later, the patient remains symptom-free with no evidence of recurrence. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and management are discussed and the literature is reviewed. PMID:26969364

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence of Varicella Zoster Virus Polyneuropathy: Involvement of the Glossopharyngeal and Vagus Nerves Associated With Ramsay Hunt Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gunbey, Hediye Pinar; Kutlar, Gokhan; Aslan, Kerim; Sayit, Asli Tanrivermis; Incesu, Lutfi

    2016-05-01

    The involvement of lower cranial nerve palsies is less frequent in Ramsay Hunt syndrome caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). The authors report 1 of extremely rare patients of radiologically proven polyneuropathy of VZV infection with magnetic resonance imaging findings of VII, IX, and X cranial nerve involvement is a 62-year-old female patient, who initially presented with Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Varicella zoster virus infection should be considered even in patients who show unilateral palsy of the lower cranial nerves associated with laryngeal paralysis. Thin-section T2W and T1W images with a contrast agent should be added to the imaging protocol to show the subtle involvement. PMID:27092925

  9. Perceptual Ratings of Vocal Characteristics and Voicing Features in Untreated Patients with Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leydon, Ciara; Bielamowicz, Steven; Stager, Sheila V.

    2005-01-01

    This study used visual analog scales to obtain perceptual ratings of features of voice production in subjects with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP), including clarity of laryngeal articulation, consistency of loudness across the utterance and the voiced/voiceless distinction. Recordings of repeated /i/, /isi/, and /izi/ from subjects…

  10. Effects of carbon dioxide on laryngeal receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.W.; Sant'Ambrogio, F.B.; Orani, G.P.; Sant'Ambrogio, G.; Mathew, O.P. )

    1990-02-26

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) either stimulates or inhibits laryngeal receptors in the cat. The aim of this study was to correlate the CO{sub 2} response of laryngeal receptors with their response to other known stimuli (i.e. pressure, movement, cold, water and smoke). Single unit action potentials were recorded from fibers in the superior laryngeal nerve of 5 anesthetized, spontaneously breathing dogs together with CO{sub 2} concentration, esophageal and subglottic pressure. Constant streams of warm, humidified air or 10% CO{sub 2} in O{sub 2} were passed through the functionally isolated upper airway for 60 s. Eight of 13 randomly firing or silent receptors were stimulated by CO{sub 2} (from 0.4{plus minus}0.1 to 1.8{plus minus}0.4 imp.s). These non-respiratory-modulated receptors were more strongly stimulated by solutions lacking Cl{sup {minus}} and/or cigarette smoke. Six of 21 respiratory modulated receptors (responding to pressure and/or laryngeal motion) were either inhibited or stimulated by CO{sub 2}. Our results show that no laryngeal receptor responds only to CO{sub 2}. Silent or randomly active receptors were stimulated most often by CO{sub 2} consistent with the reflex effect of CO{sub 2} in the larynx.

  11. Stats About Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of advocacy to collectively combat the drivers of inequality and eradicate the obstacles to freedom faced by ... impact of paralysis across the nation, from a health, societal, and financial perspective, we are creating a ...

  12. Familial "hashitoxic' periodic paralysis.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, A K

    1985-01-01

    Four members of a Chinese family who had thyrotoxicosis and periodic paralysis are described. Two of these patients had "hashitoxicosis' (Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis) as evidenced by the presence of thyroid antibodies in addition to elevated thyroxine (T4) levels. The other two patients were not available for testing. The association of the familial occurrence of "hashitoxicosis' and periodic paralysis does not appear to have been reported previously. PMID:3839536

  13. Familial "hashitoxic' periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Leung, A K

    1985-08-01

    Four members of a Chinese family who had thyrotoxicosis and periodic paralysis are described. Two of these patients had "hashitoxicosis' (Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis) as evidenced by the presence of thyroid antibodies in addition to elevated thyroxine (T4) levels. The other two patients were not available for testing. The association of the familial occurrence of "hashitoxicosis' and periodic paralysis does not appear to have been reported previously. PMID:3839536

  14. Bulbar Paralysis and Facial Paralysis due to Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Liu, Shixin; Liu, Bailong; Liu, Bin; Guo, Liang; Wang, Xu; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Shuo; Dong, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Skull-base metastasis (SBM) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely rare, and multiple cranial nerve paralysis due to SBM from HCC is also rare. We report a case of bulbar and facial paralysis due to SBM from HCC.A 46-year-old Chinese man presented with a hepatic right lobe lesion that was detected during a routine physical examination. After several failed attempts to treat the primary tumor and bone metastases, neurological examination revealed left VII, IX, X, and XI cranial nerve paralysis. Computed tomography of the skull base subsequently revealed a large mass that had destroyed the left occipital and temporal bones and invaded the adjacent structure. After radiotherapy (27 Gy, 9 fractions), the patient experienced relief from his pain, and the cranial nerve dysfunction regressed. However, the patient ultimately died, due to the tumor's progression.Radiotherapy is usually the best option to relieve pain and achieve regression of cranial nerve dysfunction in cases of SBM from HCC, although early treatment is needed to achieve optimal outcomes. The present case helps expand our understanding regarding this rare metastatic pathway and indicates that improved awareness of SBM in clinical practice can help facilitate timely and appropriate treatment. PMID:26825921

  15. Neuronal vacuolation, myelopathy and laryngeal neuropathy in a mixed-breed dog.

    PubMed

    Salvadori, C; Tartarelli, C L; Baroni, M; Arispici, M; Cantile, C

    2007-10-01

    A bilateral and symmetrical neuronal vacuolation associated with spinal cord white matter degeneration and laryngeal neuropathy was observed in a 12-week-old male mixed-breed dog with a history of progressive pelvic limbs ataxia. On clinical examination, signs included inspiratory stridor, spinal ataxia, tetraparesis, and proprioceptive deficits more severe in the pelvic limbs. Examination of the larynx showed bilateral laryngeal paralysis and electromyography revealed fibrillation potentials restricted to the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. Clinical and pathological findings resembled the syndrome of neuronal vacuolation and spinocerebellar degeneration described in Rottweiler dogs. This is the first report of a similar disorder in a dog different from Rottweiler. PMID:17877588

  16. Neurologic Melioidosis: Case Report of a Rare Cause of Acute Flaccid Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Erik W; Mackay, Mark T; Ryan, Monique M

    2016-03-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis is associated with inflammation, infection, or tumors in the spinal cord or peripheral nerves. Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei infection) can rarely cause this presentation. We describe a case of spinal melioidosis in a 4-year-old boy presenting with flaccid paralysis, and review the literature on this rare disease. PMID:26778096

  17. Left Vocal Cord Paralysis Detected by PET/CT in a Case of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oner, Ali Ozan; Boz, Adil; Surer Budak, Evrim; Kaplan Kurt, Gulnihal Hale

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with lung cancer. The first PET/CT imaging revealed hypermetabolic mass in the left aortopulmonary region and hypermetabolic nodule in the anterior segment of the upper lobe of the left lung. After completing chemotherapy and radiotherapy against the primary mass in the left lung, the patient underwent a second PET/CT examination for evaluation of treatment response. This test demonstrated, compared with the first PET/CT, an increase in the size and metabolic activity of the primary mass in the left lung in addition to multiple, pathologic-sized, hypermetabolic metastatic lymph nodes as well as multiple metastatic sclerotic areas in bones. These findings were interpreted as progressive disease. In addition, an asymmetrical FDG uptake was noticed at the level of right vocal cord. During follow-up, a laryngoscopy was performed, which demonstrated left vocal cord paralysis with no apparent mass. Thus, we attributed the paralytic appearance of the left vocal cord to infiltration of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve by the primary mass located in the apical region of the left lung. In conclusion, the knowledge of this pitfall is important to avoid false-positive PET results. PMID:26613056

  18. Laryngeal Paralyses: Theoretical Considerations and Effects on Laryngeal Vibration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marshall E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical four-mass model of the larynx was developed to simulate laryngeal biomechanical behavior and used to evaluate states of asymmetric laryngeal vibration. Simulations of laryngeal paralyses were compared with data on glottal vibration in observed laryngeal function. (Author/JDD)

  19. [Objective assessment of facial paralysis using infrared thermography and formal concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu-Long; Hong, Wen-Xue; Liu, Jie-Min

    2014-04-01

    This paper presented a novel approach to objective assessment of facial nerve paralysis based on infrared thermography and formal concept analysis. Sixty five patients with facial nerve paralysis on one side were included in the study. The facial temperature distribution images of these 65 patients were captured by infrared thermography every five days during one-month period. First, the facial thermal images were pre-processed to identify six potential regions of bilateral symmetry by using image segmentation techniques. Then, the temperature differences on the left and right sides of the facial regions were extracted and analyzed. Finally, the authors explored the relationships between the statistical averages of those temperature differences and the House-Brackmann score for objective assessment degree of nerve damage in a facial nerve paralysis by using formal concept analysis. The results showed that the facial temperature distribution of patients with facial nerve paralysis exhibited a contralateral asymmetry, and the bilateral temperature differences of the facial regions were greater than 0.2 degrees C, whereas in normal healthy individuals these temperature differences were less than 0.2 degrees C. Spearman correlation coefficient between the bilateral temperature differences of the facial regions and the degree of facial nerve damage was an average of 0.508, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Furthermore, if one of the temperature differences of bilateral symmetry on facial regions was greater than 0.2 degrees C, and all were less than 0.5 degrees C, facial nerve paralysis could be determined as for the mild to moderate; if one of the temperature differences of bilateral symmetry was greater than 0.5 degrees C, facial nerve paralysis could be determined as for serious. In conclusion, this paper presents an automated technique for the computerized analysis of thermal images to objectively assess facial nerve related thermal dysfunction by using formal concept analysis theory, which may benefit the clinical diagnosis and treatment of facial nerve paralysis. PMID:25007603

  20. Horner's syndrome and ipsilateral laryngeal hemiplegia in three cats.

    PubMed

    Holland, C T

    1996-09-01

    Horner's syndrome is described in three cats associated with wounds to the ventrolateral neck. In each case, ipsilateral laryngeal hemiplegia was observed on laryngoscopy. This finding provided strong evidence to support a diagnosis of second order Horner's syndrome due to disruption of the cervical sympathetic trunk, as motor fibres innervating laryngeal abductors also traverse the neck; both as descending fibres within the contiguous cervical vagus and as ascending fibres within the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Notably, the ability to vocalise was unimpaired in all cases and, in two cats, neck wounds were not apparent until the neck had been clipped and closely examined. These findings indicate that assessment of laryngeal function is of value when localising the site of the neural defect responsible for selected cases of second order Horner's syndrome. PMID:8887205

  1. Sleep paralysis and hallucinosis.

    PubMed

    Stores, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Background: Sleep paralysis is one of the many conditions of which visual hallucinations can be a part but has received relatively little attention. It can be associated with other dramatic symptoms of a psychotic nature likely to cause diagnostic uncertainty. Methods and results: These points are illustrated by the case of a young man with a severe bipolar affective disorder who independently developed terrifying visual, auditory and somatic hallucinatory episodes at sleep onset, associated with a sense of evil influence and presence. The episodes were not obviously related to his psychiatric disorder. Past diagnoses included nightmares and night terrors. Review provided no convincing evidence of various other sleep disorders nor physical conditions in which hallucinatory experiences can occur. A diagnosis of predormital isolated sleep paralysis was made and appropriate treatment recommended. Conclusions: Sleep paralysis, common in the general population, can be associated with dramatic auxiliary symptoms suggestive of a psychotic state. Less common forms are either part of the narcolepsy syndrome or (rarely) they are familial in type. Interestingly, sleep paralysis (especially breathing difficulty) features prominently in the folklore of various countries. PMID:11568409

  2. Low-dose levodopa is effective for laryngeal dystonia in xeroderma pigmentosum group A.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Rie; Sasaki, Toru; Hayashi, Masaharu; Araki, Satoshi; Shimohira, Masayuki; Kohyama, Jun

    2010-09-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a genetic disorder in DNA nucleotide excision repair, is characterized by skin hypersensitivity to sunlight and progressive neurological impairment. Laryngeal dystonia and vocal cord paralysis are complications that can arise in older XP group A (XPA) patients. We report three patients with XPA being administered low-dose levodopa (0.3-1.5 mg/kg/day) for laryngeal dystonia. Patients were aged from 13 to 18 years, exhibited paroxysmal choking and inspiratory stridor, and were diagnosed with laryngeal dystonia. Two XPA patients responded to low-dose levodopa, and paroxysmal choking and involuntary movements resolved, although one of the two patients showed incomplete resolution due to suspected vocal cord paralysis. The other patient was unable to tolerate the medication because of a transient decrease of muscle tone in the extremities. We previously reported a decreased immunostaining of dopaminergic (DA) terminals in the basal ganglia of XPA patients, which may be involved in laryngeal dystonia. Low-dose levodopa has been reported to alleviate DA receptor supersensitivity in tic patients, while laryngeal dystonia occurs in patients with tardive dyskinesia caused by DA receptor supersensitivity. Thus, low-dose levodopa may improve laryngeal dystonia by alleviating DA receptor supersensitivity in XPA patients. We recommend that low-dose levodopa be used for treatment of paroxysmal respiratory disturbances and/or involuntary movements in XPA patients. PMID:19819090

  3. Dermoid cyst in the facial nerve--a unique diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nwojo, Raphael; Roy, Soham; Chang, C Y Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Facial nerve paralysis in children may occur as a complication of infections, trauma, or rarely from benign or malignant tumors of the facial nerve. We present the first reported case of a dermoid tumor in the facial nerve causing facial paralysis in a child. Case report at a tertiary Children's Hospital. A 9-month-old was referred to our institution for evaluation of persistent, complete right sided facial paralysis three months after receiving a diagnosis of Bell's palsy. A workup at our institution including MRI and CT revealed marked widening of the facial canal in the mastoid segment consistent with facial nerve schwannoma or hemangioma. Surgical exploration via mastoidectomy and facial nerve decompression revealed keratinous material containing hair that had fully eroded the facial nerve, disrupting it completely. The entire tumor was removed along with the involved segment of facial nerve, and the missing facial nerve segment was cable grafted. Histological examination of the tumor confirmed a ruptured dermoid cyst in the facial nerve. Facial nerve tumors are rare causes of facial paralysis in children, accounting for fewer than 10% of cases of facial paralysis in the pediatric population. Dermoid cyst can occur throughout the head and neck region in children, but a dermoid tumor in the facial nerve has not been described in the literature prior to this report. This represents a new and uncommon diagnostic entity in the evaluation of facial nerve paralysis in children. Appropriate imaging studies and pathology slides will be reviewed. PMID:21513992

  4. Imaging of laryngeal trauma.

    PubMed

    Becker, Minerva; Leuchter, Igor; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Christoph D; Dulguerov, Pavel; Varoquaux, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    External laryngeal trauma is a rare but potentially life-threatening situation in the acutely injured patient. Trauma mechanism and magnitude, maximum focus of the applied force, and patient related factors, such as age and ossification of the laryngeal cartilages influence the spectrum of observed injuries. Their correct diagnosis and prompt management are paramount in order to avoid patient death or long-term impairment of breathing, swallowing and speaking. The current review provides a comprehensive approach to the radiologic interpretation of imaging studies performed in patients with suspected laryngeal injury. It describes the key anatomic structures that are relevant in laryngeal trauma and discusses the clinical role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute emergency situation. The added value of two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions (2D MPR), three-dimensional volume rendering (3D VR) and virtual endoscopy (VE) for the non-invasive evaluation of laryngeal injuries and for treatment planning is discussed. The clinical presentation, biomechanics of injury, diagnostic pitfalls and pearls, common and uncommon findings are reviewed with emphasis of fracture patterns, involvement of laryngeal joints, intra- and extralaryngeal soft tissue injuries, and complications seen in the acute emergency situation. The radiologic appearance of common and less common long-term sequelae, as well as treatment options are equally addressed. PMID:24238937

  5. Imaging in laryngeal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Varsha M; Wadhwa, Vineet; Mukherji, Suresh K

    2012-01-01

    Imaging plays an important complementary role to clinical examination and endoscopic biopsy in the evaluation of laryngeal cancers. A vast majority of these cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Cross-sectional imaging with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of the larynx and the characteristic patterns of submucosal tumor extension. CT, MRI and more recently PET-CT, also provide vital information about the status of cervical nodal disease, systemic metastases and any synchronous malignancies. Additionally, certain imaging-based parameters like tumor volume and cartilaginous abnormalities have been used to predict the success of primary radiotherapy or surgery in these patients. Integration of radiological findings with endoscopic evaluation greatly improves the pretherapeutic staging accuracy of laryngeal cancers, and significantly impacts the choice of management strategies in these patients. Imaging studies also help in the post-therapeutic surveillance and follow-up of patients with laryngeal cancers. In this article, we review the currently used laryngeal imaging techniques and protocols, the key anatomic structures relevant to tumor spread and the characteristic patterns of submucosal extension and invasion of laryngeal cancer. The role of CT, MRI and PET-CT in the evaluation of patients with laryngeal SCC and the impact of imaging findings on prognosis and clinical management is also discussed. PMID:23599569

  6. Bilateral laryngeal paralysis in a dog secondary to laryngeal osseous metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Skelding, Alicia Marie; Kisiel, Agatha; Essman, Stephanie; Rutland, Bronwyn E

    2016-02-01

    A 7-year-old spayed female Lurcher was evaluated for a chronic history of increased upper respiratory noise. Advanced imaging including digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of an ill-defined soft tissue mineralized mass of the ventral larynx. Histopathology demonstrated pleocellular myositis and fasciitis with osseous metaplasia. PMID:26834266

  7. Bioengineered nerve regeneration and muscle reinnervation

    PubMed Central

    Kingham, Paul J; Terenghi, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system has the intrinsic capacity to regenerate but the reinnervation of muscles is often suboptimal and results in limited recovery of function. Injuries to nerves that innervate complex organs such as the larynx are particularly difficult to treat. The many functions of the larynx have evolved through the intricate neural regulation of highly specialized laryngeal muscles. In this review, we examine the responses of nerves and muscles to injury, focusing on changes in the expression of neurotrophic factors, and highlight differences between the skeletal limb and laryngeal muscle systems. We also describe how artificial nerve conduits have become a useful tool for delivery of neurotrophic factors as therapeutic agents to promote peripheral nerve repair and might eventually be useful in the treatment of laryngeal nerve injury. PMID:17005023

  8. Visual Experiences during Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Whitham, Emma M.; Fitzgibbon, Sean P.; Lewis, Trent W.; Pope, Kenneth J.; DeLosAngeles, Dylan; Clark, C. Richard; Lillie, Peter; Hardy, Andrew; Gandevia, Simon C.; Willoughby, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Paralyzed human volunteers (n = 6) participated in several studies the primary one of which required full neuromuscular paralysis while awake. After the primary experiment, while still paralyzed and awake, subjects undertook studies of humor and of attempted eye-movement. The attempted eye-movements tested a central, intentional component to one’s internal visual model and are the subject of this report. Methods: Subjects reclined in a supportive chair and were ventilated after paralysis (cisatracurium, 20 mg intravenously). In illumination, subjects were requested to focus alternately on the faces of investigators standing on the left and the right within peripheral vision. In darkness, subjects were instructed to look away from a point source of light. Subjects were to report their experiences after reversal of paralysis. Results: During attempted eye-movement in illumination, one subject had an illusion of environmental movement but four subjects perceived faces as clearly as if they were in central vision. In darkness, four subjects reported movement of the target light in the direction of attempted eye-movements and three could control the movement of the light at will. Conclusion: The hypothesis that internal visual models receive intended ocular-movement-information directly from oculomotor centers is strengthened by this evidence. PMID:22162967

  9. Laryngeal tuberculosis: an important issue.

    PubMed

    Hermani, Bambang; Sawitra, Diani

    2006-01-01

    In developing countries like Indonesia, pulmonary tuberculosis still ranks among the major health problems and the prevalence of laryngeal tuberculosis are therefore still high. It is important for physicians and otolaryngologist to recognize the cardinal sign and symptoms of laryngeal tuberculosis in order to make an early diagnosis. An illustration of four cases with laryngeal tuberculosis is reported. All cases presented with hoarseness and diagnosis of laryngeal and pulmonary tuberculosis were made at ENT department. PMID:16479029

  10. Laryngeal schwannoma: excision via a laryngofissure approach

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Antonia; Anwar, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are peripheral nerve neurogenic tumours and although not common, laryngeal schwannomas can provide a unique challenge in diagnostic and treatment management. There are limited reports in the literature on approaches to management. A 73-year-old lady presented to the otolaryngology department after a MRI scan demonstrated an incidental right supraglottic mass. Further investigations included CT scanning and microlaryngoscopy, which only confirmed the presence of the mass with no histology diagnosis. Excision was undertaken by a laryngofissure approach and tracheostomy. Histology confirmed a benign ancient schwannoma. PMID:26034238

  11. [Rehabilitation of facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Martin, F

    2015-10-01

    Rehabilitation takes an important part in the treatment of facial paralysis, especially when these are severe. It aims to lead the recovery of motor activity and prevent or reduce sequelae like synkinesis or spasms. It is preferable that it be proposed early in order to set up a treatment plan based on the results of the assessment, sometimes coupled with an electromyography. In case of surgery, preoperative work is recommended, especially in case of hypoglossofacial anastomosis or lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM). Our proposal is to present an original technique to enhance the sensorimotor loop and the cortical control of movement, especially when using botulinum toxin and after surgery. PMID:26195012

  12. Genetics Home Reference: hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions hyperkalemic periodic paralysis hyperkalemic periodic paralysis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is a condition that causes episodes of extreme ...

  13. For Parents: Children and Teens with Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Send us your question Have a question about paralysis? Our information specialists are available to help by ... mentors are people living with or impacted by paralysis. Free services and downloads > Paralysis Resource Guide Our ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions hypokalemic periodic paralysis hypokalemic periodic paralysis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a condition that causes episodes of extreme ...

  15. Cross-face nerve grafting followed by free muscle transplantation in young patients with long-standing facial paralysis. Reanimation of the cheek and the angle of the mouth.

    PubMed

    Vedung, S; Hakelius, L; Stålberg, E

    1984-01-01

    For reanimation of the cheek in 8 young patients with long-standing facial palsy a method with cross-face nerve grafting followed by free muscle transplantation has been used. The sural nerve was used as nerve graft and placed in a subcutaneous tunnel across the face. In the normal cheek 3-4 fascicles of the nerve were anastomosed to facial nerve branches innervating muscles elevating the angle of the mouth. Four to 13 months later the extensor digitorum brevis muscle to the second toe or the palmaris longus was transplanted to the paralysed cheek. It was attached between the zygomatic arch and the angle of the mouth. The end of the nerve was sutured to the muscle after taking a biopsy. The follow-up period has been 7-30 months. At 7 months 6 patients had positive EMG, either on voluntary movement or on stimulation of the contralateral facial nerve. Three of them had also a slight movement in the cheek. Two patients are as yet only 7 months postoperative. In the remaining two cases, No. 2 and 4, there were no signs of reinnervation. At 18 months 4 out of 6 patients had a synchronous natural contraction in the cheek giving increased balance to the mouth. These patients had a positive EMG. In patients No. 2 and 4 there was neither innervation nor improvement. At 30 months there was additional improvement in two cases but as previously in patients No. 2 and 4 there was neither improvement nor signs of innervation of the muscle on the EMG. The other 4 patients have not reached this postoperative stage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6494818

  16. Clinical Efficacy of Electroneurography in Acute Facial Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The estimated incidence of acute facial paralysis is approximately 30 patients per 100000 populations annually. Facial paralysis is an extremely frightening situation and gives extreme stress to patients because obvious disfiguring face may cause significant functional, aesthetic, and psychological disturbances. For stressful patients with acute facial paralysis, it is very important for clinicians to answer the questions like whether or not their facial function will return to normal, how much of their facial function will be recovered, and how long this is going to take. It is also important for clinicians to treat the psychological aspects by adequately explaining the prognosis, in addition to providing the appropriate medical treatment. For decades, clinicians have used various electrophysiologic tests, including the nerve excitability test, the maximal stimulation test, electroneurography, and electromyography. In particular, electroneurography is the only objective measure that is useful in early stage of acute facial paralysis. In this review article, we first discuss the pathophysiology of injured peripheral nerve. And then, we describe about various electrophysiologic tests and discuss the electroneurography extensively. PMID:27144227

  17. Human laryngeal ganglia contain both sympathetic and parasympathetic cell types.

    PubMed

    Ibanez, Marta; Valderrama-Canales, Francisco J; Maranillo, Eva; Vazquez, Teresa; Pascual-Font, Arn; McHanwell, Stephen; Sanudo, Jose

    2010-09-01

    The presence of ganglia associated with the laryngeal nerves is well documented. In man, these ganglia have been less well studied than in other species and, in particular, the cell types within these ganglia are less well characterized. Using a panel of antibodies to a variety of markers found in the paraganglion cells of other species, we were able to show the existence of at least two populations of cells within human laryngeal paraganglia. One population contained chromogranin and tyrosine hydroxylase representing a neurosecretory population possibly secreting dopamine. A second population of choline acetyltransferase positive cells would appear to have a putative parasympathetic function. Further work is needed to characterize these cell populations more fully before it will be possible to assign functions to these cell types but our results are consistent with the postulated functions of these ganglia as chemoreceptors, neurosecretory cells, and regulators of laryngeal mucus secretion. PMID:20821402

  18. [Laryngeal cancer risk factors].

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Dariusz; Dzaman, Karolina; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2006-07-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the most common of head and neck cancers. Neoplasm used to develop basing on DNA mutation which leads to uncontrolled growth and cells' division. It is due to spontaneous mutations or influence of chemical, biological and physical factors. Laryngeal cancer generation is conditioned by many synergic factors. Some of them certainly participate in cancer genesis and this thesis is accepted by medical environment and other of them have been discussed giving different information. Definition of the risk factors role in laryngeal cancer etiology is very difficult especially regarding their contemporary occurrence in one person. Most common risk factors are environmental factors, gastroesophageal reflux, viral infections, diet, radiation, individual predisposition. Some of them, such as cigarette smoking and abuse alcohol are significantly oftener confirmed in patients with neoplasm diagnosis and others' role in developing of illness has been still researched. Thus the purpose of the study was to present so far achievements in laryngeal cancer etiology and to emphasize controversies relating to some factors' role in cancer genesis. PMID:17007303

  19. A case of hypokalemic paralysis in a patient with neurogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Frederic N; Kar, Jitesh K; Verduzco-Gutierrez, Monica; Zakaria, Asma

    2014-04-01

    Acute hypokalemic paralysis is characterized by muscle weakness or paralysis secondary to low serum potassium levels. Neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition where the patient excretes large volume of dilute urine due to low levels of antidiuretic hormone. Here, we describe a patient with neurogenic DI who developed hypokalemic paralysis without a prior history of periodic paralysis. A 30-year-old right-handed Hispanic male was admitted for refractory seizures and acute DI after developing a dental abscess. He had a history of pituitary adenoma resection at the age of 13 with subsequent pan-hypopituitarism and was noncompliant with hormonal supplementation. On hospital day 3, he developed sudden onset of quadriplegia with motor strength of 0 of 5 in the upper extremities bilaterally and 1 of 5 in both lower extremities with absent deep tendon reflexes. His routine laboratory studies revealed severe hypokalemia of 1.6 mEq/dL. Nerve Conduction Study (NCS) revealed absent compound motor action potentials (CMAPs) with normal sensory potentials. Electromyography (EMG) did not reveal any abnormal insertional or spontaneous activity. He regained full strength within 36 hours following aggressive correction of the hypokalemia. Repeat NCS showed return of CMAPs in all nerves tested and EMG revealed normal motor units and normal recruitment without myotonic discharges. In patients with central DI with polyuria, hypokalemia can result in sudden paralysis. Hypokalemic paralysis remains an important differential in an acute case of paralysis and early recognition and appropriate management is key. PMID:24707338

  20. Sleep paralysis as spiritual experience.

    PubMed

    Hufford, David J

    2005-03-01

    This article presents an overview of the sleep paralysis experience from both a cultural and a historical perspective. The robust, complex phenomenological pattern that represents the subjective experience of sleep paralysis is documented and illustrated. Examples are given showing that, for a majority of subjects, sleep paralysis is taken to be a kind of spiritual experience. This is, in part, because of the very common perception of a non-physical 'threatening presence' that is part of the event. Examples from various cultures, including mainstream contemporary America which has no widely known tradition about sleep paralysis, are used to show that the complex pattern and spiritual interpretation are not dependent on cultural models or prior learning. This is dramatically contrary to conventional explanations of apparently 'direct' spiritual experiences, explanations that are summed up as the 'Cultural Source Hypothesis.' This aspect of sleep paralysis was not recognized through most of the twentieth century. The article examines the way that conventional modern views of spiritual experience, combined with medical ideas that labeled 'direct' spiritual experiences as psychopathological, and mainstream religious views of such experiences as heretical if not pathological, suppressed the report and discussion of these experiences in modern society. These views have resulted in confusion in the scientific literature on sleep paralysis with regard to its prevalence and core features. The article also places sleep paralysis in the context of other 'direct' spiritual experiences and offers an 'Experiential Theory' of cross-culturally distributed spiritual experiences. PMID:15881267

  1. Laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Hull, J H; Menon, A

    2015-12-01

    Patients with chronic cough often report symptoms arising in the throat, in response to non-specific stimuli. Accordingly, the concept of a 'hypersensitivity' of the larynx in chronic cough has evolved over the past ten years. Patients with cough and laryngeal hypersensitivity frequently report features that overlap other laryngeal dysfunction syndromes, including a tendency for the vocal cords to inappropriately adduct. The mechanisms underlying laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough are currently unclear, however recent studies provide new clinical and physiological techniques to aid detection and monitoring of laryngeal hypersensitivity. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge in this field. PMID:26325433

  2. Conditions That Can Cause Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neurofibromatosis Lyme Disease Multiple Sclerosis Muscular Dystrophy Post-Polio Syndrome Spina Bifida Spinal Cord Injury Syringomyelia / Tethered ... of the skeletal muscles that control movement. Post-Polio Syndrome Poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis) has been eradicated from ...

  3. [Laryngeal interarytenoid neurilemmoma excised via microlaryngeal endoscopy: two case reports].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Cheng, Lixin; Tang, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Laryngeal interarytenoid neurilemmomas (LIN) is a benign encapsulated tumor originating from the schwann cells lining nerve fibers. Even though LINs are extremely rare in incidence, they could present with potential threat to the airway and thus requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Here, we report two cases of LINs. Both patients underwent excision of the tumor via microlaryngeal endoscopic procedures and recovered well postoperatively without complications. No recurrence was observed postoperatively on routine follow-up after 14 months. PMID:27101688

  4. An Unusual Case of Neuralgic Amyotrophy Presenting with Bilateral Phrenic Nerve and Vocal Cord Paresis

    PubMed Central

    Holtbernd, F.; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, A. am; Duning, T.; Kemmling, A.; Ringelstein, E.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuralgic amyotrophy (brachial plexus neuropathy, brachial plexus neuritis, or Parsonage-Turner syndrome) is an uncommon inflammatory condition typically characterized by acute and severe shoulder pain followed by paresis with muscle weakness and atrophy of the upper limb or shoulder girdle. We report an unusual clinical manifestation of neuralgic amyotrophy, namely bilateral phrenic nerve palsy with concomitant laryngeal paresis. Case Report A 55-year-old male presented with orthopnea and aphonia after an episode of bilateral shoulder pain preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. Spirometry, chest X-ray and videolaryngoscopy revealed bilateral and simultaneous paresis of the diaphragm and the vocal cords. Clinical examination at admission and at the 2-month follow-up did not show upper limb weakness or atrophy, except for a mild atrophy of the right supraspinatus muscle. An electromyography of the upper limb muscles and nerve conduction studies did not reveal signs of denervation. Analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid and an MRI of the neuraxis were unremarkable. After treatment with prednisolone, vocal cord function markedly improved within 8 weeks, whereas paresis of the diaphragm persisted. Conclusion Shoulder pain followed by diaphragmatic paralysis with dyspnea and hoarseness may be a manifestation of neuralgic amyotrophy even if upper limb or shoulder girdle palsies are absent. PMID:21490716

  5. [Vocal cord paralysis--analysis of a cohort of 400 patients].

    PubMed

    Reiter, R; Pickhard, A; Smith, E; Hansch, K; Weber, T; Hoffmann, T K; Brosch, S

    2015-02-01

    Vocal cord paralysis has diverse etiologies. In the present study, vocal chord paralysis caused by surgery/trauma was present in more than two thirds of the cases, followed by primary malignancy-associated paralysis. Thyroidectomy was the most common cause in bilateral paresis, especially if performed in recurrent or malignant disease. Voice therapy was promising in pa-tients with unilateral paresis and hoarseness as main symptom. Persistent dysphonia due to insufficiency of the glottic closure led to an operative glottis restricting procedure in only 6% of cases. In almost half the patients with dyspnea as the main symp-tom of bilateral vocal cord paresis, temporary tracheotomy or surgical glottis widening procedures had to be performed. The group of idiopathic and traumatic paresis patients showed the best spontaneous recovery within the first 12 months in comparison to primary malignancy-associated paralysis, which showed no recovery of the recurrens nerve. PMID:24676872

  6. Role of perineural invasion as a prognostic factor in laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    MESOLELLA, MASSIMO; IORIO, BRIGIDA; MISSO, GABRIELLA; LUCE, AMALIA; CIMMINO, MARIANO; IENGO, MAURIZIO; LANDI, MARIO; SPERLONGANO, PASQUALE; CARAGLIA, MICHELE; RICCIARDIELLO, FILIPPO

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of laryngeal cancer cells in the perineural space is a parameter associated with a negative prognosis, high loco-regional recurrence and low disease-free survival rates. The spread of tumor cells on the perineural sheath highlights the histopathological and clinically aggressive behavior of this type of tumor, which may extend proximally or distally in the nerve for >10 cm. Therefore, the surgical resection margin is generally insufficient to treat patients with laryngeal cancer presenting with perineural invasion (PNI) with surgery alone. In PNI, the minor laryngeal nerves are frequently involved, rather than the superior and inferior laryngeal nerves. The aim of the present study was: i) To evaluate the prognostic importance of PNI; ii) to correlate the rate of infiltration with factors associated with the tumor, including histotype, site and tumor-node-metastasis stage, and with the type of surgery (total or partial laryngectomy); and iii) to evaluate the rate of disease-free survival according to the outcome of combined surgery and radiotherapy (RT) treatment, by means of retrospective analysis. The results of the present study highlighted the importance of performing a closer clinical and instrumental follow-up in patients with laryngeal cancer whose histopathological examination is positive for PNI. In such cases, it is important to complement the surgical therapeutic treatment with adjuvant RT. PMID:27073523

  7. Rabies virus neuritic paralysis: immunopathogenesis of nonfatal paralytic rabies.

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, F; Cox, J H; Meyer, S; Dahme, E; Reddehase, M J

    1992-01-01

    Two pathogenetically distinct disease manifestations are distinguished in a murine model of primary rabies virus infection with the Evelyn-Rokitnicky-Abelseth strain, rabies virus neuritic paralysis (RVNP) and fatal encephalopathogenic rabies. RVNP develops with high incidence in immunocompetent mice after intraplantar infection as a flaccid paralysis restricted to the infected limb. The histopathologic correlate of this monoplegia is a degeneration of the myelinated motor neurons of the peripheral nerve involved. While, in this model, fatal encephalopathogenic rabies develops only after depletion of the CD4 subset of T lymphocytes and without contribution of the CD8 subset, RVNP is identified as an immunopathological process in which both the CD4 and CD8 subsets of T lymphocytes are critically implicated. Images PMID:1629964

  8. Artifacts produced during electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve in cats. [autonomic nervous system components of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, P. C.

    1973-01-01

    Evidence is presented to indicate that evoked potentials in the recurrent laryngeal, the cervical sympathetic, and the phrenic nerve, commonly reported as being elicited by vestibular nerve stimulation, may be due to stimulation of structures other than the vestibular nerve. Experiments carried out in decerebrated cats indicated that stimulation of the petrous bone and not that of the vestibular nerve is responsible for the genesis of evoked potentials in the recurrent laryngeal and the cervical sympathetic nerves. The phrenic response to electrical stimulation applied through bipolar straight electrodes appears to be the result of stimulation of the facial nerve in the facial canal by current spread along the petrous bone, since stimulation of the suspended facial nerve evoked potentials only in the phrenic nerve and not in the recurrent laryngeal nerve. These findings indicate that autonomic components of motion sickness represent the secondary reactions and not the primary responses to vestibular stimulation.

  9. Clinically isolated laryngeal sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Plaschke, Christina Caroline; Owen, Hanne Hoejris; Rasmussen, Niels

    2011-04-01

    Laryngeal sarcoidosis is rare (0.5% of patients with sarcoidosis), the pathogenesis is unknown and the optimal treatment remains a matter of debate. We undertook this study to elucidate possible pathogenic factors in clinically isolated laryngeal sarcoidosis and to describe results of supraglottoplastic surgery. From 1995 to 2009, we identified six patients with histologically proven sarcoidosis of the larynx treated at Rigshospitalet. All patients were subjected to a panel of blood tests and MR scan of the head and neck. All patients had dyspnoea at admission, and five were subjected to a combination of CO(2)-laser excision of supraglottic tissue and closure of the incision with sutures. All serological tests were negative or normal, including angiotensin 1 converting enzyme. The clinical expression was uniform with pale, smooth swellings of the supraglottic structures. Surgery proved successful to maintain normal breathing. None of the many parameters examined--some previously having been found to be abnormal in sarcoidosis--were abnormal in the present cohort. We are therefore unable to elucidate the pathogenesis. The combined surgical approach re-established normal airway function for all five patients and complete remission without further swellings was seen in two patients. PMID:21132317

  10. [Management of laryngeal cancers].

    PubMed

    Brunin, F; Rodriguez, J; Cougniot-Lescure, S; Point, D; Jaulerry, C; Brugère, J

    1995-04-01

    With 5,000 cases yearly, laryngeal carcinomas account in France for the third of squamous cell cancers of the upper digestive and respiratory tract. The crude survival rate is 50% at 5 years. Carcinomas of vocal cords are often diagnosed as early stages if dysphonia leads the patients to the ENT specialist within 2 weeks. Cure of the primary is achieved in 90% of the early stages by radiotherapy with narrow fields or partial surgery, with a 80% 5 years survival rate. Advanced tumors are often treated by total laryngectomy and postoperative radiotherapy. Supra-glottic cancers (epiglottis) are more serious. Unilateral dysphagia or upper cervical neck node often delay early diagnosis. A total laryngectomy is the commonest treatment. The 5 years survival rate of 40% is due to local and/or regional failures and metachronous cancers in head and neck, and radiotherapy remains the two major treatments. Primary prevention is based upon suppression of tobacco and reduction of alcoholic consumption, secondary prevention on resection of leucoplakia and close follow-up of patients with chronic laryngitis. PMID:7761753

  11. Different mechanism of vocal cord paralysis between spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA 1 and SCA 3) and multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Isozaki, Eiji; Naito, Rie; Kanda, Takemasa; Mizutani, Toshio; Hirai, Shunsaku

    2002-05-15

    While multiple system atrophy (MSA) is frequently associated with vocal cord paralysis (VCP) causing severe respiratory failure, it is still unknown whether hereditary types of spinocerebellar degeneration develop similar laryngeal paralysis. We analyzed the laryngeal function from the viewpoints of fiberoptic laryngoscopy and laryngeal myopathology and then attempted to clarify the difference of the mechanism of VCP among the patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA 1), type 3 (SCA 3), and MSA. Seven patients with SCA 1, nineteen with SCA 3, and eleven with MSA were studied. Vocal cord movement was analyzed by fiberoptic laryngoscopy during wakefulness and diazepam-induced sleep (sleep load test). Paraffin-embedded sections or cryosections of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles from five autopsied cases (one with SCA 1 and four with SCA 3) were histologically examined. VCP was found in two of the seven SCA 1 patients (29%), three of the nineteen SCA 3 patients (16%), and in nine of the eleven MSA patients (82%). VCP observed in SCA 1 and SCA 3 was various in the severity and showed no exacerbation on sleep load test in all of the eight patients but one SCA 3 patient. In this patient, the findings of fiberoptic laryngoscopy were quite similar to those found in MSA. All the intrinsic laryngeal muscles including cricothyroid (CT), interarytenoid (IA), and posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles showed neurogenic atrophy in one autopsied SCA 1 and four SCA 3 patients. Our conclusion is that VCP in SCA 1 and SCA 3 contrasts with that in MSA in its occurrence, response to the sleep load test, and the distribution of the neurogenic abnormalities among the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. PMID:11997064

  12. Children and Teens with Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the coming weeks, or who anticipate conducting a college search in the near future. Read more. The Reeve Foundation Paralysis Resource Center Information Specialists are reachable business weekdays, Monday through Friday, toll-free at 800-539-7309 from 9:00 am ...

  13. [Laryngeal malignant schwannoma in a 9-year-old boy: report of a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Dvornik, G; Del Piano, A; Segatta, P; Vidi, I; Dalla Palma, P

    1996-12-01

    A case of malignant schwannoma of the larynx in a 9 year old boy is reported. The lesion recurred 29 months later with the same histological pattern. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours of the larynx are rare and are almost exceptional in paediatric age. The Authors discuss the main differential diagnosis of spindle cell paediatric tumors of the laryngeal region. PMID:9206781

  14. Management of Advanced Laryngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sheahan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx continues to be the commonest head and neck cancer in many Western countries. The larynx plays a key role for many essential functions, including breathing, voice production, airway protection, and swallowing. The goals of laryngeal cancer treatment are thus to provide best possible oncologic control, while optimizing functional outcomes. In recent decades, the treatment paradigm for advanced laryngeal cancer has shifted from one of primary surgery (total laryngectomy) as gold standard, toward non-surgical organ-preserving treatment using radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. However, concerns have emerged regarding functional outcomes after chemoradiotherapy, as well as possible decreased overall survival in patients with laryngeal cancer. The purpose of the present review is to review surgical and non-surgical options for treatment of advanced laryngeal cancer, as well as the evidence supporting each of these. PMID:24808953

  15. Laryngeal Manifestations of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, A. L.; Sarieddine, D.

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a destructive autoimmune disease that affects 3% of the adult population. It is characterized by the formation of both articular and extra-articular lesions with predilection for small joints. There are ubiquitous reports on the head and neck manifestations of RA with emphasis on the larynx. The laryngeal presenting features of this systemic disease may mimic a plethora of medical conditions, inflammatory and neoplastic. The main phonatory and respiratory symptoms are often subtle and misleading. This paper represents a literature review of the laryngeal manifestations of RA with emphasis on the clinical symptoms, laryngeal findings, diagnosis, and treatment. An early diagnosis of laryngeal involvement may prevent drastic complications. PMID:23864939

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection in laryngeal diseases.

    PubMed

    Siupsinskiene, Nora; Jurgutaviciute, Vilma; Katutiene, Inga; Janciauskas, Dainius; Vaitkus, Saulius; Adamonis, Kęstutis

    2013-08-01

    Clinical studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori can be found not only in the mucosa of the stomach, but in the pharyngeal and laryngeal regions as well. The aim of this prospective case-control study was to identify H. pylori infection in the biopsy material from the larynx of the patients suffering from benign laryngeal diseases (vocal fold polyps, laryngitis) and laryngeal cancer and to investigate the possible relationships between the laryngeal H. pylori and patients' socio-demographic data and laryngopharyngeal reflux. The results of the biopsy material from 67 adult patients treated for benign laryngeal diseases and laryngeal cancer and 11 individuals of the control group revealed that H. pylori infection could be identified in more than one-third of the patients. In the majority of cases H. pylori was found in the patients with chronic laryngitis (45.5%) and laryngeal cancer (46.2%). The findings of these sub-groups significantly differed from those of the control group (9.1%) (p < 0.05). No significant relationships between H. pylori infection found in the laryngeal region and patients' demographic data, their unhealthy habits and reflux-related symptoms or signs were obtained. It could be concluded that H. pylori can colonize in the larynx of patients with benign laryngeal diseases and laryngeal cancer. To clarify the role of H. pylori as a risk factor for laryngeal diseases further research is needed. PMID:23572292

  17. Single-stage dynamic reanimation of the smile in irreversible facial paralysis by free functional muscle transfer.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Jan; Bannasch, Holger; Stark, G Bjoern; Eisenhardt, Steffen U

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral facial paralysis is a common disease that is associated with significant functional, aesthetic and psychological issues. Though idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy) is the most common diagnosis, patients can also present with a history of physical trauma, infectious disease, tumor, or iatrogenic facial paralysis. Early repair within one year of injury can be achieved by direct nerve repair, cross-face nerve grafting or regional nerve transfer. It is due to muscle atrophy that in long lasting facial paralysis complex reconstructive methods have to be applied. Instead of one single procedure, different surgical approaches have to be considered to alleviate the various components of the paralysis. The reconstruction of a spontaneous dynamic smile with a symmetric resting tone is a crucial factor to overcome the functional deficits and the social handicap that are associated with facial paralysis. Although numerous surgical techniques have been described, a two-stage approach with an initial cross-facial nerve grafting followed by a free functional muscle transfer is most frequently applied. In selected patients however, a single-stage reconstruction using the motor nerve to the masseter as donor nerve is superior to a two-stage repair. The gracilis muscle is most commonly used for reconstruction, as it presents with a constant anatomy, a simple dissection and minimal donor site morbidity. Here we demonstrate the pre-operative work-up, the post-operative management, and precisely describe the surgical procedure of single-stage microsurgical reconstruction of the smile by free functional gracilis muscle transfer in a step by step protocol. We further illustrate common pitfalls and provide useful tips which should enable the reader to truly comprehend the procedure. We further discuss indications and limitations of the technique and demonstrate representative results. PMID:25868011

  18. Respiratory sensations, cardiovascular control, kinaesthesia and transcranial stimulation during paralysis in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Gandevia, S C; Killian, K; McKenzie, D K; Crawford, M; Allen, G M; Gorman, R B; Hales, J P

    1993-01-01

    1. To determine whether discomfort associated with breathing (dyspnoea) is related to the chemical drive to breath, three subjects were totally paralysed while fully conscious. Subjective responses to a rising CO2 stimulus were obtained during rebreathing, rebreathing with CO2 added, and breath holding. Dyspnoea was measured with a 10-point Borg scale. 2. Following nasotracheal intubation and ventilation (oxygen saturation, O2,Sat, 98-100% and end-tidal CO2, PET,CO2, 30-40 mmHg), total neuromuscular blockade was induced by a rapid injection of atracurium (> 2.5 mg kg-1) and complete paralysis was maintained with an infusion (5 mg (kg h)-1). Paralysis was confirmed by abolition of the compound muscle action potentials of both the diaphragm and abductor hallucis evoked by supramaximal electrical stimulation of the relevant nerves. Communication via finger movement was preserved for the first 20-30 min following paralysis by inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff on one arm. 3. Before and during complete paralysis, dyspnoea increased progressively during hypercapnia produced by rebreathing (with or without CO2 added to the circuit at 250 ml min-1). The mean PET,CO2 eliciting 'severe' dyspnoea was 46 mmHg during rebreathing, 42 mmHg during 'breath holding', and 52 mmHg during rebreathing with added CO2. There were no significant differences between the values obtained during paralysis and in the control study immediately before paralysis. The duration of breath holding was not prolonged by paralysis and the PET,CO2 at the 'break point' was not altered by paralysis. 4. Thus, dyspnoea is preserved following total neuromuscular blockade. This suggests that chemoreceptor activity, via the central neuronal activity which it evokes, can lead to discomfort in the absence of any contraction of respiratory muscles. 5. During paralysis, attempted contraction of arm, leg and trunk muscles increased heart rate and blood pressure. For attempted handgrip contractions, the increases in heart rate (range, 7-15 beats min-1) and mean arterial pressure (range, 20-32 mmHg) were similar to those recorded with actual contractions in trials immediately before paralysis. In one subject, graded increases in heart rate and blood pressure occurred for attempted contractions of 45 s duration over a range of intensities (0-100% maximal effort). 6. During complete paralysis, transcranial electromagnetic stimulation of the motor cortex produced illusory twitch-like movements of the wrist and digits. This also occurred in separate studies during complete ischaemic paralysis and anaesthesia of the forearm and hand.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8308755

  19. A curious case of paralysis.

    PubMed

    Fox, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is found in up to 13% of patients with hypertension. This article describes a patient with hypokalemia, hypertension, and periodic paralysis that were caused by primary hyperaldosteronism. Plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity ratio is a common screening test, and adrenal vein sampling can be performed to determine which gland is overproducing aldosterone. Treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists or adrenalectomy gives similar reductions in BP. PMID:26914776

  20. The effects of botulinum toxin injections into the cricopharyngeus muscle of patients with cricopharyngeus dysfunction associated with pharyngo-laryngeal weakness.

    PubMed

    Woisard-Bassols, Virginie; Alshehri, Sarah; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2013-03-01

    This prospective, open study was carried out in order to assess changes in the swallowing and dietary status after injection of Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) into the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in a series of patients with cricopharyngeus (CP) muscle dysfunction associated with pharyngo-laryngeal weakness during at least 1 year follow-up after treatment. Patients who had a cricopharyngeus (CP) muscle dysfunction associated with pharyngo-laryngeal weakness and who were at risk for aspiration were included in the study. The upper border of the cricoid cartilage was identified and the CP muscle localized using a standard electromyogram (EMG). The dose of BoNT-A was determined depending on the results of EMG performed just before the injection. Outcomes were assessed by the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), the level of residue in the pyriform sinus and the National Institute of Health-Swallow Safety Scale (NIH-SSS) on a video fluoroscopic swallowing (VFSS) assessment, the patient's subjective impressions of their ability to swallow by the Deglutition Handicap Index (DHI), and changes in dietary status by the Functional Oral Intake Scale. Eleven patients underwent the complete assessment of swallowing function at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. After the first set of treatment, seven patients had a good response and four did not respond. A significant decrease in the PAS score (p = 0.03), the amount of residue (p = 0.04) and the NIH-SSS score (p = 0.03) was observed 3 months after the injection in comparison with the first VFSS before the treatment. A relapse of dysphagia occurred in 3 out of the 11 treated patients; at 3 and 4 months for 2 patients with a Wallenberg syndrome, and at 11 months for a patient with cranial nerve paralysis after a surgery for a glomus tumor. Two of them underwent a second injection. One patient had a good response and remained stable for at least 1 year. The second did not respond either to the second injection or to a myotomy of the cricopharyngeal muscle. The third one is waiting for further surgery (myotomy). Therefore, at the end of the study and after a follow-up of at least 12 months, 5 patients out of the 11 enrolled had a good result. Percutaneous injection of BoNT-A into the UES can be a useful solution to improve cricopharyngeal dysfunction, despite the underlying pharyngo-laryngeal weakness. PMID:22865104

  1. Laryngeal Involvement of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Grobman, Ariel B.; Vivero, Richard J.; Campuzano-Zuluaga, German; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Rosow, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to discuss a rare cause of laryngeal multiple myeloma, to review unique pathologic findings associated with plasma cell neoplasms, to discuss epidemiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options for plasma cell neoplasms of the larynx. Laryngeal multiple myeloma, also noted in the literature as “metastatic” multiple myeloma, presenting as a de novo laryngeal mass is extremely rare with few reported cases. Laryngeal involvement of extramedullary tumors is reported to be between 6% and 18% with the epiglottis, glottis, false vocal folds, aryepiglottic folds, and subglottis involved in decreasing the order of frequency. We present the case of a 58-year-old male with a history of IgA smoldering myeloma who presented to a tertiary care laryngological practice with a two-month history of dysphonia, which was found to be laryngeal involvement of multiple myeloma. We review the classification of and differentiation between different plasma cell neoplasms, disease workups, pathologic findings, and treatment options. PMID:23213583

  2. Laryngeal involvement of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Grobman, Ariel B; Vivero, Richard J; Campuzano-Zuluaga, German; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Rosow, David E

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to discuss a rare cause of laryngeal multiple myeloma, to review unique pathologic findings associated with plasma cell neoplasms, to discuss epidemiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options for plasma cell neoplasms of the larynx. Laryngeal multiple myeloma, also noted in the literature as "metastatic" multiple myeloma, presenting as a de novo laryngeal mass is extremely rare with few reported cases. Laryngeal involvement of extramedullary tumors is reported to be between 6% and 18% with the epiglottis, glottis, false vocal folds, aryepiglottic folds, and subglottis involved in decreasing the order of frequency. We present the case of a 58-year-old male with a history of IgA smoldering myeloma who presented to a tertiary care laryngological practice with a two-month history of dysphonia, which was found to be laryngeal involvement of multiple myeloma. We review the classification of and differentiation between different plasma cell neoplasms, disease workups, pathologic findings, and treatment options. PMID:23213583

  3. [Laryngeal intraepithelial neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Eckel, H E; Raunik, W; Rogatsch, H

    2008-06-01

    Precancer (carcinoma in situ) or laryngeal intraepithelial neoplasia (LIN) is a non-invasive lesion that has genetic abnormalities, loss of cellular control functions, and some phenotypic characteristics of invasive cancer and that predicts for a substantial likelihood of developing invasive cancer. Several classifications have been proposed but none has received a total agreement. With regard to diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, these lesions differ substantially from infiltrating carcinoma. Known risk factors include cigarette smoking, viral infection with subtypes of the human papilloma virus, exposure to asbestos, and probably the gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The diagnostic work-up usually includes indirect laryngoscopy with rigid telescopes, microlaryngoscopy and biopsies for histological evaluation. Therapeutic options include wait-and-see-strategies, radiotherapy, transoral laser surgery, vocal cord stripping with cold instruments, and open partial laryngectomy. Data from the literature suggest highest local control rate with radiotherapy as initial treatment compared to other standard methods of management of dysplasia. However, transoral laser surgery can be applied repeatedly and yields excellent final results. Therefore it is now considered the treatment of choice for these lesions in the majority of patients. Local recurrences are observed more frequently than with small infiltrative carcinoma, and second primaries may arise within the upper aero-digestive tract following initial treatment. Therefore systematic follow-up is recommended for these patients. PMID:18506655

  4. Toward A Simulation-Based Tool for the Treatment of Vocal Fold Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rajat; Zheng, Xudong; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Seo, Jung Hee; Xue, Qian; Bielamowicz, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Advances in high-performance computing are enabling a new generation of software tools that employ computational modeling for surgical planning. Surgical management of laryngeal paralysis is one area where such computational tools could have a significant impact. The current paper describes a comprehensive effort to develop a software tool for planning medialization laryngoplasty where a prosthetic implant is inserted into the larynx in order to medialize the paralyzed vocal fold (VF). While this is one of the most common procedures used to restore voice in patients with VF paralysis, it has a relatively high revision rate, and the tool being developed is expected to improve surgical outcomes. This software tool models the biomechanics of airflow-induced vibration in the human larynx and incorporates sophisticated approaches for modeling the turbulent laryngeal flow, the complex dynamics of the VFs, as well as the production of voiced sound. The current paper describes the key elements of the modeling approach, presents computational results that demonstrate the utility of the approach and also describes some of the limitations and challenges. PMID:21556320

  5. Laryngeal metastasis from lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalai, Umasankar; Madan, Karan; Jain, Deepali; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the larynx are rare. The most common tumors metastasizing to the larynx are melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Bronchogenic carcinoma metastasizing to the larynx has been rarely described. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old, chronic smoker, who incidentally had a laryngeal growth detected during flexible bronchoscopy examination for evaluation of suspected lung cancer. Histopathological examination of the laryngeal nodule and the biopsy obtained from the main bronchus growth confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the larynx from primary lung cancer. PMID:25983415

  6. Tick paralysis cases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Remondegui, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Tick paralysis (TP) occurs worldwide and is caused by a neurotoxin secreted by engorged female ticks that affects the peripheral and central nervous system. The clinical manifestations range from mild or nonspecific symptoms to manifestations similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome, bulbar involvement, and death in 10% of the patients. The diagnosis of TP is clinical. To our knowledge, there are no formal reports of TP in humans in South America, although clusters of TP among hunting dogs in Argentina have been identified recently. In this paper, clinical features of two cases of TP occurring during 1994 in Jujuy Province, Argentina, are described. PMID:22930054

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF LARYNGEAL FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we have investigated laryngeal air flows by numerically solving the corresponding Navier-Stokes equations expressed in a two-dimensional cylindrical coordinate system. The glottal aperture, defined by the geometry of the vocal folds was allowed to change with the v...

  8. [Ulnar nerve lesions after osteosynthesis of a supercondylar humerus fracture during childhood. Indications for revision].

    PubMed

    Jester, A; Flügel, A; Germann, G; Oestreich, K

    2006-12-01

    Since 1948, closed reduction and osteosynthesis for supracondylar humeral fractures using two K-wires from the medial and lateral side has been performed on a regular basis. Although this procedure is used routinely, many authors have described paralysis of the ulnar nerve after blindly inserting the medial K-wire. Only very few publications describe the treatment options after iatrogenic paralysis of this nerve. The patients described showed progressive paralysis of the ulnar nerve after K-wire osteosynthesis. Intraoperatively, all patients showed scarring but intact continuity. After surgical revision and neurolysis, all four patients showed complete restitution after 1 year. If patients show progressive paralysis of the ulnar nerve early operative revision after 3 months should be performed. PMID:16969654

  9. Dosimetric Predictors of Laryngeal Edema

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe . E-mail: gisangui@utmb.edu; Adapala, Prashanth; Endres, Eugene J. C; Brack, Collin; Fiorino, Claudio; Sormani, Maria Pia; Parker, Brent

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate dosimetric predictors of laryngeal edema after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 66 patients were selected who had squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with grossly uninvolved larynx at the time of RT, no prior major surgical operation except for neck dissection and tonsillectomy, treatment planning data available for analysis, and at least one fiberoptic examination of the larynx within 2 years from RT performed by a single observer. Both the biologically equivalent mean dose at 2 Gy per fraction and the cumulative biologic dose-volume histogram of the larynx were extracted for each patient. Laryngeal edema was prospectively scored after treatment. Time to endpoint, moderate or worse laryngeal edema (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2+), was calculated with log rank test from the date of treatment end. Results: At a median follow-up of 17.1 months (range, 0.4- 50.0 months), the risk of Grade 2+ edema was 58.9% {+-} 7%. Mean dose to the larynx, V30, V40, V50, V60, and V70 were significantly correlated with Grade 2+ edema at univariate analysis. At multivariate analysis, mean laryngeal dose (continuum, hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.15; p < 0.001), and positive neck stage at RT (N0-x vs. N +, hazard ratio, 3.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-9.58; p = 0.008) were the only independent predictors. Further stratification showed that, to minimize the risk of Grade 2+ edema, the mean dose to the larynx has to be kept {<=}43.5 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Conclusion: Laryngeal edema is strictly correlated with various dosimetric parameters; mean dose to the larynx should be kept {<=}43.5 Gy.

  10. Facial paralysis reconstruction in children and adolescents with central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Panossian, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Facial paralysis remains a vexing problem in the treatment of posterior cranial fossa tumors in children. Fortunately, current techniques are available to reconstruct the paralyzed face in restoring balance, symmetry, and amelioration of functional sequelae. The restoration of structure and function of the paralyzed face is tantamount to proper social integration and psychosocial rehabilitation. In addition, the facial nerve is important in preventing drying of the eyes, drooling, and speech abnormalities, among other functions. The most visible evidence of facial paralysis is stark asymmetry, especially with animation. This is perhaps the most troubling aspect of facial paralysis and the one that leads to the greatest amount of psychosocial stress for the child and family members. Management strategies include early and late intervention. Early reconstructive goals focus on preservation and strengthening of intact motor end plates through native stimulatory pathways. Late reconstructive efforts are centered on surgically reconstructing permanently lost function based on each third of the face. Use of adjunct modalities such as chemical or surgical denervation and myectomies are also critical tools in restoring symmetry. Physical therapy plays a large role in both early and late facial nerve paralysis in optimizing cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:25547882

  11. Influence and interactions of laryngeal adductors and cricothyroid muscles on fundamental frequency and glottal posture control

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Neubauer, Juergen; Sofer, Elazar; Berry, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles (ILMs) in controlling fundamental frequency (F0) and glottal posture remain unclear. In an in vivo canine model, three sets of intrinsic laryngeal muscles—the thyroarytenoid (TA), cricothyroid (CT), and lateral cricoarytenoid plus interarytenoid (LCA/IA) muscle complex—were independently and accurately stimulated in a graded manner using distal laryngeal nerve stimulation. Graded neuromuscular stimulation was used to independently activate these paired intrinsic laryngeal muscles over a range from threshold to maximal activation, to produce 320 distinct laryngeal phonatory postures. At phonation onset these activation conditions were evaluated in terms of their vocal fold strain, glottal width at the vocal processes, fundamental frequency (F0), subglottic pressure, and airflow. F0 ranged from 69 to 772 Hz and clustered into chest-like and falsetto-like groups. CT activation was always required to raise F0, but could also lower F0 at low TA and LCA/IA activation levels. Increasing TA activation first increased then decreased F0 in all CT and LCA/IA activation conditions. Increasing TA activation also facilitated production of high F0 at a lower onset pressure. Independent control of membranous (TA) and cartilaginous (LCA/IA) glottal closure enabled multiple pathways for F0 control via changes in glottal posture. PMID:25235003

  12. Tracheobronchial and laryngeal responses to hypercapnia, histamine and capsaicin in dogs.

    PubMed

    Jammes, Y; Davies, A; Widdicombe, J G

    1985-01-01

    In nine greyhound dogs, anaesthetized with chloralose-urethane, total lung resistance, volume of an isolated cervical tracheal segment and resistance of the isolated larynx were simultaneously measured. Three stimuli were tested: inhalation of a CO2-enriched gas mixture; histamine injected intravenously or administered by aerosol to stimulate primarily lung irritant receptors; and intravenous injection of capsaicin to stimulate primarily lung C-fibre receptors. The stimuli were applied in three successive conditions: neurally-intact animals; denervation of the right lung plus cold block of myelinated fibres in the left cervical vagus nerve; and further blockade of non-myelinated fibres in this nerve. Histamine and capsaicin increased lung and laryngeal resistances, and reduced tracheal volume, and the responses after denervation are consistent with the drugs acting by lung vagal reflexes. In neurally-intact animals, hypercapnia increased total lung resistance, decreased tracheal volume and lowered laryngeal resistance. After elimination of conduction in all myelinated fibres, CO2-induced changes in lung resistance and in tracheal volume were still present. However, the dilating effect of hypercapnia on the larynx diminished markedly. Elimination of all vagal pulmonary afferents abolished the residual laryngeal response to hypercapnia, lowered and delayed changes in tracheal volume and greatly reduced the increase in lung resistance. The results indicate that the laryngeal response to hypercapnia depends on vagal integrity, but the tracheobronchial constrictor effect of CO2 is less affected by vagal denervation. PMID:4074957

  13. [Facial paralysis surgery. Current concepts].

    PubMed

    Robla-Costales, David; Robla-Costales, Javier; Socolovsky, Mariano; di Masi, Gilda; Fernndez, Javier; Campero, lvaro

    2015-01-01

    Facial palsy is a relatively common condition, from which most cases recover spontaneously. However, each year, there are 127,000 new cases of irreversible facial paralysis. This condition causes aesthetic, functional and psychologically devastating effects in the patients who suffer it. Various reconstructive techniques have been described, but there is no consensus regarding their indication. While these techniques provide results that are not perfect, many of them give a very good aesthetic and functional result, promoting the psychological, social and labour reintegration of these patients. The aim of this article is to describe the indications for which each technique is used, their results and the ideal time when each one should be applied. PMID:25498528

  14. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    PubMed

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses. PMID:23351848

  15. Update on laryngeal disorders and treatment.

    PubMed

    McCarrel, Taralyn M; Woodie, J Brett

    2015-04-01

    Laryngeal disorders are relatively common in the horse, and thorough diagnostic evaluation is essential to make an accurate definitive diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatment. The value of exercising endoscopy must not be overlooked, and the recent development of dynamic (overground) endoscopy is providing new insights into dynamic laryngeal lesions. The focus of this article will be on recently described disorders and treatments or modifications to existing treatments. It summarizes the numerous investigations attempting to perfect the laryngoplasty procedure for treatment of laryngeal hemiplegia. The newly described conditions, bilateral dynamic laryngeal collapse, and dynamically flaccid epiglottis will also be discussed. PMID:25770065

  16. Tick paralysis presenting in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Brent M; Giza, Christopher C

    2004-02-01

    We report the case of a 17-month-old female with tick paralysis presenting to an urban Los Angeles emergency department. The tick was later identified as the North American wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, and was likely obtained while the family was vacationing on a dude ranch in Montana. We discuss the epidemiology of tick paralysis, a differential diagnosis for health care providers, and methods of detection and removal. Given the increasing popularity of outdoor activities and ease of travel, tick paralysis should be considered in cases of acute or subacute weakness, even in an urban setting. PMID:14984905

  17. Multidisciplinary Management of Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, William M. Mancuso, Anthony A.; Hinerman, Russell W.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Werning, John W.; Amdur, Robert J.; Villaret, Douglas B.

    2007-10-01

    The management of head and neck cancer has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach in which patients are evaluated before treatment and decisions depend on prospective multi-institutional trials, as well as retrospective outcome studies. The choice of one or more modalities to use in a given case varies with the tumor site and extent, as exemplified in the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The goals of treatment include cure, laryngeal voice preservation, voice quality, optimal swallowing, and minimal xerostomia. Treatment options include transoral laser excision, radiotherapy (both definitive and postoperative), open partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy, and neck dissection. The likelihood of local control and preservation of laryngeal function is related to tumor volume. Patients who have a relatively high risk of local recurrence undergo follow-up computed tomography scans every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after radiotherapy. Patients with suspicious findings on computed tomography might benefit from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to differentiate post-radiotherapy changes from tumor.

  18. A new technique for hypoglossal-facial nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Atlas, M D; Lowinger, D S

    1997-07-01

    Hypoglossal reinnervation of the facial nerve may be required after a proximal facial nerve injury. The classic hypoglossal-facial graft procedure involves transection of the donor hypoglossal nerve, resulting in hemiglottic paralysis that, in association with paralysis of other cranial nerves, may cause speech and swallowing difficulties. Multiple lower cranial nerve palsies in conjunction with facial paralysis, as may occur after procedures such as skull base surgery, contraindicate the use of such techniques. The successful use of XII-VII "interposition jump grafts" without hemiglossal weakness has been described However, a prolonged recovery period and weaker facial reanimation have been seen. In order to attain maximum facial reinnervation while preserving hypoglossal function, we have developed a new technique of XII-VII repair. This method involves mobilization of the intratemporal portion of the facial nerve remnant, achieving a single anastomosis with the hypoglossal nerve, which has been partially incised. This technique has been used in three patients to date, with 6 to 11 months follow-up. In all cases facial tone and symmetry have been restored and voluntary facial expression accomplished. The authors conclude that by employing the techniques described highly satisfactory cosmetic and functional results may be expected, without compromising hypoglossal nerve function. PMID:9217143

  19. Electrophysiological properties of laryngeal motoneurones in rats submitted to chronic intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Davi J A; Machado, Benedito H

    2015-01-01

    To keep an appropriate airflow to and from the lungs under physiological conditions a precise neural co-ordination of the upper airway resistance by laryngeal motoneurones in the nucleus ambiguus is essential. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), an important component of obstructive sleep apnoea, may alter these fine mechanisms. Here, using nerve and whole cell patch clamp recordings in in situ preparations of rats we investigated the effects of CIH on the respiratory control of the upper airway resistance, on the electrophysiological properties of laryngeal motoneurones in the nucleus ambiguus, and the role of carotid body (CB) afferents to the brainstem on the underlying mechanisms of these effects. CIH rats exhibited longer pre-inspiratory and lower post-inspiratory superior laryngeal nerve activities than control rats. These changes produced exaggerated glottal abduction (before inspiration) and decreased glottal adduction during post-inspiration, indicating a reduction of upper airway resistance during these respiratory phases after CIH. CB denervation abolished these changes produced by CIH. Regarding choline acetyltransferase positive-laryngeal motoneurones, CIH increased the firing frequency of inspiratory and decreased the firing frequency of post-inspiratory laryngeal motoneurones, without changes in their intrinsic electrophysiological properties. These data show that the effects of CIH on the upper airway resistance and laryngeal motoneurones activities are driven by the integrity of CB, which afferents induce changes in the central respiratory generators in the brainstem. These neural changes in the respiratory network seem to be an adaptive process required for an appropriated pulmonary ventilation and control of upper airway resistance under intermittent episodes of hypoxia. Key points The respiratory control of the glottis by laryngeal motoneurones is characterized by inspiratory abduction and post-inspiratory adduction causing decreases and increases in upper airway resistance, respectively. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), an important component of obstructive sleep apnoea, exaggerated glottal abduction (before inspiration), associated with active expiration and decreased glottal adduction during post-inspiration. CIH increased the inspiratory and decreased the post-inspiratory laryngeal motoneurone activities, which is not associated to changes in their intrinsic electrophysiological properties. We conclude that the changes in the respiratory network after CIH seem to be an adaptive process required for an appropriated pulmonary ventilation and control of upper airway resistance under intermittent episodes of hypoxia. PMID:25433075

  20. Bilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis in a Patient With Critical Illness Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Chen, Hung-Chen; Lin, Meng-Chih; Liaw, Mei-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis (BDP) manifests as respiratory muscle weakness, and its association with critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) was rarely reported. Here, we present a patient with BDP related to CIP, who successfully avoided tracheostomy after diagnosis and management. A 71-year-old male presented with acute respiratory failure after sepsis adequately treated. Repeated intubation occurred because of carbon dioxide retention after each extubation. After eliminating possible factors, septic shock-induced respiratory muscle weakness was suspected. Physical examination, a nerve conduction study, and chest ultrasound confirmed our impression. Pulmonary rehabilitation and reconditioning exercises were arranged, and the patient was discharged with a diagnosis of BDP. The diagnosis of BDP is usually delayed, and there are only sporadic reports on its association with polyneuropathy, especially in patients with preserved limb muscle function. Therefore, when physicians encounter patients that are difficult to wean from mechanical ventilation, CIP associated with BDP should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26252301

  1. [Logopedic rehabilitation of laryngeal granulomas].

    PubMed

    Bergamini, G; Luppi, M P; Dallari, S; Kokash, F; Romani, U

    1995-10-01

    Posterior laryngeal granuloma is an infrequent pathology of multidisciplinary interest. Actually, its real prevalence is difficult to quantify because in some cases it is asymptomatic and in other instances it may either be reabsorbed or eliminated spontaneously. It is located at the vocal apophysis of the arytenoid or, less frequently, above it or on the laryngeal side of the arytenoid. The many etiologic factors (laryngeal intubation, gastro-esophageal refluxes, blunt trauma of the larynx, vocal dysfunction), sometimes concomitant and with the possible addition of enhancing circumstances (upper aerodigestive tract inflammation, naso-gastric tube, smoking and alcohol abuse), converge to a single pathogenetic mechanism: an ulceration of the mucosa and the pericondrium, sometimes complicated by an infection, which does not heal but instead produces a typical granulation tissue with capillaries oriented radially from the center of the lesion. Post intubation granulomas, extremely rare in children, are more frequent in females. It appears that there is no correlation with duration of intubation in that granulomas, can also occur after short general anesthesia. Idiopathic or contact granulomas are more frequent in the males. They are the result of vocal laryngeal hyperfunction, habitual throat clearing or cough-like throat clearing. Gastro-esophageal reflux of gastric juice, coughing or throat clearing may injure the mucosa. A blunt trauma of the larynx may cause a granuloma if the cartilage of the vocal process is exposed. Symptoms, when present, are dysphonia, tiredness during or after voicing, bolus, laryngeal unilateral pain, sensation of something in the throat which is mobile during breathing and swallowing, traces of blood in the expectoration. Therapeutic options are surgical, medical or logopedic. Surgery, although followed by frequent recurrences, is mandatory when the granuloma causes dispnea or if a pathologic essay is needed. Medical treatment aims at solving gastroesophageal reflux and/or inflammations of the district. Logopedic rehabilitation is the most successful therapy. Since January 1992 the Authors have been adopting the rehabilitation protocol planned by the French phoniatrician Brigitte Arnoux-Sindt for post-intubation granulomas, which, moreover, is utilyzed for all type of granulomas, including those arising during the early postoperative period after cordectomy. This protocol is analytically presented and discussed. In the cases of contact granulomas, and when there is concomitant vocal dysfunction, logopedic treatment is prolonged after granuloma dissapearance with some sessions aiming at restoring correct vocal behaviour. In all the ten patients rehabilitated up to now, granulomas disappeared after a mean of 16.3 sessions held twice a week. After several months of follow-up we had no recurrences. This clinical experience, while limited in number, seems to confirm the good results already reported in French Literature. PMID:8721728

  2. Child Paralysis Cases Spiked During Virus Outbreak

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_156356.html Child Paralysis Cases Spiked During Virus Outbreak: Study But definitive cause of polio-like ... during a national outbreak of enterovirus D68, a virus in the same family as polio, researchers report ...

  3. [Summery and recommendations for acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Qiang; Yu, Su; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    Articles on acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were picked up from CNKI database. The retrieved original studies were evaluated and summarized. The problems of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were analyzed, and concrete solutions were proposed. Problems that differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of severe facial paralysis, and identification of sequelae and compliation were not embasized in clinical treatment of facial paralysis. Consequently, the effectiveness of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis will be improved by sloving above problems. PMID:22256658

  4. Sleep paralysis in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Wing, Y K; Chiu, H; Leung, T; Ng, J

    1999-06-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (SP) is a common sleep phenomenon that is highly colored by indigenous beliefs. In Hong Kong Chinese, the 'ghost oppression phenomenon' (GO) has been shown to be descriptively identical to SP. The prevailing concept is that the majority of cases with SP have their onset during adolescence, but the lack of any systematic study on an older population means that late-onset cases can not be excluded. In a study investigating the prevalence of mental disorders in Chinese elderly aged above 70 y in Hong Kong, we employed the revised GO questionnaire to study the prevalence of SP in this group of elderly as well. One hundred and fifty-eight subjects were finally analyzed for the study. Almost 18% (95% C.I. 11.77%, 23.68%) of the subjects reported experiences of GO. Their description of the features of GO showed striking similarity to those of SP. There was a clear bimodal distribution of onset of GO with peaks during adolescence and after age 60 y. At least one-third of the cases were late onset. In concordance with the rapid eye movement (REM)/wakefulness dissociation hypothesis of SP, those elderly with GO+ experiences also had more frequent nocturnal sleep disturbances. A family history was reported in 10% of subjects. PMID:10389097

  5. Axillary Nerve Reconstruction: Anterior-Posterior Exposure With Sural Nerve Cable Graft Pull-Through Technique.

    PubMed

    Baltzer, Heather L; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2015-12-01

    Deltoid paralysis after axillary nerve injury results in limitations in shoulder function and stability. In the setting of an isolated axillary nerve injury with no clinical or electromyographic evidence of recovery that is within 6 to 9 months postinjury, the authors' preferred technique to reinnervate the deltoid is to reconstruct the axillary nerve with sural nerve grafting. Intraoperative neuromuscular electrophysiology is critical to determine the continuity of the axillary nerve before proceeding with reconstruction. The majority of the time, both an anterior and posterior incision and dissection of the axillary nerve is required to adequately delineate the zone of injury. This also ensures that both proximally and distally, uninjured axillary nerve is present before graft inset and also facilitates the ability to perform a meticulous microsurgical inset of the nerve graft posteriorly. The nerve graft must be pulled through from posterior to anterior to span the zone of injury and reconstruct the axillary nerve. Careful infraclavicular brachial plexus dissection is necessary to prevent further injury to components of the brachial plexus in the setting of a scarred bed. Patients will require postoperative therapy to prevent limitations in shoulder range of motion secondary to postoperative stiffness. This paper presents a detailed surgical technique for axillary nerve reconstruction by an anterior-posterior approach with a pull-through technique of a sural nerve cable graft. PMID:26524659

  6. [Amyotrophic neuralgia associated with bilateral phrenic paralysis treated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    García García, María Del Carmen; Hernández Borge, Jacinto; Antona Rodríguez, María José; Pires Gonçalves, Pedro; García García, Gema

    2015-09-01

    Amyotrophic neuralgia is an uncommon neuropathy characterized by severe unilateral shoulder pain. Isolated or concomitant involvement of other peripheral motor nerves depending on the brachial plexus such as phrenic or laryngeal nerves is unusual(1). Its etiology is unknown, yet several explanatory factors have been proposed. Phrenic nerve involvement, either unilateral or bilateral, is exceedingly rare. Diagnosis relies on anamnesis, functional and imaging investigations and electromyogram. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman with a past history of renal transplantation due to proliferative glomerulonephritis with subsequent transplant rejection, who was eventually diagnosed with amyotrophic neuralgia with bilateral phrenic involvement, and who required sustained non-invasive mechanical ventilation. PMID:26049960

  7. Dynamic 320-slice CT larynx for detection and management of idiopathic bilateral vocal cord paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Laurence E; Lau, Kenneth K; Low, Kathy; Crossett, Marcus; Vallance, Neil; Bardin, Philip G

    2014-03-01

    Idiopathic bilateral vocal cord paralysis (VCP) is a rare and difficult condition often undiagnosed and frequently confused with asthma and other respiratory conditions. Accurate diagnosis is crucial since 80% of cases patients require surgical intervention, such as tracheostomy or laser surgery, to relieve symptoms. The "gold standard" for diagnosing VCP has been laryngoscopy. In this case study, we demonstrate for the first time that idiopathic bilateral VCP can be accurately diagnosed by means of a novel noninvasive methodology: dynamic volume 320-slice computed tomography larynx. Three-dimensional reconstruction of laryngeal motion during the breathing cycle permitted functional assessment of the larynx showing absence of vocal cord movements. The new methodology may be valuable for noninvasive diagnosis of vocal cord movement disorders before and for follow-up after surgery. PMID:25473555

  8. Occupational risk for laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Flanders, W.D.; Rothman, K.J.

    1982-04-01

    In a case-control analysis, we studied the effects of type of employment on laryngeal cancer risk using the interview data from the Third National Cancer Survey. Effects were measured relative to the risk for those employed in a group of arbitrarily defined industries and occupations with low risk. We excluded females and controlled for age, tobacco use, alcohol use, and race in the analysis. We found ratio estimates above 3.0 for workers in the railroad industry and the lumber industry; and for sheetmetal workers, grinding wheel operators, and automobile mechanics.

  9. Spontaneous bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis: a rare cause of respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Kössler, Wolfgang; Valipour, Arschang; Feldner-Busztin, Michel; Wanke, Theodor; Zifko, Udo; Zwick, Hartmut; Burghuber, Otto Chris

    2004-08-31

    Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis (BDP) can occur in the course of motor neuron disease, myopathy, or from mechanical damage or the use of "ice slush" during cardiac surgery. BDP has been observed during and after infections, associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and mediastinal tumors, or may have idiopathic etiology. It is a serious and life-threatening condition. A 62-yr-old man presented with slowly progressive dyspnoea that worsened in the supine position and on bending forward. Chest X-rays, fluoroscopy, lung-function parameters and blood-gas analysis revealed respiratory failure. BDP was confirmed from a phrenic nerve stimulation test and measurement of transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi). Since there was no evidence of an obvious etiology, BDP was considered idiopathic. Other muscles were not involved. The pathological basis was probably focal demyelination in segments of the phrenic nerve. Because of increasing diaphragmatic muscle fatigue, the patient was treated with a nasal mask providing bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation during the night. Clinical suspicion of BDP should always be raised in patients suffering slowly progressive dyspnoea without any obvious cardiac, metabolic or traumatic predisposing factors, and orthopnoea and dyspnoea on bending forward. Electromyographic tests and measurement of Pdi can reveal the correct diagnosis. PMID:15471185

  10. Hypokalemic paralysis in a professional bodybuilder.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Florian B; Domanovits, Hans; Laggner, Anton N

    2012-09-01

    Severe hypokalemia is a potentially life-threatening disorder and is associated with variable degrees of skeletal muscle weakness, even to the point of paralysis. On rare occasions, diaphragmatic paralysis from hypokalemia can lead to respiratory arrest. There may also be decreased motility of smooth muscle, manifesting with ileus or urinary retention. Rarely, severe hypokalemia may result in rhabdomyolysis. Other manifestations of severe hypokalemia include alteration of cardiac tissue excitability and conduction. Hypokalemia can produce electrocardiographic changes such as U waves, T-wave flattening, and arrhythmias, especially if the patient is taking digoxin. Common causes of hypokalemia include extrarenal potassium losses (vomiting and diarrhea) and renal potassium losses (eg, hyperaldosteronism, renal tubular acidosis, severe hyperglycemia, potassium-depleting diuretics) as well as hypokalemia due to potassium shifts (eg, insulin administration, catecholamine excess, familial periodic hypokalemic paralysis, thyrotoxic hypokalemic paralysis). Although the extent of diuretic misuse in professional bodybuilding is unknown, it may be regarded as substantial. Hence, diuretics must always be considered as a cause of hypokalemic paralysis in bodybuilders. PMID:21871759

  11. A new practical classification of laryngeal view.

    PubMed

    Cook, T M

    2000-03-01

    A new practical classification of laryngeal view at laryngoscopy is presented and evaluated. The best laryngeal view obtained with or without anterior laryngeal pressure is recorded. The laryngeal view is easy (E) when the laryngeal inlet is visible. The view is restricted (R) when the posterior glottic structures (posterior commissure or arytenoids) are visible or the epiglottis is visible and can be lifted; this includes some grade 2 and some grade 3 views as classified by Cormack and Lehane. A difficult (D) view is present when the epiglottis cannot be lifted or when no laryngeal structures are visible. Five hundred patients were studied. Laryngoscopy, with the patient anaesthetised and paralysed, was performed with a Macintosh laryngoscope. If the vocal cords were not visible, a gum elastic bougie was used to aid intubation. Other aids were used only if this did not allow intubation. Each laryngeal view was graded according to the new classification and that of Cormack and Lehane. Intubation was timed and the equipment needed to facilitate intubation was recorded. The new classification stratified increasing difficulty with intubation (time for intubation longer and increasingly complex methods needed) better than the Cormack and Lehane classification. The new classification is as sensitive and more specific than the Cormack and Lehane classification in predicting difficult intubation. It is also more sensitive and more specific in predicting easy intubation. PMID:10671848

  12. Pinched Nerve

    MedlinePlus

    ... people recover from pinched nerve. However, in some cases, the damage is irreversible. What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, pinched nerves are addressed primarily through studies associated with pain research. NINDS vigorously pursues a ...

  13. Epiglottic laryngoplasty for complicated laryngeal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sobol, S M; Levine, H; Wood, B; Tucker, H M

    1981-01-01

    The technique of epiglottic laryngoplasty, previously described for reconstruction following near total laryngectomy for glottic carcinoma, has been used in selected patients with severe glottic and subglottic stenosis. Our experience in four patients suggests that it is useful for 1) laryngeal stenosis in which there is loss or collapse of the external cartilaginous framework, and 2) laryngeal stenosis which is refractory to the usual forms of therapy. The technique is a technically simple, one-stage procedure which provides its own endolaryngeal mucosal lining, as well as autogenous cartilaginous support. It has been successful in restoring adequate airway and preserving voice without interfering with deglutition or laryngeal competence in most patients. PMID:7271159

  14. Use of the masseter motor nerve in facial animation with free muscle transfer.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Bernardo; Copelli, Chiara; Ferrari, Silvano; Ferri, Andrea; Sesenna, Enrico

    2012-10-01

    Facial paralysis is either congenital or acquired, and of varying severity, which leads to an asymmetrical or absent facial expression. It is an important disability both from the aesthetic and functional points of view. Between 2003 and 2008, at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Parma, Italy, 21 patients with facial paralysis had their faces reanimated with a gracilis transplant reinnervated by the masseter motor nerve. All free-muscle transplants survived the transfer, and no flap was lost. Facial symmetry at rest and while smiling was excellent or good in most cases, and we found an appreciable improvement in both speech and oral competence. We consider that the masseter motor nerve is a powerful and reliable donor nerve, which allows us to obtain movement of the commissure and upper lip similar to those of the normal site for degree and direction. There may be a role for the masseter motor nerve in innervation of patients with facial paralysis. PMID:21885172

  15. [Hypoglossal nerve neuropraxia after shoulder hemiarthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Pariente, L; Camarena, P; Koo, M; Sabaté, A; Armengol, J

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of hypoglossal nerve damage after shoulder hemiarthroplasty with the patient in "beach chair" position, performed with general anesthesia with orotracheal intubation, and without complications. An ultrasound-guided interscalene block was previously performed in an alert patient. After the intervention, the patient showed clinical symptomatology compatible with paralysis of the right hypoglossal nerve that completely disappeared after 4 weeks. Mechanisms such as hyperextension of the neck during intubation, endotracheal tube cuff pressure, excessive hyperextension, or head lateralization during surgery have been described as causes of this neurological damage. We discuss the causes, the associated factors and suggest preventive measures. PMID:23787368

  16. Scapular notch resection for suprascapular nerve decompression in 12 horses.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J E; Adams, O R; Easley, K J; Schneider, R K; Bramlage, L R; Peter, J; Boero, M J

    1985-11-15

    Supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle paralysis with atrophy was treated by partial osteotomy of the scapula, deep to the suprascapular nerve. The horses had various gait abnormalities, which were corrected by the surgery, but regeneration of the muscles varied from partial to complete, depending on the duration of the condition and the degree of atrophy before surgery. PMID:4066457

  17. Progress in Paralysis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Spinal Cord Stimulation Progress in Paralysis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Roderic ... predictive biomechanical modeling of coronary atherosclerotic disease. Is paralysis a major health problem? Yes, it is. The ...

  18. Lip Forces and Chewing Efficiency in Children with Peripheral Facial Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ilea, Aranka; Cristea, Alexandru; Dudescu, Cristian M; Hurubeanu, Lucia; Vâjâean, Cosmin; Albu, Silviu; Câmpian, Radu S

    2015-08-01

    Peripheral facial paralysis is accompanied by facial motor disorders and also, by oral dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lip forces and chewing efficiency in a group of children with peripheral facial paralysis. The degree of peripheral facial paralysis in the study group (n 11) was assessed using the House-Brackmann scale. The control group consisted of 21 children without facial nerve impairment. To assess lip forces, acrylic vestibular plates of three sizes were used: large (LVP), medium (MVP) and small (SVP). The lip force was recorded with a force transducer coupled with the data acquisition system. Masticatory efficiency was evaluated by the ability to mix two differently colored chewing gums. The images were processed with Adobe Photoshop CS3 (Delaware Corporation, San Jose, California, United States) and the number of pixels was quantified with the Image J software (DHHS/NIH/NIMH/RSB, Maryland, United States). For statistical analysis, the following statistical analysis were used: Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression analysis, multiple logistic regression analysis, and optimal cutoff values for muscular dysfunction. There were statistically significant differences between lip forces in the following three groups: p=0.01 (LVP), p=0.01 (MVP), and p=0.008 (SVP). The cutoff values of lip forces in the study group were as follows: 7.08 N (LVP), 4.89 N (MVP), and 4.24 N (SVP). There were no statistically significant differences between the masticatory efficiency in the two groups (p=0.25). Lip forces were dependent on the degree of peripheral facial paralysis and age, but not on gender. In peripheral facial paralysis in children, a significant decrease of lip forces, but not masticatory efficiency, occurs. PMID:25974875

  19. Literature study on clinical treatment of facial paralysis in the last 20 years using Web of Science

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoge; Feng, Ling; Du, Liang; Zhang, Anxiang; Tang, Tian

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial paralysis is defined as severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. OBJECTIVE: The study was undertaken to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess the research on clinical treatment of facial paralysis using rehabilitation, physiotherapy and acupuncture using Web of Science from 1992 to 2011. DESIGN: Bibliometric approach. DATA RETRIEVAL: A bibliometric analysis based on the publications on Web of Science was performed using key words such as “facial paralysis”, “rehabilitation”, “physiotherapy” and “acupuncture”. INCLUSIVE CRITERIA: (1) Research articles on the clinical treatment of facial paralysis using acupuncture or physiotherapy (e.g. exercise, electro-stimulation) and other rehabilitation methods; (2) researches on human and animal fundamentals, clinical trials and case reports; (3) Article types: article, review, proceedings paper, note, letter, editorial material, discussion, book chapter. (4) Publication year: 1992–2011 inclusive. Exclusion criteria: (1) Articles on the causes and diagnosis on facial paralysis; (2) Type of articles: correction; (3) Articles from following databases: all databases related to social science and chemical databases in Web of Science. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Overall number of publications; (2) number of publications annually; (3) number of citations received annually; (4) top cited paper; (5) subject categories of publication; (6) the number of countries in which the article is published; (7) distribution of output in journals. RESULTS: Overall population stands at 3 543 research articles addressing the clinical treatment of facial paralysis in Web of Science during the study period. There is also a markedly increase in the number of publications on the subject “facial paralysis treatments using rehabilitation” during the first decade of the 21st century, except in 2004 and 2006 when there are perceptible drops in the number of articles published. The only other year during the study period saw such a drop is 1993. Specifically, there are 192 published articles on facial paralysis treated by rehabilitation in the past two decades, far more than the output of physiotherapy treatment. Physiotherapy treatment scored only 25 articles including acupuncture treatment, with over 80% of these written by Chinese researchers and clinicians. Ranked by regions, USA is by far the most productive country in terms of the number of publications on facial paralysis rehabilitation and physiotherapy research. Seeing from another angle, the journals that focus on otolaryngology published the most number of articles in rehabilitation and physiotherapy studies, whereas most acupuncture studies on facial paralysis were published in the alternative and complementary medicine journals. CONCLUSION: Study of facial paralysis remains an area of active investigation and innovation. Further clinical studies in humans addressing the use of growth factors or stem cells continue to successful facial nerve regeneration. PMID:25767492

  20. Laryngitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ... et al. Clinical practice guideline: hoarseness (dysphonia). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2009;141(3 Suppl 2):S1-S31. ...

  1. Another Scale for the Assessment of Facial Paralysis? ADS Scale: Our Proposition, How to Use It

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several authors in the years propose different methods to evaluate areas and specific movement’s disease in patient affected by facial palsy. Despite these efforts the House Brackmann is anyway the most used assessment in medical community. Aim The aims of our study is the proposition and assessing a new rating Arianna Disease Scale (ADS) for the clinical evaluation of facial paralysis. Materials and Methods Sixty patients affected by unilateral facial Bell paralysis were enrolled in a prospective study from 2012 to 2014. Their facial nerve function was evaluated with our assessment analysing facial district divided in upper, middle and lower third. We analysed different facial expressions. Each movement corresponded to the action of different muscles. The action of each muscle was scored from 0 to 1, with 0 corresponding from complete flaccid paralysis to muscle’s normal function ending with a score of 1. Synkinesis was considered and evaluated also in the scale with a fixed 0.5 score. Our results considered ease and speed of evaluation of the assessment, the accuracy of muscle deficit and the ability to calculate synkinesis using a score. Results All the three observers agreed 100% in the highest degree of deficit. We found some discrepancies in intermediate score with 92% agreement in upper face, 87% in middle and 80% in lower face, where there were more muscles involved in movements. Conclusion Our scale had some limitations linked to the small group of patients evaluated and we had a little difficulty understanding the intermediate score of 0.3 and 0.7. However, this was an accurate tool to quickly evaluate facial nerve function. This has potential as an alternative scale to and to diagnose facial nerve disorders. PMID:26814596

  2. Cultural variation in the clinical presentation of sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joop T V M

    2005-03-01

    Sleep paralysis is one of the lesser-known and more benign forms of parasomnias. The primary or idiopathic form, also called isolated sleep paralysis, is illustrated by showing how patients from different cultures weave the phenomenology of sleep paralysis into their clinical narratives. Clinical case examples are presented of patients from Guinea Bissau, the Netherlands, Morocco, and Surinam with different types of psychopathology, but all accompanied by sleep paralysis. Depending on the meaning given to and etiological interpretations of the sleep paralysis, which is largely culturally determined, patients react to the event in specific ways. PMID:15881269

  3. [Combined regional anesthesia of the lower extremities in children with cerebral paralysis].

    PubMed

    Aĭzenberg, V L; Kontakevich, M M; Diordiev, A V; Ovchinnikov, V I

    2006-01-01

    The authors share their first experience of combined regional anesthesia during surgical interventions into the lower extremities in children with infantile cerebral paralysis (ICP). A hundred and twenty-five blocks were performed in patients aged 5 to 20 years. Lidocaine, marcaine, naropine, or a mixture of lidocaine and marcaine mixture, were used. The paper describes the specific features of techniques for femoral-sciatic nerve blocks in these patients, shows the adequacy of anesthesia at surgery and the very good course of the postoperative period due to continuous analgesia and the alleviation of muscle spasticity in the operated limb. PMID:16613035

  4. What's New in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional resources for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers What’s new in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers research and treatment? ... to better tests for early detection and to new targeted treatments. Chemoprevention Chemoprevention is the use of ...

  5. Neurovascular free-muscle transfer for the treatment of established facial paralysis following ablative surgery in the parotid region.

    PubMed

    Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori; Asato, Hirotaka; Ueda, Kazuki; Yamada, Atsushi

    2004-05-01

    Neurovascular free-muscle transfer for facial reanimation was performed as a secondary reconstructive procedure for 45 patients with facial paralysis resulting from ablative surgery in the parotid region. This intervention differs from neurovascular free-muscle transfer for treatment of established facial paralysis resulting from conditions such as congenital dysfunction, unresolved Bell palsy, Hunt syndrome, or intracranial morbidity, with difficulties including selection of recipient vessels and nerves, and requirements for soft-tissue augmentation. This article describes the authors' operative procedure for neurovascular free-muscle transfer after ablative surgery in the parotid region. Gracilis muscle (n = 24) or latissimus dorsi muscle (n = 21) was used for transfer. With gracilis transfer, recipient vessels comprised the superficial temporal vessels in 12 patients and the facial vessels in 12. For latissimus dorsi transfer, recipient vessels comprised the facial vessels in 16 patients and the superior thyroid artery and superior thyroid or internal jugular vein in four. Facial vessels on the contralateral side were used with interpositional graft of radial vessels in the remaining patient with latissimus dorsi transfer. Cross-face nerve grafting was performed before muscle transfer in 22 patients undergoing gracilis transfer. In the remaining two gracilis patients, the ipsilateral facial nerve stump was used as the primary recipient nerve. Dermal fat flap overlying the gracilis muscle was used for cheek augmentation in one patient. In the other 23 patients, only the gracilis muscle was used. With latissimus dorsi transfer, the ipsilateral facial nerve stump was used as the recipient nerve in three patients, and a cross-face nerve graft was selected as the recipient nerve in six. The contralateral facial nerve was selected as the recipient nerve in 12 patients, and a thoracodorsal nerve from the latissimus dorsi muscle segment was crossed through the upper lip to the primary recipient branches. A soft-tissue flap was transferred simultaneously with the latissimus muscle segment in three patients. Contraction of grafted muscle was not observed in two patients with gracilis transfer and in three patients with latissimus dorsi transfer. In one patient with gracilis transfer and one patient with latissimus dorsi transfer, acquired muscle contraction was excessive, resulting in unnatural smile animation. The recipient nerves for both of these patients were the ipsilateral facial nerve stumps, which were dissected by opening the facial nerve canal in the mastoid process. From the standpoint of operative technique, the one-stage transfer for latissimus dorsi muscle appears superior. Namely, a combined soft-tissue flap can provide sufficient augmentation for depression of the parotid region following wide resection. A long vascular stalk of thoracodorsal vessels is also useful for anastomosis, with recipient vessels available after extensive ablation and neck dissection. PMID:15114115

  6. Facial Nerve Schwannoma of Parotid Gland: Difficulties in Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Damar, Murat; Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Şevik Eliçora, Sultan; Bişkin, Sultan; Erten, Gül; Biz, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Facial nerve schwannomas (FNS) are encapsulated benign tumors arising from Schwann cells of seventh cranial nerve. Most of the facial nerve schwannomas are localized in intratemporal region; only 9% of cases involve a portion of the extratemporal segment. Preoperative diagnosis is often unclear; diagnosis is often made intraoperatively. Management of intraparotid FNS is troublesome because of the facial nerve paralysis. In this report we presented a case of intraparotid schwannoma in a 55-year-old male patient complaining of a painless mass without peripheral facial nerve palsy in left parotid gland. Clinical features, preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis, and difficulties during management are discussed with the review of the literature. PMID:26904338

  7. Facial Nerve Schwannoma of Parotid Gland: Difficulties in Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Damar, Murat; Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Şevik Eliçora, Sultan; Bişkin, Sultan; Erten, Gül; Biz, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Facial nerve schwannomas (FNS) are encapsulated benign tumors arising from Schwann cells of seventh cranial nerve. Most of the facial nerve schwannomas are localized in intratemporal region; only 9% of cases involve a portion of the extratemporal segment. Preoperative diagnosis is often unclear; diagnosis is often made intraoperatively. Management of intraparotid FNS is troublesome because of the facial nerve paralysis. In this report we presented a case of intraparotid schwannoma in a 55-year-old male patient complaining of a painless mass without peripheral facial nerve palsy in left parotid gland. Clinical features, preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis, and difficulties during management are discussed with the review of the literature. PMID:26904338

  8. Facial nerve identification with fluorescent dye in rats.

    PubMed

    Melo, Giulianno Molina de; Cervantes, Onivaldo; Covolan, Luciene; Baptista, Heloisa Allegro; Ferreira, Elenn Soares; Abrahao, Marcio

    2016-02-01

    PURPOSE The parotidectomy technique still has an elevated paresis and paralysis index, lowering patient life's quality. The correct identification of the facial nerve can prevent nerve damage. Fluorescent dye identifies nerves in experimental studies but only few articles focused its use on facial nerve study in parotidectomies. We aimed to stain the rat facial nerve with fluorescent dye to facilitate visualization and dissection in order to prevent injuries. METHODS Forty adult male Wistar rats were submitted to facial injection of saline solution (Gsf-control group, 10) or fluorescent dye solution (Gdye group, 30) followed by parotidectomy preserving the facial nerve, measuring the time for localization and facility of localization (LocTime and LFN). Nerve function was assessed using the Vibrissae Movements (PMV) and Eyelid Closure Motion (PFP) scores. RESULTS Nerve localization was faster in Gdye group, with 83% Easy LFN rate. The Gdye group presented with low nerve injury degree and better PMV and PFP scores, with high sensitivity and accuracy. CONCLUSIONS This experimental method of facial nerve fluorescence was effective for intraoperative nerve visualization, identification and preservation. The technique may be used in future facial nerve studies, translated to humans, contributing to the optimization of parotid surgery in the near future. PMID:26959618

  9. Laryngeal aspergilloma: a complication of inhaled fluticasone therapy for asthma

    PubMed Central

    Darley, David; Lowinger, David; Plit, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    Primary laryngeal aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients is rare. We describe a case of a 59-year-old woman with laryngeal aspergillosis thought to be secondary to long-term inhaled fluticasone therapy. Laryngeal aspergillosis may be an underrecognized complication of inhaled corticosteroid therapy. PMID:25530858

  10. Epigenetic dysregulation in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Thian-Sze; Gao, Wei; Li, Zeng-Hong; Chan, Jimmy Yu-Wai; Ho, Wai-Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Laryngeal carcinoma is a common head and neck cancer with poor prognosis. Patients with laryngeal carcinoma usually present late leading to the reduced treatment efficacy and high rate of recurrence. Despite the advance in the use of molecular markers for monitoring human cancers in the past decades, there are still no reliable markers for use to screen laryngeal carcinoma and follow the patients after treatment. Epigenetics emerged as an important field in understanding the biology of the human malignancies. Epigenetic alterations refer to the dysregulation of gene, which do not involve the alterations of the DNA sequence. Major epigenetic changes including methylation imbalance, histone modification, and small RNA dysregulation could play a role in the development of human malignancies. Global epigenetic change is now regarded as a molecular signature of cancer. The characteristics and behavior of a cancer could be predicted based on the specific epigenetic pattern. We here provide a review on the understanding of epigenetic dysregulation in laryngeal carcinoma. Further knowledge on the initiation and progression of laryngeal carcinoma at epigenetic level could promote the translation of the knowledge to clinical use. PMID:22645613

  11. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Mohamad R.; Samuels, Stuart E.; Bellile, Emily; Shalabi, Firas L.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Wolf, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC) have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP), composite nodal volumes (GTVN) and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC) had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance. PMID:26569309

  12. Viscoelastic properties of laryngeal posturing muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, Fariborz; Hunter, Eric; Titze, Ingo

    2003-10-01

    Viscoelastic properties of canine laryngeal muscles were measured in a series of in vitro experiments. Laryngeal posturing that controls vocal fold length and adduction/abduction is an essential component of the voice production. The dynamics of posturing depends on the viscoelastic and physiological properties of the laryngeal muscles. The time-dependent and nonlinear behaviors of these tissues are also crucial in the voice production and pitch control theories. The lack of information on some of these muscles such as posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA), lateral cricoarytenoid muscle (LCA), and intraarytenoid muscle (IA) was the major incentive for this study. Samples of PCA and LCA muscles were made from canine larynges and mounted on a dual-servo system (Ergometer) as described in our previous works. Two sets of experiments were conducted on each muscle, a 1-Hz stretch and release experiment that provides stress-strain data and a stress relaxation test. Data from these muscles were fitted to viscoelastic models and Young's modulus and viscoelastic constants are obtained for each muscle. Preliminary data indicates that elastics properties of these muscles are similar to those of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles. The relaxation response of these muscles also shows some similarity to other laryngeal muscles in terms of time constants.

  13. Goiter and Laryngeal Sensory Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Jabour, Jad; Azar, Sami T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Examining the prevalence of laryngeal sensory neuropathy (LSN) in goiter patients versus a control group. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Methods. 33 Goiter patients were enrolled versus 25 age-matched controls. TSH levels, size of thyroid gland, and presence or absence of thyroid nodules were reported. Subjects were asked about the presence or absence of any of the following symptoms: cough, globus pharyngeus, and/or throat clearing that persistented for more than 6 weeks. The presence of one or more of these symptoms for at least six weeks in the absence of LPRD, allergy, asthma, ACE inhibitor intake, and psychogenic disorder was defined as LSN. Results. For goitrous patients mean age (years) was (41.73 ± 9.47) versus (37.44 ± 10.89) for controls. 82% goitrous patients had known nodules and 27% carried a simultaneous diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Among those with documented size (61%), mean total thyroid volume was 26.996 ± 14.852 cm3, with a range from 9.430 to 67.022 cm3. The overall prevalence of LSN among goitrous patients was 42% versus 12% among controls (P = 0.0187). There was no correlation between LSN, size of thyroid gland, and TSH level. Conclusion. The prevalence of LSN in goitrous patients is significantly higher than that in a nongoitrous population. PMID:23818901

  14. Pre-clinical evaluation of a minimally invasive laryngeal pacemaker system in mini-pig.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Gerhard; Arnold, Dirk; Bischoff, Sabine; Boltze, Karsten; Scholle, Hans-Christoph; Schubert, Harald; Mueller, Andreas H

    2016-01-01

    Microlaryngoscopic enlargement techniques have been the standard treatment for bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVFP) for decades. Laryngeal pacing is a promising alternative treatment based on the electrostimulation of the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle. This paper reports on the results of a pre-clinical study aiming to evaluate this method. Eight Göttingen mini-pigs were implanted with a laryngeal pacemaker (LP) implant prototype and with two LP electrodes, one in each PCA muscle. The 6-week follow-up included endoscopic stimulation controls in general anaesthesia and radiographic controls of electrode integrity and position stability. Stimulation parameters for optimal glottal opening were evaluated via videolaryngoscopy. Histopathology was performed upon conclusion of the study. 7/8 (87.5 %) animals were successfully implanted with the LP implant prototype and two LP electrodes. In general, stimulation was effectively delivered and correlated with the expected PCA muscle activation. 2/14 (14.3 %) electrodes dislocated and 1/14 (7.1 %) electrode tip broke. The LP system used in this experiment to induce vocal fold abduction by means of selective functional electrical stimulation of the PCA showed promising results. It may be a valid alternative to the current golden standard for BVFP treatment. Clinical studies are needed to confirm the medical relevance of the LP. PMID:26264908

  15. [Gao Yuchun's experience of facial paralysis treatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjun; Cui, Linhua; Yuan, Jun; He, Li; Xie, Zhanqing; Xue, Weihua; Li, Mei; Zhang, Zhenwei; Gao, Yuchun; Kang, Suobin

    2015-05-01

    To introduce professor Gao Yuchun's clinical experience and treating characteristics of facial paralysis treated with acupuncture and moxibustion. Professor Gao pays attention to yangming when he selects acupoints for clinical syndrome, and directs acupoints selection based on syndrome differentiation in different levels of jingjin, meridians and zangfu; he praises opposing needling technique and reinforcing the deficiency and reducing the excess highly; the acupuncture manipulation is gentle,shallow and slow for reducing the healthy side and reinforcing the affected side, and through losing its excess to complement its deficiency; besides, he stresses needle retaining time and distinguishes reinforcing and reducing. Facial paralysis is treated with key factors such as acupoints selecting based on yangming, acupuncture manipulation, needle retaining time, etc. And the spleen and stomach is fine and good at transportation and transformation; the meridians is harmonious; the qi and blood is smooth. The clinical efficacy is enhanced finally. PMID:26255524

  16. Paralysie musculaire secondaire à une polymyosite

    PubMed Central

    Ennafiri, Meryem; Elotmani, Wafae; Awab, Almahdi; El Moussaoui, Rachid; El Hijri, Ahmed; Alilou, Mustapha; Azzouzi, Abderrahim

    2015-01-01

    Les polymyosites sont des maladies inflammatoires des muscles striés, d’étiologie inconnue. Le déficit musculaire, qui se résume généralement à une fatigabilité, évolue de façon bilatérale, symétrique et non sélective avec prédominance sur les muscles proximaux. L'intensité de la faiblesse musculaire est variable d'un sujet à un autre, de la simple gêne fonctionnelle à un état grabataire. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un cas de polymyosite particulièrement sévère avec paralysie musculaire complète, touchant tous les muscles de l'organisme, d’évolution favorable sous immunoglobulines intraveineuses et nous discutons les facteurs favorisant la paralysie musculaire. PMID:26185559

  17. Sleep paralysis: a study in family practice

    PubMed Central

    Herman, J.; Furman, Z.; Cantrell, G.; Peled, R.

    1988-01-01

    Over a period of two years, five patients with sleep paralysis referred themselves to four family practices in Israel serving a population of 6800. None of the patients suffered from daytime sleep attacks or cataplexy and all were from the oriental (sephardi) community. The two who were tissue typed had HLA haplotypes different from those which are exclusively associated with narcolepsy and one of them who also underwent polysomnography had a normal tracing. There was considerable delay in consulting a physician despite the physical and mental anguish caused by the disorder and some improvement was noted once the diagnosis was explained. The serious nature of the components of the differential diagnosis - myocardial infarction, seizure disorder, cardiac arrest, anaesthetic accident - makes it important that sleep paralysis be more widely recognized. PMID:3256672

  18. Diagnosing limb paresis and paralysis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, James Patrick; Rzechorzek, Nina; Scott, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Paresis and paralysis are uncommon problems in sheep but are likely to prompt farmers to seek veterinary advice. A thorough and logical approach can aid in determining the cause of the problem and highlighting the benefit of veterinary involvement. While this may not necessarily alter the prognosis for an individual animal, it can help in formulating preventive measures and avoid the costs – both in economic and in welfare terms – of misdirected treatment. Distinguishing between central and peripheral lesions is most important, as the relative prognoses are markedly different, and this can often be achieved with minimal equipment. This article describes an approach to performing a neurological examination of the ovine trunk and limbs, the ancillary tests available and the common and important causes of paresis and paralysis in sheep. PMID:26752801

  19. [Peripheral facial paralysis: the role of physical medicine and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Matos, Catarina

    2011-12-01

    Peripheral facial paralysis (PFP) is a consequence of the peripheral neuronal lesion of the facial nerve (FN). It can be either primary (Bell`s Palsy) or secondary. The classical clinical presentation typically involves both stages of the hemiface. However, there may be other symptoms (ex. xerophthalmia, hyperacusis, phonation and deglutition changes) that one should recall. Clinical evaluation includes rigorous muscle tonus and sensibility search in the FN territory. Some useful instruments allow better objectivity in the patients' evaluation (House-Brackmann System, Facial Grading System, Functional Evaluation). There are clear referral criteria to Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Treatment of Bell`s Palsy may include pharmacotherapy, neuromuscular training (NMT), physical methods and surgery. In the NMT field the several treatment techniques are systematized. Therapeutic strategies should be problem-oriented and adjusted to the patient's symptoms and signs. Physical methods are reviewed. In about 15-20 % of patients permanent sequelae subside after 3 months of evolution. PFP is commonly a multidisciplinary condition. Therefore, it is important to review strategies that Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation may offer. PMID:22863499

  20. Laryngeal paraganglioma: an updated critical review.

    PubMed

    Myssiorek, David; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Barnes, Leon; Ferlito, Alfio

    2004-11-01

    Laryngeal paragangliomas are rare submucosal lesions that arise from paraganglion cells located in the false vocal fold and subglottic larynx. To date, 76 recognized cases have been reported in the world literature. Symptoms arise when the lesions become large enough to impair function. Supraglottic paragangliomas cause hoarseness and deglutition disorders, whereas subglottic tumors become symptomatic when they obstruct the airway. Evaluation of these tumors includes obtaining a complete history. Familial paragangliomas and hypertension should be sought but are rarely, if ever, associated with laryngeal paragangliomas. MRI can detect these lesions and permit characterization of the vascularity of the lesion. Adding 111In pentetreotide scanning can distinguish neuroendocrine tumors from other submucosal laryngeal lesions, making the preoperative diagnosis clearer and obviating the need for biopsy. The biggest dilemma regarding laryngeal paragangliomas is making the correct pathologic distinction between paraganglioma, typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid and medullary thyroid cancer. Immunohistochemical markers, supplementing standard histopathologic evaluation, can distinguish paragangliomas from the aforementioned tumors. This distinction is critical as the prognosis for treated paragangliomas is excellent compared to that for other neuroendocrine neoplasms. Almost all alleged malignant paragangliomas of the larynx are in reality atypical carcinoid tumors that have been misdiagnosed. Treatment should always comprise excision. Thyrotomy has the best chance of achieving a sustained cure without damaging phonation or deglutition. Laser excision has been used successfully but there is no great experience with this modality. Surgery is preferable to radiation for paragangliomas in all locations but especially so in the larynx, due to issues such as swelling, airway protection and destruction of cartilage. With increased clinical suspicion and the use of modern imaging techniques, laryngeal paragangliomas should be routinely diagnosed and treated without loss of laryngeal functions. PMID:15513540

  1. Vocal Cord Actinomycosis Mimicking a Laryngeal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihama, Keisuke; Kato, Yasumasa; Baba, Yuh

    2013-01-01

    Laryngeal carcinoma and laryngeal papilloma are the most commonly encountered tumorous lesions in the larynx. Herein, we report a case of the mass arising from the left vocal cord in a 49-year-old Japanese man. Endoscopic examination suggested that the mass is a tumor such as carcinoma and papilloma. Pathological examination showed that the specimen demonstrated actinomycosis in the left vocal cord. Although vocal cord actinomycosis is extremely rare, the otolaryngologist should recognize this condition during the inspection of the larynx. PMID:23573444

  2. A pattern recognition method to distinguish gradual unilateral diaphragm paralysis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Sokołowska, B; Jóźwik, A

    2003-09-01

    This work deals with the application of a pattern recognition method to distinguish the degree of diaphragm paralysis after gradual unilateral sections of phrenic nerve rootlets in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. The data set consisted of the features that characterize breathing pattern and of phrenic nerve amplitude. The method called for stratification of 6-dimensional vectors into three classes: intact, partial, and complete unilateral phrenicotomy, which offers the possibility to construe the classification rule on the basis of the information contained in a set of feature vectors with the known class-membership. This method deals with the use of a distance function as a measure of similarity between two feature points. The results show that the degree of diaphragm paralysis could be recognized with the probability higher than 90%. Distinguishing the severity of diaphragmatic dysfunction and the compensatory strategies of the respiratory system, knowing only a handful of basic values describing breathing pattern, might have a practical meaning in respiratory emergencies. PMID:15886410

  3. Detection of chronic bee paralysis virus and acute bee paralysis virus in Uruguayan honeybees.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Karina; D' Alessandro, Bruno; Corbella, Eduardo; Zunino, Pablo

    2005-09-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) causes a disease characterized by trembling, flightless, and crawling bees, while Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) is commonly detected in apparently healthy colonies, usually associated to Varroa destructor. Both viruses had been detected in most regions of the world, except in South America. In this work, we detected CBPV and ABPV in samples of Uruguayan honeybees by RT-PCR. The detection of both viruses in different provinces and the fact that most of the analyzed samples were infected, suggest that, they are widely spread in the region. This is the first record of the presence of CBPV and ABPV in Uruguay and South America. PMID:16169006

  4. Palsy of the rear limbs in Mycobacterium lepraemurium-infected mice results from bone damage and not from nerve involvement.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Espinosa, O; Becerril-Villanueva, E; Wek-Rodríguez, K; Arce-Paredes, P; Reyes-Maldonado, E

    2005-06-01

    A small but relatively constant proportion (3-5%) of mice chronically infected with Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM) develops bilateral paralysis of the rear limbs. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not the bilateral leg palsy results from nerve involvement. Direct bacterial nerve infection or acute/delayed inflammation might possibly affect the nerves. Therefore, palsied animals were investigated for the presence of: (a) histopathological changes in the leg tissues including nerves, bones and annexes, and (b) serum antibodies to M. lepraemurium and M. leprae lipids, including phenolic glycolipid I from M. leprae. Histopathological study of the palsied legs revealed that the paralysis was not the result of direct involvement of the limb nerves, as neither bacilli nor inflammatory cells were observed in the nerve branches studied. Antibodies to brain lipids and cardiolipin were not detected in the serum of the palsied animals, thus ruling out an immune response to self-lipids as the basis for the paralysis. Although high levels of antibodies to MLM lipids were detected in the serum of palsied animals they were not related to limb paralysis, as the nerves of the palsied legs showed no evidence of inflammatory damage. In fact, nerves showed no evidence of damage. Paralysis resulted from severe damage of the leg bones. Within the bones the bone marrow became replaced by extended bacilli-laden granulomas that frequently eroded the bone wall, altering the normal architecture of the bone and its annexes, namely muscle, tendons and connective tissue. Although this study rules out definitively the infectious or inflammatory damage of nerves in murine leprosy, it opens a new avenue of research into the factors that participate in the involvement or the sparing of nerves in human and murine leprosy, respectively. PMID:15932504

  5. Palsy of the rear limbs in Mycobacterium lepraemurium-infected mice results from bone damage and not from nerve involvement

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Espinosa, O; Becerril-Villanueva, E; Wek-Rodríguez, K; Arce-Paredes, P; Reyes-Maldonado, E

    2005-01-01

    A small but relatively constant proportion (3–5%) of mice chronically infected with Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM) develops bilateral paralysis of the rear limbs. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not the bilateral leg palsy results from nerve involvement. Direct bacterial nerve infection or acute/delayed inflammation might possibly affect the nerves. Therefore, palsied animals were investigated for the presence of: (a) histopathological changes in the leg tissues including nerves, bones and annexes, and (b) serum antibodies to M. lepraemurium and M. leprae lipids, including phenolic glycolipid I from M. leprae. Histopathological study of the palsied legs revealed that the paralysis was not the result of direct involvement of the limb nerves, as neither bacilli nor inflammatory cells were observed in the nerve branches studied. Antibodies to brain lipids and cardiolipin were not detected in the serum of the palsied animals, thus ruling out an immune response to self-lipids as the basis for the paralysis. Although high levels of antibodies to MLM lipids were detected in the serum of palsied animals they were not related to limb paralysis, as the nerves of the palsied legs showed no evidence of inflammatory damage. In fact, nerves showed no evidence of damage. Paralysis resulted from severe damage of the leg bones. Within the bones the bone marrow became replaced by extended bacilli-laden granulomas that frequently eroded the bone wall, altering the normal architecture of the bone and its annexes, namely muscle, tendons and connective tissue. Although this study rules out definitively the infectious or inflammatory damage of nerves in murine leprosy, it opens a new avenue of research into the factors that participate in the involvement or the sparing of nerves in human and murine leprosy, respectively. PMID:15932504

  6. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Seyed Toutounchi, Seyed Javad; Eydi, Mahmood; Golzari, Samad EJ; Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza; Parvizian, Nashmil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis. Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies. Results: The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8%) and aspiration (37.8%) in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%), tumors (31.11%), surgery (28.89%), trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%). Conclusion: An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis. PMID:24753832

  7. Optimal selection of wavelet-packet-based features using genetic algorithm in pathological assessment of patients' speech signal with unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    PubMed

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Almasganj, Farshad

    2007-04-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) is one of the most severe types of neurogenic laryngeal disorder in which the patients, due to their vocal cords malfunction, are confronted by some serious problems. As the effect of such pathologies would be significantly evident in the reduced quality and feature variation of dysphonic voices, this study is designed to scrutinize the piecewise variation of some specific types of these features, known as energy and entropy, all over the frequency range of pathological speech signals. In order to do so, the wavelet-packet coefficients, in five consecutive levels of decomposition, are used to extract the energy and entropy measures at different spectral sub-bands. As the decomposition procedure leads to a set of high-dimensional feature vectors, genetic algorithm is invoked to search for a group of optimal sub-band indexes for which the extracted features result in the highest recognition rate for pathological and normal subjects' classification. The results of our simulations, using support vector machine classifier, show that the highest recognition rate, for both optimized energy and entropy measures, is achieved at the fifth level of wavelet-packet decomposition. It is also found that entropy feature, with the highest recognition rate of 100% vs. 93.62% for energy, is more prominent in discriminating patients with UVFP from normal subjects. Therefore, entropy feature, in comparison with energy, demonstrates a more efficient description of such pathological voices and provides us a valuable tool for clinical diagnosis of unilateral laryngeal paralysis. PMID:17034780

  8. The pattern of isolated sleep paralysis among Nigerian medical students.

    PubMed Central

    Ohaeri, J. U.; Odejide, A. O.; Ikuesan, B. A.; Adeyemi, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of the patterns of isolated sleep paralysis among 164 Nigerian medical students, 26.1% admitted having experienced this phenomenon. About 31% of the females and 20% of the males had had this experience. Of those with sleep paralysis, 32.6% had hypnogenic hallucinations during the episode, mainly visual. Sleep paralysis was not significantly associated with psychosocial distress or differences in personality profile. Although the rate differs across cultures, the myths associated with sleep paralysis are similar. PMID:2787863

  9. The pattern of isolated sleep paralysis among Nigerian medical students.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, J U; Odejide, A O; Ikuesan, B A; Adeyemi, J D

    1989-07-01

    In a cross-sectional study of the patterns of isolated sleep paralysis among 164 Nigerian medical students, 26.1% admitted having experienced this phenomenon. About 31% of the females and 20% of the males had had this experience. Of those with sleep paralysis, 32.6% had hypnogenic hallucinations during the episode, mainly visual. Sleep paralysis was not significantly associated with psychosocial distress or differences in personality profile. Although the rate differs across cultures, the myths associated with sleep paralysis are similar. PMID:2787863

  10. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  11. Hysterical conversion paralysis in an adolescent boy with lumbar spondylolysis.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Tadahiro; Tonogai, Ichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Takata, Yoichiro; Goda, Yuichiro; Abe, Mitsunobu; Jha, Subash C; Fukuta, Shoji; Higashino, Kosaku; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    We describe a case of recurrent hysterical paralysis triggered by low back pain because of lumbar spondylolysis. A 16-year-old male soccer player was referred to our institution with five previous episodes of acute paralysis triggered by severe low back pain. We performed direct surgical repair of the terminal-stage bilateral spondylolysis at L4 using a hook-rod system. His chronic low back pain was completely resolved, and no further episodes of hysterical paralysis have occurred after surgery. Spine surgeons should be aware of possible hysterical conversion paralysis when there is discrepancy between radiological and neurological findings. PMID:26049966

  12. Tick paralysis in Australia caused by Ixodes holocyclus Neumann

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Mendelin, S; Craig, S B; Hall, R A; O’Donoghue, P; Atwell, R B; Tulsiani, S M; Graham, G C

    2011-01-01

    Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of various animals, including humans, and are abundant in temperate and tropical zones around the world. They are the most important vectors for the pathogens causing disease in livestock and second only to mosquitoes as vectors of pathogens causing human disease. Ticks are formidable arachnids, capable of not only transmitting the pathogens involved in some infectious diseases but also of inducing allergies and causing toxicoses and paralysis, with possible fatal outcomes for the host. This review focuses on tick paralysis, the role of the Australian paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus, and the role of toxin molecules from this species in causing paralysis in the host. PMID:21396246

  13. Monolimb Paralysis after Laparoscopic Appendectomy Due to Conversion Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sung Hyuk; Lee, Kyeong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Limb paralysis can develop for various reasons. We found a 13-year-old patient who became paralyzed in her lower extremities after laparoscopic appendectomy. Some tests, including electrodiagnostic studies and magnetic resonance imaging, were performed to evaluate the cause of lower limb paralysis. None of the tests yielded definite abnormal findings. We subsequently decided to explore the possibility of psychological problems. The patient was treated with simultaneous rehabilitation and psychological counseling. Paralysis of the patient's lower extremity improved gradually and the patient returned to normal life. Our findings indicate that psychological problems can be related to limb paralysis without organ damage in patients who have undergone laparoscopic surgical procedures. PMID:25426280

  14. Facial Nerve Trauma: Evaluation and Considerations in Management

    PubMed Central

    Gordin, Eli; Lee, Thomas S.; Ducic, Yadranko; Arnaoutakis, Demetri

    2014-01-01

    The management of facial paralysis continues to evolve. Understanding the facial nerve anatomy and the different methods of evaluating the degree of facial nerve injury are crucial for successful management. When the facial nerve is transected, direct coaptation leads to the best outcome, followed by interpositional nerve grafting. In cases where motor end plates are still intact but a primary repair or graft is not feasible, a nerve transfer should be employed. When complete muscle atrophy has occurred, regional muscle transfer or free flap reconstruction is an option. When dynamic reanimation cannot be undertaken, static procedures offer some benefit. Adjunctive tools such as botulinum toxin injection and biofeedback can be helpful. Several new treatment modalities lie on the horizon which hold potential to alter the current treatment algorithm. PMID:25709748

  15. A genetic view of laryngeal cancer heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    de Miguel-Luken, María José; Chaves-Conde, Manuel; Carnero, Amancio

    2016-05-01

    During the recent decades significant improvements in the understanding of laryngeal molecular biology allowed a better characterization of the tumor. However, despite increased molecular knowledge and clinical efforts, survival of patients with laryngeal cancer remains the same as 30 years ago. Although this result may not make major conclusions as preservation approaches were not broadly used until the time of database collection, it seems to be clear that there is still window for improvement. Although the cornerstone for laryngeal cancer eradication is to implement smoking cessation programs, survival progresses will be hopefully seen in the future. Introducing molecular biomarkers as predictive factors to determine which patients will benefit of preservation treatments may become one of the next steps to improve survival. Furthermore, the development of new therapeutic modalities joint to biomarkers to selectively apply such new therapy in these patients may help to define new modalities with improved survival. New inhibitors against Notch pathway, EGFR, VRK1 or DNA damage repair may become gold standard if we are able to identify patients that may benefit from them, either on survival or functional larynx preservation. It is the moment for an inflexion point on the way laryngeal cancer is clinically managed. PMID:26940775

  16. Atraumatic laser treatment for laryngeal papillomatosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Pankratov, Michail M.; Wang, Zhi; Bottrill, Ian; Rebeiz, Elie E.; Shapshay, Stanley M.

    1994-09-01

    Ten to fifteen thousand new cases of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) are diagnosed each year in the United States. RRP is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and is characterized by recurrent, non-malignant, proliferative lesions of the larynx. Patients with RRP undergo numerous microsurgical procedures to remove laryngeal papilloma threatening airway patency and interfering with phonation. The standard surgical technique involves CO2 laser vaporization of laryngeal epithelium affected by the lesions, and requires general anesthesia. The pulsed dye laser operating at 585 nm has previously been demonstrated to be effective in clearing HPV lesions of the skin (verrucae). For treatment of RRP, the fiber- compatible pulsed dye laser radiation may be delivered under local anesthesia using a flexible intranasal laryngoscope. Potential advantages of the pulsed dye laser treatment over CO2 laser surgery include (1) reduced morbidity, especially a lower risk of laryngeal scarring; (2) lower cost; (3) reduced technical difficulty; and (4) reduced risk of viral dissemination or transmission. In vivo studies are underway to determine the effect of pulsed dye laser radiation on normal canine laryngeal tissue.

  17. Use of Lasers in Laryngeal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Olszewski, Aleksandra E.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Zhuang, Peiyun; Ford, Charles N.; Dailey, Seth H.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Lasers are a relatively recent addition to laryngeal surgery. Since their invention, laser use and applications have expanded rapidly. In this paper, we discuss the benefits and disadvantages of lasers for different procedures, as well as ways to overcome commonly faced clinical problems. The use of lasers in surgery has offered a time- and cost-efficient alternative to cold surgical techniques, and has been employed in the treatment of numerous laryngeal pathologies, including stenoses, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, leukoplakia, nodules, malignant laryngeal disease, and polypoid degeneration (Reinke’s edema). However, lasers can incur adjacent tissue damage and vocal fold scarring. These problems can be minimized through understanding the mechanisms by which lasers function and correctly manipulating the parameters under a surgeon’s control. By varying fluence, power density, and pulsation, tissue damage can be decreased and lasers can be used with greater confidence. The various types of lasers and their applications to the treatment of specific pathologies are reviewed with the intention of helping surgeons select the best tool for a given procedure. Recent applications of lasers to treat benign laryngeal lesions and severe laryngomalacia demonstrate that additional research must be conducted in order to realize the full potential of this surgical tool. PMID:19487102

  18. Current role of stroboscopy in laryngeal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review This paper summarizes recent technological advancements and insight into the role of stroboscopy in laryngeal imaging. Recent findings Videostroboscopic technology Although stroboscopy has not undergone major technological improvements, recent clarifications have been made to the application of stroboscopic principles to video-based laryngeal imaging. Also recent advances in coupling stroboscopy with high-definition video cameras provide higher spatial resolution of phonatory function. Visual stroboscopic assessment Studies indicate that interrater reliability of visual stroboscopic assessment varies depending on the laryngeal feature being rated and that only a subset of features may be needed to represent an entire assessment. High-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) judgments have been shown to be more sensitive than stroboscopy for evaluating vocal fold phase asymmetry, pointing to the potential of complementing stroboscopy with alternative imaging modalities in hybrid systems. Clinical role Stroboscopic imaging continues to play a central role in voice clinics. Although HSV may provide more detailed information about phonatory function, its eventual clinical adoption depends on how remaining practical, technical, and methodological challenges will be met. Summary Laryngeal videostroboscopy continues to be the modality of choice for imaging vocal fold vibration, but technological advancements and HSV research findings are driving increased interest in the clinical adoption of HSV to complement videostroboscopic assessment. PMID:22931908

  19. Ventricular pressures in phonating excised larynges

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Fariborz; Scherer, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Pressure in the laryngeal ventricle was measured with a beveled needle connected to a pressure transducer in excised canine larynges. Air pressures within the ventricle were obtained for different adduction levels of the true vocal folds (TVFs), false vocal folds (FVFs), and subglottal pressures (Ps). Results indicated that the air pressures in the ventricle appear to be strongly related to the motion of the FVFs rather than to the effects of TVF vibration. Both dc and ac pressures depend on FVF adduction, amplitude of motion of the FVFs, and whether the FVFs touch each other during the vibratory cycle. Mean and peak-to-peak pressures in the ventricle were as high as 65% of the mean and peak-to-peak Ps, respectively, when the FVFs vibrated with large amplitude and contact each cycle. If the glottis was not closed, a medial movement of the FVFs appeared to create a positive pressure pulse on the Ps signal due to an increase in the laryngeal flow resistance. The electroglottograph signal showed evidence of tissue contact for both the TVFs and the FVFs. The study suggests that the laryngeal ventricle acts as a relatively independent aero-acoustic chamber that depends primarily upon the motion of the FVFs. PMID:22894222

  20. Selective Activation of the Human Tibial and Common Peroneal Nerves with a Flat Interface Nerve Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Schiefer, M A; Freeberg, M; Pinault, G J C; Anderson, J; Hoyen, H; Tyler, D J; Triolo, R J

    2013-01-01

    Problem Addressed Electrical stimulation has been shown effective in restoring basic lower extremity motor function in individuals with paralysis. We tested the hypothesis that a Flat Interface Nerve Electrode (FINE) placed around the human tibial or common peroneal nerve above the knee can selectively activate each of the most important muscles these nerves innervate for use in a neuroprosthesis to control ankle motion. Methodology During intraoperative trials involving three subjects, an 8-contact FINE was placed around the tibial and/or common peroneal nerve, proximal to the popliteal fossa. The FINE’s ability to selectively recruit muscles innervated by these nerves was assessed. Data were used to estimate the potential to restore active plantarflexion or dorsiflexion while balancing inversion and eversion using a biomechanical simulation. Results, Significance, and Potential Impact With minimal spillover to non-targets, at least three of the four targets in the tibial nerve, including two of the three muscles constituting the triceps surae were independently and selectively recruited in all subjects. As acceptable levels of spillover increased, recruitment of the target muscles increased. Selective activation of muscles innervated by the peroneal nerve was more challenging. Estimated joint moments suggests that plantarflexion sufficient for propulsion during stance phase of gait and dorsiflexion sufficient to prevent foot drop during swing can be achieved, accompanied by a small but tolerable inversion or eversion moment. PMID:23918148

  1. Selective activation of the human tibial and common peroneal nerves with a flat interface nerve electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefer, M. A.; Freeberg, M.; Pinault, G. J. C.; Anderson, J.; Hoyen, H.; Tyler, D. J.; Triolo, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Electrical stimulation has been shown effective in restoring basic lower extremity motor function in individuals with paralysis. We tested the hypothesis that a flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) placed around the human tibial or common peroneal nerve above the knee can selectively activate each of the most important muscles these nerves innervate for use in a neuroprosthesis to control ankle motion. Approach. During intraoperative trials involving three subjects, an eight-contact FINE was placed around the tibial and/or common peroneal nerve, proximal to the popliteal fossa. The FINE's ability to selectively recruit muscles innervated by these nerves was assessed. Data were used to estimate the potential to restore active plantarflexion or dorsiflexion while balancing inversion and eversion using a biomechanical simulation. Main results. With minimal spillover to non-targets, at least three of the four targets in the tibial nerve, including two of the three muscles constituting the triceps surae, were independently and selectively recruited in all subjects. As acceptable levels of spillover increased, recruitment of the target muscles increased. Selective activation of muscles innervated by the peroneal nerve was more challenging. Significance. Estimated joint moments suggest that plantarflexion sufficient for propulsion during stance phase of gait and dorsiflexion sufficient to prevent foot drop during swing can be achieved, accompanied by a small but tolerable inversion or eversion moment.

  2. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

  3. [One case of postoperative facial paralysis after first branchial fistula].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Yaosheng

    2015-12-01

    Pus overflow from patent's fistula belew the left face near mandibular angle 2 years agowith a little pain. Symptoms relieved after oral antibiotics. This symptom frequently occurred in the past six months. Postoperative facial paralysis occurred after surgery, and recovered after treatment. It was diagnosed as the postoperative facial paralysis after first branchial fistula surgery. PMID:27101689

  4. Anthracosis: An unusual cause of vocal fold paralysis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Sedat; Celebi, Ozlem; Kiroglu, Merve; Demir, Mehmet Gökhan

    2015-07-01

    Anthracotic pigmentation in the bronchial mucosa is a bronchoscopic finding of pneumoconiosis, or evidence of heavy atmospheric soot. This pigmentation in the tracheobronchial mucosa is surrounded by calcified or noncalcified lymph nodes. Anthracosis is not a previously known cause of left vocal fold paralysis. We present what we believe to be the first reported case of anthracosis-caused vocal fold paralysis. PMID:26214668

  5. Like a Deer in the Headlights: The Paralysis of Stuckness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Nathe, Ben

    2008-01-01

    When describing how they experience moments of not-knowing, youth workers often talk about a sense of paralysis, as though their uncertainty becomes physically constraining. This chapter describes the first of five themes associated with youth workers' experiences of not knowing what to do: the paralysis of stuckness. In addition to describing and

  6. Effects of CO2 and H+ on laryngeal receptor activity in the perfused larynx in anaesthetized cats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z-H; Bradford, A; O'Regan, R G

    1999-01-01

    Intralaryngeal CO2 reflexly decreases ventilation and increases upper airway muscle activity. Topical anaesthesia of the laryngeal mucosa or cutting the superior laryngeal nerves (SLNs) abolishes these reflexes, indicating that the receptors responsible are superficially located and that their afferent fibres are in the SLN. Intralaryngeal CO2 affects the activity of receptors recorded from the SLN. An isolated, luminally perfused laryngeal preparation was developed in anaesthetized, paralysed cats in order to compare the effects of solutions with varying levels of pH and PCO2 on pressure-sensitive laryngeal receptor activity. Since the pH of tracheal surface fluid is reported to be approximately 7.0, two neutral (pH 7.4 and 7.0) and two acidic (pH 6.8 and 6.3) solutions were used. Compared with neutral acapnic control solutions, neutral hypercapnic (PCO2 64 mmHg) solutions either excited or inhibited the discharge of 113 out of 211 pressure-sensitive SLN afferents. In 24 receptors, the effects of hypercapnic solutions with either neutral or acidic pH were similar in both direction and magnitude. In 50 receptors affected by neutral hypercapnic solutions, acidic acapnic solutions had no effect on 66 % of units and significantly smaller effects in the remaining units. In 17 receptors, the effects of neutral solutions with a PCO2 of 35 mmHg were significantly less than for neutral solution with a PCO2 of 64 mmHg. These results show that the effects of CO2 on laryngeal pressure-sensitive receptors are independent of the pH of the perfusing media, and suggest that acidification of the receptor cell or its microenvironment is the main mechanism of CO2 chemoreception. PMID:10457074

  7. Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal cord. Like static on a telephone line, peripheral nerve disorders distort or interrupt the messages between the brain ... body. There are more than 100 kinds of peripheral nerve disorders. They can affect one nerve or many nerves. ...

  8. Applications of robotics for laryngeal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hillel, Alexander T.; Kapoor, Ankur; Simaan, Nabil; Taylor, Russell H.; Flint, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The author presents the clinical application of robotics to laryngeal surgery in terms of enhancement of surgical precision and performance of other minimally invasive procedures not feasible with current instrumentation. Presented in this article are comparisons of human arm with robotic arm in terms of degrees of freedom and discussion of surgeries and outcomes with use of the robotic arm. Robotic equipment for laryngeal surgery has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of endolaryngeal procedures by improving optics, increasing instrument degrees of freedom, and modulating tremor. Outside of laryngology, a multi-armed robotic system would have utility in microvascular procedures at the base of the skull, sinus surgery, and single port gastrointestinal and thoracic access surgery. PMID:18570959

  9. Organ preservation surgery for laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sharad; Carney, Andrew Simon

    2009-01-01

    The principles of management of the laryngeal cancer have evolved over the recent past with emphasis on organ preservation. These developments have paralleled technological advancements as well as refinement in the surgical technique. The surgeons are able to maintain physiological functions of larynx namely speech, respiration and swallowing without compromising the loco-regional control of cancer in comparison to the more radical treatment modalities. A large number of organ preservation surgeries are available to the surgeon; however, careful assessment of the stage of the cancer and selection of the patient is paramount to a successful outcome. A comprehensive review of various organ preservation techniques in vogue for the management of laryngeal cancer is presented. PMID:19442314

  10. Isolated sleep paralysis and fearful isolated sleep paralysis in outpatients with panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Brian A; McCarthy, Kevin S; Chambless, Dianne L; Milrod, Barbara L; Khalsa, Shabad-Ratan; Barber, Jacques P

    2010-12-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) has received scant attention in clinical populations, and there has been little empirical consideration of the role of fear in ISP episodes. To facilitate research and clinical work in this area, the authors developed a reliable semistructured interview (the Fearful Isolated Sleep Paralysis Interview) to assess ISP and their proposed fearful ISP (FISP) episode criteria in 133 patients presenting for panic disorder treatment. Of these, 29.3% met lifetime ISP episode criteria, 20.3% met the authors' lifetime FISP episode criteria, and 12.8% met their recurrent FISP criteria. Both ISP and FISP were associated with minority status and comorbidity. However, only FISP was significantly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, body mass, anxiety sensitivity, and mood and anxiety disorder symptomatology. PMID:20715166

  11. Isolated Sleep Paralysis and Fearful Isolated Sleep Paralysis in Outpatients With Panic Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Sharpless, Brian A.; McCarthy, Kevin S.; Chambless, Dianne L.; Milrod, Barbara L.; Khalsa, Shabad-Ratan; Barber, Jacques P.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) has received scant attention in clinical populations, and there has been little empirical consideration of the role of fear in ISP episodes. To facilitate research and clinical work in this area, the authors developed a reliable semistructured interview (the Fearful Isolated Sleep Paralysis Interview) to assess ISP and their proposed fearful ISP (FISP) episode criteria in 133 patients presenting for panic disorder treatment. Of these, 29.3% met lifetime ISP episode criteria, 20.3% met the authors’ lifetime FISP episode criteria, and 12.8% met their recurrent FISP criteria. Both ISP and FISP were associated with minority status and comorbidity. However, only FISP was significantly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, body mass, anxiety sensitivity, and mood and anxiety disorder symptomatology. PMID:20715166

  12. Diaphragm and Laryngeal FDG Uptake With Hiccups.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Madhur K; Jain, Avani S; Panneer, Venkat; Muthukrishnan, Indirani; Simon, Shelley

    2015-11-01

    F-FDG PET/CT study is a well-established investigation in diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and follow-up of malignant tumors. It is very important to know the normal biodistribution and physiologic uptake of F-FDG to prevent it from confusing as malignant disease. This article describes unusual but physiological uptake in the laryngeal and diaphragmatic muscles in a patient presenting as metastatic adenocarcinoma with unknown primary having hiccups. PMID:26204217

  13. Paralysis recovery in humans and model systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. Reggie; Roy, Roland R.

    2002-01-01

    Considerable evidence now demonstrates that extensive functional and anatomical reorganization following spinal cord injury occurs in centers of the brain that have some input into spinal motor pools. This is very encouraging, given the accumulating evidence that new connections formed across spinal lesions may not be initially functionally useful. The second area of advancement in the field of paralysis recovery is in the development of effective interventions to counter axonal growth inhibition. A third area of significant progress is the development of robotic devices to quantify the performance level of motor tasks following spinal cord injury and to 'teach' the spinal cord to step and stand. Advances are being made with robotic devices for mice, rats and humans.

  14. Clinical analysis of external laryngeal trauma.

    PubMed

    Yen, P T; Lee, H Y; Tsai, M H; Chan, S T; Huang, T S

    1994-03-01

    Thirty patients with external laryngeal trauma were analysed retrospectively. Injuries were mostly caused by motor vehicle accidents (car = 36.7 per cent; motorcycle = 23.3 per cent). The main presenting symptoms and signs were hoarseness, neck tenderness, dysphagia, and neck emphysema. Sites of laryngeal injury included arytenoid swelling, vocal fold injury, soft tissue contusion or superficial mucosal laceration, cricoarytenoid dislocation, thyroid fracture, epiglottic fracture and mixed injuries. Treatment was varied depending on the severity of the injuries. Sixteen cases were managed conservatively by medical treatment; two cases received intubation; four cases were treated initially by tracheostomy; eight cases received surgical repair and/or reconstruction; cases made a full recovery of the voice and 18 cases fair voice recovery due to either sustained vocal fold swelling or limitation of vocal fold movement. One case was graded as poor. Twenty-eight cases had good airway patency and two cases fair airway patency. A delay in the early detection of laryngeal trauma may precipitate into life-threatening airway problems, therefore prompt and accurate diagnosis should be followed immediately by skillful airway management. PMID:8169503

  15. Undifferentiated Laryngeal Carcinoma with Pagetoid Spread.

    PubMed

    Sarioglu, Sulen; Dogan, Ersoy; Sahin, Yasemin; Uzun, Evren; Bekis, Recep; Ada, Emel; Sagol, Ozgul; Akman, Fadime

    2016-06-01

    Pagetoid spread, is used to define intraepithelial spread of cancer cells, when a massive carcinoma is identified beneath the basal membrane. There are only few reports of pagetoid spread at the head and neck region. Herein a 74 year old male patient with bilateral transglottic laryngeal high grade malignant epithelial tumor with pagetoid spread is presented. The tumor was located at the submucosa and there was spread of the CK7 and CK19 positive tumor cells into the non neoplastic mucosa, which was CK5/6 positive, sparing the basement membrane, creating a typical pagetoid pattern. Radiographic and positron emission tomography scan examination of the patient was unremarkable at presentation other than the laryngeal and neck lesions; but extensive systemic metastasis developed at 6 months following operation. To the best of our knowledge no epithelial malignancy with pagetoid spread was described at the larynx. Pagetoid spread may be a hallmark of very aggressive behavior in laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:26292650

  16. Lifetime Prevalence Rates of Sleep Paralysis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jacques P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine lifetime prevalence rates of sleep paralysis. Data Sources Keyword term searches using “sleep paralysis”, “isolated sleep paralysis”, or “parasomnia not otherwise specified” were conducted using MEDLINE (1950-present) and PsychINFO (1872-present). English and Spanish language abstracts were reviewed, as were reference lists of identified articles. Study Selection Thirty five studies that reported lifetime sleep paralysis rates and described both the assessment procedures and sample utilized were selected. Data Extraction Weighted percentages were calculated for each study and, when possible, for each reported subsample. Data Synthesis Aggregating across studies (total N = 36533), 7.6% of the general population, 28.3% of students, and 31.9% of psychiatric patients experienced at least one episode of sleep paralysis. Of the psychiatric patients with panic disorder, 34.6% reported lifetime sleep paralysis. Results also suggested that minorities experience lifetime sleep paralysis at higher rates than Caucasians. Conclusions Sleep paralysis is relatively common in the general population and more frequent in students and psychiatric patients. Given these prevalence rates, sleep paralysis should be assessed more regularly and uniformly in order to determine its impact on individual functioning and better articulate its relation to psychiatric and other medical conditions. PMID:21571556

  17. Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Pothiawala, Sohil; Lateef, Fatimah

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Bilateral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a rare condition, representing less than 2% of all cases of FNP. Majority of these patients have underlying medical conditions, ranging from neurologic, infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, or metabolic disorders. Objective. The differential diagnosis of its causes is extensive and hence can present as a diagnostic challenge. Emergency physicians should be aware of these various diagnostic possibilities, some of which are potentially fatal. Case Report. We report a case of a 43-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with sequential bilateral facial nerve paralysis which could not be attributed to any particular etiology and, hence, presented a diagnostic dilemma. Conclusion. We reinforce the importance of considering the range of differential diagnosis in all cases presenting with bilateral FNP. These patients warrant admission and prompt laboratory and radiological investigation for evaluation of the underlying cause and specific further management as relevant. PMID:23326715

  18. A comparison between Laryngeal Tube Suction II Airway and Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway in laparascopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Esa, K; Azarinah, I; Muhammad, M; Helmi, M A; Jaafar, M Z

    2011-08-01

    This was a prospective randomized study comparing the ease of insertion, haemodynamic changes, quality of airway seal, oxygenation and ventilation parameters and complications between Laryngeal Tube Suction II (LTS II) with Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA), both are supraglottic airway incorporated with gastric passage. Fifty-four ASA I and II patients were randomly allocated to receive either LTS II or PLMA. Both devices provided a secure airway even under conditions of elevated intra-abdominal pressure up to 17 mmHg. In this study, there were no differences concerning ease of insertion, haemodynamic changes, quality of airway seal, oxygenation and ventilation parameters and complications between LTS II and PLMA. PMID:22111436

  19. Arnold's nerve cough reflex: evidence for chronic cough as a sensory vagal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicole M; Gibson, Peter G; Birring, Surinder S

    2014-10-01

    Arnold's nerve ear-cough reflex is recognised to occur uncommonly in patients with chronic cough. In these patients, mechanical stimulation of the external auditory meatus can activate the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (Arnold's nerve) and evoke reflex cough. This is an example of hypersensitivity of vagal afferent nerves, and there is now an increasing recognition that many cases of refractory or idiopathic cough may be due to a sensory neuropathy of the vagus nerve. We present two cases where the cause of refractory chronic cough was due to sensory neuropathy associated with ear-cough reflex hypersensitivity. In both cases, the cough as well as the Arnold's nerve reflex hypersensitivity were successfully treated with gabapentin, a treatment that has previously been shown to be effective in the treatment of cough due to sensory laryngeal neuropathy (SLN). PMID:25383210

  20. Facial Paralysis Secondary to Extensive Perineural Spread of Adenocarcinoma of the Parotid Gland Identified by PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Achong, Dwight M; Zloty, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Brain MRI in an 82-year-old man with presumed Bell's palsy revealed a clinically unsuspected right parotid gland mass but no other acute findings. Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Staging F-FDG PET/CT revealed an FDG-avid parotid mass, abnormal FDG uptake along the course of the facial nerve from mass to skull base, and multiple FDG-avid right level II neck lymph nodes and hepatic metastases. The PET/CT findings and prolonged clinical course suggest that diffuse perineural spread of tumor from a smoldering parotid neoplasm, and not idiopathic Bell's palsy, was responsible for the patient's facial paralysis. PMID:26825200

  1. [Deviation index of eye and mouth on peripheral facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Liao, Pin-Dong; Luo, Min; Zhu, Bin-Ye

    2011-09-01

    Differences of some points, levels and angles of the healthy and affected sides of patients with peripheral facial paralysis were picked out according to photographs. Through analysis of the index between the healthy and affected side of the patients and the difference between healthy people and patients, it is approved that those special points, levels and angles, which are called as deviation index of eye and mouth, can evaluate peripheral facial paralysis objectively and judge the degree of deviation. Therefore, it provides references for the diagnosis of facial paralysis and its degree judgement. PMID:21972641

  2. Paralysis agitans and levodopa in "Ayurveda": ancient Indian medical treatise.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V

    1990-01-01

    Neurologic diseases (Vata rogas, Sanskrit) and the pharmacologic treatment of them were described in the ancient Indian medical system--Ayurveda. This article explores paralysis agitans, which was described under the name Kampavata. Mucuna pruriens (Atmagupta, Sanskrit), which contains levodopa, was used in the treatment of Kampavata. Existence of paralysis agitans prior to the industrial revolution is not just of historical interest, but would also suggest that under the hypothesis of exposure to environmental toxins as a possible cause of paralysis agitans, natural organic compounds with worldwide distribution should also be considered. PMID:2404203

  3. High-resolution measurement of electrically-evoked vagus nerve activity in the anesthetized dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Paul B.; Lubock, Nathan B.; Hincapie, Juan G.; Ruble, Stephen B.; Hamann, Jason J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Not fully understanding the type of axons activated during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is one of several factors that limit the clinical efficacy of VNS therapies. The main goal of this study was to characterize the electrical recruitment of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers within the cervical vagus nerve. Approach. In anesthetized dogs, recording nerve cuff electrodes were implanted on the vagus nerve following surgical excision of the epineurium. Both the vagal electroneurogram (ENG) and laryngeal muscle activity were recorded in response to stimulation of the right vagus nerve. Main results. Desheathing the nerve significantly increased the signal-to-noise ratio of the ENG by 1.2 to 9.9 dB, depending on the nerve fiber type. Repeated VNS following nerve transection or neuromuscular block (1) enabled the characterization of A-fibers, two sub-types of B-fibers, and unmyelinated C-fibers, (2) confirmed the absence of stimulation-evoked reflex compound nerve action potentials in both the ipsilateral and contralateral vagus nerves, and (3) provided evidence of stimulus spillover into muscle tissue surrounding the stimulating electrode. Significance. Given the anatomical similarities between the canine and human vagus nerves, the results of this study provide a template for better understanding the nerve fiber recruitment patterns associated with VNS therapies.

  4. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis: a peculiar case with unusual dystonic behavior and variable relations of paralysis to serum potassium levels.

    PubMed

    Kusakabe, T; Yoshida, M; Nishikawa, M

    1976-10-01

    This report describes a male patient, aged 49, with tyrotoxic periodic paralysis. The patient had had episodes of main d'accoucheur for eight years. Since thyrotoxicosis had affected the patient last year, he had had attacks of flaccid paralysis of the limbs associated with main d'accoucheur. While the spontaneous attack was normokalemic and responded favorably to potassium, attacks similar to the spontaneous one were provoked not only by glucose infusion, carbohydrate feeding, and NaCl infusion, but also by oral KCl administration. Transition from hypokalemic to hyperkalemic type of paralysis occurred during potassium treatment of a sodium-induced attack, and that from hyperkalemic to hypokalemic type of paralysis occurred after glucose infusion given during a potassium-induced attack. Intra-arterial epinephrine injection caused prompt paralysis of the perfused hand. A main d'accoucheur was induced in one hand by cooling it in chilled water. The spontaneous attacks of flaccid paralysis disappeared after the patient returned to the euthyroid state, but reappeared when he was treated with high doses of desiccated thyroid. Even when the patient was relieved from thyrotoxicosis, he still experienced stiffness in his hands. The administration of glucose, insulin, and KCl also provoked attacks of paralysis with main d'accoucheur or main d'accoucheur. The disease could be of the normokalemic variety of periodic paralysis with fluctations in the potassium levels depending on the provocative tests employed. It seems that the unusual dystonic behavior of this patient is due not to myotonia, but to muscle spasm resulting from metabolic abnormalities. It could also be suggested that excess thyroid hormones have adverse effects on the development and syndrome of periodic paralysis by abetting a latent hereditary abnormality. PMID:977720

  5. [Professor HE Tianyou's clinical experience of acupuncture and medicine on intractable facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Yan, Fenghua; Yao, Xuhong; Yan, Xingke; Zhang, Yongkui; Jing, Xiaohui; He, Tianyou

    2015-02-01

    Professor HE Tianyou's unique understanding and treatment characteristics for intractahle facial paralysis are introduced. In clinical practice professor HE highly values acupoint selection and manipulation application, and integrates Chinese and western medicine to flexibly choose acupoints and formulate prescriptions according to syndrome differentiation and location differentiation, besides, he creates several specialized manipulation methods including "tug-of war opposite acupuncture method" and "tractive flash cupping". Based on strengthening body and dredging collaterals. more attention is given on stimulation to local paralyzed facial nerves; meanwhile acupuncture and medication are combined to improve clinical efficacy. During the treatment, the important role of psychological counseling on patient's anxiety is emphasized, and comprehensive treatment is given physically and psychologically in order to achieve the purpose of total rehabilitation. PMID:25854027

  6. 21 CFR 874.3730 - Laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design). 874.3730 Section 874.3730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3730 Laryngeal...

  7. 21 CFR 874.3730 - Laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design). 874.3730 Section 874.3730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3730 Laryngeal...

  8. Laryngeal Structure and Function in the Pediatric Larynx: Clinical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Ruddy, Bari Hoffman; Baker, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the normal anatomy and physiology of the pediatric larynx, followed by some examples of pediatric voice disorders that were chosen to exemplify the alterations to the laryngeal anatomy and the subsequent modifications to laryngeal function. Vocal fold nodules are primarily reviewed due to their high incidence…

  9. 21 CFR 874.3730 - Laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design). 874.3730 Section 874.3730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3730 Laryngeal...

  10. 21 CFR 874.3730 - Laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design). 874.3730 Section 874.3730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3730 Laryngeal...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3730 - Laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design). 874.3730 Section 874.3730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3730 Laryngeal...

  12. An fMRI investigation of racial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Norton, Michael I; Mason, Malia F; Vandello, Joseph A; Biga, Andrew; Dyer, Rebecca

    2013-04-01

    We explore the existence and underlying neural mechanism of a new norm endorsed by both black and white Americans for managing interracial interactions: "racial paralysis', the tendency to opt out of decisions involving members of different races. We show that people are more willing to make choices--such as who is more intelligent, or who is more polite-between two white individuals (same-race decisions) than between a white and a black individual (cross-race decisions), a tendency which was evident more when judgments involved traits related to black stereotypes. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, revealing greater recruitment of brain regions implicated in socially appropriate behavior (ventromedial prefrontal cortex), conflict detection (anterior cingulate cortex), deliberative processing (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and inhibition (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). We also discuss the impact of racial paralysis on the quality of interracial relations. PMID:22267521

  13. A young man presenting with paralysis after vigorous exercise

    PubMed Central

    Gubran, Christopher; Narain, Rajay; Malik, Luqmaan; Saeed, Saad Aldeen

    2012-01-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare metabolic disorder characterised by muscular weakness and paralysis in predisposed thyrotoxic patients. Although patients with TPP are almost uniformly men of Asian descent, cases have been reported in Caucasian and other ethnic populations. The rapid increase in ethnic diversity in Western and European nations has led to increase in TPP reports, where it was once considered exceedingly rare. Correcting the hypokalaemic and hyperthyroid state tends to reverse the paralysis. However, failure to recognise the condition may lead to delay in diagnosis and serious consequences including respiratory failure and death. We describe a young man who was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism who presented with acute paralysis. The clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and management of TTP are reviewed. PMID:22927268

  14. Central nervous system control of the laryngeal muscles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2005-01-01

    Laryngeal muscle control may vary for different functions such as: voice for speech communication, emotional expression during laughter and cry, breathing, swallowing, and cough. This review discusses the control of the human laryngeal muscles for some of these different functions. Sensori-motor aspects of laryngeal control have been studied by eliciting various laryngeal reflexes. The role of audition in learning and monitoring ongoing voice production for speech is well known; while the role of somatosensory feedback is less well understood. Reflexive control systems involving central pattern generators may contribute to swallowing, breathing and cough with greater cortical control during volitional tasks such as voice production for speech. Volitional control is much less well understood for each of these functions and likely involves the integration of cortical and subcortical circuits. The new frontier is the study of the central control of the laryngeal musculature for voice, swallowing and breathing and how volitional and reflexive control systems may interact in humans. PMID:15927543

  15. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  16. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  17. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  18. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  19. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  20. Unexpected radiation laryngeal necrosis after carbon ion therapy using conventional dose fractionation for laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Demizu, Yusuke; Fujii, Osamu; Nagano, Fumiko; Terashima, Kazuki; Jin, Dongcun; Mima, Masayuki; Oda, Naoharu; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Takeda, Makiko; Ito, Kazuyuki; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Okimoto, Tomoaki

    2015-11-01

    Carbon ion therapy is a type of radiotherapy that can deliver high-dose radiation to a tumor while minimizing the dose delivered to organs at risk. Moreover, carbon ions are classified as high linear energy transfer radiation and are expected to be effective for even photon-resistant tumors. A 73-year-old man with glottic squamous cell carcinoma, T3N0M0, refused laryngectomy and received carbon ion therapy of 70 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 35 fractions. Three months after the therapy, the patient had an upper airway inflammation, and then laryngeal edema and pain occurred. Five months after the therapy, the airway stenosis was severe and computed tomography showed lack of the left arytenoid cartilage and exacerbation of laryngeal necrosis. Despite the treatment, 5 and a half months after the therapy, the laryngeal edema and necrosis had become even worse and the surrounding mucosa was edematous and pale. Six months after the therapy, pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy and reconstruction with free jejunal autograft were performed. The surgical specimen pathologically showed massive necrosis and no residual tumor. Three years after the carbon ion therapy, he is alive without recurrence. The first reported laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma case treated with carbon ion therapy resulted in an unexpected radiation laryngeal necrosis. Tissue damage caused by carbon ion therapy may be difficult to repair even for radioresistant cartilage; therefore, hollow organs reinforced by cartilage, such as the larynx, may be vulnerable to carbon ion therapy. Caution should be exercised when treating tumors in or adjacent to such organs with carbon ion therapy. PMID:26355161

  1. Effects of aging and levodopa on the laryngeal adductor reflex in rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xin; Xu, Zengrui; Butler, Susan G.; Leng, Iris; Zhang, Tan; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an essential role in sensorimotor function, and declines with age. Previously, we found the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) was increased in excitation by a dopamine receptor antagonist. If this airway-protective reflex is similarly affected by aging, it will interfere with volitional control in older adults. The current study tested whether the LAR was affected by aging, and whether such deficits were reversed by levodopa administration in aging rats. We recorded thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle activity at rest and during elicitation of LAR responses by stimulation of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (iSLN) in 6-, 18- and 30-month-old rats under alpha-chloralose anesthesia. Using paired stimuli at different inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs), LAR central conditioning, resting muscle activity, and reflex latency and amplitudes were quantified. Numbers of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were measured using tyrosine hydroxylase staining. We found: (1) increased resting TA muscle activity and LAR amplitude occurred with fewer dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc in 18- and 30-month-old rats; (2) decreases in LAR latency and increases in amplitude correlated with reduced numbers of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc; (3) test responses were greater at 1000 ms ISI in 18-month-old rats compared with 6-month-old rats; and (4) levodopa administration further increased response latency but did not alter muscle activity, response amplitude, or central conditioning. In conclusion, increases in laryngeal muscle activity levels and re-flex amplitudes accompanied age reductions in dopaminergic neurons but were not reversed with levodopa administration. PMID:22824541

  2. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis as first sign of thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Trifanescu, RA; Danciulescu Miulescu, R; Carsote, M; Poiana, C

    2013-01-01

    Background: periodic paralysis related to hypokalemia is seldom reported in thyrotoxicosis, and it usually occurs in Asian males. Patients and methods: Two Romanian (Caucasian) young patients presented with hypokalemic paralysis. TSH, FT4, TT3 was measured by immunochemiluminescence. Case report 1. Patient O.R, aged 19, presented marked asthenia and lower limbs paralysis, following high carbohydrate meal. He declared 10 kg weight loss on hypocaloric diet and mild sweating. Biochemical data revealed moderate hypokalemia (K+=2.6 mmol/L) and thyrotoxicosis (TSH<0.03 mIU/L, FT4=30 pmol/L, TT3=315 ng/dL). Case report 2. Patient T.A., aged 18, presented 2 episodes of weakness and flaccid paralysis, with hypokalemia, precipitated by effort, without any sign of thyrotoxicosis. Biochemical data revealed severe hypokalemia (K+=1.8 mmol/L) and thyrotoxicosis (TSH<0.03 mIU/L, FT4=24 pmol/L, TT3=190 ng/dL). Treatment with intravenous potassium, thereafter methimazole and propranolol were administered in both cases, with the maintenance of normal kalemia and thyrotoxicosis’ control. Conclusion: these 2 cases of hypokalemic periodic paralysis occurring in young Caucasian teenagers with mild thyrotoxicosis underlined the importance of thyroid screening in patients with symptomatic hypokalemia, even in the absence of symptoms and signs of thyrotoxicosis. Abbreviations: THPP=Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, BMI=body mass index, TRAb=TSH receptor antibody, ECG=electrocardiogram. PMID:23599824

  3. [Laryngeal tube II : alternative airway for children?].

    PubMed

    Schalk, R; Scheller, B; Peter, N; Rosskopf, W; Byhahn, C; Zacharowski, K; Meininger, D

    2011-06-01

    Difficult airway situations both expected and unexpected, present major challenges to every anesthesiologist, especially in pediatric anesthesia. However, the integration of extraglottic airway devices, such as the laryngeal mask, into the algorithm of difficult airways has improved the handling of difficult airway situations. A device for establishing a supraglottic airway, the laryngeal tube (LT), was introduced in 1999. The LT is an extraglottic airway designed to secure a patent airway during either spontaneous breathing or controlled ventilation. The design of the device has been revised several times and a further development is the LTS II/LTS-D, which provides an additional channel for the insertion of a gastric drain tube. This article reports on the successful use of the LTS II in 12 children aged from 2 days to 6 years when endotracheal intubation, alternative mask or laryngeal mask ventilation failed. Use of the LTS II was associated with a high level of success, securing the airway when other techniques had failed. The potential advantage of the LTS II over the standard LT is an additional suction port, which allows gastric tube placement and can be used as an indirect indicator of correct placement. With a modified insertion technique using an Esmarch manoeuvre, placement was simple and fast to perform. In emergency situations when direct laryngoscopy fails or is too time-consuming the LTS II tube is recommended as an alternative device to secure the airway. As with all extraglottic airway devices, familiarity and clinical experience with the respective device and the corresponding insertion technique are essential for safe and successful use, especially in emergency situations. PMID:21246182

  4. Dihydropyridine receptor mutations cause hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ptacek, L.J.; Leppert, M.F.; Tawil, R.

    1994-09-01

    Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP) is an autosomal dominant skeletal muscle disorder manifested by episodic weakness associated with low serum potassium. Genetic linkage analysis has localized the hypoKPP gene to chromosome 1q31-q32 near a dihydropyridine receptor (DHP) gene. This receptor functions as a voltage-gated calcium channel and is also critical for excitation-contraction coupling in a voltage-sensitive and calcium-independent manner. We have characterized patient-specific DHP receptor mutations in 11 probands of 33 independent hypoKPP kindreds that occur at one of two adjacent nucleotides within the same codon and predict substitution of a highly conserved arginine in the S4 segment of domain 4 with either histidine or glycine. In one kindred, the mutation arose de novo. Taken together, these data establish the DHP receptor as the hypoKPP gene. We are unaware of any other human diseases presently known to result from DHP receptor mutations.

  5. Isolated sleep paralysis: a web survey.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, G; Cirignotta, F

    2000-01-01

    Isolated Sleep Paralysis (SP) occurs at least once in a lifetime in 40-50% of normal subjects, while as a chronic complaint it is an uncommon and scarcely known disorder. A series of messages written by subjects who experienced at least one episode of SP, containing more or less detailed descriptions of this disorder, were collected from the Sleep Web site of the University of California in Los Angeles between January 1996 and July 1998. Two hundred and sixty-four messages fulfilling the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) (Thorpy, 1990) minimal criteria for SP were analyzed. A wide spectrum of severity was evident, with a frequency of episodes ranging from one in a lifetime to almost every night, and a variety of emotional and hallucinatory experiences associated with SP episodes were reported. Clinical similarities between the recurrent form of isolated SP and channelopathies (in particular, periodic paralyses) are discussed. An activation of limbic system structures is suggested in order to explain some of the most common subjective experiences associated with SP. PMID:11382902

  6. Modulation of heart rate by temporally patterned vagus nerve stimulation in the anesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Paul B; Liu, Haoran; Hincapie, Juan G; Ruble, Stephen B; Hamann, Jason J; Grill, Warren M

    2016-02-01

    Despite current knowledge of the myriad physiological effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in various mammalian species (including humans), the impact of varying stimulation parameters on nerve recruitment and physiological responses is not well understood. We investigated nerve recruitment, cardiovascular responses, and skeletal muscle responses to different temporal patterns of VNS across 39 combinations of stimulation amplitude, frequency, and number of pulses per burst. Anesthetized dogs were implanted with stimulating and recording cuff electrodes around the cervical vagus nerve, whereas laryngeal electromyogram (EMG) and heart rate were recorded. In seven of eight dogs, VNS-evoked bradycardia (defined as ?10% decrease in heart rate) was achieved by applying stimuli at amplitudes equal to or greater than the threshold for activating slow B-fibers. Temporally patterned VNS (minimum 5 pulses per burst) was sufficient to elicit bradycardia while reducing the concomitant activation of laryngeal muscles by more than 50%. Temporal patterns of VNS can be used to modulate heart rate while minimizing laryngeal motor fiber activation, and this is a novel approach to reduce the side effects produced by VNS. PMID:26811057

  7. Laryngeal paraganglioma: report of an unusual entity.

    PubMed

    Kaytaz, Asim; Karaman, Emin; Edizer, Deniz Tuna; Haciyev, Yusuf; Oz, Buge

    2010-11-01

    Paragangliomas are rare in the larynx. When they do occur there, the most common subsite is the supraglottic compartment. Unlike other neuroendocrine tumors of the larynx, laryngeal paragangliomas are three times as common in women as in men. Although a preoperative biopsy is often performed to establish the diagnosis, this procedure carries a considerable risk of bleeding, which may necessitate a tracheotomy to secure the airway. Immunohistochemical staining is useful in the differential diagnosis to distinguish a paraganglioma from other neuroendocrine tumors. Computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging with preoperative angiography and possible embolization are important to obtain prior to treatment. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. PMID:21086280

  8. [Oral blastomycosis, laryngeal papillomatosis and esophageal tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Montoya, Manuel; Chumbiraico, Robert; Ricalde, Melvin; Cazorla, Ernesto; Hernández-Córdova, Gustavo

    2012-06-01

    Esophageal involvement is an extremely rare complication of tuberculosis even in countries with high prevalence of infection. We report the case of a 57 year-old hiv-seronegative patient with simultaneous diagnoses of oral blastomycosis and laryngeal papillomatosis. Both were confirmed by anatomopathological analysis. The esophageal biopsy revealed granulomatous esophagitis with necrosis and ziehl-neelsen stain showed acid-fast alcohol resistant bacilli suggestive of tuberculosis. The patient's history included pulmonary tuberculosis twice and previous abandonment of therapy. Thus, it was necessary to use oral itraconazole combined with second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs administered through a gastrostomy tube. The clinical development was favorable. PMID:22858774

  9. Laryngeal actinomycosis in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheylan; Jaworek, Aaron J; Patel, Vatsal; Duckworth, Lizette Vila; Sawhney, Raja; Chheda, Neil N

    2014-11-01

    Actinomycosis of the larynx represents an unusual presentation for a common bacterium comprising the oral and oropharyngeal florae. There are few cases reported in the literature of laryngeal actinomycosis occurring primarily in the immunocompromised population. Here, we present a case in a 74-year-old man that occurred in the setting of neutropenia as a result of chemotherapy. Once the diagnosis was made with biopsy of the larynx, the infection was resolved after a prolonged course of penicillin-based therapy. PMID:24930374

  10. Dual Nerve Transfers for Restoration of Shoulder Function After Brachial Plexus Avulsion Injury.

    PubMed

    Chu, Bin; Wang, Huan; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yudong; Hu, Shaonan

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of shoulder function restoration by dual nerve transfers, spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve and 2 intercostal nerves to the anterior branch of the axillary nerve, in patients with shoulder paralysis that resulted from brachial plexus avulsion injury. It was a retrospective analysis to assess the impact of a variety of factors on reanimation of shoulder functions with dual nerve transfers. A total of 19 patients were included in this study. Most of these patients sustained avulsions of C5, C6, and C7 nerve roots (16 patients). Three of them had avulsions of C5 and C6 roots only. Through a posterior approach, direct coaptation of the intercostal nerves and the anterior branch of the axillary nerve was performed, along with accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve. Satisfactory shoulder function recovery (93.83° of shoulder abduction and 54.00° of external rotation on average) was achieved after a 62-month follow-up. This dual nerve transfer procedure provided us with a reliable and effective method for shoulder function reconstruction after brachial plexus root avulsion, especially C5/C6/C7 avulsion. The level of evidence is therapeutic IV. PMID:26835823

  11. A Technique for Preoperative Identification of the Facial Nerve Mandibular Branch Using a Nerve Stimulator.

    PubMed

    Ijichi, Kei; Adachi, Makoto; Hamajima, Yuki; Murakami, Shingo

    2015-07-01

    We established the method of preoperative identification to facial nerve marginal mandibular branch (FNMB) identification using a nerve stimulator with bipolar probe for upper-neck surgery. The bipolar electrode is placed on the region while patients were awake; the patient should be in the same position and posture as during the surgery, with the neck skin stretched. A nerve course is confirmed by observing the movement of the lower lip. In this study, 5 upper-neck surgeries were conducted. Preoperative analysis revealed that 4 of the 5 cases had 2 branches of FNMB, and 1 with 3 branches. All FNMB immediately confirmed preoperatively were identified during surgery. We performed this method in much surgery including the surgery of the upper neck. It was easy to identify the facial nerve by this method and came to be able to do it precisely, and an operative time was shortened. We concluded that the preoperative FNMB identification using a nerve stimulator is most useful and benefit for upper-neck surgery patients and lead to avoid lower lip paralysis. PMID:26079125

  12. Transient Delayed Facial Nerve Palsy After Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Tzermpos, Fotios H.; Cocos, Alina; Kleftogiannis, Matthaios; Zarakas, Marissa; Iatrou, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy, as a complication of an inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia, is a rarely reported incident. Based on the time elapsed, from the moment of the injection to the onset of the symptoms, the paralysis could be either immediate or delayed. The purpose of this article is to report a case of delayed facial palsy as a result of inferior alveolar nerve block, which occurred 24 hours after the anesthetic administration and subsided in about 8 weeks. The pathogenesis, treatment, and results of an 8-week follow-up for a 20-year-old patient referred to a private maxillofacial clinic are presented and discussed. The patient's previous medical history was unremarkable. On clinical examination the patient exhibited generalized weakness of the left side of her face with a flat and expressionless appearance, and she was unable to close her left eye. One day before the onset of the symptoms, the patient had visited her dentist for a routine restorative procedure on the lower left first molar and an inferior alveolar block anesthesia was administered. The patient's medical history, clinical appearance, and complete examinations led to the diagnosis of delayed facial nerve palsy. Although neurologic occurrences are rare, dentists should keep in mind that certain dental procedures, such as inferior alveolar block anesthesia, could initiate facial nerve palsy. Attention should be paid during the administration of the anesthetic solution. PMID:22428971

  13. Response of laryngeal motoneurons to hyperventilation induced apnea in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi-Jian; Berkowitz, Robert G; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2005-04-15

    Central apnea is common in the premature newborn. To explain the upper airway findings in different clinical conditions characterized by central apnea, we made single unit recordings from laryngeal motoneurons during normal and hyperventilation. Posterior cricoarytenoid (n = 4) and cricothyroid (n = 4) motoneurons displayed an inspiratory pattern during normal ventilation and remained synchronous with phrenic nerve discharge (PND) during hyperventilation. Laryngeal constrictor motoneurons (LCon) displayed a post-inspiratory pattern during normal ventilation, but lost phasic activity during early hyperventilation (the period after the onset of hyperventilation but before cessation of PND; n = 12). There was a nearly linear relationship between the post-inspiratory activity and strength of PND. Six LCon motoneurons remained silent throughout hyperventilation, while the other six developed a tonic activity during cessation of PND. Further analysis suggested that the silent and tonic LCon motoneurons are likely to share a similar mechanism in their post-inspiratory pattern generation, but differ from each other in their responses to CO2 inputs. In addition, strong inhibition of the LCon tonic activity by the early return of PND could be an important factor in recovery following a period of apnea. Failure of this inspiratory inhibition to occur might explain certain clinical situations, where obstructive apnea supervenes following a period of central apnea. PMID:15766904

  14. Syndrome of fascial incarceration of the long thoracic nerve: winged scapula☆

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jefferson Braga; Gerhardt, Samanta; Pacheco, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the results from early intervention surgery in patients with the syndrome of fascial incarceration of the long thoracic nerve and consequent winged scapula. Methods Six patients with a syndrome of nerve trapping without specific nerve strain limitations were followed up. Results The patients achieved improvement of their symptoms 6–20 months after the procedure. The motor symptoms completely disappeared, without any persistent pain. The medial deformity of the winged scapula improved in all cases, without any residual esthetic disorders. Conclusion The approach of early surgical release seems to be a better predictor for recovery from non-traumatic paralysis of the anterior serratus muscle. PMID:26535205

  15. The Acute bee paralysis virus-Kashmir bee virus-Israeli acute paralysis virus complex.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Joachim R; Cordoni, Guido; Budge, Giles

    2010-01-01

    Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced or encountered naturally. These viruses are frequently implicated in honey bee colony losses, especially when the colonies are infested with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. Here we review the historical and recent literature of this virus complex, covering history and origins; the geographic, host and tissue distribution; pathology and transmission; genetics and variation; diagnostics, and discuss these within the context of the molecular and biological similarities and differences between the viruses. We also briefly discuss three recent developments relating specifically to IAPV, concerning its association with Colony Collapse Disorder, treatment of IAPV infection with siRNA and possible honey bee resistance to IAPV. PMID:19909972

  16. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli Prevents Severe Scalds-Induced Gut Ischemia and Paralysis by Activating the Cholinergic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Lei; Shi, Xian; Qi, Song; Hu, Sen; Tong, Zhangqi; Ma, Zhuhong; Qian, Yan; Litscher, Daniela; Litscher, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Severe burn injuries may result in gastrointestinal paralysis, and barrier dysfunction due to gut ischemia and lowered vagus excitability. In this study we investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) at Zusanli (ST36) could prevent severe scalds-induced gut ischemia, paralysis, and barrier dysfunction and whether the protective role of EA at ST36 is related to the vagus nerve. 35% burn area rats were divided into six groups: (a) EAN: EA nonchannel acupoints followed by scald injury; (b) EA: EA at ST36 after scald injury; (c) VGX/EA: vagotomy (VGX) before EA at ST36 and scald injury; (d) VGX/EAN: VGX before EAN and scald injury; (e) atropine/EA: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at ST36; (f) atropine/EAN: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at nonchannel acupoints. EA at the Zusanli point significantly promoted the intestinal impelling ratio and increased the amount of mucosal blood flow after scald injury. The plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) and intestinal permeability decreased significantly after scald injury in the EA group compared with others. However, EA after atropine injection or cervical vagotomy failed to improve intestinal motility and mucosa blood flow suggesting that the mechanism of EA may be related to the activation of the cholinergic nerve pathway. PMID:26448777

  17. Optic Nerve Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a special laser that produces a three-dimensional high-resolution image of the optic nerve. This ... the nerve fiber layer and create a three dimensional representation of the optic nerve. Last reviewed on ...

  18. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve. ... normal body temperature. Being too cold slows nerve conduction. Tell your doctor if you have a cardiac ...

  19. The role of MicroRNAs expression in laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs, miRs) is a class of small non-coding RNAs, which posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. Deregulated miRs are frequently obseved in patients with laryngeal cancer. In addition, numerous studies have showed miRs play significant roles in the pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer through regulating tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, invasion and apoptosis. miR can play either an oncogenic or tumor suppressive role in laryngeal cancer. In our review, we summarize the recent researches on laryngeal cancer-associated miRs, focusing on their role in the pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer. As changes in the levels of specific miRs in tissues or serum associate with diagnosis and prognosis of patients, we will also discuss the potential use of miRs in laryngeal cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Furthermore, supplementation of oncomiRs or inhibition of tumor suppressive miRs in vivo may be future therapeutic strategy for laryngeal cancer. PMID:26079642

  20. Diet, cigarettes and alcohol in laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenheim, J.L.; Graham, S.; Byers, T.E.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.K.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Diet and other risk factors for cancer of the larynx were examined in a case-control study among white males in Western New York, conducted in 1975-1985. Incident, pathologically-confirmed cases and age- and neighborhood-matched controls were interviewed to determine usual diet, and lifetime use of tobacco and alcohol. Because response rates were low for both cases and controls, this cannot be considered a population-based study. A strong association of risk with cigarette but not pipe and cigar smoking was found. Beer and hard liquor but not wine were associated with increased risk. After control for cigarettes, alcohol and education, the upper quartile odds ratio for fat was 2.40, while the odds ratio for high intake of carotenoids was 0.51. There was effect modification by smoking. Carotenoids were most negatively associated with risk among lighter smokers; dietary fat was most positively associated with risk among heavier smokers. Total calories, protein, and retinol were associated with increased risk; there was no relationship between laryngeal cancer and vitamins C and E or carbohydrate. This study again demonstrates the strong association between tobacco and alcohol and laryngeal cancer and also suggests that diets low in carotenoids and high fat may increase risk.

  1. Histopathological study of radionecrosis in laryngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, M.; Harwood, A.R.; Bryce, D.P.; van Nostrand, A.W.

    1982-02-01

    With modern radiotherapy techniques, clinical radionecrosis is uncommon following eradication of primary squamous cell carcinoma from the larynx. Histologic sections from 265 specimens, prepared by the technique of whole organ subserial step-sectioning were studied to determine the incidence and location of chondronecrosis and/or osteomyelitis in both irradiated and non-irradiated cases. Chondronecrosis occurred in only 1 of 41 early (pT1 - pT2) tumors but in 143 advanced tumors (pT - pT4) treated with radical radiotherapy and containing residual carcinoma, 27% had evidence of significant necrosis, compared with 24% of those not irradiated. Age, sex, tumor grade and previous laryngeal surgery did not appear to be significant factors in the development of necrosis in irradiated patients. The arytenoid cartilage was most frequently involved when chondronecrosis occurred in association with radiotherapy. Six total laryngectomy specimens (3%) were received from patients with symptoms of chondronecrosis and in whom no residual tumor was present. We conclude that although the incidence of clinical perichondritis is low, histologic chondronecrosis and/or osteomyelitis occurred in 26% of all the larynges studied. Radiotherapy appears to be a significant causative factor only in advanced supraglottic tumors.

  2. Two rare cases of laryngeal intralymphatic histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Reznitsky, Martin; Daugaard, Søren; Charabi, Birgitte Wittenborg

    2016-03-01

    We report two rare cases of intralymphatic histiocytosis causing, respectively, recurrent and persistent episodes of upper airway swelling and breathing difficulties. Case 1 was a 39-year-old man who was referred with recurrent upper airway swelling causing difficulty in breathing. A direct laryngoscopy was performed under general anesthesia due to minimal effect from treatment with antibiotics and anti-oedema medication. On examination, the larynx was found to be swollen and oedematous but not inflamed. Biopsies from the aryepiglottic folds showed intralymphatic histiocytosis. The patient was extensively examined but the only abnormal finding was a low CD4 count. The breathing difficulties fluctuated during the diagnostic process and settled after a year. Case 2 was a 35-year-old man who presented with persistent laryngeal swelling. Biopsies from the epiglottis showed intralymphatic histiocytosis. Extensive investigations were performed but discovered no abnormal findings. He received CO2 laser treatment twice and the swelling decreased. Intralymphatic histiocytosis is extremely rare in upper airway pathology. It is an important differential diagnosis in patients with recurrent and chronic laryngeal swelling and dyspnoea. PMID:25870125

  3. Laryngeal findings in advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Blumin, Joel H; Pcolinsky, Dana E; Atkins, Joseph P

    2004-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is a major source of neurologic morbidity. A majority of patients with Parkinson's disease complain of problems with voice, speech, and swallowing. Treatments for these problems center on the improvement of vocal fold adduction through either speech therapy or vocal fold augmentation. No prior study has looked at laryngeal improvement after neurologic surgery, specifically deep brain stimulation, performed to treat Parkinson's disease. The goal of this study was to establish a baseline of laryngeal findings in patients who are considering deep brain stimulation. Fifteen patients underwent physical examination with videostroboscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing before deep brain stimulation. In addition, they were asked to self-report voice handicap. Eighty-seven percent of patients demonstrated significant vocal fold bowing. All patients had some degree of pharyngeal residue of solids noted on evaluation of swallowing. All but one patient had a significant self-reported voice handicap. These findings are reviewed and established as a baseline for further study. PMID:15112966

  4. Laryngeal complications by orotracheal intubation: Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Luiz Alberto Alves; de Cavalho, Glauber Barbosa; Brito, Valeska Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Sumamry Introduction: The injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation are common in our way and widely told by literature. Generally the pipe rank of or consequence of its permanence in the aerial ways of the patient is caused by accidents in. It has diverse types of larynx injuries, caused for multiple mechanisms. Objective: To verify, in literature, the main causes of laryngeal complications after- orotracheal intubation and its mechanisms of injury. Revision of Literature: The searched databases had been LILACS, BIREME and SCIELO. Were updated, books and theses had been used, delimiting itself the period enters 1953 the 2009. The keywords used for the search of articles had been: complications, injuries, larynx, intubation, endotracheal, orotracheal, granulomas, stenosis. 59 references had been selected. The used criteria of inclusion for the choice of articles had been the ones that had shown to the diverse types of injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation and its pathophysiology. Final Considerations: This revision of literature was motivated by the comment in the practical clinic of a great number of laryngeal sequels in patients submitted to the orotracheal intubation. Of that is ahead important the knowledge, for the professionals of the area of health, the types of complications and its causes, with intention to prevent them, adopting measured of prevention of these injuries. PMID:25991942

  5. Change of Voice Handicap Index after treatment of benign laryngeal disorders.

    PubMed

    Stuut, Marijn; Tjon Pian Gi, Robin E A; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2014-05-01

    Voice disorders can have major impact on quality of life. Problems caused by these disorders can be experienced in different domains. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI) is a well-known voice-related quality of life instrument to measure physical, emotional and functional complaints. VHI change after treatment in seven separate benign laryngeal disorders was studied. In addition, correlation between the three domains was examined. VHI forms were completed before and 3 months after treatment. In a 5-year-period, 143 patients with seven specific diagnoses were retrospectively included. VHI improved for six diagnoses polyp (p < 0.000), cyst (p = 0.001), unilateral paralysis (p = 0.001), Reinke edema (p = 0.016), papillomatosis (p = 0.001), nodules (p = 0.002). Sulcus glottidis did not change (p = 0.897). Mean VHI after treatment was higher for females (p = 0.021). The values of the three domains correlate statistically significant. For each diagnosis, the mean VHI after treatment remained higher than in subjects with a healthy voice. Because the domains are interdependent, their absolute values could not be compared. After treatment, VHI improved in six of the seven diagnoses. The scores on the physical, emotional, and functional domain are interdependent. Scores of the different domains cannot be compared. PMID:24141520

  6. Femoral nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - femoral nerve; Femoral neuropathy ... Felice, KJ. Focal neuropathies of the femoral, obturator, lateral femoral cutaneous and other nerves of the thigh and pelvis. In: Bromberg MB, Smith ...

  7. Loss of signal in recurrent nerve neuromonitoring: causes and management

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Che-Wei; Wang, Mei-Hui; Chen, Cheng-Chien; Chen, Hui-Chun; Chen, Hsiu-Ya; Yu, Jing-Yi; Chang, Pi-Ying; Lu, I-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Chu

    2015-01-01

    During recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) neuromonitoring in thyroid surgery, laryngeal electromyography (EMG) amplitude may be correlated with the number of muscle fibers participating in the polarization and these might be correlated with the function of RLN. If RLN is severely injured during the operation, most nerve fibers do not transmit nerve impulse and substantial decrease of EMG amplitude or loss of signal (LOS) will occur. True LOS at the end of an operation often indicates a postoperative fixed vocal cord, and the surgeon should consider the optimal contralateral surgery timing in patients with planned bilateral thyroid operation to avoid the disaster of bilateral vocal cord palsy. However, LOS recovery and false LOS may occur and may lead to an unnecessary 2nd operation. Therefore, a reliable modality for intraoperative LOS evaluation and management would afford the surgeon real-time information that could help guide surgical procedure and planning. The updated causes, algorithm, and management of LOS during RLN neuromonitoring are reviewed and summarized. PMID:25713776

  8. Laryngeal Chondrosarcoma as a Rare Cause of Subglottic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kökoğlu, Kerem; Canöz, Özlem; Doğan, Serap; Gülmez, Emrah; Yüce, İmdat; Çağlı, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Laryngeal chondrosarcoma (CS) is a very rare entity. It is usually seen in 50–80-year olds. It is developed from cricoid cartilage largely. Patients have laryngeal CS complaint of respiratuvar distress, dysphonia, and dysphagia generally. A submucous mass is usually seen in physical examination with an intact mucosa. Distant metastasis is rare in CSs. Main treatment is surgical excision. An 82-year-old patient who has respiratuvar distress is presented in this paper and laryngeal CS is reviewed in the light of the literature. PMID:25197601

  9. The efficacy of combined regional nerve blocks in awake orotracheal fiberoptic intubation

    PubMed Central

    Chatrath, Veena; Sharan, Radhe; Jain, Payal; Bala, Anju; Ranjana; Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Aims of Study: To evaluate the efficacy, hemodynamic changes, and patient comfort during awake fiberoptic intubation done under combined regional blocks. Materials and Methods: In the present observational study, 50 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists ( ASA) Grade I–II, Mallampati Grade I–IV were given nerve blocks - bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve block, bilateral superior laryngeal nerve block, and recurrent laryngeal nerve block before awake fiberoptic intubation using 2% lidocaine. Results: Procedure was associated with minimal increases in hemodynamic parameters during the procedure and until 3 min after it. Most of the intubations were being carried out within 3 min. Patient comfort was satisfactory with 90% of patients having favorable grades. Discussion: The most common cause of mortality and serious morbidity due to anesthesia is from airway problems. One-third of all anesthetic deaths are due to failure to intubate and ventilate. Awake flexible fiberoptic intubation under local anesthesia is now an accepted technique for managing such situations. In awake patient's anatomy, muscle tone, airway protection, and ventilation are preserved, but it is essential to sufficiently anesthetize the upper airway before the performance of awake fiberoptic bronchoscope-guided intubation to ensure patient comfort and cooperation for which in our study we used the nerve block technique. Conclusion: A properly performed technique of awake fiberoptic intubation done under combined regional nerve blocks provides good intubating conditions, patient comfort and safety and results in minimal hemodynamic changes.

  10. Intraoral midline mandibulotomy improves laryngeal access for transoral resection of laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Saini, Alok T; Parasher, Arjun K; Kass, Jason I; Altman, Kenneth W; Miles, Brett A

    2016-01-01

    Intraoral midline mandibulotomy is a technique that can be used to increase exposure for transoral endoscopic laser microsurgery (TLS). We describe the case of a 51year old male with persistent T1 glottic carcinoma. At initial diagnosis, he had been referred for curative radiotherapy as laryngeal access was not sufficient for TLS. For treatment of his recurrence, we describe the technique of performing a midline mandibular osteotomy to improve access to the larynx allowing for safe and effective transoral endoscopic laser microsurgery. Surgical access to the larynx was greatly improved, and we were able to perform TLS in a case that would have otherwise not been amenable to TLS. An intraoral midline mandibulotomy can improve access to the larynx and allow for successful transoral resection of laryngeal cancer in patients with otherwise inaccessible tumors. PMID:26954859

  11. Partial airway obstruction following manufacturing defect in laryngeal mask airway (Laryngeal Mask Silken™).

    PubMed

    Jangra, Kiran; Malhotra, Surender Kumar; Saini, Vikas

    2014-10-01

    Laryngeal mask (LM) airway is commonly used for securing airway in day-care surgeries. Various problems have been described while using LM airway. Out of those, mechanical obstruction causing airway compromise is most common. Here, we describe a case report of 4-year-old child who had partial upper airway obstruction due to LM manufacturer's defect. There was a silicon band in upper one-third of shaft of LM airway. This band was made up of the same material as that of LM airway so it was not identifiable on external inspection of transparent shaft. We suggest that such as non-transparent laryngeal mask, a transparent LM airway should also be inspected looking inside the lumen with naked eyes or by using a probe to rule out any manufacturing defect before its insertion. PMID:25422617

  12. [Idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy): a study of 180 patients].

    PubMed

    Valença, M M; Valença, L P; Lima, M C

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze some clinical and epidemiologic aspects, as well as the follow up of 180 patients with Bell's palsy. In the study population there was a predominance of female (66.7%). Two peaks of incidence in the age distribution were identified: third-fourth and sixth decades of life. In the group of 180 patients there were 198 events of facial paralysis, 17 recurrences and in one patient the paralysis was bilateral at the onset. In 15 patients (8.3%) there were recurrences of the facial paralysis, in 12 cases (70.6%) the recurrences were ipsilateral. The left side of the face was involved in 55.6% of the cases. In eight patients the paralysis occurred during pregnancy (n=5) or puerperium (n=3). As associated conditions we found: arterial hypertension (11.7%), diabetes mellitus (11.1%), pregnancy or puerperium (4.4%; 6.7% in the women), and neurocysticercosis (1.1%). In 72.8% of the cases no association with such conditions was found. In 22.8% of the patients some kind of sequelae were identified: hemifacial spasm (12.8%), partial recovery of the motor deficit (10.6%), syndrome of the crocodile tears (3.3%), sincinetic contraction (2.8%), and the Marcus Gunn inverse phenomenon (1.1%). In conclusion, this study shows that the idiopathic facial paralysis may lead to important sequelae in more than 20% of the patients. PMID:11593275

  13. Laryngeal Leiomyosarcoma, A Case Report and Review of Articles

    PubMed Central

    Khadivi, Ehsan; Taziky, Mohammad Hossein; Jafarian, Amir Hossein; Nasseri Sadr, Msoud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Laryngeal leiomysarcoma is an extremely rare malignancy originating from smooth muscle cells. Its rarity is due to the fact that only less than 50 cases of pure laryngeal leiomyosarcoma and less than 10 cases of hypopharyngeal leiomyosarcaoma have been reported in modern medical literature. Even though the clinical presentation mimics that of a laryngeal carcinoma forming the major bulk of the laryngeal malignancies, the difference in management, warrants an accurate diagnosis. Case Report: We reported a case of this very rare malignancy presenting in the supraglottic region by highlighting the clinical features, histological and radiological diagnosis and management of this extremely rare malignant entity. Conclusion: An accurate histological diagnosis may be difficult; but supplementing by electron microscopy and immunohistochemical staining, the diagnosis can be reached certainly. PMID:24303449

  14. The Laryngeal Motor Cortex: Its Organization and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Simonyan, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to learn and control the motor aspects of complex laryngeal behaviors, such as speech and song, is modulated by the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC), which is situated in the area 4 of the primary motor cortex and establishes both direct and indirect connections with laryngeal motoneurons. In contrast, the LMC in monkeys is located in the area 6 of the premotor cortex, projects only indirectly to laryngeal motoneurons and its destruction has essentially no effect on production of species-specific calls. These differences in cytoarchitectonic location and connectivity may be a result of hominid evolution that led to the LMC shift from the phylogenetically “old” to “new” motor cortex in order to fulfill its paramount function, i.e., voluntary motor control of human speech and song production. PMID:24929930

  15. [Classification of laryngeal papillomas and papillomatosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Neumann, O G; Klopp, L; Franz, B

    1980-01-01

    The clinical behavior of laryngeal papillomas is discussed by literature and by own 130 cases. Laryngeal papillomatosis is an epithelial proliferative lesion. Without prejudice to viral aetiology it can be interpreted in some cases as a dysplastic epithelial Tumor with the risk of cellular change to carcinoma. A histologic and cytologic classification of laryngeal dysplastic papilloma is described. The basic knowledge has been gained by the experiences in the diagnosis of oral-carcinom, portio-carcinoma and larynx-carcinoma. This classification is used for 48 selected cases of multiple and recurrence laryngeal papillomatosis in which sometimes also elder histological preparations were still available. The results and clinical value are discussed. PMID:7392741

  16. A rare cause of acute flaccid paralysis: Human coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Turgay, Cokyaman; Emine, Tekin; Ozlem, Koken; Muhammet, S. Paksu; Haydar, A. Tasdemir

    2015-01-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a life-threatening clinical entity characterized by weakness in the whole body muscles often accompanied by respiratory and bulbar paralysis. The most common cause is GullianBarre syndrome, but infections, spinal cord diseases, neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis, drugs and toxins, periodic hypokalemic paralysis, electrolyte disturbances, and botulism should be considered as in the differential diagnosis. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause common cold, upper and lower respiratory tract disease, but in the literature presentation with the lower respiratory tract infection and AFP has not been reported previously. In this study, pediatric case admitted with lower respiratory tract infection and AFP, who detected for HCoV 229E and OC43 co-infection by the real-time polymerase chain reaction, has been reported for the first time. PMID:26557177

  17. An fMRI investigation of racial paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Malia F.; Vandello, Joseph A.; Biga, Andrew; Dyer, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    We explore the existence and underlying neural mechanism of a new norm endorsed by both black and white Americans for managing interracial interactions: “racial paralysis’, the tendency to opt out of decisions involving members of different races. We show that people are more willing to make choices—such as who is more intelligent, or who is more polite—between two white individuals (same-race decisions) than between a white and a black individual (cross-race decisions), a tendency which was evident more when judgments involved traits related to black stereotypes. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, revealing greater recruitment of brain regions implicated in socially appropriate behavior (ventromedial prefrontal cortex), conflict detection (anterior cingulate cortex), deliberative processing (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and inhibition (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). We also discuss the impact of racial paralysis on the quality of interracial relations. PMID:22267521

  18. A rare cause of acute flaccid paralysis: Human coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Turgay, Cokyaman; Emine, Tekin; Ozlem, Koken; Muhammet, S Paksu; Haydar, A Tasdemir

    2015-01-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a life-threatening clinical entity characterized by weakness in the whole body muscles often accompanied by respiratory and bulbar paralysis. The most common cause is Gullian-Barre syndrome, but infections, spinal cord diseases, neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis, drugs and toxins, periodic hypokalemic paralysis, electrolyte disturbances, and botulism should be considered as in the differential diagnosis. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause common cold, upper and lower respiratory tract disease, but in the literature presentation with the lower respiratory tract infection and AFP has not been reported previously. In this study, pediatric case admitted with lower respiratory tract infection and AFP, who detected for HCoV 229E and OC43 co-infection by the real-time polymerase chain reaction, has been reported for the first time. PMID:26557177

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for laryngeal radionecrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, B.J.; Hudson, W.R.; Farmer, J.C. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Radionecrosis of the larynx is a debilitating disease associated with pain, dysphagia, respiratory obstruction, and, in some cases, the need for laryngectomy. Persistent poor wound healing can lead to death. A series of eight patients with advanced (grades III and IV, Chandler classification) radionecrosis of the larynx treated with adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy is presented. Signs and symptoms of radionecrosis were dramatically ameliorated in seven of eight patients, while one patient, despite subjective improvement, eventually required laryngectomy. There were no deaths. These results are compared to previous series on radionecrosis of the larynx in which hyperbaric oxygen was not used. This series indicates that hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a useful and effective adjunctive treatment modality in the management of laryngeal radionecrosis.

  20. [Diagnosis and therapy of laryngeal sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Jakse, R; Fleischmann, G

    1985-03-01

    The larynx may be involved in patients with systemic sarcoidosis or may be the first or only manifestation of the disease. The symptoms depend on the degree of involvement of the larynx, and include a sensation of lump in the throat, dysphagia, hoarseness, cough, stridor and dyspnea. The supraglottis is the most frequently affected area. There are pale pink, edematous, diffuse hypertrophy of the supraglottic structures or granular areas of the glottic and subglottic region. The diagnosis is made by the characteristic appearance of the larynx, histologic and laboratory findings and exclusion of other granulomatous diseases. Laryngeal sarcoidosis may cause life-threatening upper airway obstruction. Systemic corticosteroid therapy is the treatment of choice in most cases, but surgical excision or local steroid injections are useful in selected cases. PMID:3997572

  1. HUMAN LARYNGITIS CAUSED BY CLINOSTOMUM COMPLANATUM

    PubMed Central

    HARA, HIROTAKA; MIYAUCHI, YUJI; TAHARA, SHINSAKU; YAMASHITA, HIROSHI

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 64-year-old Japanese man visited our outpatient department complaining of an irritable sensation in the throat, occurring two days after eating raw freshwater fish (carp sashimi) at a Japanese-style inn. During laryngeal endoscopy, a slow-moving worm (fluke) was found attached to the surface of the right aryepiglottic fold. After inhalation of 4% lidocaine, the fluke was removed using endoscopic forceps. Patient’s throat symptoms immediately improved. The worm was microscopically identified as Clinostomum complanatum. C. complanatum is a digenetic trematode that usually infects fish-eating water birds. Clinostomum infections in humans are rare, and only 21 cases have been described in Japan and Korea. C. complanatum infection is known to occur after eating raw freshwater fish, which is a secondary intermediate host. In humans, the metacercariae are released into the stomach and migrate through the esophagus before lodging in the throat. Primary therapy involves endoscopic removal of the worm. PMID:25130004

  2. Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis--a rare cause of acute respiratory failure managed with nasal mask bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation.

    PubMed

    Lin, M C; Liaw, M Y; Huang, C C; Chuang, M L; Tsai, Y H

    1997-08-01

    A 68 yr old woman presented with acute respiratory failure. She was suspected of having a phrenic-diaphragmatic impairment, without evidence of an intrinsic lung disease or generalized neuromuscular disorder, after 3 weeks of prolonged mechanical ventilation. A series of studies, including fluoroscopy, phrenic nerve stimulation test and diaphragmatic electromyography, was performed before the diagnosis of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis (BDP) was confirmed. The patient was successfully weaned from the conventional mechanical ventilator, and was placed on nasal mask bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation. A high degree of clinical suspicion of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis should always be raised in patients suffering respiratory failure without definite predisposing factors. Weaning with noninvasive nasal mask ventilation should be tried first instead of direct tracheostomy. PMID:9272940

  3. An instance of sleep paralysis in Moby-Dick.

    PubMed

    Herman, J

    1997-07-01

    It is suggested that picturesque medical conditions can, at times, be encountered in literary works composed prior to their clinical delineation. This is true of sleep paralysis, of which the first scientific description was given by Silas Weir Mitchell in 1876. A quarter of a century earlier, Herman Melville, in Moby-Dick, gave a precise account of a case, including the predisposing factors and sexual connotations, all in accord with modern theory. The details of Ishmael's attack of sleep paralysis, the stresses leading up to it, and the associations causing him to recall the experience are given here. PMID:9322274

  4. [Respiratory stridency by larynx paralysis. Anusual beginning of miastenia].

    PubMed

    Padilla Parrado, M; Morales Puebla, J M; Díaz Sastre, M A; Caro García, M A; Cabeza Alvarez, C I; Velázquez Pérez, J M; Menéndez Loras, L M

    2006-01-01

    A case of severe miastenia beginning with dyspnea, secondary to a bilateral larynx paralysis in aduction is presented. During the evolution of the severe miastenia the affectation of the larynx musculature does not result infrequent, but however, after having realized a bibliographic revision, the infrequency resulting in this disease of the beginning through a bilateral larynx paralysis in aduction was verified. A wide exposition of the clinic case, methods of exploration to obtain the diagnosis of severe miastenia, and the different treatment options actually in use to control these disease, are realized. PMID:16881557

  5. Mumps, Cervical Zoster, and Facial Paralysis: Coincidence or Association?

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Kaori

    2014-01-01

    The association of mumps with peripheral facial paralysis has been suggested, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. An 8-year-old girl simultaneously developed left peripheral facial paralysis, ipsilateral cervical herpes zoster, and bilateral mumps sialadenitis. Elevated anti-mumps and anti-varicella zoster virus IgM antibodies in serological testing indicated recent infection of mumps and reactivation of VZV. Molecular studies have provided mounting evidence that the mumps virus dysregulates the host's immune system and enables the virus to proliferate in the infected host cells. This dysregulation of the immune system by mumps virus may have occurred in our patient, enabling the latent VZV infection to reactivate. PMID:24653846

  6. Epidemiology of laryngeal carcinoma in Germany, 1998-2011.

    PubMed

    Peller, Maximilian; Katalinic, Alexander; Wollenberg, Barbara; Teudt, Ingo U; Meyer, Jens-E

    2016-06-01

    Constituting 25-30 % of all head and neck cancer cases, laryngeal carcinoma is the most prevalent entity. Major risk factors of laryngeal cancer are smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. This study presents the recent developments in the incidence of laryngeal cancer from 1998 to 2011 in Germany. Laryngeal carcinoma was identified using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD10) from German population-based cancer registries. The incidence was provided by the Robert Koch Institute, and the mortality data were derived from German death statistics for further evaluation. Both descriptive and analytical analyses were conducted. From 1998 to 2011, a total of 14,847 laryngeal carcinoma cases were reported, in 13,195 men and 1652 women. Glottic carcinoma represented the main entity, constituting 69 % of male cases and 50 % of female cases. For men, a decline in incidence was observed starting in 2006. The incidence rate for women remained stable for the period of observation. The incidence of laryngeal cancer resembles the development of smoking behaviour in Germany. To maintain the positive trend of the male population and to reduce the incidence in women, it is crucial to continue and to improve the prevention of smoking campaigns in Germany. PMID:26879991

  7. [The laryngeal mask--an overview 1983-1993].

    PubMed

    Wedekind, L V; Krier, C

    1993-05-01

    The laryngeal mask which was developed by Brain in 1981 and described for the first time in 1983 has been employed worldwide a million times since 1989. Traditionally, all anaesthesiologists are oriented towards the techniques of conventional mask anaesthesia or endotracheal intubation. This new alternative, however, amazes by its easy handling and its concept: insertion of the mask directly onto the larynx without irritating it and sealing the pharynx at the same time thus allowing sufficient ventilation. On the one hand, the laryngeal mask does not even fail in desperate cases of "can't intubate-can't ventilate", on the other hand, the new "old" problem reappears to the anaesthesiologist used to endotracheal intubation: mask anaesthesia and aspiration--a discussion which needs to be continued in case of the laryngeal mask. This is also true for the use of the laryngeal mask in emergency medicine and resuscitation. However, cases of difficult intubation may be greatly facilitated. All users appreciate the reliability of the laryngeal mask in daily routine even though some fear that more difficult and safer techniques of anaesthesia might be forgotten. The indications of the laryngeal mask expand rapidly at the moment and the fast trend in its spread might continue if this method is not discredited by violations of its contraindications: full stomach, extreme obesity and low compliance of the lungs. PMID:8318597

  8. Laryngeal dislocation after ventral fusion of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Krauel, Jenny; Winkler, Dietrich; Münscher, Adrian; Tank, Sascha

    2013-05-01

    We report on a 70-year-old patient who underwent ventral fusion of the cervical spine (C3/4 and C4/5) for spinal canal stenosis performed by the neurosurgery department. The patient suffered an exceedingly rare complication of the surgery - laryngeal dislocation. Had the deformed laryngeal structures been overlooked and the patient extubated as usual after surgery, reintubation would have been impossible due to the associated swelling, which might have had disastrous consequences. Leftward dislocation of the larynx became apparent post-operatively, but prior to extubation. Extubation was therefore postponed and a subsequent computed tomography (CT) scan revealed entrapment of laryngeal structures within the osteosynthesis. A trial of repositioning using microlaryngoscopy performed by otolaryngology (ears, nose and throat) specialists failed, making open surgical revision necessary. At surgery, the entrapped laryngeal tissue was successfully mobilised. Laryngeal oedema developed despite prompt repositioning; thus, necessitating tracheotomy and long-term ventilation. Laryngeal dislocation may be an unusual cause of post-operative neck swelling after anterior cervical spine surgery and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if surgical site haematoma and other causes have been ruled out. Imaging studies including CT of the neck may be needed before extubation to confirm the suspicion and should be promptly obtained to facilitate specific treatment. PMID:23983289

  9. Association between human papillomavirus infection and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Kamal

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma using two methods: PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay (PCR/DEIA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detection of HPV in specimens of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate the presence of HPV with the epidemiological and clinicopathological features of recurrence and survival. HPV DNA was amplified from 93 paraffin-embedded laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissue specimens by the short PCR fragment (SPF 10) primer set using PCR/DNA method. HPV detection using monoclonal anti-human papilloma virus antibodies Clone K1H8 for IHC reaction was performed on 130 specimens. HPV was identified in 35.5% of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma using PCR/DEIA and 27.7% using IHC. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of HPV and the epidemiological and clinicopathological features and recurrence. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of HPV and overall survival nor disease specific survival. Statistically significant correlation between HPV detection using PCR/DEIA technique and IHC technique was found. The presence of HPV infection in 27.7% and 38.9% of the patients suggests a possible role in the etiology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The SPF(10) PCR/DEIA technique is the most accurate method for detection of HPV in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:20419817

  10. Organic phosphorus compounds--nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Barthold, Claudia L; Schier, Joshua G

    2005-10-01

    The organic phosphorous compounds (OPC) include both the military grade nerve agents and the organic phosphorous pesticides. The major mechanism of OPC toxicity is through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in neuronal synapses leading to excess acetylcholine and overstimulation of target organs. Signs and symptoms depend on the affinity of the OPC for muscarinic versus nicotinic receptors, and are likely to include both. Muscarinic symptoms may include diarrhea, urination, bronchospasm, bronchorrhea, emesis, and salivation. Nicotinic symptoms such as paralysis and fasciculations may also occur. Central nervous system toxicity may include seizures, altered mental status, and apnea, and require prompt intervention. Treatment includes early airway and ventilatory support as well as antidotal therapy with atropine, pralidoxime, and diazepam. Goals of therapy include prevention and rapid treatment of hypoxia and seizures, as these are linked to patient outcome. PMID:16168308

  11. Management of the eye in facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Mahsa; Abugo, Usiwoma; Grant, Michael; Merbs, Shannath

    2015-04-01

    Facial nerve palsy, whether the cause is idiopathic, or following such insults as surgery, trauma, or malignancy, places the health of the ocular surface at risk. Reduced or absent orbicularis oculi function results in lagophthalmos and exposure of the cornea, which is exacerbated by eyelid malposition. Management of the exposure keratopathy is paramount to prevent corneal breakdown, scarring, and permanent vision loss. Significant exposure keratopathy can be complicated by loss of corneal sensation, leading to a neurotrophic corneal ulcer. Initial management consists of artificial tear drops and ointment for corneal lubrication and strategies to address the lagophthalmos. Once the condition of the ocular surface has been stabilized, a variety of surgical treatment options are available depending on the severity and persistence of eyelid and ocular findings. The most common surgical options include temporary or permanent tarsorrhaphy for lagophthalmos, upper eyelid weight placement for retraction, and lateral canthoplasty with or without a middle lamellar spacer for lower eyelid retraction. External eyelid loading is a good option in patients who are poor surgical candidates or who have a known temporary palsy of short duration. The goal of all such procedures must be protection of the ocular surface through optimization of eyelid position. PMID:25958900

  12. Office-Based Intracordal Hyaluronate Injections Improve Quality of Life in Thoracic-Surgery-Related Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Tuan-Jen; Hsin, Li-Jen; Chung, Hsiu-Feng; Chiang, Hui-Chen; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Wong, Alice M.K.; Pei, Yu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thoracic-surgery-related unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) may cause severe morbidity and can cause profound functional impairment and psychosocial stress in patients with pre-existing thoracic diseases. In-office intracordal hyaluronate (HA) injections have recently been applied to improve voice and quality of life in patients with vocal incompetence, but their effect on thoracic-surgery-related UVFP remains inconclusive. We therefore conducted a prospective study to clarify the effect of early HA injection on voice and quality of life in patients with thoracic-surgery-related UVFP. Patients with UVFP within 3 months after thoracic surgery who received office-based HA injection were recruited. Quantitative laryngeal electromyography, videolaryngostroboscopy, voice-related life quality (voice outcome survey), laboratory voice analysis, and health-related quality of life (SF-36) were evaluated at baseline, and at 1 month postinjection. A total of 104 consecutive patients accepted office-based HA intracordal injection during the study period, 34 of whom were treated in relation to thoracic surgery and were eligible for inclusion. Voice-related life quality, voice laboratory analysis, and most generic quality of life domains were significantly improved at 1 month after in-office HA intracordal injection. No HA-related complications were reported. Single office-based HA intracordal injection is a safe and effective treatment for thoracic-surgery-related UVFP, resulting in immediate improvements in patient quality of life, voice quality, and swallowing ability. PMID:26448034

  13. [Cryptogenetic facial paralysis. Studies on the disease course].

    PubMed

    Hagenah, R; Müller-Jensen, A; Limmer, P

    1977-02-10

    A report on 22 patients with idiopathic facial paralysis is given. A systematic interdisplinary examination in short intervals was carried out. The efficiency of the more time consuming and technically more difficult methods was checked. At the same time it was investigated whether as a result of these findings new aspects of early therapy and prognosis could be expected. PMID:838454

  14. Acute Flaccid Paralysis: The New, The Old, and The Preventable

    PubMed Central

    Macesic, N.; Hall, V.; Mahony, A.; Hueston, L.; Ng, G.; Macdonell, R.; Hughes, A.; Fitt, G.; Grayson, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) has a changing epidemiology with ongoing polio outbreaks and emerging causes such as nonpolio enteroviruses and West Nile virus (WNV). We report a case of AFP from the Horn of Africa that was initially classified as probable polio but subsequently found to be due to WNV. PMID:26788545

  15. Serotoninergic agents in the treatment of isolated sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Snyder, S; Hams, G

    1982-09-01

    The authors report three cases of isolated sleep paralysis controlled by L-tryptophan with or without amitriptyline. Both agents increase CNS 5-hydroxytryptamine availability, whereas imipramine, which was ineffective in the one case in which it was tried, affects predominantly norepinephrine reuptake. PMID:7114320

  16. Prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis in black subjects.

    PubMed

    Bell, C C; Shakoor, B; Thompson, B; Dew, D; Hughley, E; Mays, R; Shorter-Gooden, K

    1984-05-01

    Sleep paralysis is a state of consciousness experienced while waking from sleep or falling asleep. It is characterized by an experience of being unable to move for several seconds or minutes. This study represents the first survey to measure the incidence of this disorder in a black population of healthy subjects and psychiatric patients. PMID:6737506

  17. Prevalence of Isolated Sleep Paralysis in Black Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.; Shakoor, Bambade; Thompson, Belinda; Dew, Donald; Hughley, Eugene; Mays, Raymond; Shorter-Gooden, Kumea

    1984-01-01

    Sleep paralysis is a state of consciousness experienced while waking from sleep or falling asleep. It is characterized by an experience of being unable to move for several seconds or minutes. This study represents the first survey to measure the incidence of this disorder in a black population of healthy subjects and psychiatric patients. PMID:6737506

  18. Acute Flaccid Paralysis Associated with Novel Enterovirus C105

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Liana M.; Poulter, Melinda D.; Brenton, J. Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis among children in the United States during summer 2014 was tentatively associated with enterovirus D68 infection. This syndrome in a child in fall 2014 was associated with enterovirus C105 infection. The presence of this virus strain in North America may pose a diagnostic challenge. PMID:26401731

  19. A rare case of paralysis in an endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Bulent; Kazancioglu, Rumeyza

    2015-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis mostly presents with tachycardia, tremor, weight loss and other hypermetabolism signs. However, there are other unusual signs of thyrotoxicosis such as paralysis. This unusual clinical presentation may postpone prompt diagnosis and treatment. In this case report, we present a 27-years-old woman, who presented with quadriparesis at the emergency department. PMID:26101516

  20. Marek's disease virus induced transient paralysis--a closer look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s Disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system...

  1. Superior oblique paralysis. A review of 270 cases.

    PubMed

    von Noorden, G K; Murray, E; Wong, S Y

    1986-12-01

    In 270 patients with superior oblique paralyses treated between 1973 and 1984, congenital and traumatic causes were most frequent, and one fourth of all traumatic cases had bilateral involvement. Among the diagnostic features distinguishing bilateral from unilateral paralysis were a right hypertropia in left gaze and left hypertropia in right gaze, and a positive Bielschowsky test on tilting the head toward either shoulder. However, absence of either sign did not exclude bilateral paralysis. Large excyclotropia and a V-pattern esotropia are suggestive of but not diagnostic for bilateral paralysis. Complaints about cyclotropia are limited to acquired paralysis. Cyclotropia in the normal eye, head tilt toward the involved side, or absence of any abnormal head posture limits the diagnostic value of these associated signs. Overshoot of the contralateral superior oblique occurred in 19% of the patients and is thought to be caused by contracture of the ipsilateral superior rectus muscle. Surgical treatment in 112 patients resulted in an 85% cure rate with an average of 1.45 operations per patient. PMID:3789976

  2. Incidence of laryngeal cancer and exposure to acid mists.

    PubMed Central

    Steenland, K; Schnorr, T; Beaumont, J; Halperin, W; Bloom, T

    1988-01-01

    To determine the relation between exposure to acid mist and laryngeal cancer, the smoking habits, drinking habits, and incidence of laryngeal cancer of 879 male steelworkers exposed to acid mists during pickling operations was ascertained. Sulphuric acid mist was the primary exposure for most men in this cohort. These men had all worked in a pickling operation for a minimum of six months before 1965, with an average duration of exposure of 9.5 years. Exposures to sulphuric acid in the 1970s averaged about 0.2 mg/m3, and earlier exposures were probably similar. Interviews were conducted with all cohort members or their next of kin in 1986 and medical records of decedents were reviewed. Nine workers were identified who had been diagnosed as having laryngeal cancer, using a conservative case definition that required medical record confirmation for any case among decedents and confirmation by a physician for any case among live individuals. Using data from national surveys of cancer incidence as referent rates, 3.44 laryngeal cancers would have been expected. Excess smoking by the exposed cohort compared with the United States population resulted in an upward adjustment of the expected number of cases of laryngeal cancer to 3.92. The standardised incidence rate ratio for laryngeal cancer was 2.30 (9/3.92), with a one sided p value of 0.01 (assuming a Poisson distribution). The finding of excess laryngeal cancer in this cohort is consistent with four other studies published since 1981. PMID:3203082

  3. Laryngeal Lymphoma: The High and Low Grades of Rare Lymphoma Involvement Sites

    PubMed Central

    Degaetano, James; Farrugia, Eric; Magri, Claude; Refalo, Nicholas; Camilleri, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The larynx is an extremely rare site of involvement by lymphomatous disease. We present two cases of isolated laryngeal high-grade and another low-grade lymphoma, together with a literature review of laryngeal lymphoma management. PMID:25140179

  4. [Occupational risks for laryngeal cancer: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Sartor, Sergio Guerra; Eluf-Neto, José; Travier, Noemie; Wünsch Filho, Victor; Arcuri, Arline Sydneia Abel; Kowalski, Luís Paulo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    The most solidly established risk factors for laryngeal cancer are tobacco and alcohol. As for occupational factors, the only established carcinogen is exposure to strong inorganic acid mists. However, asbestos, pesticides, paints, gasoline, diesel engine emissions, dusts, and other factors have been reported in the literature as occupational agents that increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to investigate occupational risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Detailed data on smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational history were collected for 122 laryngeal cancers and 187 controls matched by frequency (according to sex and age). Laryngeal cancer was associated with exposure to respirable free crystalline silica (OR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.00-3.36), soot (from coal, coke, fuel oil, or wood) (odds ratio - OR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI: 1.03-3.03), fumes (OR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.14-5.67), and live animals (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.02-3.19). PMID:17546338

  5. Laryngeal Synovial Sarcoma: A Rare Clinical Entity

    PubMed Central

    Bova, Ron; Edwards, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Synovial sarcomas (SS) are aggressive malignant soft tissue tumours that are thought to arise from pluripotent mesenchymal cells. Clinical Report. A 20-year-old male presented with an acute onset of respiratory stridor. Computer tomography scanning confirmed a mass arising from the left supraglottic larynx and an emergency tracheostomy was performed. A diagnosis of biphasic synovial sarcoma was formed. A total laryngectomy and left hemithyroidectomy was performed in conjunction with a left modified radical neck dissection. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy followed by a course of radiotherapy and remains alive and disease free at 18 months after treatment. Discussion. Prognosis for patients with SS is related to primary tumour extent, grade, and size. The presence of the diagnostic translocation, t(X;18), is being targeted and hopefully will lead to the development of new therapeutics (Guadagnolo et al., 2007). Conclusion. Laryngeal SS remains a rare and poorly understood entity. A multidisciplinary approach to treatment is essential and long-term followup is imperative. PMID:23984145

  6. Laryngeal transplantation in minipigs: early immunological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Birchall, M A; Ayling, S M; Harley, R; Murison, P J; Burt, R; Mitchard, L; Jones, A; Macchiarini, P; Stokes, C R; Bailey, M

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent tissue-engineering advances, there is no effective way of replacing all the functions of the larynx in those requiring laryngectomy. A recent clinical transplant was a success. Using quantitative immunofluorescence targeted at immunologically relevant molecules, we have studied the early (48 h and 1 week) immunological responses within larynxes transplantated between seven pairs of National Institutes of Health (NIH) minipigs fully homozygous at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus. There were only small changes in expression of some molecules (relative to interindividual variation) and these were clearest in samples from the subglottic region, where the areas of co-expression of CD25+CD45RC-CD8- and of CD163+CD172+MHC-II- increased at 1 week after transplant. In one case, infiltration by recipient T cells was analysed by T cell receptor (TCR) Vβ spectratype analysis; this suggested that changes in the T cell repertoire occur in the donor subglottis mucosal tissues from day 0 to day 7, but that the donor and recipient mucosal Vβ repertoires remain distinct. The observed lack of strong immunological responses to the trauma of surgery and ischaemia provides encouraging evidence to support clinical trials of laryngeal transplantation, and a basis on which to interpret future studies involving mismatches. PMID:22288599

  7. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  8. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near ... surface of the body where it crosses the elbow, so prolonged pressure on the elbow or entrapment ...

  9. Assessing nerves in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Garbino, José Antonio; Heise, Carlos Otto; Marques, Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy neuropathy is dependent on the patient's immune response and expresses itself as a focal or multifocal neuropathy with asymmetric involvement. Leprosy neuropathy evolves chronically but recurrently develops periods of exacerbation during type 1 or type 2 reactions, leading to acute neuropathy. Nerve enlargement leading to entrapment syndromes is also a common manifestation. Pain may be either of inflammatory or neuropathic origin. A thorough and detailed evaluation is mandatory for adequate patient follow-up, including nerve palpation, pain assessment, graded sensory mapping, muscle power testing, and autonomic evaluation. Nerve conduction studies are a sensitive tool for nerve dysfunction, including new lesions during reaction periods or development of entrapment syndromes. Nerve ultrasonography is also a very promising method for nerve evaluation in leprosy. The authors propose a composite nerve clinical score for nerve function assessment that can be useful for longitudinal evaluation. PMID:26773623

  10. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  11. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... affect nerves. Medical conditions such as diabetes and kidney disease can damage nerves. In these cases, treatment is directed at the medical condition. Physical therapy exercises may help some peoplemaintain muscle strength. Orthopedic ...

  12. Tibial nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... a loss of movement or sensation in the foot from damage to the tibial nerve. ... Tibial nerve dysfunction is an unusual form of peripheral ... the calf and foot muscles. A problem in function with a single ...

  13. A comparison of fiberoptical guided tracheal intubation via laryngeal mask and laryngeal tube

    PubMed Central

    Metterlein, Thomas; Plank, Christoph; Sinner, Barbara; Bundscherer, Anika; Graf, Bernhard M.; Roth, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fiberoptical assisted intubation via a placed laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has been described as save and easy procedure to manage a difficult airway. The laryngeal tube (LT) is a promising alternative to the LMA as supraglottic airway device. Fiberoptical assisted intubation via LT is possible, however considered more difficult. The aim of this study was to compare the fiberoptical assisted intubation via LT and LMA. Materials and Methods: A total of 22 anesthesiologists with different levels of experience participated in the study performed on an adult airway model. Primarily the supraglottic device was placed and correct position was confirmed by successful ventilation. A 5 mm internal diameter tracheal tube was loaded onto a flexible 3.6 mm fiberscope and the so prepared device was inserted into the proximal lumen of the LMA or the LT. The glottis was passed under visual control and the tube advanced into the trachea. After removal of the fiberscope, ventilation was examined clinically by inspection. Success rates, procedure time and observed complications of LMA versus LT were compared (U-test; P < 0.05). Results: Placement of the endotracheal tube was successful in all attempts using both the LMA and LT. There was no difference in the time needed for the placement procedure (33 [26-38] s LMA; 35 [32-38] s LT). Only minor technical complications were observed in both groups. Conclusion: A fiberoptical assisted intubation via LT can be considered as a relevant alternative in advanced airway management. PMID:25558197

  14. Laryngeal function reconstruction with hyoid osteomuscular flap in partial laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    WEI, BOJUN; SHEN, HONG; XIE, HONG

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome of using a hyoid osteomuscular flap to repair the laryngeal defect after extended vertical partial laryngectomy. A total of 26 glottic cancer patients underwent reconstruction with osteomuscular hyoid flaps following tumor resections. Ipsilateral arytenoid cartilage was resected in all cases, and the upper region of the cricoid cartilage was resected in 11 cases. Selective ipsilateral level II, III and IV neck dissections were performed in node (N)-positive patients and ipsilateral level II, and III neck dissections in N0 patients. The bone grafts were then fixed to the cricoid and contralateral thyroid cartilages. Invasion of the thyroid cartilage endochorium was present in 12 cases and lymph nodes metastases was present in 11 cases. The extubation rate of the tracheostomy tube was 100%. The glottides of all patients were almost symmetrical. Patients were followed up for 2–7 years. One patient developed local recurrence, ipsilateral regional recurrence, contralateral regional recurrence and lung metastasis, respectively. The disease-free survival rates at 3 and 5 years were 100% (20/20) and 79% (11/14), respectively. Overall, laryngeal function recovered well upon hyoid osteomuscular flap reconstruction following extended vertical partial laryngectomy, with a high extubation rate and good sound quality. PMID:26622546

  15. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Laryngeal Muscles in Normal Horses and Horses With Subclinical Recurrent Laryngeal Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hannah S.; Steel, Catherine M.; Derksen, Frederik J.; Robinson, N. Edward; Hoh, Joseph F.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:787–800, 2009) PMID:19398607

  16. Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Hannah S; Steel, Catherine M; Derksen, Frederik J; Robinson, N Edward; Hoh, Joseph F Y

    2009-08-01

    We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers. PMID:19398607

  17. Optic Nerve Pit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  18. Effects of Odontobuthus Doriae Scorpion Venom on Mouse Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Vatanpour, Hossein; Jalali, Amir; G. Rowan, Edward; Rahim, Fakher

    2013-01-01

    Temporary paralysis is a rare manifestation of envenoming following the yellow Iranian scorpion, Odontobuthus doriae (O. doriae). Thus, to elucidate the underlying mechanism, we investigated the neurotoxic effect of venom in the sciatic nerve, the possible mechanism in a mice model. The neurotoxicity and temperature effects in the venom-induced neurotoxicity were examined using the mouse sciatic nerve and mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm (MHD) preparations. O .doriae venom (1 ?g/mL) caused changes in the perineural waveform associated with nerve terminal action potentials. Venom affected on both negative and positive components of the waveform which is known as a compound action potential. The timeresponse relationship of venom-induced depression of resting membrane potential (RMP) was significant (p < 0.05). No significant difference in augmentation was seen in room temperature in comparison with 37C. In conclusion, although there was no evidence that the venom had any specific curarizing action at the neuromuscular junction, the results suggest that the venom exerts its neuromuscular transmission on the sciatic nerve through potassium and sodium ionic-currents. Furthermore, the influence of temperature on neurotoxicity was ineffective on blockade of the neuromuscular transmission in-vitro. PMID:24250682

  19. Metastasis of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Bilateral Thigh Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Zarah; Veytsman, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Importance. Laryngeal cancer infrequently results in distant metastases, but metastasis to skeletal muscle is extremely uncommon. Observations. A 55-year-old male presenting with progressive dyspnea and hoarseness was found to have Stage IVA T4aN2cM0 laryngeal cancer and eventually underwent total laryngectomy. Before the patient could be started on adjuvant chemoradiation, the patient developed masses on both thighs. Biopsy revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma consistent with the primary laryngeal cancer. He was offered palliative chemotherapy; however, he developed new soft tissue masses to the left of his stoma and in the prevertebral area one week later. He also had new cervical and supraclavicular nodes and a pathological compression fracture of L3. Patient died within 4 months of diagnosis. Conclusions. Distant metastasis such as skeletal metastasis portends a poor prognosis. Further studies are required to determine the best course of treatment in these patients. PMID:25580324

  20. Laryngeal mask airway for airway control during percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Pratt, T; Bromilow, J

    2011-11-01

    Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy is a common bedside procedure in critical care for patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. The traditional technique requires withdrawal of the endotracheal tube to a proximal position to facilitate tracheostomy insertion, but this carries the risk of inadvertent extubation and does not prevent cuff rupture. Use of a supraglottic airway such as the laryngeal mask airway may avoid these risks and could provide a safe alternative to the endotracheal tube. We present an appraisal of the literature to date. We found reasonable evidence to show improved ventilation and bronchoscopic visualisation with the laryngeal mask airway, but this has not been translated into improved outcome. There is currently insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about the safety of the laryngeal mask airway during percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. PMID:22165351

  1. Laryngeal and respiratory activity during vocalization in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    West, R; Larson, C R

    1993-03-01

    The present study describes the laryngeal and respiratory muscle activity associated with vocalizations in macaque monkeys. During the bark vocalization, a short, aperiodic call, the cricothyroid, thyroarytenoid, rectus abdominis, and intercostals were active while the posterior cricoarytenoid and diaphragm were quiet. During the coo vocalization, a longer, clear call, the cricothyroid, thyroarytenoid, intercostals, rectus abdominis, and diaphragm were active. In one monkey, the posterior cricoarytenoid was also active during the call, while in another monkey it was not. Laryngeal muscle activity was correlated with the amplitude and duration of the coo call. Results suggest that the amplitude and duration differences between calls are determined primarily by laryngeal modification of the airflow, and that the differences in posterior cricoarytenoid activity may be due to differences in voice intensity. PMID:8353620

  2. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ismail; Erkul, E; Berber, U; Kucukodaci, Z; Narli, G; Haholu, A; Demirel, D

    2016-03-01

    A definitive relationship between Helicobacter pylori (HP) and upper respiratory tract disorders has not been established. In this case-control study, we investigated the relationship between HP and laryngeal carcinoma by real-time PCR method in Turkey. 74 subjects were enrolled from patients who were admitted to the Otolaryngology Department. Formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded tissue samples with laryngeal cancer were used and all samples were evaluated by real-time PCR method. Our study population included 72 males and 2 females with a mean age range of 62.7years. Helicobacter Pylori was detected in only one case. The positive case was also investigated with histopathologic evaluation and HP immunohistochemistry. However, we could not detect HP in this case with both methods. This study revealed that HP might not contribute to the pathogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma. A definitive relationship between HP and upper respiratory tract disorders has not been established. PMID:25721196

  3. Occupational laryngitis caused by formaldehyde: a case report.

    PubMed

    Roto, P; Sala, E

    1996-03-01

    Formaldehyde is commonly accepted to be an allergen and irritant. However, specifically diagnosed occupational respiratory diseases caused by formaldehyde are relatively rare. Occupational laryngitis was diagnosed in a 47-year-old dairy foreman. He had been exposed for 9 years to formaldehyde emitted from a milk-packing machine situated underneath his office. His exposure level varied considerably. Under normal process conditions, the measured formaldehyde level was 0.03 mg/m3. The patient was examined by different specialists over 1 1/2 years. It was concluded that he had psychogenic dysphonia. However, a specific laryngeal provocation test with formaldehyde carried out at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health was positive. His laryngitis was so serious that he was pensioned. During the 3 years of follow-up his condition gradually worsened. He now reacts especially to tobacco smoke and other air impurities known to contain formaldehyde. PMID:8833780

  4. Factors Associated with Clinical and Topographical Features of Laryngeal Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Reis, João Gustavo Corrêa; Reis, Clarissa Souza Mota; da Costa, Daniel César Silva; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Rolla, Valéria Cavalcanti; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Laryngeal tuberculosis (LTB) is the most frequent granulomatous disease of the larynx and represents less than 2% of extrapulmonary TB cases. There are no pathognomonic clinical and endoscopic features of this disease and studies on LTB that can assist in its diagnostic characterization are lacking. Objective To identify factors associated with clinical and topographical features of LTB. Method a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from the medical records of 36 patients with confirmed LTB diagnosis. Results Dysphonia and cough were the main symptoms presented by patients and the true vocal folds the most frequently affected site. The average of the duration of the disease evolution was significantly higher in patients with dysphonia than in patients without this symptom. We observed association between dysphonia and true vocal fold lesions and between odynophagia and lesions in the epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds. Odynophagia was more frequent in individuals with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites. Weight loss equal or above 10% of the body weight was more frequent in patients with odynophagia as first symptom and in patients with ulcerated lesion. Dyspnea on exertion was more frequent in individuals with more extensive laryngeal lesions. The percentage of smokers with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites was greater than that found in non-smokers. Laryngeal tissue fragment bacilloscopy and culture examinations were less positive than sputum ones. Conclusions Smoking appears to be associated with the development of more extensive LTB lesions, and LTB with dyspnea on exertion and odynophagia with consequent impairment of nutritional status. We emphasize the need for histopathologic confirmation, once positive sputum bacteriological examinations seem not to necessarily reflect laryngeal involvement. PMID:27077734

  5. Comparison of i–gel™ and laryngeal mask airway in anesthetized paralyzed patients

    PubMed Central

    Reza Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad; Nouraei, Navid; Razavi, Seyed Sadjad; Zaker, Ebrahim; Jafari, Alireza; Eftekhari, Parivash; Radmand, Golnar; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Radpay, Badiozzaman

    2014-01-01

    Background: The i-gel™ is a new device introduced recently. It differs from other supraglottic airway devices. It has a non-inflatable, gel-made cuff. Previously used devices, have some disadvantages which are claimed to be absent in i-gel™. In this study we aimed to compare the performance of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-Classic™ and i-gel™ during anesthesia in paralyzed patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 anaesthetized patients with paralysis were enrolled in a single-blind, randomized control trial to be intubated with one of the devices. We compared the device insertion parameters, some ventilatory parameters, and adverse effects after device insertion. Results: Vital signs were not significantly different between groups. Regarding duration of insertion attempts, the difference between groups was significant (P < 0.05); while the number of insertion attempts was insignificant (P = 0.265). There was no significant difference between both groups regarding postoperative complications (cough, sore throat, and blood on the cuff) (P > 0.05). Airway leak was assessed in both groups and data showed no significant difference (P = 0.662). Additionally, end-tidal CO2 change regarding the baseline value was significantly different after 10 and 15 min of anesthesia (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Successful insertion time was shorter significantly for i-gel™. As i-gel™ has easy application, it is advantageous to be used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation by non-anesthetists in which time is very important. We concluded that i-gel™ can be an alternative to LMA-Classic™ for controlled ventilation during anesthesia as it is easier to be placed. PMID:25625059

  6. Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons' Dendritic Remodeling and Increased Microglial Density in Primary Motor Cortex in a Murine Model of Facial Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Urrego, Diana; Troncoso, Julieta; Múnera, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed at characterizing structural changes in primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons and their relationship with microglial density induced by facial nerve lesion using a murine facial paralysis model. Adult transgenic mice, expressing green fluorescent protein in microglia and yellow fluorescent protein in projecting neurons, were submitted to either unilateral section of the facial nerve or sham surgery. Injured animals were sacrificed either 1 or 3weeks after surgery. Two-photon excitation microscopy was then used for evaluating both layer 5 pyramidal neurons and microglia in vibrissal primary motor cortex (vM1). It was found that facial nerve lesion induced long-lasting changes in the dendritic morphology of vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons and in their surrounding microglia. Dendritic arborization of the pyramidal cells underwent overall shrinkage. Apical dendrites suffered transient shortening while basal dendrites displayed sustained shortening. Moreover, dendrites suffered transient spine pruning. Significantly higher microglial cell density was found surrounding vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons after facial nerve lesion with morphological bias towards the activated phenotype. These results suggest that facial nerve lesions elicit active dendrite remodeling due to pyramidal neuron and microglia interaction, which could be the pathophysiological underpinning of some neuropathic motor sequelae in humans. PMID:26064916

  7. Fraser syndrome with laryngeal webs: Report of two cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Farzad; Ahmadi, Aslan; Zobairy, Hosna; Bakhti, Sepideh; Hirbod, Hengameh; Safdarian, Mahdi

    2015-11-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly and laryngeal atresia. Although laryngeal webs occur uncommonly, they are the main cause of death in the first week of life in these patients. In this paper, we report two cases of Fraser syndrome with laryngeal webs. One of them was a twelve-year-old girl, primarily diagnosed with a supraglottic laryngeal web. In the course of treatment, a second web was also identified at the level of vocal cords, which is to our knowledge the first case of Fraser syndrome with two laryngeal webs in different levels. PMID:26384833

  8. Recurrent Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis Unmasks Sjogren Syndrome without Sicca Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Min; Huang, Neng-Chyan; Wann, Shue-Ren; Chang, Yun-Te; Wang, Jyh-Seng

    2015-04-01

    Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis (HPP) may occur as a rare complication of Sjogren Syndrome (SS) and Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA). A 64-year male patient came with HPP, and was later diagnosed with distal RTA. The patient, who had no xerostomia and xerophthalmia, was diagnosed with primary SS from serologic and histologic findings of minor salivary gland biopsy. The patient recovered after potassium replacement therapy. Renal biopsy was also performed and revealed evidence of tubulointerstitial nephritis. Corticosteroids were administered and there was no recurrence of HPP during a 4-year follow-up period. The case highlights the significance of acute hypokalemia management in emergency department as it can unmask SS even if the SS is not associated with sicca symptoms. Hypokalemic paralysis associated with normal anion gap metabolic acidosis should prompt toward the diagnosis of SS. PMID:25933458

  9. Isolated sleep paralysis, vivid dreams and geomagnetic influences: II.

    PubMed

    Conesa, J

    1997-10-01

    This report describes a test of the hypothesis that significant changes in the ambient geomagnetic field are associated with altered normal nighttime dream patterns. Specifically, it was predicted that there would be a greater incidence of isolated sleep, paralysis or vivid dreams with abrupt rises and falls of geomagnetic activity. The author's (JC) and a second subject's (KC) daily reports of dream-recall were analyzed in the context of daily fluctuations of geomagnetic activity (K indices). Two analyses of variance indicated (i) significantly higher geomagnetic activity three days before a recorded isolated sleep paralysis event and (ii) significantly lower geomagnetic activity three days before an unusually vivid dream took place. Conversely, geomagnetic activity did not fluctuate significantly for randomly selected days. Testing a large sample over time is required for confirmation and extension of this work. PMID:9347546

  10. The pattern of isolated sleep paralysis among Nigerian nursing students.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, J U; Adelekan, M F; Odejide, A O; Ikuesan, B A

    1992-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of the pattern of isolated sleep paralysis among the entire population of nursing students at the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Abeokuta, Nigeria (consisting of 58 males and 37 females), 44% admitted having experienced this phenomenon. The findings largely supported the results of a similar study of Nigerian medical students, except that there was a slight male preponderance among those who had the experience. Visual hallucination was the most common perceptual problem associated with the episodes, and all the affected subjects were most distressed by the experience. Whereas sleep paralysis in this country has not been found to be significantly associated with psychosocial distress or differences in personality profile, the popular view in Africa and the United States is that it is caused by witchcraft. PMID:1602503

  11. High prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis: kanashibari phenomenon in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Miyasita, A; Inugami, M; Ishihara, K

    1987-06-01

    In Japan, a set of experiences called kanashibari is considered identical with isolated sleep paralysis. We investigated this phenomenon by means of a questionnaire administered to 635 college students (390 men and 245 women). Of all subjects, about 40% had experienced at least one episode of kanashibari [subjects of K(+)]. Therefore, isolated sleep paralysis is apparently a more common phenomenon than is usually appreciated. About half of the subjects of K(+) reported that they had been under "physical or psychological stress" or in a "disturbed sleep and wakefulness cycle" immediately before the episode. Many subjects of K(+) experienced the first episode in adolescence. In the distribution of age of first attack, the peak occurred at an earlier age in women subjects than in men subjects. These findings suggest that two factors influence the occurrence of the phenomenon. One is exogenous physical or psychological load and the other is endogenous biological development. PMID:3629091

  12. Mounier-Kuhn syndrome and bilateral vocal cord paralysis.

    PubMed

    Dincer, H Erhan; Holweger, Joshua D

    2012-07-01

    Mounier-Kuhn syndrome is a rare disorder of unknown cause that is characterized by atrophy of the elastic and smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree leading to tracheobronchomegaly and bronchiectasis. The syndrome is likely underdiagnosed, because the patients usually present with common respiratory symptoms such as productive cough and usually labeled as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Diagnosis is established on the basis of radiologic findings. Association with bilateral vocal cord paralysis has not been described. Treatment is mainly supportive. Symptomatic patients may require endobronchial stenting if airway collapse is encountered. Here, we described a patient who presented with hoarseness and pneumonia. Further studies confirmed the diagnosis of Mounier-Kuhn syndrome with bilateral vocal cord paralysis. PMID:23207474

  13. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis episode during halothane anesthesia in a horse.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J E; Pablo, L; Hubbell, J A

    1996-06-01

    A 7-month-old Quarter Horse filly was admitted for surgical repair of a right olecranon fracture. Anesthesia was achieved with xylazine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, ketamine hydrochloride, and halothane. Two and a half hours after induction of anesthesia, myotonia, muscle fasciculations, and sweating, concurrent with high serum potassium concentration and associated electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, were observed. Treatment included intermittent positive-pressure ventilation, changing intravenous administration of fluids from lactated Ringer's solution to 0.9% NaCl solution, and administration of calcium gluconate, glycopyrrolate, dopamine, and sodium bicarbonate. Clinical signs resolved with the return of serum potassium concentrations to the reference range. The horse was confirmed to be heterozygous for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis by DNA testing. PMID:8675475

  14. Bilateral Facial Paralysis Case Presentation and Discussion of Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vishal; Deshmukh, Anagha; Gollomp, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare condition and therefore represents a diagnostic challenge. We report the case of a 34-year-old healthy woman with sequential bilateral facial paralysis as a sole manifestation of sarcoidosis. She initially presented with an isolated left sided Bell's palsy without any symptoms to suggest alternative diagnoses. Within a month there was progression to peripheral facial paresis on the contra lateral side, prompting a diagnosis of Lyme disease. Her physical examination and chest x-ray did not reveal any clinical evidence of sarcoidosis. After failing to respond to an empiric trial of intravenous ceftriaxone for a presumptive diagnosis of Lyme disease, computed tomography scan of the chest was ordered which demonstrated bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. Bronchoscopic biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. The patient then made a complete recovery on steroid therapy. We discuss the differential diagnosis of facial diplegia and focus on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of neurosarcoidosis. PMID:16808763

  15. Reversible facial nerve palsy due to parotid abscess☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Hajiioannou, Jiannis K.; Florou, Vasiliki; Kousoulis, Panagiotis; Kretzas, Dimitris; Moshovakis, Eustratios

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A facial nerve palsy combined with parotid enlargement usually suggests malignancy. It is highly unusual for facial nerve palsy to result from a benign situation such as inflammation or infection of the gland. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a rare case of facial nerve palsy due to parotid abscess. DISCUSSION A literature search retrieved thirty-two cases of facial nerve palsy due to benign parotid lesions since 1969. Only nine reported the presence of a parotid abscess. The etiology of paralysis remains unknown although certain factors such as the virulence of the offending organisms or perineuritis, have been suggested. Best diagnostic evaluation and management are discussed. CONCLUSION In clinical practice, exclusion of malignancy is mandatory, as it represents the most common cause of facial palsy in the presence of a parotid lump. PMID:24096025

  16. Acquisition of detailed laryngeal flow measurements in geometrically realistic models

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Jayrin; Thomson, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of laryngeal flow velocity fields is important to understanding vocal fold vibration and voice production. One common method for acquiring flow field data is particle image velocimetry (PIV). However, because using PIV with models that have curved surfaces is problematic due to optical distortion, experimental investigations of laryngeal airflow are typically performed using models with idealized geometries. In this paper a method for acquiring PIV data using models with realistic geometries is presented. Sample subglottal, intraglottal, and supraglottal PIV data are shown. Capabilities and limitations are discussed, and suggestions for future implementation are provided. PMID:21877775

  17. Experimental and numerical study of patterns in laryngeal flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisari, N. E.; Artana, G.; Sciamarella, D.

    2009-05-01

    Unsteady airflow is investigated in a channel with a geometry approximating that of the human larynx. The laryngeal flow is simulated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible two-dimensional viscous fluid, and visualized using the Schlieren technique in an experimental setup consisting of a rigid replica of the larynx, with and without ventricular bands. This study shows the spontaneous formation of vortex couples in several regions of the laryngeal profile, and at different stages of the evolution of the starting glottal jet.

  18. Laryngeal carcinoma presenting as polymyositis: A paraneoplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Ritesh; Rathaur, Bhanu Pratap; Chaudhari, Tejendra Sukdeo; Shukla, Rakesh; Malhotra, Kiran Preet

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal carcinoma is rarely associated with paraneoplastic syndrome. Inflammatory myopathy presenting as paraneoplastic event is commonly associated with carcinomas of ovary, lung, pancreas, stomach, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of elderly male, who presented with proximal muscle weakness and found to be associated with laryngeal carcinoma. Diagnosis of polymyositis (PM) was confirmed based on clinical features, laboratory test, and muscle biopsy. Exclusion of other commonly associated malignancies was done. This patient improved gradually after 6 months of immunosuppressive therapy and management of underlying cancer. PMID:27011653

  19. Critical analysis of robotic surgery for laryngeal tumours.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Francisco; Menoyo, Alicia; Abrante, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) with the Da Vinci robot has been used for the removal of laryngeal cancers with the objective to improve functional and aesthetic outcomes without worsening survival. The advantages of TORS are described in this article. However, its disadvantages, mainly high cost amongst others, do not make robotic surgery the current treatment of choice for laryngeal tumours; transoral laser surgery is superior in most cases. Major technical improvements are expected. Smaller, more ergonomic, new-generation robots better adapted to the head and neck will probably be available in the near future. PMID:24626048

  20. Laryngeal hemiplegia in draft horses. A review of 27 cases.

    PubMed

    Bohanon, T C; Beard, W L; Robertson, J T

    1990-01-01

    Case records of 27 draft horses with laryngeal hemiplegia were reviewed. Twenty-one horses were treated by ventriculectomy with or without prosthetic laryngoplasty, and 17 owners were contacted to determine the results. Fifteen horses improved after surgery and were able to perform to the owners' expectations. Performance improved significantly and hospitalization was shorter after ventriculectomy alone. Results of this study indicate that the clinical signs of exercise intolerance and excessive inspiratory noise associated with left laryngeal hemiplegia in draft horses can be treated successfully by ventriculectomy without prosthetic laryngoplasty. PMID:2264284

  1. Determination of laryngeal muscle tension in professional singers.

    PubMed

    Chernobelsky, S I

    1996-01-01

    In order to study internal laryngeal muscular tension, 60 opera singers were examined. We determined the EGG quasi-open quotient (QOQ) by means of a crescendo singing task. The region between low (QOQ in 'piano') and high vocal intensity (QOQ in 'forte') is called volume of the QOQ. It was revealed that the volume of the QOQ is a reliable indication of the laryngeal muscular tension of the singers. This method reveals the early stages of muscular tension disturbances before objective changes in the larynx are present. PMID:8823985

  2. Reflux Laryngitis: Correlation between the Symptoms Findings and Indirect Laryngoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Carlos Eduardo Dilen da; Niedermeier, Bruno Taccola; Portinho, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The indirect laryngoscopy has an important role in the characterization of reflux laryngitis. Although many findings are nonspecific, some strongly suggest that the inflammation is the cause of reflux. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between reflux symptoms and the findings of indirect laryngoscopy. Methods We evaluated 27 patients with symptoms of pharyngolaryngeal reflux disease. Results Laryngoscopy demonstrated in all patients the presence of hypertrophy of the posterior commissure and laryngeal edema. The most frequent symptoms were the presence of dry cough and foreign body sensation. Conclusion There was a correlation between the findings at laryngoscopy and symptoms of reflux. PMID:26157498

  3. Histoplasmosis Presenting as a Laryngeal Ulcer in an Immunocompetent Host.

    PubMed

    John, Mary; Koshy, Jency Maria; Mohan, Sangeetha; Paul, Preethi

    2015-06-01

    Histoplasmosis is a granulomatous disease of worldwide distribution caused by a dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Majority of primary infections in immunocompetent hosts are asymptomatic or may present with flu-like illness. Histoplasmosis may occur in three forms: (i) Primary acute pulmonary form, (ii) chronic pulmonary and (iii) disseminated form. The manifestations of disseminated form of histoplasmosis are fever, weakness, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, and mucocutaneous lesions. The mucosal involvement could be oropharyngeal or laryngeal involvement. We report an unusual case of histoplasmosis presenting as a laryngeal ulcer in an immunocompetent host. PMID:26710405

  4. Peripheral nerve blockade as an exclusive approach to obturator nerve block in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Simeoforidou, Marina; Basdekis, George; Tsiaka, Katerina; Chantzi, Eleni; Vretzakis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background Obturator nerve block plays an additive role on the quality of analgesia for knee surgery. Since the use of dual guidance increases the success rate of nerve blocks, we investigated the feasibility of performing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction under dual-guided blockade of obturator with femoral and sciatic nerves. Furthermore, we propose a novel method for the assessment of obturator nerve block. Methods Fifty-seven patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament repair were studied. Neurostimulating needles were guided out-of-plane by ultrasound. To induce the obturator nerve block, 10 ml of ropivacaine 0.5% were injected after eliciting contractions of adductor longus, brevis and magnus followed by block assessment for 30 minutes by examining the patient lift and left down the leg. Results The sonographic recognition of obturator nerve was easy and quick in all cases. Time for applying the block was 119.9 ± 79.2 sec. Assessing this block with lifting-leaving down the leg gave satisfactory results in 24.0 ± 5.07 min. After performing femoral-sciatic blocks, the inflation of tourniquet resulted in VAS score of > 0 in 2/57 patients and operation in 12/57. Total dose of fentanyl was 120.1 ± 64.6 µg and of midazolam 1.86 ± 0.8 mg. In 6 patients propofol was administered for sedation and 1 of them required ventilation with laryngeal mask airway, converting the anesthesia technique to general anesthesia. Conclusions Our data suggest that anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction can be performed under obturator-femoral-sciatic blocks. Identification of obturator nerve with ultrasound is easy and the block can be assessed by observing how the patient lifts and leaves down the leg. PMID:24363843

  5. Facial paralysis and mediastinitis due to odontogenic infection and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Bucak, Abdulkadir; Ulu, Sahin; Kokulu, Serdar; Oz, Gürhan; Solak, Okan; Kahveci, Orhan Kemal; Ayçiçek, Abdullah

    2013-11-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is a rare, rapidly advancing infection that involves the skin, the subcutaneous fibrofatty tissue, as well as the superficial and deep fascia and can cause life-threatening complications. The most frequent initiating factors in the head and neck region are a primary odontogenic infection, a peritonsillar infection, as well as posttraumatic or iatrogenic skin and mucosal injuries. Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) can expand within hours, and the reported mortality rate is up to 75% with delay interference. If the patients have any risk factors, poor prognosis can be seen. In this study, 1 patient with CNF with a history of peritonsillar infection and 2 patients with CNF who had a history of odontogenic infection with spreading to the temporal region and the mediastinum were described, with information of the literature and a clinical experience that was gained from 5 patients with NF who were seen at our clinic in the recent year, despite the fact that CNF was not seen up to last year. None of the patients had any risk factors. One of them had a worse clinical state with ascending infection to the temporal region, cranial nerve paralysis, and descending necrotizing mediastinitis, but he recovered from NF. After the oral intake began, dyspnea due to aspiration was seen and he died because of sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction. We aimed to attract attention to the importance of dental pathologies and increased mortality in a healthy patient. PMID:24220381

  6. Restoration of grasp following paralysis through brain-controlled stimulation of muscles

    PubMed Central

    Ethier, C.; Oby, E.R.; Bauman, M.J.; Miller, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with spinal cord injury lack the connections between brain and spinal cord circuits essential for voluntary movement. Clinical systems that achieve muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) have proven to be effective in allowing patients with tetraplegia to regain control of hand movement and to achieve a greater measure of independence in activities of daily living 1,2. In typical systems, the patient uses residual proximal limb movements to trigger pre-programmed stimulation that causes the paralyzed muscles to contract, allowing use of one or two basic grasps. Instead, we have developed, in primates, an FES system that is controlled by recordings made from microelectrodes permanently implanted in the brain. We simulated some of the effects of the paralysis caused by C5-C6 spinal cord injury 3 by injecting a local anesthetic to block the median and ulnar nerves at the elbow. Then, using recordings from approximately 100 neurons in the motor cortex, we predicted the intended activity of several of the paralyzed muscles, and used these predictions to control the intensity of stimulation of the same muscles. This process essentially bypassed the spinal cord, restoring to the monkeys voluntary control of their paralyzed muscles. This achievement represents a major advance toward similar restoration of hand function in human patients through brain-controlled FES. We anticipate that in human patients, this neuroprosthesis would allow much more flexible and dexterous use of the hand than is possible with existing FES systems. PMID:22522928

  7. [Thyrotoxic hypocalemic periodic paralysis: report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Dias, José Côdo Albino; Moura, Betânia Silva de; Gomes, Erika Figueiredo; Mirachi, Guilherme Borim; Metzger Filho, Otto; Dias, Cristina Borim Côdo

    2004-12-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP) is a rare hyperthyroidism complication much more frequent in Asians and Caucasians. We present 3 cases of THPP occurring in Brazilian male patients with 28 years old (y) (Case 1), 29 y (Case 2) and 60 y (Case 3), respectively. They were admitted following an episode of flacid paralysis of extremities. Whereas case 1 reported recurring episodes of paralysis crises, cases 2 and 3 reported only one episode. Signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, such as weigh loss, diaphoresis, extremities tremor, palpitation and mild diffuse goiter were present in the first case; while the second case only presented ophthalmopathy and the third patient referred that 2 years before his admission he presented an episode of cardiac arrhythmia but did not have thyroid function evaluation at that time. Their laboratory findings were hypokalemia, low TSH and raised free T4. They were treated with intravenous potassium, oral propranolol and tiamazol with remission of the symptoms. We report these cases to emphasize the importance of recognizing hyperthyroid periodic paralyses to avoid missing a treatable and curable condition. PMID:15761566

  8. The Role of H. pylori in the Development of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gen, Ra?an; a?l?, Sedat; Yce, ?mdat; Vural, Alperen; Okuducu, Hac?; Pat?ro?lu, Tahir; Gney, Ercihan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. This study aims to investigate the possible role of H. pylori as a cause of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Method. This controlled study was performed with 31 consecutive laryngeal cancer and 28 cancer-free patients who underwent direct laryngoscopy and biopsy of laryngeal lesions. To document the previous H. pylori infection, serological analysis of the antibody titers was done. Immunohistochemical analyses were applied to the tissue samples. Results. Serology was found positive at the 90.3% of the laryngeal cancer patients and 96.4% of the benign group. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis results were determined as negative at all of the specimens of laryngeal cancer patients and patients with benign lesions. Conclusion. There were no signs of colonization of H. pylori in laryngeal tissues of both groups' patients. It is thought that no relationship exists between the H. pylori infection and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24198443

  9. Management of laryngeal radionecrosis: Animal and clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, R.W.; Krespi, Y.P.; Einhorn, R.K.

    1989-05-01

    Radiation necrosis of the laryngeal cartilages is an uncommon complication of radiotherapy for laryngeal carcinoma. It is a devastating process for which there is no one acceptable treatment. Medical management offers only temporary, symptomatic relief, which further necessitates surgical treatment. Surgical management may start with a tracheotomy; however, it often ends with a total laryngectomy. Physiologically, the necrotic cartilages are the source of the problem. It is a general surgical principle that nonviable tissue must be excised to promote healing. Therefore, if the affected laryngeal cartilages were removed, the larynx should heal. Total or near total removal of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages with preservation of the endolaryngeal soft tissues has not been reported in the literature. Theoretically, if the entire cartilaginous framework is removed, there would be no structural support for the airway. We have found using animal models, that submucosal resection of the laryngeal cartilages, leaving the perichondrium and endolaryngeal soft tissues intact can result in a competent airway. Animal and clinical experience will be presented.

  10. Laryngeal Muscles Are Spared in the Dystrophin Deficient "mdx" Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa B.; Joseph, Gayle L.; Adkins, Tracey D.; Andrade, Francisco H.; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: "Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)" is caused by the loss of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. The disease leads to severe and progressive skeletal muscle wasting. Interestingly, the disease spares some muscles. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of dystrophin deficiency on 2 intrinsic laryngeal muscles, the

  11. Photocoagulation therapy for laryngeal dysplasia using angiolytic lasers.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yo; Suzuki, Ryo; Kawai, Yoshitaka; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kitamura, Morimasa; Tateya, Ichiro; Hirano, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    In the management of laryngeal pre-cancerous lesions such as dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (CIS), it is important that lesion regression occur without any complications. As a minimally invasive treatment option, photocoagulation therapy using angiolytic lasers has been attracting attention. Therapeutic effects have been reported for this type of treatment, however, vocal function after treatment has not been well discussed. In this retrospective case series, we examined the therapeutic effects of photocoagulation therapy on laryngeal dysplasia and the impact on vocal function. Twenty-four patients with laryngeal dysplasia or CIS were treated with photocoagulation therapy using angiolytic lasers. Two patients were treated under general anesthesia, the remaining 22 patients were treated with topical anesthesia. Before and after treatment the extent of the lesion and vocal function was evaluated by endoscopic examination and acoustic and aerodynamic analyses, respectively. More than 50 % disease regression was observed in 20 of 24 patients. Acoustic and aerodynamic analyses revealed improvement in pitch perturbation quotient with no impairment in other parameters. Photocoagulation therapy using angiolytic lasers has proven to be feasible and safe for the treatment of laryngeal dysplasia. PMID:26742908

  12. Laryngeal Muscles Are Spared in the Dystrophin Deficient "mdx" Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa B.; Joseph, Gayle L.; Adkins, Tracey D.; Andrade, Francisco H.; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: "Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)" is caused by the loss of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. The disease leads to severe and progressive skeletal muscle wasting. Interestingly, the disease spares some muscles. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of dystrophin deficiency on 2 intrinsic laryngeal muscles, the…

  13. An OT Account of Laryngealization in Cuzco Quechua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Steve

    Classical phonemic accounts of Cuzco (Peru) Quechua posit three distinct types of stops: plain, aspirated, and glottalized. A later analysis argued instead for a root-level feature of laryngealization governed by a small number of formal mechanisms. This latter analysis is taken one step further, showing that even greater explanatory power may be…

  14. A case of ossified laryngeal cartilage mimicking a subglottic mass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Rae; Kim, Dong Young; Hwang, Hee Young; Chung, Dong Hae

    2012-01-01

    A previously healthy 54-year-old man complained of progressive voice changes. A firm subglottic polypoid mass was located at the right posterior site, as seen on fiberoptic laryngoscopy, with a distinctly narrowed subglottic space being seen on neck computed tomography, and there were multiple opacities from the cricoid cartilage to the tracheal rings. Resection was done under general anesthesia. The mass-like elevated lesion showed enchondral ossification of the laryngeal cartilage just beneath the squamous metaplastic surface epithelium. The vocal cord mobility was normal. Compared with the computed tomography and the laryngoscopic examination, the polypoid mass-like elevation corresponded to a ossified vocal process of the right arytenoid cartilage. To date, clinically symptomatic ossification of the laryngeal cartilages has presented with foreign body-like impaction. The present case is a rare case of ossification of the laryngeal cartilage that masqueraded as a subglottic polypoid mass. The ossification of laryngeal cartilage is part of the normal aging process, but a tumor-like mass at the airway related with voice changes, like was seen in the present case, is rare. Albeit rare, clinicians and radiologists should be aware that this heterotopic ossification may mimic a polypoid mass-like presentation as well as the accompanying symptoms. PMID:21924523

  15. Refinements in modeling the passive properties of laryngeal soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Eric J; Titze, Ingo R

    2007-07-01

    The nonlinear viscoelastic passive properties of three canine intrinsic laryngeal muscles, the lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA), the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA), and the interarytenoid (IA), were fit to the parameters of a modified Kelvin model. These properties were compared with those of the thyroarytenoid (TA) and cricothyroid (CT) muscles, as well as previously unpublished viscoelastic characteristics of the human vocal ligament. Passive parameters of the modified Kelvin model were summarized for the vocal ligament, mucosa, and all five laryngeal muscles. Results suggest that the LCA, PCA, and IA muscles are functionally different from the TA and CT muscles in their load-bearing capacity. Furthermore, the LCA, PCA, and IA have a much larger stress-strain hysteresis effect than has been previously reported for the TA and CT or the vocal ligament. The variation in this effect suggests that the connective tissue within the TA and CT muscles is somehow similar to the vocal ligament but different from the LCA, PCA, or IA muscles. Further demonstrating the potential significance of grouping tissues in the laryngeal system by functional groups in the laryngeal system was the unique finding that, over their working elongation range, the LCA and PCA were nearly as exponentially stiff as the vocal ligament. This paper was written in conjunction with an online technical report (http://www.ncvs.org/ncvs/library/tech) in which comprehensive muscle data and sensitivity analysis, as well as downloadable data files and computer scripts, are made available. PMID:17412782

  16. Laryngeal Aerodynamics Associated with Oral Contraceptive Use: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham-Rowan, Mary; Fowler, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in laryngeal aerodynamic measures during connected speech associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use. Eight women taking an OC, and eight others not taking an OC, participated in the study. Three trials of syllable /p[subscript alpha] /repetitions were obtained using a…

  17. Diode Laser for Laryngeal Surgery: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Helena Hotz; Neri, Larissa; Fussuma, Carina Yuri; Imamura, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The diode laser has been frequently used in the management of laryngeal disorders. The portability and functional diversity of this tool make it a reasonable alternative to conventional lasers. However, whether diode laser has been applied in transoral laser microsurgery, the ideal parameters, outcomes, and adverse effects remain unclear. Objective The main objective of this systematic review is to provide a reliable evaluation of the use of diode laser in laryngeal diseases, trying to clarify its ideal parameters in the larynx, as well as its outcomes and complications. Data Synthesis We included eleven studies in the final analysis. From the included articles, we collected data on patient and lesion characteristics, treatment (diode laser's parameters used in surgery), and outcomes related to the laser surgery performed. Only two studies were prospective and there were no randomized controlled trials. Most of the evidence suggests that the diode laser can be a useful tool for treatment of different pathologies in the larynx. In this sense, the parameters must be set depending on the goal (vaporization, section, or coagulation) and the clinical problem. Conclusion: The literature lacks studies on the ideal parameters of the diode laser in laryngeal surgery. The available data indicate that diode laser is a useful tool that should be considered in laryngeal surgeries. Thus, large, well-designed studies correlated with diode compared with other lasers are needed to better estimate its effects. PMID:27096024

  18. Laryngeal Aerodynamics Associated with Oral Contraceptive Use: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham-Rowan, Mary; Fowler, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in laryngeal aerodynamic measures during connected speech associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use. Eight women taking an OC, and eight others not taking an OC, participated in the study. Three trials of syllable /p[subscript alpha] /repetitions were obtained using a

  19. [Right non recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroid surgery: one case report].

    PubMed

    Huang, Weipeng; Zhang, Qingfeng; She, Cuiping

    2015-12-01

    A 56 years old female was admitted to our department with complaint of a painless cervical mass. Clinical feature:there was a painless mass above left lobe of thyroid gland, which was about 3.0 cm x 2.5 cm in size, and could move with swallowing action. B-mode ultrasound features: there was a solid mass in left lobe of thyroid gland, which was about 3.2 cm. Nodule was found in isthmus, accompanied with lymphadenovarix on the left neck possibly be MCA. fT3: 4.64 pmol/L, fT4:16.56 pmol/L,TSH:3.74 mIU/L, anti-TG:17.75 U/ml, anti-TPO:40.77 U/ml. Pathological result of the neoplasm: papillocarcinoma. Clinical diagnosis: papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27093826

  20. Non-recurrent nerve from the vagus anterio-medially located in the carotid sheath

    PubMed Central

    Grleyik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (ILN) arising from the vagus nerve is a rare anatomic variation. The vagus descends vertically in the cervical neurovascular bundle, between and posterior to common carotid artery (CCA) and internal jugular vein (IJV). The vagus has also some anatomic variations. We present a case of two coincident anatomic variations both ILN and the vagus nerve. A patient with multinodular goiter was surgically treated with total thyroidectomy. Both two ILNs were identified, fully exposed and preserved along their cervical courses. We found that the right non-recurrent ILN directly arises from cervical vagal trunk, and enters the larynx at usual point after a short transverse course parallel to the inferior thyroid artery. The vagus nerve, easily exposed after dissection of the right lobe of the thyroid gland, is located medially to the CCA. We discovered the association of non-recurrent ILN and medially located vagus nerve in the same patient. Non-recurrent nerve and medially located vagus nerve in the cervical neurovascular bundle are two different variations. The coincidence of right non-recurrent ILN arising from cervical part of the vagus medial to the CCA in the same patient is a very interesting feature. The safety of thyroid operations is dependent on proper identification, dissection and full exposition of ILN. The safe procedure requires complete knowledge on the anatomy of neural structures including all their anatomic variations. PMID:26504426

  1. Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls. PMID:20480370

  2. Phonation threshold pressure and flow in excised human larynges

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Ted; Muhlestein, Joseph; Callahan, Sean; Weinheimer, Kent T.; Chan, Roger W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis 1. To determine the phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and phonation threshold flow (PTF) in excised human larynges. 2. To determine the effects of posterior glottal width, glottal area, and gender on PTP and PTF. 3. To test the hypothesis that hysteresis is present in excised human laryngeal phonation. 4. To compare these results to those from canine experiments and human subject measurements. Study Design Induced phonation of excised human larynges in the laboratory. Methods Nine human larynges were harvested within 24 hours post-mortem. PTP and PTF at phonation onset and offset were measured on a bench apparatus. The effects of posterior glottal width, glottal area, and gender were examined. Results Large inter-subject variability was observed in PTP and PTF. PTP was comparable to those measured in vivo, whereas PTF was substantially higher. One-way ANOVA showed no significant dependence of PTP and PTF on posterior glottal width. Hysteresis was observed, with offset PTP and PTF lower than onset values. Offset measurements had significantly less variability than onset measurements (P = 0.012 for PTP, P = 0.0001 for PTF). Conclusions This study is one of the first to report onset and offset PTP and PTF in fresh excised human larynges. The high PTF observed likely reflects a large DC flow component due to vocal fold bowing. Offset PTP and PTF values may be intrinsically more reliably measured than onset values. The large inter-subject variability in PTP and PTF may have implication for the clinical application of these aerodynamic parameters of phonation. Level of Evidence N/A (Laboratory study). PMID:21792964

  3. Microbiota in the Throat and Risk Factors for Laryngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hongli; Shi, Yi; Zhou, Xia; Wu, Chunping; Cao, Pengyu; Xu, Chen; Hou, Dongsheng; Wang, Yuezhu; Zhou, Liang

    2014-12-01

    The compositions and abundances of the microbiota in the ecological niche of the human throat and the possible relationship between the microbiota and laryngeal cancer are poorly understood. To obtain insight into this, we enrolled 27 laryngeal carcinoma patients and 28 subjects with vocal cord polyps as controls. For each subject, we simultaneously collected swab samples from the upper throat near the epiglottis (site I) and tissue samples from the vestibulum laryngis to the subglottic region (site II). The microbiota of the throat were fully characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. We found 14 phyla, 20 classes, 38 orders, 85 families, and 218 genera in the throats of enrolled subjects. The main phyla were Firmicutes (54.7%), Fusobacteria (14.8%), Bacteroidetes (12.7%), and Proteobacteria (10.6%). Streptococcus (37.3%), Fusobacterium (11.3%), and Prevotella (10.6%) were identified as the three most predominant genera in the throat. The relative abundances of 23 bacterial genera in site I were significantly different from those in site II (P < 0.05). The relative proportions of 12 genera largely varied between laryngeal cancer patients and control subjects (P < 0.05). Collectively, this study outlined the spatial structure of microbial communities in the human throat. The spatial structure of bacterial communities significantly varied in two anatomical sites of the throat. The bacterial profiles of the throat of laryngeal cancer patients were strongly different from those of control subjects, and several of these microorganisms may be related to laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:25239901

  4. A twin and molecular genetics study of sleep paralysis and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Denis, Dan; French, Christopher C; Rowe, Richard; Zavos, Helena M S; Nolan, Patrick M; Parsons, Michael J; Gregory, Alice M

    2015-08-01

    Sleep paralysis is a relatively common but under-researched phenomenon. In this paper we examine prevalence in a UK sample and associations with candidate risk factors. This is the first study to investigate the heritability of sleep paralysis in a twin sample and to explore genetic associations between sleep paralysis and a number of circadian expressed single nucleotide polymorphisms. Analyses are based on data from the Genesis1219 twin/sibling study, a community sample of twins/siblings from England and Wales. In total, data from 862 participants aged 22-32 years (34% male) were used in the study. This sample consisted of monozygotic and dizygotic twins and siblings. It was found that self-reports of general sleep quality, anxiety symptoms and exposure to threatening events were all associated independently with sleep paralysis. There was moderate genetic influence on sleep paralysis (53%). Polymorphisms in the PER2 gene were associated with sleep paralysis in additive and dominant models of inheritance-although significance was not reached once a Bonferroni correction was applied. It is concluded that factors associated with disrupted sleep cycles appear to be associated with sleep paralysis. In this sample of young adults, sleep paralysis was moderately heritable. Future work should examine specific polymorphisms associated with differences in circadian rhythms and sleep homeostasis further in association with sleep paralysis. PMID:25659590

  5. Association between UGT1A1 Polymorphism and Risk of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huangfu, Hui; Pan, Hong; Wang, Binquan; Wen, Shuxin; Han, Rui; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer is one of the largest subgroups of head and neck cancers. In addition to smoking and alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms are also risk factors for the development of laryngeal cancer. However, the exact relation between genetic variants and pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to examine UGT1A1*6 (rs4148323 A/G) polymorphisms in 103 patients with laryngeal cancer and 220 controls using the high resolution melting curve (HRM) technique and to explore the association between UGT1A1*6 (rs4148323 A/G) polymorphisms and laryngeal cancer. The results showed an association between the rs4148323 G allele and increased risk of laryngeal cancer. While there was no statistically significant difference between rs4148323 genotype frequencies and different histological grades or different clinical stages of laryngeal cancer, stratification analysis indicated smoking or alcohol consumption and rs4148323 G allele combined to increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. In conclusion, the rs4148323 G allele is associated with the high UGT1A1 enzyme activity, and might increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. Furthermore, smoking or alcohol consumption and the rs4148323 G allele act synergistically to increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. PMID:26751466

  6. CONDUCTION IN NERVE FIBRES

    PubMed Central

    Blair, H. A.

    1934-01-01

    Data by E. A. Blair and Erlanger on the voltage-capacity curves and the nerve impulse velocities of each of several fibres in the same nerve trunk are related to Rashevsky's equation for the velocity of transmission in nerve. The results lend support to Rashevsky's analysis. Other empirical relations between the velocity and the parameters of the excitation equations indicate the correctness of the hypothesis that the action current is the primary factor in transmission, which process is carried on by the electrical excitation of successive regions of the nerve fibre by means of its action current according to the ordinary laws of electrical excitation. PMID:19872822

  7. The relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index, rainfall and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis, feline tick paralysis and canine parvovirus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Rika-Heke, Tamara; Kelman, Mark; Ward, Michael P

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the association between climate, weather and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis, feline tick paralysis and canine parvovirus in Australia. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and monthly average rainfall (mm) data were used as indices for climate and weather, respectively. Case data were extracted from a voluntary national companion animal disease surveillance resource. Climate and weather data were obtained from the Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology. During the 4-year study period (January 2010-December 2013), a total of 4742 canine parvovirus cases and 8417 tick paralysis cases were reported. No significant (P ≥ 0.05) correlations were found between the SOI and parvovirus, canine tick paralysis or feline tick paralysis. A significant (P < 0.05) positive cross-correlation was found between parvovirus occurrence and rainfall in the same month (0.28), and significant negative cross-correlations (-0.26 to -0.36) between parvovirus occurrence and rainfall 4-6 months previously. Significant (P < 0.05) negative cross-correlations (-0.34 to -0.39) were found between canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 1-3 months previously, and significant positive cross-correlations (0.29-0.47) between canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 7-10 months previously. Significant positive cross-correlations (0.37-0.68) were found between cases of feline tick paralysis and rainfall 6-10 months previously. These findings may offer a useful tool for the management and prevention of tick paralysis and canine parvovirus, by providing an evidence base supporting the recommendations of veterinarians to clients thus reducing the impact of these diseases. PMID:25841899

  8. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance: A 6 years study, Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Naeini, Alireza Emami; Ghazavi, Mohamadreza; Moghim, Sharareh; Sabaghi, Amirhosein; Fadaei, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poliomyelitis is still an endemic disease in many areas of the world including Africa and South Asia. Iran is polio free since 2001. However, due to endemicity of polio in neighboring countries of Iran, the risk of polio importation and re-emergence of wild polio virus is high. Case definition through surveillance system is a well-defined method for maintenance of polio eradication in polio free countries. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey from 2007 to 2013, we reviewed all the records of under 15 years old patients reported to Acute Flaccid Paralysis Committee (AFPC) in Isfahan province, Iran. All cases were visited by members of the AFPC. Three stool samples were collected from each reported case within 2 weeks of onset of paralysis and sent to National Polio Laboratory in Tehran, Iran, for poliovirus isolation. Data were analyzed by SSPS software (version 22). Student's t-test and Chi-square was used to compare variables. Statistical significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: In this 6-year period 85 cases were analyzed, 54 patients were male (63.5%) and 31 were female (36.5%). The mean age of patients was 5.7 ± 3.9 years. The most common cause of paralysis among these patients was Guillian–Barré syndrome (83.5%). We did not found any poliomyelitis caused by wild polio virus. Only one case of vaccine associated poliomyelitis was reported. Conclusion: Since 1992, Iran has a routine and high percent coverage of polio vaccination program for infants (>94%), with six doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV). Accurate surveillance for poliomyelitis is essential for continuing eradication. PMID:26015925

  9. Experience of isolated sleep paralysis in clinical practice in Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Ohaeri, J. U.

    1992-01-01

    The supernatural fears associated with the experience of isolated sleep paralysis in the culture of developing countries is sometimes associated with the evolution of somatic symptoms of psychological origin in patients predisposed to neurotic illness. Patients rarely spontaneously volunteer these fears and doctors pay them scant attention. Illustrative case histories that demonstrate the dynamics of the clinical presentation, as well as the treatment approach, are highlighted. It is hoped that doctors in general medical practice and in psychological medicine in developing countries where belief in supernatural causation of illness is rife will consider these factors in order to provide more effective treatment. PMID:1608064

  10. Experience of isolated sleep paralysis in clinical practice in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ohaeri, J U

    1992-06-01

    The supernatural fears associated with the experience of isolated sleep paralysis in the culture of developing countries is sometimes associated with the evolution of somatic symptoms of psychological origin in patients predisposed to neurotic illness. Patients rarely spontaneously volunteer these fears and doctors pay them scant attention. Illustrative case histories that demonstrate the dynamics of the clinical presentation, as well as the treatment approach, are highlighted. It is hoped that doctors in general medical practice and in psychological medicine in developing countries where belief in supernatural causation of illness is rife will consider these factors in order to provide more effective treatment. PMID:1608064

  11. Hypokalemic paralysis secondary to tenofovir induced fanconi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ramteke, Vishal V.; Deshpande, Rushi V.; Srivastava, Om; Wagh, Adinath

    2015-01-01

    Tenofovir induced fanconi syndrome (FS) presenting as hypokalemic paralysis is an extremely rare complication in patients on anti-retroviral therapy. We report a 50-year-old male with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome on tenofovir-based anti-retroviral therapy who presented with acute onset quadriparesis. On evaluation, he was found to have hypokalemia with hypophosphatemia, glucosuria and proteinuria suggesting FS. He regained normal power in limbs over next 12 h following correction of hypokalemia. Ours would be the second reported case in India. PMID:26692618

  12. Facial Nerve Axotomy in Mice: A Model to Study Motoneuron Response to Injury

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Deborah N.; Mesnard-Hoaglin, Nichole A.; Batka, Richard J.; Haulcomb, Melissa M.; Miller, Whitney M.; Jones, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this surgical protocol is to expose the facial nerve, which innervates the facial musculature, at its exit from the stylomastoid foramen and either cut or crush it to induce peripheral nerve injury. Advantages of this surgery are its simplicity, high reproducibility, and the lack of effect on vital functions or mobility from the subsequent facial paralysis, thus resulting in a relatively mild surgical outcome compared to other nerve injury models. A major advantage of using a cranial nerve injury model is that the motoneurons reside in a relatively homogenous population in the facial motor nucleus in the pons, simplifying the study of the motoneuron cell bodies. Because of the symmetrical nature of facial nerve innervation and the lack of crosstalk between the facial motor nuclei, the operation can be performed unilaterally with the unaxotomized side serving as a paired internal control. A variety of analyses can be performed postoperatively to assess the physiologic response, details of which are beyond the scope of this article. For example, recovery of muscle function can serve as a behavioral marker for reinnervation, or the motoneurons can be quantified to measure cell survival. Additionally, the motoneurons can be accurately captured using laser microdissection for molecular analysis. Because the facial nerve axotomy is minimally invasive and well tolerated, it can be utilized on a wide variety of genetically modified mice. Also, this surgery model can be used to analyze the effectiveness of peripheral nerve injury treatments. Facial nerve injury provides a means for investigating not only motoneurons, but also the responses of the central and peripheral glial microenvironment, immune system, and target musculature. The facial nerve injury model is a widely accepted peripheral nerve injury model that serves as a powerful tool for studying nerve injury and regeneration. PMID:25742324

  13. [Sciatic nerve intraneural perineurioma].

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Benjamin; Poussange, Nicolas; Le Collen, Philippe; Fabre, Thierry; Vital, Anne; Lepreux, Sbastien

    2015-12-01

    Intraneural perineurioma is a benign tumor developed from the perineurium and responsible for localized nerve hypertrophy. This uncommon tumor is characterized by a proliferation of perineural cells with a "pseudo-onion bulb" pattern. We report a sciatic nerve intraneural perineurioma in a 39-year-old patient. PMID:26586011

  14. Motion control of the ankle joint with a multiple contact nerve cuff electrode: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Joo; Durand, Dominique M

    2014-08-01

    The flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) has demonstrated significant capability for fascicular and subfascicular stimulation selectivity. However, due to the inherent complexity of the neuromuscular skeletal systems and nerve-electrode interface, a trajectory tracking motion control algorithm of musculoskeletal systems for functional electrical stimulation using a multiple contact nerve cuff electrode such as FINE has not yet been developed. In our previous study, a control system was developed for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) musculoskeletal systems with little prior knowledge of the system. In this study, more realistic computational ankle/subtalar joint model including a finite element model of the sciatic nerve was developed. The control system was tested to control the motion of ankle/subtalar joint angles by modulating the pulse amplitude of each contact of a FINE placed on the sciatic nerve. The simulation results showed that the control strategy based on the separation of steady state and dynamic properties of the system resulted in small output tracking errors for different reference trajectories such as sinusoidal and filtered random signals. The proposed control method also demonstrated robustness against external disturbances and system parameter variations such as muscle fatigue. These simulation results under various circumstances indicate that it is possible to take advantage of multiple contact nerve electrodes with spatial selectivity for the control of limb motion by peripheral nerve stimulation even with limited individual muscle selectivity. This technology could be useful to restore neural function in patients with paralysis. PMID:24939581

  15. [Laryngeal cancer and occupation--results of the Heidelberg laryngeal cancer study].

    PubMed

    Maier, H; Gewelke, U; Dietz, A; Thamm, H; Heller, W D; Weidauer, H

    1992-02-01

    We conducted a case-control study of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx referred to occupational factors in 164 patients compared with 656 controls adjusted for sex, age and area of residence, using a 1-to-4 matched design. Most of the cancer patients (92%) were blue collar workers. Only 8% of the cancer patients had attended technical college, college or university, compared with 31.3% of the control subjects. After adjustment for alcohol and tobacco consumption we found an increased relative risk of laryngeal cancer in subjects chronically exposed to cement dust, pine wood dust and coal-tar products. The risk associated with cement dust and coal-tar products was predominantly related to supraglottic cancer (RR = 1.88, CI = 0.8-4.3, RR = 6.11, CI = 1.7-21.6), respectively, after adjustment for tobacco and alcohol use. The risk associated with pine wood dust was related predominantly to glottic cancer (RR = 3.18, CI = 1.1-9.0) after adjustment for tobacco and alcohol use. PMID:1568886

  16. Delayed presentation of a large congenital laryngeal cleft in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Bakir, M; Madani, G; Sandhu, G

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal clefts are rare congenital malformations of the posterior laryngotracheal wall that lead to an abnormal communication between the airway and pharyngo-oesophageal tract. The condition is almost universally identified during infancy with minor laryngeal clefts very rarely diagnosed in adulthood. We present our tertiary centre’s experience of a large laryngeal cleft presenting at an advanced age, with the aim of increasing awareness of this correctible cause of respiratory distress and aspiration in adults. PMID:25519258

  17. [Building Clinical Target Volume in laryngeal cancers using knowledge about modes of invasion of each location].

    PubMed

    Bidault, F J; Bourhis, J; Luboinski, B

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a building model to delineate Clinical Target Volume in laryngeal cancers (squamous cell carcinoma). This model uses histological knowledge about the spread of laryngeal cancers. Firstly is described the spread, depending on primary location and anatomic structures. Then illustrated examples on Computed Tomography are provided. This delineation approach appears to be useful with 3D-CRT and IMRT for adapting dose delivery to the complex spread of laryngeal cancer. PMID:15996885

  18. Preoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for localizing superficial nerve paths.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ayato

    2015-12-01

    During surgery, peripheral nerves are often seen to follow unpredictable paths because of previous surgeries and/or compression caused by a tumor. Iatrogenic nerve injury is a serious complication that must be avoided, and preoperative evaluation of nerve paths is important for preventing it. In this study, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used for an in-depth analysis of peripheral nerve paths. This study included 27 patients who underwent the TENS procedure to evaluate the peripheral nerve path (17 males and 10 females; mean age: 59.9 years, range: 18-83 years) of each patient preoperatively. An electrode pen coupled to an electrical nerve stimulator was used for superficial nerve mapping. The TENS procedure was performed on patients' major peripheral nerves that passed close to the surgical field of tumor resection or trauma surgery, and intraoperative damage to those nerves was apprehensive. The paths of the target nerve were detected in most patients preoperatively. The nerve paths of 26 patients were precisely under the markings drawn preoperatively. The nerve path of one patient substantially differed from the preoperative markings with numbness at the surgical region. During surgery, the nerve paths could be accurately mapped preoperatively using the TENS procedure as confirmed by direct visualization of the nerve. This stimulation device is easy to use and offers highly accurate mapping of nerves for surgical planning without major complications. The authors conclude that TENS is a useful tool for noninvasive nerve localization and makes tumor resection a safe and smooth procedure. PMID:26420473

  19. Surgery for Complete Vertical Rectus Paralysis Combined with Horizontal Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Leilei; Liu, Rui; Liu, Yan; Lin, Jing; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To report outcomes of the simultaneous surgical correction of vertical rectus paralysis combined with moderate-to-large angle horizontal strabismus. Methods. If a preoperative forced duction test was positive, antagonist muscle weakening surgery was performed, and then augmented partial rectus muscle transposition (APRMT) + partial horizontal rectus recession-resection was performed 2 months later. If a preoperative forced duction test was negative, APRMT + partial horizontal rectus recession-resection was performed. Antagonistic muscle weakening surgery and/or conventional recession-resection of the horizontal and/or vertical muscles of the contralateral eye was performed 2 months later, as needed. Results. Ten patients with a mean age of 22.3 ± 13.0 years were included and mean follow-up was 7.1 months. The mean vertical deviation that APRMT corrected was 21.4 ± 3.7 PD (prism diopter). The absolute deviation in horizontal significantly decreased from a preoperative value of 48.5 ± 27.4 PD to a value of 3.0 ± 2.3 PD 6 months postoperatively. The movement score decreased from a value of −5 ± 0 preoperatively to a value of −2.7 ± 0.8 at 6 months postoperatively. Conclusion. For patients with complete vertical rectus paralysis combined with a moderate- to-large angle of horizontal strabismus, combined APRMT and partial horizontal rectus recession-resection is safe and effective for correcting vertical and horizontal strabismus. PMID:24883204

  20. Cuff leak test and laryngeal survey for predicting post-extubation stridor

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anit B; Ani, Chizobam; Feeney, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Evidence for the predictive value of the cuff leak test (CLT) for post-extubation stridor (PES) is conflicting. We evaluated the association and accuracy of CLT alone or combined with other laryngeal parameters with PES. Methods: Fifty-one mechanically ventilated adult patients in a medical-surgical intensive care unit were tested prior to extubation using; CLT, laryngeal ultrasound and indirect laryngoscopy. Biometric, laryngeal and endotracheal tube (ETT) parameters were recorded. Results: PES incidence was 4%. CLT demonstrated ‘no leak’ in 20% of patients. Laryngeal oedema was present in 10% of the patients on indirect laryngoscopy, and 71% of the patients had a Grades 1-3 indirect laryngoscopic view. Mean air column width on laryngeal ultrasound was 0.66 ± 0.15 cm (cuff deflated), mean ratio of ETT to laryngeal diameter was 0.48 ± 0.07, and the calculated CLT and laryngeal survey composite was 0.86 ± 1.25 (range 0-5). CLT and the CLT and Laryngeal survey composite measure were not associated with or predict PES. Age, sex, peri-extubation steroid use, intubation duration and body mass index were not associated with PES. Conclusion: Even including ultrasonographic and indirect laryngoscopic examination of the airway, no single aspect of the CLT or combination with laryngeal parameters accurately predicts PES. PMID:25788742

  1. Spontaneous improvement of laryngeal sarcoidosis resistant to systemic corticosteroid administration

    PubMed Central

    Tsubouchi, Kazuya; Hamada, Naoki; Ijichi, Kayo; Umezaki, Toshiro; Takayama, Koichi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    We report herein a case of laryngeal sarcoidosis that was refractory to systemic corticosteroids, but that improved spontaneously. A 49-year-old woman complained of dysphagia and hoarseness with accompanying edematous swellings of both arytenoid regions. She was referred to our hospital after systemic corticosteroid therapy failed to achieve any improvement. Laryngoscopy showed marked edema of the epiglottis and both arytenoid regions. The flow–volume curve on spirometry showed flattening of the expiratory flows. Histopathological examination of the arytenoid region showed non-caseating epithelioid granulomas, and laryngeal sarcoidosis was diagnosed with the result of BAL study. She was observed without treatment as symptoms were mild. Although edema of the left arytenoid region seemed to be somewhat worsened after 6 months, she continued to be followed closely because of improvements in the flow–volume curve and increasing peak expiratory flow. By 1 year after onset, symptoms and epiglottal swelling had spontaneously improved. PMID:26392860

  2. Swallowing and speech therapy after definitive treatment for laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Samlan, Robin A; Webster, Kimberly T

    2002-10-01

    As the trend in laryngeal cancer treatment shifts towards organ-conservation surgeries and organ-preservation protocols, patients will more often retain anatomy vital to communication and swallowing. Despite a conservative approach, results of treatment may have debilitating effects. Rehabilitation efforts are directed towards a return to functional, if not normal, status. Although there are predictable trends in voice and swallowing disorders of patients with laryngeal cancer, posttreatment dysphonia and dysphagia are diverse in presentation. Considering the significant diversity of this population, speech pathologists should work closely with otolaryngologists to determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient. As this article demonstrates, voice and swallowing therapy are necessary components of the rehabilitation process following treatment for head and neck cancers. As always, treatment is tailored to the specific individual and based on information obtained during a thorough evaluation by a speech pathologist. Fortunately, with the help of voice and swallowing therapy, many patients return to functional communication and oral feeding. PMID:12587251

  3. Leptomeningeal metastasis from early glottic laryngeal cancer: A case report

    PubMed Central

    PAN, ZHENYU; YANG, GUOZI; QU, LIMEI; YUAN, TINGTING; PANG, XIAOCHUAN; WANG, YONGXIANG; SHI, WEIYAN; DONG, LIHUA

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a 53-year-old man with leptomeningeal metastasis from early glottic laryngeal cancer. The patient had been diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx 9 years previously. The current symptoms included a recurring headache that had persisted for 1 month and vomiting for 1 week. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the head revealed multiple enhancing lesions in the brain and multiple line-like enhancements in the brain fold. Computed tomography scans of the head, neck, chest and abdomen showed no nodular lesions. Cytological examination of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) revealed malignant cells with a scattered distribution pattern. The patient received intra-CSF methotrexate chemotherapy concurrent with whole-brain radiotherapy, which relieved the neurological symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of cytologically-confirmed LM from early glottic laryngeal cancer. PMID:26722263

  4. Effects of “paralytic shellfish poison” on frog nerve and muscle

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M. H.

    1964-01-01

    A purified extract of toxic lamellibranchs, Saxidomus giganteus (Deshayes), containing “paralytic shellfish poison,” has been tested for its effects on conduction and contraction in frog nerve and muscle. The poison was very toxic and concentrations within the range 0.025 to 0.1 μg/ml. paralysed isolated muscle preparations, with abolition of the muscle action potential. The poison did not readily penetrate the perineurium, but in desheathed sciatic nerves the conduction of nerve impulses was rapidly blocked by concentrations of 0.05 to 0.1 μg/ml. There was no evidence that the poison had any specific curarizing action at the neuromuscular junction, and the paralysis was not accompanied by any appreciable depolarization of the muscle membrane. PMID:14211678

  5. Surgical treatment of exercise-induced laryngeal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Maat, Robert C; Roksund, Ola D; Olofsson, Jan; Halvorsen, Thomas; Skadberg, Britt T; Heimdal, John-Helge

    2007-04-01

    A method for combined ergo-spirometry and continuous laryngeal inspection during exercise, entitled continuous laryngoscopy exercise test (CLE-test) has been developed in order to study airway obstruction at the laryngeal level during exercise. The aim of the study was to apply the CLE-test on patients experiencing respiratory distress during exercise in order to reveal the usefulness of the CLE-test both as a diagnostic tool in the selection of patients for surgery and in evaluation of treatment effects postoperatively. Until now, 81 patients with a history of exercise-induced stridor have undergone the CLE-test. Ten of these patients were selected for surgical treatment based on the severity of symptoms and their motivation for treatment. All ten patients underwent endoscopic supraglottoplasty (ES), with laser incision in both aryepiglottic folds anterior to the cuneiform cartilages and removal of the mucosa around the top of the tubercles. Each patient was examined by the CLE-test before and 3 months after surgery. Eight patients felt subjectively that their breathing capacity during exercise was improved. When pre- and postoperative ergo-spirometry evaluations were compared, increased peak oxygen consumption was observed in four out of ten patients and better maximal minute ventilation in seven out of ten. Postoperative evaluation of the laryngeal images showed less prominent aryepiglottic folds. The typical adduction of the supraglottic structures concomitant with inspiratory stridor found preoperatively was not present in any of the patients during exercise postoperatively. The ES procedure is an efficient surgical treatment for exercise-induced laryngeal supraglottic obstruction and the CLE-test eases the selection of patients for surgery and facilitates the evaluation of treatment effects. PMID:17203312

  6. Case Report: Acute tuberculous laryngitis presenting as acute epiglottitis.

    PubMed

    El Beltagi, Ahmed H; Khera, Pushpinder S; Alrabiah, Lamya; Al Shammari, Noufa F J

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of laryngeal tuberculosis (TB), which had dropped dramatically after the institution of modern anti-TB chemotherapy, has shown recent reemergence. It is important to be aware of its possibility, especially as it can present with nonspecific upper airway symptoms and a frequent lack of constitutional manifestations. We report such a case presenting as acute epiglottitis, with diffuse involvement of the supraglottic larynx associated with reactivation lung TB. PMID:22223941

  7. Reflux laryngitis: a feasible indication for laparoscopic antireflux surgery?

    PubMed

    Salminen, Paulina; Sala, Eeva; Koskenvuo, Juha; Karvonen, Jukka; Ovaska, Jari

    2007-04-01

    Laparoscopic fundoplication is a routine surgical approach in the treatment of moderate or severe gastro-esophageal reflux disease. However, there are still contradictions regarding supraesophageal symptoms as an indication for surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the subjective symptomatic outcome and objective laryngeal findings after antireflux surgery in patients with pH monitoring proven reflux laryngitis. Between 1998 and 2002, 40 patients with reflux laryngitis underwent laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Patients were referred to surgery and followed-up by a specialist in otorhinolaryngology. Subjective symptoms were collected by a structured questionnaire at a median follow-up of 42 months. The objective laryngeal findings improved from the preoperative situation; at 12 months after surgery, the otorhinolaryngeal status was improved in 92.3% (n=24) of the patients. However, only 38.5% (n=10) of these patients evaluated an improvement in their voice quality. Of all, 62.5% (n=25) of the patients reported no or only mild cough or voice hoarseness symptoms postoperatively, 22.5% (n=9) had moderate symptoms, and 15.0% (n=6) suffered from difficult supraesophageal symptoms. Ninety-five percent of the patients regarded the result of their surgery excellent, good, or satisfactory. Of all, 82.5% (n=33) of the patients would still choose surgery, 7.5% (n=3) would abstain from surgery, and 10% (n=4) of the patients were hesitant about their choice. For patients suffering from supraesophageal symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disease with objective evidence of pharyngeal acid exposure, laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication provides a good and alternative adding to current treatment. PMID:17450083

  8. Expression of human papillomavirus and prognosis of juvenile laryngeal papilloma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Tan, Le-Tian; Wang, Shu-Yi; Chen, Yu-Ying; Tian, Jie-Yan; Da, Wen-Ying; He, Ping; Zhao, Ya-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between clinical behavior and expression of human papillomavirus (HPV) in patients with juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis, in an attempt to develop an effective molecular biological method to predict prognosis. We included 37 patients with juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis in the study group and 10 cases each of juvenile vocal cord polyps and juvenile normal laryngeal mucosa as the control group. We detected HPV by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization, identified the virus type, and measured HPV-DNA content using a computer-assisted, color pathological image-analysis system. Additionally, we conducted a retrospective study with regard to the patients’ clinical history to evaluate the prognosis. The data of the 2 groups were compared and statistically analyzed, including a correlation with prognosis. In the study group, 67.3% (25/37) were positive for HPV-Ag by immunocytochemistry; whereas 53.2%, 45.8%, and 25.4% were positive for HPV6b-DNA, HPV11-DNA, and HPV6b+11-DNA, respectively, by in situ hybridization. HPV was not detected in the control group. There was a significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05). Compared to HPV11-DNA-positive cases, those that were positive for HPV6b-DNA and HPV6b+11-DNA showed lower results on average, for age at first diagnosis and self-relief, number of surgeries, and interval between surgeries. Our findings suggest that immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization are useful methods to evaluate the prognosis of juvenile laryngeal papilloma (JLP) and that HPV6b-positivity can be used as an index to predict the development and outcome of JLP. PMID:26629043

  9. Further studies on the prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis in black subjects.

    PubMed

    Bell, C C; Dixie-Bell, D D; Thompson, B

    1986-07-01

    In a previous study, one of the authors (C.C.B.) found isolated sleep paralysis was common in blacks. In this study, conducted by interviews, a recurrent pattern (one or more episodes per month) of isolated sleep paralysis episodes in blacks was described by at least 25 percent of the afflicted sample studied. Frequent episodes were associated with stress, and subjects with isolated sleep paralysis had an unusually high prevalence of panic disorder (15.5 percent). The genetic transmission of sleep paralysis was studied in a large black family, and in addition to stressful environmental factors being associated with the condition, there appears to be a dominant genetic factor associated with the predisposition for developing sleep paralysis. The implications of these findings for stress, anxiety, sleep, and psychophysiologic disorders are discussed. PMID:3746934

  10. Further Studies on the Prevalence of Isolated Sleep Paralysis in Black Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.; Dixie-Bell, Dora D.; Thompson, Belinda

    1986-01-01

    In a previous study, one of the authors (C.C.B.) found isolated sleep paralysis was common in blacks. In this study, conducted by interviews, a recurrent pattern (one or more episodes per month) of isolated sleep paralysis episodes in blacks was described by at least 25 percent of the afflicted sample studied. Frequent episodes were associated with stress, and subjects with isolated sleep paralysis had an unusually high prevalence of panic disorder (15.5 percent). The genetic transmission of sleep paralysis was studied in a large black family, and in addition to stressful environmental factors being associated with the condition, there appears to be a dominant genetic factor associated with the predisposition for developing sleep paralysis. The implications of these findings for stress, anxiety, sleep, and psychophysiologic disorders are discussed. PMID:3746934

  11. The R900S mutation in CACNA1S associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Qing; He, Fangping; Lu, Lingping; Yu, Ping; Jiang, Yajian; Weng, Chen; Huang, Hui; Yi, Xin; Qi, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Primary hypokalemic periodic paralysis is an autosomal dominant skeletal muscle channelopathy. In the present study, we investigated the genotype and phenotype of a Chinese hypokalemic periodic paralysis family. We used whole-exome next-generation sequencing to identify a mutation in the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha subunit gene (CACNA1S), R900S, which is a rare mutation associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. We first present a clinical description of hypokalemic periodic paralysis patients harboring CACNA1SR900S mutations: they were non-responsive to acetazolamide, but combined treatment with triamterene and potassium supplements decreased the frequency of muscle weakness attacks. All male carriers of the R900S mutation experienced such attacks, but all three female carriers were asymptomatic. This study provides further evidence for the phenotypic variation and pharmacogenomics of hypokalemic periodic paralysis. PMID:26433613

  12. Bilateral Facial Paralysis Caused by Bilateral Temporal Bone Fracture: A Case Report and a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Eliçora, Sultan Şevik; Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Bişkin, Sultan; Damar, Murat; Bilgin, Ergin

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral facial paralysis caused by bilateral temporal bone fracture is a rare clinical entity, with seven cases reported in the literature to date. In this paper, we describe a 40-year-old male patient with bilateral facial paralysis and hearing loss that developed after an occupational accident. On physical examination, House-Brackmann (HB) facial paralysis of grade 6 was observed on the right side and HB grade 5 paralysis on the left. Upon temporal bone computed tomography (CT) examination, a fracture line exhibiting transverse progression was observed in both petrous temporal bones. Our patient underwent transmastoid facial decompression surgery of the right ear. The patient refused a left-side operation. Such patients require extensive monitoring in intensive care units because the presence of multiple injuries means that facial functions are often very difficult to evaluate. Therefore, delays may ensue in both diagnosis and treatment of bilateral facial paralysis. PMID:26175920

  13. The neural correlates of movement intentions: A pilot study comparing hypnotic and simulated paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Vera U; Seitz, Jochen; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Höse, Annett; Abler, Birgit; Hole, Günter; Goebel, Rainer; Walter, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    The distinct feeling of wanting to act and thereby causing our own actions is crucial to our self-perception as free human agents. Disturbances of the link between intention and action occur in several disorders. Little is known, however, about the neural correlates of wanting or intending to act. To investigate these for simple voluntary movements, we used a paradigm involving hypnotic paralysis and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eight healthy women were instructed to sequentially perform left and right hand movements during a normal condition, as well as during simulated weakness, simulated paralysis and hypnotic paralysis of the right hand. Right frontopolar cortex was selectively hypoactivated for attempted right hand movement during simulated paralysis while it was active in all other conditions. Since simulated paralysis was the only condition lacking an intention to move, the activation in frontopolar cortex might be related to the intention or volition to move. PMID:26036837

  14. Concurrent Lpin1 and Nrcam mouse mutations result in severe peripheral neuropathy with transitory hind limb paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Darlene S.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Bermingham, John R.; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Brindley, David N.; Soliven, Betty; Beier, David R.; Popko, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a broad category of disorders with a diverse etiology, grouped together by their common pathogenic effect on the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Because of the heterogeneity observed to be responsible for these disorders, a forward genetics method of gene discovery was employed to identify additional affected pathways. In this report we describe the mutant mouse line 20884, generated by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis, which is characterized by adult-onset transitory hind limb paralysis. Linkage mapping revealed that two point mutations are responsible for the phenotype: a partial loss-of-function mutation in the gene for phosphatidate phosphatase Lpin1 and a truncation mutation in the gene that encodes the neuronal cell adhesion molecule NrCAM. To investigate how the 20884 Lpin1 and Nrcam mutations interact to produce the paralysis phenotype, the double mutant and both single mutants were analyzed by quantitative behavioral, histological, and electrophysiological means. The Lpin120884 mutant and the double mutant are characterized by similar levels of demyelination and aberrant myelin structures. Nevertheless, the double mutant exhibits more severe electrophysiological abnormalities than the Lpin120884 mutant. The Nrcam20884 mutant is characterized by normal sciatic nerve morphology and a mild electrophysiological defect. Comparison of the double mutant phenotype with the two single mutants does not point to an additive relationship between the two defects; rather, the Lpin120884 and Nrcam20884 defects appear to act synergistically to produce the 20884 phenotype. It is proposed that the absence of NrCAM in a demyelinating environment has a deleterious effect, possibly by impairing the process of remyelination. PMID:19793967

  15. Reappraisal of nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Millesi, H

    1981-04-01

    In every case of acute injury involving the nerve, the surgeon must decide whether a primary repair of an elective early secondary repair is the treatment of choice. In a clean-cut nerve without defect, immediate primary repair, using trunk-to-trunk coaptation with epineurial sutures, offers an optimal solution. In the periphery of the median and the ulnar nerves, in which motor and sensory fascicles are already separated, fascicular dissection is performed, and coaptation of fascicle groups should be done. In medical centers with excellent facilities, such nerve repair will give good results even in very severe lesions. This repair can be performed also as a delayed primary procedure. If there is a nerve defect, a primary grafting procedure must be considered. We do not recommend this as a routine procedure because the nerve grafts might be lost if a complication occurs. The decision to perform a planned early secondary repair is an equally good alternative, especially in cases of a nerve defect, severe concomitant injuries, or both. In case of a combined nerve and tendon lesion in the carpal tunnel, the nerve repair can be performed at a later procedure without exposing the repaired flexor tendons, thus avoiding adhesion between tendons and nerves. If a decision is made in favor of an early secondary repair, the two stumps can be approximated by stitches to prevent retraction, if this can be achieved without tension. Approximation under tension in case of a larger defect would damage the two stumps and create an even larger defect. Marking the nerve ends by sutures is not necessary because exploration with always start in normal tissue, exposing the nerves from the proximal or the distal segments. Early secondary repair is performed during the third week, or later if this is demanded by local conditions. When indicated, plastic surgical procedures can eliminate constricting scars and provide an optimal soft tissue environment. After exploration and preparation of the two stumps, the surgeon must decide whether direct suturing or a nerve graft is indicated. If after very limited mobilization and slight flexion the nerve stumps cannot be coapted easily, a nerve graft should be used. The quality of motor recovery decreases steadily after a 6 month delay of repair. Late secondary repairs or reoperation of failure of primary repair should be performed within this time limit, although this does not mean that motor recovery cannot occur after a longer time interval. Useful motor recovery was achieved in certain cases after 18 months or more. Obviously the results might have been better if the time interval had been shorter. If a patient is seen with a nerve lesion after a long time interval, nerve repair is still indicated if sensibility is the main functional objective. In other long-standing cases, the nerve repair is combined with tendon transfer or capsulorrhaphy. After a particularly long time interval or in old patients, only palliative surgery is indicated. PMID:7233326

  16. Association of laryngeal and pulmonary malignancies: a continuing challenge.

    PubMed

    Strigenz, M A; Toohill, R J; Grossman, T W

    1987-01-01

    Over a 10-year period, 790 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated at The Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals and were followed for a minimum of 7 years. Of the 218 patients with index primary laryngeal tumors, 43 (19.7%) developed additional malignancies in the head and neck, esophagus, or lung. Secondary lung tumors were the most common, occurring in 23 patients (10.6%). Of the 218 patients with index primary laryngeal carcinoma, 113 were treated successfully and never developed a recurrence of the original tumor. Twenty-one second primary lung malignancies developed in this group of successfully treated laryngeal tumor patients. The occurrence of these pulmonary malignancies was distributed fairly evenly over time. Three patients developed second primary lung tumors more than 7 years after initial treatment. The appearance of a secondary malignancy in the lung had a devastating effect upon survival. None of our patients survived more than 2 years after detection of the lung lesion. The relatively high incidence and delayed onset of second primary lung tumors in this group call into question the concept of 5-year "cures." Our challenge for the future should be the prevention and early detection of these second primary lung tumors. PMID:3688747

  17. Laryngeal Tumor Detection and Classification in Endoscopic Video.

    PubMed

    Barbalata, Corina; Mattos, Leonardo S

    2016-01-01

    The development of the narrow-band imaging (NBI) has been increasing the interest of medical specialists in the study of laryngeal microvascular network to establish diagnosis without biopsy and pathological examination. A possible solution to this challenging problem is presented in this paper, which proposes an automatic method based on anisotropic filtering and matched filter to extract the lesion area and segment blood vessels. Lesion classification is then performed based on a statistical analysis of the blood vessels' characteristics, such as thickness, tortuosity, and density. Here, the presented algorithm is applied to 50 NBI endoscopic images of laryngeal diseases and the segmentation and classification accuracies are investigated. The experimental results show the proposed algorithm provides reliable results, reaching an overall classification accuracy rating of 84.3%. This is a highly motivating preliminary result that proves the feasibility of the new method and supports the investment in further research and development to translate this study into clinical practice. Furthermore, to our best knowledge, this is the first time image processing is used to automatically classify laryngeal tumors in endoscopic videos based on tumor vascularization characteristics. Therefore, the introduced system represents an innovation in biomedical and health informatics. PMID:25438330

  18. Phonation threshold power in ex vivo laryngeal models

    PubMed Central

    Regner, Michael F.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    This study hypothesized that phonation threshold power is measureable and sensitive to changes in the biomechanical properties of the vocal folds. Phonation threshold power was measured in three sample populations of ten excised canine larynges treated with variable posterior glottal gap, variable bilateral vocal fold elongation, and variable vocal fold lesioning. Posterior glottal gap was varied from 0 mm to 4 mm in 0.5 mm intervals. Bilateral vocal fold elongation was varied from 0% to 20% in 5% intervals. Vocal fold lesion treatments included unilateral and bilateral vocal fold lesion groups. Each treatment was investigated independently in a sample population of ten excised canine larynges. Linear regression analysis indicated that phonation threshold power was sensitive to posterior glottal gap (R2=0.298, p<0.001) and weakly to vocal fold elongation (R2=0.052, p=0.003). A one-way repeated measures ANOVA indicated that phonation threshold power was sensitive to the presence of lesions (p<0.001). Theoretical and experimental evidence presented here suggests that phonation threshold power could be used as a broad screening parameter, sensitive to certain changes in the biomechanical properties of the larynx. It has not yet been measured in humans, but because it has the potential to represent the airflow-tissue energy transfer more completely the phonation threshold pressure or flow alone, it may be a more useful parameter than these and could be used to indicate that laryngeal health is likely abnormal. PMID:20817475

  19. RNA 1 and RNA 2 Genomic Segments of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Are Infectious and Induce Chronic Bee Paralysis Disease

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Ibrahim; Schurr, Frank; Goulet, Adeline; Cougoule, Nicolas; Ribière-Chabert, Magali; Darbon, Hervé; Thiéry, Richard; Dubois, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) causes an infectious and contagious disease of adult honeybees. Its segmented genome is composed of two major positive single-stranded RNAs, RNA 1 (3,674 nt) and RNA 2 (2,305 nt). Three minor RNAs (about 1,000 nt each) have been described earlier but they were not detected by sequencing of CBPV genome. In this study, the results of in vivo inoculation of the two purified CBPV major RNAs are presented and demonstrate that RNA 1 and RNA 2 are infectious. Honeybees inoculated with 109 RNA copies per bee developed paralysis symptoms within 6 days after inoculation. The number of CBPV RNA copies increased significantly throughout the infection. Moreover, the negative strand of CBPV RNA was detected by RT-PCR, and CBPV particles were visualized by electronic microscopy in inoculated honeybees. Taken together, these results show that CBPV RNA 1 and CBPV RNA 2 segments can induce virus replication and produce CBPV virus particles. Therefore, the three minor RNAs described in early studies are not essential for virus replication. These data are crucial for the development of a reverse genetic system for CBPV. PMID:26583154

  20. RNA 1 and RNA 2 Genomic Segments of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Are Infectious and Induce Chronic Bee Paralysis Disease.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ibrahim; Schurr, Frank; Goulet, Adeline; Cougoule, Nicolas; Ribière-Chabert, Magali; Darbon, Hervé; Thiéry, Richard; Dubois, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) causes an infectious and contagious disease of adult honeybees. Its segmented genome is composed of two major positive single-stranded RNAs, RNA 1 (3,674 nt) and RNA 2 (2,305 nt). Three minor RNAs (about 1,000 nt each) have been described earlier but they were not detected by sequencing of CBPV genome. In this study, the results of in vivo inoculation of the two purified CBPV major RNAs are presented and demonstrate that RNA 1 and RNA 2 are infectious. Honeybees inoculated with 10(9) RNA copies per bee developed paralysis symptoms within 6 days after inoculation. The number of CBPV RNA copies increased significantly throughout the infection. Moreover, the negative strand of CBPV RNA was detected by RT-PCR, and CBPV particles were visualized by electronic microscopy in inoculated honeybees. Taken together, these results show that CBPV RNA 1 and CBPV RNA 2 segments can induce virus replication and produce CBPV virus particles. Therefore, the three minor RNAs described in early studies are not essential for virus replication. These data are crucial for the development of a reverse genetic system for CBPV. PMID:26583154

  1. Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bäumer, Philipp; Meinck, Hans-Michael; Schiefer, Johannes; Weiler, Markus; Bendszus, Martin; Kele, Henrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine lesion sites and spatial lesion patterns in spontaneous anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS) with high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography (MRN). Methods: In 20 patients with AINS and 20 age- and sex-matched controls, MRN of median nerve fascicles was performed at 3T with large longitudinal anatomical coverage (upper arm/elbow/forearm): 135 contiguous axial slices (T2-weighted: echo time/repetition time 52/7,020 ms, time of acquisition: 15 minutes 48 seconds, in-plane resolution: 0.25 × 0.25 mm). Lesion classification was performed by visual inspection and by quantitative analysis of normalized T2 signal after segmentation of median nerve voxels. Results: In all patients and no controls, T2 lesions of individual fascicles were observed within upper arm median nerve trunk and strictly followed a somatotopic/internal topography: affected were those motor fascicles that will form the anterior interosseous nerve further distally while other fascicles were spared. Predominant lesion focus was at a mean distance of 14.6 ± 5.4 cm proximal to the humeroradial joint. Discriminative power of quantitative T2 signal analysis and of qualitative lesion rating was high, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity (p < 0.0001). Fascicular T2 lesion patterns were rated as multifocal (n = 17), monofocal (n = 2), or indeterminate (n = 1) by 2 independent observers with strong agreement (kappa = 0.83). Conclusion: It has been difficult to prove the existence of fascicular/partial nerve lesions in spontaneous neuropathies using clinical and electrophysiologic findings. With MRN, fascicular lesions with strict somatotopic organization were observed in upper arm median nerve trunks of patients with AINS. Our data strongly support that AINS in the majority of cases is not a surgically treatable entrapment neuropathy but a multifocal mononeuropathy selectively involving, within the main trunk of the median nerve, the motor fascicles that continue distally to form the anterior interosseous nerve. PMID:24415574

  2. Etiology of Hypokalemic Paralysis in Korea: Data from a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Wi, Jung-Kook; Lee, Hong Joo; Kim, Eun Young; Cho, Joo Hee; Chin, Sang Ouk; Rhee, Sang Youl; Moon, Ju-Young; Lee, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the underlying causes of hypokalemic paralysis seems to be essential for the appropriate management of affected patients and their prevention of recurrent attacks. There is, however, a paucity of documented reports on the etiology of hypokalemic paralysis in Korea. We retrospectively analyzed 34 patients with acute flaccid weakness due to hypokalaemia who were admitted during the 5-year study period in order to determine the spectrum of hypokalemic paralysis in Korea and to identify the differences in clinical parameters all across the causes of hypokalemic paralysis. We divided those 34 patients into 3 groups; the 1st group, idiopathic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP), the 2nd, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP), and the 3rd group, secondary hypokalemic paralysis (HP) without TPP. Seven of the patients (20.6%) were diagnosed as idiopathic HPP considered the sporadic form, and 27 patients (79.4%) as secondary HP. Among the patients diagnosed as secondary HP, 16 patients (47.1%) had TPP. Patients of secondary hypokalemic paralysis without TPP required a longer recovery time compared with those who had either idiopathic HPP or TPP. This is due to the fact that patients of secondary HP had a significantly negative total body potassium balance, whereas idiopathic HPP and TPP were only associated with intracellular shift of potassium. Most of the TPP patients included in our study had overt thyrotoxicosis while 3 patients had subclinical thyrotoxicosis. This study shows that TPP is the most common cause of hypokalemic paralysis in Korea. And we suggest that doctors should consider the presence of TPP in patients of hypokalemic paralysis even if they clinically appear to be euthyroid state. PMID:23508689

  3. Bilateral Cranial IX and X Nerve Palsies After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Don; Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Seung Ah; Joo, Hye In; Yeo, Jin Ah

    2016-01-01

    We report a 57-year-old man with bilateral cranial nerve IX and X palsies who presented with severe dysphagia. After a mild head injury, the patient complained of difficult swallowing. Physical examination revealed normal tongue motion and no uvular deviation. Cervical X-ray findings were negative, but a brain computed tomography revealed a skull fracture involving bilateral jugular foramen. Laryngoscopy indicated bilateral vocal cord palsy. In a videofluoroscopic swallowing study, food residue remained in the vallecula and pyriform sinus, and there was reduced motion of the pharynx and larynx. Electromyography confirmed bilateral superior and recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. PMID:26949684

  4. Bilateral Cranial IX and X Nerve Palsies After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Don; Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Seung Ah; Joo, Hye In; Yeo, Jin Ah; Chung, Sung Joon

    2016-02-01

    We report a 57-year-old man with bilateral cranial nerve IX and X palsies who presented with severe dysphagia. After a mild head injury, the patient complained of difficult swallowing. Physical examination revealed normal tongue motion and no uvular deviation. Cervical X-ray findings were negative, but a brain computed tomography revealed a skull fracture involving bilateral jugular foramen. Laryngoscopy indicated bilateral vocal cord palsy. In a videofluoroscopic swallowing study, food residue remained in the vallecula and pyriform sinus, and there was reduced motion of the pharynx and larynx. Electromyography confirmed bilateral superior and recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. PMID:26949684

  5. High Ulnar Nerve Injuries: Nerve Transfers to Restore Function.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jennifer Megan M

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are challenging problems. Nerve transfers are one of many options available to surgeons caring for these patients, although they do not replace tendon transfers, nerve graft, or primary repair in all patients. Distal nerve transfers for the treatment of high ulnar nerve injuries allow for a shorter reinnervation period and improved ulnar intrinsic recovery, which are critical to function of the hand. PMID:27094893

  6. Comparison of Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway during Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hoşten, Tülay; Yıldız, Tülay Şahin; Kuş, Alparslan; Solak, Mine; Toker, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the safety and efficacy of the Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway (S-LMA) with that of the ProSeal-LMA (P-LMA) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Sixty adults were randomly allocated. Following anaesthesia induction, experienced LMA users inserted the airway devices. Results: Oropharyngeal leak pressure was similar in groups (S-LMA, 27.8±2.9 cmH2O; P-LMA, 27.0±4.7 cmH2O; p=0.42) and did not change during the induction of and throughout pneumoperitoneum. The first attempt success rates were 93% with both S-LMA and P-LMA. Mean airway device insertion time was significantly shorter with S-LMA than with P-LMA (12.5±4.1 seconds versus 15.6±6.0 seconds; p=0.02). The first attempt success rates for the drainage tube insertion were similar (P-LMA, 93%; S-LMA 100%); however, drainage tubes were inserted more quickly with S-LMA than with P-LMA (9.0±3.2 seconds versus 14.7±6.6 seconds; p=0.001). In the PACU, vomiting was observed in five patients (three females and two males) in the S-LMA group and in one female patient in the P-LMA group (p=0.10). Conclusion: Both airway devices can be used safely in laparoscopic cholecystectomies with suitable patients and experienced users. However, further studies are required not only for comparing both airway devices in terms of postoperative nausea and vomiting but also for yielding definitive results. PMID:25207022

  7. [Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis due to Parsonage-Turner syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tissier-Ducamp, D; Martinez, S; Alagha, K; Charpin, D; Chanez, P; Palot, A

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a 49-years-old patient who presented to the accident and emergency department with sudden onset dyspnea associated with acute shoulder pain. He was breathless at rest with supine hypoxemia. He had an amyotrophic left shoulder with localized paresis of the shoulder. Both hemi-diaphragms were elevated on chest X-rays. Pulmonary function tests showed a restrictive pattern and both phrenic nerve conduction velocities were decreased. At night, alveolar hypoventilation was evidenced by elevated mean capnography (PtcCO2: 57mmHg). Neuralgic amyotrophy, Parsonage-Turner syndrome was the final diagnosis. This syndrome is a brachial plexus neuritis with a predilection for the suprascapular and axillary nerves. Phrenic nerve involvement is rare but where present can be the most prominent clinical feature as in our case report. PMID:25534571

  8. Application experience of intraoperative neuromonitoring in thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haitao; Jiang, Lixin; Wang, Xuewen; Hu, Jinchen; Ning, Jinrao; Wang, Dong; Li, Baoyuan; Zheng, Guibin; Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to summarize the experience of intraoperative neuromonitoring system for monitoring and protection of recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroid surgery. Methods: There were 220 cases in this study, male 53, female 167, mean age 38.2 years old. 85 cases in the study had thyroid cancer, 19 cases had thyroid benign tumor, 90 cases had thyroid goiter, 3 cases had Hashimoto’s diseases, and 23 cases had hyperthyroidism. The tumor diameters were over than 5 cm in 113 cases. In the procedure, two recording needle electrodes were put into cricothyroid muscle; one stimulator electrodes was explored in tracheo-asophageal groove, if recurrent laryngeal nerves were right there or near, doctors could see the electromyogram and hear the toot honk. With careful dissection, recurrent laryngeal nerve could be found out till explored into the larynx site. Results: 207 cases (278 sizes) of 220 were finished, electromyogram was not drawn out in 13 cases; 9 cases were false-negative because of system and anesthesia questions; needle electrodes cannot be put in properly in 4 cases because of cricothyroid muscle cancer invasion. No permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis occurred, 2 cases with transient nerve paralysis recovered in one month. Conclusion: The intraoperative neuromonitoring system can avoid damage of the recurrent laryngeal nerves when exposing the recurrent laryngeal nerve in the whole operation, therefore, with less medical complications. PMID:26885214

  9. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. ... change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling ...

  10. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... surface of the body where it crosses the elbow. The damage destroys the nerve covering ( myelin sheath) ... be caused by: Long-term pressure on the elbow An elbow fracture or dislocation Temporary pain and ...

  11. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  12. Cranial Nerve VIII

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Cranial nerve VIII brings sound and information about one's position and movement in space into the brain. The auditory and vestibular systems subserve several functions basic to clinical medicine and to psychiatry. This article covers the basics of cranial nerve VIII, hearing and vestibular systems, including common problems with hearing and balance, problems with hearing and balance that tend to be found in psychiatric patients, and some simple assessments of value in clinical practice. PMID:20436771

  13. [Professor SONG Nanchang's experience for treatment of peripheral facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    He, Yong; Pan, Hao; Xu, Hanbin

    2015-06-01

    Professor SONG Nanchang's clinical experience and characteristics for treatment of peripheral facial paralysis are introduced. In clinical treatment, professor SONG has adopted staging treatment strategy, and performed acupuncture stimulation with different levels. He attaches great importance to the acupoint selection on distal limbs. For the treatment on the face, he takes temperature as necessity; he inherits from famous Chinese doctor ZONG Ruilin's acupuncture technique of slow-twisting and gentle-pressing. Meanwhile, he excels in combination, of different therapies, using acupuncture, moxibustion, electroacupuncture, auricular point sticking, Chinese herbal medicine, etc. according to individual condition and disease stages. He also emphasizes on psychological counseling and daily life care to achieve rehabilitation within the shortest time. PMID:26480565

  14. Rates of isolated sleep paralysis in outpatients with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael W; Simon, Naomi M; Powers, Mark; Hinton, Devon; Zalta, Alyson K; Pollack, Mark H

    2006-01-01

    Initial research suggests that rates of isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) are elevated in individuals with panic disorder and particularly low in individuals with other anxiety disorders. To further evaluate these findings, we examined rates of ISP in a sample outpatients with primary diagnoses of panic disorder (n=24), social anxiety disorder (n=18), or generalized anxiety disorder (n=18). We obtained an overall rate of ISP of 19.7%; rates for patients with panic disorder (20.8%) fell between those with generalized anxiety disorder (15.8%) and social phobia (22.2%). Analysis of comorbidities failed to provide evidence of link between depressive disorders and ISP, but did indicate a significant association between anxiety comorbidity and higher rates of ISP. Results are discussed relative to other variables predicting variability in the occurrence of ISP. PMID:16099138

  15. Optic nerve aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lisi; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-07-01

    We report a 55-year-old woman with optic nerve Aspergillosis. Aspergillus is an ubiquitous airborne saprophytic fungus. Inhaled Aspergillus conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms; however, in immunosuppressed patients, they can cause disease. The woman had a past medical history of hypertension and migraines. She presented 1 year prior to death with a new onset headache behind the left eye and later developed blurred vision and scotoma. A left temporal artery biopsy was negative for giant cell arteritis. One month prior to the current admission, she had an MRI showing optic nerve thickening with no other findings. Because of the visual loss and a positive antinuclear antibody test, she was given a trial of high dose steroids and while it significantly improved her headache, her vision did not improve. At autopsy, the left optic nerve at the level of the cavernous sinus and extending into the optic chiasm was enlarged in diameter and there was a 1.3 cm firm nodule surrounding the left optic nerve. Histologically, an abscess surrounded and involved the left optic nerve. Acute angle branching, angioinvasive fungal hyphae were identified on Grocott's methenamine silver stained sections, consistent with Aspergillus spp. No gross or microscopic evidence of systemic vasculitis or infection was identified in the body. The literature on optic nerve Aspergillosis is reviewed. PMID:25861888

  16. Sural nerve defects after nerve biopsy or nerve transfer as a sensory regeneration model for peripheral nerve conduit implantation.

    PubMed

    Radtke, C; Kocsis, J D; Reimers, K; Allmeling, C; Vogt, P M

    2013-09-01

    Nerve repair after injury can be effectively accomplished by direct suture approximation of the proximal and distal segments. This is more successful if coadaptation can be achieved without tension. Currently, the gold standard repair of larger deficits is the transplantation of an autologous sensory sural nerve graft. However, a significant disadvantage of this technique is the inevitable donor morbidity (sensory loss, neuroma and scar formation) after harvesting of the sural nerve. Moreover, limitation of autologous donor nerve length and fixed diameter of the available sural nerve are major drawbacks of current autograft treatment. Another approach that was introduced for nerve repair is the implantation of alloplastic nerve tubes made of, for example, poly-L-lactide. In these, nerve stumps of the transected nerves are surgically bridged using the biosynthetic conduit. A number of experimental studies, primarily in rodents, indicate axonal regeneration and remyelination after implantation of various conduits. However, only limited clinical studies with conduit implantation have been performed in acute peripheral nerve injuries particularly on digital nerves. Clinical transfer of animal studies, which can be carefully calibrated for site and extent of injury, to humans is difficult to interpret due to the intrinsic variability in human nerve injuries. This prevents effective quantification of improvement and induces bias in the study. Therefore, standardization of lesion/repair in human studies is warranted. Here we propose to use sural nerve defects, induced due to nerve graft harvesting or from diagnostic nerve biopsies as a model site to enable standardization of nerve conduit implantation. This would help better with the characterization of the implants and its effectiveness in axonal regeneration and remyelination. Nerve regeneration can be assessed, for example, by recovery of sensation, measured non-invasively by threshold to von Frey filaments and cold allodynia. Moreover, the implantation of nerve conduits may not only serve as a model to examine nerve repair, but it could also prevent neuroma formation, which is a major morbidity of sural nerve extraction. PMID:23867139

  17. Functional and anatomical basis for brain plasticity in facial palsy rehabilitation using the masseteric nerve.

    PubMed

    Buendia, Javier; Loayza, Francis R; Luis, Elkin O; Celorrio, Marta; Pastor, Maria A; Hontanilla, Bernardo

    2016-03-01

    Several techniques have been described for smile restoration after facial nerve paralysis. When a nerve other than the contralateral facial nerve is used to restore the smile, some controversy appears because of the nonphysiological mechanism of smile recovering. Different authors have reported natural results with the masseter nerve. The physiological pathways which determine whether this is achieved continue to remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activation pattern measuring blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal during smiling and jaw clenching was recorded in a group of 24 healthy subjects (11 females). Effective connectivity of premotor regions was also compared in both tasks. The brain activation pattern was similar for smile and jaw-clenching tasks. Smile activations showed topographic overlap though more extended for smile than clenching. Gender comparisons during facial movements, according to kinematics and BOLD signal, did not reveal significant differences. Effective connectivity results of psychophysiological interaction (PPI) from the same seeds located in bilateral facial premotor regions showed significant task and gender differences (p < 0.001). The hypothesis of brain plasticity between the facial nerve and masseter nerve areas is supported by the broad cortical overlap in the representation of facial and masseter muscles. PMID:26683008

  18. Acoustic and Perceptual Effects of Left-Right Laryngeal Asymmetries Based on Computational Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Bunton, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Computational modeling was used to examine the consequences of 5 different laryngeal asymmetries on acoustic and perceptual measures of vocal function. Method: A kinematic vocal fold model was used to impose 5 laryngeal asymmetries: adduction, edge bulging, nodal point ratio, amplitude of vibration, and starting phase. Thirty /a/ and /?/…

  19. Association between tea and coffee consumption and risk of laryngeal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zhiguo; Wang, Zhaoyan; Jin, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies evaluating the association of tea and coffee consumption and the risk of laryngeal cancer have produced inconsistent results. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea and coffee consumption and laryngeal cancer risk. Methods: Pertinent studies were identified by a search in PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Wan Fang Med Online. The random effect model was used based on heterogeneity test. Publication bias was estimated using Egger’s regression asymmetry test. As a result, 11 articles were included in this meta-analysis. Results: For tea consumption and laryngeal cancer, data from 8 studies including 2167 laryngeal cancer cases were used, and the pooled results suggested that highest tea consumption versus lowest level wasn’t associated with the risk of laryngeal cancer [summary RR = 0.909, 95% CI = 0.674-1.227]. Eight studies comprising 2596 laryngeal cancer cases for coffee consumption and laryngeal cancer risk were included, and no association was found (summary RR = 1.218, 95% CI = 0.915-1.622). Conclusions: Finding from this meta-analysis suggested that tea and coffee consumption weren’t associated with the risk of laryngeal cancer. Since the potential biases and confounders could not be ruled out completely in this meta-analysis, further studies are warranted to confirm this result. PMID:25664021

  20. Tea and Coffee Consumption and Risk of Laryngeal Cancer: A Systematic Review Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangbo; Long, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Background Tea and coffee are the most commonly consumed beverages in the worldwide. The relationship between tea and coffee consumption on the risk of laryngeal cancer was still unclear. Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic database (Medline and EMBASE) and reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles until Oct. 2013. Observational studies that reported RRs and 95% CIs for the link of tea and coffee consumption on the risk of laryngeal cancer were eligible. A meta-analysis was obtained to combine study-specific RRs with a random-effects model. Results A total of 2,803 cases and 503,234 controls in 10 independent studies were identified. The overall analysis of all 10 studies, including the case-control and cohort studies, found that tea drinking was not associated with laryngeal carcinoma (RR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.66–1.61). However, coffee consumption was significantly associated with the laryngeal carcinoma (RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03–2.11). A dose-response relationship between coffee intake and laryngeal carcinoma was detected; however, no evidence of dose-response link between tea consumption and laryngeal carcinoma risk was detected. Conclusions The results from this meta-analysis of observational studies demonstrate that coffee consumption would increase the laryngeal cancer risk, while tea intake was not associated with risk of laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:25502726