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1

Anemias.  

PubMed

Anemias continue to present a challenge to the health care profession. Anemia is defined as a reduction in one or more of the RBC indices. Patients presenting with a mild form of anemia may be asymptomatic; however, in more serious cases the anemia can become life threatening. In many cases the clinical presentation also reflects the underlying cause. Anemia may be attributed to various causes, whereas autoimmune RBC destruction may be attributed to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Laboratory tests are essential in facilitating early detection and differentiation of anemia. PMID:24267278

Broadway-Duren, Jacqueline B; Klaassen, Hillary

2013-12-01

2

Anemias  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anemia is defined as a reduction in the red cell mass due to decreased production, increased loss\\/ decreased survival, or\\u000a increased destruction of red blood cells (RBCs). As most of the oxygen is transported by the RBCs to the body tissues, a reduction\\u000a in the red cell mass causes reduced oxygen supply to the body cells. Consequently, anemia is a

Rosalind Bryant

3

Pernicious anemia  

MedlinePLUS

Macrocytic achylic anemia; Congenital pernicious anemia; Juvenile pernicious anemia; Vitamin B12 deficiency (malabsorption) ... Pernicious anemia is a type of vitamin B12 anemia. The body needs vitamin B12 to make red blood cells. ...

4

Aplastic Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Aplastic Anemia? Aplastic anemia (a-PLAS-tik uh-NEE-me-uh) is ... heart, heart failure , infections, and bleeding. Severe aplastic anemia can even cause death. Overview Aplastic anemia is ...

5

Pernicious Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Pernicious Anemia? Pernicious anemia (per-NISH-us uh-NEE-me-uh) is ... nervous system working properly. People who have pernicious anemia can't absorb enough vitamin B12 from food. ...

6

Hemolytic Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Hemolytic Anemia? Hemolytic anemia (HEE-moh-lit-ick uh-NEE-me-uh) ... blood cells to replace them. However, in hemolytic anemia, the bone marrow can't make red blood ...

7

Aplastic Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

Aplastic anemia is a rare but serious blood disorder. If you have it, your bone marrow doesn't make ... cause is unknown. Your doctor will diagnose aplastic anemia based on your medical and family histories, a ...

8

Tratamiento del paludismo pediátrico: Papel de las intervenciones nutricionales  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEl paludismo es una causa primordial de morbilidad y mortalidad en niños, particularmente en África subsahariana. Aunque se ha logrado un progreso considerable en el tratamiento del paludismo pediátrico con el tratamiento de combinación basado en la artemisinina, siguen existiendo numerosos obstáculos que se oponen a la puesta en práctica efectiva de estas nuevas opciones terapéuticas sumamente eficaces. Análogamente, si

Akoto Kwame Osei; Davidson H. Hamer

2008-01-01

9

Anemia Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.\\u000a The anemia in this setting results primarily from inadequate erythrocyte production by the bone marrow due to a deficiency\\u000a of erythropoietin. Other factors may contribute to the development of anemia, including most notably iron deficiency, inflammation,\\u000a and malnutrition. Treatment options, including

Arthur Tsai; Jeffrey S. Berns

10

Anemia and Fatigue  

MedlinePLUS

Anemia And Fatigue Anemia And Fatigue htmAnemiaAndFatigue Left untreated, anemia can lead to a lack of energy and, more seriously, strokes, heart attacks ... 12 t InteliHealth Medical Content 2014-12-08 Anemia And Fatigue What Is Anemia? Anemia means that ...

11

Fanconi's anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... other cancers, usually leukemia or cancers of the head, neck, or urinary system. Medicines called growth factors (such ... including leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and cancer of the head, neck, or urinary system. Women with Fanconi's anemia who ...

12

Sickle cell anemia - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - sickle cell anemia ... The following organizations are good resources for information on sickle cell anemia : American Sickle Cell Anemia Association - www.ascaa.org/ National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute - www. ...

13

Severe Aplastic Anemia (SAA)  

MedlinePLUS

... Email this page Print this page Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a disease in which the bone ... make enough blood cells for the body. Aplastic anemia is rare and occurs more frequently in eastern ...

14

How Is Anemia Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... ve had an illness or condition that could cause anemia. Let your doctor know about any medicines you ... blood cells and a clue as to the cause of your anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia , for example, red blood ...

15

Sickle Cell Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... not have the disease itself. What Is Sickle Cell Anemia? Sickle cell anemia is a blood disorder ... blood vessels. Continue What Happens With Sickle-Shaped Cells Sickle cell anemia occurs because an abnormal form ...

16

Iron-Deficiency Anemia  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Research 4 Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » Iron-Deficiency Anemia » What Is ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Explore Iron-Deficiency Anemia What Is ... Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical ...

17

Anemia in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Anemia in pregnancy is a global health problem affecting nearly half of all pregnant women worldwide. High fetal demands for iron render iron deficiency the most common cause of anemia of pregnancy, with other micronutrient deficiencies contributing less frequently. In certain geographical populations, human pathogens such as hookworm, malarial parasite and human immunodeficiency virus are important factors in anemia of pregnancy. The hemoglobinopathies, sickle cell disease and thalassemia, represent diverse causes of anemia of pregnancy, requiring specialized care. Aplastic anemia is a rare, morbid cause of anemia of pregnancy and is managed with transfusions until the completion of pregnancy. PMID:21444028

Lee, Alfred Ian; Okam, Maureen M

2011-04-01

18

Folate-deficiency anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... acid in your diet Hemolytic anemia Long-term alcoholism Use of certain medications (such as phenytoin [Dilantin], ... raise your risk for this type of anemia: Alcoholism Eating overcooked food Poor diet (often seen in ...

19

Your Guide to Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... for their irondeficiency anemia. These treatments include blood transfusions, medicines such as erythropoietin therapy to help the bone ... as possible. Aplastic anemia is treated with blood transfusions, medicines, blood and marrow stem cell transplants, and other ...

20

Living with Fanconi Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Fanconi Anemia Improvements in blood and marrow stem cell transplants ... FA can be costly). Rate This Content: Fanconi Anemia Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

21

Congenital spherocytic anemia  

MedlinePLUS

Congenital spherocytic anemia is a disorder of the surface layer (membrane) of red blood cells. It leads to red blood cells that are shaped like spheres, and premature breakdown of red blood cells ( hemolytic anemia ).

22

The Anemias of Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diagnosing anemia in athletes is complicated because athletes normally have a pseudoanemia that needs no treatment. Athletes, however, can develop anemia from iron deficiency or footstrike hemolysis, which require diagnosis and treatment. (Author/MT)

Eichner, Edward R.

1986-01-01

23

Sickle cell anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Wound care for leg ulcers Bone marrow or stem cell transplants can cure sickle cell anemia, but this ... cell anemia patients often cannot find well-matched stem cell donors. People with sickle cell disease should have ...

24

Anemia, fatigue and aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is associated with increased incidence and prevalence of both cancer and anemia. Cancer and aging may conspire in making anemia more frequent and more severe. This article reviews the causes and the consequences of anemia in the older individual. The most common causes include chronic inflammation that is a typical manifestation of aging, iron deficiency that may be due

L. Balducci

2010-01-01

25

[Fatigue and anemia].  

PubMed

We herein report on an 80-year old male patient with a history of muscle weakness, fatigue and weight loss since several months. Because of a pathologic synacthen test in combination with decreased levels of ACTH, we diagnosed a secondary chronic adrenal insufficiency. Because of a normochromic, normocytic, and hypo-proliferative anemia, bone marrow puncture was performed, showing an anemia of chronic disease. We initiated hydrocortisone and anemia and patients' symptoms were fully reconstituted. PMID:19953473

Ivanova, K; Zeller, A

2009-12-01

26

Inborn anemias in mice  

SciTech Connect

hereditary anemias of mice have been the chief objects of investigation. At present under study are four macrocytic anemias, five hemolytic anemias, nonhemolytic microcytic anemia, transitory siderocytic anemia, sex-linked iron-transport anemia, an ..cap alpha..-thalassemia, and a new target-cell anemia. Each of these blood dyscrasias is caused by the action of a unique mutant gene, which determines the structure of different intracellular molecules, and thus controls a different metabolic process. Thus our wide range of different hereditary anemias has considerable potential for uncovering many different aspects of hemopoietic homeostatic mechanisms in the mouse. Each anemia is studied through: (a) characterization of peripheral blood values, (b) determinations of radiosensitivity under a variety of conditions, (c) measurements of iron metabolism and heme synthesis, (d) histological and biochemical study of blood-forming tissue, (e) functional tests of the stem cell component, (f) examination of responses to erythroid stimuli, and (g) transplantation of tissue between individuals of differently affected genotypes.

Bernstein, S.E.; Barker, J.E.; Russell, E.S.

1981-06-01

27

How Is Pernicious Anemia Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pernicious Anemia Treated? Doctors treat pernicious anemia by replacing the missing vitamin B12 in the body. People who have pernicious anemia may need lifelong treatment. The goals of treating ...

28

PRIMARY NONFAMILIAL HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A LTHOUGH patients with hemolytic anemia are not numerous, they continue to be a problem of special interest and great difficulty. In the majority of cases the disease is of the familial or congenital type. The commonly accepted criteria for the diagnosis of congenital hemolytic anemia include the presence of a microsphero- cytic blood picture with an increase in signs

J. M. STICKNEY; FRANK J. HECK

29

Inclusion Body Anemia with Pigmenturia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congential inclusion body anemia with abnormal pigment metabolism is a rare form of hemolytic anemia. Criteria for diagnosis of this anemia consist of (1) the presence of a hemolytic anemia since birth or early choldhood, (2) the presence of numerous larg...

T. W. Sheehy

1964-01-01

30

Hepcidin and sports anemia  

PubMed Central

Iron is an important mineral element used by the body in a variety of metabolic and physiologic processes. These processes are highly active when the body is undergoing physical exercises. Prevalence of exercise-induced iron deficiency anemia (also known as sports anemia) is notably high in athletic populations, particularly those with heavy training loads. The pathogenesis of sports anemia is closely related to disorders of iron metabolism, and a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of iron metabolism in the course of physical exercises could expand ways of treatment and prevention of sports anemia. In recent years, there have been remarkable research advances regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying changes of iron metabolism in response to physical exercises. This review has covered these advances, including effects of exercise on duodenum iron absorption, serum iron status, iron distribution in organs, erythropoiesis, and hepcidin’s function and its regulation. New methods for the treatment of exercise-induced iron deficiency are also discussed.

2014-01-01

31

Cooley's Anemia Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Cooley's Anemia Foundation Leading the Fight against Thalassemia About Us Mission/Purpose History Medical Research Board/Staff Contact the Foundation Learn about Thalassemia About Thalassemia Clinical Trials Blood ...

32

Anemia in the Newborn  

MedlinePLUS

... Infections acquired before birth, such as toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus infection, herpes simplex virus infection, or syphilis, may also ... and Diamond-Blackfan anemia. Some infections (such as cytomegalovirus infection, syphilis, and HIV) also prevent the bone marrow ...

33

Equine Infectious Anemia: 2001 Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equine infectious anemia (EIA) has been recognized as a major infectious disease of equines for more than 150 years. Since 1970, tools have been available to identify persistently infected carriers of the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Testing of ...

2001-01-01

34

Facts about Diamond Blackfan Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) Facebook Recommend Twitter Tweet Share ... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Facts About DBA Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare blood disorder ...

35

How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Aplastic Anemia Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose aplastic anemia based on your medical and family histories, a ... your primary care doctor thinks you have aplastic anemia, he or she may refer you to a ...

36

How Is Fanconi Anemia Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Fanconi Anemia Treated? Doctors decide how to treat Fanconi anemia (FA) based on a person's age and how ... Long-term treatments for FA can: Cure the anemia. Damaged bone marrow cells are replaced with healthy ...

37

Inborn Anemias in Mice: (Annual Report, 1981-1982).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hereditary anemias of mice are the chief objects of investigation, specificially four macrocytic anemias, 3 types of hemolytic anemia, nonhemolytic microcytic anemia, transitory siderocytic anemia, sex-linked iron-transport anemia, the autoimmune hemolyti...

S. E. Bernstein

1982-01-01

38

Anemia and inflammatory bowel diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Too often anemia,is considered,a rare or unimportant manifestation,in inflammatory,bowel,disease,(IBD). However, over the last 10 years a number of studies have been conducted,and the most relevant conclusions obtained are: (1) anemia,is quite common,in IBD; (2) although,in many,cases anemia,parallels the clinical activity of the disease, many patients in remission have anemia, and iron, vitamin B12 and\\/or folic acid deficiency; (3) anemia,

Fernando Gomollón; Javier P Gisbert

2009-01-01

39

Unexplained Anemia in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Among the elderly, anemia occurs with increasing frequency with each advancing decade. Unlike when anemia occurs in younger adults, the cause of anemia in the elderly is oftentimes not readily apparent or attributable to a single cause. However, this commonly observed form of anemia in the elderly (termed unexplained anemia [UA]) can generally be dissected to its root causes, which include renal insufficiency, inflammation, testosterone deficiency, and stem cell proliferative decline. Myelodysplasia (MDS) occurs commonly in this age group but can and should, for both diagnostic and therapeutic considerations, be distinguished from UA.

Makipour, Sasan; Kanapuru, Bindu; Ershler, William B.

2008-01-01

40

Equine Infectious Anemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equine infectious anemia is a disease that affects horses, mules, and burros. EIA, also known as swamp fever, is found in all areas of the United States. Highly infectious, EIA is spread by mosquitoes, biting flies, and by use of contaminated equipment su...

1994-01-01

41

Anemia and School Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anemia is among the most widespread health problems for children in developing countries. This paper evaluates the impact of a randomized health intervention delivering iron supplementation and deworming drugs to Indian preschool children. At baseline, 69 percent were anemic and 30 percent had intestinal worm infections. Weight increased among…

Bobonis, Gustavo J.; Miguel, Edward; Puri-Sharma, Charu

2006-01-01

42

Anemia and inflammatory bowel diseases  

PubMed Central

Too often anemia is considered a rare or unimportant manifestation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, over the last 10 years a number of studies have been conducted and the most relevant conclusions obtained are: (1) anemia is quite common in IBD; (2) although in many cases anemia parallels the clinical activity of the disease, many patients in remission have anemia, and iron, vitamin B12 and/or folic acid deficiency; (3) anemia, and also iron deficiency without anemia, have important consequences in the clinical status and quality of life of the patient; (4) oral iron can lead to gastrointestinal intolerance and failure of treatment; (5) intravenous iron is an effective and safe way to treat iron deficiency; (6) erythropoietin is needed in a significant number of cases to achieve normal hemoglobin levels. Thus, the clinician caring for IBD patients should have a comprehensive knowledge of anemia, and apply recently published guidelines in clinical practice.

Gomollon, Fernando; Gisbert, Javier P

2009-01-01

43

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Six types of autoimmune hemolytic anemias have been described. Table 1 provides summary highlights for each type of AIHA.\\u000a WAIHA accounts for the majority of cases, followed by CAIHA and DIAHA. In recent years, AIHA status post-BMT has been noted\\u000a to occur more often than previously reported, particularly in T-cell-depleted graft recipients. The clinical presentation\\u000a is diverse among the various

Claire Hashimoto

1998-01-01

44

Anemia and Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter explores the management of anemia in older cancer patients. Cancer is a disease of aging: more than 50% of all\\u000a malignancies currently occur in the 12% of the population aged 65 and over; by the year 2030 older individuals are expected\\u000a to account for 20% of the population and 70% of all cancer cases (1). Though not unique

Kaaron Benson; Lodovico Balducci; Matti Aapro

45

Anemia in newborn.  

PubMed

Various blood indices vary in a newborn as compared to older child or adult. It depends on the gestational age, day of life, maternal factors, mode of delivery and site of blood collection. Hemoglobin, HCT & MCV tend to be higher in newborns. They further increase in first 2 days of life. Reticulocytosis and presence of nucleated red cells are normally seen in first week of life. Neonatal anemia is a common problem in NICU. It is usually caused by either hemorrhage or hemolysis and rarely due to decreased production. Hemorrhage can be ante or intra or post natal and it could be external or internal. It could be acute or chronic. Management of acute severe hemorrhage includes packed cell transfusion. Hemolysis is usually due to isoimmune hemolysis, G6PD deficiency or rarely due to the hemoglobinopathy like alpha-thalassemia or due to spherocytosis. Usually patients will have indirect hyperbilirubinemia which needs phototherapy or exchange transfusion. Rarely congenital pure red cell aplasia can present at birth with physical anomalies and anemia. Treatment of neonatal anemia depends on the arteriology. PMID:10773920

Lokeshwar, M R; Dalal, R; Manglani, M; Shah, N

1998-01-01

46

Anemia in Heart Failure Patients  

PubMed Central

Heart failure is a very common disease, with severe morbidity and mortality, and a frequent reason of hospitalization. Anemia and a concurrent renal impairment are two major risk factors contributing to the severity of the outcome and consist of the cardio renal anemia syndrome. Anemia in heart failure is complex and multifactorial. Hemodilution, absolute or functional iron deficiency, activation of the inflammatory cascade, and impaired erythropoietin production and activity are some pathophysiological mechanisms involved in anemia of the heart failure. Furthermore other concomitant causes of anemia, such as myelodysplastic syndrome and chemotherapy, may worsen the outcome. Based on the pathophysiology of cardiac anemia, there are several therapeutic options that may improve hemoglobin levels, tissues' oxygenation, and probably the outcome. These include administration of iron, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and blood transfusions but still the evidence provided for their use remains limited.

Alexandrakis, Michael G.; Tsirakis, George

2012-01-01

47

Anemia in Kidney Disease and Dialysis  

MedlinePLUS

... value of the hematocrit. [ Top ] When does anemia begin? Anemia may begin to develop in the early stages of kidney ... test that measures creatinine. Experts recommend that doctors begin a detailed evaluation of anemia in men and ...

48

Managing Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia begins early in the course of declining kidney function and is a frequent complication of chronic kidney disease. Both anemia and chronic kidney disease are underdiagnosed and undertreated. Anemia is associated with significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality, including increased risks of left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. Although the detrimental effects of anemia are more common in

Susan A. Krikorian

2009-01-01

49

[Novel algorithm of anemia].  

PubMed

The author presents a novel algorithm for anaemia based on the erythrocyte haemoglobin content. The scheme is based on the aberrations of erythropoiesis and not on the pathophysiology of anaemia. The hemoglobin content of one erytrocyte is between 28-35 picogram. Any disturbance in hemoglobin synthesis can lead to a lower than 28 picogram hemoglobin content of the erythrocyte which will lead to hypochromic anaemia. In contrary, disturbances of nucleic acid metabolism will result in a hemoglobin content greater than 36 picogram, and this will result in hyperchromic anaemia. Normochromic anemia, characterised by hemoglobin content of erythrocytes between 28 and 35 picogram, is the result of alteration in the proliferation of erythropoeisis. Based on these three categories of anaemia, a unique system can be constructed, which can be used as a model for basic laboratory investigations and work-up of anaemic patients. PMID:24583558

Egyed, Miklós

2014-03-01

50

Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Cell Disorders Plasma Cell Disorders Leukemias Lymphomas Myeloproliferative Disorders Spleen Disorders Topics in Anemia Overview of ... stomach or small intestine and diverticulosis, polyps, or cancers in the large intestine. Other sources of chronic ...

51

Fanconi Anemia Relationship to Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... patients have a much greater risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) than people without Fanconi anemia. Leukemia Leukemia ... more... Seattle gene therapy clinical trial opens to children 4 years and older learn more... home learn ...

52

Molecular Pathogenesis of Fanconi Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited disorder characterized clinically by aplastic anemia, developmental defects, and a susceptibility to cancer. Eleven complementation groups have been identified (FA-A, -B, -C, -D1, -D2, -E, -F, -G, -I, -J, and -L), and the genes responsible for 9 groups (FANCA, B, C, D1, D2, E, F, G, and L) have been cloned. The proteins

Natalie Collins; Gary M. Kupfer

2005-01-01

53

Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia  

PubMed Central

Iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is a hereditary recessive anemia due to a defect in the TMPRSS6 gene encoding Matriptase-2. This protein is a transmembrane serine protease that plays an essential role in down-regulating hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis. Hallmarks of this disease are microcytic hypochromic anemia, low transferrin saturation and normal/high serum hepcidin values. The anemia appears in the post-natal period, although in some cases it is only diagnosed in adulthood. The disease is refractory to oral iron treatment but shows a slow response to intravenous iron injections and partial correction of the anemia. To date, 40 different Matriptase-2 mutations have been reported, affecting all the functional domains of the large ectodomain of the protein. In vitro experiments on transfected cells suggest that Matriptase-2 cleaves Hemojuvelin, a major regulator of hepcidin expression and that this function is altered in this genetic form of anemia. In contrast to the low/undetectable hepcidin levels observed in acquired iron deficiency, in patients with Matriptase-2 deficiency, serum hepcidin is inappropriately high for the low iron status and accounts for the absent/delayed response to oral iron treatment. A challenge for the clinicians and pediatricians is the recognition of the disorder among iron deficiency and other microcytic anemias commonly found in pediatric patients. The current treatment of iron refractory iron deficiency anemia is based on parenteral iron administration; in the future, manipulation of the hepcidin pathway with the aim of suppressing it might become an alternative therapeutic approach.

De Falco, Luigia; Sanchez, Mayka; Silvestri, Laura; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Iolascon, Achille; Gouya, Laurent; Camaschella, Clara; Beaumont, Carole

2013-01-01

54

Iron deficiency: beyond anemia.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder affecting at least one third of world's population. Though anemia is common manifestation of iron deficiency, other effects of iron deficiency on various tissues, organs and systems are usually under recognized. Impaired brain development and cognitive, behavioural and psychomotor impairment are most worrisome manifestations of iron deficiency. Studies have demonstrated that some of these changes occurring during period of brain growth spurt (<2 years age) may be irreversible. Association of iron deficiency with febrile seizures, pica, breath holding spells, restless leg syndrome and thrombosis is increasingly being recognized. Impaired cell-mediated immunity and bactericidal function are generally noted in iron-deficient persons; however, the findings are inconsistent. Despite proven reversible functional immunological defects in vitro studies, a clinically important relationship between states of iron deficiency and susceptibility to infections remains controversial. Studies from malaria endemic regions have reported increased incidence of malaria in association with iron supplementation. These and some other aspects of iron deficiency are reviewed in this article. PMID:20814842

Yadav, Dinesh; Chandra, Jagdish

2011-01-01

55

Malaria, erythrocytic infection, and anemia.  

PubMed

Malaria is a major world health problem. It results from infection of parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax cause the major human malarias, with P falciparum being the more virulent. During their blood stages of infection, both P falciparum and P vivax induce anemia. Severe malarial anemia caused by P falciparum is responsible for approximately a third of the deaths associated with disease. Malarial anemia appears to be multi-factorial. It involves increased removal of circulating erythrocytes as well as decreased production of erythrocytes in the bone marrow. The molecular mechanisms underlying malarial anemia are largely unknown. Over the last five years, malaria parasite ligands have been investigated for their remodeling of erythrocytes and possible roles in destruction of mature erythrocytes. Polymorphisms in cytokines have been associated with susceptibility to severe malarial anemia: these cytokines and malaria "toxins" likely function by perturbing erythropoiesis. Finally a number of co-infections increase susceptibility to malarial anemia, likely because they exacerbate inflammation caused by malaria. Because of the complexities involved, the study of severe malarial anemia may need a "systems approach" to yield comprehensive understanding of defects in both erythropoiesis and immunity associated with disease. New and emerging tools such as (i) mathematical modeling of the dynamics of host control of malarial infection, (ii) ex vivo perfusion of human spleen to measure both infected and uninfected erythrocyte retention, and (iii) in vitro development of erythroid progenitors to dissect responsiveness to cytokine imbalance or malaria toxins, may be especially useful to develop integrated mechanistic insights and therapies to control this major and fatal disease pathology. PMID:20008186

Haldar, Kasturi; Mohandas, Narla

2009-01-01

56

Classification of anemia for gastroenterologists  

PubMed Central

Most anemia is related to the digestive system by dietary deficiency, malabsorption, or chronic bleeding. We review the World Health Organization definition of anemia, its morphological classification (microcytic, macrocytic and normocytic) and pathogenic classification (regenerative and hypo regenerative), and integration of these classifications. Interpretation of laboratory tests is included, from the simplest (blood count, routine biochemistry) to the more specific (iron metabolism, vitamin B12, folic acid, reticulocytes, erythropoietin, bone marrow examination and Schilling test). In the text and various algorithms, we propose a hierarchical and logical way to reach a diagnosis as quickly as possible, by properly managing the medical interview, physical examination, appropriate laboratory tests, bone marrow examination, and other complementary tests. The prevalence is emphasized in all sections so that the gastroenterologist can direct the diagnosis to the most common diseases, although the tables also include rare diseases. Digestive diseases potentially causing anemia have been studied in preference, but other causes of anemia have been included in the text and tables. Primitive hematological diseases that cause anemia are only listed, but are not discussed in depth. The last section is dedicated to simplifying all items discussed above, using practical rules to guide diagnosis and medical care with the greatest economy of resources and time.

Moreno Chulilla, Jose Antonio; Romero Colas, Maria Soledad; Gutierrez Martin, Martin

2009-01-01

57

Genetics Home Reference: Diamond-Blackfan anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... first year of life. Symptoms of anemia include fatigue, weakness, and an abnormally pale appearance (pallor). People with Diamond-Blackfan anemia have an increased risk of several serious complications related to their malfunctioning ...

58

FastStats: Anemia or Iron Deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Data Related Links Accessibility NCHS Home FastStats Home Anemia or Iron Deficiency Data are for the U.S. ... care Number of visits to emergency departments with anemia as the primary diagnosis: 209,000 Source: National ...

59

How Is Sickle Cell Anemia Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Sickle Cell Anemia Treated? Sickle cell anemia has no widely ... severity of the disease. Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant A blood and marrow stem cell transplant ...

60

Optimal management of pernicious anemia  

PubMed Central

Pernicious anemia (also known as Biermer’s disease) is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis, predominantly of the fundus, and is responsible for a deficiency in vitamin B12 (cobalamin) due to its malabsorption. Its prevalence is 0.1% in the general population and 1.9% in subjects over the age of 60 years. Pernicious anemia represents 20%–50% of the causes of vitamin B12 deficiency in adults. Given its polymorphism and broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, pernicious anemia is a great pretender. Its diagnosis must therefore be evoked and considered in the presence of neurological and hematological manifestations of undetermined origin. Biologically, it is characterized by the presence of anti-intrinsic factor antibodies. Treatment is based on the administration of parenteral vitamin B12, although other routes of administration (eg, oral) are currently under study. In the present update, these various aspects are discussed with special emphasis on data of interest to the clinician.

Andres, Emmanuel; Serraj, Khalid

2012-01-01

61

Fanconi Anemia and its Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by diverse congenital malformations, progressive pancytopenia, and predisposition to both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Congenital anomalies vary from patient to patient and may affect skeletal morphogenesis as well as any of the major organ systems. Although this highly variable phenotype makes accurate diagnosis on the basis of clinical manifestations difficult in some patients, laboratory study of chromosomal breakage induced by diepoxybutane (DEB) or other crosslinking agents provides a unique cellular marker for the diagnosis of the disorder either prenatally or postnatally. Diagnosis based on abnormal response to DNA crosslinking agents can be used to identify the pre-anemia patient as well as patients with aplastic anemia or leukemia who may or may not have the physical stigmata associated with the syndrome. This overview will present our present knowledge regarding the varied phenotypic manifestations of FA and procedures for diagnosis based upon abnormal DNA damage responses.

Auerbach, Arleen D.

2009-01-01

62

Erythropoietin Deficiency and Late-Life Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As discussed extensively in this volume, anemia occurs with increasing frequency as people age. Curiously, a specific explanation\\u000a for anemia is less readily apparent for older patients and approximately one-third of those with anemia over 65 years of age\\u000a meet criteria for “Unexplained Anemia” (UA) as defined by Guralnik (1) and Artz (2). Although, by definition, those with kidney\\u000a disease

Bindu Kanapuru; Andrew S. Artz; William B. Ershler

63

Erythropoietic stress and anemia in diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is one of the world's most common preventable conditions, yet it is often overlooked, especially in people with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes-related chronic hyperglycemia can lead to a hypoxic environment in the renal interstitium, which results in impaired production of erythropoietin by the peritubular fibroblasts and subsequent anemia. Anemia in patients with diabetes mellitus might contribute to the pathogenesis and

Peter Winocour; Dhruv K. Singh; Ken Farrington

2009-01-01

64

Inborn Anemias of Mice: Terminal Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mutations located at 11 different chromosomal locations in the mouse all affecting hemopoiesis have been studied. These include: Hertwig's anemia (an), W-anemias (W, W/sup v/, W/sup 17J/ to W/sup 41J/), Steel anemias (Sl, Sl/sup d/, etc.), Normoblastic an...

S. E. Bernstein

1987-01-01

65

Iron and anemia of chronic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron and anemia of chronic disease. Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is the most frequent anemia found in hospitalized patients, often occurring in subjects suffering from chronic inflammatory disorders. The underlying diversion of iron traffic leads to a withdrawal of the metal from the sites of erythropoiesis and the circulation to the storage compartment in the reticuloendothelial system, thus resulting,

GÜNTER WEISS

1999-01-01

66

Pulmonary hypertension in hemolytic anemias  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been reported with nearly all forms of the inherited as well as the acquired hemolytic anemias. Recent research investigating the pathophysiology of PH in sickle cell disease and thalassemia has helped elucidate the central role of hemolysis-mediated endothelial dysfunction in the development of PH in these populations. Although the most appropriate treatment of PH in patients with hemolytic anemia is not clearly defined, the associated significant increased risk of death underscores the need for randomized clinical trials in this area.

Vichinsky, Elliott

2010-01-01

67

Inborn Anemias in Mice. Progress Report, 1 May 1976--31 July 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hereditary anemias of mice have been the chief objects of investigation. At present under study are four macrocytic anemias, four hemolytic anemias, nonhemolytic microcytic anemia, transitory siderocytic anemia, sex-linked iron-transport anemia, and the a...

E. S. Russell S. E. Bernstein

1977-01-01

68

Inborn Anemias in Mice. Progress Report, 1 May 1977--31 July 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hereditary anemias of mice have been the chief objects of investigation. At present under study are four macrocytic anemias, four hemolytic anemias, nonhemolytic microcytic anemia, transitory siderocytic anemia, sex-linked iron-transport anemia, and the a...

S. E. Bernstein E. S. Russell

1978-01-01

69

Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

70

Erythema nodosum and pernicious anemia.  

PubMed

Erythema nodosum (EN) often presents as a sudden onset of tender, erythematous, subcutaneous nodules on the legs and ankles. Although rare, pernicious anemia may be related to vitamin B12 deficiency. Discussion of this association in the context of a particular patient is presented. PMID:24010520

Milman, Perry J; Goldenberg, Steven P; Scheinfeld, Noah; Pereira, Frederick A

2013-07-01

71

STUDIES ON BARTONELLA MURIS ANEMIA  

PubMed Central

An aqueous lipoid extract of ox spleen was prepared which protects adult male albino rats of carrier stock in a large percentage of instances against Bartonella muris anemia following splenectomy. It is suggested that the extract contains a specific hormonal substance.

Perla, David; Marmorston-Gottesman, J.

1932-01-01

72

Treatment of Sickle Cell Anemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to the discovery that cyanate, such as a 0.01-1.0M potassium cyanate solution, is useful to prevent the sickling of the red blood cells of sickle cell anemia patients. It has also been discovered that red blood cells when ta...

A. Cerami J. M. Manning

1971-01-01

73

Pagophagia in iron deficiency anemia.  

PubMed

The relationship between pagophagia (ice pica) and iron deficiency anemia was studied. All 81 patients with iron deficiency anemia defined as hemoglobin <12.0 g/dl and ferritin level <12 ng/ml were interviewed about their habits of eating ice or other non-food substances. Pagophagia was defined as compulsive and repeated ingestion of at least one tray of ice or ice eating which was relieved after iron administration. Pagophagia was present in 13 patients (16.0%). All patients who received oral iron were periodically assessed employing a questionnaire on pagophagia and laboratory data. Iron therapy can cure the pagophagia earlier than hemoglobin recovery and repair of tissue iron deficiency. Although the pathogenesis of pagophagia is unclear, a biochemical approach involving the central nervous system might elucidate the mechanism underlying these abnormal behaviors. PMID:24850454

Uchida, Tatsumi; Kawati, Yasunori

2014-04-01

74

Fanconi anemia - learning from children  

PubMed Central

Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare autosomic recessive and X-linked disease with chromosomal instability after exposure to crosslinking agents as the hallmark. Clinical features of FA are somatic malformations, progressive bone marrow failure and cancer proneness, however there is wide clinical heterogeneity. The symptom most frequently and early associated with morbidity and mortality is progressive pancytopenia in the first decade of life although acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can appear before aplastic anemia. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head-neck, intestinal or genital tract has a very high incidence in FA and can appear at young age. This paper will focus on treatment of bone marrow failure in FA.

Svahn, Johanna; Dufour, Carlo

2011-01-01

75

Geoepidemiology of autoimmune hemolytic anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoantibodies against red blood cell antigens are considered the diagnostic hallmark of AIHA: Direct antiglobulin test (DAT) completed by cytofluorometry and specific diagnostic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) allow for a better understanding of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) triggers. Once B-cell tolerance checkpoints are bypassed, the patient loses self-tolerance, if the AIHA is not also caused by an possible variety of secondary

Jean-Francois Lambert; Urs E. Nydegger

2010-01-01

76

Immune pathophysiology of aplastic anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aplastic anemia (AA) remains an elusive disease. Its pathophysiology is not only fascinating by the seemingly simple findings\\u000a of cytopenia and marrow hypoplasia, but may also contain key information to the understanding of other fundamental processes\\u000a such as stem cell regeneration, evolution, and immune control of clonal diseases. Although measurements of blood counts provide\\u000a an objective tool to assess the

Jaroslaw P. Maciejewski; Antonio Risitano; Hoon Kook; Weihua Zeng; Guibin Chen; Neal S. Young

2002-01-01

77

Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts.  

PubMed

Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) is a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) characterized by 15% or more ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow according to the WHO classification. After Perls staining, ring sideroblasts are defined as erythroblasts in which there are 5 or more siderotic granules covering at least a third of the nuclear circumference. The iron deposited in perinuclear mitochondria of ring sideroblasts is present in the form of mitochondrial ferritin. The molecular basis of MDS with ring sideroblasts has remained unknown until recently. In 2011, whole exome sequencing studies revealed somatic mutations of SF3B1, a gene encoding a core component of RNA splicing machinery, in myelodysplasia with ring sideroblasts. The close relationship between SF3B1 mutation and ring sideroblasts is consistent with a causal relationship, and makes SF3B1 the first gene to be associated with a specific morphological feature in MDS. RARS is mainly characterized by isolated anemia due to ineffective erythropoiesis, and its clinical course is generally benign, although there is a tendency to worsening of anemia in most patients over time. By contrast, refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and ring sideroblasts (RCMD-RS) is characterized by pancytopenia and dysplasia in two or more myeloid cell lineages. More importantly, patients with RCMD-RS have a higher risk of developing bone marrow failure or progressing to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS-T) associated with marked thrombocytosis is a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with both SF3B1 and JAK2 or MPL mutations. RARS-T may develop from an SF3B1 mutated RARS through the acquisition of a JAK2 or MPL mutations in a subclone of hematopoietic cells. PMID:24507814

Malcovati, Luca; Cazzola, Mario

2013-12-01

78

Diamond-Blackfan anemia and nutritional deficiency-induced anemia in children.  

PubMed

Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare, inherited disease that characteristically presents as a chronic, normochromic macrocytosis due to red cell lineage bone marrow failure. Although studies are elaborating on the genetic basis for its associated comorbidities, little has been published comparing this anemia to other chronic anemias that have similar laboratory results in children. This article offers a global perspective of the disease and compares it with anemia due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in children. PMID:24662257

Gelbart, David

2014-04-01

79

Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency and anemia are major public health concerns throughout the world and are of special concern in many developing\\u000a countries where the incidence and severity of anemia in certain populations is very high. Pregnant women, women of childbearing\\u000a age, and young children are especially vulnerable to iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) because of increased\\u000a iron needs during growth

Usha Ramakrishnan; Beth Imhoff-Kunsch

80

Anemia and anemia correction: surrogate markers or causes of morbidity in chronic kidney disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational studies have shown a strong positive correlation between the severity of anemia and the risk of poor outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This observation was initially taken to imply that adverse outcomes in CKD are caused by anemia. However, the assumption of causality ignores the possibility that anemia and adverse outcomes might be unrelated and that

Nosratola D Vaziri

2008-01-01

81

Lindane (Kwell)-induced aplastic anemia.  

PubMed

Numerous toxic exposures have been implicated in causing aplastic anemia. Thirteen cases of aplastic anemia and 5 cases of other blood dyscrasias, eg, red blood cell aplasia and thrombocytopenia, associated with lindane, have been reported in the literature. However, aplastic anemia secondary to the scabicidal product (lindane [Kwell]) has not been documented, to our knowledge. We present the case of a 21-year-old man with a diagnosis of aplastic anemia, known prolonged exposure to lindane, and documented elevated serum lindane levels. His clinical course is described as well as various defects are explored for the aplasia. PMID:1700687

Rauch, A E; Kowalsky, S F; Lesar, T S; Sauerbier, G A; Burkart, P T; Scharfman, W B

1990-11-01

82

Pathology Case Study: Macrocytic Anemia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an older man suffering from chronic bronchitis and macrocytic anemia also developed persistent flu symptoms. Visitors view the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Bahler, David; Kulich, Scott; Shekhter-Levin, Sofia

2008-05-05

83

The Student with Sickle Cell Anemia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sickle cell anemia is the most common and severe of inherited chronic blood disorders. In the United States, sickle cell anemia is most common among the Black population. Among the most commonly occurring symptoms are: an enlarged spleen, episodes of severe pain, easily contracted infections, skin ulcers, and frequent urination. (JN)

Tetrault, Sylvia M.

1981-01-01

84

9 CFR 311.34 - Anemia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anemia. 311.34 Section 311.34 Animals and Animal Products...DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.34 Anemia. Carcasses of livestock too anemic to produce wholesome...

2010-01-01

85

9 CFR 311.34 - Anemia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Animal Products 2 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Anemia. 311.34 Section 311.34 Animals and Animal Products...DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.34 Anemia. Carcasses of livestock too anemic to produce wholesome...

2009-01-01

86

Homozygosity mapping of Fanconi anemia  

SciTech Connect

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare, recessive, genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by progressive insufficiency of the bone marrow and increased cellular sensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents. Complementation tests among different FA cells have indicated the presence of at least 4 FA-causing genes. One of the genes, FACC, was identified by functional complementation but appears unlikely to account for many phenotypically indistinguishable FA caes. We have begun a linkage study of FA using {open_quotes}homozygosity mapping{close_quotes}, a method that involves genotyping with DNA markers on affected individuals whose parents are related. Because FA is a rare recessive disease, it is most likely that probands are homozygous by descent at the disease locus and, therefore, at nearby DNA markers. Although the probability that any given marker will be homozygous in an inbred individual is high, given markers with moderate heterozygosities, the chance that two unrelated inbred individuals will be homozygous at the same marker is considerably lower. By locating overlapping regions of homozygosity between different families we hope to identify genes that cause FA. Sixteen consanguineous non-FACC FA families from the International Fanconi Anemia Registry at Rockefeller University are under study. An efficient algorithm for data analysis was developed and incorporated into software that can quickly compute exact multipoint lod scores using all markers on an entire chromosome. At the time of this writing, 171 of 229 microsatellite markers spaced at 20 cM intervals across the genome have been analyzed.

Gschwend, M.; Botstein, D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kruglyak, L. [Whitehead Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

87

Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments are injections of EPO and blood transfusions. EPO (erythropoietin) stimulates the production of red blood cells. In 1985, scientists learned how to make synthetic EPO. It is injected under the skin, usually once ...

88

Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH Foundation Global Programs ... Research Programs and Awards Research Recommendations Agenda for Hematology Research View all Blood Current Issue First Edition ...

89

Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... body gets more iron than it needs? Iron overload happens when too much iron builds up in ... heart, and pancreas. Many problems can cause iron overload. Most people with hemochromatosis inherit it from their ...

90

Anemia: An early complication of chronic renal insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strong association between anemia and cardiovascular complications among patients with end-stage renal disease suggests that anemia during chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) may also have important consequences. We performed a retrospective cohort study to identify factors associated with severe anemia (hematocrit [lsqb ]Hct[rsqb ] [lt ] 30%) and examine anemia management practices in CRI. The CRI cohort was composed of

Waqar H. Kazmi; Annamaria T. Kausz; Samina Khan; Rekha Abichandani; Robin Ruthazer; Gregorio T. Obrador; Brian J. G. Pereira

2001-01-01

91

Relationship of maternal knowledge of anemia with maternal and child anemia and health-related behaviors targeted at anemia among families in Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Our specific aim was to characterize maternal knowledge of anemia and its relationship to maternal and child anemia and to behaviors related to anemia reduction. Methods We examined the relationship between maternal knowledge of anemia and anemia in the mother and the youngest child, aged 6–59 mo, in 7,913 families from urban slums and 37,874 families from rural areas of Indonesia. Knowledge of anemia was defined based upon the mother’s ability to correctly name at least one symptom of anemia and at least one treatment or strategy for reducing anemia. Hemoglobin was measured in both the mother and the child. Results In urban and rural areas, respectively, 35.8% and 36.9% of mothers had knowledge of anemia, 28.7% and 25.1% of mothers were anemic (hemoglobin <12 g/dL), and 62.3% and 54.0% of children were anemic (hemoglobin <11 g/dL). Maternal knowledge of anemia was associated with child anemia in urban and rural areas, respectively, (Odds Ratio [O.R.] 0.90, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 0.79, 1.02, P = 0.10; O.R. 0.93, 95% C.I. 0.87, 0.98, P = 0.01) in multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between maternal knowledge of anemia and maternal anemia. Maternal knowledge of anemia was significantly associated with iron supplementation during pregnancy and child consumption of fortified milk. There was no association of maternal knowledge of anemia with child deworming. Conclusions Maternal knowledge of anemia is associated with lower odds of anemia in children and with some health behaviors related to reducing anemia.

Souganidis, Ellie S.; Sun, Kai; de Pee, Saskia; Kraemer, Klaus; Rah, Jee-Hyun; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Sari, Mayang; Bloem, Martin W.; Semba, Richard D.

2014-01-01

92

Inborn anemias in mice: (Annual report, 1981-1982)  

SciTech Connect

Hereditary anemias of mice are the chief objects of investigation, specificially four macrocytic anemias, 3 types of hemolytic anemia, nonhemolytic microcytic anemia, transitory siderocytic anemia, sex-linked iron-transport anemia, the autoimmune hemolytic anemia of NZB mice, an ..cap alpha..-thalassemia and a new hypochromic anemia with hemochromatosis. New types of anemia may be analyzed as new mutations appear. Three new mutations have been identified during the past 18 months. These anemias are studied through characterization of peripheral blood values, determinations of radiosensitivity under a variety of conditions, measurements of iron metabolism and heme synthesis, study of normal and abnormal erythrocyte membrane proteins, histological and biochemical characterization of blood-forming tissue, functional tests of the stem-cell component, examination of responses to erythroid stimuli, and transplantation of tissue and parabiosis between individuals of differently affected genotypes. 31 refs.

Bernstein, S.E.

1982-07-19

93

[Comparison of bone marrow and blood cell morphology between refractory anemia and other anemia disease].  

PubMed

This study was purposed to investigate the cell morphological features of bone marrow and peripheral blood in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, mainly with refractory anemia, and to compare them with other anemia diseases including chronic aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia and megaloblastic anemia. The bone marrow and peripheral blood were taken from patients for preparing the smears with Wright staining. 500 karyocytes in bone marrow and 100 karyocytes in peripheral blood were detected, and the features of morbid cells of erythrocyte, granulocyte and megakaryocytic series were observed. The results showed that differences between refractory anemia, chronic aplastic anemias and hemolytic anemia as well as megaloblastic anemia were statistically significant (P < 0.05) in the granules scarce and absence in the intracytoplasm of segmented neutrocyte in peripheral blood, Pelger dyskaryosis, the numbers and detected rate of immature granulocytes, monocyte detected rate, the granules scarce in all stage of granulocytic series in bone marrow, odd number and prolification of nucleolus in erythrocytic series, little macronucleus and single circle nucleus macronucleus. It is concluded that cell morphology is the foundation of diagnosing the MDS, the abnormality morphology both in peripheral blood and bone marrow play the consequence role in the diagnosis of MDS. PMID:23257446

Cheng, Hong; Jiang, Ming; DU, Wei; Zhong, Di; Hao, Jian-Ping; Li, Ling

2012-12-01

94

Clinical pallor is useful to detect severe anemia in populations where anemia is prevalent and severe.  

PubMed

Clinical pallor is recommended as a simple way to detect severe anemia, but more data are needed on its accuracy and usefulness when assessed by nonphysicians in diverse settings. We measured hemoglobin and trained non-physician health workers to assess clinical pallor of the conjunctiva, palm and nail beds in five population samples in Nepal and Zanzibar, where severe anemia is common. In total, 5,760 individuals were examined, 3,072 of whom were anemic and 192 of whom had severe anemia (hemoglobin <70 g/L). The prevalence of pallor did not correspond to the prevalence of anemia or severe anemia in the groups studied. However, in all studies, pallor at each anatomical site was associated with a significantly lower hemoglobin concentration. The relative performance of different anatomical sites was not consistent among studies, and we recommend that multiple sites be assessed. Pallor at any of the three sites detected severe anemia with >84% specificity. However, the sensitivity varied from 81% in Nepalese postpartum women to 29% in Zanzibari preschoolers in 1996. Overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity were 50 and 92%, respectively. Although imperfect, use of pallor to screen and treat severe anemia by primary care providers is feasible and worthwhile where severe anemia is common. Usually, the majority of persons with severe anemia will be detected at practically no cost. Many people who are not severely anemic will also receive treatment, but the costs of this error are low compared to the benefits. PMID:10460203

Stoltzfus, R J; Edward-Raj, A; Dreyfuss, M L; Albonico, M; Montresor, A; Dhoj Thapa, M; West, K P; Chwaya, H M; Savioli, L; Tielsch, J

1999-09-01

95

Sickle Cell Anemia. A Bibliography with Abstracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NTISearch bibliography contains 29 selected abstracts of research reports retrieved using the NTIS on-line search system--NTISearch. The abstracts cover the clinical and diagnostic aspects of sickle cell anemia. (Author)

E. A. Harrison

1973-01-01

96

Hypogonadism and anemia in an athlete.  

PubMed

We report the case of a highly trained endurance athlete (22-year-old) who developed anemia (Hb 9.5?mg/dl) over a period of 6 months. Iron deficient or haemolytic anemia, as well as chronic loss of blood, were excluded. Further, laboratory analyses revealed that this athlete exhibited very low levels of testosterone due to a partial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Following testosterone supplementation, red blood cell indices improved. Although hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is well known to be associated with reduced hematopoesis, it rarely causes anemia in athletes. This should be considered as a possible cause for anemia. Extreme training, unbalanced nutrition or the combination of both, have been shown to be causally involved in the development of secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. PMID:22095327

Korsten-Reck, U; Seufert, J; Dickhuth, H-H; Schumacher, Y O; König, D

2012-02-01

97

Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells  

MedlinePLUS

... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re feeling constantly exhausted ... when your body doesn’t have enough healthy red blood cells. You may either have too few ...

98

Cytogenetic differentiation of Fanconi anemia, "idiopathic" aplastic anemia, and Fanconi anemia heterozygotes.  

PubMed

We have analyzed chromosome breaks in 8 patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), 42 with "idiopathic" aplastic anema (AA), 15 first-degree relatives of FA patients, and 13 controls. Their lymphocytes were treated in culture with three concentrations of mitomycin-C (MMC). A 60-fold increase in breaks was observed in FA patients as compared to AA patients, regardless of severity of clinical signs. The MMC-stress test was standardized to clearly differentiate FA from other pancytopenias in doubtful cases. Also, the effect of storage of MMC in solution was investigated. The data on SCEs of 12 subjects tested, 10 mo apart, showed an inverse relationship between length of storage of MMC and chromosome damage. The 10-month-old solution induced only one half as many SCEs as it induced at 4 months. Further, the usefulness and power of diepoxybutane (DEB) in detection of FA heterozygotes was investigated in 12 first-degree relatives of patients with Fanconi anemia and 12 healthy controls. The mean number of chromosome breaks per mitosis by DEB stress in obligate heterozygotes was 0.08 in comparison to 0.06 in controls. Four of twelve control subjects showed proportions of breaks almost identical to or higher than those of FA heterozygotes, ie, 0.12, 0.10, 0.10, and 0.11 breaks per mitosis. The responses of healthy controls to DEB could be separated into two groups: one with mean chromosome breaks of 0.11 per mitosis, and a second with mean breaks of 0.04 per mitosis. Thus, it appears that heterozygote detection by DEB stress of cultured lymphocytes is not unequivocal. PMID:6410915

Cervenka, J; Hirsch, B A

1983-06-01

99

Mechanisms of hemolytic anemia during experimental methemoglobinemias.  

PubMed

A complex study of the peripheral erythron component was performed during methemoglobinemias induced by single administration of sodium nitrate and phenylhydrazine in LD50. Administration of methemoglobin-forming agents to rats induced the development of hemolytic anemia. The pathogenesis of this disorder included significant long-term modifications of the erythrocyte membrane. The severity and duration of anemia syndrome depended on chemical structure of xenobiotics, blood methemoglobin level, and the duration of the acute period of methemoglobinemia. PMID:17415463

Novitskii, V V; Ryazantseva, N V; Shperling, I A; Filippova, O N; Rogov, O A

2006-11-01

100

Mitochondrial iron metabolism and sideroblastic anemia.  

PubMed

Sideroblastic anemias are a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by mitochondrial iron overload in developing red blood cells. The unifying characteristic of all sideroblastic anemias is the ring sideroblast, which is a pathological erythroid precursor containing excessive deposits of non-heme iron in mitochondria with perinuclear distribution creating a ring appearance. Sideroblastic anemias may be hereditary or acquired. Hereditary sideroblastic anemias are caused by defects in genes present on the X chromosome (mutations in the ALAS2, ABCB7, or GRLX5 gene), genes on autosomal chromosomes, or mitochondrial genes. Acquired sideroblastic anemias are either primary (refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts, RARS, representing one subtype of the myelodysplastic syndrome) or secondary due to some drugs, toxins, copper deficiency, or chronic neoplastic disease. The pathogenesis of mitochondrial iron loading in developing erythroblasts is diverse. Ring sideroblasts can develop as a result of a heme synthesis defect in erythroblasts (ALAS2 mutations), a defect in iron-sulfur cluster assembly, iron-sulfur protein precursor release from mitochondria (ABCB7 mutations), or by a defect in intracellular iron metabolism in erythroid cells (e.g. RARS). PMID:19907149

Sheftel, Alex D; Richardson, Des R; Prchal, Josef; Ponka, Prem

2009-01-01

101

Family structure and child anemia in Mexico.  

PubMed

Utilizing longitudinal data from the nationally-representative Mexico Family Life Survey, this study assesses the association between family structure and iron-deficient anemia among children ages 3-12 in Mexico. The longitudinal models (n = 4649), which control for baseline anemia status and allow for consideration of family structure transitions, suggest that children living in stable-cohabiting and single-mother families and those who have recently experienced a parental union dissolution have higher odds of anemia than those in stable-married, father-present family structures. Interaction effects indicate that unmarried family contexts have stronger associations with anemia in older children (over age five); and, that the negative effects of parental union dissolution are exacerbated in poorer households. Resident maternal grandparents have a significant beneficial effect on child anemia independent of parental family structure. These results highlight the importance of family structure for child micronutrient deficiencies and suggest that understanding social processes within households may be critical to preventing child anemia in Mexico. PMID:23294876

Schmeer, Kammi K

2013-10-01

102

Mouse Models of Anemia of Cancer  

PubMed Central

Anemia of cancer (AC) may contribute to cancer-related fatigue and impair quality of life. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of AC could facilitate better treatment, but animal models to study AC are lacking. We characterized four syngeneic C57BL/6 mouse cancers that cause AC. Mice with two different rapidly-growing metastatic lung cancers developed the characteristic findings of anemia of inflammation (AI), with dramatically different degrees of anemia. Mice with rapidly-growing metastatic melanoma also developed a severe anemia by 14 days, with hematologic and inflammatory parameters similar to AI. Mice with a slow-growing peritoneal ovarian cancer developed an iron-deficiency anemia, likely secondary to chronically impaired nutrition and bleeding into the peritoneal cavity. Of the four models, hepcidin mRNA levels were increased only in the milder lung cancer model. Unlike in our model of systemic inflammation induced by heat-killed Brucella abortus, ablation of hepcidin in the ovarian cancer and the milder lung cancer mouse models did not affect the severity of anemia. Hepcidin-independent mechanisms play an important role in these murine models of AC.

Kim, Airie; Rivera, Seth; Shprung, Dana; Limbrick, Donald; Gabayan, Victoria; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

2014-01-01

103

Anemia, tumor hypoxemia, and the cancer patient  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To review the impact of anemia/tumor hypoxemia on the quality of life and survival in cancer patients, and to assess the problems associated with the correction of this difficulty. Methods: MEDLINE searches were performed to find relevant literature regarding anemia and/or tumor hypoxia in cancer patients. Articles were evaluated in order to assess the epidemiology, adverse patient effects, anemia correction guidelines, and mechanisms of hypoxia-induced cancer cell growth and/or therapeutic resistance. Past and current clinical studies of radiosensitization via tumor oxygenation/hypoxic cell sensitization were reviewed. All clinical studies using multi-variate analysis were analyzed to show whether or not anemia and/or tumor hypoxemia affected tumor control and patient survival. Articles dealing with the correction of anemia via transfusion and/or erythropoietin were reviewed in order to show the impact of the rectification on the quality of life and survival of cancer patients. Results: Approximately 40-64% of patients presenting for cancer therapy are anemic. The rate of anemia rises with the use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy for prostate cancer. Anemia is associated with reductions both in quality of life and survival. Tumor hypoxemia has been hypothesized to lead to tumor growth and resistance to therapy because it leads to angiogenesis, genetic mutations, resistance to apoptosis, and a resistance to free radicals from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Nineteen clinical studies of anemia and eight clinical studies of tumor hypoxemia were found that used multi-variate analysis to determine the effect of these conditions on the local control and/or survival of cancer patients. Despite differing definitions of anemia and hypoxemia, all studies have shown a correlation between low hemoglobin levels and/or higher amounts of tumor hypoxia with poorer prognosis. Radiosensitization through improvements in tumor oxygenation/hypoxic cell sensitization has met with limited success via the use of hyperbaric oxygen, electron-affinic radiosensitizers, and mitomycin. Improvements in tumor oxygenation via the use of carbogen and nicotinamide, RSR13, and tirapazamine have shown promising clinical results and are all currently being tested in Phase III trials. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend transfusion or erythropoietin for symptomatic patients with a hemoglobin of 10-11 g/dl and state that erythropoietin should strongly be considered if hemoglobin falls to less than 10 g/dl. These recommendations were based on studies that revealed an improvement in the quality of life of cancer patients, but not patient survival with anemia correction. Phase III studies evaluating the correction of anemia via erythropoietin have shown mixed results with some studies reporting a decrease in patient survival despite an improvement in hemoglobin levels. Diverse functions of erythropoietin are reviewed, including its potential to inhibit apoptosis via the JAK2/STAT5/BCL-X pathway. Correction of anemia by the use of blood transfusions has also shown a decrement in patient survival, possibly through inflammatory and/or immunosuppressive pathways. Conclusions: Anemia is a prevalent condition associated with cancer and its therapies. Proper Phase III trials are necessary to find the best way to correct anemia for specific patients. Future studies of erythropoietin must evaluate the possible anti-apoptotic effects by directly assessing the tumor for erythropoietin receptors or the presence of the JAK2/STAT5/BCL-X pathway. Due to the ability of transfusions to cause immunosuppression, most probably through inflammatory pathways, it may be best to study the effects of transfusion with the prolonged use of anti-inflammatory medications.

Varlotto, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston VA Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth (Israel) and Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: jvarlott@bidmc.harvard.edu; Stevenson, Mary Ann [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston VA Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel/Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2005-09-01

104

Zopiclone induced methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

Objective: To characterize the risk of methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following large overdoses of zopiclone, a cyclopyrrolone hypnotic-sedative and a racemic mixture of R-zopiclone and S-zopiclone (eszopiclone). Methods: This review included all reports of zopiclone induced methemoglobinemia, hemolytic anemia, and oxidative stress that had been published in medical journals or discussed in continuous medical education (CME) programs. These reports were identified by searching the Medline (1980 - December 9, 2013), China Journal Net (1994 - December 2013), and Google Scholar, using zopiclone, eszopiclone, methemoglobinemia, hemolytic anemia, and oxidative stress as the search terms. Results: Six cases of methemoglobinemia, one case of methemoglobinemia, with concomitant hemolytic anemia, and one case of hemolytic anemia were identified. These complications occurred after large zopiclone overdoses (450 - 3,750, 1,125 - 1,500, and 375 - 750 mg, respectively, i.e., 60 - 500, 150 - 200, and 50 - 100 times the daily dose of 7.5 mg). The resulting methemoglobinemia could be severe (19.4 - 24.5%), while the hemolytic anemia was mild (Hb 9.0 - 9.6 g/dL). Molecular modelling analyses indicate that eszopiclone and its two metabolites will be kinetically labile. Their molecular surfaces have significant amounts of electron-deficient regions. All three compounds are expected to react with cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, causing its depletion and oxidative stress. Conclusions: After large overdoses, zopiclone, alone or together with its metabolites, most probably causes oxidative stress in erythrocytes to account for the methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. Further studies are required to determine their incidence and the dose-related capacity of zopiclone and its metabolites in producing erythrocyte oxidative stress. PMID:24569128

Chan, Thomas Y K

2014-05-01

105

Reticulocyte maturity indices in iron deficiency anemia  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the reticulocyte maturity indices (low, medium, and high fluorescence ratios) in iron deficient 1- to 6-year-old children, and identify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in this population. Methods The present study included 39 subjects, divided into two groups: control subjects (n = 33), and subjects with iron deficiency anemia (n = 6). The results were analyzed by Student's t-test for comparison of means. Differences were considered significant when two-tailed p-value < 0.05. Results Subjects with iron deficiency anemia presented increases in the proportion of mean (10.3 ± 4.7% vs. 6.0 ± 3.4%; p-value = 0.003), and high fluorescence reticulocytes (2.3 ± 0.87% vs. 0.9 ± 0.9%; p-value = 0.03) compared to the control group. The prevalence of anemia in this population was 15% (n = 6). Conclusion The indices related to immaturity of reticulocytes are higher in the presence of iron deficiency, thus demonstrating a deficiency in the raw material to form hemoglobin and are, therefore, possible early markers of iron deficiency and anemia. We emphasize the need to standardize these indices for use in clinical practice and lab test results.

Wollmann, Muriel; Gerzson, Branca Maria Cerezer; Schwert, Vanessa; Figuera, Rafael Weber; Ritzel, Guilherme de Oliveira

2014-01-01

106

Congenital midgut volvulus associated with fetal anemia.  

PubMed

Congenital volvulus is a life-threatening condition, both for the fetus and for the newborn. A volvulus is a twist of small bowel loops or a proximal part of the colon around the mesenteric artery or its branches. The potential consequences of volvulus are ileus and necrosis of the intestinal wall. Prenatal diagnosis of midgut volvulus is difficult. It should be suspected antenatally when polyhydramnios, intestinal dilatation, ascites and/or signs of fetal anemia are present on ultrasound assessment. We report a case of a congenital midgut volvulus associated with fetal anemia. The fetal ultrasound performed at 32 weeks' gestation showed a polyhydramnios, hydrothorax, thick ascites accumulation around the liver and the suspicion of a dilated bowel loop. Additionally, Doppler examination showed an increased value of peak systolic velocity in the middle cerebral artery. Cordocentesis confirmed significant fetal anemia. At 34 weeks, because of the suspicion of idiopathic meconium ileus and secondary anemia, a Cesarean section was performed after the administration of steroids. During the laparatomy, performed postnatally, a midgut volvulus was diagnosed. The affected portion of the ileum was resected and end-to-end anastomosis performed. An antenatal diagnosis of midgut volvulus should be considered when signs of fetal anemia, including an increased value of peak systolic velocity in the middle cerebral artery, are present with polyhydramnios, fetal ascites, dilated bowel loops on antenatal ultrasound. An assessment of the fetal hemodynamic status should be a part of the ultrasound assessment for patients with nonspecific fetal bowel pathologies, including congenital volvulus. PMID:20616522

Kornacki, Jakub; Czarnecka, Monika; B?aszczy?ski, Micha?; Skrzypczak, Jana; Gadzinowski, Janusz; Jankowski, Andrzej; Sardesai, Smeeta

2010-01-01

107

Predicting late anemia in critical illness  

PubMed Central

Introduction Identifying critically ill patients most likely to benefit from pre-emptive therapies will become increasingly important if therapies are to be used safely and cost-effectively. We sought to determine whether a predictive model could be constructed that would serve as a useful decision support tool for the pre-emptive management of intensive care unit (ICU)-related anemia. Methods Our cohort consisted of all ICU patients (n = 5,170) admitted to a large tertiary-care academic medical center during the period from 1 July 2000 to 30 June 2001. We divided the cohort into development (n = 3,619) and validation (n = 1,551) sets. Using a set of demographic and physiologic variables available within six hours of ICU admission, we developed models to predict patients who either received late transfusion or developed late anemia. We then constructed a point system to quantify, within six hours of ICU admission, the likelihood of developing late anemia. Results Models showed good discrimination with receiver operating characteristic curve areas ranging from 0.72 to 0.77, although predicting late transfusion was consistently less accurate than predicting late anemia. A five-item point system predicted likelihood of late anemia as well as existing clinical trial inclusion criteria but resulted in pre-emptive intervention more than two days earlier. Conclusion A rule-based decision support tool using information available within six hours of ICU admission may lead to earlier and more appropriate use of blood-sparing strategies.

Milbrandt, Eric B; Clermont, Gilles; Martinez, Javier; Kersten, Alex; Rahim, Malik T; Angus, Derek C

2006-01-01

108

Anemia and transfusion after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be affected by a number of factors, including cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery. Anemia affects about half of patients with SAH and is associated with worse outcome. Anemia also may contribute to the development of or exacerbate delayed cerebral ischemia. This review was designed to examine the prevalence and impact of anemia in patients with SAH and to evaluate the effects of transfusion. A literature search was made to identify original research on anemia and transfusion in SAH patients. A total of 27 articles were identified that addressed the effects of red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) on brain physiology, anemia in SAH, and clinical management with RBCT or erythropoietin. Most studies provided retrospectively analyzed data of very low-quality according to the GRADE criteria. While RBCT can have beneficial effects on brain physiology, RBCT may be associated with medical complications, infection, vasospasm, and poor outcome after SAH. The effects may vary with disease severity or the presence of vasospasm, but it remains unclear whether RBCTs are a marker of disease severity or a cause of worse outcome. Erythropoietin data are limited. The literature review further suggests that the results of the Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care Trial and subsequent observational studies on RBCT in general critical care do not apply to SAH patients and that randomized trials to address the role of RBCT in SAH are required. PMID:21769459

Le Roux, Peter D

2011-09-01

109

Anemia caused by low iron - infants and toddlers  

MedlinePLUS

... fortified) also provides enough iron. Infants younger than 12 months who drink cow's milk rather than breast milk or iron-fortified formula are more likely to have anemia. Cow's milk leads to anemia because it: Has less iron Causes ...

110

Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Refugee Children from Burma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in refugees is reported to be among the major medical problems worldwide. Because food rations are typically inadequate in iwn, long-term reliance is a key predictor of anemia among displaced people. Comprehensive nutritional ...

T. Kemmer S. Hansch K. Wantanee M. Bovill K. L. Beisler

2002-01-01

111

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Fanconi Anemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Fanconi Anemia? Major Signs and Symptoms Your doctor may suspect ... sisters also should be tested for the disorder. Anemia The most common symptom of all types of ...

112

[Pernicious anemia in an adolescent with type 1 diabetes mellitus].  

PubMed

The most frequent organ-specific autoimmune diseases associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus in children are hypothyroidism and celiac disease. Among adults, other associations exist, notably with pernicious anemia, which is extremely rare in children. We relate the observation of an adolescent with type 1 diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism, admitted for severe anemia in addition to chronic anemia caused by autoimmune gastritis. Blood cell count showed severe aregenerative anemia with pancytopenia, with signs of non-autoimmune hemolysis. Vitamin B12 levels were low, bone marrow aspiration revealed erythroid hyperplasia, and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were positive, providing the diagnosis of pernicious anemia. Treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 produced brisk reticulosis after 6 days, with a subsequent rapid resolution of the anemia. Follow-up of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children requires screening for organ-specific autoimmune diseases; in case of unexplained anemia, autoimmune gastritis must be suggested. It can evolve into pernicious anemia. PMID:19211232

Carneiro, M; Dumont, C

2009-04-01

113

Genetics Home Reference: X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia On this page: ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2009 What is X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia? X-linked sideroblastic ...

114

Nucleolar stress in Diamond Blackfan anemia pathophysiology.  

PubMed

Diamond Blackfan anemia is a red cell hypoplasia that typically presents within the first year of life. Most cases of Diamond Blackfan anemia are caused by ribosome assembly defects linked to haploinsufficiency for structural proteins of either ribosomal subunit. Nucleolar stress associated with abortive ribosome assembly leads to p53 activation via the interaction of free ribosomal proteins with HDM2, a negative regulator of p53. Significant challenges remain in linking this nucleolar stress signaling pathway to the clinical features of Diamond Blackfan anemia. Defining aspects of disease presentation may relate to developmental and physiological triggers that work in conjunction with nucleolar stress signaling to heighten the p53 response in the developing erythron after birth. The growing number of ribosomopathies provides additional challenges for linking molecular mechanisms with clinical phenotypes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease. PMID:24412987

Ellis, Steven R

2014-06-01

115

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Induced by Levofloxacin  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare condition. We report the case of a 32-year-old white female who presented to the emergency department with generalized fatigue, fever, and jaundice. The patient reported using levofloxacin few days prior to presentation for urinary tract infection. The patient had evidence of hemolytic anemia with a hemoglobin of 6.7?g/dL which dropped to 5?g/dL on day 2, the direct Coombs test was positive, indirect bilirubin was 5.5?mg/dL, and LDH was 1283?IU/L. Further testing ruled out autoimmune disease, lymphoma, and leukemia as etiologies for the patient's hemolytic anemia. Levofloxacin was immediately stopped with a gradual hematologic recovery within few days.

Sheikh-Taha, Marwan; Frenn, Pascale

2014-01-01

116

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ANEMIA AFTER UNCOMPLICATED FALCIPARUM MALARIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors contributing to anemia in falciparum malaria were characterized in 4,007 prospectively studied patients on the western border of Thailand. Of these, 727 patients (18%) presented with anemia (haematocrit 30%), and 1% (55 of 5,253) required blood transfusion. The following were found to be independent risk factors for anemia at admission: age 5 years, a palpable spleen, a palpable

RIC N. PRICE; JULIE A. SIMPSON; FRANCOIS NOSTEN; CHRISTINE LUXEMBURGER; LILI HKIRJAROEN; FEIKO TER KUILE; TAN CHONGSUPHAJAISIDDHI; NICHOLAS J. WHITE

2001-01-01

117

Rituximab in steroid refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is rare in children and infants and steroids are the corner stone of therapy. Management of the patients with steroid refractory/dependent disease is difficult .Rituximab is being used in the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases including Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA),especially in adults but there is scarce data regarding the use of this agent in pediatric AIHA patients.The authors report two cases of steroid refractory AIHA, who responded to rituximab with review the literature of its use in pediatrics. PMID:21830023

Gupta, Nitin; Sharma, Sanjeev; Seth, Tulika; Mishra, Pravas; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Kumar, Suman; Kapoor, Rajan; Agarwal, Narendra

2012-06-01

118

Iron deficiency anemia in heart failure.  

PubMed

Anemia and iron deficiency are quite prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF) and may overlap. Both anemia and iron deficiency are associated with worse symptoms and adverse clinical outcomes. In the past few years, there has been an enormous interest in the subject of iron deficiency and its management in patients with HF. In this review, the etiology and relevance of iron deficiency, iron metabolism in the setting of HF, studies on iron supplementation in patients with HF and potential cardiovascular effects of subclinical iron overload are discussed. PMID:22948485

Arora, Natasha P; Ghali, Jalal K

2013-07-01

119

Idiopathic aplastic anemia: diagnosis and classification.  

PubMed

Aplastic anemia (AA) is a disease characterized by pancytopenia and hypoplastic bone marrow caused by the decrease of hematopoietic stem cells. The pathogenesis of AA is complex and involves an abnormal hematopoietic microenvironment, hematopoietic stem cell/progenitor cell deficiencies and immunity disorders. Survival in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) has markedly improved in the past 4 decades because of advances in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, immunosuppressive and biologic drugs, and supportive care. Herein, we will update the main issues concern AA according to our literature review. PMID:24424170

Dolberg, Osnat Jarchowsky; Levy, Yair

2014-01-01

120

Equine infectious anemia and equine infectious anemia virus in 2013: a review.  

PubMed

A detailed description of equine infectious anemia virus and host responses to it are presented. Current control and eradication of the infection are discussed with suggestions for improvements to increase their effectiveness. PMID:24183747

Cook, R F; Leroux, C; Issel, C J

2013-11-29

121

Uses of Epoetin for Anemia in Oncology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For patients with anemia resulting primarily from cancer therapy, epoetin reduces the odds of transfusion. The overall number needed to treat (NNT) is 4.4 (95 percent confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 6.1), which suggests four to five patients must be trea...

J. Seidenfeld M. Piper N. Aronson

2001-01-01

122

Soluble transferrin receptor in complicated anemia.  

PubMed

Determination of serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) has been proposed to identify iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in patients affected by concurrent inflammatory disease that may spuriously increase ferritin concentration. The aim of this study was to critically review the available literature to assess the diagnostic efficacy of sTfR in complicated anemia. The criteria for study selection were: enrolment of patients with complicated anemia; bone marrow examination used as diagnostic gold standard for IDA; evaluation of sTfR vs. ferritin and binary data presentation. Six published studies met the criteria. However, the small size and wide heterogeneity of the studies did not allow us to conduct a meta-analysis. sTfR was overall more sensitive, even though it was evident that the ferritin sensitivity was influenced by selected cut-offs. Well-designed studies are still needed to define the added value, if any, of sTfR to ferritin for IDA detection in complicated anemia. PMID:24525213

Braga, Federica; Infusino, Ilenia; Dolci, Alberto; Panteghini, Mauro

2014-04-20

123

Immune Hemolytic Anemia--Selected Topics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is most often idiopathic. However, in recent years, AIHA has been noted with increased incidence in patients receiving purine nucleoside analogues for hematologic malig- nancies; it has also been described as a complication of blood transfusion in patients who have also had alloimmunization. As the technology of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has become more wide- spread,

P. C. Hoffman; Morie A. Gertz; Robert A. Brodsky

2006-01-01

124

Bone Marrow Transplantation for Fanconi Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanconi anemia is a genetic disorder associated with diverse congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure, and increased risk of leukemia and other cancers. Affected persons often die before 30 years of age. Bone marrow trans- plantation is an effective treatment, but there are few data regarding factors associated with transplant outcome. We analyzed outcomes of HLA-identical sibling (N = 151)

Eliane Gluckrnan; Arleen D. Auerbach; Mary M. Horowitz; Kathleen A. Sobocinski; Robert C. Ash; Mortimer M. Bortin; Anna Butturini; Bruce M. Carnitta; Richard E. Charnplin; Wilhelrn Friedrich; Robert A. Good; Edward C. Gordon-Smith; Richard E. Harris; John P. Klein; Juan J. Ortega; Ricardo Pasquini; Norma K. C. Rarnsay; Bruno Speck; Marcus R. Vowels; Mei-Jie Zhang; Robert Peter Gale

1995-01-01

125

[Biermer's disease and autoimmune hemolytic anemia].  

PubMed

Biermer's disease is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis of the fundus predominantly responsible for a malabsorption of vitamin B12. Despite its association with several autoimmune disorders, few observations have reported an association with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). We report a case of Biermer's disease associated with AIHA in a patient of 66 years old. PMID:22796620

Nafil, Hatim; Tazi, Illias; Mahmal, Lahoucine

2012-01-01

126

Concurrent pernicious anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Megaloblastic anemia (MA) due to vitamin B12 deficiency is a reversible form of ineffective hematopoiesis. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is an acquired, irreversible disorder of ineffective hematopoiesis, characterized by stem cell dysfunction as a consequence of DNA damage manifested in part by karyotype anomalies. Importantly, MA and MDS are generally considered mutually exclusive diagnoses. We report the case of a 73-year-old

Joseph J. Drabick; Brad J. Davis; John C. Byrd

2001-01-01

127

A short review of malabsorption and anemia.  

PubMed

Anemia is a frequent finding in most diseases which cause malabsorption. The most frequent etiology is the combination of iron and vitamin B12 deficiency. Celiac disease is frequently diagnosed in patients referred for evaluation of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), being reported in 1.8%-14.6% of patients. Therefore, duodenal biopsies should be taken during endoscopy if no obvious cause of iron deficiency (ID) can be found. Cobalamin deficiency occurs frequently among elderly patients, but it is often unrecognized because the clinical manifestations are subtle; it is caused primarily by food-cobalamin malabsorption and pernicious anemia. The classic treatment of cobalamin deficiency has been parenteral administration of the vitamin. Recent data suggest that alternative routes of cobalamin administration (oral and nasal) may be useful in some cases. Anemia is a frequent complication of gastrectomy, and has been often described after bariatric surgery. It has been shown that banding procedures which maintain digestive continuity with the antrum and duodenum are associated with low rates of ID. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection may be considered as a risk factor for IDA, mainly in groups with high demands for iron, such as some children and adolescents. Further controlled trials are needed before making solid recommendations about H. pylori eradication in these cases. PMID:19787827

Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Monzón, Helena; Forné, Montserrat

2009-10-01

128

A short review of malabsorption and anemia  

PubMed Central

Anemia is a frequent finding in most diseases which cause malabsorption. The most frequent etiology is the combination of iron and vitamin B12 deficiency. Celiac disease is frequently diagnosed in patients referred for evaluation of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), being reported in 1.8%-14.6% of patients. Therefore, duodenal biopsies should be taken during endoscopy if no obvious cause of iron deficiency (ID) can be found. Cobalamin deficiency occurs frequently among elderly patients, but it is often unrecognized because the clinical manifestations are subtle; it is caused primarily by food-cobalamin malabsorption and pernicious anemia. The classic treatment of cobalamin deficiency has been parenteral administration of the vitamin. Recent data suggest that alternative routes of cobalamin administration (oral and nasal) may be useful in some cases. Anemia is a frequent complication of gastrectomy, and has been often described after bariatric surgery. It has been shown that banding procedures which maintain digestive continuity with the antrum and duodenum are associated with low rates of ID. Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection may be considered as a risk factor for IDA, mainly in groups with high demands for iron, such as some children and adolescents. Further controlled trials are needed before making solid recommendations about H pylori eradication in these cases.

Fernandez-Banares, Fernando; Monzon, Helena; Forne, Montserrat

2009-01-01

129

Las Vegas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Las Vegas, NV was acquired on August, 2000 and covers an area 42 km (25 miles) wide and 30 km (18 miles) long. The image displays three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. McCarran International Airport to the south and Nellis Air Force Base to the NE are the two major airports visible. Golf courses appear as bright red areas of worms. The first settlement in Las Vegas (which is Spanish for The Meadows) was recorded back in the early 1850s when the Mormon church, headed by Brigham Young, sent a mission of 30 men to construct a fort and teach agriculture to the Indians. Las Vegas became a city in 1905 when the railroad announced this city was to be a major division point. Prior to legalized gambling in 1931, Las Vegas was developing as an agricultural area. Las Vegas' fame as a resort area became prominent after World War II. The image is located at 36.1 degrees north latitude and 115.1 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

130

[The role of cytokines in lymphoma with anemia].  

PubMed

This study was purposed to investigate the role of cytokines in pathogenesis of lymphoma-associated anemia. The levels of IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-? and EPO in serum from 45 lymphoma patients and 12 normal controls were detected by using ELISA, the EPOR level on bone marrow cells were detected by flow cytometry, the CFU-E of bone marrow cultured in vitro was counted under inverted microscope. The results showed that 25 (55.6%) out of 45 newly diagnosed lymphoma patients had anemia before diagnosis, 13 (28.9%) had anemia during therapy, 7 (15.5%)never had anemia. The IFN-? and TNF-? levels in serum of patients with moderate and severe anemia were significantly higher than those in patients with mild anemia and without anemia as well as normal controls. The EPO, IL-6 and IFN-? levels correlated negatively with Hb concentration in patients, the EPOR level in patients without anemia significantly higher than that in patients with anemia and normal controls. The bone marrow CFU-E amount in patients showed positive correlation with Hb and EPOR levels. It is concluded that the increased IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-6 may contribute to the anemia in lymphoma, and yet the EPO and EPOR levels are elevated to balance negative regulatory effects on hematopoiesis and maintain normal hematopoiesis. PMID:23628039

Wang, Ting; Tu, Mei-Feng; Zhu, Jun; Zheng, Wen; Shao, Zong-Hong

2013-04-01

131

Schilling evaluation of pernicious anemia: current status  

SciTech Connect

The Schilling examination remains a popular means of evaluating in vivo absorption of vitamin B/sub 12/. When absorption is abnormally low, the test may be repeated with addition to exogenous intrinsic factor (IF) in order to correct the IF deficiency that characterizes pernicious anemia. A dual-isotope variation provides a means of performing both stages of the test simultaneously, thereby speeding up the test and reducing dependence on complete urine collection. In vivo studies indicate that, when administered simultaneously, the absorption of unbound B/sub 12/ is elevated, and IF-bound B/sub 12/ is reduced, in pernicious-anemia patients, relative to the classic two-stage examination. A number of clinical studies indicate significant difficulty in resolving clincial diagnoses with the dual-tracer test. An algorithm is offered for selecting the most suitable variation of the Schilling test to improve the accuracy of test results and the ease of performance.

Zuckier, L.S.; Chervu, L.R.

1984-09-01

132

Editorial Respiratory repercussions of sickle cell anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sickle cell anemia is a disease with autosomal reces- sive inheritance, secondary to a mutation in the gene of the hemoglobin ? chain, transforming normal hemoglobin (HbA) into sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS). When oxygenated, HbS presents normal function. At low oxygen tension, HbS undergoes polymerization, leading to the distortion of erythrocytes, which take on a characteristic sickle shape. This deformation

Gustavo Antonio Moreira

2007-01-01

133

Laboratory diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and methods:To determine the diagnostic values of laboratory tests used in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia, the authors conducted\\u000a a systematic over-view of the relevant literature. Computerized searches of the MEDLINE database yielded 1,179 potentially\\u000a relevant citations. Fifty-five studies included the results of laboratory tests and histologic examination of the bone marrow\\u000a for at least 50% of an identifiable

Gordon H. Guyatt; Andrew D. Oxman; Mahmoud Ali; Andrew Willan; William McIlroy; Christopher Patterson

1992-01-01

134

Copper deficiency anemia morphologically mimicking myelodysplastic syndrome.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man underwent kidney transplantation for progressive chronic renal failure which had developed 8 years after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia. Because of post-operative complications, he had been placed on intravenous hyperalimentation. Three months after the transplantation, anemia rapidly progressed (hemoglobin, 7.9 g/dl). The proportion of reticulocytes was 0.2%, but white blood cell and platelet counts remained within normal ranges. Serum iron, vitamin B12, and folate levels were normal. Bone marrow examination showed the presence of ringed sideroblasts and cytoplasmic vacuoles in a fraction of erythroid cells. Megakaryocytes were adequate in number with normal morphology. Although the findings were consistent with refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts according to the WHO classification, cytoplasmic vacuolations were also observed in myeloid cells, suggesting copper deficiency. Indeed, serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels were found to be low (33 ?g/dl and 11 mg/dl, respectively), and oral copper supplementation at a daily dose of 1 mg was initiated. There was a prompt increase in reticulocytes, and the hemoglobin level was normalized within one month, in response to this regimen. In progressive anemia cases with ringed sideroblasts in the bone marrow, copper deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24681939

Kikuchi, Taku; Mori, Takehiko; Shimizu, Takayuki; Morita, Shinya; Kono, Hidaka; Nakagawa, Ken; Mitsuhasi, Takayuki; Murata, Mitsuru; Okamoto, Shinichiro

2014-03-01

135

Effect of maternal anemia on fetal outcome.  

PubMed

We assess the effect of maternal iron deficiency anemia (MIDA) on cord blood iron status, placental weight and fetal outcome [birth weight, APGAR (appearance, pulse, Grimace, activity, and respiration) scores and birth asphyxia]. We conducted a cross sectional analytic study on fifty hospitalized pregnant women and their neonates over a year in a teaching hospital in the capital city of Bangladesh. Serum and cord hemoglobin concentration [Hb] with ferritin values were determined immediately after delivery, placental weight, gestational age, birth weight, APGAR scores and birth asphyxia were recorded. It was observed that 36 percent of the pregnant women were anemic. Maternal [Hb] and serum ferritin showed a highly significant positive correlation (r=0.92; p<0.001) indicating that iron deficiency was the most dominant factor in the causation of anemia amongst them. The maternal [Hb] showed a significant correlation with placental weight (r=0.40; p<0.001), birth weight (r=0.35; p<0.001), APGAR score (r=0.52; p<0.001), gestational age (r=0.61; p<0.001) and birth asphyxia. Maternal serum ferritin also correlated positively with cord ferritin (r=0.94; p<0.001), placental weight (r=0.26; p<0.001) and birth weight (r=0.27; p<0.001). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy had significant adverse affect on the foetal outcome. PMID:20639833

Akhter, S; Momen, M A; Rahman, M M; Parveen, T; Karim, R K

2010-07-01

136

Immunotherapy treatments of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA) is one of four clinical types of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), with the characteristics of autoantibodies maximally active at body temperature. It produces a variable anemia-sometimes mild and sometimes severe. With respect to the absence or presence of an underlying condition, WAIHA is either idiopathic (primary) or secondary, which determines the treatment strategies in practice. Conventional treatments include immune suppression with corticosteroids and, in some cases, splenectomy. In recent years, the number of clinical studies with monoclonal antibodies and immunosuppressants in the treatment of WAIHA increased as the knowledge of autoimmunity mechanisms extended. This thread of developing new tools of treating WAIHA is well exemplified with the success in using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, Rituximab. Following this success, other treatment methods based on the immune mechanisms of WAIHA have emerged. We reviewed these newly developed immunotherapy treatments here in order to provide the clinicians with more options in selecting the best therapy for patients with WAIHA, hoping to stimulate researchers to find more novel immunotherapy strategies. PMID:24106518

Liu, Bainan; Gu, Wangang

2013-01-01

137

Diagnosis and classification of pernicious anemia.  

PubMed

Pernicious anemia (PA) is a complex disorder consisting of hematological, gastric and immunological alterations. Diagnosis of PA relies on histologically proven atrophic body gastritis, peripheral blood examination showing megaloblastic anemia with hypersegmented neutrophils, cobalamin deficiency and antibodies to intrinsic factor and to gastric parietal cells. Anti-parietal cell antibodies are found in 90% of patients with PA, but have low specificity and are seen in atrophic gastritis without megaloblastic anemia as well as in various autoimmune disorders. Anti-intrinsic factor antibodies are less sensitive, being found in only 60% of patients with PA, but are considered highly specific for PA. The incidence of PA increases with age and is rare in persons younger than 30 years of age. The highest prevalence is seen in Northern Europeans, especially those in the United Kingdom and Scandinavia, although PA has been reported in virtually every ethnic group. Because of the complexity of the diagnosis, PA prevalence is probably underestimated and no reliable data are available on the risk of gastric cancer as the end-stage evolution of atrophic gastritis in these patients. PMID:24424200

Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio

2014-01-01

138

Immunotherapy Treatments of Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia  

PubMed Central

Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA) is one of four clinical types of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), with the characteristics of autoantibodies maximally active at body temperature. It produces a variable anemia—sometimes mild and sometimes severe. With respect to the absence or presence of an underlying condition, WAIHA is either idiopathic (primary) or secondary, which determines the treatment strategies in practice. Conventional treatments include immune suppression with corticosteroids and, in some cases, splenectomy. In recent years, the number of clinical studies with monoclonal antibodies and immunosuppressants in the treatment of WAIHA increased as the knowledge of autoimmunity mechanisms extended. This thread of developing new tools of treating WAIHA is well exemplified with the success in using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, Rituximab. Following this success, other treatment methods based on the immune mechanisms of WAIHA have emerged. We reviewed these newly developed immunotherapy treatments here in order to provide the clinicians with more options in selecting the best therapy for patients with WAIHA, hoping to stimulate researchers to find more novel immunotherapy strategies.

Gu, Wangang

2013-01-01

139

Reassessment of the microcytic anemia of lead poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Hematologic abnormalities in childhood lead poisoning may be due, in part, to the presence of other disorders, such as iron deficiency or thalassemia minor. In order to reassess increased lead burden as a cause of microcytic anemia, we studied 58 children with class III or IV lead poisoning, normal iron stores, and no inherited hemoglobinopathy. Anemia occurred in 12% and microcytosis in 21% of these children. The combination of anemia and microcytosis was found in only one of 58 patients (2%). When only children with class IV lead poisoning were studied, the occurrence of microcytosis increased to 46%. However, the combination of microcytosis and anemia was found in only one of these 13 more severely affected patients. Microcytic anemia was similarly uncommon in children with either blood lead concentration greater than or equal to 50 microgram/100 ml. These data indicate that microcytosis and anemia occur much less commonly than previously reported in childhood lead poisoning uncomplicated by other hematologic disorders.

Cohen, A.R.; Trotzky, M.S.; Pincus, D.

1981-06-01

140

A novel ubiquitin ligase is deficient in Fanconi anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanconi anemia is a recessively inherited disease characterized by congenital defects, bone marrow failure and cancer susceptibility. Cells from individuals with Fanconi anemia are highly sensitive to DNA-crosslinking drugs, such as mitomycin C (MMC). Fanconi anemia proteins function in a DNA damage response pathway involving breast cancer susceptibility gene products, BRCA1 and BRCA2 (refs. 1,2). A key step in this

Amom Ruhikanta Meetei; Johan P de Winter; Annette L Medhurst; Michael Wallisch; Quinten Waisfisz; Henri J van de Vrugt; Anneke B Oostra; Zhijiang Yan; Chen Ling; Colin E Bishop; Maureen E Hoatlin; Hans Joenje; Weidong Wang

2003-01-01

141

Diabetic acido-ketosis revealing thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia.  

PubMed

Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by megaloblastic anemia, diabetes mellitus and progressive sensorineural deafness. We report the cases of two infants, aged 4 and 5 months, hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis requiring insulin therapy. Laboratory tests revealed megaloblasic anemia, thrombocytopenia and normal thiamine level. Neurosensorial investigations showed bilateral deafness and ophthalmic involvement. Treatment with oral thiamine normalized hematological disorders and controlled diabetes; however, thiamine therapy had no impact on neurosensorial disorders. PMID:19922902

Bouyahia, O; Ouderni, M; Ben Mansour, F; Matoussi, N; Khaldi, F

2009-12-01

142

[Anemia in selected diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in children].  

PubMed

Anemia is a frequent symptom of diseases of alimentary tract, also in children. Among others, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori are most often complicated by anemia. Not infrequently these disorders are accompanied by more than one type of anemia and moreover its pathogenesis may be complex. In children with inflammatory bowel disease iron deficiency anemia is predominant, which is caused by the loss and insufficient supply of iron, but also in this group of diseases anemia of chronic diseases pose a problem. In patient with celiac disease, especially in small children, the main cause of anemia is malabsorption of iron, also its loss due to microdamage of the intestine mucosa has also been observed. In Helicobacter pylori infection the origin of anemia is still being discussed. The treatment of iron deficiency anemia (most frequent in the diseases of the alimentary tract) consists mainly of the treatment of underlying disease, supply of iron in food and in the form of drugs. Transfusions of blood ingredients are done only in severe anemia leading to hemodynamic disturbances. Iron may be supplemented either by oral or intravenous route. PMID:23894782

Krzesiek, Elzbieta; Iwa?czak, Barbara

2013-05-01

143

Determinants of Anemia among Preschool Children in Rural, Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Although anemia in preschool children is most often attributed to iron deficiency, other nutritional, infectious, and genetic contributors are rarely concurrently measured. In a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 858 children 6–35 months of age in western Kenya, we measured hemoglobin, malaria, inflammation, sickle cell, ?-thalassemia, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, anthropometry, and socio-demographic characteristics. Anemia (Hb < 11 g/dL) and severe anemia (Hb < 7 g/dL) prevalence ratios (PRs) for each exposure were determined using multivariable modeling. Anemia (71.8%) and severe anemia (8.4%) were common. Characteristics most strongly associated with anemia were malaria (PR: 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5–1.9), iron deficiency (1.3; 1.2–1.4), and homozygous ?-thalassemia (1.3; 1.1–1.4). Characteristics associated with severe anemia were malaria (10.2; 3.5–29.3), inflammation (6.7; 2.3–19.4), and stunting (1.6; 1.0–2.4). Overall 16.8% of anemia cases were associated with malaria, 8.3% with iron deficiency, and 6.1% with inflammation. Interventions should address malaria, iron deficiency, and non-malarial infections to decrease the burden of anemia in this population.

Foote, Eric M.; Sullivan, Kevin M.; Ruth, Laird J.; Oremo, Jared; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Williams, Thomas N.; Suchdev, Parminder S.

2013-01-01

144

Determinants of anemia among preschool children in rural, western Kenya.  

PubMed

Although anemia in preschool children is most often attributed to iron deficiency, other nutritional, infectious, and genetic contributors are rarely concurrently measured. In a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 858 children 6-35 months of age in western Kenya, we measured hemoglobin, malaria, inflammation, sickle cell, ?-thalassemia, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, anthropometry, and socio-demographic characteristics. Anemia (Hb < 11 g/dL) and severe anemia (Hb < 7 g/dL) prevalence ratios (PRs) for each exposure were determined using multivariable modeling. Anemia (71.8%) and severe anemia (8.4%) were common. Characteristics most strongly associated with anemia were malaria (PR: 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-1.9), iron deficiency (1.3; 1.2-1.4), and homozygous ?-thalassemia (1.3; 1.1-1.4). Characteristics associated with severe anemia were malaria (10.2; 3.5-29.3), inflammation (6.7; 2.3-19.4), and stunting (1.6; 1.0-2.4). Overall 16.8% of anemia cases were associated with malaria, 8.3% with iron deficiency, and 6.1% with inflammation. Interventions should address malaria, iron deficiency, and non-malarial infections to decrease the burden of anemia in this population. PMID:23382166

Foote, Eric M; Sullivan, Kevin M; Ruth, Laird J; Oremo, Jared; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Williams, Thomas N; Suchdev, Parminder S

2013-04-01

145

21 CFR 250.201 - Preparations for the treatment of pernicious anemia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Preparations for the treatment of pernicious anemia. 250.201 Section 250.201 Food...Preparations for the treatment of pernicious anemia. (a) The ninth announcement of the Anti-anemia Preparations Advisory Board of the...

2009-04-01

146

21 CFR 250.201 - Preparations for the treatment of pernicious anemia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Preparations for the treatment of pernicious anemia. 250.201 Section 250.201 Food...Preparations for the treatment of pernicious anemia. (a) The ninth announcement of the Anti-anemia Preparations Advisory Board of the...

2010-04-01

147

Prevalence of anemia in persons 65 years and older in the United States: evidence for a high rate of unexplained anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians frequently identify anemia in their older patients, but national data on the prevalence and causes of anemia in this population in the United States have been unavailable. Data presented here are from the noninstitutionalized US popu- lation assessed in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Anemia was defined by World Health Organization criteria; causes of anemia

Jack M. Guralnik; Richard S. Eisenstaedt; Luigi Ferrucci; Harvey G. Klein; Richard C. Woodman; L. P. Bridgewater

2004-01-01

148

Iron, anemia and hepcidin in malaria  

PubMed Central

Malaria and iron have a complex but important relationship. Plasmodium proliferation requires iron, both during the clinically silent liver stage of growth and in the disease-associated phase of erythrocyte infection. Precisely how the protozoan acquires its iron from its mammalian host remains unclear, but iron chelators can inhibit pathogen growth in vitro and in animal models. In humans, iron deficiency appears to protect against severe malaria, while iron supplementation increases risks of infection and disease. Malaria itself causes profound disturbances in physiological iron distribution and utilization, through mechanisms that include hemolysis, release of heme, dyserythropoiesis, anemia, deposition of iron in macrophages, and inhibition of dietary iron absorption. These effects have significant consequences. Malarial anemia is a major global health problem, especially in children, that remains incompletely understood and is not straightforward to treat. Furthermore, the changes in iron metabolism during a malaria infection may modulate susceptibility to co-infections. The release of heme and accumulation of iron in granulocytes may explain increased vulnerability to non-typhoidal Salmonella during malaria. The redistribution of iron away from hepatocytes and into macrophages may confer host resistance to superinfection, whereby blood-stage parasitemia prevents the development of a second liver-stage Plasmodium infection in the same organism. Key to understanding the pathophysiology of iron metabolism in malaria is the activity of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin is upregulated during blood-stage parasitemia and likely mediates much of the iron redistribution that accompanies disease. Understanding the regulation and role of hepcidin may offer new opportunities to combat malaria and formulate better approaches to treat anemia in the developing world.

Spottiswoode, Natasha; Duffy, Patrick E.; Drakesmith, Hal

2014-01-01

149

Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

Uncompensated autoantibody-mediated red blood cell (RBC) consumption is the hallmark of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Classification of AIHA is pathophysiologically based and divides AIHA into warm, mixed or cold-reactive subtypes. This thermal-based classification is based on the optimal autoantibody-RBC reactivity temperatures. AIHA is further subcategorized into idiopathic and secondary with the later being associated with a number of underlying infectious, neoplastic and autoimmune disorders. In most cases AIHA is confirmed by a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). The standard therapeutic approaches to treatment of AIHA include corticosteroids, splenectomy, immunosuppressive agents and monoclonal antibodies. PMID:24418298

Bass, Garrett F; Tuscano, Emily T; Tuscano, Joseph M

2014-01-01

150

Etiology of Strokes in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most devastating complication of sickle cell anemia is cerebral infarction, affecting [approximately]30% of all individuals with sickle cell anemia. Despite being one of the most common causes of stroke in infants and children, the mechanism of cerebral infarction in this population has not been extensively studied and is poorly understood.…

DeBaun, Michael R.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; McKinstry, Robert C., III

2006-01-01

151

Management of Anemia of Inflammation in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Anemia of any degree is recognized as a significant independent contributor to morbidity, mortality, and frailty in elderly patients. Among the broad types of anemia in the elderly a peculiar role seems to be played by the anemia associated with chronic inflammation, which remains the most complex form of anemia to treat. The origin of this nonspecific inflammation in the elderly has not yet been clarified. It seems more plausible that the oxidative stress that accompanies ageing is the real cause of chronic inflammation of the elderly and that the same oxidative stress is actually a major cause of this anemia. The erythropoietic agents have the potential to play a therapeutic role in this patient population. Despite some promising results, rHuEPO does not have a specific indication for the treatment of anemia in the elderly. Moreover, concerns about their side effects have spurred the search for alternatives. Considering the etiopathogenetic mechanisms of anemia of inflammation in the elderly population, an integrated nutritional/dietetic approach with nutraceuticals that can manipulate oxidative stress and related inflammation may prevent the onset of this anemia and its negative impact on patients' performance and quality of life.

Maccio, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia

2012-01-01

152

Genetics Home Reference: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed July 2014 What is iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia? Iron-refractory iron deficiency ...

153

Suppression of hepcidin during anemia requires erythropoietic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

and is responsible for meeting the body's normal iron requirement and for accumulating and controlling iron stores. The erythroid regulator maintains the production of erythrocytes irrespective of the body's iron balance. In persistent anemia due to blood loss, this process increases iron absorption and depletes iron stores. In anemias with ineffective erythropoiesis, the erythroid regulator also increases iron absorption but,

Mihwa Pak; Miguel A. Lopez; Victroia Gabayan; Tomas Ganz; Seth Rivera

2010-01-01

154

Multivariable Discriminant Analysis for the Differential Diagnosis of Microcytic Anemia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia are the most common causes of microcytic anemia. Powerful statistical computer programming enables sensitive discriminant analyses to aid in the diagnosis. We aimed at investigating the performance of the multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) to the differential diagnosis of microcytic anemia. Methods. The training group was composed of 200 ?-thalassemia carriers, 65 ?-thalassemia carriers, 170 iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and 45 mixed cases of thalassemia and acute phase response or iron deficiency. A set of potential predictor parameters that could detect differences among groups were selected: Red Blood Cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and RBC distribution width (RDW). The functions obtained with MDA analysis were applied to a set of 628 consecutive patients with microcytic anemia. Results. For classifying patients into two groups (genetic anemia and acquired anemia), only one function was needed; 87.9% ?-thalassemia carriers, and 83.3% ?-thalassemia carriers, and 72.1% in the mixed group were correctly classified. Conclusion. Linear discriminant functions based on hemogram data can aid in differentiating between IDA and thalassemia, so samples can be efficiently selected for further analysis to confirm the presence of genetic anemia.

Urrechaga, Eloisa; Aguirre, Urko; Izquierdo, Silvia

2013-01-01

155

X-linked inheritance of Fanconi anemia complementation group B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanconi anemia is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by diverse clinical symptoms, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, chromosomal instability and susceptibility to cancer. Fanconi anemia has at least 11 complementation groups (A, B, C, D1, D2, E, F, G, I, J, L); the genes mutated in 8 of these have been identified. The gene BRCA2 was suggested to underlie complementation

Amom Ruhikanta Meetei; Marieke Levitus; Yutong Xue; Annette L Medhurst; Michel Zwaan; Chen Ling; Martin A Rooimans; Patrick Bier; Maureen Hoatlin; Gerard Pals; Johan P de Winter; Weidong Wang; Hans Joenje

2004-01-01

156

The Fanconi Anemia Polypeptide FACC is Localized to the Cytoplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by congenital anomalies, aplastic anemia, and chromosomal instability. A cDNA encoding the FA complementation group C (FACC) polypeptide was recently cloned [Strathdee, C. A., Gavish, H., Shannon, W. R. & Buchwald, M. (1992) Nature (London) 356, 763-767]. To further characterize this polypeptide, we generated a rabbit polyclonal antiserum against its carboxyl

Takayuki Yamashita; Dwayne L. Barber; Yuan Zhu; Nan Wu; Alan D. D'Andrea

1994-01-01

157

Convergence of the Fanconi Anemia and Ataxia Telangiectasia Signaling Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanconi anemia (FA) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) are clinically distinct autosomal recessive disorders characterized by spontaneous chromosome breakage and hematological cancers. FA cells are hypersensitive to mitomycin C (MMC), while AT cells are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation (IR). Here, we identify the Fanconi anemia protein, FANCD2, as a link between the FA and ATM damage response pathways. ATM phosphorylates FANCD2

Toshiyasu Taniguchi; Irene Garcia-Higuera; Bo Xu; Paul R. Andreassen; Richard C. Gregory; Seong-Tae Kim; Michael B. Kastan; Alan D. D'Andrea

2002-01-01

158

Fanconi anemia and breast cancer susceptibility meet again.  

PubMed

A new study reports biallelic mutations in RAD51C in a Fanconi anemia-like disorder, while a second study reports monoallelic mutations in the same gene associated with increased breast cancer risk. These findings strengthen the link between Fanconi anemia and breast cancer-associated pathways. PMID:20428093

Levy-Lahad, Ephrat

2010-05-01

159

Current concepts in the pathophysiology and treatment of aplastic anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aplastic anemia, an unusual hematologic disease, is the paradigm of the human bone marrow failure syndromes. Almost universally fatal just a few decades ago, aplastic anemia can now be cured or ameliorated by stem-cell transplantation or immunosuppressive drug therapy. The pathophysiology is immune mediated in most cases, with activated type 1 cyto- toxic T cells implicated. The molecular basis of

Neal S. Young; Rodrigo T. Calado; Phillip Scheinberg; Hematology Branch

2006-01-01

160

Pernicious anemia: New insights from a gastroenterological point of view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pernicious anemia (PA) is a macrocytic anemia that is caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, as a result of intrinsic factor deficiency. PA is associated with atrophic body gastritis (ABG), whose diagnosis is based on histological confirmation of gastric body atrophy. Serological markers that suggest oxyntic mucosa damage are increased fasting gastrin and decreased pepsinogen ?. Without performing Schilling's test, intrinsic

Edith Lahner; Bruno Annibale

161

Prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among strenuously trained adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThere is a lack of awareness among physicians, dieticians, and public health planners as to the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among adolescents undergoing strenuous physical training. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among male adolescents undergoing such activity.

Drorit Merkel; Michael Huerta; Itamar Grotto; Dalit Blum; Orna Tal; Eliezer Rachmilewitz; Eitan Fibach; Yoram Epstein; Ofer Shpilberg

2005-01-01

162

An Etiologic Profile of Anemia in 405 Geriatric Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. Anemia is a common condition in the elderly and a significant risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality, reducing not only functional capacity and mobility but also quality of life. Currently, few data are available regarding anemia in hospitalized geriatric patients. Our retrospective study investigated epidemiology and causes of anemia in 405 hospitalized geriatric patients. Methods. Data analysis was performed using laboratory parameters determined during routine hospital admission procedures (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin saturation, C-reactive protein, vitamin B12, folic acid, and creatinine) in addition to medical history and demographics. Results. Anemia affected approximately two-thirds of subjects. Of 386 patients with recorded hemoglobin values, 66.3% were anemic according to WHO criteria, mostly (85.1%) in a mild form. Anemia was primarily due to iron deficiency (65%), frequently due to underlying chronic infection (62.1%), or of mixed etiology involving a combination of chronic disease and iron deficiency, with absolute iron deficiency playing a comparatively minor role. Conclusion. Greater awareness of anemia in the elderly is warranted due to its high prevalence and negative effect on outcomes, hospitalization duration, and mortality. Geriatric patients should be routinely screened for anemia and etiological causes of anemia individually assessed to allow timely initiation of appropriate therapy.

Geisel, Tabea; Martin, Julia; Schulze, Bettina; Schaefer, Roland; Bach, Matthias; Virgin, Garth; Stein, Jurgen

2014-01-01

163

Pathogenesis of anemia in Trypanosoma brucei-infected mice.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of anemia was studied in trypanosome-infected mice. A strain of Trypanosoma brucei, TREU 667, was used which first produces an acute phase marked by waves of parasitemia. Erythrocytes from infected animals were coated with immunoglobulin M during or just before the waves of anemia and parasitological crises. Erythrocytes from normal animals could be sensitized with "precrisis" sera presumably containing antigen and antibody. These data suggest that anemia during the acute phase is due to sensitization of erythrocytes with immunoglobulin M-antigen complexes. The anemia is partially compensated by a strong erythropoietic response. The acute phase is followed by a chronic phase marked by a constant high parasitemia and immunosuppression. The less marked anemia occurring during this latter phase is due to hemodilution and perhaps a low but significant immune response to the parasites, which causes continuing erythrocyte sensitization by immunoglobulin M-antigen complexes.

Amole, B O; Clarkson, A B; Shear, H L

1982-01-01

164

Prevalence of anemia among women: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background The WHO estimates that more than 1/3rd of world population is anemic, of which iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is most common and serious problem of public health significance. Prevalence of anemia in India is among the highest in the world but within the country prevalence rates differ substantially between different regions. Indian Armed Forces personnel and families form a special class as it includes people from all regions. However, reliable data on the prevalence of anemia in families of naval personnel is scanty. The present study highlights the problem of anemia in non-pregnant wives of serving enrolled personnel of the Indian Navy in the reproductive age group. Methods A community based, cross sectional study was carried out at a Naval Base. Physical examination and hemoglobin estimation was done for 257 (100% sample) non-pregnant/non-lactating wives of serving enrolled personnel of the Indian Navy of age between 18 and 45years. Statistical analysis was carried out to estimate the prevalence of anemia. Results & Conclusion The prevalence of anemia was found to be 31.90%. Literacy status and Mean BMI of women with anemia was found to be significantly less than subjects without anemia. In conclusion this was a small study conducted to simply access the prevalence of anemia in wives of naval personnel, which though found much lower than national average is still high at 31.90%. Hence a larger multicentric study is being planned to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with anemia in families of Armed Forces personnel.

Bobdey, Saurabh; Sinha, Shruti

2012-01-01

165

Prevalences of anemia and iron deficiency anemia in Black and White women in the United States estimated by two methods.  

PubMed Central

Prevalences of anemia were estimated by two methods for 742 Black and 3,074 White nonpregnant women of childbearing age drawn from a large probability sample of the United States civilian noninstitutionalized population (NHANES I). One method defines the prevalence of anemia as the proportion of women with hemoglobin levels below a 12 g/dl "cut-off". The second method defines the prevalence of anemia as the proportion of women whose hemoglobin values are shifted downwards relative to a distribution of hemoglobin values of non-anemic women. Estimates produced by both methods suggest a higher prevalence of anemia in Black than in White women. Estimates produced by the "cut-off" method, however, are higher than those from the "distribution" method for both racial groups, probably because the "cut-off" method results in large overestimates in populations where anemia prevalence is low. The "distribution" method is further used to estimate the contribution of iron deficiency to anemia. Essentially all anemia in White women and a high proportion of anemia in Black women is associated with iron deficiency in the US civilian noninstitutionalized population. Iron supplementation trials are needed in order to define the magnitude of the problem accurately and plan appropriate public health programs.

Meyers, L D; Habicht, J P; Johnson, C L; Brownie, C

1983-01-01

166

Initial diagnosis of anemia from sore mouth and improved classification of anemias by MCV and RDW in 30 patients.  

PubMed

Thirty patients with a wide range of sore mouth that led to the diagnosis of iron deficiency in 12 patients, pernicious anemia in 8 patients, combined deficiency of iron and vitamin B12 in 2 patients, and anemia of chronic disease in 8 patients were investigated. The oral signs and symptoms included glossitis, glossodynia, angular cheilitis, recurrent oral ulcer, oral candidosis, diffuse erythematous mucositis, and pale oral mucosa. The values of hemoglobin in 30 patients varied from normal to severe life-threatening levels, but none had developed generalized symptoms sufficiently advanced to arouse suspicions of anemia before they visited the Oral Medicine Clinic. The aim of this paper is to describe a retrospective study of 30 patients with oral changes as the initial manifestation of nutritional deficiency or anemia of chronic diseases. Improved diagnosis and classification of anemia based on the mean and heterogeneity of red cell size will be discussed. PMID:15583540

Lu, Shin-Yu; Wu, Hong-Cheng

2004-12-01

167

Differentiation of Fanconi anemia and aplastic anemia using mitomycin C test in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive chromosomal instability syndrome that is clinically characterized by multiple symptoms. Chromosome breakage hypersensitivity to alkylating agents is the gold standard test for FA diagnosis. In this study, we provide a detailed laboratory protocol for accurate assessment of FA diagnosis based on mitomycin C (MMC) test. Induced chromosomal breakage study was successful in 171 out of 205 aplastic anemia (AA) patients. According to the sensitivity of MMC at 50 ng/ml, 38 patients (22.22%) were diagnosed as affected and 132 patients (77.17%) as unaffected. Somatic mosaicism was suspected in an 11-year-old patient with a FA phenotype. Twenty-six siblings of FA patients were also evaluated and five of them (19.23%) were diagnosed as FA. From this study, a standard protocol for diagnosis of FA was developed. It is routinely used as a diagnostic test of FA in Tunisia. PMID:23537767

Talmoudi, Faten; Kilani, Olfa; Ayed, Wiem; Ben Halim, Nizar; Mellouli, Fethi; Torjmane, Lamia; Aissaoui, Lamia; Ben Youssef, Yosra; Kammoun, Lobna; Ben Othmane, Tarek; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Ben Romdhane, Neila; Elloumi, Moez; Hadiji, Sondes; Hentati, Sofiene; Chemkhi, Imene; Abidli, Nabila; Guermani, Helmi; Abdelhak, Sonia; Amouri, Ahlem

2013-01-01

168

Ulcerative Colitis Associated with Aplastic Anemia; A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Anemia is the most common hematologic disorder in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). In some cases, normochromic anemia results from the presence of chronic disease; however blood loss or malabsorption may lead to an iron deficiency anemia with hypochromic appearance. Other rare hematologic manifestations associated with UC include myelodysplastic syndromes and leukemia. Several investigators have suggested a clinical association between inflammatory bowel disease and myelodysplastic syndrome, which may they share an immune dysfunction and impairment of T-lymphocytes activities. UC is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology that mainly affects the mucosa of the colon. Immune mechanisms play an important role in UC, and immunogenetic factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. Aplastic anemia is a bone marrow stem cell disorder characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, leading to pancytopenia. Although aplastic anemia is frequently idiopathic, the immune-mediated suppression of hematopoiesis may be implicated in at least half of patients, since more than half of these patients achieve hematological remission in response to immunosuppressive therapy. We report here a rare case of UC associated with pancytopenia requiring a blood transfusion in which a bone marrow examination showed aplastic anemia. A common pathogenic link between UC and aplastic anemia is suggested in this patient on the basis of the shared immunologic impairment underlying both diseases.

Ghavidel, Ali

2013-01-01

169

Prevalence of anemia in First Nations children of northwestern Ontario.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among First Nations children of northwestern Ontario. DESIGN: Retrospective review of all hemoglobin determinations between 1990 and 1992 in the Sioux Lookout Zone. SETTING: The Sioux Lookout Zone Hospital, a secondary care referral hospital for 28 remote First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario, affiliated with the University of Toronto's Sioux Lookout Program. PARTICIPANTS: All First Nations children age 3 to 60 months who had produced venipuncture or fingerprick blood samples between 1990 and 1992 (614 children had a total of 1223 hemoglobin determinations). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of anemia by age, sex, geographical location, and diagnosis. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin value less than 110g/L. RESULTS: Prevalence of anemia peaked in the age range of 6 to 24 months with prevalence rates of 51.7% to 79.3%. Conditions most commonly associated with anemia were respiratory tract infections. Children living in communities in the western part of the Sioux Lookout Zone were 1.64 times more likely to have anemia (95% confidence interval 1.15, 2.35) than children in the other communities. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia appears to be a serious public health problem among preschool children in the Sioux Lookout Zone.

Whalen, E. A.; Caulfield, L. E.; Harris, S. B.

1997-01-01

170

Anemia management: development of a rapidaccess anemia and intravenous iron service  

PubMed Central

This article describes the initiation and evolution of the Rapid-Access Anemia Clinic (RAAC) at Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospitals, London, UK. This clinic was set up to provide diagnosis and treatment, and to coordinate investigative procedures, where necessary, into the underlying causes of anemia. Initially piloted with anemic preoperative orthopedic patients, the clinic now treats a wide range of conditions, deriving from both internal and external referrals. Treatment includes dietary advice, supplementation with iron, vitamin B12 and folate, and blood transfusion. Most patients at the RAAC need iron replacement, the majority of which require intravenous (IV) iron. Therefore the first-line IV iron-administration protocol is carefully considered to ensure viability of the service and patient satisfaction. Four IV irons available in the UK are discussed, with explanation of the benefits and drawbacks of each product and the reasoning behind the IV iron choice at different stages of the RAAC’s development. Costs to the service, affected by IV iron price and administration regimen, are considered, as well as the product’s contraindications. Finally, the authors reflect on the success of the RAAC and how it has improved patients’ quality-of-treatment experience, in addition to benefiting the hospital and National Health Service in achieving specific health-care mandates and directives. Drawing from the authors’ experiences, recommendations are given to assist others in setting up and providing a successful rapid-access anemia service or similar facility.

Radia, Deepti; Momoh, Ibrahim; Dillon, Richard; Francis, Yvonne; Cameron, Laura; Fagg, Toni-Lee; Overland, Hannah; Robinson, Susan; Harrison, Claire N

2013-01-01

171

Anemia management: development of a rapidaccess anemia and intravenous iron service.  

PubMed

This article describes the initiation and evolution of the Rapid-Access Anemia Clinic (RAAC) at Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals, London, UK. This clinic was set up to provide diagnosis and treatment, and to coordinate investigative procedures, where necessary, into the underlying causes of anemia. Initially piloted with anemic preoperative orthopedic patients, the clinic now treats a wide range of conditions, deriving from both internal and external referrals. Treatment includes dietary advice, supplementation with iron, vitamin B12 and folate, and blood transfusion. Most patients at the RAAC need iron replacement, the majority of which require intravenous (IV) iron. Therefore the first-line IV iron-administration protocol is carefully considered to ensure viability of the service and patient satisfaction. Four IV irons available in the UK are discussed, with explanation of the benefits and drawbacks of each product and the reasoning behind the IV iron choice at different stages of the RAAC's development. Costs to the service, affected by IV iron price and administration regimen, are considered, as well as the product's contraindications. Finally, the authors reflect on the success of the RAAC and how it has improved patients' quality-of-treatment experience, in addition to benefiting the hospital and National Health Service in achieving specific health-care mandates and directives. Drawing from the authors' experiences, recommendations are given to assist others in setting up and providing a successful rapid-access anemia service or similar facility. PMID:23950666

Radia, Deepti; Momoh, Ibrahim; Dillon, Richard; Francis, Yvonne; Cameron, Laura; Fagg, Toni-Lee; Overland, Hannah; Robinson, Susan; Harrison, Claire N

2013-01-01

172

Cochlear implant and thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome.  

PubMed

Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder defined by the occurrence of megaloblastic anemia, diabetes mellitus, and bilateral sensorineural deafness, responding in varying degrees to thiamine treatment. We report a precedence case for the treatment of deafness associated with the typical triad of thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia in a 4-year-old boy who showed a poor use of preoperative hearing aids but demonstrated significant improvements in hearing ability 1 year after receiving a cochlear implant. PMID:24658560

Hagr, Abdulrahman Abdullah

2014-01-01

173

How I treat acquired aplastic anemia  

PubMed Central

Survival in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) has markedly improved in the past 4 decades because of advances in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, immunosuppressive biologics and drugs, and supportive care. However, management of SAA patients remains challenging, both acutely in addressing the immediate consequences of pancytopenia and in the long term because of the disease's natural history and the consequences of therapy. Recent insights into pathophysiology have practical implications. We review key aspects of differential diagnosis, considerations in the choice of first- and second-line therapies, and the management of patients after immunosuppression, based on both a critical review of the recent literature and our large personal and research protocol experience of bone marrow failure in the Hematology Branch of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Young, Neal S.

2012-01-01

174

Anemia and transfusion of red blood cells  

PubMed Central

The red cells transfusion is a mainstay in the treatment of anemic patients. These blood transfusions are not without risks. The risk-benefit profile for red cell transfusions to treat anaemia is uncertain, but they may contribute to adverse patient outcomes in some situations. The ability of a patient to tolerate anaemia depends on their clinical condition and the presence of any significant co-morbidity; maintenance of circulating volume is of paramount importance. There is no universal transfusion trigger. Advances in the development and validation of physiological, accessible, practical and reliable markers to guide therapy are expected. To improve patients' outcomes, further study is required to more fully explore the risk of anemia, optimal hemoglobin level, and the risk and efficacy of RBC transfusion. Future clinical investigations with high priority should determine the efficacy of transfusion in those classified as uncertain scenarios. In the absence of data, it is prudent that transfusion is administered with caution in these clinical scenarios.

2013-01-01

175

Diagnosis of Fanconi Anemia: Chromosomal Breakage Analysis  

PubMed Central

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited syndrome with diverse clinical symptoms including developmental defects, short stature, bone marrow failure, and a high risk of malignancies. Fifteen genetic subtypes have been distinguished so far. The mode of inheritance for all subtypes is autosomal recessive, except for FA-B, which is X-linked. Cells derived from FA patients are—by definition—hypersensitive to DNA cross-linking agents, such as mitomycin C, diepoxybutane, or cisplatinum, which becomes manifest as excessive growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and chromosomal breakage upon cellular exposure to these drugs. Here we provide a detailed laboratory protocol for the accurate assessment of the FA diagnosis as based on mitomycin C-induced chromosomal breakage analysis in whole-blood cultures. The method also enables a quantitative estimate of the degree of mosaicism in the lymphocyte compartment of the patient.

Oostra, Anneke B.; Nieuwint, Aggie W. M.; Joenje, Hans; de Winter, Johan P.

2012-01-01

176

How I treat Diamond-Blackfan anemia  

PubMed Central

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by red cell failure, the presence of congenital anomalies, and cancer predisposition. In addition to being an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, DBA is also categorized as a ribosomopathy as, in more than 50% of cases, the syndrome appears to result from haploinsufficiency of either a small or large subunit-associated ribosomal protein. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism by which haploinsufficiency results in erythroid failure, as well as the other clinical manifestations, remains uncertain. New knowledge regarding genetic and molecular mechanisms combined with robust clinical data from several international patient registries has provided important insights into the diagnosis of DBA and may, in the future, provide new treatments as well. Diagnostic criteria have been expanded to include patients with little or no clinical findings. Patient management is therefore centered on accurate diagnosis, appropriate use of transfusions and iron chelation, corticosteroids, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and a coordinated multidisciplinary approach to these complex patients.

Muir, Ellen

2010-01-01

177

Ubiquitylation and the Fanconi Anemia Pathway  

PubMed Central

The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway maintains genome stability through co-ordination of DNA repair of interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Disruption of the FA pathway yields hypersensitivity to interstrand crosslinking agents, bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. Early steps in DNA damage dependent activation of the pathway are governed by monoubiquitylation of FANCD2 and FANCI by the intrinsic FA E3 ubiquitin ligase, FANCL. Downstream FA pathway components and associated factors such as FAN1 and SLX4 exhibit ubiquitin-binding motifs that are important for their DNA repair function, underscoring the importance of ubiquitylation in FA pathway mediated repair. Importantly, ubiquitylation provides the foundations for cross-talk between repair pathways, which in concert with the FA pathway, resolve interstrand crosslink damage and maintain genomic stability.

Garner, Elizabeth; Smogorzewska, Agata

2012-01-01

178

[Clinical classification of iron deficiency anemia].  

PubMed

Symptoms have been analyzed of clinical pleomorphism of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In the examination of 89 patients with IDA, as example, a complex of secondary abnormalities of metabolism accompanying IDA clinical course is demonstrated. Based on the study of aspects of the clinical course, features of the peripheral blood, indices for iron metabolism, measuring of the blood content of lactic, pyruvic acids, free histamine, free serotonin, free heparin in the blood plasma a clinical classification has been elaborated detailing stages of the condition, basic clinical forms and complications. A classification of IDA is presented. Included in the above classification are stages of the above medical condition, its clinical forms and complications with diagnostic criteria and policy of dealing with IDA outlined. The use of such a classification ensures continuity of work among physicians when they come to deal with problems of diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of IDA in patients. PMID:11881373

Vydyborets', S V; Ga?dukova, S M

2001-01-01

179

[Cardiopulmonary complications in sickle cell anemia].  

PubMed

Sickle cell anemia, considered the most prevalent genetic disease among African Americans, is a disease with autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, characterized by the production of hemoglobin S. This abnormal protein polymerizes and facilitates the formation of fibrillar aggregates that alters the erythrocyte morphology. The stiffness of the red blood cells hinders the adequate transit across microcirculation, leading to hemolysis and increased blood viscosity, which ease thrombogenesis and vascular occlusion, resulting in tissue ischemia and microinfarcts. This disease has a high rate of morbidity and mortality, especially in the first three years of life, when a rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential. Cardiovascular complications such as heart failure and pulmonary hypertension may develop independently, and each one contributes to increased mortality, being the combination of both risk factors, an important aggravating factor for prognosis and a determinant indicator of mortality. PMID:24215682

Rojas-Jiménez, Sara; Lopera-Valle, Johan; Yabur-Espítia, Mirna

2013-01-01

180

[Anemia in head and neck cancers].  

PubMed

Anemia is very common in head and neck cancer patients, and seems to be correlated with intratumoral hypoxia. Anemia is one of the main prognostic factors of locoregional recurrence and, in some studies, of poor survival. Blood transfusions and human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO) are the two main methods used in clinical practice to correct hemoglobin level during curative treatment. Blood transfusions were rarely evaluated, and did not influence locoregional control of patients treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Retrospective studies evaluating combined treatment of rHuEPO and radiotherapy reported positive impact on locoregional recurrence and actuarial survival. Since the end of 2003, this approach is a matter for debate after the negative results of a prospective randomized study on progression-free survival concerning head and neck cancer patients treated with definitive or postoperative external radiotherapy with or without rHuEPO. Although many biases were reported against this publication, several questions are to be answered in the near future. Among them, erythropoietin receptor expression and activation on tumour cell seem to be the more appropriate explanation of these negative results. In October 2004, preliminary results of the RTOG 99-03 study have been presented at the Astro annual meeting in Atlanta. This prospective randomized trial was designed to determine if concurrent rHuEPO administration (40,000 units) with radiotherapy (with or without chemotherapy) could improve locoregional control in non-operative head and neck cancers. In the rHuEPO arm, haemoglobin level was significantly increased compared with control arm. However, the addition of concurrent rHuEPO to definitive radiotherapy did not improve locoregional control or survival for mildly/moderately anemic patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Future clinical trials using biological markers are thus imperative to target which patients could benefit from these molecules. PMID:15932808

Azria, David; Zouhair, Abderrahim; Serre, Antoine; Lemanski, Claire; Schneider, Maurice; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Dubois, Jean-Bernard; Lartigau, Eric

2005-05-01

181

For Parents of Children with Diamond Blackfan Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... For Parents of Children with Diamond Blackfan Anemia Parenting Corner Q&A When your child is evaluated ... Number of children in the family • Family lifestyle • Parenting styles • Personality types of the children • Age differences ...

182

Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with iron deficiency anemia.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old man presented with generalized seizures and postictal left hemiparesis. Computed tomography scanning of his head showed a low density area in the right frontal lobe. Cerebral angiography demonstrated a partial defect in the superior sagittal sinus and cortical veins, indicating the presence of cerebral venous thrombosis. He had bleeding from a peptic ulcer and the laboratory data revealed iron deficiency anemia concomitant with an elevation of D-dimer and thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT). After the anemia resolved with the treatment of the peptic ulcer and iron supplementation, the TAT and D-dimer levels were normalized, and the occluded veins were recanalized. In a cerebral venous thrombosis associated with iron deficiency anemia, treatment for the anemia may improve hypercoagulable state without antithrombotic therapy, although the long-term monitoring of TAT and D-dimer levels is required. PMID:18984440

Ogata, Toshiyasu; Kamouchi, Masahiro; Kitazono, Takanari; Kuroda, Junya; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Shono, Tadahisa; Morioka, Takato; Ibayashi, Setsuro; Sasaki, Tomio; Iida, Mitsuo

2008-01-01

183

Exceptional Blood Loss Anemia: Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three patients with acute blood loss anemia, who had refused blood transfusions because of religious beliefs, were in hypovolemic shock and were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen resulted in dramatic improvement, with revers...

G. B. Hart

1974-01-01

184

[Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia: description of a new case].  

PubMed

Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia is an only recently recognised syndrome. We present a case whereby a month after an episode of fever, a 17-year-old boy was recovered with liver enzyme elevation and circulating platelet reduction. All the acute viral hepatitis markers were negative. After bone marrow aspiration a severe aplastic anemia was diagnosed and all the findings were consistent with hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia. The disorder was initially treated with glucocorticoids and platelet transfusion, obtaining the normalization of the liver enzymes but worsening of the aplastic anemia. An HLA-identical related marrow donor was not found. The patient responded to immunosuppressive treatment but died of multi-organ failure due to severe sepsis. PMID:15729019

Andreana, Augusto; Cesaro, Giuseppe; Giordano, Maria Grazia; Ricciotti, Raffaella; Andreana, Lorenzo

2004-12-01

185

Diphyllobothrium pacificum Infection is Seldom Associated with Megaloblastic Anemia  

PubMed Central

Twenty cases of Dyphillobothrium pacificum (fish tapeworm) infections were prospectively studied to determine whether this tapeworm is associated with megaloblastic anemia, as commonly reported for D. latum infections. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue and mild abdominal pain, which were identified in approximately 66.6% of the 18 patients interviewed. Fourteen patients received treatment with niclosamide and all were cured. The other six patients spontaneously eliminated the tapeworms. One patient, who also had chronic diabetes and gastric atrophy, had low vitamin B12 levels and megaloblastic anemia. In all other patients, including three other patients with anemia, baseline vitamin B12 levels were in the reference range and did not significantly change when re-assessed three months later. Unlike D. latum, infection with D. pacificum is seldom associated with megaloblastic anemia or vitamin B12 deficit.

Jimenez, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gamboa, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Lourdes; Garcia, Hector H.

2012-01-01

186

The Study of Anemia in Patients with Renal Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sensitive radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin (ESF) has been developed during this past year with the Chloramine-T and Lactoperoxidase methods. Using this radioimmunoassay the serum levels of ESF were higher in patients with anemia of renal disease than...

J. W. Fisher W. J. Stuckey F. Gonzales

1974-01-01

187

Vaccine Induced Enhancement of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) Replication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have used the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) system to antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of lentivirus replication and disease by experimental EIAV vaccines, as an animal model for human AIDS vaccine studies. During the current project period...

R. C. Montelaro

1995-01-01

188

Fanconi Anemia Gene Linked to Breast Cancer Risk  

Cancer.gov

A gene called BRIP1 that is mutated in some patients with the blood disease Fanconi anemia may also be a risk factor for breast cancer, according to a paper released online Oct. 10, 2006, by Nature Genetics.

189

Genetics Home Reference: Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... begin to show symptoms of megaloblastic anemia between infancy and adolescence. This syndrome is called "thiamine-responsive" ... Diabetes becomes apparent in affected individuals sometime between infancy and adolescence. Although these individuals develop diabetes during ...

190

The Study of Anemia in Patients with Renal Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Factors postulated to play a role in the anemia of uremia are erythropoietin (ESF) deficiency, inhibitors of erythroid cell proliferation and/or ESF and decreased bone marrow response to erythropoietic stimuli. A radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin has be...

J. W. Fisher W. J. Stuckey D. D. Lindholm

1973-01-01

191

Sickle cell anemia in Garasia tribals of Rajasthan.  

PubMed

Our objective was to document the prevalence of sickle cell anemia among scheduled tribe (Garasia) of Sirohi district in Rajasthan state and study the clinical and hematological profile of the patients with sickle cell disease (Hb SS). In this prospective cross-sectional study, 1676 Garasia tribals attending the hospital or the mobile clinic were screened for sickle cell anemia by sickling test followed by confirmation with hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis. Prevalence of sickle cell anemia was found to be 9.2% (155/1676) of which 0.8% (14/1676) were homozygous (disease, Hb SS) whereas 8.4% were heterozygous (carrier, Hb AS). Common presentations of sickle cell disease were anemia, pain, recurrent infection and splenomegaly. PMID:19179738

Mandot, Sanjay; Khurana, Vinay Laxmi; Sonesh, Jityendra Kumar

2009-03-01

192

Treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Anemia is a frequent extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that is commonly overlooked, despite\\u000a its significant impact on quality of life. Characteristic symptoms include chronic fatigue, headache, and subtle impairment\\u000a of cognitive function, although some less common symptoms include dyspnea, dizziness, pica, angular stomatitis, shortened\\u000a attention span, and esophageal webs. Several types of anemia are associated with

Meena Thayu; Petar Mamula

2005-01-01

193

Pathogenesis of anemia in malaria: a concise review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is a common complication in malarial infection, although the consequences are more pronounced with Plasmodium falciparum malaria (Ghosh, Indian J Hematol Blood Tranfus 21(53):128–130, 2003). Anemia in this infection is caused by a variety of\\u000a pathophysiologic mechanisms, and in areas where malaria infection is endemic, co-morbidities like other parasitic infestations,\\u000a iron, folate and Vitamin B12 deficiency, deficiency of other

Kanjaksha Ghosh; Kinjalka Ghosh

2007-01-01

194

Iron and anemia in human biology: a review of mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology of iron in relation to anemia is best understood by a review of the iron cycle, since the majority of iron for\\u000a erythropoiesis is provided by iron recovered from senescent erythrocytes. In iron-deficiency anemia, storage iron declines\\u000a until iron delivery to the bone marrow is insufficient for erythropoiesis. This can be monitored with clinical indicators,\\u000a beginning with low

Garry J. Handelman; Nathan W. Levin

2008-01-01

195

Evaluation and Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Gastroenterological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial volume of the consultations requested of gastroenterologists are directed towards the evaluation of anemia.\\u000a Since iron deficiency anemia often arises from bleeding gastrointestinal lesions, many of which are malignant, establishment\\u000a of a firm diagnosis usually obligates an endoscopic evaluation. Although the laboratory tests used to make the diagnosis have\\u000a not changed in many decades, their interpretation has, and

Amy Zhu; Marc Kaneshiro; Jonathan D. Kaunitz

2010-01-01

196

Deficiência de ferro e anemia em crianças de Vitória ES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective: to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia in preschool children from Vitória, ES. Casuistic and Methods:a cross-section al study was conducted on 760 children, aged between 6 months and 7 years, selected at random from Municipal Child Education Centers. The parameters for diagnosing anemia among children under five years of age was hemoglobin level under 11.0

Eliana Zandonade; Marcelo Militão Abrantes; Joel Alves

197

Cardiac hemolytic anemia resolving after second mitral annuloplasty.  

PubMed Central

Following an episode of rheumatic carditis, severe mitral incompetence developed in a 9-year-old girl. A mitral annuloplasty succeeded for a short time in ameliorating her symptoms of cardiac failure. However, mitral incompetence recurred and was accompanied by severe anemia and hemosiderinuria. Distortion of erythrocytes was evident on a peripheral blood smear. A second mitral annuloplasty resulted in resolution of the hemolytic anemia. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2

O'Regan, S.; Newman, A. J.

1976-01-01

198

Nitrite-induced anemia in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque  

SciTech Connect

Since 1983 numerous cases of anemia have been reported in populations of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque cultured in the southeastern United States. Environmental nitrite-nitrogen concentrations of 4 mg/L or more occur sporadically in channel catfish culture ponds, and the frequency of occurrence is greatest in the fall and spring. The authors have observed that some cases of anemia in populations of pond-raised channel catfish follow prolonged exposure to high concentrations of environmental nitrite. However, there was no evidence that exposure of channel catfish to environmental nitrite was the cause of the observed anemia. Hemolytic anemia following nitrite exposure has been described for sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, but not for channel catfish. In the present study the authors show that a variable, but generally mild, anemia develops in channel catfish exposed to nitrite. They also offer a management procedure for preventing the development of anemia during periods of elevated environmental nitrite concentrations.

Tucker, C.S. (Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Stoneville (USA)); Francis-Floyd, R.; Beleau, M.H. (College of Veterinary Medicine, Stoneville, MS (USA))

1989-08-01

199

Orofacial manifestations of hematological disorders: anemia and hemostatic disorders.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to review the literature and identify orofacial manifestations of hematological diseases, with particular reference to anemias and disorders of hemostasis. A computerized literature search using MEDLINE was conducted for published articles on orofacial manifestations of hematological diseases, with emphasis on anemia. Mesh phrases used in the search were: oral diseases AND anaemia; orofacial diseases AND anaemia; orofacial lesions AND anaemia; orofacial manifestations AND disorders of haemostasis. The Boolean operator "AND" was used to combine and narrow the searches. Anemic disorders associated with orofacial signs and symptoms include iron deficiency anemia, Plummer-Vinson syndrome, megaloblastic anemia, sickle cell anemia, thalassaemia and aplastic anemia. The manifestations include conjunctiva and facial pallor, atrophic glossitis, angular stomatitis, dysphagia, magenta tongue, midfacial overgrowth, osteoclerosis, osteomyelitis and paraesthesia/anesthesia of the mental nerve. Orofacial petechiae, conjunctivae hemorrhage, nose-bleeding, spontaneous and post-traumatic gingival hemorrhage and prolonged post-extraction bleeding are common orofacial manifestations of inherited hemostatic disorders such as von Willebrand's disease and hemophilia. A wide array of anemic and hemostatic disorders encountered in internal medicine has manifestations in the oral cavity and the facial region. Most of these manifestations are non-specific, but should alert the hematologist and the dental surgeon to the possibilities of a concurrent disease of hemopoiesis or hemostasis or a latent one that may subsequently manifest itself. PMID:22048588

Adeyemo, Titilope A; Adeyemo, Wasiu L; Adediran, Adewumi; Akinbami, Abd Jaleel A; Akanmu, Alani S

2011-01-01

200

[Anemia as a risk factor for CKD and CVD].  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is now recognized as a risk factor of both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and independently cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, a specific renoprotective intervention is strongly recommended, including blood pressure control as well as anemia improvement with erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs). Treatment of renal anemia with ESAs has been proved to improve quality of life (QOL) and finally reduce patient mortality. Recently, Silverberg, et al. created a novel clinical entity of Cardio-Renal Anemia (CRA) syndrome, in which anemia plays a key role for worsening both CKD and cardiac performance in a vicious circle. An appropriate and vigorous treatment of anemia has now been accepted to terminate or weaken the circle. Recently, two large-scaled randomized controlled trials were reported, being the CREATE (cardiovascular risk reduction by early anemia treatment with epoetin beta) study and the CHOIR (correction of hemoglobin and outcomes in renal insufficiency) study. They demonstrated that early initiation of ESA treatment and targeting at higher hemoglobin level (near normal level) failed to show the lowering effects for cardiovascular events as compared to a group in which Hb targeting was lower (sub-normal level) in pre-dialysis CKD patients. While there has been many argues in these reports especially about baseline patients characteristics, being a quite high incidence of severe cardiovascular co-morbidity. Thus, further evidences should be accumulated to resolve a proper target level of Hb in ESA treatment. PMID:18788410

Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Hirakata, Hideki

2008-09-01

201

Phagocytosis, Oxidative Burst, and Produced Reactive Species are Affected by Iron Deficiency Anemia and Anemia of Chronic Diseases in Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron and oxidative stress have a regulatory interplay. During the oxidative burst, phagocytic cells produce free radicals\\u000a such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Nevertheless, scarce studies evaluated the effect of either iron deficiency anemia (IDA)\\u000a or anemia of chronic disease (ACD) on phagocyte function in the elderly. The aim of the present study was to determine the\\u000a oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and

I. M. M. Paino; J. C. Miranda; C. M. Marzocchi-Machado; E. J. Cesarino; F. A. de Castro; A. M. de Souza

2009-01-01

202

Erythropoietin May Improve Anemia in Patients with Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Associated with Reticulocytopenia  

PubMed Central

Background Management of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and reticulocytopenia remains challenging. Case Reports Two patients with decompensated AIHA who were receiving immunosuppressive drugs were treated with erythropoietin (EPO). Administration of EPO increased reticulocyte counts and hemoglobin concentrations in both cases. One patient completely recovered following a short course of treatment. Hemolysis could be compensated in the second patient using only mild doses of immunosuppressive drugs in combination with EPO. Conclusion The administration of EPO should be considered in patients with therapy-refractory AIHA, particularly in the presence of reticulocytopenia.

Arbach, Olga; Funck, Robert; Seibt, Frank; Salama, Abdulgabar

2012-01-01

203

Erythropoietin May Improve Anemia in Patients with Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Associated with Reticulocytopenia.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Management of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and reticulocytopenia remains challenging. CASE REPORTS: Two patients with decompensated AIHA who were receiving immunosuppressive drugs were treated with erythropoietin (EPO). Administration of EPO increased reticulocyte counts and hemoglobin concentrations in both cases. One patient completely recovered following a short course of treatment. Hemolysis could be compensated in the second patient using only mild doses of immunosuppressive drugs in combination with EPO. CONCLUSION: The administration of EPO should be considered in patients with therapy-refractory AIHA, particularly in the presence of reticulocytopenia. PMID:22851939

Arbach, Olga; Funck, Robert; Seibt, Frank; Salama, Abdulgabar

2012-06-01

204

Association between Anemia and COPD in Iranian Population  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in adults. Anemia is known as comorbidity in many chronic diseases that can increase morbidity and mortality of COPD. Recent studies have shown that anemia may be more prevalent than expected in COPD patients and can increase disabilities of COPD. In this study we have evaluated the correlation between anemia and the severity of COPD in patients referred to teaching hospitals of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study the severity of COPD in 760 patients with dyspnea who referred to teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and 96 stable COPD patients were categorize using a GOLD criteria from mild to moderate, severe and very severe. Anemia was determined as hemoglobin <13 g/dL in men and <12 g/dL in women, respectively. Demographic characteristics, spirometry parameters and laboratory findings were compared between anemic and non-anemic groups using Student t-test and regression tests (SPSS v.18 software). Results The Mean age of patients was 65 ± 13.07 years (59.4% male). Overall prevalence of anemia was 27% and there was no correlation between severity of COPD and anemia. Anemic patients were significantly older than non-anemic patients (71.1 ± 8.5 years vs. 65.4± 12.8 years; p = 0.030). RBC count of anemic patients were significantly lower than non-anemic group (4.3 ± 0.5 vs. 5.02± 0.8 ×106/µL; p < 0.001). Erythropoietin levels in anemic group was significantly higher than non-anemic group (16.33±2.43 vs. 10.22 ± 2.67 mu/ml; p < 0.001) and there was a significant inverse correlation of hemoglobin vs erythropoietin (r= ?0.8). Conclusion There was a high prevalence of anemia in COPD patients. Anemia can increase disabilities of COPD. Thus, treatment of anemia may improve quality of life in these patients. Further comprehensive studies are needed for determination of exact prevalence of anemia and its physiologic effects in COPD.

Zavarreh, Roshanak Hasheminasab; Zahmatkesh, Mohammad-Mehdi; Vakili, Masood; Shahriari-Ahmadi, Ali; Zohal, Mohammad Ali; Arabi, Mohsen; Mahmoudian, Alireza; Gheisuri, Abbas; Kian, Abdolhamed; Fahimi, Ali

2013-01-01

205

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.  

PubMed Central

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is an immunodeficiency disease characterized by T-cell dysregulation and chronic superficial candidal infections. We report on three patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis who developed autoantibodies to erythrocytes. Our first patient, a 19-year-old female, developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) that required multiple courses of treatment, including corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and danazol. During the last exacerbation of AIHA, intensive treatment with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin failed and yet the patient responded to plasmapheresis. Our second patient, a 21-year-old male, developed AIHA which responded to oral corticosteroid therapy. Our third patient, a 6-year-old female without evidence of hemolysis, was found to have erythrocyte autoantibodies on routine screening. These three patients had positive direct antiglobulin tests, and the first patient had both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM erythrocyte autoantibodies, while the remaining two patients had only IgG autoantibody. This is the first report of the association of AIHA with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. We suggest that all patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis be screened periodically for erythrocyte autoantibodies. Plasmapheresis, a safe ancillary procedure in the management of AIHA, may be life-saving in some cases. The occurrence of erythrocyte autoantibodies in mucocutaneous candidiasis may be related to immunoregulatory disorders in this disease.

Oyefara, B I; Kim, H C; Danziger, R N; Carroll, M; Greene, J M; Douglas, S D

1994-01-01

206

Fanconi anemia proteins stabilize replication forks  

PubMed Central

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive genetic disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to crosslinking agents that has been attributed to defects in DNA repair and/or replication. FANCD2 and the FA core complex bind to chromatin during DNA replication; however, the role of FA proteins during replication is unknown. Using Xenopus cell-free extracts, we show that FANCL depletion results in defective DNA replication restart following treatment with camptothecin, a drug that results in DSBs during DNA replication. This defect is more pronounced following treatment with mitomycin C, presumably because of an additional role of the FA pathway in DNA crosslink repair. Moreover, we show that binding of FA core complex proteins during DNA replication follows origin assembly and origin firing and is dependent on the binding of RPA to ssDNA while FANCD2 additionally requires ATR, consistent with FA proteins acting at replication forks. Together, our data suggest that FA proteins play a role in replication restart at collapsed replication forks.

Chien Wang, Lily; Stone, Stacie; Hoatlin, Maureen Elizabeth; Gautier, Jean

2008-01-01

207

[History of the therapy of pernicious anemia].  

PubMed

Increased blood cell regeneration in exsanguinated experimental animals treated either with liver or with aqueous liver extracts was reported by Whipple and by Jeney and Jobling, respectively. These findings stimulated Minot and Murphy to provide evidence for the efficacy of liver against anaemia in clinical studies. After oral administration of liver (45-50 g per day) for 45 patients with anaemia perniciosa improvement of the hematological status was demonstrated. Consequently, for proving the therapeutic value of liver therapy Whipple, Minot and Murphy received Nobel price in 1934. The isolation of the antianemic factor from the liver has been succeeded in 1948 and designated as vitamin B12. At the same time Lucy Wills applied yeast for the treatment of pregnant women with anemia related to undernourishment. The conclusions of this study inspired the discovery of folate. The detailed investigation of the mode of action of vitamin B12 and folate enriched our knowledge in the area of pathophysiology and extended the clinical application of these two drugs. PMID:24161600

Jeney, András

2013-11-01

208

Aplastic anemia: possible associations with lymphoproliferative neoplasms.  

PubMed

Aplastic anemia (AA) may precede, co-occur, or follow a lymphoproliferative neoplasm. The best molecularly clarified scenario is that of concurrent AA and unsuspected (occult) T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Several reported cases of AA and concurrent small B-cell lymphomas/leukemias and Hodgkin lymphomas suggest also a possible link to simultaneous or preceding AA that might be sought in an antineoplastic immunological attempt to 'eradicate' the underlying malignant clone. The 'immuno-deregulatory' potential and the direct cytotoxicity of regimens used for lymphoma therapy might be able to trigger AA in cases evolving after lymphoma treatment too. Alternative explanations of AA associated with lymphoproliferative disorders might be particular (immuno-)genetic patient backgrounds predisposing to both AA and lymphoid neoplasms or exposures to environmental factors, increasing the risk for both diseases. Finally, the most common causal relationship of AA and lymphoma is that of immunosuppression- or allogeneous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-associated posttransplantational lymphoproliferative disorders in AA patients, who are treated in the respective manner. As all above scenarios are differently (specifically) therapeutically approachable and accompanied by diverse outcomes, they should be actively sought for and diagnosed as precisely as possible. This review summarizes the current knowledge on associations between AA and lymphoproliferative neoplasms. PMID:24750685

Tzankov, A; Medinger, M

2014-06-01

209

Anemia or low hemoglobin levels preceding Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Objective: It has been suggested that anemia may be a risk factor for dementia, for restless legs syndrome, and for Parkinson disease (PD). Thus, we investigated the association of anemia with the subsequent risk of PD using a case-control study design. Methods: We used the medical records–linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (±1 year) and sex to a general population control. We reviewed the complete medical records of cases and controls in the system to detect anemia defined using the World Health Organization criteria. Results: Anemia was more common in the history of cases than of controls (odds ratio 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.31–3.06, p = 0.001). The association remained significant after adjustment for cigarette smoking, exposure to pesticides, or hysterectomy (in women). The association was not significantly different between men and women, or between PD patients with or without rest tremor. Analyses stratified by time of onset of anemia showed a greater association for anemia that started 20 to 29 years before the onset of PD. Hemoglobin levels were slightly but consistently lower in cases than in controls across all ages. Conclusions: Our results support an association between anemia experienced early in life and the later development of Parkinson disease. The interpretation of this association remains uncertain. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; CI = confidence interval; OR = odds ratio; PD = Parkinson disease; RLS = restless legs syndrome; WHO = World Health Organization.

Savica, R; Grossardt, B R.; Carlin, J M.; Icen, M; Bower, J H.; Ahlskog, J E.; Maraganore, D M.; Steensma, D P.; Rocca, W A.

2009-01-01

210

Infections and inequalities: anemia in AIDS, the disadvantages of poverty  

PubMed Central

Objective To study anemia in AIDS patients and its relation with socioeconomic, employment status and educational levels. Methods A total number of 442 patients who visited the Infectious Diseases University Hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina were included in the study. Patients were dividied into two groups, i.e. one with anemia and the other without anemia. Anemia epidemiology and its relationship with educational level, housing, job situation, monthly income, total daily caloric intake and weekly intake of meat were evaluated. Results Anemia was found in 228 patients (54%). Comparing patients with or without anemia, a statistically significant difference was found (P<0.000?1) in those whose highest educational level reached was primary school, who lived in a precarious home, who had no stable job or were unable to work, whose income was less than 30 dollars per month, whose meat consumption was less than twice a week or received less than 8?000 calories per day. Conclusions The high prevalence of anemia found in poor patients with AIDS suggests that poverty increases the risk to suffer from this hematological complication. The relationship between economic development policies and AIDS is complex. Our results seem to point to the fact that AIDS epidemic may affect economic development and in turn be affected by it. If we consider that AIDS affects the economically active adult population, despite recent medical progress it usually brings about fatal consequences, especially within the poorest sectors of society where the disease reduces the average life expectancy, increases health care demand and tends to exacerbate poverty and iniquity.

Gonzalez, Lucia; Seley, Celeste; Martorano, Julieta; Garcia-Moreno, Isabella; Troncoso, Alcides

2012-01-01

211

Inborn anemias in mice: (Annual report, 1980-1981)  

SciTech Connect

The basic purpose of this study is the delineation and exploitation of inborn anemias of the laboratory mouse, carried out by utilization of genetically homogeneous stocks segregating only for anemia-producing genes; by physiological and histological descriptions of each condition at all stages in the life history; by determination of tissue sites of primary gene action through tissue culture studies, tissue transplantation and parabiosis experiments; by analysis of reactions of normal and anemic mice to a variety of stressful stimuli, including x-irradiation, hypoxia, and toxic chemicals, and by biochemical comparisons between tissues, especially erythrocytes and hemopoietic cells of normal vs each type of anemic mouse. At present 16 single-locus anemias are known in the mouse, plus one with multifactorial inheritance (the autoimmune hemolytic anemia of NZB inbred mice). Of these, six are maintained only by the Jackson Laboratory, and two others have but one additional source. Effects of anemia-producing mutant alleles of these loci (an; f; ja; ha; Hba/sup th/; mk; nb; Sl and Sl/sup d/; sla; sph; and W, W/sup v/, W/sup J/ and 10 other putative W-alleles) are currently under investigation at the Jackson Laboratory. 15 refs.

Bernstein, S.E.

1981-07-02

212

New anemia therapies: translating novel strategies from bench to bedside.  

PubMed

Recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) has been available for the treatment of renal anemia for more than 20 years, and within the last decade two molecularly engineered analogues darbepoetin alfa and pegylated epoetin beta were introduced as longer-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Recently, newer strategies for correcting anemia have been explored, some of which remain in the laboratory while others are translating across into clinical trials. Peginesatide has completed phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease; this molecule is immunologically distinct from the erythropoietic proteins, with no cross-reactivity with anti-erythropoietin antibodies. HIF (hypoxia inducible factor) stabilization involves the pharmacologic inhibition of prolyl hydroxylation of HIF-? (the major transcription factor controlling erythropoietin gene expression), thereby preventing its degradation in the proteasome. Hepcidin is the master regulator of iron metabolism, and this peptide is upregulated in inflammatory conditions, including uremia; its antagonism has been shown to cause amelioration of inflammatory anemia in animal models. For the time being, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy remains the mainstay of anemia management in chronic kidney disease, but it is possible that one or more of the strategies discussed in this review may have a future role in the treatment of this condition. PMID:22192713

Macdougall, Iain C

2012-03-01

213

Chk1 Haploinsufficiency Results in Anemia and Defective Erythropoiesis  

PubMed Central

Background Erythropoiesis is a highly regulated and well-characterized developmental process responsible for providing the oxygen transport system of the body. However, few of the mechanisms involved in this process have been elucidated. Checkpoint Kinase 1 (Chk1) is best known for its role in the cell cycle and DNA damage pathways, and it has been shown to play a part in several pathways which when disrupted can lead to anemia. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show that haploinsufficiency of Chk1 results in 30% of mice developing anemia within the first year of life. The anemic Chk1+/? mice exhibit distorted spleen and bone marrow architecture, and abnormal erythroid progenitors. Furthermore, Chk1+/? erythroid progenitors exhibit an increase in spontaneous DNA damage foci and improper contractile actin ring formation resulting in aberrant enucleation during erythropoiesis. A decrease in Chk1 RNA has also been observed in patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts, further supporting a role for Chk1 in clinical anemia. Conclusions/Significance Clinical trials of Chk1 inhibitors are currently underway to treat cancer, and thus it will be important to track the effects of these drugs on red blood cell development over an extended period. Our results support a role for Chk1 in maintaining the balance between erythroid progenitors and enucleated erythroid cells during differentiation. We show disruptions in Chk1 levels can lead to anemia.

Chen, Alice J.; Goodell, Margaret A.; Rosen, Jeffrey M.

2010-01-01

214

Inflammation associated anemia and ferritin as disease markers in SLE  

PubMed Central

Introduction In a recent screening to detect biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), expression of the iron storage protein, ferritin, was increased. Given that proteins that regulate the storage, transfer and release of iron play an important role in inflammation, this study aims to determine the serum and urine levels of ferritin and of the iron transfer protein, transferrin, in lupus patients and to correlate these levels with disease activity, inflammatory cytokine levels and markers of anemia. Methods A protein array was utilized to measure ferritin expression in the urine and serum of SLE patients and healthy controls. To confirm these results as well as the role of the iron transfer pathway in SLE, ELISAs were performed to measure ferritin and transferrin levels in inactive or active SLE patients and healthy controls. The relationship between ferritin/transferrin levels and inflammatory markers and anemia was next analyzed. Results Protein array results showed elevated ferritin levels in the serum and urine of lupus patients as compared to controls, which were further validated by ELISA. Increased ferritin levels correlated with measures of disease activity and anemia as well as inflammatory cytokine titers. Though active SLE patients had elevated urine transferrin, serum transferrin was reduced. Conclusion Urine ferritin and transferrin levels are elevated significantly in SLE patients and correlate with disease activity, bolstering previous reports. Most importantly, these changes correlated with the inflammatory state of the patients and anemia of chronic disease. Taken together, altered iron handling, inflammation and anemia of chronic disease constitute an ominous triad in SLE.

2012-01-01

215

New strategies for managing anemia of chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Anemia is a prevalent and premature comorbidity in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with multiple adverse clinical consequences including increased mortality. Today Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), together with iron supplementation, are the cornerstones of therapy for correcting anemia in CKD patients. As no generally accepted dosing algorithms for these agents exist, current recommendations prefer a partial but not complete anemia correction thereby favoring a more conservative and individualized ESA and iron dosing. Here we discuss in detail current evidence derived from large randomized trials about the proposed hemoglobin targets to aim at in CKD and End-Stage renal disease patients and report recent data from the thriving European market of biosimilar erythropoietins. We summarize promising investigational strategies including peginesatide and prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors for stabilization of the hypoxia inducible factor and provide a clinical review of novel high dose iron formulations like ferumoxytol or iron (III)-carboxymaltose. Taking these findings together, treatment strategies for anemia of CKD have got considerably more complicated so that a careful balance between maximization of patient`s quality of life while minimizing all risks associated with anemia treatment has become a major task of current nephrology. PMID:22642238

Schmid, Holger; Schiffl, Helmut; Lederer, Stephan R

2012-12-01

216

Erythro-megakaryocytic transcription factors associated with hereditary anemia.  

PubMed

Most heritable anemias are caused by mutations in genes encoding globins, red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins, or enzymes in the glycolytic and hexose monophosphate shunt pathways. A less common class of genetic anemia is caused by mutations that alter the functions of erythroid transcription factors (TFs). Many TF mutations associated with heritable anemia cause truncations or amino acid substitutions, resulting in the production of functionally altered proteins. Characterization of these mutant proteins has provided insights into mechanisms of gene expression, hematopoietic development, and human disease. Mutations within promoter or enhancer regions that disrupt TF binding to essential erythroid genes also cause anemia and heritable variations in RBC traits, such as fetal hemoglobin content. Defining the latter may have important clinical implications for de-repressing fetal hemoglobin synthesis to treat sickle cell anemia and ? thalassemia. Functionally important alterations in genes encoding TFs or their cognate cis elements are likely to occur more frequently than currently appreciated, a hypothesis that will soon be tested through ongoing genome-wide association studies and the rapidly expanding use of global genome sequencing for human diagnostics. Findings obtained through such studies of RBCs and associated diseases are likely generalizable to many human diseases and quantitative traits. PMID:24652993

Crispino, John D; Weiss, Mitchell J

2014-05-15

217

Iron deficiency anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia worldwide, caused by poor iron intake, chronic blood loss, or impaired absorption. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly likely to have iron deficiency anemia, with an estimated prevalence of 36%–76%. Detection of iron deficiency is problematic as outward signs and symptoms are not always present. Iron deficiency can have a significant impact on a patient’s quality of life, necessitating prompt management and treatment. Effective treatment includes identifying and treating the underlying cause and initiating iron replacement therapy with either oral or intravenous iron. Numerous formulations for oral iron are available, with ferrous fumarate, sulfate, and gluconate being the most commonly prescribed. Available intravenous formulations include iron dextran, iron sucrose, ferric gluconate, and ferumoxytol. Low-molecular weight iron dextran and iron sucrose have been shown to be safe, efficacious, and effective in a host of gastrointestinal disorders. Ferumoxytol is the newest US Food and Drug Administration-approved intravenous iron therapy, indicated for iron deficiency anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease. Ferumoxytol is also being investigated in Phase 3 studies for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in patients without chronic kidney disease, including subgroups with IBD. A review of the efficacy and safety of iron replacement in IBD, therapeutic considerations, and recommendations for the practicing gastroenterologist are presented.

Goldberg, Neil D

2013-01-01

218

Macrocytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia Induced by Orlistat  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The overall incidence of obesity and its prevalence is increasing continuously. The obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor whose importance is increasing too. It is associated with many chronic conditions such as type II diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases. The obesity is also implicated as a risk factor for several kinds of cancer such as esophagus, pancreas, colon, rectum, breast cancer in menopausal women. The treatment of the obesity may reduce the incidence of these diseases. The mainstray of the treatment of obesity is changing the lifestyles, but obesity´s treatment may need drug therapy or even though surgical treatment. Orlistat is a specific inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipases, which stops fat absortion. It is used along with a hypocaloric diet, for obesity´s treatment. The beneficial effects of orlistat include weight loss, the improvement of blood pressure´s control, it may delay the development of diabetes mellitus, and it may reduce HbA1c. Case Report: Besides the interaction with other drugs (mainly warfarin and amiodarone). Orlistat´s mainly side effects are gastrointestinal disorders such as the existence of oily spotting from the rectum, abdominal pain or discomfort, fecal urgency. There are also side effects at other levels, like flu symptoms, hypoglycemia, heathache or upper respiratory infections. There are other side effects with very low incidence but clinically relevant like pancreatitis, subacute liver failure, severe liver disease, myopathy, or tubular necrosis secondary to oxalate nephropathy induced by Orlistat. Discussion: In this case report appears a new adverse effect of Orlistat that has not been described above: thrombopenia and macrocytic anemia.

Palacios-Martinez, David; Garcia-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Montero-Santamaria, Nieves; Villar-Ruiz, Olga Patricia; Ruiz-Garcia, Antonio; Diaz-Alonso, Raquel Asuncion

2013-01-01

219

Red blood cell zinc protoporphyrin to evaluate anemia risk in deferred blood donors.  

PubMed

A large proportion of potential blood donors who are deferred are inappropriate to be donors because of unreliable predonation anemia screening methods. In this study, venous hemoglobin concentrations were within acceptable limits in 71% of 275 anemia deferrals. Red blood cell zinc protoporphyrin (RBC ZP) was evaluated as a screening test to improve the accuracy of detecting anemia in prospective blood donors. The frequency of abnormally low venous hemoglobin concentrations in anemia deferrals having fingerstick capillary microhematocrit (MH) values within 3% of the minimum requirement, together with normal RBC ZP levels (less than 53 micrograms/dL [0.943 mumol/L] RBC), was 2%, and not significantly different from the prevalence of venous anemia observed in eligible blood donors. Anemia deferrals with elevated RBC ZP results had a significantly increased rate of iron depletion and anemia. Capillary RBC ZP measurements in combination with the MH test have the potential to safely decrease inappropriate anemia deferrals. PMID:3826015

Schifman, R B; Rivers, S L

1987-04-01

220

Inborn anemias in mice. Progress report, 1 August 1979-15 July 1980  

SciTech Connect

Four macrocytic anemias, four hemolytic anemias, nonhemolytic microcytic anemia, transitory siderocytic anemia, sex-linked iron-transport anemia, an ..cap alpha..-thalassemia, and a new target-cell anemia are under investigation in mice. Each of these blood dyscrasias is caused by the action of a unique mutant gene, which determines the structure of different intracellular molecules, and thus controls a different metabolic process. Thus the wide range of different hereditary anemias has considerable potential for uncovering many different aspects of hemopoietic homeostatic mechanisms in the mouse. Each anemia is studied through: (a) characterization of peripheral blood values; (b) determinations of radiosensitivity under a variety of conditions; (c) measurements of iron metabolism and heme synthesis; (d) histological and biochemical study of blood-forming tissue; (e) functional tests of the stem cell component; (f) examination of responses to erythroid stimuli; and (g) transplantation of tissue between individuals of differently affected genotypes.

Bernstein, S.E.; Russell, E.S.

1980-08-01

221

Evaluation of concentration and storage effects of mitomycin C in the diagnosis of Fanconi anemia among idiopatic aplastic anemia patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder that shows an increased sensitivity to the intercalating agents such as mytomycin C (MMC), measured as chromosomal aberrations. This study was conducted to differentiate between FA and “idiopathic” aplastic anemia on the basis of induced chromosomal breakage study with MMC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MMC stress tests in different final concentrations of 20 and 50 ng/ml of MMC were conducted on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 32 patients with aplastic anemia and 13 healthy controls. Fifty nanograms per milliliter of MMC from old, fresh and frozen stocks was used to check the sensitivity of diagnosis on FA-diagnosed patients. Statistical analysis was used for the assessment of aberrations, including chromatid and chromosome breaks and exchanges. RESULTS: Eight patients (25%) with a very high percentage of chromosomal breakage were diagnosed as FA on the basis of the chromosomal breakage study. Six of these patients exhibited congenital anomalies at presentation, while another two lacked such anomalies or had minor physical problems. Freshly made MMC has shown more sensitivity to detect FA patients compared with frozen or 1-week-old MMC stock. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that freshly made MMC stress test provides an unequivocal means of differentiation between FA and “idiopathic” aplastic anemia. Further, the study, the first of its kind from Iran, stresses on the need for conducting this test in all aplastic anemia cases, even those without congenital anomalies, for accurate and timely diagnosis of FA to implement appropriate therapy.

Mozdarani, H.; Ashtiani, K. Abed; Mohseni-Meybodi, A.

2011-01-01

222

Prevention of anemia alleviates heart hypertrophy in copper deficient rats  

SciTech Connect

The present investigation was designed to examine the role of anemia in the cardiomegaly and myocardial pathology of copper deficiency. Weanling rats were fed a copper deficient diet containing either starch (ST) or fructose (FRU) for five weeks. Six rats consuming the FRU diet were intraperitoneally injected once a week with 1.0 ml/100g bw of packed red blood cells (RBC) obtained from copper deficient rats fed ST. FRU rats injected with RBC did not develop anemia. Additionally, none of the injected rats exhibited heart hypertrophy or gross pathology and all survived. In contrast, non-injected FRU rats were anemic, exhibited severe signs of copper deficiency which include heart hypertrophy with gross pathology, and 44% died. Maintaining the hematocrit with RBC injections resulted in normal heart histology and prevented the mortality associated with the fructose x copper interaction. The finding suggest that the anemia associated with copper deficiency contributes to heart pathology.

Lure, M.D.; Fields, M.; Lewis, C.G. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States) Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States))

1991-03-11

223

Spontaneous resolution of macrocytic anemia: old disease revisited  

PubMed Central

We report here on a 60-year-old male with alcohol-related macrocytic anemia. He was hospitalized on three occasions with hemoglobin < 9.0 g/dL and mean corpuscular volume > 130 fL. Careful history taking and observation of his blood status led us to make a correct diagnosis. At the time of each of his admissions, only with bed rest and abstinence from alcohol did our patient dramatically show spontaneous recovery of anemia in association with a rapid decline of serum ?-glutamyl transpeptidase values. It is well recognized that marrow abnormalities in alcoholic patients are reversible. Physicians should be aware that there is a subset of patients with macrocytic anemia that could be improved without medication.

Imashuku, Shinsaku; Kudo, Naoko; Kaneda, Shigehiro

2012-01-01

224

Pure red cell aplasia following autoimmune hemolytic anemia: an enigma.  

PubMed

A 26-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 6-month history of anemia. The laboratory findings revealed hemolytic anemia and direct antiglobulin test was positive. With a diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), prednisolone was started but was ineffective after 1 month of therapy. A bone marrow trephine biopsy revealed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) showing severe erythroid hypoplasia. The case was considered PRCA following AIHA. This combination without clear underlying disease is rare. Human parvovirus B19 infection was not detected in the marrow aspirate during reticulocytopenia. The patient received azathioprine, and PRCA improved but significant hemolysis was once again documented with a high reticulocyte count. The short time interval between AIHA and PRCA phase suggested an increased possibility of the evolution of a single disease. PMID:23525059

Saha, M; Ray, S; Kundu, S; Chakrabarti, P

2013-01-01

225

Trends in anemia at initiation of dialysis in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in anemia at initiation of dialysis in the United States.BackgroundAnemia almost invariably develops in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and is associated with a wide range of complications. The anemia of CRI can be effectively treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). Recent studies suggest that the management of anemia of CRI is suboptimal in the United States.MethodsWe examined

Gregorio T. Obrador; Tricia Roberts; Wendy L. St. Peter; Eric Frazier; Brian J. G. Pereira; Allan J. Collins

2001-01-01

226

The Hepcidin-Ferroportin System as a Therapeutic Target in Anemias and Iron Overload Disorders  

PubMed Central

The review summarizes the current understanding of the role of hepcidin and ferroportin in normal iron homeostasis and its disorders. It further discusses the various approaches to therapeutic targeting of hepcidin and ferroportin in iron overload diseases (mainly hereditary hemochromatosis and ?-thalassemia) and iron-restrictive anemias (anemias associated with infections, inflammatory disorders and certain malignancies, anemia of chronic kidney diseases, iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia).

Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta

2014-01-01

227

Prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration of the anticoagulated blood specimens were determined using standard techniques. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11g/dl for pregnant women and <12g/dl for non-pregnant women. Results: Pregnancy was not a risk factor for acquiring HIV infection (pregnant vs. non-pregnant: 10.2% vs. 13.8%; OR=0.713, 95% CI=0.407, 1.259, P = 0.247). The prevalence of HIV was significantly (P = 0.005 and P = 0.025) higher in the age group 10-20 years and 21 – 30 years among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Pregnancy was a risk factor for acquiring anemia (OR=1.717, 95% CI=1.179, 2.500, P = 0.006). Only the age of pregnant women significantly (P = 0.004) affected the prevalence of anemia inversely. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women were 10.2% and 49.3% respectively. Pregnancy was associated with anemia. Interventions by appropriate agencies are advocated to reduce associated sequelae.

Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Phil, Richard Omoregie M.; Olley, Mitsan; Anunibe, Joshua A.

2011-01-01

228

Anemia and red blood cell transfusion in neurocritical care  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anemia is one of the most common medical complications to be encountered in critically ill patients. Based on the results of clinical trials, transfusion practices across the world have generally become more restrictive. However, because reduced oxygen delivery contributes to 'secondary' cerebral injury, anemia may not be as well tolerated among neurocritical care patients. Methods The first portion of this paper is a narrative review of the physiologic implications of anemia, hemodilution, and transfusion in the setting of brain-injury and stroke. The second portion is a systematic review to identify studies assessing the association between anemia or the use of red blood cell transfusions and relevant clinical outcomes in various neurocritical care populations. Results There have been no randomized controlled trials that have adequately assessed optimal transfusion thresholds specifically among brain-injured patients. The importance of ischemia and the implications of anemia are not necessarily the same for all neurocritical care conditions. Nevertheless, there exists an extensive body of experimental work, as well as human observational and physiologic studies, which have advanced knowledge in this area and provide some guidance to clinicians. Lower hemoglobin concentrations are consistently associated with worse physiologic parameters and clinical outcomes; however, this relationship may not be altered by more aggressive use of red blood cell transfusions. Conclusions Although hemoglobin concentrations as low as 7 g/dl are well tolerated in most critical care patients, such a severe degree of anemia could be harmful in brain-injured patients. Randomized controlled trials of different transfusion thresholds, specifically in neurocritical care settings, are required. The impact of the duration of blood storage on the neurologic implications of transfusion also requires further investigation.

Kramer, Andreas H; Zygun, David A

2009-01-01

229

Anemia in celiac disease is multifactorial in etiology.  

PubMed

Anemia in celiac disease (CD) has been attributed to nutritional deficiencies; however, the clinical manifestations of CD have changed with nongastrointestinal presentations predominating. We collected hematologic parameters from a cohort of patients seen at a tertiary care center for CD to assess the characteristics of anemia in this population. Hematological parameters measured 1995 was analyzed. Ferritin levels were compared with population controls (NHANES III). Iron deficiency was common, occurring in 33% of men and 19% of women (P < 0.001). Folate deficiency was seen in approximately 12% of the total sample and B12 deficiency in approximately 5%. Anemia was present in approximately 20% of the cohort. Among the anemic patients, ferritin was less than the 10th percentile in 45%, between the 10th and 50th percentile in 39% and greater than the 50th percentile in 13%. Ferritin > 50th percentile was more common in anemic men (24%) than in anemic women (9%; P > 0.20). Macrocytic anemia with concurrent B12 or folate deficiency was rare (3%). Elevated ESR was observed in patients with ferritin < 10th percentile and >50th. A gluten-free diet resulted in increased serum ferritin in iron-deficient patients, and decreased ferritin levels in those with high ferritin (r(2) = 0.46, P < 0.001). Although anemia is still a common presentation of celiac disease, nutritional deficiencies alone do not explain this phenomenon in all cases; inflammation appears to contribute as evidenced by the presence of anemia of chronic disease in some individuals. PMID:17636474

Harper, Jason W; Holleran, Stephen F; Ramakrishnan, Rajasehkar; Bhagat, Govind; Green, Peter H R

2007-11-01

230

Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia  

PubMed Central

Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely assessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary hemolytic anemias.

Alaarg, Amr; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; van Solinge, Wouter W.; van Wijk, Richard

2013-01-01

231

The effects of Spirulina on anemia and immune function in senior citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia and immunological dysfunction (i.e. immunosenescence) are commonly found in older subjects and nutritional approaches are sought to counteract these phenomena. Spirulina is a filamentous and multicellular bule-green alga capable of reducing inflammation and also manifesting antioxidant effects. We hypothesized that Spirulina may ameliorate anemia and immunosenescence in senior citizens with a history of anemia. We enrolled 40 volunteers of

Carlo Selmi; Patrick SC Leung; Laura Fischer; Bruce German; Chen-Yen Yang; Thomas P Kenny; Gerry R Cysewski; M Eric Gershwin

2011-01-01

232

Severe anemia associated with Mycoplasma wenyonii infection in a mature cow  

PubMed Central

The clinical findings, diagnostic tests, and treatment of clinical anemia in a mature Angus cow infected with the hemoplasma Mycoplasma wenyonii are described. Mycoplasma wenyonii has been previously reported to cause clinical anemia in young or splenectomized cattle; however, infection has not been associated with severe anemia in mature animals.

Genova, Suzanne G.; Streeter, Robert N.; Velguth, Karen E.; Snider, Timothy A.; Kocan, Katherine M.; Simpson, Katharine M.

2011-01-01

233

Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

2012-01-01

234

Anemia and iron deficiency in heart failure: mechanisms and therapeutic approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia and iron deficiency are common in patients with heart failure (HF), and are associated with worse symptoms and adverse outcomes in this population. Although the two can occur together, anemia in HF is often not caused by iron deficiency, and iron deficiency can be present without causing anemia. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents have been investigated extensively in the past few years

Stefan D. Anker; Piotr Ponikowski; Iain C. Macdougall; Dirk J. van Veldhuisen

2011-01-01

235

Diagnosis and management of iron deficiency anemia in patients with IBD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is the most prevalent extraintestinal complication of IBD. It can affect quality of life and ability to work, and can also increase the hospitalization rate in patients with IBD. Although the causes of anemia in IBD are multifactorial, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common. Assessment of the iron status of patients who have a condition associated with

Franz Hartmann; Axel U. Dignass; Jürgen Stein

2010-01-01

236

An unusual case of aplastic anemia caused by temozolomide.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy and concomitant/adjuvant therapy with temozolomide are a common treatment regimen for children and adults with high-grade glioma. Although temozolomide is generally safe, it can rarely cause life-threatening complications. Here we report a case of a 31-year-old female patient who underwent surgical resection followed by radiotherapy plus concomitant temozolomide. She developed pancytopenia after adjuvant treatment with temozolomide. A bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed hypocellularity with very few erythroid and myeloid cells, consistent with aplastic anemia. In the English literature, aplastic anemia due to temozolomide is extremely rare. PMID:21209809

Comez, Gazi; Sevinc, Alper; Sever, Ozlem Nuray; Babacan, Taner; Sar?, Ibrahim; Camci, Celalettin

2010-01-01

237

[Anesthetic considerations in sickle cell anemia: a case report].  

PubMed

Sickle cell anemia is the most common hemoglobinopathy. Advances in therapeutic techniques and anesthetic procedures have led to a considerable increase in the success of surgical procedures in these patients. We report the case of a 16-year-old black boy diagnosed with sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia who presented with chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia. He was scheduled for debridement of the lesion and musculocutaneous flap repair. We emphasize the importance of communication between anesthesiologists, surgeons, and hematologists in the perioperative period in order to determine the risk of complications and anticipate them. PMID:19725348

Fernández-Meré, L A; Sopena-Zubiría, L A; Alvarez-Blanco, M

2009-01-01

238

Identification of de Novo Fanconi Anemia in Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Fanconi Anemia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

2014-02-14

239

Inadequate erythropoietin response to anemia: definition and clinical relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The development of a specific and sensitive immunoassay for the measurement of serum erythropoietin (s-Epo) allows to improve our understanding of the model of in vivo regulation of erythropoiesis. In most anemias, circulating hemoglobin level determines Epo production which in turn stimulates erythropoietic activity. The disruption of the expected feedback mechanism of Epo production leads to an inadequately low

G. Barosi

1994-01-01

240

Positional Cloning of a Novel Fanconi Anemia Gene, FANCD2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease with birth defects, bone marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. To date, genes for five of the seven known complementation groups have been cloned. Complementation group D is heterogeneous, consisting of two distinct genes, FANCD1 and FANCD2. Here we report the positional cloning of FANCD2. The gene consists of 44 exons, encodes a novel

Cynthia Timmers; Toshiyasu Taniguchi; James Hejna; Carol Reifsteck; Lora Lucas; Donald Bruun; Matthew Thayer; Barbara Cox; Susan Olson; Alan D. D'Andrea; Robb Moses; Markus Grompe

2001-01-01

241

Inborn anemias in mice: (Annual report, 1982-1983)  

SciTech Connect

The nature of the defects that shorten the effective lifespan of red blood cells in the circulation and which gave rise to anemia, jaundice and to spleen, liver and heart enlargement are studied because they so closely parallel inherited hemolytic anemias in man. In mice, ''hemolytic disease'' initiated by the ja, sph, sph/sup ha/, or the nb genes has been traced to abnormalities in the protein components of their red cell membranes. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of detergent solubilized membranes reveal that in the different genetic types one or more of the major high molecular weight proteins called spectrins is decreased or totally missing. It is one thing to observe a correlation between missing or defective components in selected analytical procedures, and another to establish a causal relationship between the two. To investigate the possible interrelationships, we examined the associations between spectrin or ankyrin content, the severity of the resulting anemia, red cell osmotic fragilities, and the capacity of cells from each genotype to be deformed in a continuous osmotic gradient at constant sheer stress. Our findings indicate that sensitivity to osmotic stress, cell rigidity (inadequate deformability), deficiency of spectrin or ankyrin, and the severity of the anemia, are statistically highly correlated. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

Bernstein, S.E.

1983-09-09

242

The prognostic importance of anemia in patients with heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePhysiologic studies have suggested that anemia could adversely affect the cardiovascular condition of patients with heart failure. Yet, the prognostic importance of this treatable condition is not well established by epidemiologic studies. We sought to determine the prognostic value of hematocrit level in a cohort of elderly patients hospitalized with heart failure.

Mikhail Kosiborod; Grace L Smith; Martha J Radford; JoAnne M Foody; Harlan M Krumholz

2003-01-01

243

Effect of 131I on the anemia of hyperthyroidism  

SciTech Connect

Data from the National Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-Up Study (NTTFS) are presented here to document the existence of anemia in hyperthyroidism, a mild and reversible anemia that is simultaneously ameliorated with reversal of the hyperthyroid state. Among 20,600 women entered into the NTTF study with no previous history of hematological disorders, the prevalence of anemia was found to range from 10-15%, appearing to be higher in those selected for treatment with 131I when compared to those selected for surgery. An attempt is made to verify the recent hypothesis that thyroid hormone levels in the supraphysiologic range may suppress erythrogenesis. Two statistically significant regression models are consistent with a hypothesis of thyrotoxic bone marrow suppression. However, both associations are weak enough to suggest that some other physiologic improvement underlies the amelioration of anemia when hyperthyroidism is reversed. The degree of improvement in hematological status is similar for women in both treatment groups. Among 4464 women for whom serial hematological tests are obtained, over 3/4 of anemic patients are no longer anemic after an average 6.2 yr of follow-up. Clinicians are reassured that radioactive iodine exposure causes no further insult to the bone marrow, no matter what the cumulative dosage. The highly fractionated low dose bone marrow exposures to radiation account for the minimal hematological risks of 131I treatment.

Perlman, J.A.; Sternthal, P.M.

1983-01-01

244

Optimizing the management of renal anemia: challenges and new opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are the main tool to achieve anemia correction in CKD patients. At present six different ESAs are available: epoetin alpha, epoetin beta, epoetin omega, epoetin delta, darbepoetin alpha, and very recently CERA. From one side the patent of older ESAs have expired, and biosimilars (for the moment only of epoetin alpha) have been approved for use

Francesco Locatelli; Lucia Del Vecchio

2008-01-01

245

Micronutrient deficiencies and anemia among preschool children in rural Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of trace elements deficiencies, vitamin A deficiency, anemia, and their relationships were inves- tigated in a cross sectional study involving 243 children aged from 12 to 72 months in rural Vietnam. Serum lev- els of copper, zinc, selenium and magnesium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and that of retinol by high performance liquid chromatography. Hemoglobin

Nguyen Van Nhien; Nguyen Cong Khan; Xuan Ninh; Phan Van Huan; Le Thi Hop; Nguyen Thi Lam; Fusao Ota; Tomoki Yabutani; Vu Quynh Hoa; Junko Motonaka; Takeshi Nishikawa; Yutaka Nakaya

2008-01-01

246

Anemia affects the quality of life of Japanese cancer patients.  

PubMed

The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An) was developed to measure the effect of anemia on quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. We have previously validated the Japanese version of the FACT-An in Japanese cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or radiation therapy. That analysis was limited to evaluating the relationship between QOL scores and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. In this study, the data were further analyzed in order to identify factors that affect QOL. The mean Hb level of the patients was unchanged over three months. Patient age, Eastern Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS) score, Hb level, and the type of treatment method received were each predictive factors of a patient's FACT-An score at baseline, while the patient's Hb level at three months and whether the patient had received a blood transfusion were both predictive factors of a patient's FACT-An score at three months. Anemia consistently negatively affected the QOL of cancer patients measured over a three-month period. These results confirm the clinical effectiveness of the FACT-An as a tool to assess anemia-related QOL in Japanese cancer patients. PMID:23564569

Wasada, Izumi; Eguchi, Hisae; Kurita, Maya; Kudo, Shitomi; Shishida, Tomoko; Mishima, Yaeko; Saito, Yuko; Ushiorozawa, Nobuko; Seto, Takashi; Shimozuma, Kojiro; Morita, Satoshi; Saito, Mari; Yokomizo, Yuki; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Eguchi, Kenji

2013-04-01

247

A multiprotein nuclear complex connects Fanconi anemia and Bloom syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloom syndrome (BS) is a genetic disorder associated with dwarfism, immunodeficiency, reduced fertility, and an elevated risk of cancer. To investigate the mechanism of this disease, we isolated from human HeLa extracts three complexes containing the helicase defective in BS, BLM. Interestingly, one of the complexes, termed BRAFT, also contains five of the Fanconi anemia (FA) complementation group proteins (FA

Amom Ruhikanta Meetei; Salvatore Sechi; Michael Wallisch; Dafeng Yang; Mary K. Young; Hans Joenje; Maureen E. Hoatlin; Weidong Wang

2003-01-01

248

Identification of two complementation groups in Fanconi anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable variation can be observed in the clinical presentation of Fanconi anemia (FA) patients and in the degree of sensitivity of their cells to DNA damaging agents. We have examined the hypothesis that genetic heterogeneity underlies this variation by testing for complementation in somatic cell hybrids constructed from FA cells. Hybrids were formed by fusing lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from

G. Duckworth-Rysiecki; K. Cornish; C. A. Clarke; M. Buchwald

1985-01-01

249

Sequence Variation in the Fanconi Anemia Gene FAA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive syndrome associated with chromosomal instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, and predisposition to malignancy. The gene for FA complementation group A (FAA) recently has been cloned. The cDNA is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 1,455 amino acids, with no homologies to any known protein that might suggest a function for

Orna Levran; Tamar Erlich; Neiva Magdalena; John J. Gregory; Sat Dev Batish; Peter C. Verlander; Arleen D. Auerbach

1997-01-01

250

Human Fanconi anemia monoubiquitination pathway promotes homologous DNA repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive disorder characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone-marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. Cells from FA patients are hypersensitive to agents that produce DNA crosslinks and, after treatment with these agents, have pronounced chromosome breakage and other cytogenetic abnormalities. Eight FANC genes have been cloned, and the encoded proteins interact in a common cellular pathway. DNA-damaging

Koji Nakanishi; Yun-Gui Yang; Andrew J. Pierce; Toshiyasu Taniguchi; Martin Digweed; Alan D. D'Andrea; Zhao-Qi Wang; Maria Jasin

2005-01-01

251

The Deubiquitinating Enzyme USP1 Regulates the Fanconi Anemia Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are dynamic processes implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular pathways. Monoubiquitination of the Fanconi anemia (FA) protein FANCD2 appears to be critical in the repair of DNA damage because many of the proteins that are mutated in FA are required for FANCD2 ubiquitination. By screening a gene family RNAi library, we identify the deubiquitinating enzyme

Sebastian M. B. Nijman; Tony T. Huang; Annette M. G. Dirac; Thijn R. Brummelkamp; Ron M. Kerkhoven; Alan D. D'Andrea; René Bernards

2005-01-01

252

Hemolytic anemia and metastatic carcinoma: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Hemolytic anemia can complicate the development of a variety of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Although patients may have an established diagnosis with documented metastases, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) can be a presenting feature of an occult malignancy. Prompt diagnosis is essential because conditions that mimic the symptoms of MAHA, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, have different prognoses and therapeutic options. Although the exact pathogenesis is not yet delineated, we present herein a case of cancer-associated MAHA and discuss the known pathways that can contribute to the initiation and propagation of hemolytic anemia in patients with cancer. The patient is a 69-year-old woman with breast carcinoma that had metastasized to her rectum, urinary bladder, and brain. She eventually developed progressive decline in her functional status, with intermittent epistaxis and melena. The results of laboratory studies revealed hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia; results of a bone-marrow biopsy confirmed the involvement by metastatic carcinoma. The patient received red blood cell and platelet transfusions and was discharged to hospice care after clinical stabilization. She died soon thereafter. PMID:24868993

Pendse, Avani A; Edgerly, Claire H; Fedoriw, Yuri

2014-01-01

253

Anemia, Heart Failure and Evidence-Based Clinical management  

PubMed Central

Anemia is a prevalent comorbidity and marker of a poorer prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF). Its clinical relevance, as well as its pathophysiology and the clinical management of these patients are important subjects in the specialized literature. In the present review, we describe the current concepts on the pathophysiology of anemia in HF, its diagnostic criteria, and the recommendations for iron supplementation. Also, we make a critical analysis of the major studies showing evidences on the benefits of this supplementation. The four main components of anemia are addressed: chronic disease, dilutional, "renal" and malabsorption. In patients with HF, the diagnostic criteria are the same as those used in the general population: serum ferritin levels lower than 30 mcg/L in patients without kidney diseases and lower than 100 mcg/L or serum ferritin levels between 100-299 mcg/L with transferring saturation lower than 20% in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Finally, the therapeutic possibilities for anemia in this specific patient population are discussed.

Pereira, Camila Alves; Roscani, Meliza Goi; Zanati, Silmeia Garcia; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

2013-01-01

254

Behavior of Infants with Iron-Deficiency Anemia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared behavior of 52 Costa Rican 12- to 23-month-olds with iron-deficiency anemia to that of 139 infants with better iron status. Found that iron-deficient infants maintained closer contact with caregivers; showed less pleasure and playfulness; were more wary, hesitant, and easily tired; made fewer attempts at test items; and attended less to…

Lozoff, Betsy; And Others

1998-01-01

255

Fetal splenic size in anemia due to rh-alloimmunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether fetal splenic enlargement predicts anemia in Rh-alloimmunized nonhydropic singleton fetuses.Methods: Splenic circumference was measured before funipuncture in 21 singleton pregnancies on 47 occasions. The spleen was imaged in an axial section of the fetal abdomen close to the level used for measurement of the abdominal circumference. The splenic length and width were measured and the circumference

R Bahado-Singh; U Oz; G Mari; D Jones; M Paidas; L Onderoglu

1998-01-01

256

Anemia, heart failure and evidence-based clinical management.  

PubMed

Anemia is a prevalent comorbidity and marker of a poorer prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF). Its clinical relevance, as well as its pathophysiology and the clinical management of these patients are important subjects in the specialized literature. In the present review, we describe the current concepts on the pathophysiology of anemia in HF, its diagnostic criteria, and the recommendations for iron supplementation. Also, we make a critical analysis of the major studies showing evidences on the benefits of this supplementation. The four main components of anemia are addressed: chronic disease, dilutional, "renal" and malabsorption. In patients with HF, the diagnostic criteria are the same as those used in the general population: serum ferritin levels lower than 30 mcg/L in patients without kidney diseases and lower than 100 mcg/L or serum ferritin levels between 100-299 mcg/L with transferring saturation lower than 20% in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Finally, the therapeutic possibilities for anemia in this specific patient population are discussed. PMID:23917508

Pereira, Camila Alves; Roscani, Meliza Goi; Zanati, Silméia Garcia; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

2013-07-01

257

Anemia in heart failure: to treat or not to treat?  

PubMed

Anemia is a prevalent comorbidity in chronic heart failure (CHF). As studies have demonstrated close links between anemia and a poorer prognosis, there has been an interest in developing treatment strategies for this condition. Anemia is closely associated with disease severity and may be secondary to multiple modifiable causes; therefore, the initial strategies should always include a thorough search for etiology and should focus on optimizing heart failure treatment. Recently, more specific therapies have been assessed, namely erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and iron supplementation therapy. Studies evaluating erythropoietin in heart failure have demonstrated conflicting results to date, with smaller, single-center studies seeming to show a clinical benefit and larger, multicenter trials demonstrating no significant effect on clinical outcome aside from improvement in selected quality-of-life indices. Similarly, studies evaluating iron therapy alone in anemic patients with heart failure have so far shown promising results with regard to clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, but these studies are limited in that they involved small patient numbers. Ongoing studies such as the Reduction of Events With Darbepoetin Alfa in Heart Failure (RED-HF), Iron Supplementation in Heart Failure Patients With Anemia (IRON-HF), and Ferinject Assessment in Patients With Iron Deficiency and Chronic Heart Failure (FAIR-HF) trials will determine the value of darbepoetin alfa and intravenous iron replacement therapy in anemic CHF patients. PMID:19026176

Mak, George; Murphy, Niamh F; McDonald, Kenneth

2008-12-01

258

Anemia among Pediatric Critical Care Survivors: Prevalence and Resolution  

PubMed Central

To determine the incidence of anemia among pediatric critical care survivors and to determine whether it resolves within 6 months of discharge. Design. A prospective observational study. Patients with anemia upon discharge from the pediatric critical care unit (PCCU) underwent in hospital and post hospital discharge followup (4–6 months) for hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Setting. A medical-surgical PCCU in a tertiary care center. Patients. Patients aged 28 days to 18 years who were treated in the PCCU for over 24 hours. Measurements and Main Results. 94 (24%) out of 392 eligible patients were anemic at time of discharge. Patients with anemia were older, median 8.0?yrs [(IQR 1.0–14.4) versus 3.2?yrs (IQR 0.65–9.9) (P < 0.001)], and had higher PeLOD [median 11 (IQR 10–12) versus 1.5 (1–4) (P < 0.001)], and PRISM [median 5 (IQR 2–11) versus 3 (IQR 0–6) (P < 0.001)] scores. The Hb level normalized in 32% of patients before discharge from hospital. Of the 28 patients who completed followup, all had normalization of their Hb in the absence of medical intervention. Conclusions. Anemia is not common among patients discharged from the PCCU and recovers spontaneously within 4–6 months.

Ngo, Quang N.; Matsui, Doreen M.; Singh, Ram N.; Zelcer, Shayna; Kornecki, Alik

2013-01-01

259

IV Iron Effective in Treating Chemotherapy-Induced Anemia  

Cancer.gov

Two studies in the April 1, 2008, Journal of Clinical Oncology found that intravenous iron significantly improves hemoglobin levels in patients taking erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) for chemotherapy-induced anemia compared with ESAs alone or ESAs plus oral iron.

260

Hematopoietic cytokine levels and in vitro colony formation assay in fetal anemia.  

PubMed

Fetal anemia causes hydrops fetalis and fetal ascites/hydrothorax, and in severe cases the prognosis is poor. Little other than alloimmunity and viral infections are known as mechanisms causing fetal anemia. The aim of this study was to elucidate any pathogenesis in fetal anemia due to otherwise idiopathic etiology. The levels of three hematopoietic cytokines, IL-3, erythropoietin (EPO), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were measured in blood samples obtained by cordocentesis from six fetuses with anemia (Hb <10.0 g/dl) and 34 fetuses without anemia. Cordocentesis was performed prior to the onset of labor or uterine contractions in all pregnant women. The concentration of IL-3 in fetuses with anemia [M+/-(SD), 8.3 (10.1) pg/ml] was significantly lower than that in fetuses without anemia [59.9 (71.0) pg/ml]. EPO and G-CSF levels were not different between the two groups. In addition, through in vitro colony formation assay, using blood stem cells from two fetuses with severe anemia and three fetuses without anemia, it was found that colony forming unit-erythroid, burst forming unit-erythroid and granulocyte macrophage-colony forming unit were significantly suppressed in blood stem cells from the two fetuses with severe anemia. Thus, the malfunction of differentiation and proliferation of blood stem cells and the decrease of hematopoietic cytokine levels in the fetal circulation may be responsible for the occurrence of fetal anemia. PMID:9834018

Yamada, H; Kato, E H; Furuta, I; Hoshi, N; Koizumi, K; Sawada, K; Fujimoto, S

1998-01-01

261

Darbepoetin alfa treatment for post-renal transplantation anemia during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Anemia is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and those who have received a kidney allograft. Anemia is most prevalent in kidney transplant recipients before and immediately after transplantation, but also can occur months after transplantation if the donor kidney begins to fail. Replacement therapy for CKD-related and posttransplantation anemia is effective through the administration of exogenous erythropoiesis-stimulating proteins. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp; Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA) is a unique erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that can be administered at an extended dosing interval relative to recombinant human erythropoietin because of its approximately 3-fold longer serum half-life. Although darbepoetin alfa has been shown to be an effective treatment for patients with anemia of CKD and anemia after kidney transplantation, limited data have been published showing efficacy in treating women with anemia of these conditions during pregnancy. We report a case of successful darbepoetin alfa treatment for severe anemia in a pregnant transplant recipient. PMID:16253714

Goshorn, Janet; Youell, Timothy D

2005-11-01

262

Management of anemia in children receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis.  

PubMed

Little information exists regarding the efficacy, modifiers, and outcomes of anemia management in children with CKD or ESRD. We assessed practices, effectors, and outcomes of anemia management in 1394 pediatric patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) who were prospectively followed in 30 countries. We noted that 25% of patients had hemoglobin levels below target (<10 g/dl or <9.5 g/dl in children older or younger than 2 years, respectively), with significant regional variation; levels were highest in North America and Europe and lowest in Asia and Turkey. Low hemoglobin levels were associated with low urine output, low serum albumin, high parathyroid hormone, high ferritin, and the use of bioincompatible PD fluid. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were prescribed to 92% of patients, and neither the type of ESA nor the dosing interval appeared to affect efficacy. The weekly ESA dose inversely correlated with age when scaled to weight but did not correlate with age when normalized to body surface area. ESA sensitivity was positively associated with residual diuresis and serum albumin and inversely associated with serum parathyroid hormone and ferritin. The prevalence of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy increased with the degree of anemia. Patient survival was positively associated with achieved hemoglobin and serum albumin and was inversely associated with ESA dose. In conclusion, control of anemia in children receiving long-term PD varies by region. ESA requirements are independent of age when dose is scaled to body surface area, and ESA resistance is associated with inflammation, fluid retention, and hyperparathyroidism. Anemia and high ESA dose requirements independently predict mortality. PMID:23471197

Borzych-Duzalka, Dagmara; Bilginer, Yelda; Ha, Il Soo; Bak, Mustafa; Rees, Lesley; Cano, Francisco; Munarriz, Reyner Loza; Chua, Annabelle; Pesle, Silvia; Emre, Sevinc; Urzykowska, Agnieszka; Quiroz, Lily; Ruscasso, Javier Darío; White, Colin; Pape, Lars; Ramela, Virginia; Printza, Nikoleta; Vogel, Andrea; Kuzmanovska, Dafina; Simkova, Eva; Müller-Wiefel, Dirk E; Sander, Anja; Warady, Bradley A; Schaefer, Franz

2013-03-01

263

Pharmacodynamic model for chemotherapy-induced anemia in rats  

PubMed Central

Anticancer agents often cause bone marrow toxicity resulting in progressive anemia which may influence the therapeutic effects of erythropoietic-stimulating agents. The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacodynamic (PD) model to describe chemotherapy-induced anemia in rats. Anemia was induced in male Wistar rats with a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of 60 mg/kg carboplatin. Hematological responses including reticulocytes, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin, and endogenous rat erythropoietin (EPO) were measured for up to 4 weeks. A catenary, lifespan-based, indirect response model served as a basic PD model to represent erythroid cellular populations in the bone marrow and blood involved in erythropoiesis. The model assumed that actively proliferating progenitor cells in the bone marrow are sensitive to anti-cancer agents and subject to an irreversible removal process. The removal rate of the target cells is proportional to drug activity concentrations and the cell numbers. An additional RBC loss from the circulation resulting from thrombocytopenia was described by a first-order process. The turnover process of rat EPO and EPO-mediated feedback inhibition mechanism regulated by hemoglobin changes were incorporated. Reticulocyte counts decreased rapidly and reached a nadir by day 3 after administration of carboplatin and returned to the baseline by day 13. This was followed by a gradual increase and the rebound peak occurred at about day 15. The hemoglobin nadir was approximately 9 g/dl observed at about 11–13 days compared to its normal value of 13 g/dl and hemoglobin returned to the baseline by day 30. The increase in endogenous rat EPO mirrored inversely hemoglobin changes and the maximum increase was observed soon after the hemoglobin nadir. The carboplatin-treated rats exhibited progressive anemia. The proposed model adequately described the time course of hematological changes after carboplatin in rats and can be a useful tool to explore potential strategies for the management of anemia caused by chemotherapy.

Woo, Sukyung; Krzyzanski, Wojciech

2009-01-01

264

Cost-effectiveness of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator in anemia  

PubMed Central

Background Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are the mainstay of anemia therapy. Continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) is a highly effective, long-acting ESA developed for once-monthly dosing. A multitude of clinical studies has evaluated the safety and efficiency of this treatment option for patients with renal anemia. In times of permanent financial pressure on health care systems, the cost-effectiveness of CERA should be of particular importance for payers and clinicians. Objective To critically analyze, from the nephrologists’ point of view, the published literature focusing on the cost-effectiveness of CERA for anemia treatment. Methods The detailed literature search covered electronic databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, and Embase, as well as international conference abstract databases. Results Peer-reviewed literature analyzing the definite cost-effectiveness of CERA is scarce, and most of the available data originate from conference abstracts. Identified data are restricted to the treatment of anemia due to chronic kidney disease. Although the majority of studies suggest a considerable cost advantage for CERA, the published literature cannot easily be compared. While time and motion studies clearly indicate that a switch to CERA could minimize health care staff time in dialysis units, the results of studies comparing direct costs are more ambivalent, potentially reflecting the differences between health care systems and variability between centers. Conclusion Analyzed data are predominantly insufficient; they miss clear evidence and have to thus be interpreted with great caution. In this day and age of financial restraints, results from well-designed, head-to-head studies with clearly defined endpoints have to prove whether CERA therapy can achieve cost savings without compromising anemia management.

Schmid, Holger

2014-01-01

265

Management of Anemia in Children Receiving Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis  

PubMed Central

Little information exists regarding the efficacy, modifiers, and outcomes of anemia management in children with CKD or ESRD. We assessed practices, effectors, and outcomes of anemia management in 1394 pediatric patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) who were prospectively followed in 30 countries. We noted that 25% of patients had hemoglobin levels below target (<10 g/dl or <9.5 g/dl in children older or younger than 2 years, respectively), with significant regional variation; levels were highest in North America and Europe and lowest in Asia and Turkey. Low hemoglobin levels were associated with low urine output, low serum albumin, high parathyroid hormone, high ferritin, and the use of bioincompatible PD fluid. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were prescribed to 92% of patients, and neither the type of ESA nor the dosing interval appeared to affect efficacy. The weekly ESA dose inversely correlated with age when scaled to weight but did not correlate with age when normalized to body surface area. ESA sensitivity was positively associated with residual diuresis and serum albumin and inversely associated with serum parathyroid hormone and ferritin. The prevalence of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy increased with the degree of anemia. Patient survival was positively associated with achieved hemoglobin and serum albumin and was inversely associated with ESA dose. In conclusion, control of anemia in children receiving long-term PD varies by region. ESA requirements are independent of age when dose is scaled to body surface area, and ESA resistance is associated with inflammation, fluid retention, and hyperparathyroidism. Anemia and high ESA dose requirements independently predict mortality.

Borzych-Duzalka, Dagmara; Bilginer, Yelda; Ha, Il Soo; Bak, Mustafa; Rees, Lesley; Cano, Francisco; Munarriz, Reyner Loza; Chua, Annabelle; Pesle, Silvia; Emre, Sevinc; Urzykowska, Agnieszka; Quiroz, Lily; Ruscasso, Javier Dario; White, Colin; Pape, Lars; Ramela, Virginia; Printza, Nikoleta; Vogel, Andrea; Kuzmanovska, Dafina; Simkova, Eva; Muller-Wiefel, Dirk E.; Sander, Anja; Warady, Bradley A.

2013-01-01

266

Inappropriate expression of hepcidin is associated with iron refractory anemia: implications for the anemia of chronic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anemia of chronic disease is a preva- lent, poorly understood condition that afflicts patients with a wide variety of diseases, including infections, malignan- cies, and rheumatologic disorders. It is characterized by a blunted erythropoietin response by erythroid precursors, de- creased red blood cell survival, and a defect in iron absorption and macro- phage iron retention, which interrupts iron delivery

David A. Weinstein; Cindy N. Roy; Mark D. Fleming; Massimo F. Loda; Joseph I. Wolfsdorf; Nancy C. Andrews

267

Stem Cell Gene Therapy for Fanconi Anemia: Report from the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival rates after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for Fanconi anemia (FA) have increased dramatically since 2000. However, the use of autologous stem cell gene therapy, whereby the patient's own blood stem cells are modified to express the wild-type gene product, could potentially avoid the early and late complications of allogeneic HCT. Over the last decades, gene therapy has experienced

Jakub Tolar; Jennifer E Adair; Michael Antoniou; Cynthia C Bartholomae; Pamela S Becker; Bruce R Blazar; Juan Bueren; Thomas Carroll; Marina Cavazzana-Calvo; D Wade Clapp; Robert Dalgleish; Anne Galy; H Bobby Gaspar; Helmut Hanenberg; Christof Von Kalle; Hans-Peter Kiem; Dirk Lindeman; Luigi Naldini; Susana Navarro; Raffaele Renella; Paula Rio; Julián Sevilla; Manfred Schmidt; Els Verhoeyen; John E Wagner; David A Williams; Adrian J Thrasher

2011-01-01

268

Triad of Iron Deficiency Anemia, Severe Thrombocytopenia and Menorrhagia--A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Thrombocytosis is a common disorder in patients diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia. The decreased platelet counts commonly found iron deficiency anemia is rarely reported in clinical practice. The exact mechanism of the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in iron deficiency anemia remains unclear. In this case report we discuss a triad of symptoms seen in the African American population: Iron deficiency anemia, menorrhagia and thrombocytopenia. Case presentation A 40 year old multiparous African-American woman presented with heavy vaginal bleed, severe anemia (3.5 g/dL) and thrombocytopenia (30,000/mm3). The peripheral blood smear showed marked microcytic hypochromic cells with decreased platelets counts. After excluding other causes of thrombocytopenia and anemia, increased red cell distribution width and low iron saturation confirmed the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. Treatment for iron deficiency anemia was initiated with intravenous and oral iron supplements. Two months following treatment of iron deficiency anemia, the triad of manifestations resolved and patient remained stable. Conclusion Profound degree of iron deficiency anemia can present with thrombocytopenia and severe menorrhagia. Iron replacement should be the main treatment goal in these patients. This case report further supports the 2 compartment model of the role of iron in maintaining platelet counts.

Ibrahim, Ramy; Khan, Areej; Raza, Shahzad; Kafeel, Muhammad; Dabas, Ridhima; Haynes, Elizabeth; Gandhi, Anjula; Majumder, Omran L.; Zaman, Mohammad

2012-01-01

269

Prevalence of Anemia among Adults with Newly Diagnosed HIV/AIDS in China  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of anemia among antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected patients in China has not been well characterized. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of anemia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. Methods One thousand nine hundred and forty-eight newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in China were selected during 2009 and 2010. Serum samples obtained from each individual were collected to measure hemoglobin levels. Demographics and medical histories were recorded. Factors associated with the presence of anemia were analysed by logistic regression. Results Among the 1948 patients, 75.8% were male. Median age was 40 years (range: 18–80 years). The overall prevalence of anemia among HIV-infected patients was 51.9% (51.5% among men, 53.2% among women). The prevalences of mild anemia, of moderate anemia, of severe anemia were 32.4%, 17.0%, and 2.5%, respectively. The prevalence of anemia was higher among ethnic minority patients than among the Han patients (70.9% versus 45.9%). The prevalence of anemia increased with increasing age (49.6%, 53.5% and 60.1% among patients who were 18–39, 40–59, and ?60 years of age respectively) and with decreasing CD4 count (14.0%, 22.4%, 50.7%, and 74.6% among patients with CD4 count of ?350, 200–349, 50–199, and <50 cells/mm3 respectively). The logistic regression analysis showed that older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of anemia. Conclusions Anemia is highly prevalent among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, but severe anemia is less prevalent in this population. Older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity are associated with an increased risk of anemia.

Shen, Yinzhong; Wang, Zhenyan; Lu, Hongzhou; Wang, Jiangrong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Li; Zhang, Renfang; Zheng, Yufang

2013-01-01

270

Determinants of anemia in postpartum HIV-negative women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The determinants of anemia during both pregnancy and postpartum recovery remain incompletely understood in sub-Saharan African women. SUBJECTS/METHODS In a prospective cohort study among pregnant women, we assessed dietary, biochemical, anthropometric, infectious and sociodemographic factors at baseline. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we examined predictors of incident anemia (hemoglobin <11 g/dl) and iron deficiency anemia (anemia plus mean corpuscular volume <80 fL), and recovery from anemia and iron deficiency anemia through 18 months postpartum at antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between 2001 and 2005. A total of 2364 non-anemic pregnant women and 4884 anemic women were enrolled between 12 and 27 weeks of gestation. RESULTS In total, 292 women developed anemia during the postpartum period and 165 developed iron deficiency anemia, whereas 2982 recovered from baseline anemia and 2044 from iron deficiency anemia. Risk factors for postpartum anemia were delivery complications (RR 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13, 2.22) and low postpartum CD4 cell count (RR 1.73, 95% CI 0.96, 3.17). Iron/folate supplementation during pregnancy had a protective relationship with the incidence of iron deficiency anemia. Absence of delivery complications, education status and iron/folate supplementation were positively associated with time to recovery from iron deficiency. CONCLUSION Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy, prenatal iron/folate supplementation, perinatal care, and prevention and management of infections, such as malaria, are modifiable risk factors for the occurrence of, and recovery from, anemia.

Petraro, P; Duggan, C; Urassa, W; Msamanga, G; Makubi, A; Spiegelman, D; Fawzi, WW

2013-01-01

271

Targeting Erythroblast-specific Apoptosis in Experimental Anemia  

PubMed Central

Erythrocyte production is regulated by balancing precursor cell apoptosis and survival signaling. Previously, we found that BH3-only proapoptotic factor, Nix, opposed erythroblast-survival signaling by erythropoietin-induced Bcl-xl during normal erythrocyte formation. Since erythropoietin treatment of human anemia has limitations, we explored the therapeutic potential of abrogating Nix-mediated erythroblast apoptosis to enhance erythrocyte production. Nix gene ablation blunted the phenylhydrazine-induced fall in blood count, enhanced hematocrit recovery, and reduced erythroblast apoptosis, despite lower endogenous erythropoietin levels. Similar to erythropoietin, Nix ablation increased early splenic erythroblasts and circulating reticulocytes, while maintaining a pool of mature erythroblasts as erythropoietic reserve. Erythrocytes in Nix-deficient mice showed morphological abnormalities, suggesting that apoptosis during erythropoiesis not only controls red blood cell number, but also serves a “triage” function, preferentially eliminating abnormal erythrocytes. These results support the concept of targeting erythroblast apoptosis to maximize erythrocyte production in acute anemia, which may be of value in erythropoietin resistance.

Diwan, Abhinav; Koesters, Andrew G; Capella, Devan; Geiger, Hartmut; Kalfa, Theodosia A.; Dorn, Gerald W

2008-01-01

272

Orthodontic treatment of patients with sickle-cell anemia.  

PubMed

Sickle-cell anemia is a genetic blood disease characterized by a hemoglobin gene mutation. The genetic failure is basically constituted by replacement of the hemoglobin beta chain in the sixth position so that the amino acid valine is encoded instead of glutamic acid. As a result, the erythrocytes have their normal biconcave discoid shape distorted, generally presenting a sicklelike shape, which reduces both their plasticity and lifetime. Because a complete blood supply is so important during application of both intraoral and extraoral forces, this article addresses the general and oral aspects associated with sickle-cell anemia. This will guide the clinician regarding such patients who seek orthodontic treatment by making references to literature on multidisciplinary management. PMID:16539552

Alves, Patricia Valéria Milanezi; Alves, Daniele Karina M; de Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes; Torres, Sandra Regina

2006-03-01

273

Effects of ionizing radiation on cells from Fanconi's anemia patients  

SciTech Connect

The lymphocytes from some Fanconi's anemia patients appeared to be more radiosensitive than normal as measured by the number of X-ray-(or bleomycin-) induced chromosome aberrations seen following G2 treatment. Fibroblasts from the same patients, however, all showed the same degree of colony survival as normals following exposure to gamma-rays (Do, 1.13 +/- 0.072 (S.E.) Gy and 1.14 +/- 0.077 Gy for Fanconi's anemia and normal fibroblasts, respectively). The lack of increased radiosensitivity in Fanconi's fibroblasts was also observed by the same degree of inhibition of DNA synthesis as seen in normals following gamma-irradiation. The results show clearly that there is no increase in radiosensitivity common to all cell types from Fanconi's patients, although an apparent increase in chromosomal radiosensitivity may be seen in the lymphocytes from an occasional patient.

Duckworth-Rysiecki, G.; Taylor, A.M.

1985-01-01

274

A Hemoglobin Variant Associated with Neonatal Cyanosis and Anemia  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Globin-gene mutations are a rare but important cause of cyanosis. We identified a missense mutation in the fetal G ?-globin gene (HBG2) in a father and daughter with transient neonatal cyanosis and anemia. This new mutation modifies the ligand-binding pocket of fetal hemoglobin by means of two mechanisms. First, the relatively large side chain of methionine decreases both the affinity of oxygen for binding to the mutant hemoglobin subunit and the rate at which it does so. Second, the mutant methionine is converted to aspartic acid post-translationally, probably through oxidative mechanisms. The presence of this polar amino acid in the heme pocket is predicted to enhance hemoglobin denaturation, causing anemia.

Crowley, Moira A.; Mollan, Todd L.; Abdulmalik, Osheisa Y.; Butler, Andrew D.; Goodwin, Emily F.; Sarkar, Arindam; Stolle, Catherine A.; Gow, Andrew J.; Olson, John S.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

2013-01-01

275

Cryptococcal meningitis in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

To summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) patients and to provide a reference for the prevention and control of AIHA complicated with CM, we evaluated five cases of CM in patients with AIHA treated in our hospital from 2003 to 2013 and eight related foreign cases. All of the clinical isolates were Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and grouped into the VNI genotype and serotype A. The clinical features exhibit significant features. Headache, nausea, and fever are common symptoms of AIHA complicated with CM. The early clinical manifestations lack specificity, which may lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Long-term use of prednisone (?15 mg day(-1)), poor control of anemia, and splenectomy are risk factors for AIHA complicated with cryptococcal infection. The combination of intravenous amphotericin B and oral 5-fluorocytosine remains the preferred treatment for AIHA complicated with CM. PMID:24952011

Yang, YaLi; Sang, Junjun; Pan, Weihua; Du, Lin; Liao, Wanqing; Chen, Jianghan; Zhu, Yuanjie

2014-08-01

276

Fanconi anemia and the cell cycle: new perspectives on aneuploidy  

PubMed Central

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a complex heterogenic disorder of genomic instability, bone marrow failure, cancer predisposition, and congenital malformations. The FA signaling network orchestrates the DNA damage recognition and repair in interphase as well as proper execution of mitosis. Loss of FA signaling causes chromosome instability by weakening the spindle assembly checkpoint, disrupting centrosome maintenance, disturbing resolution of ultrafine anaphase bridges, and dysregulating cytokinesis. Thus, the FA genes function as guardians of genome stability throughout the cell cycle. This review discusses recent advances in diagnosis and clinical management of Fanconi anemia and presents the new insights into the origins of genomic instability in FA. These new discoveries may facilitate the development of rational therapeutic strategies for FA and for FA-deficient malignancies in the general population.

2014-01-01

277

Inborn anemias in mice: (Annual report, 1983-1984)  

SciTech Connect

The hypotranserrinemic-hemochromatosis mutation in mice discovered in our laboratory is an almost exact duplicate of human atransferrinemia. Just as in man, the condition is inherited as a recessive lethal. The disease appears to stem from a congenital deficiency in transferrin. The new mutation arose spontaneously in BALB/c mice and results in death before 12 days of age. It is characterized by stunted growth, low numbers of erythrocytes, hypochromia, and in the absence of jaundice. Treatments with Imferon or other iron preparations were uniformly unsuccessful, but the use of normal mouse serum proved successful as a therapeutic measure. We find that we are able to keep these afflicted mice alive for more than a year with small amounts of normal serum, and transferrin bands are missing on cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum proteins from affected individuals receiving no treatment. Genetic tests indicated that the new mutation was not an allele of any of the other known iron deficiency anemias in the mouse: sex linked anemia (sla), microcytic anemia (mk), or flexed anemia (f) or any of the members of the hemolytic disease group (sph, sph/sup ha/, nb, or ja). Biochemical and genetic analyses carried out during the past year indicate that the new mutation, tentatively designated hpx is not likely to be a mutation at the transferrin (Trf) locus on Chromosome 9. We observed no unusual serum proteins on cellulose acetate electrophoresis, such as might be expected if the Trf gene had mutated. Moreover, radial immunodiffusion examination and Ouchterlony analysis did not show the presence of smaller molecules (or fragments) with transferrin antigenic specificities. Instead they showed a total loss in serum transferrin. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

Bernstein, S.E.

1984-09-01

278

Danazol as first-line therapy for aplastic anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunosuppressive therapy (IST) with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) plus cyclosporine A (CsA) is the standard treatment for\\u000a aplastic anemia (AA) patients not eligible for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In the absence of\\u000a ATG + CsA, androgens continue to be a treatment option. We documented the clinical evolution of AA patients treated with danazol\\u000a instead of ATG + CsA. AA

José Carlos Jaime-Pérez; Perla R. Colunga-Pedraza; Cynthia D. Gómez-Ramírez; César H. Gutiérrez-Aguirre; Olga G. Cantú-Rodríguez; Luz C. Tarín-Arzaga; David Gómez-Almaguer

2011-01-01

279

Serological and Clinical Aspects of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemias  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryAutoimmune hemolytic anemias (AIHAs) may occur when specific autoantibodies react with red blood cell (RBC) antigens. Decompensated hemolysis and detectable autoantibodies against RBCs are classical findings. The autoantibodies preferentially react at 37 °C (warm autoantibodies). The majority of these autoantibodies are of the IgG class; IgM and IgA warm autoantibodies are less common. Roughly 50% of the patients have an

A. Salama; N. Ahrens; H. Kiesewetter

2002-01-01

280

Preventing childhood anemia in India: iron supplementation and beyond.  

PubMed

Childhood anemia has major adverse consequences for health and development. It's prevalence in India continues to range from 70 to 90%. Although anemia is multifactorial in etiology, preventative efforts have predominantly focused on increasing iron intake, primarily through supplementation in pregnant and lactating women. Policy thrust for childhood anemia is only recent. However, program implementation is dismal; only 3.8-4.7% of preschoolers receive iron-folate supplements. There is an urgent need for effective governance and implementation. Policy makers must distinguish anemia from iron deficiency, and introduce additional area-specific interventions as an integrated package.Increased iron intake may yield maximum benefit but will only address up to half the burden. In 6-59 months old children, instead of 100 days' continuous dosing with iron-folate syrup in a year, a directly supervised intermittent supplementation (biweekly; ~100 days per year) merits consideration. Multiple micronutrient powders for home fortification of foods in 6-23 months old infants do not appear viable. Additional interventions include delayed cord clamping, earlier supplementation in low birth weight infants, appropriate infant and young child feeding guidelines, and intermittent supervised supplementation in children and adolescents through school health programs. Use of double (iron-folate)-fortified salt in mid-day meal programs deserves piloting.Important area-specific, non-iron interventions include targeted deworming, and prevention and treatment of hemoglobinopathies, malaria and other common infections. Routine addition of multi-micronutrients to iron-folate supplementation appears unjustified currently. There is a pressing need to conduct relevant research, especially to inform etiology, additional interventions and implementation issues. PMID:23388662

Sachdev, H P S; Gera, T

2013-05-01

281

MOLECULAR MEDICINE: "Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Fifty years ago this month, Linus Pauling published his seminal Science paper describing the difference in electrophoretic mobilities between normal hemoglobin and that from patients with sickle cell anemia. In so doing he founded the field of molecular medicine, as Strasser explains in a lively Perspective that looks at the discovery and its aftermath.

Bruno J. Strasser (University of Geneva;Louis-Jeantet Institute for the History of Medicine)

1999-11-19

282

Zinc-induced hemolytic anemia in a dog.  

PubMed

A dog ingested a zinc nut that was retained in the stomach and caused a life-threatening hemolytic crisis with renal, gastrointestinal, and hepatic dysfunction. The dog was stabilized by blood transfusion and was anesthetized, and the zinc nut was removed with a fiberoptic endoscope. With continued supportive care, the dog recovered. Metallic zinc is found in high concentrations in nuts, bolts, and pennies. Zinc toxicosis should be considered in cases of unexplained hemolytic anemia. PMID:3654320

Torrance, A G; Fulton, R B

1987-08-15

283

Neutropenic Enterocolitis in Children with Acute Leukemia or Aplastic Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutropenic enterocolitis (NE) and acute appendicitis are life-threatening conditions that develop in children with severe\\u000a or prolonged neutropenia secondary to acute leukemia and lymphoma. The medical records of 118 patients who were treated for\\u000a acute lymphoblastic leukemia (69 patients), acute myelogenous leukemia (22 patients), or aplastic anemia (27 patients) between\\u000a 1997 and 2006 in our hospital pediatric hematology department were

Bulent Alioglu; Zekai Avci; Figen Ozcay; Serdar Arda; Namik Ozbek

2007-01-01

284

Decreased C-Peptide Secretion in Sickle Cell Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) were performed on 9 adults with sickle cell anemia and 15 normal controls. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min after intravenous glucose infusion and used for glucose and C-peptide assays. The mean C-peptide concentration after glucose infusion was significantly (p < 0.05) lower for

Sara. T. O. Saad; Gisele S. Braga; Mario J. A. Saad

1989-01-01

285

Relation between Blood Lead Levels and Childhood Anemia in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead pollution is a substantial problem in developing countries such as India. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has defined an elevated blood lead level in children as ? 10 lg\\/dl, on the basis of neurologic toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency suggests a threshold lead level of 20-40 lg\\/dl for risk of childhood anemia, but there is

Nitin B. Jain; Francine Laden; Ulrich Guller; Anoop Shankar; Shamsah Kazani; Eric Garshick

2005-01-01

286

Severe canine hereditary hemolytic anemia treated by nonmyeloablative marrow transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe hemolytic anemia in Basenji dogs secondary to pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency can be corrected by marrow allografts from healthy littermates after a conventional high-dose myeloablative conditioning regimen. The nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen used here, which consisted of a sublethal dose of 200 cGy total body irradiation before and immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporine after a dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-identical

J. Maciej Zaucha; Cong Yu; Clinton D Lothrop; Richard A Nash; George Sale; George Georges; Hans-Peter Kiem; Glenn P Niemeyer; Marc Dufresne; Qiongfang Cao; Rainer Storb

2001-01-01

287

Benchmark Dose of Lead Inducing Anemia at the Workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the critical dose of lead inducing anemia in humans, the effects of lead on hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels and red blood cell (RBC) count were examined in 388 male lead-exposed workers with blood lead (BPb) levels of 0.05–5.5 (mean 1.3) ?mol/L by using the benchmark dose (BMD) approach. The BPb level was significantly related to Hb

Kanae Karita; Eiji Yano; Miwako Dakeishi; Toyoto Iwata; Katsuyuki Murata

2005-01-01

288

Treatment of anemia with epoetin in kidney transplant recipients.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and efficacy of renal anemia treated with epoetin in maintenance kidney transplant recipients in Slovenia. By the end of 2009, 107 out of 537 patients (19.9%) had been treated with epoetin. A cohort of 49 patients (45.8%) were analyzed in detail: 11 patients received epoetin alpha, 18 epoetin beta, 10 darbepoetin alpha, and 10 patients received methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta. The median epoetin dose was 0.36 µg/kg body weight per week. The median serum laboratory parameters were as follows: hemoglobin 120 g/L, hematocrit 0.36, ferritin 332 ng/mL, transferrin saturation 34%, serum creatinine 145 µmol/L, serum albumin 41 g/L, intact parathyroid hormone 79 ng/L, and C-reactive protein 3 mg/L. We concluded that the prevalence of renal anemia in kidney transplant recipients treated with epoetin was approximately 20%, and laboratory parameters suggested that the treatment of renal anemia in this study cohort was optimal. PMID:21624072

Bren, Andrej; Arnol, Miha; Kandus, Aljoša; Varl, Janez; Oblak, Manca; Lindi?, Jelka; Pajek, Jernej; Knap, Bojan; Kova?, Damjan; Mlinšek, Gregor; Buturovi?-Ponikvar, Jadranka

2011-06-01

289

Doppler velocimetry in pregnant patients with sickle cell anemia.  

PubMed

Women with sickle cell anemia have an increased risk of bearing low-birth-weight (LBW) progeny. To establish prognostic indicators of neonatal outcome, 15 women with sickle cell anemia were followed through their pregnancies with the use of umbilical and uterine Doppler flow velocimetry. The systolic/diastolic ratios obtained were correlated with neonatal birth weight, gestational age, and birth weight percentile. Pregravid hemoglobin levels, reticulocyte counts, dense cell numbers, percentage hemoglobin F, and indirect bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase levels were also determined, and statistical analysis was performed to assess whether any of these parameters would be useful in conjunction with velocimetry. We report here that, in sickle cell anemia, prenatal umbilical and uterine Doppler velocimetry ratios correlate inversely and significantly with neonatal birth weight (P < 0.005 and P < 0.002, respectively). In addition, prenatal maternal HbF levels also correlate significantly with Doppler velocimetry readings, an independent indicator of LBW progeny. Neither pregravid hemoglobin levels nor dense cell concentration correlates with Doppler umbilical and uterine flow velocimetry ratios determined during pregnancy. Pregravid high levels of HbF and velocimetry readings may serve to delineate a subset of sickle cell patients who may have different requirements for prenatal care. The possible mechanism for the detrimental effects of increased levels of fetal hemoglobin has not been clearly established, but it may involve increased propensity for vasoocclusion due to the unique rheology of the human placenta. PMID:7679883

Billett, H H; Langer, O; Regan, O T; Merkatz, I; Anyaegbunam, A

1993-03-01

290

Use of iron-fortified rice reduces anemia in infants.  

PubMed

Food fortification is advocated to tackle iron deficiency in anemic populations. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of iron-fortified rice (Ultrarice(®)) weekly on hemoglobin and anemia levels compared with standard rice (control). This cluster-randomized study deals with infants (10-23?months) from two public child day care centers in Brazil, n?=?216, in an 18 week intervention. The intervention group received individual portions of fortified rice (50?g) provided 56.4?mg elemental/Fe. For intervention center: baseline mean hemoglobin was 11.44?±?1.07?g/dl, and after intervention 11.67?±?0.96?g/dl, p?Anemia prevalence for intervention center was 31.25% at baseline, and 18.75% at end of study, p?=?0.045; for control 43.50% were anemic at baseline, and 37.1% at the end of study, p?=?0.22. Number Needed to Treat was 7. Iron-fortified rice was effective in increasing hemoglobin levels and reducing anemia in infants. PMID:22643708

Nogueira Arcanjo, Francisco Plácido; Santos, Paulo Roberto; Arcanjo, Caio Plácido Costa; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio; Braga, Josefina Aparecida Pellegrini

2012-12-01

291

Targeting the Hepcidin-Ferroportin Axis to Develop New Treatment Strategies for Anemia of Chronic Disease and Anemia of Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Anemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) or Anemia of Inflammation (AI) is prevalent in patients with chronic infection, autoimmune disease, cancer and chronic kidney disease. ACD is associated with poor prognosis and lower quality of life. Management of ACD using intravenous iron and erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are ineffective for some patients and are not without adverse effects, driving the need for new alternative therapies. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of iron regulation reveal that increased hepcidin, the iron regulatory hormone, is a key factor in the development of ACD. In this review, we will summarize the role of hepcidin in iron homeostasis, its contribution to the pathophysiology of ACD, and novel strategies that modulate hepcidin and its target ferroportin for the treatment of ACD.

Sun, Chia Chi; Vaja, Valentina; Babitt, Jodie L.; Lin, Herbert Y.

2013-01-01

292

The DNA helicase BRIP1 is defective in Fanconi anemia complementation group J  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein predicted to be defective in individuals with Fanconi anemia complementation group J (FA-J), FANCJ, is a missing component in the Fanconi anemia pathway of genome maintenance. Here we identify pathogenic mutations in eight individuals with FA-J in the gene encoding the DEAH-box DNA helicase BRIP1, also called FANCJ. This finding is compelling evidence that the Fanconi anemia pathway

Marieke Levitus; Quinten Waisfisz; Barbara C Godthelp; Yne de Vries; Shobbir Hussain; Wouter W Wiegant; Elhaam Elghalbzouri-Maghrani; Jûrgen Steltenpool; Martin A Rooimans; Gerard Pals; Fré Arwert; Christopher G Mathew; Ma?gorzata Z Zdzienicka; Kevin Hiom; Johan P De Winter; Hans Joenje

2005-01-01

293

Sequential Treatment of Anemia in Ulcerative Colitis with Intravenous Iron and Erythropoietin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intravenous iron and erythropoietin have been shown to be effective in Crohn’s disease-associated anemia. The aim of this study was to test the sequential treatment of anemia in ulcerative colitis with intravenous iron in the first phase and erythropoietin in the second. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with ulcerative colitis-associated anemia (hemoglobin ?10.5 g\\/dl) entered this open-label trial. In

Christoph Gasche; Clemens Dejaco; Walter Reinisch; Wolfgang Tillinger; Thomas Waldhoer; Gerhard F. Fueger; Herbert Lochs; Alfred Gangl

1999-01-01

294

Influence of Severity of Anemia on Clinical Findings in Infants with Sickle Cell Anemia: Analyses from the BABY HUG Study  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical complications of sickle cell anemia begin in infancy. BABY HUG (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00006400) was a NHLBI-NICHD supported randomized phase III placebo-controlled trial of hydroxyurea (HU) in infants (recruited at 9–18 months) unselected for clinical severity with sickle cell anemia. This secondary analysis of data from BABY HUG examines the influence of anemia on the incidence of sickle cell related complications, and the impact of hydroxyurea therapy in altering these events by comparing children with lower (<25th percentile) and higher (>75th percentile) hemoglobin concentrations at study entry. Procedure Infants were categorized by: 1) age-adjusted hemoglobin quartiles as determined by higher (Hi) and lower (Lo) hemoglobin concentrations at study entry (9 to12 months old: <8.0 gm/dL and >10.0gm/dL; 12 to 18 months old: <8.1 gm/dL and >9.9gm/dL) and 2) treatment arm (hydroxyurea or placebo). Four subgroups were created: placebo (PL) LoHb (n=25), PL HiHb (n=27), hydroxyurea (HU) LoHb (n=21), and HU HiHb (n=18). The primary and secondary endpoints of BABY HUG were analyzed by subgroup. Results Infants with lower hemoglobin at baseline were more likely to have a higher incidence of clinical events (acute chest syndrome, pain crisis, fever) as well as higher TCD velocities and lower neuropsychological scores at study exit. Hydroxyurea reduced the incidence of these findings. Conclusion Infants with more severe anemia are at risk for increased clinical events that may be prevented by early initiation of hydroxyurea.

Lebensburger, Jeffrey D.; Miller, Scott T.; Howard, Thomas H.; Casella, James F.; Brown, R. Clark; Lu, Ming; Iyer, Rathi V.; Sarnaik, Sharada; Rogers, Zora R.; Wang, Winfred C.

2011-01-01

295

Thymoma followed by aplastic anemia - two different responses to immunosuppressive therapy  

PubMed Central

Aplastic anemia is an uncommon complication of thymoma and is extremely infrequent after the surgical removal of a thymic tumor. Aplastic anemia is a result of marrow failure and is characterized by peripheral pancytopenia and severely depressed marrow cellularity; it may be an autoimmune manifestation of thymoma. As thymoma-associated hematological dyscrasias, which include pure red cell aplasia, aplastic anemia and myasthenia gravis, are supposed to be of immunologic origin, two cases of very severe aplastic anemia following the resection of lymphocytic thymomas treated with immunosuppression are herein presented.

de Castro, Murilo Antunes; de Castro, Mariana Antunes; Arantes, Adriano de Moraes; Roberti, Maria do Rosario Ferraz

2011-01-01

296

Anesthesia for a patient with Fanconi anemia for developmental dislocation of the hip: a case report.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia is a rare autosomal recessive inherited bone marrow failure syndrome with congenital and hematological abnormalities. Literature regarding the anesthetic management in these patients is limited. A management of a developmental dislocation of the hip was described in a patient with fanconi anemia. Because of the heterogeneous nature, a patient with fanconi anemia should be established thorough preoperative evaluation in order to diagnose on clinical features. In conclusion, we preferred caudal anesthesia in this patient with fanconi anemia without thrombocytopenia, because of avoiding from N2O, reducing amount of anesthetic, existing microcephaly, hypothyroidism and elevated liver enzymes, providing postoperative analgesia, and reducing amount of analgesic used postoperatively. PMID:24907882

Dogan, Zafer; Yildiz, Huseyin; Coskuner, Ismail; Uzel, Murat; Garipardic, Mesut

2014-01-01

297

Iron-refractory microcytic anemia as the presenting feature of unicentric Castleman disease in children.  

PubMed

Chronic, iron-refractory, microcytic anemia can be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report the cases of 2 children with occult, unicentric Castleman disease whose primary presenting feature was a chronic, unexplained, iron-refractory, microcytic anemia. Diagnosis was delayed because neither child had palpable lymphadenopathy and the lymphoproliferation was intra-abdominal. Surgical resection cured the anemia and the Castleman disease. A diagnostic clue to Castleman disease is an elevated concentration of interleukin-6 in blood, which causes anemia by inducing the expression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. PMID:24367988

Chandrakasan, Shanmuganathan; Bakeer, Nihal; Mo, Jun Qin; Cost, Carrye; Quinn, Charles T

2014-04-01

298

Prevalence of High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Thalassemia, Sickle-Cell Anemia, and Iron-Deficiency Anemia among the UAE Adolescent Population  

PubMed Central

This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years) who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of high blood pressure among the local and expatriate adolescent population in the Emirate of Sharjah. Similarly, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia were observed among the local and expatriate population in Abu Dhabi city, the western region of Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of high blood pressure: residing in proximity to industry, nonconventional substance abuse, and age when smoking or exposure to smoking began. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia. In addition, predictors of thalassemia included gender (female) and participating in physical activity. Participants diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were more likely to experience different physical activities.

Barakat-Haddad, Caroline

2013-01-01

299

Prevalence of Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States  

PubMed Central

Anemia is one of the many complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the current prevalence of anemia in CKD patients in the United States is not known. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 were used to determine the prevalence of anemia in subjects with CKD. The analysis was limited to adults aged >18 who participated in both the interview and exam components of the survey. Three outcomes were assessed: the prevalence of CKD, the prevalence of anemia in subjects with CKD, and the self-reported treatment of anemia. CKD was classified into 5 stages based on the glomerular filtration rate and evidence of kidney damage, in accordance with the guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation. Anemia was defined as serum hemoglobin levels ?12 g/dL in women and ?13 g/dL in men. We found that an estimated 14.0% of the US adult population had CKD in 2007–2010. Anemia was twice as prevalent in people with CKD (15.4%) as in the general population (7.6%). The prevalence of anemia increased with stage of CKD, from 8.4% at stage 1 to 53.4% at stage 5. A total of 22.8% of CKD patients with anemia reported being treated for anemia within the previous 3 months–14.6% of patients at CKD stages 1–2 and 26.4% of patients at stages 3–4. These results update our knowledge of the prevalence and treatment of anemia in CKD in the United States.

Stauffer, Melissa E.; Fan, Tao

2014-01-01

300

Correction of postkidney transplant anemia reduces progression of allograft nephropathy.  

PubMed

Retrospective studies suggest that chronic allograft nephropathy might progress more rapidly in patients with post-transplant anemia, but whether correction of anemia improves renal outcomes is unknown. An open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of epoetin-? to normalize hemoglobin values (13.0-15.0 g/dl, n=63) compared with partial correction of anemia (10.5-11.5 g/dl, n=62) on progression of nephropathy in transplant recipients with hemoglobin <11.5 g/dl and an estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl) <50 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). After 2 years, the mean hemoglobin was 12.9 and 11.3 g/dl in the normalization and partial correction groups, respectively (P<0.001). From baseline to year 2, the eCrCl decreased by a mean 2.4 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in the normalization group compared with 5.9 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in the partial correction group (P=0.03). Furthermore, fewer patients in the normalization group progressed to ESRD (3 versus 13, P<0.01). Cumulative death-censored graft survival was 95% and 80% in the normalization and partial correction groups, respectively (P<0.01). Complete correction was associated with a significant improvement in quality of life at 6 and 12 months. The number of cardiovascular events was low and similar between groups. In conclusion, this prospective study suggests that targeting hemoglobin values ?13 g/dl reduces progression of chronic allograft nephropathy in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:22193388

Choukroun, Gabriel; Kamar, Nassim; Dussol, Bertrand; Etienne, Isabelle; Cassuto-Viguier, Elisabeth; Toupance, Olivier; Glowacki, François; Moulin, Bruno; Lebranchu, Yvon; Touchard, Guy; Jaureguy, Maïté; Pallet, Nicolas; Le Meur, Yannick; Rostaing, Lionel; Martinez, Frank

2012-02-01

301

Correction of Postkidney Transplant Anemia Reduces Progression of Allograft Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Retrospective studies suggest that chronic allograft nephropathy might progress more rapidly in patients with post-transplant anemia, but whether correction of anemia improves renal outcomes is unknown. An open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of epoetin-? to normalize hemoglobin values (13.0–15.0 g/dl, n=63) compared with partial correction of anemia (10.5–11.5 g/dl, n=62) on progression of nephropathy in transplant recipients with hemoglobin <11.5 g/dl and an estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl) <50 ml/min per 1.73 m2. After 2 years, the mean hemoglobin was 12.9 and 11.3 g/dl in the normalization and partial correction groups, respectively (P<0.001). From baseline to year 2, the eCrCl decreased by a mean 2.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the normalization group compared with 5.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the partial correction group (P=0.03). Furthermore, fewer patients in the normalization group progressed to ESRD (3 versus 13, P<0.01). Cumulative death-censored graft survival was 95% and 80% in the normalization and partial correction groups, respectively (P<0.01). Complete correction was associated with a significant improvement in quality of life at 6 and 12 months. The number of cardiovascular events was low and similar between groups. In conclusion, this prospective study suggests that targeting hemoglobin values ?13 g/dl reduces progression of chronic allograft nephropathy in kidney transplant recipients.

Kamar, Nassim; Dussol, Bertrand; Etienne, Isabelle; Cassuto-Viguier, Elisabeth; Toupance, Olivier; Glowacki, Francois; Moulin, Bruno; Lebranchu, Yvon; Touchard, Guy; Jaureguy, Maite; Pallet, Nicolas; Le Meur, Yannick; Rostaing, Lionel; Martinez, Frank

2012-01-01

302

Aplastic anemia and red cell aplasia due to pentachlorophenol  

SciTech Connect

Repeated exposure to commercial (technical grade) pentachlorophenol (PCP) preceded aplastic anemia in four patients and pure red cell aplasia in two. Two patients developed concomitant or subsequent Hodgkin's disease and acute leukemia. The hematologic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect of PCP and its chemical contaminants have been documented in other clinical and experimental reports. In view of the widespread contamination of our environment by PCP, clinicians and public health investigators must seek out such exposure in these and related disorders and initiate measures to reduce it.

Roberts, H.J.

1983-01-01

303

Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication  

PubMed Central

During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2

Gordon, A. S.; Prichard, J. S.; Freedman, M. H.

1973-01-01

304

Falls in nursing home residents receiving pharmacotherapy for anemia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Falls are common among nursing home residents and have potentially severe consequences, including fracture and other trauma. Recent evidence suggests anemia may be independently related to these falls. This study explores the relationship between the use of anemia-related pharmacotherapies and falls among nursing home residents. Methods Forty nursing homes in the United States provided data for analysis. All incidents of falls over the 6-month post-index follow-up period were used to identify the outcomes of falls (?1 fall) and recurrent falls (>1 fall). Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between falls and recurrent falls with each of the anemia pharmacotherapies after adjusting for potential confounders. Results A total of 632 residents were eligible for analysis. More than half (57%) of residents were identified as anemic (hemoglobin < 12 g/dL females, or <13 g/dL males). Of anemic residents, 50% had been treated with one or more therapies (14% used vitamin B12, 10% folic acid, 38% iron, 0.3% darbepoetin alfa [DARB], and 1.3% epoetin alfa [EPO]). Rates of falls/ recurrent falls were 33%/18% for those receiving vitamin B12, 40%/16% for folic acid, 27%/14% for iron, 38%/8% for DARB, 18%/2% for EPO, and 22%/11% for those receiving no therapy. In the adjusted models, use of EPO or DARB was associated with significantly lower odds of recurrent falls (odds ratio = 0.06; P = 0.001). Other significant covariates included psychoactive medication use, age 75–84 years, age 85+ years, worsened balance score, and chronic kidney disease (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion Only half of the anemic residents were found to be using anemia therapy (vitamin B12, folic acid, or iron). There is little evidence to support an association between the use of vitamin B12, folic acid, or iron in reducing the rates of falls and recurrent falls in nursing homes. Reduced odds of recurrent falls were observed for DARB or EPO users.

Reardon, Gregory; Pandya, Naushira; Bailey, Robert A

2012-01-01

305

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distension, Weakness and Anemia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 75-year-old man presented with abdominal distension, weakness, and anemia following a partial gastrectomy three years prior. Visitors are given both the gross and microscopic description and genetic molecular analysis, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gastrointestinal pathology.

Finkelstein, Sidney; Wang, Xiaoyan

2009-02-05

306

Pleural solitary fibrous tumor complicated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

We herein report a 74-year-old woman who presented with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) associated with pleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Her AIHA was initially treated with 1 mg/kg daily of oral prednisolone (PSL) for 2 months, which had a limited effect. However, after surgical tumor resection, the patient showed remarkable improvement of AIHA with normalizations of serum lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin levels, and we were able to rapidly reduce the PSL dosage. This is the first description of a case of AIHA caused by SFT. PMID:25030571

Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Harada-Shirado, Kayo; Furukawa, Miki; Sukegawa, Masumi; Shichishima-Nakamura, Akiko; Noji, Hideyoshi; Wakamatsu, Saho; Tasaki, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Kazuei; Takeishi, Yasuchika

2014-01-01

307

Reducing Postburn Injury Anemia in a Jehovah's Witness Patient.  

PubMed

Anemia is a complication of severe burn injury. Burn patients who refuse blood transfusions, such as Jehovah's Witnesses, present difficult challenges, and treatment paradigms need to be altered to reduce blood loss and increase red cell restoration. In this report the authors present a case of a 36-year-old Jehovah's Witness who suffered a 35% TBSA burn injury. In addition to standard burn injury treatment, the authors attempted to reduce blood loss with a combination of intraoperative (tranexamic acid) and perioperative (erythropoietin, intravenous iron) strategies. PMID:24121804

Barsun, Alura; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G

2014-01-01

308

Discovery may help prevent chemotherapy-induced anemia  

Cancer.gov

Cancer chemotherapy can cause peripheral neuropathy—nerve damage often resulting in pain and muscle weakness in the arms and legs. Now, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University (home of the Albert Einstein Cancer Center) have discovered that chemo also induces an insidious type of nerve damage inside bone marrow that can cause delays in recovery after bone marrow transplantation. The findings, made in mice and published online today in Nature Medicine, suggest that combining chemotherapy with nerve-protecting agents may prevent long-term bone marrow injury that causes anemia and may improve the success of bone marrow transplants.

309

Trichoderma longibrachiatum infection in a pediatric patient with aplastic anemia.  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma longibrachiatum infection of the skin in an 11-year-old child with severe aplastic anemia and prolonged neutropenia is reported. The patient received systemic antifungal therapy and underwent bone marrow transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first description of T. longibrachiatum infection in a pediatric patient. It also is the first case successfully treated with medical therapy. A review of the literature suggests that Trichoderma spp. are recognized as human pathogens with increasing frequency, particularly for immunocompromised patients, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fungal infections in the pediatric population.

Munoz, F M; Demmler, G J; Travis, W R; Ogden, A K; Rossmann, S N; Rinaldi, M G

1997-01-01

310

A human ortholog of archaeal DNA repair protein Hef is defective in Fanconi anemia complementation group M  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanconi anemia is a genetic disease characterized by genomic instability and cancer predisposition. Nine genes involved in Fanconi anemia have been identified; their products participate in a DNA damage-response network involving BRCA1 and BRCA2 (refs. 2,3). We previously purified a Fanconi anemia core complex containing the FANCL ubiquitin ligase and six other Fanconi anemia-associated proteins. Each protein in this complex

Amom Ruhikanta Meetei; Annette L Medhurst; Chen Ling; Yutong Xue; Thiyam Ramsing Singh; Patrick Bier; Jurgen Steltenpool; Stacie Stone; Inderjeet Dokal; Christopher G Mathew; Maureen Hoatlin; Hans Joenje; Johan P de Winter; Weidong Wang

2005-01-01

311

Anemia Treatments Don't Boost Recovery from Brain Injury, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Anemia Treatments Don't Boost Recovery From Brain Injury, Study Finds Medication to boost red blood ... July 1, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Anemia Traumatic Brain Injury TUESDAY, July 1, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People ...

312

Association of vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism with anemia: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D deficiency and anemia are common in the Middle East, and vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism have been reported to be associated with an increased prevalence of anemia. In this study, the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism may be associated with anemia in a Bahraini population was tested. Association of hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D levels (deficiency and insufficiency) with anemia was investigated in 421 Bahrainis (213 males and 208 females). In females, the prevalence of anemia was significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency independent of parathyroid hormone levels (odds ratio: 2.9; 95% confidence interval: 2.3–10.5; P = 0.001). In females, the prevalence of anemia appeared to be significantly associated with hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.2–3.7; P = 0.01); however, this significant association disappeared when adjusted for vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio: 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 0.75–6.5; P = 0.154). Results from this study suggest that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with anemia in females but not males. Further studies to determine whether vitamin D supplementation could be used to treat anemia are warranted.

Golbahar, Jamal; Altayab, Diab; Carreon, Elizareth; Darwish, Abdullah

2013-01-01

313

Risk Associated With Preoperative Anemia in Cardiac Surgery A Multicenter Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Preoperative anemia is an important risk factor for perioperative red blood cell transfusions, which are associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Whether preoperative anemia also is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery, however, has not been fully elucidated. Methods and Results—In this multicenter cohort study, data were collected on 3500 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery

Keyvan Karkouti; Duminda N. Wijeysundera; W. Scott Beattie

314

Anemia of chronic disease and defective erythropoietin production in patients with celiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Anemia due to hematinic deficiencies is common in patients with untreated celiac disease. Although celiac disease is a chronic condition characterized by an intense inflammator y response of the intestinal mucosa, scant data are available about the prevalence of anemia of chronic disease in celiac disease. Design and Methods One hundred and fifty-two patients with celiac disease at presentation

Gaetano Bergamaschi; Konstantinos Markopoulos; Riccardo Albertini; Federico Biagi; Rachele Ciccocioppo; Eloisa Arbustini; Gino Roberto Corazza

315

Intravenous Iron Versus Oral Iron in the Treatment of Postpartum Iron Deficiency Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postpartum anemia can develop after delivery because of unforeseen medical problems during and after delivery which could complicate a mother’s ability to properly care for her newborn child. The current treatment for postpartum anemia is oral iron supplementation but this treatment has been associated with several gastrointestinal side effects. Alternative treatments include blood transfusions and intravenous (IV) iron therapy.

Meghan Crowley

2010-01-01

316

Prevention of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Children of Preschool Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Iron-deficiency anemia is almost certainly the most prevalent nutritional disorder among infants and young children in the United States. Anemia is frequently seen among children of low socioeconomic status but is probably also the most frequent nutritional deficiency disease seen among children cared for by private doctors. Possible reasons for…

Fomon, Samuel J.

317

Malaria and Anemia among Children in a Low Resource Setting In Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed at determining the prevalence of malaria and anemia among children in rural community of Okada, Edo State Nigeria, as well as to assess the level of use of Insecticide treated bed nets and its impact on prevalence of malaria and anemia among study population. Methods Thick blood films from 226 children with signs and symptoms of malaria in Okada community were stained and examined for presence of malaria parasites. Hemoglobin concentration of all children was also determined using standard method. Result A total of 185 (81.9%) children were infected with malaria parasite. Malaria parasitaemia was significantly affected by age (P =0.003). A significantly higher number of positive cases of malaria and anemia was observed in rainy season as compared to dry season (P<0.05). The prevalence of anemia in children was 47.3%. Malaria was a risk factor for development of anemia in children (OR=2.551; 95% CI=1.227, 5.305; P=0.015). Use of insecticide treated bed nets was recorded in 11(4.9%) of children studied, and did not significantly reduce the prevalence of malaria and anemia. However among malaria parasite infected children, its use significantly reduced the prevalence of anemia (OR=0.126; 95%CI=0.015, 1.047; P=0.031). Conclusion Malaria and anemia among children was high malaria intervention progammes by relevant agencies is strongly advocated.

Oladeinde, BH; Omoregie, R; Olley, M; Anunibe, JA; Onifade, AA; Oladeinde, OB

2012-01-01

318

Localization of Fanconi Anemia C Protein to the Cytoplasm of Mammalian Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Features of chromosomal aberrations, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, and predisposition to malignancy have suggested a fundamental anomaly of DNA repair in Fanconi anemia. The function of the recently isolated FACC (Fanconi anemia group C complementing) gene for a subset of this disorder is not yet known. The notion that FACC plays a direct role in DNA repair would predict

Hagop Youssoufian

1994-01-01

319

Bloom's syndrome and Fanconi's anemia: Demonstration of two distinctive patterns of chromosome disruption and rearrangement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the patterns of chromosome breakage and rearrangements was made using lymphocytes from one patient with Bloom's syndrome and one with Fanconi's anemia. Chromatid and isochromatid gaps and breaks were increased in frequency in both conditions. In Fanconi's anemia, more aberrations per aberrant cell occurred than in Bloom's syndrome. The relative numbers of the various classes of interchanges

Traute M. Schroeder; James German

1974-01-01

320

Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. Materials and Methods We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. Results The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Conclusion Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

Lee, Hyebin; Park, Won; Choi, Doo Ho; Kim, Young-Il; Park, Young Suk; Park, Joon Oh; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Lee, Woo-Yong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Cho, Yong Beom; Park, Yoon Ah

2012-01-01

321

Prevalence of anemia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: comparison to other chronic diseases.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multisystemic inflammatory disease characterized by pulmonary and extrapulmonary symptoms. The impaired lung function has long-term implications on metabolism and homeostasis of many organ systems such as the skeleton, heart, brain and skeletal muscle. The occurrence and prevalence of anemia in COPD has rarely been studied. Anemia is such a common and simple clinical finding that we may underestimate its physiological relevance in COPD. The aim of the study was to retrospectively investigate the prevalence of anemia in a large population of COPD patients and to compare it to patients with chronic heart failure, renal insufficiency, cancer and asthma. A population of 7337 patients that was treated in the University Hospital Charité, Berlin, Germany, from 1996 to 2003 was subsetted according to the ICD-9/10 code of the discharge diagnoses into the above-mentioned diagnoses groups. The overall prevalence of anemia in COPD patients was 23.1%. It was comparable to the prevalence of anemia we found in patients with chronic heart failure (23.3%). Patients with renal insufficiency and cancer presented the highest anemia frequencies. The high prevalence of anemia in hospitalised COPD patients that were treated mostly for exacerbations gives evidence that anemia is also a comorbidity in COPD and may contribute to exercise limitation and dyspnoea. PMID:16242192

John, Matthias; Lange, Andre; Hoernig, Soeren; Witt, Christian; Anker, Stefan D

2006-08-28

322

Erythropoiesis Stimulatory Agent Resistant Anemia in Dialysis Patients: Review of Causes and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite new therapeutic options and treatment strategies, anemia still remains one of the major complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease. Successful management of anemia is a central part of patient care that may improve clinical outcomes. Although the National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-DOQI) working group reformulated its

Mehmet Kanbay; Mark A. Perazella; Benan Kasapoglu; Mustafa Koroglu; Adrian Covic

2010-01-01

323

Socio-Ecological Factors Affecting Pregnant Women's Anemia Status in Freetown, Sierra Leone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sierra Leone has high maternal mortality. Socio-ecological factors are considered contributing factors to this high mortality. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 4% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. Purpose: The current study explores socio-ecological contributing factors to the anemia

M'Cormack, Fredanna; Drolet, Judy

2012-01-01

324

Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Anemia in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anemia is known to be a significant public health problem in many countries. Most of the available information is incomplete or limited to special groups such as people with intellectual disability. The present study aims to provide the information of anemia prevalence and associated risk factors of children and adolescents with intellectual…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chien, Wu-Chien; Tang, Chi-Chieh; Wu, Chia-Ling

2010-01-01

325

Cancer-related anemia and recombinant human erythropoietin—an updated overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

For cancer patients, anemia can be a debilitating problem that negatively influences their overall quality of life and worsens their prognosis. The condition is caused either by the cancer itself or by cytotoxic treatment. Anemia is the primary indication for transfusion of red blood cells, but the development of recombinant human erythropoietins (epoetins) provides an alternative to red blood cell

Julia Bohlius; Olaf Weingart; Sven Trelle; Andreas Engert

2006-01-01

326

Treating anemia of chronic kidney disease in the primary care setting: cardiovascular outcomes and management recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is an underrecognized but characteristic feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD), associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality. Since their inception nearly two decades ago, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have revolutionized the care of patients with renal anemia, and their use has been associated with improved quality of life and reduced hospitalizations, inpatient costs, and mortality. Hemoglobin targets ?13

Rebecca J Schmidt; Cheryl L Dalton

2007-01-01

327

Mobilization and collection of peripheral blood CD341 cells from patients with Fanconi anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential therapeutic option for patients with Fanconi anemia is collection of pe- ripheral blood stem cells prior to the development of severe pancytopenia. These hematopoietic cells potentially could be infused when symptomatic bone marrow failure develops, as autologous rescue after chemotherapy in the event of leukemic transformation, or as targets for gene therapy. Eight patients with Fanconi anemia were

James M. Croop; Ryan Cooper; Christine Fernandez; Vicki Graves; Susan Kreissman; Helmut Hanenberg; Franklin O. Smith; David A. Williams

328

Epidemiology of iron deficiency anemia in Zanzibari schoolchildren: the importance of hookworms13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is estimated to affect one-half of school-age children in developing countries. The school years are an opportune time to intervene, and interventions must be based on sound epidemiologic understanding of the problem in this age group. We report on the distribution of iron deficiency and anemia across age, sex, anthropometric indexes, and parasitic infections in a representative sample of

Rebecca J Stoltzfus; Hababu M Chwaya; James M Tielsch; Kerry J Schulze; Marco Albonico; Lorenzo Savioli

329

Common Misconceptions in the Diagnosis and Management of Anemia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia is the most common systemic complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); so common that it is almost invariably not investigated and rarely treated. Several misconceptions are the reason for these clinical errors, and our goal will be to review them. The most common misconceptions are: anemia is uncommon in IBD; iron deficiency is also uncommon; just by treating the

Javier P. Gisbert; Fernando Gomollón

2008-01-01

330

Anemia in inflammatory bowel disease: A neglected issue with relevant effects  

PubMed Central

Anemia, a common complication associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is frequently overlooked in the management of IBD patients. Unfortunately, it represents one of the major causes of both decreased quality of life and increased hospital admissions among this population. Anemia in IBD is pathogenically complex, with several factors contributing to its development. While iron deficiency is the most common cause, vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies, along with the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hemolysis, drug therapies, and myelosuppression, have also been identified as the underlying etiology in a number of patients. Each of these etiological factors thus needs to be identified and corrected in order to effectively manage anemia in IBD. Because the diagnosis of anemia in IBD often presents a challenge, combinations of several hematimetric and biochemical parameters should be used. Recent studies underscore the importance of determining the ferritin index and hepcidin levels in order to distinguish between iron deficiency anemia, anemia due to chronic disease, or mixed anemia in IBD patients. With regard to treatment, the newly introduced intravenous iron formulations have several advantages over orally-administered iron compounds in treating iron deficiency in IBD. In special situations, erythropoietin supplementation and biological therapies should be considered. In conclusion, the management of anemia is a complex aspect of treating IBD patients, one that significantly influences the prognosis of the disease. As a consequence, its correction should be considered a specific, first-line therapeutic goal in the management of these patients.

Guagnozzi, Danila; Lucendo, Alfredo J

2014-01-01

331

Prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and its effect on neonatal outcomes in Northeast India.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and characterize its effect on neonatal outcome in Northeast India. Patients and methods: Four hundred and seventy mothers and their newborn infants during a one month period were included. The association between maternal hemoglobin (Hb) at delivery and neonatal outcomes were determined. Results: Anemia (Hb?anemia(Hb?anemia was associated with 0.63week (95% CI, 0.03-1.23week) shorter gestation, 481?g (95% CI, 305-658?g) lower birth weight and 89% increased risk of small-for-gestation (OR 1.89, 95% CI, 1.25-2.86)in the offspring, compared with those born to mothers without anemia (p?anemia was highly prevalentin this population. Lower gestational age and birth weight, and increased risk of small-for-gestation were associated with maternal anemia, especially when maternal Hb was <80?g/L. Maternal anemia needs urgent attention to improve neonatal outcome in this population. PMID:24041147

Bora, Reeta; Sable, Corey; Wolfson, Julian; Boro, Kanta; Rao, Raghavendra

2014-06-01

332

Sideropenic Anemia and Celiac Disease (One Study, Two Points of View)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have pointed to the relationshipbetween iron deficiency anemia and celiac disease,although data on the prevalence of celiac disease inanemic patients have been conflicting, and there is no agreement on the best screening procedurefor CD in these patients. Our aims were to evaluate therelationship between anemia and celiac disease (CD) fromtwo different points of view — the hematology clinic

Antonio Carroccio; Emilio Iannitto; Francesca Cavataio; Giuseppe Montalto; Mario Tumminello; Piero Campagna; Maria Grazia Lipari; Alberto Notarbartolo; Giuseppe Iacono

1998-01-01

333

Anemia in inflammatory bowel disease: a neglected issue with relevant effects.  

PubMed

Anemia, a common complication associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is frequently overlooked in the management of IBD patients. Unfortunately, it represents one of the major causes of both decreased quality of life and increased hospital admissions among this population. Anemia in IBD is pathogenically complex, with several factors contributing to its development. While iron deficiency is the most common cause, vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies, along with the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hemolysis, drug therapies, and myelosuppression, have also been identified as the underlying etiology in a number of patients. Each of these etiological factors thus needs to be identified and corrected in order to effectively manage anemia in IBD. Because the diagnosis of anemia in IBD often presents a challenge, combinations of several hematimetric and biochemical parameters should be used. Recent studies underscore the importance of determining the ferritin index and hepcidin levels in order to distinguish between iron deficiency anemia, anemia due to chronic disease, or mixed anemia in IBD patients. With regard to treatment, the newly introduced intravenous iron formulations have several advantages over orally-administered iron compounds in treating iron deficiency in IBD. In special situations, erythropoietin supplementation and biological therapies should be considered. In conclusion, the management of anemia is a complex aspect of treating IBD patients, one that significantly influences the prognosis of the disease. As a consequence, its correction should be considered a specific, first-line therapeutic goal in the management of these patients. PMID:24707137

Guagnozzi, Danila; Lucendo, Alfredo J

2014-04-01

334

Congenital dyserythropoietic anemias: epidemiology, clinical significance, and progress in understanding their pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The congenital dyserythropoietic anemias (CDAs) comprise a group of rare hereditary disorders of erythropoiesis, characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis as the predominant mechanism of anemia and by distinct morphological abnormalities of the majority of erythroblasts in the bone marrow. The classification in three types as proposed in 1968 is still valid, but there is genetic heterogeneity within each type, and there

Hermann Heimpel

2004-01-01

335

Association between polymorphisms in PDCD1 gene and aplastic anemia in Chinese Han population.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1, encoded by PDCD1) has been reported to be associated with several autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Graves' disease and multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to study the correlation between PD-1 gene polymorphism and aplastic anemia in a Chinese Han population, two SNPs, PD-1.1 G/A (rs36084323) and PD-1.6 G/A (rs10204525), were genotyped in 166 patients with aplastic anemia and 144 healthy controls by direct sequencing. All genotype distributions in both patients and controls were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Associations of genotypes and alleles with aplastic anemia were analyzed. The results suggested that the G allele of PD-1.1 was associated with an increased risk for aplastic anemia, while SNP of PD-1.6 was not associated with aplastic anemia in a Chinese Han population. PMID:23373967

Wu, Zixia; Miao, Miao; Qiu, Yuhua; Qin, Zhenghong; Wang, Jin; Jiang, Yiguo; Ming, Zhijun; Zhang, Xueguang

2013-10-01

336

Molecular defects identified by whole exome sequencing in a child with Fanconi anemia.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disease characterized by bone marrow failure, multiple congenital malformations, and an increased susceptibility to malignancy. At least 15 genes have been identified that are involved in the pathogenesis of Fanconi anemia. However, it is still a challenge to assign the complementation group and to characterize the molecular defects in patients with Fanconi anemia. In the current study, whole exome sequencing was used to identify the affected gene(s) in a boy with Fanconi anemia. A recurring, non-synonymous mutation was found (c.3971C>T, p.P1324L) as well as a novel frameshift mutation (c.989_995del, p.H330LfsX2) in FANCA gene. Our results indicate that whole exome sequencing may be useful in clinical settings for rapid identification of disease-causing mutations in rare genetic disorders such as Fanconi anemia. PMID:23973728

Zheng, Zhaojing; Geng, Juan; Yao, Ru-En; Li, Caihua; Ying, Daming; Shen, Yongnian; Ying, Lei; Yu, Yongguo; Fu, Qihua

2013-11-10

337

Exome sequencing identifies MPL as a causative gene in familial aplastic anemia.  

PubMed

The primary cause of aplastic anemia remains unknown in many patients. The aim of this study was to clarify the genetic cause of familial aplastic anemia. Genomic DNA of an affected individual from a multiplex consanguineous family was hybridized to a Nimblegen exome library before being sequenced on a GAIIx genome analyzer. Once the disease causing homozygous mutation had been confirmed in the consanguineous family, this gene was then analyzed for mutation in 33 uncharacterized index cases of aplastic anemia (<13 years) using denaturing HPLC. Abnormal traces were confirmed by direct sequencing. Exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in the thrombopoietin receptor gene MPL. An additional novel homozygous MPL mutation was identified in the screen of 33 aplastic anemia patients. This study shows for the first time a link between homozygous MPL mutations and familial aplastic anemia. It also highlights the important role of MPL in trilineage hematopoiesis. PMID:22180433

Walne, Amanda J; Dokal, Arran; Plagnol, Vincent; Beswick, Richard; Kirwan, Michael; de la Fuente, Josu; Vulliamy, Tom; Dokal, Inderjeet

2012-04-01

338

Subtherapeutic erythropoietin and insulin-like growth factor-1 correct the anemia of chronic renal failure in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subtherapeutic erythropoietin and insulin-like growth factor-1 correct the anemia of chronic renal failure in the mouse. Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with a hyporegenerative anemia, which is caused primarily by inadequate production of erythropoietin (EPO) by the diseased kidneys and is responsive to exogenous EPO administration. Little is known about compensatory mechanisms that might supervene in anemia with low

Alan G Brox; Feng Zhang; Harvey Guyda; Raymonde F Gagnon

1996-01-01

339

Studies on Erythrocyte Destruction Due to Strenuous Muscular Exercise Which Causes 'Sport Anemia,' and Analysis of Causes of 'March Hematuria.'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is well known that a temporary anemia occurs frequently in the early period of training to the strenuous physical exercise. This anemia is named 'sports anemia'. Yamada clarified its cause as due to an increased fragility of the red blood cells. In oth...

K. Hirakawa H. Yoshimura

1968-01-01

340

PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF ANEMIA IN NEWLY DIAGNOSED METASTATIC PROSTATE CANCER: A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF SOUTHWEST ONCOLOGY GROUP STUDY 8894  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePreviously reported association of anemia with shorter survival in newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer may simply reflect extent of disease. The impact of anemia on response to androgen deprivation is not known. We examined the prognostic value of anemia in a multivariate analysis that included disease extent and other tumor and demographic covariates in 957 patients starting hormonal therapy for

TOMASZ M. BEER; CATHERINE M. TANGEN; LISA B. BLAND; IAN M. THOMPSON; E. DAVID CRAWFORD

2004-01-01

341

Efficacy of gluten-free diet alone on recovery from iron deficiency anemia in adult celiac patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Iron deficiency anemia has been reported as the most frequent extraintestinal symptom in adult celiac disease. Prospective studies on the effect of gluten-free diet on recovery from iron deficiency anemia are lacking. The aim of this study was to verify in adult patients with celiac disease the efficacy of and the time course of recovery from iron deficiency anemia by

Bruno Annibale; Carola Severi; Antonio Chistolini; Giorgio Antonelli; Edith Lahner; Adriana Marcheggiano; Carlo Iannoni; Bruno Monarca; Gianfranco Delle Fave

2001-01-01

342

Underlying Factors Associated with Anemia in Amazonian Children: A Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although iron deficiency is considered to be the main cause of anemia in children worldwide, other contributors to childhood anemia remain little studied in developing countries. We estimated the relative contributions of different factors to anemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey. Methodology We obtained venous blood samples from 1111 children aged 6 months to 10 years living in the frontier town of Acrelândia, northwest Brazil, to estimate the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency by measuring hemoglobin, erythrocyte indices, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Children were simultaneously screened for vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies; intestinal parasite infections; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; and sickle cell trait carriage. Multiple Poisson regression and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were used to describe associations between anemia and the independent variables. Principal Findings The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and iron-deficiency anemia were 13.6%, 45.4%, and 10.3%, respectively. Children whose families were in the highest income quartile, compared with the lowest, had a lower risk of anemia (aPR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.37–0.98). Child age (<24 months, 2.90; 2.01–4.20) and maternal parity (>2 pregnancies, 2.01; 1.40–2.87) were positively associated with anemia. Other associated correlates were iron deficiency (2.1; 1.4–3.0), vitamin B12 (1.4; 1.0–2.2), and folate (2.0; 1.3–3.1) deficiencies, and C-reactive protein concentrations (>5 mg/L, 1.5; 1.1–2.2). Conclusions Addressing morbidities and multiple nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers and improving the purchasing power of poorer families are potentially important interventions to reduce the burden of anemia.

Cardoso, Marly A.; Scopel, Kezia K.G.; Muniz, Pascoal T.; Villamor, Eduardo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.

2012-01-01

343

Anemia prevalence and treatment practice in patients with non-myeloid tumors receiving chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the prevalence and management of anemia in cancer patients. Methods This cross-sectional, observational survey was conducted in Italy and Austria. Centers prespecified one day, during a 4-month enrollment window, to report specific data collected during normal clinical practice for patients with non-myeloid tumors attending for chemotherapy (±radiotherapy) treatment. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of anemia as determined using a prespecified algorithm: hemoglobin (Hb) ?10 g/dL on/within 3 days prior to visit; ongoing anemia treatment; physician diagnosis of anemia, together with ?1 anemia symptom. Results Between November 18, 2010 and March 18, 2011, data for 1412 patients were collected (Italy n = 1130; Austria n = 282). Most patients (n = 1136; 80%) had solid tumors; 809 (57%) had received ?3 chemotherapy cycles. The prevalence of anemia was 32% (95% confidence interval: 29.4%–34.2%); 196 patients (14%) were deemed anemic based on Hb ?10 g/dL, 131 (9%) on ongoing anemia treatment, and 121 (9%) on physician diagnosis/anemia symptom. Overall, 1153 patients (82%) had Hb data; mean (standard deviation [SD]) Hb levels were 11.7 (1.7) g/dL. In total, 456 patients (32%) had anemia symptoms: fatigue (n = 392; 28%), depression (n = 122; 9%), and dyspnea (n = 107; 8%) were most common. Fifty-one patients (4%) had had their current chemotherapy cycle delayed due to anemia. On visit day, or ?28 days prior, 91 (6%), 188 (13%), and 81 patients (6%) had evidence of whole blood/red blood cell transfusion, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent use, or iron use, respectively. Conclusion On the prespecified study day, one-third of patients with non-myeloid tumors undergoing chemotherapy were found to be anemic and 13% had evidence of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent use then or in the 28 days prior.

Merlini, Laura; Carteni, Giacomo; Iacobelli, Stefano; Stelitano, Caterina; Airoldi, Mario; Balcke, Peter; Keil, Felix; Haslbauer, Ferdinand; Belton, Laura; Pujol, Beatriz

2013-01-01

344

Hematological parameters and prevalence of anemia among free-living elderly in south Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to analyze the hematological parameters, the prevalence of anemia and the association between anemia and socioeconomic conditions in an elderly community-based population. Methods A population-based study was performed as part of the Multidimensional Study of the Elderly in Porto Alegre, Brazil (EMIPOA). An initial total of 1058 community residents aged 60 years and older were interviewed. Of these, 392 agreed to have a physical evaluation and a blood sample was taken from each. The hematological parameters analyzed in the blood samples included the hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red cell distribution width (RDW). The association between the variables and the diagnosis of anemia was assessed using the chi-squared test and a multiple logistic regression model. Results The overall prevalence of anemia was 12.8%. Anemia was present in 13.7% of women and in 10.4% of men. Normocytic normochromic anemia without anisocytosis was the most common type of anemia (46%). The assessment of erythrocyte morphology showed significant differences between anemic and non-anemic individuals (microcytosis = 12% vs. 1.5%, hypochromia = 40% vs. 8.8%, and anisocytosis = 26% vs. 7%). In the analysis of socioeconomic conditions, significant differences were found in respect to age and race. Conclusion The prevalence of anemia increases with age and is associated with race, microcytosis, hypochromia and anisocytosis. Anemia is not a condition that should be associated only with the aging process, as it may be due to pathological conditions that occur most frequently in this age group. As a result, a diagnosis of anemia warrants adequate clinical attention.

Sgnaolin, Vanessa; Engroff, Paula; Ely, Luisa Scheer; Schneider, Rodolfo Herberto; Schwanke, Carla Helena Augustin; Gomes, Irenio; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno; de Carli, Geraldo Attilio

2013-01-01

345

The prevalence of nutritional anemia in pregnancy in an east Anatolian province, Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia is considered a severe public health problem by World Health Organization when anemia prevalence is equal to or greater than 40% in the population. The purpose of this study was to determine the anemia prevalence with the associated factors in pregnant women and to determine the serum iron, folate and B12 vitamin status in anaemic pregnants in Malatya province. Methods This is a cross-sectional survey. A multi-sage stratified probability-proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology was used. A total of 823 pregnant women from sixty clusters were studied. Women were administered a questionnaire related with the subject and blood samples were drawn. Total blood count was performed within four hours and serum iron, folate and B12 vitamin were studied after storing sera at -20 C for six months. Results Anemia prevalence was 27.1% (Hb < 11.0 gr/dl). Having four or more living children (OR = 2.2), being at the third trimester (OR = 2.3) and having a low family income (OR = 1.6) were determined as the independent predictors of anemia in pregnancy. Anemia was also associated with soil eating (PICA) in the univariate analysis (p < 0.05). Of anaemic women, 50.0% had a transferrin saturation less than 10% indicating iron deficiency, 34.5% were deficient in B12 vitamin and 71.7% were deficient in folate. Most of the anemias were normocytic-normochromic (56.5%) indicating mixed anemia. Conclusions In Malatya, for pregnant women anemia was a moderate public health problem. Coexisting of iron, folate and B vitamin deficiencies was observed among anaemics. To continue anemia control strategies with reasonable care and diligence was recommended.

2010-01-01

346

Corpus luteum hemorrhage in a patient with aplastic anemia.  

PubMed

Corpus luteum hemorrhage may lead to a life-threatening intraperitoneal hemorrhage in women with bleeding disorders. A 17-year-old girl with aplastic anemia presented to the emergency ward with complaints of severe abdominal pain for the last 24h. On examination, she was noted to be pale with circulatory compromise. Transabdominal pelvic ultrasonography revealed a left complex adnexal mass, 6.9×5.1×5.1cm(3) in size, with a large anechoic area of fluid in the abdomen. On laparoscopic exploration, there was a massive hemoperitoneum (2.6L) with a ruptured corpus luteum on the surface of the left ovary. Hemostatic electric coagulation was successfully applied to the bleeding surface. The patient recovered without incident and was transferred to a special hospital for blood disease treatment one week after surgery. We concluded that corpus luteum hemorrhage in women with aplastic anemia can cause therapeutic difficulties. Laparoscopy is feasible for the management of a massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured corpus luteum in such patients. PMID:22640265

Sun, Wen-Chao; Li, Wei; Chen, Qi-Hui; Tong, Jin-Yi

2013-01-01

347

Anemia induced by high zinc intake in chicks: Mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms by which excess Zn induced anemia in chickens was assessed in 8 studies in which chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 {times} 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 60 or 2,000 {mu}g Zn and 10 or 250 {mu}g Cu/g diet. Less Fe-59 appeared in the plasma 1 hour after a labeled meal when chicks were fed excess Zn in 1 of 2 studies but less Fe-59 appeared in livers of chicks fed excess Zn in both studies. The decrease of Fe-59 uptake into tissues paralleled a decrease in Fe concentrations in livers and tibiotarsi. These differences in tissue Fe did not reflect differences in Fe excretion because excretion and incorporation into tissues of injected Fe-59 was not affected by high Zn intake. Although excess Zn decreased tissue Cu concentrations, excess Zn, per se, did not affect cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, the in vivo t 1/2 of erythrocytes, or erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. The decrease in body weight of chicks fed excess Zn indicated that protein synthesis and/or degradation could be affected. Increased incorporation of C-14 tyrosine into liver and bone marrow of chicks fed excess Zn suggested increased protoporphyrin synthesis or metallothionein synthesis. These results indicated that decreased Fe absorption was the primary mechanism by which excess Zn induced anemia.

Pimentel, J.L.; Greger, J.L.; Cook, M.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

1991-03-15

348

Autoantibody to the gastrin receptor in pernicious anemia  

SciTech Connect

The authors examined serum IgG fractions from 20 patients with pernicious anemia and 25 control subjects for their capacity to inhibit binding of (/sup 125/I)15-leu human gastrin-17 to parietal-cell-enriched gastric mucosal cells. IgG fractions from six patients reduced gastrin binding by 45.6 +/- 12.2 per cent, as compared with a reduction of 1.8 +/- 0.7 per cent by fractions from the 25 controls. The fractions from these six patients also reduced gastrin-stimulated (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine uptake by gastric cells (an index of gastric acid secretory activity in vitro) by 50.2 +/- 8.4 per cent (mean +/- S.D.), as compared with 9.2 +/- 4.1 per cent for the controls. IgG fractions from six other patients that did not reduce gastrin binding also inhibited gastrin-stimulated (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine uptake, by 48.1 +/- 9.1 per cent. These reductions in gastrin binding and aminopyrine uptake were abolished by absorption of the IgG fractions with suspensions of viable gastric mucosal cells but not by absorption with liver or kidney cells. The IgG fractions did not inhibit (/sup 3/H)histamine binding or histamine-stimulated (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine uptake. These results suggest that serum IgG from some patients with pernicious anemia contains autoantibodies to the gastrin receptor.

de Aizpurua, H.J.; Ungar, B.; Toh, B.H.

1985-08-22

349

[Cerebral vasculopathy in pediatric sickle-cell anemia].  

PubMed

In children with sickle-cell anemia, cerebral vasculopathy is a frequent and severe complication. It is attributed not only to erythrocyte sickling but also to multiple physiological modifications associated with sickle-cell anemia: platelet and leukocyte activation, endothelial injury and remodeling, coagulation activation, hemolysis and subsequent chronic inflammation, impaired vasomotricity, etc. Intracranial large-vessel remodeling leads to clinical cerebral infarction, whereas microvascular injury and impaired vasoreactivity lead to so-called silent infarcts, which are actually associated with impaired cognitive development. Primary prevention strategies have been developed to screen children for cerebral vasculopathy and to further reduce stroke risk. Annual transcranial Doppler beginning at 2 years of age is recommended, allowing risk stratification. Patients at high risk are enrolled in a monthly transfusion exchange program, which reduces the risk of a first stroke by 90 %. Chronic transfusion therapy has also demonstrated efficacy in preventing a second stroke, as a secondary prevention strategy. Lifelong treatment is recommended, as recurrent stroke has been observed when transfusion is discontinued. The burden of chronic transfusion is heavy for patients. Furthermore, several studies have shown that, despite preventing clinically symptomatic stroke, chronic transfusion therapy may not be effective concerning silent infarct progression. Other therapeutic options are currently being explored to obtain better protection with reduced side effects. PMID:24630541

Kossorotoff, M; Grevent, D; de Montalembert, M

2014-04-01

350

Current approaches for the treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an infrequent group of diseases defined by autoantibody mediated red blood cell destruction. Correct diagnosis and classification of this condition are essential to provide appropriate treatment. AIHA is divided into warm and cold types according to the characteristics of the autoantibody involved and by the presence of an underlying or associated disorder into primary and secondary AIHA. Due to its low frequency, treatment for AIHA is largely based on small prospective trials, case series, and empirical observations. This review describes in detail the different treatment approaches for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Warm antibody type AIHA should be treated with steroids, to which most patients respond, although relapse can occur and maintenance doses are frequently required. Splenectomy is an effective second line treatment and can provide long-term remission without medication. Rituximab is a useful alternative for steroid refractory patients, those requiring high maintenance doses and unfavorable candidates for surgery. Promising therapeutic modifications with this monoclonal antibody are emerging including drug combinations, lower doses, and long-term use. Primary cold agglutinin disease has been recognized as having a lymphoproliferative monoclonal origin. It is unresponsive to both steroids and splenectomy. Rituximab is currently the best therapeutic alternative for this condition, and several treatment regimens are available with variable responses. PMID:23689532

Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Rodríguez-Martínez, Marisol; Gómez-de-León, Andrés; Tarín-Arzaga, Luz; Gómez-Almaguer, David

2013-10-01

351

Probing vasoocclusion phenomena in sickle cell anemia via mesoscopic simulations.  

PubMed

Vasoocclusion crisis is a key hallmark of sickle cell anemia. Although early studies suggest that this crisis is caused by blockage of a single elongated cell, recent experiments have revealed that vasoocclusion is a complex process triggered by adhesive interactions among different cell groups in multiple stages. However, the quantification of the biophysical characteristics of sickle cell anemia remains an open issue. Based on dissipative particle dynamics, we develop a multiscale model for the sickle red blood cells (SS-RBCs), accounting for diversity in both shapes and cell rigidities, to investigate the precise mechanism of vasoocclusion. First, we investigate the adhesive dynamics of a single SS-RBC in shear flow and static conditions, and find that the different cell groups (SS2: young-deformable SS-RBCs, ISCs: rigid-irreversible SS-RBCs) exhibit heterogeneous adhesive behavior due to the diverse cell morphologies and membrane rigidities. We quantify the observed adhesion behavior (in static conditions) in terms of a balance of free energies due to cell adhesion and deformation, and propose a power law that relates the free-energy increase as a function of the contact area. We further simulate postcapillary flow of SS-RBC suspensions with different cell fractions. The more adhesive SS2 cells interact with the vascular endothelium and trap ISC cells, resulting in vasoocclusion in vessels less than 12-14 ?m depending on the hematocrit. Under inflammation, adherent leukocytes may also trap ISC cells, resulting in vasoocclusion in even larger vessels. PMID:23798393

Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George E

2013-07-01

352

Growth and development in sickle cell anemia. Preliminary report.  

PubMed

Historically, adults with sickle cell anemia were described as being short, thin, and eunuchoid in appearance with a particular body habitus. More current investigations in children have suggested decreased height, weight, and hypogonadism although Jamaican studies suggest supranormal heights in adolescence. All studies to date have evaluated children at one point in time. We evaluated children with sickle cell anemia longitudinally at six monthly intervals over 3 years to assess somatic growth and the development of sexual maturation. Our data support reduced height and weight as compared to National Health Statistic norms, with normal skin fold thickness. Bone ages were significantly retarded. When a patient's chronological age was replaced by his bone age and tanner staging was done, sexual development was appropriate for bone age, suggesting delayed sexual maturation. In addition, menarche was significantly delayed. Pituitary gonadotropins showed an appropriate increase with puberty. Gonadal end organ hormones supported normal responsiveness, although an occasional patient showed depressed levels. Longitudinal data is necessary to assess children with suspected delay in somatic and sexual development. Hormonal replacement does not seem warranted in the majority of patients. PMID:7091577

Luban, N L; Leikin, S L; August, G A

1982-01-01

353

Myocardial, erythropoietic, and metabolic adaptations to anemia of prematurity.  

PubMed

We determined the effects of anemia of prematurity on myocardial, metabolic, and erythropoietic functions. Twelve anemic (hemoglobin range, 65 to 78 gm/L) infants without symptoms (gestational age, (mean +/- SD) 28 +/- 2 weeks; birth weight, 1178 +/- 326 gm) were studied at a postconceptional age of 35 +/- 1.6 weeks. All measurements were done before and 36 to 48 hours after a transfusion of packed erythrocytes. Cardiac output, heart rate, and myocardial function were assessed. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, resting energy expenditure, arterial oxygen pressure for 50% hemoglobin saturation, and the concentrations of erythropoietin and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate were also determined. After transfusion, increased hemoglobin level (75 +/- 4 to 150 +/- 16 gm/L) and decreased oxyhemoglobin affinity (20.8 +/- 1.7 to 23.6 +/- 2.1 gm/L; p < 0.05) caused a decrease in plasma erythropoietin concentration (from 21.1 +/- 6.2 to 5.8 +/- 1.5 mU/ml; p < 0.01). There was a decrease in heart rate (from 155 +/- 10 beats/min to 146 +/- 7 beats/min) and cardiac output (from 281 +/- 73 ml/kg per minute to 199 +/- 62 ml/kg per minute; p < 0.05). Myocardial function indexes, weight gain, and metabolic demands were normal before and after transfusion. These results suggest that oxygenation is adequately maintained in symptom-free infants with anemia of prematurity. PMID:8040778

Lachance, C; Chessex, P; Fouron, J C; Widness, J A; Bard, H

1994-08-01

354

Treatment of iron deficiency anemia associated with gastrointestinal tract diseases  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a common site of bleeding that may lead to iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Treatment of IDA depends on severity and acuity of patients’ signs and symptoms. While red blood cell transfusions may be required in hemodynamically unstable patients, transfusions should be avoided in chronically anemic patients due to their potential side effects and cost. Iron studies need to be performed after episodes of GI bleeding and stores need to be replenished before anemia develops. Oral iron preparations are efficacious but poorly tolerated due to non-absorbed iron-mediated GI side effects. However, oral iron dose may be reduced with no effect on its efficacy while decreasing side effects and patient discontinuation rates. Parenteral iron therapy replenishes iron stores quicker and is better tolerated than oral therapy. Serious hypersensitive reactions are very rare with new intravenous preparations. While data on worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity by oral iron therapy are not conclusive, parenteral iron therapy still seems to be advantageous in the treatment of IDA in patients with IBD, because oral iron may not be sufficient to overcome the chronic blood loss and GI side effects of oral iron which may mimic IBD exacerbation. Finally, we believe the choice of oral vs parenteral iron therapy in patients with IBD should primarily depend on acuity and severity of patients’ signs and symptoms.

Bayraktar, Ulas D; Bayraktar, Soley

2010-01-01

355

Helicobacter pylori Infection and Anemia in Taiwanese Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) are common in adults. Although the most common causes of IDA usually arise from the gastrointestinal tract, the association between chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia remains unclear. Aim. To evaluate the association of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection and IDA. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 882 patients from January 2010 to April 2013. The status of Helicobacter pylori (H.p) infection was confirmed and blood samples from the same participants were taken on the same day to check the level of hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin, and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC). Results. No significant difference was noted from the demographic data. The average level of hemoglobin (Hb) was not different between negative and positive groups, pos 13.57?g/dL versus neg 13.65?g/dL (P = 0.699). Although the levels of serum IDA related parameters were expected in positive group (lower serum iron and ferritin and higher TIBC) these differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.824 for iron, P = 0.360 for ferritin, and P = 0.252 for TIBC). Conclusion. Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is not attributed to IDA. The levels of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin, and TIBC remain unaffected after chronic H.p infection. Large-scale clinical studies are needed to prove the association.

Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Wang, Sophie S. W.; Liu, Yi-Chang; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Chiu, Guei-Fen; Chang, Pi-Yu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

2013-01-01

356

Anemia after gastrectomy for early gastric cancer: Long-term follow-up observational study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the incidence and etiology of anemia after gastrectomy in patients with long-term follow-up after gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. METHODS: The medical records of those patients with early gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent curative gastrectomy between January 2006 and October 2007 were reviewed. Patients with anemia in the preoperative workup, cancer recurrence, undergoing systemic chemotherapy, with other medical conditions that can cause anemia, or treated during follow up with red cell transfusions or supplements for anemia were excluded. Anemia was defined by World Health Organization criteria (Hb < 12 g/dL in women and < 13 g/dL in men). Iron deficiency was defined as serum ferritin < 20 ?g/dL. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as serum vitamin B12 < 200 pg/mL. Iron deficiency anemia was defined as anemia with concomitant iron deficiency. Anemia from vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as megaloblastic anemia (mean cell volume > 100 fL) with vitamin B12 deficiency. The profile of anemia over 48 mo of follow-up was analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-one patients with gastrectomy for early gastric cancer were analyzed. The incidence of anemia was 24.5% at 3 mo after surgery and increased up to 37.1% at 48 mo after surgery. The incidence of iron deficiency anemia increased during the follow up and became the major cause of anemia at 48 mo after surgery. Anemia of chronic disease and megaloblastic anemia were uncommon. The incidence of anemia in female patients was significantly higher than in male patients at 12 (40.0% vs 22.0%, P = 0.033), 24 (45.0% vs 25.0%, P = 0.023), 36 (55.0% vs 28.0%, P = 0.004), and 48 mo (52.0% vs 31.0%, P = 0.022) after surgery. Patients with total gastrectomy showed significantly higher incidence of anemia than patients with subtotal gastrectomy at 48 mo after surgery (60.7% vs 31.3%, P = 0.008). The incidence of iron deficiency was significantly higher in female patients than in male patients at 6 (35.4% vs 13.3%, P = 0.002), 12 (45.8% vs 16.8%, P < 0.001), 18 (52.1% vs 22.3%, P < 0.001), 24 (60.4% vs 20.9%, P < 0.001), 36 (62.5% vs 29.2%, P < 0.001), and 48 mo (66.7% vs 34.7%, P = 0.001) after surgery. CONCLUSION: Anemia was frequent after gastrectomy for early gastric cancer, with iron deficiency being the major cause. Evaluation for anemia including iron status should be performed after gastrectomy and appropriate iron replacement should be considered.

Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Won Chul; Kim, Jin Soo; Cho, Yu Kyung; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Song, Kyo-Young; Jeon, Hae Myung; Park, Cho-Hyun

2012-01-01

357

Stem Cell Gene Therapy for Fanconi Anemia: Report from the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting  

PubMed Central

Survival rates after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for Fanconi anemia (FA) have increased dramatically since 2000. However, the use of autologous stem cell gene therapy, whereby the patient's own blood stem cells are modified to express the wild-type gene product, could potentially avoid the early and late complications of allogeneic HCT. Over the last decades, gene therapy has experienced a high degree of optimism interrupted by periods of diminished expectation. Optimism stems from recent examples of successful gene correction in several congenital immunodeficiencies, whereas diminished expectations come from the realization that gene therapy will not be free of side effects. The goal of the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting was to determine the optimal strategy for moving stem cell gene therapy into clinical trials for individuals with FA. To this end, key investigators examined vector design, transduction method, criteria for large-scale clinical-grade vector manufacture, hematopoietic cell preparation, and eligibility criteria for FA patients most likely to benefit. The report summarizes the roadmap for the development of gene therapy for FA.

Tolar, Jakub; Adair, Jennifer E; Antoniou, Michael; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Becker, Pamela S; Blazar, Bruce R; Bueren, Juan; Carroll, Thomas; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Clapp, D Wade; Dalgleish, Robert; Galy, Anne; Gaspar, H Bobby; Hanenberg, Helmut; Von Kalle, Christof; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Lindeman, Dirk; Naldini, Luigi; Navarro, Susana; Renella, Raffaele; Rio, Paula; Sevilla, Julian; Schmidt, Manfred; Verhoeyen, Els; Wagner, John E; Williams, David A; Thrasher, Adrian J

2011-01-01

358

Managing dialysis patients who develop anemia caused by chronic kidney disease: focus on peginesatide.  

PubMed

Anemia in chronic kidney disease is a prevalent and expensive problem in the United States, and it is well documented that anemia worsens as glomerular filtration rates decline. The complications of severe anemia in this patient population contribute significantly to their overall morbidity with increased cardiovascular complications, decreased quality of life, and increased dependence on transfusions to maintain adequate hemoglobin levels. Erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) have revolutionized the treatment of anemia in this population, but there has been a great deal of controversy surrounding the quest for the ideal hemoglobin target. In addition, there are economic and practice management implications where anemia treatment is concerned, with ongoing refinement of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services-bundled payments. One of the newest additions to the arsenal used to fight anemia in end-stage renal disease patients is peginesatide (Omontys), a synthetic, PEGylated, peptide-based ESA that acts by stimulating the erythropoietin receptor. The role of peginesatide in the future treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease remains uncertain, with new safety concerns being brought to attention as it emerges on the market, prompting a national recall. PMID:24023516

Valliant, Amanda; Hofmann, R Michael

2013-01-01

359

Prevalence of anemia and its risk factors among lactating mothers in Myanmar.  

PubMed

In Myanmar, 60% of the population consists of mothers and children, and they are the groups most vulnerable to anemia. The objectives of this study are to determine (1) the anemia prevalence among lactating women and (2) the risk factors associated with anemia. Convenience sampling was used to select three villages in two different regions (Kachin and Shan) in Myanmar. Hemoglobin and anthropometric indicators were measured for 733 lactating women. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with anemia. The anemia prevalence rate was 60.3% in lactating women, with 20.3% of lactating women having severe anemia. Factors of malnutrition (P = 0.026), self-reported symptoms of night blindness or poor dark adaptation (P < 0.001), lack of primary education experience (P < 0.001), low family annual capita income (< 800 MMK; P < 0.001), drinking spring or river water (P < 0.001), and drinking unboiled water (P = 0.016) were associated with anemia. To promote health in lactating women, a comprehensive intervention is needed in these regions. PMID:24639302

Zhao, Ai; Zhang, Yumei; Li, Bo; Wang, Peiyu; Li, Jiayin; Xue, Yong; Gao, Hongchong

2014-05-01

360

Low serum selenium is associated with anemia among older adults in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective We hypothesized that low serum selenium was associated with anemia in humans. Subjects A total of 2092 adults aged 65 and older, in the third National Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase 2 (1991–1994) (NHANES III). Methods Examination of the relationship between serum selenium and hematological indices in NHANES III. Results Anemia, defined by World Health Organization criteria, was present in 12.9%. Mean serum selenium among non-anemic and anemic adults was 1.60 and 1.51 ?mol l?1 (P=0.0003). The prevalence of anemia among adults in the lowest to highest quartiles of serum selenium was 18.3, 9.5, 9.7 and 6.9%, respectively (P=0.0005). The proportion of adults in the lowest quartile of selenium among those who were non-anemic or who had anemia due to nutritional causes, chronic inflammation, renal disease or unexplained anemia was 9.9, 27.5, 17.5, 24.0 and 15.4%, respectively. An increase in loge selenium was associated with a reduced risk of anemia (odds ratio per one standard deviation increase 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58–0.97, P=0.03), adjusting for age, race, education, body mass index and chronic diseases. Conclusion Low serum selenium is independently associated with anemia among older men and women in the United States.

Semba, RD; Ricks, MO; Ferrucci, L; Xue, Q-L; Guralnik, JM; Fried, LP

2009-01-01

361

The role of the Fanconi anemia network in the response to DNA replication stress.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with chromosome instability and a highly elevated risk for developing cancer. The mutated genes encode proteins involved in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. Fanconi anemia proteins are extensively connected with DNA caretaker proteins, and appear to function as a hub for the coordination of DNA repair with DNA replication and cell cycle progression. At a molecular level, however, the raison d'être of Fanconi anemia proteins still remains largely elusive. The thirteen Fanconi anemia proteins identified to date have not been embraced into a single and defined biological process. To help put the Fanconi anemia puzzle into perspective, we begin this review with a summary of the strategies employed by prokaryotes and eukaryotes to tolerate obstacles to the progression of replication forks. We then summarize what we know about Fanconi anemia with an emphasis on biochemical aspects, and discuss how the Fanconi anemia network, a late acquisition in evolution, may function to permit the faithful and complete duplication of our very large vertebrate chromosomes. PMID:19728769

Gari, Kerstin; Constantinou, Angelos

2009-01-01

362

Expression of the iron hormone hepcidin distinguishes different types of anemia in African children.  

PubMed

Childhood anemia is a major global health problem resulting from multiple causes. Iron supplementation addresses iron deficiency anemia but is undesirable for other types of anemia and may exacerbate infections. The peptide hormone hepcidin governs iron absorption; hepcidin transcription is mediated by iron, inflammation, and erythropoietic signals. However, the behavior of hepcidin in populations where anemia is prevalent is not well established. We show that hepcidin measurements in 1313 African children from The Gambia and Tanzania (samples taken in 2001 and 2008, respectively) could be used to identify iron deficiency anemia. A retrospective secondary analysis of published data from 25 Gambian children with either postmalarial or nonmalarial anemia demonstrated that hepcidin measurements identified individuals who incorporated >20% oral iron into their erythrocytes. Modeling showed that this sensitivity of hepcidin expression at the population level could potentially enable simple groupings of individuals with anemia into iron-responsive and non-iron-responsive subtypes and hence could guide iron supplementation for those who would most benefit. PMID:24807559

Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Atkinson, Sarah H; Armitage, Andrew E; Khandwala, Shivani; Veenemans, Jacobien; Cox, Sharon E; Eddowes, Lucy A; Hayes, Theodore; Doherty, Conor P; Demir, Ayse Y; Tijhaar, Edwin; Verhoef, Hans; Prentice, Andrew M; Drakesmith, Hal

2014-05-01

363

A mouse model of anemia of inflammation: complex pathogenesis with partial dependence on hepcidin.  

PubMed

Anemia is a common complication of infections and inflammatory diseases, but the few mouse models of this condition are not well characterized. We analyzed in detail the pathogenesis of anemia induced by an injection of heat-killed Brucella abortus and examined the contribution of hepcidin by comparing wild-type (WT) to iron-depleted hepcidin-1 knockout (Hamp-KO) mice. B abortus-treated WT mice developed severe anemia with a hemoglobin nadir at 14 days and partial recovery by 28 days. After an early increase in inflammatory markers and hepcidin, WT mice manifested hypoferremia, despite iron accumulation in the liver. Erythropoiesis was suppressed between days 1 and 7, and erythrocyte destruction was increased as evidenced by schistocytes on blood smears and shortened red blood cell lifespan. Erythropoietic recovery began after 14 days but was iron restricted. In B abortus-treated Hamp-KO compared with WT mice, anemia was milder, not iron restricted, and had a faster recovery. Similarly to severe human anemia of inflammation, the B abortus model shows multifactorial pathogenesis of inflammatory anemia including iron restriction from increased hepcidin, transient suppression of erythropoiesis, and shortened erythrocyte lifespan. Ablation of hepcidin relieves iron restriction and improves the anemia. PMID:24357728

Kim, Airie; Fung, Eileen; Parikh, Sona G; Valore, Erika V; Gabayan, Victoria; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

2014-02-20

364

Anemia Among Hospitalized Children at a Multispecialty Hospital, Bangalore (Karnataka), India  

PubMed Central

Background: Due to the limited availability of data related to anemia in hospitalized children, this research was conducted to study the occurrence, morphological patterns, distribution in different age groups, sex, and severity of anemia among children aged 6 months-12 years. Setting: Inpatients in department of pediatrics at a multispecialty hospital, Bangalore. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study from Oct, 2011 to Sep, 2012. Materials and Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from the ethical committee of the hospital as per 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Unrestricted random sampling method was used to select the study group consisting of 882 children between the age of 6 months and 12 years. After obtaining the consent, data were obtained and statistically analyzed using statistical tools like mean, median, standard deviation, and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 882 children selected, 642 (72.79%) were anemic, out of which a majority of 629 (98%) children suffered from nonhemoglobinopathies and a meagre 13 (2%) suffered from hemoglobinopathies. Children in the age group of 6 months-1 year were most affected with nonhemoglobinopathies (33%). Moderate degree of anemia (hemoglobin = 7-9.9 g/dL) was the commonest grade of anemia (80%), while microcytic hypochromic anemia was commonest morphological type of anemia (48%). Among hemoglobinopathies, thalassemia major was the most common (69%, that is 9 out of 13 patients). Conclusion: The occurrence of anemia among children aged between 6 months and 12 years is high and nonhemoglobinopathies predominate over the hemoglobinopathies.

Saba, Firdos; Poornima, Siddaraju; Balaji, Pishey Ashwathnarayan Rao; Varne, Smitha Ranoji Rao; Jayashree, Krishnamurthy

2014-01-01

365

The effect of anemia on mortality in indigent patients with mild-to-moderate chronic heart failure.  

PubMed

Anemia has been described as an independent predictor of death in patients with chronic heart failure. Little is known, however, about the significance of anemia in heart failure patients with severely depressed socioeconomic backgrounds who receive comprehensive care in a heart failure management program. The impact of anemia on mortality was investigated in 410 indigent chronic heart failure patients, the majority of whom were in New York Heart Association functional class I-III and were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and beta blockers at maximally tolerated doses. Anemia was present in 28% of patients. In an adjusted Cox analysis, anemia was strongly associated with mortality, but only in men: hazard ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-4.93; p = 0.006. The investigators conclude that anemia in this population is common and that, for men, the relative risk increase associated with anemia is high. PMID:16596040

Hebert, Kathy; Horswell, Ron; Arcement, Lee; Hare, Joshua; Stevenson, Lynne

2006-01-01

366

Effect of Iron Deficiency Anemia on Hemoglobin A1c Levels  

PubMed Central

Background Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia in India. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used in diabetic patients as an index of glycemic control reflecting glucose levels of the previous 3 months. Like blood sugar levels, HbA1c levels are also affected by the presence of variant hemoglobins, hemolytic anemias, nutritional anemias, uremia, pregnancy, and acute blood loss. However, reports on the effects of iron deficiency anemia on HbA1c levels are inconsistent. We conducted a study to analyze the effects of iron deficiency anemia on HbA1c levels and to assess whether treatment of iron deficiency anemia affects HbA1c levels. Methods Fifty patients confirmed to have iron deficiency anemia were enrolled in this study. HbA1c and absolute HbA1c levels were measured both at baseline and at 2 months after treatment, and these values were compared with those in the control population. Results The mean baseline HbA1c level in anemic patients (4.6%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (5.5%, p<0.05). A significant increase was observed in the patients' absolute HbA1c levels at 2 months after treatment (0.29 g/dL vs. 0.73 g/dL, p<0.01). There was a significant difference between the baseline values of patients and controls (0.29 g/dL vs. 0.74 g/dL, p<0.01). Conclusions In contrast to the observations of previous studies, ours showed that HbA1c levels and absolute HbA1c levels increased with treatment of iron deficiency anemia. This could be attributable to nutritional deficiency and/or certain unknown variables. Further studies are warranted.

Sinha, Nitin; Mishra, T.K.; Singh, Tejinder

2012-01-01

367

Effect of anemia on tumor radiosensitivity under normo and hyperbaric conditions  

SciTech Connect

The effect of chronic anemia on tumor radiosensitivity in a murine tumor has been investigated. Anemia was induced by bilateral kidney irradiation given several months before tumor implantation. Anemic, anemic transfused, and normal non-anemic age-matched tumor bearing animals were irradiated with X rays (2 F/24 hr) either in air, air plus misonidazole, or under hyperbaric oxygen. The most resistant response was that of tumors grown in normal mice treated in air. Anemia produced an increase in radiosensitivity which was further enhanced by red blood cell replacement. The most sensitive overall response was seen in the anemic-transfused group treated with HBO.

Rojas, A.; Stewart, F.A.; Smith, K.A.; Soranson, J.A.; Randhawa, V.S.; Stratford, M.R.; Denekamp, J.

1987-11-01

368

A case of late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus with severe anemia.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of severe anemia and leucopenia. Although she developed mild arthralgia without the typical symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), positivity for anti-Sm antibodies led us to a diagnosis of late-onset SLE. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and suppression of reticulocyte production were considered to have been involved in the etiology of severe anemia. Administration of oral prednisolone (PSL) resulted in a marked improvement of the hematological abnormalities. As late-onset SLE is rare and patients tend to show the typical symptoms less frequently, close attention should be focused on latent symptoms and immunological findings. PMID:23925156

Matsumoto, Moeko; Kaieda, Shinjiro; Honda, Seiyo; Ida, Hiroaki; Hoshino, Tomoaki; Fukuda, Takaaki

2013-01-01

369

Macrocytic Anemia and Mitochondriopathy Resulting from a Defect in Sideroflexin 4  

PubMed Central

We used exome sequencing to identify mutations in sideroflexin 4 (SFXN4) in two children with mitochondrial disease (the more severe case also presented with macrocytic anemia). SFXN4 is an uncharacterized mitochondrial protein that localizes to the mitochondrial inner membrane. sfxn4 knockdown in zebrafish recapitulated the mitochondrial respiratory defect observed in both individuals and the macrocytic anemia with megaloblastic features of the more severe case. In vitro and in vivo complementation studies with fibroblasts from the affected individuals and zebrafish demonstrated the requirement of SFXN4 for mitochondrial respiratory homeostasis and erythropoiesis. Our findings establish mutations in SFXN4 as a cause of mitochondriopathy and macrocytic anemia.

Hildick-Smith, Gordon J.; Cooney, Jeffrey D.; Garone, Caterina; Kremer, Laura S.; Haack, Tobias B.; Thon, Jonathan N.; Miyata, Non; Lieber, Daniel S.; Calvo, Sarah E.; Akman, H. Orhan; Yien, Yvette Y.; Huston, Nicholas C.; Branco, Diana S.; Shah, Dhvanit I.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Koehler, Carla M.; Italiano, Joseph E.; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Beblo, Skadi; Strom, Tim M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Freisinger, Peter; Donati, M. Alice; Prokisch, Holger; Mootha, Vamsi K.; DiMauro, Salvatore; Paw, Barry H.

2013-01-01

370

Optimizing the management of renal anemia: challenges and new opportunities.  

PubMed

Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are the main tool to achieve anemia correction in CKD patients. At present six different ESAs are available: epoetin alpha, epoetin beta, epoetin omega, epoetin delta, darbepoetin alpha, and very recently CERA. From one side the patent of older ESAs have expired, and biosimilars (for the moment only of epoetin alpha) have been approved for use in Europe by the European Medicines Agency. However, a number of issues about bioequivalence and how to test it are still to be solved completely. In the mean time pharmaceutical research has kept on working, developing new ESAs and alternative strategies for stimulating erythropoiesis. In this review we present and discuss these points. PMID:19034323

Locatelli, Francesco; Del Vecchio, Lucia

2008-12-01

371

Two cases of concomitant acquired aplastic anemia and systemic mastocytosis.  

PubMed

Reactive bone marrow mast cells reliably lack the morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features of systemic mastocytosis (SM). We report two unusual cases of acquired aplastic anemia (AA) in which multifocal aggregates of bone marrow mast cells fulfilled morphologic and immunophenotypic criteria for SM according to the World Health Organization 2008 classification. In the absence of clinical symptoms attributable to SM, the patients were treated with immunosuppressive therapy directed towards AA. Clinical follow-up and subsequent bone marrow examination revealed no evidence of overt SM in either patient. These cases represent, to our knowledge, the first reported instances in which criteria for SM have been fulfilled in the presence of AA. However, given the clinical courses followed by our patients, the incidental identification of mast cell lesions consistent with indolent SM may be of uncertain significance in the setting of AA. PMID:24182560

Golardi, Natalia; Sramek, Jacob E; Myers, Jerome B; Saffer, Helene; George, Tracy I; Czuchlewski, David R

2014-02-01

372

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Anemia  

PubMed Central

The globally widespread single-gene disorders ?-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia (SCA) can only be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). HSCT treatment of thalassemia has substantially improved over the last two decades, with advancements in preventive strategies, control of transplant-related complications, and preparative regimens. A risk class–based transplantation approach results in disease-free survival probabilities of 90%, 84%, and 78% for class 1, 2, and 3 thalassemia patients, respectively. Because of disease advancement, adult thalassemia patients have a higher risk for transplant-related toxicity and a 65% cure rate. Patients without matched donors could benefit from haploidentical mother-to-child transplantation. There is a high cure rate for children with SCA who receive HSCT following myeloablative conditioning protocols. Novel non-myeloablative transplantation protocols could make HSCT available to adult SCA patients who were previously excluded from allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Lucarelli, Guido; Isgro, Antonella; Sodani, Pietro; Gaziev, Javid

2012-01-01

373

Patterns of anemia and infection from medieval York, England.  

PubMed

An assessment of the presence and patterns of porotic hyperostosis and periosteal reactions in the skeletal population (n = 1,014) from St. Helen-on-the-Walls, York, are used to examine health and disease in urban medieval England. The analyses of these two lesions indicate that 58% of the population display evidence of porotic hyperostosis and that 21.5% of the population display periosteal reactions. Through differential diagnosis it is asserted that porotic hyperostosis is associated with iron-deficiency anemia, and that periosteal reactions may be the result of endemic treponematosis and/or non-specific infection, including parasitic infestation. An association between the presence of remodeled lesions and adulthood is noticeable for both porotic hyperostosis and periosteal reactions, as is a pattern of increased average age at death for those displaying both conditions. PMID:8317561

Grauer, A L

1993-06-01

374

Iron homeostasis and anemia markers in early breast cancer.  

PubMed

Iron plays a fundamental role in cell life and its concentration in living organisms is precisely regulated. Different molecules for iron storage and transport are used to maintain its intracellular homeostasis which is often altered in cancer cells. Specifically, recent studies have demonstrated that in breast cancer cells, the expression/activity of several iron-related proteins, such as ferritin, hepcidin and ferroportin, is deregulated and that these alterations may have a prognostic impact in patients with breast cancer. Moreover, molecules that regulate iron metabolism could become therapeutic targets. This review focuses on recent findings on iron metabolism particularly in breast cancer and on the development of new biomarkers that may be used in the clinical routine for the diagnosis, prognosis and management of cancer-associated anemia as well as for monitoring personalized treatments. PMID:24768787

Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Durigova, Anna; Jacot, William

2014-07-01

375

A Fetal Hemolytic Anemia in a Child with Cytomegalovirus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a hematologic disorder that is rarely observed in infants and young children. Most of the cases are associated with viral or bacterial infections. In some cases, AIHA can be characterized by a chronic course and an unsatisfactory control of hemolysis, thus requiring prolonged immunosuppressive therapy. Case report Especially in children younger than 2 years of age, the clinical course of the disease may show either resistance to steroids or dependence on high-dose steroids. We report here an infant fatal autoimmune Conclusion This case suggests that investigation for the presence of CMV infection in infantile AIHA should be considered. Severe hemolysis is rare but could be a potentially life-threatening complication of CMV infection described mostly in immune compromised adults and children.

Hosseeini, S; Ansari, Sh; Kalantar, E; Sabzechian, M; Alibeik, A; Dorgalaleh, A

2014-01-01

376

[Simple refractory anemia. Response to treatment using maturative factors].  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are disorders characterized by a profound impairment of proliferation and maturation of hematopoietic cells. The prognosis is poor owing to the occurrence of severe cytopenia or to the common leukemic transformation of these conditions. At present there is no available effective treatment for patients with MDS. A patient is reported with simple refractory anemia which responded to therapy with high doses of maturative factors (folic acid and vitamin B12). This therapy resulted in the disappearance of transfusion requirements and in the increase of peripheral blood cell counts. It is concluded that, in view of the lack of toxicity of the treatment with madurative factors, this therapy should be attempted in a sequential fashion in all patients with MSD. PMID:2622253

Rovira, M; Feliu, E; Sierra, J; Boccia, A; Aguilar, J L; Vives-Corrons, J L; Rozman, C

1989-11-01

377

Equine Infectious Anemia Virus and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System  

PubMed Central

Some retroviruses contain monoubiquitinated Gag and do not bud efficiently from cells treated with proteasome inhibitors, suggesting an interaction between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and retrovirus assembly. We examined equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) particles and found that approximately 2% of the p9Gag proteins are monoubiquitinated, demonstrating that this Gag protein interacts with an ubiquitinating activity. Different types of proteasome inhibitors were used to determine if proteasome inactivation affects EIAV release from chronically infected cells. Pulse-chase immunoprecipitation and time course immunoblot analyses showed that proteasome inactivation slightly decreased virus release (at most a twofold effect), while it did not affect Gag processing. These results contrast with those obtained with other viruses which are sensitive to these inhibitors. This suggests that, although its Gag is monoubiquitinated, the requirements for EIAV release are somewhat different from those for retroviruses that are sensitive to proteasome inhibitors.

Ott, David E.; Coren, Lori V.; Sowder, Raymond C.; Adams, Julian; Nagashima, Kunio; Schubert, Ulrich

2002-01-01

378

Complement activation during painful crisis in sickle cell anemia.  

PubMed

Previous studies documented complement activation in sickle cell disease patients and suggested that this contributes to increased risk of infection. We have demonstrated alternative pathway activation initiated by membrane phospholipid changes which occur in sickled erythrocytes. The present studies compared complement activation products in serial samples from sickle cell anemia patients at baseline and during hospitalization for painful crisis to examine the correlation between complement activation and disease activity. Plasma concentrations of Bb, C4d, and C3a were measured as well as C3 bound to erythrocytes. Patients were subdivided into those with continuous pain and those with intermittent painful episodes. In patients with intermittent pain, there was little evidence of complement activation at baseline and increased plasma concentrations of Bb and C3a during painful crisis. Elevated C3a and C4d levels were observed in patients with continuous pain regardless of hospitalization status, suggesting a continuous underlying inflammatory process in these patients. PMID:7554454

Mold, C; Tamerius, J D; Phillips, G

1995-09-01

379

Damaged mitochondria and overproduction of ROS in Fanconi anemia cells  

PubMed Central

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a heterogeneous disease associated with a bone marrow failure, cancer predisposition and hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents. To date, 15 different genes have been shown to cause FA, all of which have some role in repair of defective DNA interstrand crosslinks. On a biochemical level, many FA individuals display insufficient growth hormone production, abnormal glucose or insulin metabolism. Clinical phenotype may include hydrocephalia, the erythrophagocytosis and diabetes mellitus, thus linking FA with metabolic disorders that involve impaired oxygen metabolism and mitochondrial alterations. Our recent study demonstrates the decrease of FA mitochondrial membrane potential, low ATP production, impaired oxygen uptake and pathological changes in the morphology of FA mitochondria. This is accompanied by inactivation of the enzymes responsible for energy production and detoxification of ROS. We also propose that FA oversensitivity to DNA crosslinkers may be caused by the overproduction of mitochondrial ROS.

Lyakhovich, Alex

2013-01-01

380

Fanconi anemia signaling network regulates the spindle assembly checkpoint  

PubMed Central

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a heterogenous genetic disease with a high risk of cancer. The FA proteins are essential for interphase DNA damage repair; however, it is incompletely understood why FA-deficient cells also develop gross aneuploidy, leading to cancer. Here, we systematically evaluated the role of the FA proteins in chromosome segregation through functional RNAi screens and analysis of primary cells from patients with FA. We found that FA signaling is essential for the spindle assembly checkpoint and is therefore required for high-fidelity chromosome segregation and prevention of aneuploidy. Furthermore, we discovered that FA proteins differentially localize to key structures of the mitotic apparatus in a cell cycle–dependent manner. The essential role of the FA pathway in mitosis offers a mechanistic explanation for the aneuploidy and malignant transformation known to occur after disruption of FA signaling. Collectively, our findings provide insight into the genetically unstable cancers resulting from inactivation of the FA/BRCA pathway.

Nalepa, Grzegorz; Enzor, Rikki; Sun, Zejin; Marchal, Christophe; Park, Su-Jung; Yang, Yanzhu; Tedeschi, Laura; Kelich, Stephanie; Hanenberg, Helmut; Clapp, D. Wade

2013-01-01

381

Mutation analysis of the Fanconi Anemia Gene FACC  

SciTech Connect

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a unique hypersensitivity of cells to DNA cross-linking agents; a gene for complementation group C (FACC) has recently been cloned. The authors have amplified FACC exons with their flanking intron sequences from genomic DNA from 174 racially and ethnically diverse families in the International Fanconi Anemia Registry and have screened for mutations by using SSCP analysis. They have identified eight different variants in 32 families; three were detected in exon 1, one in exon 4, one in intron 4, two in exon 6, and one in exon 14. Two of the eight variants, in seven families, did not segregate with the disease allele in multiplex families, suggesting that these variants represented benign polymorphisms. Disease-associated mutations in FACC were detected in a total of 25 (14.4%) of 174 families screened. The most frequent mutations were IVS4 + 4 A [yields] T (intron 4; 12 families) and 322delG (exon 1; 9 families). Other, less common mutations include Q13X in exon 1, R185X and D195V in exon 6, and L554P in exon 14. The polymorphisms were S26F in exon 1 and G139E in exon 4. All patients in the study with 322delG, Q13X, R185X, and D195V are of northern or eastern European or southern Italian ancestry, and 18 of 19 have a mild form of the disease, while the 2 patients with L554P, both from the same family, have a severe phenotype. All 19 patients with IVS4 + 4 A [yields] T have Jewish ancestry and have a severe phenotype. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Verlander, P.C.; Lin, J.D.; Udono, M.U.; Zhang, Q.; Auerbach, A.D. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Gibson, R.A.; Mathew, C.G. (Guy's Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

1994-04-01

382

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with Malaria.  

PubMed

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA), a very infrequent condition which represents a group of disorders in which presence of autoantibodies directed against self-antigens leads to shortened red cell survival. Till date, a very few cases of AIHA in Malaria patients are reported worldwide but still AIHA should be considered a relatively rare cause of anemia in malaria. A 20 year male presented with intermittent fever since seven days and yellowish discoloration of urine and sclera since 5 days. He was transfused three units of blood at a private clinic before one month. On examination, pallor, icterus and spelnomegaly were present. Hemoglobin (Hb) was 3.2 gm% and peripheral smear revealed ring forms of both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. Serum LDH and Serum billirubin (Indirect and Direct) were high. This patient's blood group was B +ve with positive autocontrol. Indirect Antiglobulin Test (IAT), antibody screening and antibody identification were pan-positive with reaction strength of +4 against each cell. Direct Antiglobulin Test was +4 positive anti IgG and negative with anti C3. He was treated with Artesunate and methylprednisone. Least incompatible, saline washed O Neg and B neg red cells were transfused on the 2(nd) day of starting treatment. Hb was raised to 6.1 gm% on 4(th) day. Patient was discharged on 9th day with Hb 7.0 gm% with oral tapering dose of steroids. In the above case, patient was suffering from high grade malarial parasitemia with co-existing autoimmune RBC destruction by IgG auto-antibodies which led to sudden drop in Hb and rise in serum LDH and indirect billirubin. Least incompatible packed red cells along with antimalarials and steroids led to clinical improvement. So far, one case report each from India, Korea, Canada and Germany and one case series report of three cases from India have been reported. Under-reporting or rarity of this phenomenon may be accountable for this. PMID:24014948

Sonani, Rajesh; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Maitrey, Gajjar

2013-07-01

383

[Hypochromic anemia in children with affective breath-holding spells].  

PubMed

Breath holding attacks are most common in children aged 6 months to 6 years, in 76% of cases between 6 and 18 months of age. Very often they are misinterpreted as tonic epileptic seizures. They are provoked by frustration, anger or sudden injury. Child starts to cry, then holds the breath at the end of expirium. After a few seconds it becomes cyanotic, and losses consciousness. It is usually floppy, but sometimes stiffness, and clonic seizures can be present, and child can be diagnosed as having epilepsy. The form in which child is pale is less frequent, and crying is usually brief or even absent in this type. Breath holding attacks usually do not last more then one to three minutes. Good heteroanamnesis is essential for diagnosis, revealing provoking factors for each attack. Interictal EEG registration is usually normal. Attacks often spontaneously cease after 5 or 6 years of age, and do not require any medical treatment. In more severe cases behavioral therapy has shown good results. It has been noticed that those children in adolescence have syncope more frequent then rest of population. Seventeen children (12 male and 5 female) were investigated at Pediatric Hospital in Sarajevo as breath holding attacks in period from June 1997 to June 2000. Age of patients was between 5 months and 5.5 years (median was 11 months). Hypochromic anemia was present in 12 patients (76%), with average hemoglobin value of 8.2 g/dl (5.9-11.0 g/dl). All children had normal EEG recording. Iron therapy gave positive response in 8 out of 9 patients that were followed (88.9%). Three patients had not come for follow up. It is concluded that hypochromic anemia is often a part of clinical presentation of breath holding attacks in children, and iron therapy can stop them. PMID:11219911

Zubcevi?, S; Hasanbegovi?, E; Gavranovi?, M

2000-01-01

384

Sickle Cell Anemia: Iron Availability and Nocturnal Oximetry  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that low iron availability, measured as transferrin saturation, is associated with low nocturnal hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) in children with homozygous sickle cell anemia (SCA; hemoglobin SS). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian children with SCA who were not receiving regular blood transfusions. Thirty-two children (16 boys) with SCA (mean age 8.0, range 3.6-15.3 years) underwent motion-resistant nocturnal oximetry (Masimo Radical) and had steady state serum transferrin saturation and hematological indices assessed. Results: Higher transferrin saturation, adjusted for age and ?-thalassemia deletion, was associated with lower nocturnal mean SpO2 (p = 0.013, r2 = 0.41), number of SpO2 dips/h > 3% from baseline (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.19) and with min/h with SpO2 < 90% (p = 0.026 r2 = 0.16). Transferrin saturation < 16% (indicative of iron deficiency) was associated with a 2.2% higher nocturnal mean SpO2. Conclusions: Contrary to our hypothesis, higher iron availability, assessed by transferrin saturation, is associated with nocturnal chronic and intermittent hemoglobin oxygen desaturation in SCA. Whether these associations are causal and are driven by hypoxia-inducible factor and hepcidin-mediated upregulation of demand for iron warrants further investigation. Citation: Cox SE; L'Esperance V; Makani J; Soka D; Prentice AM; Hill CM; Kirkham FJ. Sickle cell anemia: iron availability and nocturnal oximetry. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):541-545.

Cox, Sharon E.; L'Esperance, Veline; Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratius; Prentice, Andrew M.; Hill, Catherine M.; Kirkham, Fenella J.

2012-01-01

385

Las Vegas Strip History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by amateur cultural historian Deanna DeMatteo, this site offers "the most detailed history of the Las Vegas Strip on the Internet today," showing in words and graphics the evolution of the properties on the Strip from its beginning to the present. Drawing on materials provided by publications, professional Las Vegas historians, and the Nevada State Museum and Historical Society, DeMatteo offers a detailed, noncommercial history with plenty of photographs (many archival) of the strip from the first night club in 1930 named Pair O Dice to the first true casino hotel, El Rancho with 63 rooms in 1941, to Hilton's giant Paris Las Vegas opening earlier this Fall with 2,914 rooms. There is also a special topics section, covering people significant in the strip's development, such as Warren "Doc" Bayley and Howard Hughes. Launched in August, the Website is continually updated with new material. Note: to reach table of contents, click on the photograph at end of the homepage.

Dematteo, Deanna.

386

Comparison of hemoglobin and red blood cell distribution width in the differential diagnosis of microcytic anemia.  

PubMed

In a total group of 415 subjects (100 normal controls, 115 with iron deficiency anemia, 100 with the alpha-thalassemia trait, and 100 with the beta-thalassemia trait), the following indexes were analyzed: hemoglobin distribution width, red blood cell distribution width (RDW)-coefficient of variation, and RDW-SD. The hemoglobin distribution width and RDW-coefficient of variation were examined with a laser light scattering system (Technicon H1), whereas the RDW-SD was determined with an impedance autoanalyzer (Sysmex M-2000). All of these parameters helped, to some extent, in the differential diagnosis of microcytic anemia. However, our data suggested a low RDW-SD might provide significantly more value in differentiating thalassemia traits from iron deficiency anemia, as well as from normal controls, while the hemoglobin distribution width gave no help in the differential diagnosis between iron deficiency anemia and the beta-thalassemia trait. PMID:1417442

Lin, C K; Lin, J S; Chen, S Y; Jiang, M L; Chiu, C F

1992-10-01

387

Pure red-cell aplasia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with acute hepatitis A  

PubMed Central

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) have rarely been reported as an extrahepatic manifestation of acute hepatitis A (AHA). We report herein a case of AHA complicated by both PRCA and AIHA. A 49-year-old female with a diagnosis of AHA presented with severe anemia (hemoglobin level, 6.9 g/dL) during her clinical course. A diagnostic workup revealed AIHA and PRCA as the cause of the anemia. The patient was treated with an initial transfusion and corticosteroid therapy. Her anemia and liver function test were completely recovered by 9 months after the initial presentation. We review the clinical features and therapeutic strategies for this rare case of extrahepatic manifestation of AHA.

Chang, Hyo Jeong; Cho, Sung Gyun; Oh, Tae Hoon; Jeon, Tae Joo; Shin, Won Chang; Choi, Won Choong

2014-01-01

388

Epoetin Alfa in Treating Anemia in Patients Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Anemia; Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Drug/Agent Toxicity by Tissue/Organ; Leukemia; Lung Cancer; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Precancerous Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2012-02-19

389

Cytogenetic and flow cytometric studies of cells from patients with Fanconi's anemia.  

PubMed

Cells from patients wtih Fanconi's anemia are unusually sensitive to agents which are capable of crosslinking DNA. This increased sensitivity can be detected both by cytogenetic and flow cytometric methods. An elevated frequency of chromosome aberrations, which is further exaggerated by exposure of cells to DNA crosslinking agents, is a general feature of Fanconi's anemia. Information about the formation of sister chromatid exchanges in this disease is less consistent. Cytogenetic analysis of cells from patients with Fanconi's anemia can be compromised by a low mitotic index. This is reflected in an accumulation of cells In the G2 phase of the cycle, after exposure to the bifunctional alkylating agent, mitomycin C. New methods for differentiating individuals with Fanconi's anemia from unaffected individuals should be of empirical use and might also facilitate mechanistic studies of this disease. PMID:7116934

Latt, S A; Kaiser, T N; Lojewski, A; Dougherty, C; Juergens, L; Brefach, S; Sahar, E; Gustashaw, K; Schreck, R R; Powers, M; Lalande, M

1982-01-01

390

[Anemia in the critically ill child and adult: a narrative review].  

PubMed

Anemia is frequent in the pediatric and adult intensive care unit. Anemia decreases oxygen transport which can be harmful in the critically ill patient; it is independently associated with a poor prognosis. The major prophylactic measure against anemia is the limitation of blood draws: several approaches can be used to limit phlebotomy overdraw without harming the patient. Red blood cell transfusion is the quickest way to increase the hemoglobin level, but it is not without risk. It is therefore important to promote the use of evidence-based transfusion strategies. Iron could be useful in case of iron deficiency, but this condition is difficult to diagnose in the critically ill patient. Erythropoietin is no longer relevant in the intensive care unit in the era of restrictive transfusion practice, at least for its hematological effects. Several questions remain to be addressed in order to improve anemia management in the intensive care unit. PMID:24640305

Demaret, P; Loeckx, I; Mulder, A; Devos, P; Lebrun, F

2014-01-01

391

X Ray Sensitivity of Diploid Skin Fibroblasts from Patients with Fanconi's Anemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were performed on Fanconi's anemia and normal human fibroblast cell lines growing in culture in an attempt to correlate cell cycle kinetics with genomic damage and determine their bearing on the mechanism of chromosome aberration induction. FA...

R. Kale

1989-01-01

392

Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leading to Transient Ischemic Attacks due to Intraluminal Carotid Artery Thrombus  

PubMed Central

Reactive thrombocytosis secondary to iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is a rare but recognized cause of stroke. We report the case of a patient with iron-deficiency anemia presenting with multiple transient ischemic attacks (TIA) due to intraluminal thrombus of an internal carotid artery. The putative mechanisms underlying anemia and stroke syndromes are not completely understood, and it is believed that iron deficiency may cause ischemic stroke by several potential mechanisms. Thrombocytosis is often associated with iron deficiency, and microcytosis produces a reduction in the red cell deformability and could produce a hypercoagulable state. The platelet count and function observed in iron-deficiency anemia could act synergistically to promote thrombus formation, especially in the setting of an underlying atherosclerotic disease. The presence of floating thrombus in a patient with clinical and MRI evidence of stroke represents a significant therapeutic dilemma and requires immediate decision about treatment.

Batur Caglayan, H. Z.; Nazliel, B.; Irkec, C.; Dumlu, A.; Filiz, A.; Panpalli Ates, M.

2013-01-01

393

A Demonstration of the Molecular Basis of Sickle-Cell Anemia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a demonstration that permits the separation of different hemoglobin molecules within two to three hours. Introduces students to the powerful technique of gel electrophoresis and illustrates the molecular basis of sickle-cell anemia. (JRH)

Fox, Marty; Gaynor, John J.

1996-01-01

394

Nutritional Anemia Research: A Report on a Field Project Conducted in Guyana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nutritional anemia constitutes an important public health problem affecting all age groups in Guyana. This paper reports on a field study conducted to investigate the roles of iron deficiency, folic acid deficiency, and intestinal parasitic infestation in...

A. A. Johnson

1980-01-01

395

De Novo Chromosome Copy Number Variation in Fanconi Anemia-Associated Hematopoietic Defects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disease characterized by developmental defects, progressive bone marrow failure (BMF) and pronounced cancer susceptibility. The FA proteins and the major breast cancer susceptibility gene products BRCA1 and BRCA2 function coo...

N. G. Howlett

2013-01-01

396

Zinc Protoporphyrin in the Erythrocytes of Patients with Lead Intoxication and Iron Deficiency Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescent prophyrin in the erythrocytes of patients with lead intoxication or with iron deficiency anemia is zinc protoporphyrin that is bound to globin moieties, probably at heme binding sites.

A. A. Lamola; T. Yamane

1974-01-01

397

Blood Volume Measurements in Patients with Heart Failure and a Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFPEF): Implications for Diagnosing Anemia  

PubMed Central

Racial differences in the prevalence of anemia in patients with heart failure have been noted. The diagnosis of anemia in heart failure patients can be confounded by many factors. Plasma volume expansion is one of the most prominent confounders. We will study the difference of anemia prevalence using two different diagnostic techniques: peripheral hemoglobin recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO criteria) and blood volume (BV) analysis. We will also compare racial disparities in the prevalence of anemia using both measures. 60 patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) underwent measurement of BV by a radio-labeled albumin technique. Anemia was defined by both WHO criteria and by measured RBCV>10% below ideal. Anemia was found in 67% of patients by the peripheral hemoglobin technique with no racial disparity. Only 35% of the patients had anemia by the BV analysis with a two fold higher prevalence among Hispanics compared to Whites and Blacks. In patients with HFPEF, the diagnosis of anemia based on hemoglobin is confounded by plasma volume derangements resulting in significant over-diagnosis in this cohort. Racial differences in the rate of anemia were found. Such data could have important implications for the diagnosis and management of anemia in ethnic minorities with HFPEF.

Noumi, Bassel; Teruya, Sergio; Solomon, Say; Helmke, Stephen; Maurer, Mathew S.

2013-01-01

398

Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein for managing the anemia of chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its introduction, recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has become the standard of care for renal anemia. Because of its relatively short half-life, however, it generally is administered two to three times per week. Darbepoetin alfa (novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein [NESP]) is a longer acting erythropoietic agent that allows less frequent dosing to treat anemia. Decreased dosing frequency should result in

Allen R. Nissenson

2001-01-01

399

Excessive zinc ingestion: A reversible cause of sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow depression  

SciTech Connect

Two patients with sideroblastic anemia secondary to zinc-induced copper deficiency absorbed excess zinc secondary to oral ingestion. The source of excess zinc was a zinc supplement in one case; in the other, ingested coins. In each case, the sideroblastic anemia was corrected promptly after removal of the source of excess zinc. These two cases emphasize the importance of recognizing this clinical entity, since the myelodysplastic features are completely reversible.

Broun, E.R.; Greist, A.; Tricot, G.; Hoffman, R. (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis (USA))

1990-09-19

400

Anemia management and outcomes from 12 countries in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study (DOPPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Anemia is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods:Data collected from nationally representative samples of HD patients (n = 11,041) in 2002 to 2003 were used to describe current anemia management for long-term HD patients at 309 dialysis units in 12 countries. Analyses of associations and outcomes were adjusted for demographics, 15 comorbid classes, laboratory values, country, and facility clustering. Results:For

Ronald L Pisoni; Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham; Eric W Young; Tadao Akizawa; Yasushi Asano; Francesco Locatelli; Juergen Bommer; Jose Miguel Cruz; Peter G Kerr; David C Mendelssohn; Philip J Held; Friedrich K Port

2004-01-01

401

Sideroblastic anemia as a preleukemic event in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Sideroblastic anemia after treatment for Hodgkin's disease was seen in two patients 3 years after completion of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. This was followed in both by the development of myelomonoblastic leukemia. No evidence of recurrent Hodgkin's disease was present in either patient. Our observation suggests that development of sideroblastic anemia in patients previously treated for Hodgkin's disease is probably secondary to the treatment and is a preleukemic event.

Kitahara, M.; Cosgriff, T.M.; Eyre, H.J.

1980-05-01

402

Associations between renal impairment and anemia in older, rural Japanese men: the Nagasaki Island study  

PubMed Central

Background Renal impairment is known to be associated with atherosclerosis, which in turn is reported to be positively associated with hemoglobin levels. In addition, renal impairment is known to be associated with a form of anemia known as renal anemia. Methods To clarify the associations between renal impairment and anemia, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,105 60 to 89-year-old men, who were not taking medication for anemia and were undergoing general health check-ups. Results Compared with non-chronic kidney disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD) with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was found to constitute a significant risk of anemia. However, we noted that this risk was lower for mild renal impairment (60 mL/min/1.73 m2???GFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2). Compared with the non-CKD reference group, the classical cardiovascular risk factors adjusted odds ratio (OR) for anemia was 1.81 (1.23 to 2.68) and compared with the normal renal function (GFR ?90 mL/min/1.73 m2) reference group, the ORs for mild renal impairment and CKD were 0.26 (0.15 to 0.47) and 0.60 (0.33 to 1.09). Conclusions Independent from classical cardiovascular risk factors, CKD, which was identified during general health check-ups, appeared to constitute a significant risk of anemia for older Japanese men. For mild renal impairment, however, this association was a reduced risk of anemia and thus possibly a higher risk of atherosclerosis.

2014-01-01

403

Low plasma cholesterol: a correlate of nondiagnosed celiac disease in adults with hypochromic anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Hypochromic anemia is at times attributable to nondiagnosed celiac disease. The aim of this study was to define the correlates of celiac disease in anemic adults without overt malabsorption.METHODS:One hundred patients with hypochromic anemia and without diarrhea underwent a complete diagnostic work-up, including screening for celiac disease, i.e., upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsy and search of antiendomysium antibodies.RESULTS:Patients with hypochromic

Carolina Ciacci; Massimo Cirillo; Gianmarco Giorgetti; Fiorella Alfinito; Annibale Franchi; M Mazzetti di Pietralata; Gabriele Mazzacca

1999-01-01

404

Low plasma cholesterol: a correlate of nondiagnosed celiac disease in adults with hypochromic anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Hypochromic anemia is at times attributable to nondiagnosed celiac disease. The aim of this study was to define the correlates of celiac disease in anemic adults without overt malabsorption.METHODS: One hundred patients with hypochromic anemia and without diarrhea underwent a complete diagnostic work-up, including screening for celiac disease, i.e., upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsy and search of antiendomysium antibodies.RESULTS:

Carolina Ciacci; Massimo Cirillo; Gianmarco Giorgetti; Fiorella Alfinito; Annibale Franchi; M. Mazzetti di Pietralata; Gabriele Mazzacca

1999-01-01

405

Schistosoma japonicum Reinfection after Praziquantel Treatment Causes Anemia Associated with Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a relationship between schistosomiasis and anemia, although the magnitude and exact mechanisms involved are unclear. In a cohort of 580 Schistosoma japonicum-infected 7- to 30-year-old patients from Leyte, The Philippines, we evaluated the impact of reinfection with S. japonicum after treatment with praziquantel on the mean hemoglobin level, iron-deficiency (IDA) and non-iron-deficiency anemia (NIDA), and inflammatory markers. All

Tjalling Leenstra; Hannah M. Coutinho; Luz P. Acosta; Gretchen C. Langdon; Li Su; Remigio M. Olveda; Stephen T. McGarvey; Jonathan D. Kurtis; Jennifer F. Friedman

2006-01-01

406

The utility of pallor detecting anemia in under five years old children.  

PubMed

The diagnosis and management of anemia, which affects a significant proportion of young children in developing countries, largely depends on the clinical assessment for pallor. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the utility of pallor in detecting anemia. Children aged 2 to 60 months who visited the pediatric outpatient department of Jimma Hospital over 3 months period were assessed for the presence and degree of pallor in 4 anatomic sites (conjunctivae, tongue and buccal mucosa, nailbeds, palm) by trained nurses. Hemoglobin was then determined using the HemoCue method. Individuals involved in clinical examination did not have access to the laboratory results before documenting their findings. The mean hemoglobin in the 574 children examined was 11.03 gm/dl, and about 46% had anemia. Children younger than 2 years were found to have a higher prevalence of anemia as compared to older children (p < 0.001). Palmar pallor, with a sensitivity of 58%, had the highest sensitivity to detect moderate anemia as compared to other anatomic sites. The presence of either palmar or conjunctival pallor increased the sensitivity to 73%. The inter-observer agreement was highest for conjunctival pallor (kappa value = 0.81). The findings of the study suggest that pallor of a single anatomic site does not have adequate sensitivity to detect moderate anemia. We recommend further studies to look at the performance of severe pallor in correctly identifying severe anemia. Furthermore, the magnitude and causes of anemia need to be studied in a community setting. PMID:11144886

Getaneh, T; Girma, T; Belachew, T; Teklemariam, S

2000-04-01

407

Disruption of the Fanconi anemia–BRCA pathway in cisplatin-sensitive ovarian tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian tumor cells are often genomically unstable and hypersensitive to cisplatin. To understand the molecular basis for this phenotype, we examined the integrity of the Fanconi anemia–BRCA (FANC-BRCA) pathway in those cells. This pathway regulates cisplatin sensitivity and is governed by the coordinate activity of six genes associated with Fanconi anemia (FANCA, FANCC, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF and FANCG) as well

Toshiyasu Taniguchi; Marc Tischkowitz; Najim Ameziane; Shirley V. Hodgson; Christopher G. Mathew; Hans Joenje; Samuel C. Mok; Alan D. D'Andrea

2003-01-01

408

Proteasome Function Is Required for DNA Damage Response and Fanconi Anemia Pathway Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteasome inhibitors sensitize tumor cells to DNA-damaging agents, including ionizing radiation (IR), and DNA cross- linking agents (melphalan and cisplatin) through unknown mechanisms. The Fanconi anemia pathway is a DNA damage- activated signaling pathway, which regulates cellular resis- tance to DNA cross-linking agents. Monoubiquitination and nuclear foci formation of FANCD2 are critical steps of the Fanconi anemia pathway. Here, we

Celine Jacquemont; Toshiyasu Taniguchi

2007-01-01

409

Pernicious anemia in a patient with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and alopecia areata universalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 27-year-old male, who had developed diabetes mellitus type 1 (DMT1) since the age of eighteen and alopecia areata universalis nine months later, attended the outpatient clinics complaining of general fatigue and shortness of breath. A Schilling test was indicative of pernicious anemia. Antigastric parietal cell (AGPA) and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were positive, confirming diagnosis of pernicious anemia. Thyroid and

Thrasivoulos G. Tzellos; Dimitrios K. Tahmatzidis; Aimilios Lallas; Kiriaki Apostolidou; Dimitrios G. Goulis

2009-01-01

410

Effect of anemia and renal cytokine production on erythropoietin production during blood-stage malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of anemia and renal cytokine production on erythropoietin production during blood-stage malaria.BackgroundRenal dysfunction and severe anemia are clinical complications of blood-stage malaria. Erythropoietin (Epo) is a hormone produced by the kidney and plays an essential role in stimulating erythrocyte production. Renal dysfunction in malaria is associated with changes in renal cytokine levels, which may affect the production of Epo

Kai-Hsin Chang; Mary M. Stevenson

2004-01-01

411

Iron-deficiency anemia and infant development: Effects of extended oral iron therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether extended oral iron therapy corrects lower developmental test scores in infants with iron-deficiency anemia. STUDY DESIGN: Double-blind, controlled trial in Costa Rica involving 32 12- to 23-month-old infants with iron-deficiency anemia and 54 nonanemic control subjects. Anemic infants were treated with orally administered iron for 6 months; half the nonanemic children were treated with iron and

Betsy Lozoff; Abraham W. Wolf; Elias Jimenez

1996-01-01

412

A controlled trial of nandrolone decanoate in the treatment of uremic anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controlled trial of nandrolone decanoate in the treatment of uremic anemia. Thirty-seven male dialysis patients, from three university hospital centers known to have adequate iron, B12, and folate stores, were entered into a controlled trial to study the effects of nandrolone decanoate (200 mg i.m. weekly) on their anemia. An initial six-month stabilization period was followed by a randomized

Daniel C Cattran; Stanley S A Fenton; Douglas R Wilson; Dimitri Oreopoulos; Arthur Shimizu; Robert M Richardson

1977-01-01

413

Hemolytic-Anemia-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension: Sickle-Cell-Disease- and Thalassemia-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is now recognized as a complication of both chronic and acquired hemolytic anemias. The process\\u000a of hemolysis appears to be central to disease pathogenesis. Sickle cell disease (SCD), a congenital hemoglobinopathy affecting\\u000a as many as 30 million individuals worldwide, is the best characterized hemolytic anemia associated with PH. Multiple clinical\\u000a studies have demonstrated a 10–30% prevalence of

Elizabeth S. Klings; Mark T. Gladwin

414

A Genome-Wide Association Study of Total Bilirubin and Cholelithiasis Risk in Sickle Cell Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum bilirubin levels have been associated with polymorphisms in the UGT1A1 promoter in normal populations and in patients with hemolytic anemias, including sickle cell anemia. When hemolysis occurs circulating heme increases, leading to elevated bilirubin levels and an increased incidence of cholelithiasis. We performed the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bilirubin levels and cholelithiasis risk in a discovery cohort

Jacqueline N. Milton; Paola Sebastiani; Nadia Solovieff; Stephen W. Hartley; Pallav Bhatnagar; Dan E. Arking; Daniel A. Dworkis; James F. Casella; Emily Barron-Casella; Christopher J. Bean; W. Craig Hooper; Michael R. DeBaun; Melanie E. Garrett; Karen Soldano; Marilyn J. Telen; Allison Ashley-Koch; Mark T. Gladwin; Clinton T. Baldwin; Martin H. Steinberg; Elizabeth S. Klings

2012-01-01

415

Fanconi anemia patient with bilaterally hypoplastic scapula and unilateral winging associated with scoliosis and rib abnormality.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by bone marrow failure, variable congenital physical abnormalities, and predisposition to hematologic malignancy and several solid tumors. The most frequently associated congenital malformations are those of the skeletal system, mainly radius and thumb. Herein, we report bilaterally hypoplastic scapula with unilateral winging associated with scoliosis and rib abnormality, a previously unreported skeletal abnormality in Fanconi anemia patients. PMID:17006268

Unal, Sule; Gumruk, Fatma

2006-09-01

416

Prevalence of Anemia and Risk of Adverse Bleeding Effect of Drugs: Implication for Therapy  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to evaluate the progress in reduction of prevalence of anemia in rural Australia. It also investigates the prevalence of hypoviscosity in anaemia with a view to determine the fraction of anaemic patients at risk of drug-inducible exacerbation of anemia. Archived clinical pathology data (N = 130, 354) for the period of 1999 to 2008 were utilized. The prevalence of anemia and hypoviscosity was evaluated by working out (i) the number that fell within anemia definition as a percentage of the population and (ii) the number that fell within hypoviscosity definition as a percentage of anemic patients. The prevalence in anemic diabetes and dyslipidaemia was further determined. There was progressive reduction in anemia from 6.1% to 3.2% over the ten years period. Prevalence of anemia is statistically significantly higher in males than in females (P < 0.0001), but protein level is lower in anemic females than in anemic males (P < 0.01). The results further show that up to 75% of anemic patients may benefit from NSAID or salicylates. This paper highlights differences between genders. It suggests more concerted effort in men's health and speculates a new factor to investigate in women's health.

Uba Nwose, Ezekiel

2012-01-01

417

Copper-deficiency anemia after esophagectomy: A pitfall of postoperative enteral nutrition through jejunostomy  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Copper deficiency leads to functional disorders of hematopoiesis and neurological system. There have been some reports of copper deficiency occurring to the patients on enteral nutrition through a jejunostomy in long-term-care hospitals. However, it is extremely rare to find patients with copper deficiency several months after esophagectomy, regardless of enteral nutrition through the jejunostomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient who experienced copper-deficiency anemia after esophagectomy and subsequent enteral nutrition through the jejunostomy. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 73-year-old man presented with pulmonary failure after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, and needed long-term artificial ventilator support. Nutritional management included enteral nutrition through a jejunostomy from the early postoperative period. Copper-deficiency anemia was detected 3 months postoperatively; therefore, copper supplementation with cocoa powder was performed, and both serum copper and hemoglobin levels subsequently recovered. DISCUSSION Copper-deficiency anemia has already been reported to occur in patients receiving enteral nutrition in long-term care hospitals. However, this is the first case report of copper deficiency after esophagectomy despite administration of standard enteral nutrition through the jejunostomy for several months. CONCLUSION It is extremely rare to find copper-deficiency anemia several months after esophagectomy followed by enteral nutrition through the jejunostomy. However, if anemia of unknown origin occurs in such patients, copper-deficiency anemia must be considered among the differential diagnoses.

Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Nagai, Kagami; Minami, Isao; Wakabayashi, Mai; Torigoe, Junko; Kawano, Tatsuyuki

2014-01-01

418

Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia: Presentation With Hyperferritinemia and Response to Oral Iron Therapy  

PubMed Central

Iron-refractory iron-deficiency anemia (IRIDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in TMPRSS6. Patients have hypochromic microcytic anemia refractory to oral iron and are only partially responsive to parenteral iron administration. We report a French-Canadian kindred in which 2 siblings presented in early childhood with severe microcytic anemia, hypoferremia, and hyperferritinemia. Both children have been successfully treated solely with low-dose oral iron since diagnosis. Clinical and biological presentation did not fit any previously described genetic iron-deficiency anemia. Whole exome sequencing identified in both patients compound heterozygous mutations of TMPRSS6 leading to p.G442R and p.E522K, 2 mutations previously reported to cause classic IRIDA, and no additional mutations in known iron-regulatory genes. Thus, the phenotype associated with the unique combination of mutations uncovered in both patients expands the spectrum of disease associated with TMPRSS6 mutations to include iron deficiency anemia that is accompanied by hyperferritinemia at initial presentation and is responsive to continued oral iron therapy. Our results have implications for genetic testing in early childhood iron deficiency anemia. Importantly, they emphasize that whole exome sequencing can be used as a diagnostic tool and greatly facilitate the elucidation of the genetic basis of unusual clinical presentations, including hypomorphic mutations or compound heterozygosity leading to different phenotypes in known Mendelian diseases.

Khuong-Quang, Dong-Anh; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Westerman, Mark; Lepage, Pierre; Finberg, Karin E.; Majewski, Jacek

2013-01-01

419

Inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein signaling attenuates anemia associated with inflammation  

PubMed Central

Anemia of inflammation develops in settings of chronic inflammatory, infectious, or neoplastic disease. In this highly prevalent form of anemia, inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, stimulate hepatic expression of hepcidin, which negatively regulates iron bioavailability by inactivating ferroportin. Hepcidin is transcriptionally regulated by IL-6 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. We hypothesized that inhibiting BMP signaling can reduce hepcidin expression and ameliorate hypoferremia and anemia associated with inflammation. In human hepatoma cells, IL-6–induced hepcidin expression, an effect that was inhibited by treatment with a BMP type I receptor inhibitor, LDN-193189, or BMP ligand antagonists noggin and ALK3-Fc. In zebrafish, the induction of hepcidin expression by transgenic expression of IL-6 was also reduced by LDN-193189. In mice, treatment with IL-6 or turpentine increased hepcidin expression and reduced serum iron, effects that were inhibited by LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc. Chronic turpentine treatment led to microcytic anemia, which was prevented by concurrent administration of LDN-193189 or attenuated when LDN-193189 was administered after anemia was established. Our studies support the concept that BMP and IL-6 act together to regulate iron homeostasis and suggest that inhibition of BMP signaling may be an effective strategy for the treatment of anemia of inflammation.

Steinbicker, Andrea U.; Sachidanandan, Chetana; Vonner, Ashley J.; Yusuf, Rushdia Z.; Deng, Donna Y.; Lai, Carol S.; Rauwerdink, Kristen M.; Winn, Julia C.; Saez, Borja; Cook, Colleen M.; Szekely, Brian A.; Roy, Cindy N.; Seehra, Jasbir S.; Cuny, Gregory D.; Scadden, David T.; Peterson, Randall T.; Bloch, Kenneth D.

2011-01-01

420

[Possible role of soluble erythropoietin receptors in renal anemia].  

PubMed

Recombinant human erythropoietin(rHuEpo) is effective for the treatment of renal anemia associated with chronic renal failure(CRF). However, we have encountered some patients with CRF who have sometimes developed a resistance to rHuEpo. This resistance can be due to iron or folate deficiency, aluminum toxicity, hyperparathyroidism, or auto-antibodies for rHuEpo. In this study, we focused on the soluble erythropoietin receptor(sEpoR), which can bind to rHuEpo. To demonstrate the possibility that the sweeping of rHuEpo by sEpoR results in resistance to rHuEpo, we performed a bioassay using the rHuEpo-dependent cell line, UT7/EPO. The results showed that recombinant mouse sEpoR(rmsEpoR) can reduce the proliferation of UT7/EPO induced by rHuEpo in a dose-dependent manner. We consider that this cell line could be a useful tool in a bioassay to detect the inhibitory factor(s) against Epo. We selected sera from three groups of patients with renal anemia associated with CRF who were receiving hemodialysis three times a week: the first was a patient group that needed a high dose of rHuEpo(7,500-9,000 unit/dialysis), the second was a patient group that needed an intermediate dose of rHuEpo (4,500 unit/dialysis), the third was a patient group that needed a low dose of rHuEpo(below 1,500 unit/dialysis). Interestingly, the proliferation of UT7/EPO determined with [3H]-thymidine incorporation was reduced by the addition of sera from the first group, but not by the addition of sera from the third group. These results suggested that serum sEpoR may play an important role in signal transduction via EpoR on erythroid progenitor in CRF patients. PMID:12476588

Sakaguchi, Mika; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Naiki, Yoshito; Hasegawa, Hirofumi; Kanamaru, Akihisa

2002-10-01

421

A case of successful management with splenectomy of intractable ascites due to congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II-induced cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

The congenital dyserythropoietic anemias comprise a group of rare hereditary disorders of erythropoiesis, characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis as the predominant mechanism of anemia and by characteristic morphological aberrations of the majority of erythroblasts in the bone marrow. Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II is the most frequent type. All types of congenital dyserythropoietic anemias distinctly share a high incidence of iron loading. Iron accumulation occurs even in untransfused patients and can result in heart failure and liver cirrhosis. We have reported about a patient who presented with liver cirrhosis and intractable ascites caused by congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II. Her clinical course was further complicated by the development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Splenectomy was eventually performed which achieved complete resolution of ascites, increase of hemoglobin concentration and abrogation of transfusion requirements.

Vassiliadis, Themistoklis; Garipidou, Vassilia; Perifanis, Vassilios; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Giouleme, Olga; Patsiaoura, Kalliopi; Avramidis, Michalis; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos; Vakalopoulou, Sofia; Tsitouridis, Ioannis; Antoniadis, Antonios; Semertzidis, Panagiotis; Kioumi, Anna; Premetis, Evangelos; Eugenidis, Nikolaos

2006-01-01

422

Anemia is an independent prognostic factor in intracerebral hemorrhage: an observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction To date only two studies have evaluated anemia status in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) reporting that on admission anemia (OAA) was associated with larger hematoma volume, and lower hemoglobin levels during hospital stay, which related to poorer outcome. The question remains whether anemia influences outcome through related volume-effects or itself has an independent impact? Methods This single-center investigation included 435 consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH admitted to the Department of Neurology over five years. Functional short- and long-term outcome (3 months and 1 year) were analyzed for anemia status. Multivariate logistic and graphical regression analyses were calculated for associations of anemia and to determine independent effects on functional outcome. It was decided to perform a separate analysis for patients with ICH-volume <30cm3 (minor-volume-ICH). Results Overall short-term-outcome was worse in anemic patients (mRS[4-6] OAA = 93.3% vs. non-OAA = 61.2%, P < 0.01), and there was a further shift towards an increased long-term mortality (P = 0.02). The probability of unfavorable long-term-outcome (mRS[4-6]) in OAA was elevated 7-fold (OR:7.5; P < 0.01). Receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) analysis revealed a positive but poor association of ICH-volume and anemia (AUC = 0.67) suggesting volume-undriven outcome-effects of anemia (AUC = 0.75). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that anemia, besides established parameters, has the strongest relation to unfavorable outcome (OR:3.0; P < 0.01). This is even more pronounced in minor-volume-ICH (OR:5.6; P < 0.01). Conclusions Anemia seems to be a previously unrecognized significant predictor of unfavorable functional outcome with independent effects beyond its association with larger hemorrhage volumes. The recognition of anemia and its treatment may possibly influence outcome after ICH and as such prospective interventional studies are warranted.

2013-01-01

423

Assessment of maternal anemia in rural Western China between 2001 and 2005: a two-level logistic regression approach  

PubMed Central

Background There are multiple adverse effects of anemia on human function, particularly on women. However, few researches are conducted on women anemia in rural Western China. This study mainly aims to investigate the levels and associated factors of maternal anemia between 2001 and 2005 in this region. Methods 6172 and 5372 mothers with children under three years old were selected from 8 provinces in 2001 and from 9 provinces in 2005 respectively in Western China by means of a multi-stage probability proportion to size sampling method (PPS). The blood samples were tested and related socio-demographic information was obtained through questionnaires. A two-level logistic regression model was employed to identify the determinants and provincial variations of women anemia in 2001 and 2005. Results The results indicated that the crude prevalence of women anemia in 2005 was higher than the rate in 2001(45.7% vs 33.6%). Based on the nationwide census data in 2000, the age-standardized prevalence of women anemia in the study were obtained as 38.0% in 2001 and 50.0% in 2005 respectively. Two-level logistic model analysis showed that compared to the average, women were more likely to be anemic in Guangxi and Qinghai in 2001 as well as in Chongqing and Qinghai in 2005; that women from Minority groups had higher odds of anemia in contrast with Han; that women with higher parity, longer breastfeeding duration and higher socioeconomic level had a lower rate of anemia, while age of women was positively associated with anemia. The positive correlation between women anemia and altitude was also observed. Conclusions The study demonstrated that the burden of maternal anemia in rural Western China increased considerably between 2001 and 2005. The Chinese government should conduct integrated interventions on anemia of mothers in this region.

2013-01-01

424

2,4,6Trinitrotoluene (TNT) air concentrations, hemoglobin changes, and anemia cases in respirator protected TNT munitions demilitarization workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an explosive used in munitions production that is known to cause both aplastic and hemolytic\\u000a anemia in exposed workers. Anemia in a TNT worker is considered a sentinel health event (occupational) (SHE(O)) in the United\\u000a States (US). Deaths have been reported secondary to aplastic anemia. Studies have shown that TNT systemic absorption is significant\\u000a by both the

Melville D. Bradley

2011-01-01

425

Identification of the Fanconi anemia complementation group I gene, FANCI.  

PubMed

To identify the gene underlying Fanconi anemia (FA) complementation group I we studied informative FA-I families by a genome-wide linkage analysis, which resulted in 4 candidate regions together encompassing 351 genes. Candidates were selected via bioinformatics and data mining on the basis of their resemblance to other FA genes/proteins acting in the FA pathway, such as: degree of evolutionary conservation, presence of nuclear localization signals and pattern of tissue-dependent expression. We found a candidate, KIAA1794 on chromosome 15q25-26, to be mutated in 8 affected individuals previously assigned to complementation group I. Western blots of endogenous FANCI indicated that functionally active KIAA1794 protein is lacking in FA-I individuals. Knock-down of KIAA1794 expression by siRNA in HeLa cells caused excessive chromosomal breakage induced by mitomycin C, a hallmark of FA cells. Furthermore, phenotypic reversion of a patient-derived cell line was associated with a secondary genetic alteration at the KIAA1794 locus. These data add up to two conclusions. First, KIAA1794 is a FA gene. Second, this gene is identical to FANCI, since the patient cell lines found mutated in this study included the reference cell line for group I, EUFA592. PMID:17452773

Dorsman, Josephine C; Levitus, Marieke; Rockx, Davy; Rooimans, Martin A; Oostra, Anneke B; Haitjema, Anneke; Bakker, Sietske T; Steltenpool, Jûrgen; Schuler, Dezsö; Mohan, Sheila; Schindler, Detlev; Arwert, Fré; Pals, Gerard; Mathew, Christopher G; Waisfisz, Quinten; de Winter, Johan P; Joenje, Hans

2007-01-01

426

Testosterone supplementation improves anemia in aging male mice.  

PubMed

Whether aging alone causes anemia is still controversial. In this study, we show that 28-month-old male C57BL/6 mice, maintained in a pathogen-free environment, had significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, and erythrocyte counts than young mice. The anemic condition aggravated further from 28 to 30 months. Old mice displayed increased erythropoietic activity, evidenced by an increase in reticulocyte counts, serum erythropoietin, and splenic expression of erythropoietic genes. An increase in late-stage erythroid progenitors was detected in spleen but not in bone marrow of the old mice. However, old mice also had lower serum iron and transferrin saturation, as well as lower erythrocyte iron incorporation rate. Testosterone supplementation restored serum iron status in old mice to levels similar to that of young adults, further upregulated splenic expression of erythropoietic genes, increased splenic erythroid progenitors, and significantly improved the red cell index. In conclusion, we found that mice can become anemic at very old age without apparent illness. The endogenous compensatory erythropoietic activity was insufficient to normalize the red cell index in old mice, either due to impaired iron homeostasis, ineffective erythropoiesis, or other unknown factors. Testosterone supplementation normalized the iron status and further stimulated splenic erythropoietic activity; both may contribute to improve the anemic condition in the old mice. PMID:23974081

Guo, Wen; Li, Michelle; Bhasin, Shalender

2014-05-01

427

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia with gel-based immunohematology tests.  

PubMed

We used gel centrifugation tests (GCTs) to analyze the relationship between the diagnosis and immunohematology tests used for autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). The study included 588 samples positive for the direct antiglobulin test (DAT). Of these, 52 were from patients diagnosed with AIHA. Immunoglobulin (Ig) class, IgG1, IgG3, and complement were measured. DAT strength had the strongest correlation with AIHA diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 23), followed by anti-IgG titer 300 (OR, 8.4), anti-IgG titer 1,000 (OR, 10.5), and C3d agglutination strength (OR, 1.7). Decision tree analysis revealed that DAT strength and anti-IgG titer higher than 100 were the best predictors of AIHA. Multidimensional scanning analysis found a high grade of similarity among DAT strength, anti-IgG titer, and IgG strength in the AIHA samples. This observation was not detected in DAT-positive samples from patients without AIHA. DAT strength remained the best diagnostic indicator for AIHA and had the strongest association with AIHA compared with other commercially available immunohematology tests. The other tests, despite good correlation with AIHA diagnosis, did not add useful information. PMID:23525616

Lai, Marco; Leone, Giuseppe; Landolfi, Raffaele

2013-04-01

428

Modularized functions of the fanconi anemia core complex.  

PubMed

The Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex provides the essential E3 ligase function for spatially defined FANCD2 ubiquitination and FA pathway activation. Of the seven FA gene products forming the core complex, FANCL possesses a RING domain with demonstrated E3 ligase activity. The other six components do not have clearly defined roles. Through epistasis analyses, we identify three functional modules in the FA core complex: a catalytic module consisting of FANCL, FANCB, and FAAP100 is absolutely required for the E3 ligase function, and the FANCA-FANCG-FAAP20 and the FANCC-FANCE-FANCF modules provide nonredundant and ancillary functions that help the catalytic module bind chromatin or sites of DNA damage. Disruption of the catalytic module causes complete loss of the core complex function, whereas loss of any ancillary module component does not. Our work reveals the roles of several FA gene products with previously undefined functions and a modularized assembly of the FA core complex. PMID:24910428

Huang, Yaling; Leung, Justin W C; Lowery, Megan; Matsushita, Nobuko; Wang, Yucai; Shen, Xi; Huong, Do; Takata, Minoru; Chen, Junjie; Li, Lei

2014-06-26

429

Targeted gene therapy and cell reprogramming in Fanconi anemia.  

PubMed

Gene targeting is progressively becoming a realistic therapeutic alternative in clinics. It is unknown, however, whether this technology will be suitable for the treatment of DNA repair deficiency syndromes such as Fanconi anemia (FA), with defects in homology-directed DNA repair. In this study, we used zinc finger nucleases and integrase-defective lentiviral vectors to demonstrate for the first time that FANCA can be efficiently and specifically targeted into the AAVS1 safe harbor locus in fibroblasts from FA-A patients. Strikingly, up to 40% of FA fibroblasts showed gene targeting 42 days after gene editing. Given the low number of hematopoietic precursors in the bone marrow of FA patients, gene-edited FA fibroblasts were then reprogrammed and re-differentiated toward the hematopoietic lineage. Analyses of gene-edited FA-iPSCs confirmed the specific integration of FANCA in the AAVS1 locus in all tested clones. Moreover, the hematopoietic differentiation of these iPSCs efficiently generated disease-free hematopoietic progenitors. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of correcting the phenotype of a DNA repair deficiency syndrome using gene-targeting and cell reprogramming strategies. PMID:24859981

Rio, Paula; Baños, Rocio; Lombardo, Angelo; Quintana-Bustamante, Oscar; Alvarez, Lara; Garate, Zita; Genovese, Pietro; Almarza, Elena; Valeri, Antonio; Díez, Begoña; Navarro, Susana; Torres, Yaima; Trujillo, Juan P; Murillas, Rodolfo; Segovia, Jose C; Samper, Enrique; Surralles, Jordi; Gregory, Philip D; Holmes, Michael C; Naldini, Luigi; Bueren, Juan A

2014-01-01

430

Iron Deficiency Anemia among Hospitalized Children in Konya, Turkey  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of our hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and effects of the IDA prevention project of the Turkish Ministry of Health which was started in 2004. The recommended dose of prophylactic iron supplementation was 1-2?mg/kg/day. The files of 1519 patients who were hospitalized to Konya Education and Research Hospital Pediatrics Clinic were reviewed. A total of 50 patients consisting of 35 boys and 15 girls with the mean age of 16,59 ± 1,68 months were included into the study. The prevalence of IDA was 3.29% (boys: 4.23%, girls: 2.1%). Hgb and Hct of the patients >24 months were significantly higher than those of the patients with the age of 6–12 months. Iron supplementation receiving rates were very low. Of the 28 patients older than 12 months, only 44% of them had received a full course of iron supplementation for 8 months. In conclusion, although prophylactic iron supplementation lowered the prevalences of IDA, receiving rates of iron supplementation were not adequate. While IDA is still a public health problem, prophylactic approaches should be carried out more effectively.

Akin, Fatih; Solak, Ece Selma; Kilicaslan, Cengizhan; Boke, Saltuk Bugra; Arslan, Sukru

2013-01-01

431

Iron deficiency anemia in infancy and reach and grasp development  

PubMed Central

This study assessed 9 kinematic characteristics of infants’ reach and grasp to test the hypothesis that iron deficiency anemia (IDA) delays upper extremity motor development. Reach and grasp movements, recorded with a 3D-motion capture system, were compared in 9- to 10-month-old infants (4 IDA vs. 5 iron-sufficient [IS]). Based on normative motor development data available for 6 characteristics, the results indicated poorer upper extremity control in IDA infants: 2 characteristics showed statistically significant group differences despite small n, and the other 4 had strong indications for such results (effect sizes [Cohen's d] > 1.2). The remaining 3 measures, for which normative studies do not show developmental changes in this age period, showed significant or moderate-to- large effect differences. Poorer upper-extremity control in IDA infants in the short-term in this study and in the long-term despite iron therapy in other studies suggests that a motor intervention may be warranted when IDA is detected in infancy.

Shafir, Tal; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa; Su, Jing; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Lozoff, Betsy

2009-01-01

432

Growth Patterns in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia during Puberty  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies of children with homozygous sickle cell anemia (SCA) show impaired growth and maturation. The correlation of this suboptimal growth with metabolic and hematological factors during puberty is poorly understood. Procedure We studied a group of pre-adolescent children with SCA (19 males, 14 females) and healthy controls (16 males, 15 females) matched for race, sex, body size, and pubertal development. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition changes were longitudinally assessed over a 2-year period and compared between the groups and with Z scores based on US growth charts. These changes were correlated with hemoglobin concentration and with energy expenditure measured using indirect whole-room calorimetry. Results Children with SCA progressed through puberty slower than control children. While, after 2 years, pubertal males with SCA were shorter, their annual increases in weight were not different from controls. The mean fat free mass (FFM) increments were significantly less in males and females with SCA than in control children. In males with SCA, growth in height declined over time and was significantly slower than in matched controls (p<0.05). Conclusion Growth delays were present during puberty in children with SCA. Decreased growth velocity in children with SCA was independently associated with decreased hemoglobin concentration and increased total energy expenditure.

Rhodes, Melissa; Akohoue, Sylvie A.; Shankar, Sadhna M.; Fleming, Irma; An, Angel; Yu, Chung; Acra, Sari; Buchowski, Maciej S.

2009-01-01

433

Hb Jambol: a new hyperunstable hemoglobin causing severe hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

We describe a new hyperunstable beta-chain variant due to a complex genomic rearrangement. The abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) was found as a de novo mutation in a 2-year-old Bulgarian girl with severe hemolytic anemia. The mutation was detected through RNA/DNA analysis. It represents a complex genomic rearrangement involving an insertion of 23 nts after IVS-II-535 (derived by triplication of the 12-nts adjacent sequence and subsequent deletion of 1 nt), a deletion of 310 nts extending from IVS-II-550 to the first nt of Cd 108 and an insertion of 28 nts at the deletion junctions (derived from the inverted sequence between nts +3,707 and +3,734 3' to the beta-globin gene termination codon). At the protein level this mutation leads to a deletion of 4 amino acid residues (Leu-Leu-Glu-Asn) at positions 105-108 and an insertion of 9 residues (Val-Pro-Ser-Val-Thr-Leu-Phe-Phe-Asp) at the same location, creating an abnormal elongated beta-chain of 151 amino acid residues. This highly unstable variant was named 'Hb Jambol' after the geographic location in which the patient resides. PMID:17095853

Efremov, G D; Simjanovska, L; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D; Stanojevic, E; Petkov, G H

2007-01-01

434

Microporation and 'Iron' tophoresis for treating Iron deficiency anemia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Iontophoretic mediated transdermal delivery of ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) in combination with microneedle pretreatment was investigated as a potential treatment for iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Methods In vitro transdermal delivery studies were performed using hairless rat skin and pharmacodynamic studies were performed in hairless anemic rat model. The hematological and biochemical parameters like hemoglobin, hematocrit and % serum transferrin were monitored in rats at healthy, anemic condition and post treatment. Micropores created by the microneedles were visualized in histological skin sections after staining with hemotoxylin and eosin. The recovery of micropores was investigated in vivo by measuring Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) at different time points. Results The passive, microneedle and iontophoresis mediated delivery did not lead to significant improvement in hematological and biochemical parameters in anemic rats, when used individually. When iontophoresis (0.15 mA/cm2 for 4 hours) was combined with microneedle pretreatment (for 2 minutes), therapeutically adequate amount of FPP was delivered and there was significant recovery of rats from IDA. Conclusions Microneedle and iontophoresis mediated delivery of iron via transdermal route could be developed as a potential treatment for IDA. The transdermal controlled delivery of iron could become a potential, safe and effective alternative to parenteral iron therapy.

Modepalli, Naresh; Jo, Seongbong; Repka, Michael A.; Murthy, S. Narasimha

2012-01-01

435

Pathology Case Study: Anemia, Thrombocytopenia and Renal Insufficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clinical immunology case study provided by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology is an excellent resource for students and instructors in the health science fields. This particular case involves the diagnosis of a 68-year-old female admitted due to âÂÂworsening anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal insufficiency.â Additional information on the patientâÂÂs history as well as laboratory results including urine protein electrophoresis, blood tests, and a biopsy were used to diagnose the patient in this case. The official diagnosis of this patient is provided in the âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section, and is accompanied by a discussion of the case and a short list of references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose patientâÂÂs conditions. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of clinical immunology.

Najjar, Hazim

2009-01-14

436

Specific macrothrombocytopenia/hemolytic anemia associated with sitosterolemia.  

PubMed

Sitosterolemia (phytosterolemia) is a rare inherited sterol storage disorder, characterized by significantly elevated plasma levels of plant sterols. The clinical features of sitosterolemia are xanthomas, premature atherosclerosis, arthritis, and, occasionally, liver function impair and hematologic abnormalities. This disorder is caused by mutations of ABCG5/ABCG8 genes. We report here the clinical, laboratory, and molecular genetic features of 13 patients with sitosterolemia from eight unrelated families who had specific hematologic problems of macrothrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and splenomegaly besides the major clinical manifestations. The peripheral blood films showed some unique features: large platelets surrounded by a circle of vacuoles, and various abnormal erythrocyte shapes, especially stomatocyte. According to these distinct changes of blood cell morphology, we identified two sitosterolemia patients who lacked the classical clinical phenomena. All the patients had been misdiagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), Evans syndrome, or secondary ITP with delay being 28.8 years between symptom onset and correct diagnosis. These results indicate that sitosterolemia is certainly not as rare as originally thought. The phenomena of macrothrombocytopenia/hemolysis might represent a new platelet disorder. Plasma plant sterols and ABCG5/ABCG8 genes should be analyzed when such hematologic abnormalities are unexplained. PMID:24166850

Wang, Zhaoyue; Cao, Lijuan; Su, Yanhua; Wang, Gaifeng; Wang, Ruijuan; Yu, Ziqiang; Bai, Xia; Ruan, Changgeng

2014-03-01

437

Use Massive Parallel Sequencing and Exome Capture Technology to Sequence the Exome of Fanconi Anemia Children and Their Patents  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Fanconi Anemia; Autosomal or Sex Linked Recessive Genetic Disease; Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis Failure, Multiple Congenital Abnormalities, and Susceptibility to Neoplastic Diseases.; Hematopoiesis Maintainance.

2013-11-21

438

Prevalence and pathogenesis of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease. Influence of anti-tumor necrosis factor-? treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease, but its epidemiology may be changing due to earlier diagnosis and improved treatments. We investigated the prevalence and pathogenesis of anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Design and Methods In a cross-sectional study 263 out-patients with inflammatory bowel disease (165 with Crohn’s disease, 98 with ulcerative colitis) were investigated. The influence of time from diagnosis, disease activity, inflammation and the status of iron and hematinic vitamins on the level of hemoglobin and prevalence of anemia were evaluated. In a second group of 27 patients with Crohn’s disease, undergoing anti-tumor necrosis factor-? treatment with infliximab because of refractory or fistulizing disease, we determined the effects of infliximab on disease activity, hemoglobin, serum erythropoietin levels, iron status and inflammation. Results In all, 104 of the 263 patients with inflammatory bowel disease were anemic. Age, gender and azathioprine treatment had no influence on anemia. The prevalence of anemia was highest at diagnosis (65%), decreased during the first 4 years after disease onset, and was stable thereafter. Active disease was associated with higher rates of anemia. At diagnosis most anemic patients had anemia of chronic disease; during follow-up iron deficiency and multifactorial forms of anemia became more prevalent. Eighteen of 27 patients undergoing treatment with infliximab were anemic; most of them had anemia of chronic disease. Infliximab reduced disease activity and improved anemia in 12 patients. This was mediated by an increased production of erythropoietin for the degree of anemia. In vitro infliximab increased the growth of erythroid progenitors from the peripheral blood of patients with active disease. Conclusions Anemia is a common problem in out-patients with inflammatory bowel disease; the prevalence and severity of anemia are related to the activity of the bowel disorder. The pathogenesis of anemia changes during the course of the disease, with anemia of chronic disease having a major role at diagnosis and iron deficiency and multifactorial forms of anemia during follow-up. In patients requiring anti-tumor necrosis factor-? treatment, response to therapy improves erythropoiesis.

Bergamaschi, Gaetano; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Albertini, Riccardo; Ardizzone, Sandro; Biancheri, Paolo; Bonetti, Elisa; Cassinotti, Andrea; Cazzola, Paolo; Markopoulos, Konstantinos; Massari, Alessandro; Rosti, Vittorio; Porro, Gabriele Bianchi; Corazza, Gino R.

2010-01-01

439

The prevalence and clinical characteristics of cancer among anemia patients treated at an outpatient clinic  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia is the most common hematologic condition encountered in outpatient clinics. It is often overlooked because it is common among patients; however, anemia is one of the leading indicators of cancer. This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of cancer among anemia patients who visited an outpatient clinic. Methods The data were collected by reviewing the records of an outpatient clinic from January 2007 to December 2011. Results In total, 502 patients (52 males, 450 females) were diagnosed with anemia. Cancer prevalence among anemia patients was 5.57% (25.0%, men; 3.3%, women); further, the most frequently diagnosed cancer was colorectal cancer (22.5%), followed by advanced gastric cancer (16.1%), breast cancer (9.6%), myelodysplastic syndrome (9.6%), cervical cancer (6.4%), renal-cell carcinoma (6.4%), and thyroid cancer (6.4%). The prevalence of cancer was 4.1% in those aged 40-49 years, 4.2% in the subjects in their fifties, 8.0% in those in their sixties, 21.6% in those in their seventies, and 55.6% in those aged over 80 years. The cancer prevalence among iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients was 6.18% (28.8%, men; 3.5%, women). The cancer prevalence in postmenopausal and premenopausal female IDA patients was 16.0% and 1.6%, respectively. Conclusion Among anemia patients, male patients aged over 40 years and female patients aged over 60 years, along with postmenopausal female patients, were more likely to be diagnosed with cancer. Consequently, male IDA patients, and female patients aged over 60 years must be carefully evaluated for the possibility of malignancy.

Kim, Soo Jeong; Ha, So Young; Choi, Bo Mi; Lee, Mi Yeong; Jin, Jong Youl; Yeom, Soo Jeong; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Young Min

2013-01-01

440

Iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of Gaza Strip, Palestine  

PubMed Central

Background: iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of nutritional anemia; it has been recognized as an important health problem in Palestine. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and to identify possible risk factors of iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of the Gaza Strip and to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementing oral iron formula in the anemic children. Methods: the study included 735 (384 male and 351 female) kindergarten children. Data was collected by questionnaire interviews, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count analysis. All iron deficient anemic children were treated using an oral iron formula (50 mg ferrous carbonate + 100 mg vitamin C /5 mL) and the complete blood count was reassessed after three months. A univariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model were constructed; crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Results: the overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 33.5% with no significant differences between boys and girls. Significantly different prevalences of iron deficiency anemia were reported between different governorates of the Gaza Strip. Governorate, low education level of the parents and smoking are significant risk factors for children developing anemia. Significantly lower complete blood count parameters, except for WBC, were reported in anemic children. The oral iron treatment significantly improved hemoglobin concentrations, and normalized the iron deficiency marker. Conclusions: iron deficiency anemia is a serious health problem among children living in the marginalized areas of the Gaza Strip, which justifies the necessity for national intervention programs to improve the health status for the less fortunate development areas.

Sirdah, Mahmoud Mohammed; Yaghi, Ayed; Yaghi, Abdallah R.

2014-01-01

441

Frequency of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Girls Studying in Mashhad High Schools  

PubMed Central

Background Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent anemia. 2 million people in the world suffer from it. All young girls are at higher risk for iron defiency anemia, therefore,diagnosis and prevention of this anemia in the young age is very important. Materials and Methods: A total of 1500 high school girls educated in five regions of education of Mashhad (ages 14-18 years) were studied. Cell blood count (CBC), serum iron, total iron binding capacity(TIBC),ferritin and peripheral blood smear were performed . If mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was less than normal(<76fl) and Red blood cell (RBC) was more than normal(>5×106/mm3 ), hemoglobin electrophoresis was subjected to test by methods of cellulose acetate to check the possibility of thalassemia minor.The data was analyzed by SPSS(version19) and Minitab software. Result: This is a descriptive cross sectional research. From 1500 under-experiment people,1094 cases (72.9%) were non-infected, 310 cases(20.7%) had iron deficiency anemia, and 96 cases(6.4%) had other disorders such as thalassemia. In girls with anemia, 272 cases (87.7%) were in stage I, 17 cases (5.5%) in stage II and 21 cases (6.8%) in stage III. The average age in stage I was higher than stage II and III. . Mean and standard deviation for Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Fe, TIBC and Ferritin had significant difference in infected and non-infected group. Conclusion This study revealed that the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in young girls are moderate, so that it is important to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in young girls.

Abrishami, F; Golshan, A

2013-01-01

442

Validation of a patient satisfaction questionnaire for anemia treatment, the PSQ-An  

PubMed Central

Background Treating anemia associated with chemotherapy and many cancers is often necessary. However, patient satisfaction with anemia treatment is limited by the lack of validated instruments. We developed and validated a new treatment-specific patient satisfaction instrument: the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire for Anemia Treatment (PSQ-An). Treatment burden and overall satisfaction scales were designed for ease of use in clinical practice. Methods 312 cancer patients (141 breast, 69 gynecological, and 102 non-small cell lung) were targeted to complete the PSQ-An at 4 week intervals. Data from weeks 5 and 9 were analyzed. Patients also completed the MOS SF-36 Global Health assessment and questions concerning resources devoted to anemia treatment. Item reduction used endorsement rates, floor/ceiling effects, and item-item correlations. Factor analysis identified meaningful subscales. Test-retest reliability was assessed. Construct validity was tested, using Pearson's correlations, by comparing subscale scores to Global Health, hemoglobin levels, and resources devoted to anemia treatment. Results The overall response rate was 92.9% (264/284) at week 5. Most (84.2%) of the patients were female, and the mean (SD) age was 60.2 (± 11.8) years. Two distinct subscales were identified measuring treatment burden (7 items) and overall satisfaction (2 items). Test-retest reliability was examined (ICC: 0.45–0.67); both were internally consistent (alpha = 0.83). Both subscales exhibited convergent and divergent validity with independent measures of health. ANOVA results indicated that the PSQ-An Satisfaction subscale discriminated between 5 levels of MOS SF-36 Global Health (P = 0.006). Conclusion The PSQ-An is a validated, treatment-specific instrument for measuring satisfaction with anemia treatment for cancer patients. PSQ-An subscales reflect the burden of injection anemia treatment on cancer patients and their assessment of the overall treatment value.

Nordyke, Robert J; Chang, Chih-Hung; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Wallace, Joel F; Yao, Bin; Schwartzberg, Lee S

2006-01-01

443

Standard of care for cancer-related anemia: improving hemoglobin levels and quality of life.  

PubMed

The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has proven to be a major advance in the therapeutic options available for managing anemia in cancer patients. The results of placebo-controlled clinical trials and large, community-based, open-label studies have confirmed that epoetin alfa, a recombinant human erythropoietin, significantly reduces transfusion requirements, and reliably increases hemoglobin (Hb) levels in anemic (Hb level <12 g/dl) cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Increased Hb improves patients' energy level and their ability to perform the activities of daily living, as well as their overall quality of life (QOL). These findings are independent of tumor type and disease status and are comparable in patients receiving nonplatinum- and platinum-based chemotherapeutic regimens. Furthermore, more than a decade of use in clinical trials and by physicians in routine clinical practice has demonstrated that epoetin alfa is safe and well tolerated when used to treat cancer patients with anemia. The availability of epoetin alfa as an alternative to transfusion has changed practices in anemia management; physicians can now treat anemia with the goal of achieving adequate Hb levels to relieve anemia-related fatigue, a major symptom contributing to decreased QOL in cancer patients. Incremental benefit analysis has shown that increasing Hb level from 11 g/dl to 12 g/dl yields the greatest improvement in QOL per 1 g/dl increase in Hb. The demonstrated efficacy of epoetin alfa for increasing Hb levels and improving patient QOL have made this agent a rationale choice for management of cancer-related anemia. Ongoing research will continue to provide new insights into best management of anemia with epoetin alfa in cancer patients. PMID:15855813

Cortesi, Enrico; Gascón, Pere; Henry, David; Littlewood, Timothy; Milroy, Robert; Pronzato, Paolo; Reinhardt, Uwe; Shasha, Daniel; Thatcher, Nicholas; Wilkinson, Peter

2005-01-01

444

Nutritional status, hospitalization and mortality among patients with sickle cell anemia in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Reduced growth is common in children with sickle cell anemia, but few data exist on associations with long-term clinical course. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition at enrolment into a hospital-based cohort and whether poor nutritional status predicted morbidity and mortality within an urban cohort of Tanzanian sickle cell anemia patients. Design and Methods Anthropometry was conducted at enrolment into the sickle cell anemia cohort (n=1,618; ages 0.5–48 years) and in controls who attended screening (siblings, walk-ins and referrals) but who were found not to have sickle cell anemia (n=717; ages 0.5–64 years). Prospective surveillance recorded hospitalization at Muhimbili National Hospital and mortality between March 2004 and September 2009. Results Sickle cell anemia was associated with stunting (OR=1.92, P<0.001, 36.2%) and wasting (OR=1.66, P=0.002, 18.4%). The greatest growth deficits were observed in adolescents and in boys. Independent of age and sex, lower hemoglobin concentration was associated with increased odds of malnutrition in sickle cell patients. Of the 1,041 sickle cell anemia patients with a body mass index z-score at enrolment, 92% were followed up until September 2009 (n=908) or death (n=50). Body mass index and weight-for-age z-score predicted hospitalization (hazard ratio [HZR]=0.90, P=0.04 and HZR=0.88, P=0.02) but height-for-age z-score did not (HZR=0.93, NS). The mortality rate of 2.5 per 100 person-years was not associated with any of the anthropometric measures. Conclusions In this non-birth-cohort of sickle cell anemia with significant associated undernutrition, wasting predicted an increased risk of hospital admission. Targeted nutritional interventions should prioritize treatment and prevention of wasting.

Cox, Sharon E.; Makani, Julie; Fulford, Anthony J.; Komba, Albert N.; Soka, Deogratius; Williams, Thomas N.; Newton, Charles R.; Marsh, Kevin; Prentice, Andrew M.

2011-01-01

445

The prevalence of anemia and iron depletion in the population aged 10 years or older  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia and iron depletion continue to be common disorders in the world. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of anemia and iron depletion in apparently healthy Koreans aged 10 years or more. Methods We used the data of the 4th Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which assessed 7,607 individuals (3,337 males and 4,270 females). Iron depletion was defined as serum ferritin less than 15 ng/mL. Results In males, mean hemoglobin (Hb) concentration decreased after the age of 50. The prevalence of anemia was 7.1% in 60 to 69 year olds and 12.3% in men aged 70 or older. As for females, the prevalence of anemia was 8.8% in 15 to 17 year olds, 16.7% in 18 to 49 year olds, 10.9% in 60 to 69 year olds, and 18.2% women aged 70 or older. In males, the prevalence of iron depletion was 8.6% at ages 10 to 14 years, 3.9% at 15 to 17, and 2.6% at 70 years or older. In females, the prevalence of iron depletion was 17.2% at ages 10 to 14 years, 24.1% at 15 to 17, 33.0% at 18 to 49, and 5.7% at 70 years or older. Although normocytic anemia was most common in both males and females, the proportion of microcytosis and macrocytosis increased at age 70 or older. Conclusion The prevalence of anemia and iron depletion was high in women of reproductive age and in the elderly. Considering the rapid increase in the older population, an intervention to prevent anemia and iron depletion is imperative.

Kang, Hee Sook; Kim, Chul Soo; Kim, Young Taek

2011-01-01

446

Transforming growth factor-? superfamily ligand trap ACE-536 corrects anemia by promoting late-stage erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

Erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates proliferation of early-stage erythrocyte precursors and is widely used for the treatment of chronic anemia. However, several types of EPO-resistant anemia are characterized by defects in late-stage erythropoiesis, which is EPO independent. Here we investigated regulation of erythropoiesis using a ligand-trapping fusion protein (ACE-536) containing the extracellular domain of human activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) modified to reduce activin binding. ACE-536, or its mouse version RAP-536, produced rapid and robust increases in erythrocyte numbers in multiple species under basal conditions and reduced or prevented anemia in murine models. Unlike EPO, RAP-536 promoted maturation of late-stage erythroid precursors in vivo. Cotreatment with ACE-536 and EPO produced a synergistic erythropoietic response. ACE-536 bound growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) and potently inhibited GDF11-mediated Smad2/3 signaling. GDF11 inhibited erythroid maturation in mice in vivo and ex vivo. Expression of GDF11 and ActRIIB in erythroid precursors decreased progressively with maturation, suggesting an inhibitory role for GDF11 in late-stage erythroid differentiation. RAP-536 treatment also reduced Smad2/3 activation, anemia, erythroid hyperplasia and ineffective erythropoiesis in a mouse model of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). These findings implicate transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily signaling in erythroid maturation and identify ACE-536 as a new potential treatment for anemia, including that caused by ineffective erythropoiesis. PMID:24658078

Suragani, Rajasekhar N V S; Cadena, Samuel M; Cawley, Sharon M; Sako, Dianne; Mitchell, Dianne; Li, Robert; Davies, Monique V; Alexander, Mark J; Devine, Matthew; Loveday, Kenneth S; Underwood, Kathryn W; Grinberg, Asya V; Quisel, John D; Chopra, Rajesh; Pearsall, R Scott; Seehra, Jasbir; Kumar, Ravindra

2014-04-01

447

Management of iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease - a practical approach  

PubMed Central

Although anemia is the most common systemic manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), among the broad spectrum of extraintestinal disease complications encountered in IBD, including arthritis and osteopathy, it has generally received little consideration. However, not only in terms of frequency, but also with regard to its potential effect on hospitalization rates and on the quality of life and work, anemia is indeed a significant and costly complication of IBD. Anemia is multifactorial in nature, the most prevalent etiological forms being iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and anemia of chronic disease. In a condition associated with inflammation, such as IBD, the determination of iron status using common biochemical parameters alone is inadequate. A more accurate assessment may be attained using new iron indices including reticulocyte hemoglobin content, percentage of hypochromic red cells or zinc protoporphyrin. While oral iron supplementation has traditionally been a mainstay of IDA treatment, it has also been linked to extensive gastrointestinal side effects and possible disease exacerbation. However, many physicians are still reluctant to administer iron intravenously, despite the wide availability of a variety of new IV preparations with improved safety profiles, and despite the recommendations of international expert guidelines. This article discusses improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies based on new clinical insights into the regulation of iron homeostasis.

Stein, Jurgen; Dignass, Axel U.

2013-01-01

448

Risk Factors for Anemia among Brazilian Infants from the 2006 National Demographic Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency is an important public health problem. An understanding of anemia risk factors is essential to informed health policies. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,382 infants from the 2006 Brazilian National Survey on Demography and the Health of Women and Children. Mild and moderate anemia was characterised by hemoglobin levels below 11.0 and 9.5?g/dL, respectively. Rates for mild and moderate anemia were 25.9% and 9.9%, respectively. The logistic model included three risk factors for mild anemia—urban residence area (OR = 2.5; P = 0.004), fever in the past 2 weeks (OR = 2.4; P < 0.001), and age less than 12 months (OR = 1.7; P = 0.024). Strategies to control infant anemia should include health promotion and nutritional education for families from all socioeconomic levels. Lifestyle quality improvement based on adequate food consumption must be achieved by communities in all macroregions, and especially in urban areas.

Konstantyner, Tulio; Roma Oliveira, Thais Claudia; de Aguiar Carrazedo Taddei, Jose Augusto