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USAID and FINCA: helping women in Tanzania.  


In Tanzania, the international microfinance network FINCA set up shop and began training its first Village Banking Groups in June 1998, disbursing its first loans in July with a grant from the US Agency for International Development. Within 2 months, the program reached 757 low-income women and distributed loans worth US$57,183 using the group support system in which 30-50 neighbors come together to guarantee one another's loans. With the loans from FINCA, entrepreneurs quickly became involved in a range of business activities, from selling tomatoes to starting a hair salon. Located in Mwanza, in the Lake Zone, FINCA Tanzania's clients include many members of the Sukuma tribe. It is noted that in this region there are a few job opportunities in the formal economy. In 1999, FINCA Tanzania reached 3632 clients, exceeding its targets despite a difficult economic environment. In that same year, FINCA partnered with Freedom from Hunger in launching a program that offers some of its members health education and basic business training at Village Banking Group meetings. PMID:12296252

Henderson, K




Microsoft Academic Search

El sector ovino-extensivo de la Meseta Central Santacruceña, extensa región ecológica del centro-Norte de la provincia de Santa Cruz (Patagonia Argentina), en las últimas décadas atraviesa una situación de crisis, evidenciada en el escaso porcentaje de parcelas que mantienen el uso del suelo tradicional. Las interpretaciones con respecto a las causas de la crisis no son muy numerosas, en la

Alberto Vazquez



Las Vegas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Las Vegas, NV was acquired on August, 2000 and covers an area 42 km (25 miles) wide and 30 km (18 miles) long. The image displays three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. McCarran International Airport to the south and Nellis Air Force Base to the NE are the two major airports visible. Golf courses appear as bright red areas of worms. The first settlement in Las Vegas (which is Spanish for The Meadows) was recorded back in the early 1850s when the Mormon church, headed by Brigham Young, sent a mission of 30 men to construct a fort and teach agriculture to the Indians. Las Vegas became a city in 1905 when the railroad announced this city was to be a major division point. Prior to legalized gambling in 1931, Las Vegas was developing as an agricultural area. Las Vegas' fame as a resort area became prominent after World War II. The image is located at 36.1 degrees north latitude and 115.1 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.



Las Vegas Strip History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by amateur cultural historian Deanna DeMatteo, this site offers "the most detailed history of the Las Vegas Strip on the Internet today," showing in words and graphics the evolution of the properties on the Strip from its beginning to the present. Drawing on materials provided by publications, professional Las Vegas historians, and the Nevada State Museum and Historical Society, DeMatteo offers a detailed, noncommercial history with plenty of photographs (many archival) of the strip from the first night club in 1930 named Pair O Dice to the first true casino hotel, El Rancho with 63 rooms in 1941, to Hilton's giant Paris Las Vegas opening earlier this Fall with 2,914 rooms. There is also a special topics section, covering people significant in the strip's development, such as Warren "Doc" Bayley and Howard Hughes. Launched in August, the Website is continually updated with new material. Note: to reach table of contents, click on the photograph at end of the homepage.

Dematteo, Deanna.



EPA Science Inventory

ENPACT: The Las Vegas Interagency Pilot Project The Las Vegas Interagency Pilot Project of the EMPACT program has involved eleven efforts. These efforts are described in brief on the poster presentation. They include: Las Vegas Environmental Monitoring Inventory, the Qual...


Las Vegas: An Unconventional History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the PBS series American Experience, this well-designed siteexplores the history and idiosyncrasies of Las Vegas. The film, andaccompanying book, which the web site is based on will both be availablethis fall (the film airs in November on PBS), and the site certainlywhets viewers appetites for both. A nice range of information iscovered on the site which includes everything from information aboutNevada's nuclear testing in the fifties, to Rat Pack reminiscences and ofcourse, wedding photos. If you'd like to share your own Vegas weddingtale there is an interactive portion of the site dedicated to the topic.Packed with time lines, a teacher's guide, maps and much more this site(and film and book by the same name) are worthy of attention.



On the design of LAS spreading codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of large area synchronised (LAS) codes is studied, which exhibits a so-called interference free window (IFW), where both the intersymbol interference (ISI) and the multiple user interference (MAI) are suppressed, provided that the relative time offset of the codes is within the IFW. Hence, LAS codes have the potential of increasing the capacity of CDMA networks. However, a

Byoung-Jo Choi; Lajos Hanzo



Las acciones preventivas y de mejora en el contexto de las organizaciones empresariales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se presenta una herramienta que facilita el control de las acciones preventivas y de mejora en organizaciones que tienen implantado, o pretenden implantar, el sistema de dirección y gestión empresarial, y como parte de este los sistemas de seguridad y salud en el trabajo, calidad, competencia del laboratorio de calibración y ambiental. La mejora es un requisito establecido en las

Rossio Coya Cáceres; Martín Alberto Ayala López; Iosvani Segura Leyva



Comprendiendo las Negociaciones Comerciales Agrícolas de EE.UU.: Un Breve Análisis de las Fuerzas Políticas y Económicas que Moldearán las Posiciones de EE.UU. ante la OMC y en el Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo examina algunas de las fuerzas políticas y económicas, y las posibles interacciones entre ellas, que moldearán las posiciones de negociación actuales de EE.UU. en la OMC y el ALCA. La discusión se enfocará en tres temas: el papel de la política en el desarrollo de las políticas agrícolas domésticas, el enfoque concentrado del sector agrícola norteamericano ante la

Dale E. Hathaway



LAS Language Arts Supplement, English. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of over 100 games and activities is intended to increase oral proficiency among Spanish-speaking children without requiring reading skills. The collection grew out of the desire to provide remedies for specific linguistic weaknesses in English as identified by the Language Assessment Scales (LAS). Because tongue twisters, riddles…

DeAvila, Edward A.; Duncan, Sharon E.


Las Políticas Neoliberales y la cuestión Territorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

La profunda crisis del capitalismo y las políticas creadas tendientes a contrarrestarla han colocado en primer plano y como elementos determinantes de ésta, a los procesos económicos en su relación dialéctica con la política y el Estado. La cuestión regional y urbana ha sido considerada secundaria dada la sobrevaloración otorgada a otros procesos políticos, sociales y culturales examinados sin considerar

Emilio Pradilla Cobos



Las formas circunscritas de histoplasmosis pulmonar (Histoplasmomas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  Se refieren 12 casos de lesiones nodulares circunscritas del pulmón causados por elHistoplasma capsulatum (Histoplasmomas), obtenidos por resecciones pulmonares en personas de ambos sexos entre 10 y 72 años de edad. El diagnóstico\\u000a histo-patológico se realizó aplicando el método de coloración deGömöri modificado porGrocott.\\u000a \\u000a Las pruebas de sensibilidad cutáneas y serológicas resultaron positivas para histoplasmosis. Los cultivos de los especímenes

Alberto Angulo-Ortega



Caracterización de las Diatomitas de Río Seco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: La existencia de diatomita en la zona de R'o Seco (Piura, Perœ), ha llevado a los autores a realizar un estudio de sus propiedades f'sicas, qu'micas y mineral—gicas, con el objeto de determinar sus principales usos y aplicaciones. Para ello se han utilizado las t?cnicas de an‡lisis convencional, as' como microscop'a —ptica y electr—nica, difracci—n de rayos X y



Stratigraphic Units in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 25 well logs, 15 of which also had accompanying geophysical and aquifer test data were used to describe and establish three alloformations including the Tule Spring and Paradise Valley Alloformations and four aquiformations, the most well defined being, the Las Vegas Springs Aquiformation, in the west central part of the bolson (Donovan, 1996), primarily in Township 20 South, Range 60 East, Mount Diablo Baseline and Meridian (MDBLM), with the stratotypes designated in T20S, R61E S31 MDBLM (36° 9'59.89"N 115°11'26.34"W). The allostratigraphic units were developed using the recommendations in the North American Code of Stratigraphic Nomenclature (NACSN, 1983 and 2005). The hydrostratigraphic units were developed following the recommendations of Seaber (1992). The units constitute the bulk of the upper 500 meter section. Twenty additional wells in the same geographic area, drilled and completed between 1995 and 2005 with detailed geologic and hydrologic information provided confirmation of these units. The proposed stratigraphic units are not part of either, and are located between, the two previously named and non-contiguous formations in the bolson (the Miocene Muddy Creek Formation and the late Pleistocene Las Vegas Formation) (Longwell et al 1965). Las Vegas Valley contains a metropolitan area of approximately two million people. The deeper part of the alluvial basin below 300 ft below ground surface is of interest for supply and storage. The shallower part is of interest for water quality and the interaction between the ground water system and engineered structures.

Donovan, D.




Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights 10 local transportation-engineering innovations in Las Vegas, Nevada. The Las Vegas Area Computer Traffic System (LVACTS) has undergone a significant transformation in preparation for 21st century traffic control. The Tropicana Avenue and Las Vegas Boulevard intersection is a must see for any transportation engineer or planner with its opposing triple left turns and overhead pedestrian walkways. Road

R T Romer; G E Grayson; S K Patel




EPA Science Inventory

Las Vegas has become one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States. The cities population has doubled from 1980 to 1994 and in 1995 Las Vegas has surpassed the one million mark. The population of Las Vegas is currently growing at a rate of 7 percent annually....


?Cuales son las amenazas o peligros volcanicos?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Los volcanes son capaces de producir numerosos peligros geologicos e hidrologicos. Los cientificos del Servicio Geologico de los EE. UU. (USGS, por sus siglas en ingles) y de otras instituciones alrededor del mundo estan estudiando los peligros de muchos de los centenares de volcanes activos y potencialmente activos del mundo. Estos cientificos vigilan muy de cerca la actividad de algunos de los volcanes mas peligrosos, por lo que estan preparados para alertar a las autoridades y/o a la poblacion en caso de que aumente sustancialmente la probabilidad de que ocurra una erupcion u otro evento peligroso.

Myers, Bobbie; Brantley, Steven R.; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley, James W., II



Advanced Airborne CO2 LAS System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique airborne Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (LAS) system has been developed by ITT Space Systems, LLC to address the needs of the National Research Council Decadal Survey Tier 2 mission for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS). This instrument has undergone multiple airborne field tests in cooperation with our partners at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The instrument was built largely with off-the-shelf components and uses high reliability telecom components, including lasers, modulators and fiber amplifiers as the transmitter. Multiple wavelengths are transmitted simultaneously from a single collimator and the return signal is collected by a simple 8” telescope that is fiber coupled to a HgCdTe APD. The analog signal is sampled with a high resolution scope card housed in a National Instruments PXI chassis and the digitized signal is then passed through our custom-built software-based lock-in processing system which allows separation of the signals from the individual wavelengths. The separated signals are then used in the standard Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) relations to determine the integrated column differential optical depth. This presentation will give a detailed overview of this multi-frequency, single-beam, synchronous lock-in LAS instrument including the basic methodology of the measurement. Recent improvements in the lock-in methodology designed to eliminate the effects of multi- path fading and frequency dependence of the electronic components will also be discussed.

Dobler, J. T.; Braun, M. G.; McGregor, D. P.; Erxleben, W. H.; Browell, E. V.; Harrison, F. W.



Impacto de las regulaciones ambientales en las estrategias de comercialización del café costarricense  

Microsoft Academic Search

El uso de instrumentos de gestión ambiental se ha introducido paulatinamente en la forma de hacer negocios de las empresas. Sea por presión externa o por iniciativa local, la implementación de este tipo de prácticas ha venido en aumento y con ello más firmas han visualizado a través de estos esquemas importantes herramientas de apoyo y proyección de sus estrategias

Suyen Alonso Ubieta; Gerardo Jiménez



Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGTN) features a comprehensive science research program and an innovative astronomy-education program featuring state-of-the-art instructional materials appropriate for students at all levels, from elementary school through postsecondary. LCOGTN operates two research-class robotic telescopes, the Faulkes Telescope North, located in Maui, Hawaii, and the Faulkes Telescope South, located in Australia at Siding Spring Observatory. These telescopes are available to teachers to use as part of their curricular or extracurricular activities, and are supported by a range of educational materials and a team of educators and professional astronomers. Additional telescopes in Mississippi, Texas, California, and the United Kingdom will further broaden the Network's scope. Real-time observation and still images available.

Observatory, Las C.



GMT Site Evaluation at Las Campanas Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Giant Magellan Telescope project is in the fortunate position of having clear access to a developed site with a long history of excellent performance. Las Campanas Observatory has dark skies, little or no risk of future light pollution, excellent seeing, moderate winds and a high fraction of clear nights. Our site testing effort is concentrated on identifying the best peak within LCO in terms of seeing, turbulence profile, and wind speeds and on quantifying the potential impact of precipitable water vapor on GMT mid-infrared science goals by characterization in terms of both precision and time variability. Thus, we are measuring meteorological characteristics (pressure, temperature, humidity, wind, and cloud cover), seeing, the turbulence profile of the free atmosphere (above 500 m), precipitable water vapor, and light pollution at four sites within the LCO property.

Thomas-Osip, J. E.



Radioxenon Atmospheric Measurements in North Las Vegas  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) deployed the Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) in North Las Vegas for two weeks in February and March 2006 for the purpose of measuring the radioxenon background at a level of sensitivity much higher than previously done in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The measurements establish what might be expected if future measurements are taken at NTS itself and investigate improved methods of environmental monitoring of NTS for test site readiness. Also, such radioxenon measurements have not previously been performed in a United States location considered to be as remote from nuclear reactors. A second detector, the Portable Environmental Monitoring Station (PEMS), built and operated by the Desert Research Institute (DRI), was deployed in conjunction with the ARSA and contained a pressure ion chamber, aerosol collection filters, and meteorological sensors. Some of the radioxenon measurements detected 133Xe at levels up to 3 mBq/m3. This concentration of radioxenon is consistent with the observation of low levels of radioxenon emanating from distance nuclear reactors. Previous measurements in areas of high nuclear reactor concentration have shown similar results, but the western US, in general, does not have many nuclear reactors. Measurements of the wind direction indicate that the air carrying the radioxenon came from south of the detector and not from the NTS.

Milbrath, Brian D.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Lidey, Lance S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Karr, L.; Shafer, David S.; Tappen, J.



Las garantías constitucionales en el derecho público de América Latina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo está dedicado al estudio de las garantías constitucionales que hoy caracterizan el derecho público latinoamericano y que siguiendo el orden de su consagración son: el habeas corpus, el amparo o tutela de los derechos constitucionales, el control de constitucionalidad y el habeas data, concluyendo con una parte donde se presentan las más recientes y novedosas garantías y los

Eduardo Rozo Acuña


Cambio tecnológico y productividad de las empresas industriales uruguayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se presentan las estimaciones de una función de costos translogarítmica en base a un modelo de datos panel para la industria uruguaya para 541 empresas entre 1988-1994. Asimismo se presentan las estimaciones para distintos agrupamientos, por tipo de empresa, mercado y división. Para el promedio de la muestra, el efecto neto de la escala y el cambio

Ruben Tansini; Patricia Triunfo



Association Meeting Planners' Perceived Performance of Las Vegas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meeting planner of a particular association is often instrumental in influencing what city will best accommodate the needs of the organization. This study examined how Las Vegas as a convention city meets preferences of association meeting planners by applying Importance-Performance analysis (IPA). Qualitative (open-ended) evaluations were also sought to complement the analysis. The findings showed that Las Vegas effectively

Seyhmus Baloglu; Curtis Love




Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar la fijación del cociente de capi- tal, esto es, el porcentaje que representan los recursos propios sobre el total de activos, por parte de las empresas bancarias. Para ello, se pro- pone un modelo teórico que analiza la existencia de un cociente de ca- pital objetivo distinguiendo dos regímenes: uno para las empresas



El impacto de las reformas estructurales en la agricultura colombiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia, como la mayor parte de los países latinoamericanos, emprendió un ambicioso proceso de liberalización y reformas al clarear la década de los años noventa, el cual cobijó al sector agropecuario. Las reformas en el agro tuvieron tres períodos: desde el segundo semestre de 1990 hasta finales de 1992 se pusieron en marcha la mayoría de las reformas iniciales, de

Santiago Perry



Los sistemas y las auditorías de gestión integral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las auditorías integrales (calidad, ambiental y seguridad, y salud ocupacional) son hoy por hoy una herramienta que se ha consolidado en la gestión empresarial de cualquier organización como un elemento evaluador y de cierre del ciclo planear-hacer-verificar-actuar; que les permite a las empresas medir su desempeño de forma integral y garantizar el cumplimiento legal y de estándares internacionales (ya sea

Clara Inés Pardo Martínez




NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an image analysis system designed to manipulate and analyze digital data in raster format and provide the user with a wide spectrum of functions and statistical tools for analysis. LAS offers these features under VMS with optional image display capabilities for IVAS and other display devices as well as the X-Windows environment. LAS provides a flexible framework for algorithm development as well as for the processing and analysis of image data. Users may choose between mouse-driven commands or the traditional command line input mode. LAS functions include supervised and unsupervised image classification, film product generation, geometric registration, image repair, radiometric correction and image statistical analysis. Data files accepted by LAS include formats such as Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The enhanced geometric registration package now includes both image to image and map to map transformations. The over 200 LAS functions fall into image processing scenario categories which include: arithmetic and logical functions, data transformations, fourier transforms, geometric registration, hard copy output, image restoration, intensity transformation, multispectral and statistical analysis, file transfer, tape profiling and file management among others. Internal improvements to the LAS code have eliminated the VAX VMS dependencies and improved overall system performance. The maximum LAS image size has been increased to 20,000 lines by 20,000 samples with a maximum of 256 bands per image. The catalog management system used in earlier versions of LAS has been replaced by a more streamlined and maintenance-free method of file management. This system is not dependent on VAX/VMS and relies on file naming conventions alone to allow the use of identical LAS file names on different operating systems. While the LAS code has been improved, the original capabilities of the system have been preserved. These include maintaining associated image history, session logging, and batch, asynchronous and interactive mode of operation. The LAS application programs are integrated under version 4.1 of an interface called the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). TAE 4.1 has four modes of user interaction: menu, direct command, tutor (or help), and dynamic tutor. In addition TAE 4.1 allows the operation of LAS functions using mouse-driven commands under the TAE-Facelift environment provided with TAE 4.1. These modes of operation allow users, from the beginner to the expert, to exercise specific application options. LAS is written in C-language and FORTRAN 77 for use with DEC VAX computers running VMS with approximately 16Mb of physical memory. This program runs under TAE 4.1. Since TAE 4.1 is not a current version of TAE, TAE 4.1 is included within the LAS distribution. Approximately 130,000 blocks (65Mb) of disk storage space are necessary to store the source code and files generated by the installation procedure for LAS and 44,000 blocks (22Mb) of disk storage space are necessary for TAE 4.1 installation. The only other dependencies for LAS are the subroutine libraries for the specific display device(s) that will be used with LAS/DMS (e.g. X-Windows and/or IVAS). The standard distribution medium for LAS is a set of two 9track 6250 BPI magnetic tapes in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a set of two TK50 tape cartridges in DEC VAX BACKUP format. This program was developed in 1986 and last updated in 1992.

Pease, P. B.



Airborne Validation of Active CO2 LAS Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique, multi-frequency, single-beam, laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) that operates at 1.57 ?m has been developed for a future space-based mission to determine the global distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). A prototype of the space-based LAS system was developed by ITT, and it has been successfully flight tested in seven airborne campaigns conducted in different geographic regions over the last four years. Flight tests were conducted over Oklahoma, Michigan, New Hampshire, and Virginia under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Remote LAS measurements were compared to high-quality in situ measurements obtained from instrumentation on the same aircraft on spirals under the ground track of the LAS. LAS flights were conducted over a wide range of land and water reflectances and in the presence of scattered clouds. An extensive data set of CO2 measurements has been obtained for evaluating the LAS performance. These LAS test flights resulted in the first demonstration of high-precision, high-accuracy, remote laser measurements of CO2 from an airborne platform. The LAS CO2 column measurements were found to have a precision for a 10-s horizontal average (~1 km) of better than 1 ppm of CO2 over land and 1.3 ppm over water. Absolute comparisons of CO2 remote and in situ measurements showed agreement on average to better than 0.5 ppm of CO2 with a standard deviation of the agreement to better than 2 ppm of CO2. In addition, results of recent coordinated aircraft flight tests of different CO2 LAS systems and different in situ CO2 measurement systems over Oklahoma and Virginia in July-August 2009 are also discussed in this paper.

Browell, E. V.; Dobler, J.; Kooi, S.; Choi, Y.; Harrison, F.; Moore, B.; Zaccheo, T.



Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in activated sludge plants.  


Monitoring data were collected in a pilot-scale municipal activated sludge plant to assess the fate of the C12-homologue of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS-C12). The pilot-plant was operated at influent LAS-C12 concentrations between 2 and 12 mg l(-1) and at sludge retention times of 10 and 27 days. Effluent and waste sludge concentrations varied between 5 and 10 microg l(-1) and between 37 and 69 microg g(-1) VSS, respectively. In the sludge samples only 2-8% was present as dissolved LAS-C12, whereas the remaining 92-98% was found to be adsorbed to the sludge. In spite of this high degree of sorption, more than 99% of the LAS-C12 load was removed by biodegradation, showing that not only the soluble fraction but also the adsorbed fraction of LAS-C12 is readily available for biodegradation. Sorption and biodegradation of LAS-C12 were also investigated separately. Sorption was an extremely fast and reversible process and could be described by a linear isotherm with a partition coefficient of 3.2 l g(-1) volatile suspended solids. From the results of biodegradation kinetic tests it was concluded that primary biodegradation of LAS-C12 cannot be described by a (growth) Monod model, but a secondary utilisation model should be used instead. The apparent affinity of the sludge to biodegrade LAS-C12 increased when the sludge was loaded with higher influent concentrations of LAS-C12. PMID:14769410

Temmink, H; Klapwijk, Bram



Las corporaciones autonomas regionales del caribe colombiano: Un analisis de sus finanzas y gobierno corporativo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales (car) y las Corporaciones de Desarrollo Sostenible (cds) son las instituciones encargadas de la protección del medio ambiente en Colombia. Este trabajo estudia el desempeño de las corporaciones que tienen jurisdicción sobre la Costa Caribe. En particular, examina sus principales fortalezas y limitaciones administrativas, y analiza si en sus presupuestos se reproducen las desigualdades regionales que

Joaquin Viloria de la Hoz



Las revistas internacionales de geografía física: análisis de las publicaciones reflejadas en el Science Citation Index del Journal of Citation Reports durante el período 1989-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

El manejo de los índices de impacto de las revistas internacionales es capital para investigadores, profesores y estudiantes de tercer ciclo ya que permite seleccionar la publicación más adecuada para dirigir las investigaciones. Al margen, en la actualidad, las trayectorias curriculares se están midiendo a través de las publicaciones en revistas indexadas, por lo que el conocimiento de estos índices

Carles Barriocanal Lozano



Flow cytometric analysis of a marine LAS-degrading consortia.  


The specific nucleic acid fluorochrome SYTO-13 was used in flow cytometric analysis to assess changes in the density and heterogeneity of marine bacterial populations which biodegrade linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS). Seawater samples with LAS and incubated in the laboratory (20 degrees C, 100 rpm, 30 days) were used to monitor LAS-degrading consortia. Flow cytometric studies and culture methods were used to characterize the LAS degrading bacterioplankton consortia. Fluorescence and scatter signals enabled us to define three regions (R1, R2 and R3) in the dual parameter cytograms. The distribution of the bacterial counts in these regions allowed us to monitor the formation and evolution of the consortia. PMID:10677841

López-Amorós, R; Comas, J; Garcia, M T; Vives-Rego, J



Thermal expansion in metal\\/lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) with metallic dispersions offers a new approach toward near-zero, isotropic, thermal expansion composites. The metallic phase contributes a positive coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to the negative CTE of the glass\\/ceramic matrix. In addition, the metal will increase the electrical and thermal conductivities over those of the matrix alone. The LAS system offers tailorable negative CTEs and light

E. G. Wolff



Visualizing Large Datasets with LAS and Google Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As experiments and simulations in Earth System Science grow larger and more complex, dataset volumes are growing explosively. Web-based visualization and analysis of these datasets is becoming a challenge due to large amount of data and the limit of network bandwidth. The Live Access Server (LAS) is a highly configurable Web server designed to provide flexible access to visualization and analysis products generated from geo- referenced scientific datasets. In this presentation, we introduce a new capability of LAS for interactively visualizing large datasets by utilizing the view-based refresh queries of Google Earth and the automatic decimation ("striding") capabilities of Ferret. When viewing a high resolution dataset on a global scale it is wasteful of bandwidth to handle the full resolution data. With the striding capability, Ferret selects every nth point along an axis, where n is the striding value. The striding values are dynamically computed based upon the size of the area of interest. The automatic striding approach minimizes the volume of data that need be touched to visualize a large geographic area. Higher resolutions are utilized for smaller areas to reveal the fine structures. The LAS provides this behavior using Google Earth as the user interface. As users zoom or pan on Google Earth, Google Earth interacts with LAS through a Network Link, which contains the URL of a LAS server. When the view inside Google Earth stops for a set number of seconds, it makes a request to a LAS server, sending the LAS server the latitude and longitude boundaries (bounding box) of the area currently in view. The LAS server uses that information to compute stride values, instruct Ferret to generate a visualization for that particular geographic area, and send the resulting image back to Google Earth.

Li, J.; Schweitzer, R.; Hankin, S.; Manke, A.; O'Brien, K.



Navajo minettes in the Cerros de las Mujeres, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cerros de las Mujeres in west-central New Mexico are three mafic minette plugs that should be considered part of the Navajo volcanic fields on the central Colorado Plateau. This newly recognized occurrence extends the Navajo volcanic fields to the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau, within 45 km of the extensional tectonic setting in which the Mogollon ash-flow tuff cauldrons occur. The Cerros de las Mujeres provide additional evidence for contemporaneous sodic and potassic volcanism within the Navajo volcanic fields.

Vaniman, D.; Laughlin, A. W.; Gladney, E. S.



El miedo a la amenaza nuclear y las obras de protección civil en Suiza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las obras de protección civil en Suiza representan no sólo una forma de actuar en el ámbito de la protección de la población, sino también un enorme gasto financiero para el Estado y, en definitiva, para todos los ciudadanos que las financian a través de los impuestos o pagando directamente las nuevas obras. Las locuras cometidas en este ámbito a

Marc Kaenzig



Linking Cooperation and Sustainable Development: The Las Nubes Coffee Partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

York University, the Tropical Science Center (TSC), and COOPEAGRI, R.L. of Costa Rica and Timothy's World Coffee have formed a unique partnership to advance rural sustainable development in the Las Nubes region of southern Costa Rica. York's Faculty of Environmental Studies (FES) and TSC have promoted the creation of a biological corridor along the Río Peñas Blancas, between the montane

Howard E. Daugherty; Stefanie J. Hall; Paula Pelaez


A Community-Based Organization: The Las Mercedes Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Las Mercedes Project as an example, the aim of this article is to discuss the philosophy and practice of community-based projects. At the core of such projects is a shift in understanding the nature of community. A community, in this case, represents a reality that persons construct that determines the character of rules, norms, and the focus and

John W. Murphy




Microsoft Academic Search

La importancia que tienen los grupos de trabajo académicos para alcanzar objetivos que propicien la realización de investigación y desarrollo tecnológico en el Sistema Nacional de Institutos Tecnológicos hace imperativo su buen funcionamiento; de esto depende el poder alcanzar los objetivos o desviarse hacia actividades triviales. En ocasiones se realizan juntas pero no son productivas, con planeación defectuosa de las

Gloria Pérez Garmendia; Francisco Gerardo Barroso Tanoira; Concepción Mánica Zuccolotto



Multiple output selection-LAS algorithm in large MIMO systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a low-complexity algorithm for detection in large MIMO systems based on the likelihood ascent search (LAS) algorithm. The key idea in our work is to generate multiple possible solutions or outputs from which we select the best one. We propose two possible approaches to achieve this goal and both are investigated. Computer simulations demonstrate that the proposed algorithm,

Peng Li; Ross D. Murch



Reading "Las Meninas": An Ekphrastic Approach to Teaching "Don Quijote"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading and teaching "Don Quijote" present multiple challenges to twenty-first century students and instructors who are culturally and historically distanced from the seventeenth century. With "Las Meninas" serving as a visual lexicon for cuing correlative themes and events in "Don Quijote", the instructor, through an ekphrastic, interdisciplinary…

Ortuno, Marian



Thermal expansion in metal/lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) with metallic dispersions offers a new approach toward near-zero, isotropic, thermal expansion composites. The metallic phase contributes a positive coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to the negative CTE of the glass/ceramic matrix. In addition, the metal will increase the electrical and thermal conductivities over those of the matrix alone. The LAS system offers tailorable negative CTEs and light weight compared to other negative CTE ceramics. The most negative CTE phase is crystalline ?-eucryptite, whose proportion in an initially glassy matrix can be controlled by heat treatment. Dispersed metal powders were both hot-pressed and cold-pressed and sintered together with LAS matrices prepared by sol gel methods. Super Invar powder was studied for its minimal CTE mismatch, while titanium powders offered a compromise between light weight and low CTE. An ultralow-expansion (ULE) glass- and linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)-based differential dilatometer was developed for rapid screening of compositions, while a double-laser Michelson interferometer was used for precise near-zero CTE measurements. The reinforced ?-eucryptite glass/ceramic matrix exhibited both a U-shaped ?L/L curve with temperature and some thermal hysteresis, depending on the fabrication and heat treatment sequences. The temperature of the zero-CTE portion of this curve was found to change with increasing titanium powder content. Results are also given for mixtures of Super Invar powders in ULE glass and ?-eucryptite matrices. Negative CTEs in a LAS matrix above ambient temperatures were more difficult to obtain than below, although the use of petalite (high-silica LAS) appears promising.

Wolff, E. G.



Geophysical Studies of the Las Vegas Urban Corridor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geophysical Studies of the Las Vegas Urban Corridor Area are part of an integrated effort to "geologically characterize the seismic hazards, water resources, and crustal structure of this rapidly growing urban corridor" by the USGS. The informational Web site contains a gravity map of the Las Vegas region, an aeromagnetic map, and a publications link with a list of over a dozen references. Seven of these publications are freely available for download with titles such as "Aeromagnetic Survey of the Amargosa Desert," "Nevada and California: A Tool for Understanding Near-Surface Geology," and Hydrology and Principal Facts for Gravity Stations in the Vicinity of Coyote Spring Valley, Nevada, with Initial Gravity Modeling Results." An interesting collection of unique resources, the site should be of interest to professionals in a wide variety of fields.



Las líneas de aluminio neutro como diagnóstico cromosférico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presenta un modelo atómico para el cálculo de las lí neas del Aluminio neutro que se forman en la cromósfera solar. En particular, se estudia la línea ? 3961 Å, que, por estar muy próxima a la lí nea H del Ca II y a H? es muy frecuentemente observada. Observaciones en esta lí nea obtenidas con el espectrógrafo a instalarse en el CASLEO, serán utilizadas para el estudio de fulguraciones solares.

Fernández Borda, R.; Mauas, P. J. D.


Performance of LAS-CDMA system using smart antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of CDMA spreading sequences predetermines the properties of the system. The properties of large area synchronous (LAS) CDMA system have been demonstrated an interference free window (IFW) compared to traditional CDMA systems. This IFW property, however, has a limited delay-offset range. It is not always possible that all the channel-induced multipath delay spread components arrives within IFW delay-offset

C. K. Ng; B. M. Ali; S. Khatun; S. S. Jamuar; M. Ismail



Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.



Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality data (prior to treatment), the proximity of Las Vegas Wash to the intake, and the results of the vulnerability analysis of potential contaminating activities, it is determined that the drinking water intake is at a Moderate level of risk for VOC, SOC, and microbiological contaminants. The drinking water intake is at a High level of risk for IOC contaminants. Vulnerability to radiological contamination is Moderate. Source water protection in the Las Vegas Valley is strongly encouraged because of the documented influence of the Las Vegas Wash on the quality of the water at the intake.

Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.



Instantánea de los cánceres de hígado y de las vías biliares

Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre los cánceres de hígado y de las vías biliares; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de estos tipos de cáncer.


Landsat-D Assessment System Library Computer Compatible Tape (Laslib-Cct/Las-Cct).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The format for computer compatible tapes containing thematic mapper archival data and product data generated by the LANDSAT-D Assessment System (LAS). These data tapes are engineering products developed primarily for LAS internal use to assist in the earl...



Percepción de las redes sociales en la escuela: colegio Felipe Palazon (Tarija – Bolivia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

No hay duda que desde hace mucho las tecnologías de la información y comunicación, asi como internet, tienen un crecimiento exponencial sin límites en todo el mundo, por las múltiples aplicaciones, y aporte en todos los ámbitos profesionales, lo mismo ocurre con el fenómeno de las redes sociales. En Bolivia y, específicamente en la ciudad de Tarija, siguen esta tendencia;

Carmelo Branimir España Villegas



Los medios de comunicación y las violaciones de los derechos humanos en el área de conflicto  

Microsoft Academic Search

La autora, que actualmente es una refugiada política en Austria, relata su trabajo como periodista palestina en las áreas conflictivas de Israel. Sus experiencias revelan las violaciones de Derechos Humanos y el genocidio cometido por las fuerzas armadas israelíes. Este artículo no sólo condena al estado de Israel sino que también cuestiona la falta de compromiso de los Estados Unidos

Kawther Salam



Language Assessment Scales, LAS I, for Grades K-5, English/Spanish. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language Assessment Scales, LAS I, are designed for children in grades K-5. LAS I accommodates ethnic and linguistic differences and provides direct language activities taken from the popular culture of both English- and Spanish-speaking peoples. LAS I consists of two independent tests, one in English and the other in Spanish, presented largely on…

De Avila, Edward A.; Duncan, Sharon E.


La donación cadavérica y su repercusión en las familias donantes mexicanas  

Microsoft Academic Search

La muerte encefálica se asocia a donación de órganos. Sin embargo, las distintas repercusiones que este proceso tiene en las familias donantes no han sido bien estudiadas1. Por otro lado, tampoco sabemos hasta donde el diagnóstico de muerte encefálica es bien comprendido por los afectados. Por tal motivo desarrollamos este trabajo cuyo objetivo principal es censar las distintas afecciones que

Cruz Netza Cardoso; M. de la Luz Casas Martínez; Hugo Ramírez García




Microsoft Academic Search

El trabajo evalúa el estado de las prácticas de gobierno corporativo en las empresas que negocian acciones ordinarias en la Bolsa de Colombia. Esta tarea se lleva a cabo mediante la construcción de un Índice de Gobierno Corporativo construido con información pública. Por otra parte se mide el impacto que las buenas prácticas de gobierno corporativo tienen sobre la relación

Andrés Langebaek; Jaime Eduardo Ortíz



Los hechos regionales, base para las estructuras de gobierno en la ciudad-región de Medellín  

Microsoft Academic Search

La fusión urbana de los municipios del Área Metropolitana de Medellín, asociada al mejoramiento de las infraestructuras que la conectan con el oriente y occidente cercanos, han cambiado la realidad urbana, regional, social y económica. Sin embargo, las respuestas públicas a los fenómenos de la conurbación y a las dinámicas campo-ciudad siguen siendo respuestas municipalistas y fuertemente determinadas por la

Luis Fernando Agudelo Henao



Reflexiones sobre el buen gobierno corporativo en las empresas periodõ ´sticas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: El interes por el gobierno corporativo en las empresas informativas no es un tema nuevo, pero ha adquirido singular relevancia en los ultimos anos, como resultado de las transformaciones que se han vivido en los esquemas de propiedad y de gestion de las compan ˜õ ´as. En este artõ ´culo se trata de explicar por quela naturaleza de los

Angel Arrese


Linfadenomegalia superficial (LAS): Correlato clínico patológico en 154 pacientes del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducción: la linfadenomegalia superficial (LAS) son hallazgos clínicos frecuentes en la práctica médica que pueden ser las primeras manifestaciones de una enfermedad de trascendencia o de un síndrome clínico específico. Objetivo: realizar un correlato clínico-patológico en pacientes con LAS que acudieron por primera vez a la consulta médica sin un diagnóstico conocido. Materiales y Métodos: estudio prospectivo transversal en el

Fernando Osores Plenge; Raúl Gutiérrez Rodríguez; Oscar Guerra Amaya; Juan Cortez-Escalante; Juan C. Ferrufino Lach; Leandro Huayanay; Isaias Rodríguez; Betty Bustamante; Ciro Maguiña Vargas



William Stanley Jevons: el uso de las probabilidades y el cálculo  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el capítulo tercero de la TPE, Jevons recurre al uso de las probabilidades como un método alternativo para analizar el intercambio de las mercancías. Jevons, decide no continuar con el uso de las probabilidades en los capítulos siguientes; su teoría se bifurca imperando el uso del cálculo diferencial. La explicación de esta bifurcación radica en la existencia de dos

John James Mora



Las certificaciones ISO 9001\\/2000 e ISO 14001\\/96 en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las certificaciones en sistemas de gestión de la calidad NTC ISO 9001\\/2000 y sistemas de gestión ambiental NTC ISO 14001\\/96, se han convertido en una prioridad para muchas organizaciones por las exigencias del mercado. Se presentan los resultados de un análisis cuantitativo de las empresas públicas y privadas del país que han optado por la certificación en sistemas de gestión

Clara Inés Pardo Martínez



Precisión de las velocidades radiales obtenidas con el REOSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complementando una línea de trabajo iniciada con anterioridad discutimos la estabilidad del espectrógrafo REOSC de CASLEO en DC para la medición de velocidades radiales en base al análisis de observaciones realizadas en enero y abril de 1997. En esas oportunidades obtuvimos 26 espectros de estrellas patrones y 27 espectros de 3 estrellas usadas como estrellas de referencia en nuestro programa de cúmulos abiertos. Además tomamos 26 espectros de crepúsculo con el telescopio en posiciones cubriendo el rango H=-4,+4 y ? =-90,+30. Mediante correlaciones cruzadas derivamos la velocidad de 19 órdenes en cada uno de estos espectros. En base a un análisis estadístico de los datos obtenidos discutimos la contribución de los distintos factores que afectan a la dispersión de lectura observada. En particular, la flexión del instrumento no introduciría errores significativos cuando se observa con masas de aire menores que 2.0. La dispersión de los valores de velocidad medidos para espectros de alta relación S/N de una misma estrella resultó del orden de 0.5 km/s. La comparación con los valores de velocidad publicados por distintos autores para las estrellas patrones no permite distinguir ninguna diferencia sistemática apreciable de las velocidades de CASLEO, siendo la media cuadrática de los residuos del orden de 1.0 km/s.

González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.


El Gobierno de las Entidades no Lucrativas. Evidencia emp¡rica para las Organizaciones no Gubernamentales de Cooperaci¢n al Desarrollo Espa¤olas  

Microsoft Academic Search

La ausencia de derechos residuales en las entidades no lucrativas (non profit) singulariza el problema de gobierno tradicionalmente estudiado. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo es verificar la existencia y relevancia de los mecanismos de control para evitar la expropiaci¢n de recursos por parte de los directivos e incrementar la eficiencia en una muestra representativa de las Organizaciones



Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el que presenta mas deficiencias en el desarrollo de las competencias. El investigador recomienda disenar e implantar un curriculo basado en competencias y proveer formacion en didactica y procesos de aprendizaje a los profesores.

Rivera Pacheco, Andres


Sloan Digital Sky Survey Infrastructure Preparations at Las Campanas Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, conducted on the Sloan Foundation Telescope at Apache Point Observatory for the last 15 years, is embarking on a dual hemisphere survey. This next iteration of the survey, termed SDSS-IV, will conduct a portion of the galactic evolution experiment APOGEE in Chile on the du Pont Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory; critical portions of the Galaxy are best or only accessible in southern skies. The infrastructure for the southern survey will be derived from the mature and productive systems at APO, while the concept of operations will significantly depart from the established SDSS model. Presented herein are the elements that comprise the LCO infrastructure and the rationale for the envisioned survey operations.

Hearty, Frederick R.; Wilson, J. C.; Majewski, S. R.; Leger, F.; Harding, P.; Parejko, J. K.; Roman, A.; Ebelke, G.; SDSS-IV; APOGEE-1/2



Proteus aircraft low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.



Gobierno y eficiencia de las cajas de ahorro espa¤olas  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo analiza la relaci¢n existente entre la composici¢n y estructura de los ¢rganos de gobierno de las cajas de ahorros espa¤olas y su eficiencia en el a¤o 1999. Utilizando ecuaciones tobit los resultados del estudio constatan la existencia de una relaci¢n negativa entre la participaci¢n de las administraciones p£blicas en el consejo de administraci¢n de las cajas y



City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.




La Transpiración - Movimiento del Agua a Través de las Plantas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

La transpiración es la pérdida de agua en forma de vapor por las plantas. El agua es absorbida del suelo por las raíces y transportada en forma líquida por el xilema hacia las hojas. En las hojas, unos pequeños poros permiten que el agua (H2O) escape a la atmósfera en forma de vapor, al tiempo que se permite la entrada de bióxido de carbono (CO2) para la fotosíntesis. De toda el agua absorbida por las plantas, menos del 5% es retenida y utilizada para crecimiento y almacenamiento. En esta lección se explicará porque las plantas pierden tanta agua, la ruta que ésta sigue dentro de la planta, como pudieran las plantas controlar la pérdida excesiva de agua y como las condiciones ambientales influyen en la pérdida de agua por las plantas.


QsIA disrupts LasR dimerization in antiactivation of bacterial quorum sensing  

PubMed Central

The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors by using quorum sensing (QS), a signaling cascade triggered by the QS signal molecule and its receptor, a member of the LuxR family of QS transcriptional factors (LasR). The QS threshold and response in P. aeruginosa is defined by a QS LasR-specific antiactivator (QslA), which binds to LasR and prevents it from binding to its target promoter. However, how QslA binds to LasR and regulates its DNA binding activity in QS remains elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of QslA in complex with the N-terminal ligand binding domain of LasR. QsIA exists as a functional dimer to interact with the LasR ligand binding domain. Further analysis shows that QsIA binding occupies the LasR dimerization interface and consequently disrupts LasR dimerization, thereby preventing LasR from binding to its target DNA and disturbing normal QS. Our findings provide a structural model for understanding the QslA-mediated antiactivation mechanism in QS through protein–protein interaction.

Fan, Hui; Dong, Yihu; Wu, Donghui; Bowler, Matthew W.; Zhang, Lianhui; Song, Haiwei



Optimization of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) degradation in UASB reactors by varying bioavailability of LAS, hydraulic retention time and specific organic load rate.  


Degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in UASB reactors was optimized by varying the bioavailability of LAS based on the concentration of biomass in the system (1.3-16 g TS/L), the hydraulic retention time (HRT), which was operated at 6, 35 or 80 h, and the concentration of co-substrates as specific organic loading rates (SOLR) ranging from 0.03-0.18 g COD/g TVS.d. The highest degradation rate of LAS (76%) was related to the lowest SOLR (0.03 g COD/g TVS.d). Variation of the HRT between 6 and 80 h resulted in degradation rates of LAS ranging from 18% to 55%. Variation in the bioavailability of LAS resulted in discrete changes in the degradation rates (ranging from 37-53%). According to the DGGE profiles, the archaeal communities exhibited greater changes than the bacterial communities, especially in biomass samples that were obtained from the phase separator. The parameters that exhibited more influence on LAS degradation were the SOLR followed by the HRT. PMID:23196232

Okada, Dagoberto Y; Delforno, Tiago P; Esteves, Andressa S; Sakamoto, Isabel K; Duarte, Iolanda C S; Varesche, Maria B A



Evidence for Filamentarity in the Las Campanas Redshift Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply Shapefinders, statistical measures of ``shape'' constructed from two-dimensional partial Minkowski functionals, to study the degree of filamentarity in the Las Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS). In two dimensions, three Minkowski functionals characterize the morphology of an object; these are its perimeter (L), area (S), and genus. Out of L and S a single dimensionless Shapefinder statistic, \\Fscr, can be constructed (0<=\\Fscr<=1). The statistic \\Fscr acquires extreme values on a circle (\\Fscr=0) and a filament (\\Fscr=1). Using \\Fscr, we quantify the extent of filamentarity in the LCRS by comparing our results with a Poisson distribution having similar geometrical properties and the same selection function as the survey. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that the LCRS displays a high degree of filamentarity in both the northern and southern Galactic sections, in general agreement with the visual appearance of the catalog. It is well known that gravitational clustering from Gaussian initial conditions gives rise to the development of non-Gaussianity, reflected in the formation of a network-like filamentary structure on supercluster scales. Consequently, the fact that the smoothed LCRS catalog shows properties consistent with those of a Gaussian random field,whereas the unsmoothed catalog demonstrates the presence of filamentarity, lends strong support to the conjecture that the large-scale clustering of galaxies is driven by gravitational instability.

Bharadwaj, Somnath; Sahni, Varun; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Shandarin, Sergei F.; Yess, Capp



The T dwarf population in the UKIDSS LAS .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the most recent results from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS) census and follow up of new T brown dwarfs in the local field. The new brown dwarf candidates are identified using optical and infrared survey photometry (UKIDSS and SDSS) and followed up with narrow band methane photometry (TNG) and spectroscopy (Gemini and Subaru) to confirm their brown dwarf nature. Employing this procedure we have discovered several dozens of new T brown dwarfs in the field. Using methane differential photometry as a proxy for spectral type for T brown dwarfs has proved to be a very efficient technique. This method can be useful in the future to reliably identify brown dwarfs in deep surveys that produce large samples of faint targets where spectroscopy is not feasible for all candidates. With this statistical robust sample of the mid and late T brown dwarf field population we were also able to address the discrepancies between the observed field space density and the expected values given the most accepted forms of the IMF of young clusters.

Cardoso, C. V.; Burningham, B.; Smith, L.; Smart, R.; Pinfield, D.; Magazzù, A.; Ghinassi, F.; Lattanzi, M.


Las clases medias republicanas en el franquismo: represión y control social  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se realiza una aproximación a las fases y diferentes formas de represión que sufrieron las personas de militancia republicana en los anos de la Guerra Civil. El trabajo se divide en tres partes. En la primera se trata de explicar, desde una perspectiva histórica, la vinculación entre clases medias y republicanismo. La segunda se centra especialmente en

Alicia Alted Vigil



Mejoramiento de la gestión logística de las empresas afi liadas a Acoplásticos: diagnóstico y recomendaciones  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo presenta los resultados, diagnóstico, conclusiones y recomendaciones correspondientes a la investigación sobre las principales actividades logísticas de las empresas afi liadas a Acoplásticos, con énfasis en el sector de empaques y envases. Se realizó un estudio durante cerca de 10 meses, aprobado por la Asociación Colombiana de Industrias Plásticas (Acoplásticos) y con el apoyo fi nanciero de la

Fabio Novoa Rojas; Pilar Sepúlveda Calderón



Aspectos macroeconómicos de las utilidades por compraventa de divisas de la cuenta especial de cambios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo persigue dos objetivos. En primer lugar, se discute el origen de las utilidades por compraventa de divisas (UCVD) de la Cuenta Especial de Cambios (CEC) y la naturaleza de su trabajo al gobierno. En segundo término, se analizan los efectos macroeconómicos de la utilización de los recursos de las UCVD para la financiación del déficit del gobierno, haciendo

Armando Montenegro



La regulación de los órganos de gobierno de las cajas de ahorros: consideraciones electorales  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo supone un avance en la resolución de los problemas de elección social y reparto proporcional de las cajas de ahorros españolas. La regulación estatal y regional relativa a estas instituciones no resuelve adecuadamente los problemas en las elecciones a representantes a los órganos rectores de dichas entidades financieras. La elección de un método para un problema de

Santiago Carbó Valverde; Antonio Palomares Bautista; Victoriano Ramírez González



Analysis of Large Area Synchronous Code-Division Multiple Access (LAS- CDMA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large area synchronous code-division multiple access (LAS-CDMA) is a proposed fourth generation cellular standard. Similar to cdma2000, the distinguishing feature of LAS-CDMA is the new set of spreading codes used to separate users in the wireless channel...

S. A. Brooks



La Noche de las Brujas Module. Nivel Primario. [The Night of the Witches Module. Primary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

La Noche de las Brujas (Halloween) is the topic of this primary level unit. The objectives are to enable the child to: (1) draw scenery, using his imagination, about witches, castles, and devils; (2) write compositions on witches, devils, and Halloween; (3) explain the story "La Noche de las Brujas"; (4) tell about any adventures or incidents he…

Espinoza, Delia


Problem-Solving in Las Vegas: Students Are Building Skills and a Global Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project initiated at Silverado High School in Las Vegas, where students from Las Vegas and schools across the United States monitor the levels of radon in the atmosphere. Enables students to learn first hand about the collection, analysis, and interpretation of scientific data and to network with other students from the United States…

Budd, Gregory; Curry, Don



La historia de los servicios públicos en las ciudades gallegas: un programa de investigación  

Microsoft Academic Search

El trabajo expone los objetivos y los resultados de un programa de investigación desarrollado desde hace una década en el seno de la Universidade da Coruña, en el que se analiza la implantación y desarrollo de los principales servicios públicos en las ciudades gallegas, desde una perspectiva histórica. Se parte de la constatación de la creciente importancia atribuida a las

Alberte Martínez López; Jesús Mirás Araujo



Reflexiones sobre el sistema y las políticas de innovación del País Vasco  

Microsoft Academic Search

El primer capítulo de este documento compara el sistema de innovación vasco con el de otros países avanzados, basándose para ello en las estadísticas de I+D y en el indicador europeo de innovación (EIS). En segundo lugar, el sistema vasco se compara con el de otras regiones, basándose en las tipologías de regiones europeas y españolas elaboradas por el autor,

Mikel Navarro


Formación de clases de equivalencia aplicadas al aprendizaje de las notas musicales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se llevaron a cabo tres experimentos de formación y ampliación de clases de equivalencia. En el pri- mero de ellos, con niños de 4-6 años de media como participantes, y aplicando la lógica de las clases de equivalencia al aprendizaje de los símbolos y sonidos musicales, se adquirieron las relaciones ne- cesarias para formar tres clases de equivalencia (do, mi,

Andrés García García; Cristóbal Bohórquez Zayas; Teresa Gutiérrez Domínguez



EPA Science Inventory

The eutrophication potential of Lake Mead, with primary emphasis on Las Vegas Bay, was determined with Selenastrum capricornutum. Nutrient limitation profiles were determined for three sampling stations in Las Vegas Bay and one in Boulder Basin. After heavy metals were chelated w...


Robots in Las Vegas: Demos and International Agency Panel Highlight NSF Robotics Workshop  

NSF Publications Database

... Oct. 26, 12:00 p.m. - 1:30 p.m. International panel: Oct. 26, 1:30 p.m. - 3:00 p.m. IROS 2003 ... 9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. Where: Pacific Ballroom and Las Vegas Ballroom Bally's Hotel 3645 Las Vegas ...



EPA Science Inventory

Sodium Perchlorate and ammonium Perchlorate, major components of solid rocket fuel, have been manufactured in the Las Vegas Valley immediately up gradient from the Las Vegas Wash, since 1945 and 1956, respectively. Measurements of emerging ground water quality in the vici...


Managing Floods and Resources at the Arroyo Las Positas  

SciTech Connect

Engineers and water resource professionals are challenged with protecting facilities from flood events within environmental resource protection, regulatory, and economic constraints. One case in point is the Arroyo Las Positas (ALP), an intermittent stream that traverses the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. Increased runoff from post-drought rainfall, upstream development, and new perennial discharges from LLNL activities have resulted in increased dry weather flows and wetland vegetation. These new conditions have recently begun to provide improved habitat for the federally threatened California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii; CRLF), but the additional vegetation diminishes the channel's drainage capacity and increases flood risk. When LLNL proposed to re-grade the channel to reestablish the 100-year flood capacity, traditional dredging practices were no longer being advocated by environmental regulatory agencies. LLNL therefore designed a desilting maintenance plan to protect LLNL facility areas from flooding, while minimizing impacts to wetland resources and habitat. The result was a combination of structural upland improvements and the ALP Five Year Maintenance Plan (Maintenance Plan), which includes phased desilting in segments so that the entire ALP is desilted after five years. A unique feature of the Maintenance Plan is the variable length of the segments designed to minimize LLNL's impact on CRLF movement. State and federal permits also added monitoring requirements and additional constraints on desilting activities. Two years into the Maintenance Plan, LLNL is examining the lessons learned on the cost-effectiveness of these maintenance measures and restrictions and reevaluating the direction of future maintenance activities.

Sanchez, L; Van Hattem, M; Mathews, S



Kinetic Model for Signal Binding to the Quorum Sensing Regulator LasR  

PubMed Central

We propose a kinetic model for the activation of the las regulon in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The model is based on in vitro data and accounts for the LasR dimerization and consecutive activation by binding of two OdDHL signal molecules. Experimentally, the production of the active LasR quorum-sensing regulator was studied in an Escherichia coli background as a function of signal molecule concentration. The functional activity of the regulator was monitored via a GFP reporter fusion to lasB expressed from the native lasB promoter. The new data shows that the active form of the LasR dimer binds two signal molecules cooperatively and that the timescale for reaching saturation is independent of the signal molecule concentration. This favors a picture where the dimerized regulator is protected against proteases and remains protected as it is activated through binding of two successive signal molecules. In absence of signal molecules, the dimerized regulator can dissociate and degrade through proteolytic turnover of the monomer. This resolves the apparent contradiction between our data and recent reports that the fully protected dimer is able to “degrade” when the induction of LasR ceases.

Claussen, Anetta; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Welch, Martin; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Sams, Thomas



[Effect of LAS on physico-chemical properties and microorganism activity in soil environment].  


Using a well drained paddy soil and the derived soil under vegetables in the Taihu Lake region, China, experiments of soil capillary rise, colloid dispersion and adsorption of toxic organics and heavy metals by soil under various degrees of LAS addition were conducted. Also incubation experiments of microorganism activity in soil with added LAS in different concentrations were carried out in laboratory. LAS addition resulted in lower capillary rise of soil solution, higher dispersion of soil colloids and lower capacity of soil for organic pollutants but no significant influence on adsorption of heavy metal cations. The nitrification and amonification in soil were very sensitive to LAS stress while denitrification turned to be stimulated. LAS addition gave stronger growth of soil bacteria while decreased growth of fungus. Meanwhile, soil respiration was stimulated in the first week of incubation and compressed afterwards by LAS at concentration over 5 mg/kg. It seemed that some species of microorganisms were tolerant of LAS in the studied soils. PMID:11382044

Pan, G; Han, Y



The La 2S 3-LaS 2 system: Thermodynamic and kinetic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed thermodynamic study of the LaS 2-La 2S 3 system in the temperature range 350-1000 °C was performed, starting from high quality crystals LaS 2 as the highest polysulfide in the system, and using a sensitive static tensimetric method with a quartz Bourdon gauge and a membrane as a null-point instrument. The pS- T- x diagram obtained has shown that the phase region covering the composition between LaS 2 and La 2S 3, which was previously described as a single grossly nonstoichiometric phase, consists of three discrete stoichiometric phases, LaS 2.00, LaS 1.91, and LaS 1.76, where compositions could be determined with an accuracy of ±0.01 f.u. The thermodynamic characteristics of evaporation of the polysulfides as well as standard heat of LaS 2 formation were calculated. The role of kinetics in the formation of ordered superstructures of sulfur-poorer polysulfides with different formal concentration of vacancies is considered.

Vasilyeva, I. G.; Nikolaev, R. E.



El fenotipo de las mucinas en el es?fago de Barrett  

PubMed Central

Antecedentes El esófago de Barrett es una reconocida lesión precursora de adenocarcinoma esofágico. Aunque generalmente asociada al reflujo gastroesofágico, los mecanismos patogénicos de la enfermedad no son bien conocidos. El objetivo del presente estudio es explorar la historia natural e identificar marcadores de progreso del proceso precanceroso. Material y métodos Se utilizaron cortes histológicos de 67 especímenes de esófago correspondientes a 14 pacientes con esófago de Barrett, a los que se siguió entre 1 – 9 años. Se clasificaron las lesiones en: esófago de Barrett sin displasia, indefinido para displasia o con displasia. Se evaluó la expresión de diferentes mucinas en las células caliciformes y en las columnares usando técnicas de histoquímica e inmunohistoquímica. Resultados En todos los casos se comprobó la presencia de metaplasia intestinal incompleta. Las células columnares dentro del epitelio metaplásico contenían mucinas neutras. A mayor severidad de la lesión se encontró significativamente menor expresión de sialomucinas en las células columnares (p de tendencia igual a 0,03). En sujetos con lesiones indefinidas para displasia se observó un mayor contenido de sulfomucinas en las células caliciformes (p=0,034) y de MUC2 en las células columnares (p=0,029) que en sujetos con esófago de Barrett sin displasia. Se observó expresión de la mucina intestinal MUC2 y de la mucina gástrica MUC5AC en todas las muestras. MUC6, una mucina de las glándulas profundas gástricas, se presentó ocasionalmente. Conclusión La evaluación de los perfiles de mucinas en el esófago de Barrett sugiere una transición gradual del fenotipo del epitelio metaplásico a medida que la lesión avanza en el tiempo.

Torrado, Julio; Piazuelo, Maria Blanca; Ruiz, Irune; Izarzugaza, Maria Isabel; Camargo, Maria Constanza; Delgado, Alberto; Abdirad, Afshin; Correa, Pelayo



Language Assessment Scales, Level 2, LAS II, for Grades 6 and Up, English/Spanish. Examiner's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language Assessment Scales, Level 2 (LAS II) are used to assess the linguistic proficiency of limited-English-speaking or non-English-speaking adolescents. LAS II, like its predecessor, LAS I, provides a picture of oral linguistic proficiency based on a student's performance across four linguistic subsystems: phonemic, lexical, syntactic and…

Duncan, Sharon E.; De Avila, Edward A.


El efecto de las prácticas de gobierno corporativo sobre la valuación de mercado y políticas de pago de compañías chilenas  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este trabajo nos preguntamos si las prácticas de conducción empresarial al nivel de compañía en un país dado inciden o no en la valuación de mercado de esas compañías. Esta cuestión es esencial para poder evaluar los beneficios potenciales que puede reportar a las empresas un cambio de sus prácticas, aún cuando las mismas

Fernando Lefort; Eduardo Walker



La incidencia de las transferencias del gobierno en la distribucion de la renta en Estados Unidos: 1981-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

El trabajo trata de evaluar la influencia redistributiva que han ejercido las transferencias públicas realizadas bajo las cinco administraciones que han gobernado en EE.UU. en el periodo 1980-2000. Tras repasar la literatura reciente sobre el tema, se definen dos conceptos de Renta Doméstica que permiten distinguir entre los Ingresos Propios y las transferencias aportadas por el gobierno. A continuación, se

E. Palazuelos



Aircraft Accident Report - Las Vegas Airlines Flight 88, Piper PA-31-350, Grand Canyon, Arizona, August 17, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On August 17, 1983, Las Vegas Airlines Flight 88, a Piper PA-31-350, N88LV, was being operated as a scheduled Grand Canyon sightseeing flight from Las Vegas, Nevada, to Tusayan, Arizona. Weather conditions precluded the pilot of Las Vegas 88 from flying o...



Routine Diagnostic Venous Ultrasound and LAS for Leg Edema of Unknown Cause  

PubMed Central

Objective: To verify the diagnostic efficiency of venous duplex ultrasound and lymphangioscintigraphy (LAS) in establishing the cause of leg edema and to clarify the pathology of these leg edemas. Materials and Methods: Between April 2009, and March 2010, 62 patients with leg edema of unknown origin were referred to the Edema Clinic of the Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine. All patients underwent a venous duplex ultrasound scan and LAS. Results: Of 62 patients, lymphatic insufficiency, venous insufficiency or both was diagnosed in 42 (68%), and lymphedema, in 29 (47%). Venous duplex ultrasound detected obvious venous disorders in only 13 (21%), and for 20 patients, the ultrasound and LAS did not reveal any abnormalities; however, for 15 of the 20 (24% of all patients), venous edema was attributed to functional causes. Conclusion: Venous duplex ultrasound and LAS assisted in the diagnosis of leg edema of unknown origin and also proved useful in establishing treatment strategies.



Terrestrial risk assessment for linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) in sludge-amended soils.  


A comparison of the estimated environmental concentration and the effect concentrations (in the laboratory or field) in the receiving compartment form the basis of environmental risk assessments. This paper reviews processes that critically influence the fate of LAS in the terrestrial environment. Concentrations of LAS in sludge are quite high due to sorption to primary sludge, precipitation of Ca and Mg-salts of LAS, and lack of biodegradation under anaerobic digestion. This implies that when sludge is applied to soil e.g. as a fertilizer, considerable amounts of this important surfactant may enter the terrestrial environment. Influence of aerobic situations on LAS concentrations during sludge storage needs further research to allow incorporation into the risk assessment. Aerobic biodegradation in soil is considered the most important removal mechanism of LAS loading to the terrestrial environment through sludge-amendment. Sorption plays a role in determining the residence time of a chemical in the soil, hereby enabling more time for biodegradation to occur. In addition, sorption may affect the expression of effects of surfactants towards benthic and soil dwelling organisms and plants. Another factor that needs further attention is the form of LAS in the environment, which is not similar to the commercial material applied in detergents. The differential sorption and biodegradation of the LAS components lead to a shift in the alkyl chain length (homologue), and phenylisomer distribution towards increased hydrophobicity. Also, occurrence of Ca/Mg-salts in the environment versus the Na-salt for the commercial material critically impacts the extrapolation of effects data obtained in lab studies (mostly performed with the commercial material) to the field. The literature data were used in combination with strategies and methods provided by the European Union Technical Guidance Document in support of risk assessment of new and notified substances (1996) for the prediction of environmental concentrations of LAS entering the soil system through sludge applications. Soil biodegradation is an essential, necessary element for the PEC-calculations of LAS. The initial realistic worst case assessment presented indicates no human health risks exists with indirect exposure to LAS through either food or drinking water. Also, current LAS use does not pose a risk to terrestrial organisms such as plants and invertebrates. PMID:9493328

de Wolf, W; Feijtel, T



Benitez Rojo and Las Casas's Plague of Ants: The Libidinal Versus the Ideological Unconscious  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent work, La isla que se repite, Cuban critic Antonio Benítez Rojo rereads one of the digressive “fictions” within Las Casas’s Historia de las Indias, concerning a plague of ants that occurred in the Caribbean islands in 1519–21, and, through the deployment of the key Freudian notion of the uncanny, argues that it rehearses the Spaniard’s deeply entrenched




Microsoft Academic Search

El objeto de la presente investigación es comprobar la influencia de la aplicación de las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF) en la valoración de empresas cuando se aplican metodologías basadas en la información suministrada por la contabilidad. A partir de esta información se han obtenido modelos econométricos de valoración utilizando el análisis factorial y se ha procedido a un

F. García García; I. Moya Clemente



Las elecciones presidenciales y legislativas en México de 2006: Lecciones para la estabilidad democrática y el futuro de las relaciones Chile-México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo analiza las elecciones presidenciales y parlamentarias realizadas en México en julio de 2006, centrándose en cuatro aspectos principales. Primero, abordamos los aspectos centrales del proceso político mexicano de la última década y la campaña presidencial. Segundo, discutimos los efectos del resultado electoral. Tercero, analizamos el difícil proceso político postelectoral, destacándose como causa explicativa de ellos la actuación del

Ricardo Gamboa Valenzuela; Eduardo Bustos Nájera



Adsorption/desorption of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) and azoproteins by/from activated sludge flocs.  


Our study investigated the adsorption/desorption by/from activated sludge flocs, dispersed in river water or in diluted wastewater, of organic compounds (C(11)-LAS, azoalbumin and azocasein) at concentrations relevant to environmental conditions. Activated sludge flocs, used as a model of biological aggregates, are characterized by a very heterogeneous matrix able to sorb the three organic compounds tested at 4 degrees C. The adsorbed amount of C(11)-LAS by activated sludge flocs was higher than that of azocasein or azoalbumin, as shown by the Freundlich parameters (K(ads)=8.6+/-1.7, 1.6+/-0.3 and 0.3+/-0.1 micromol(1-1/n)g(-1)l(1/n) for C(11)-LAS, azocasein and azoalbumin, respectively; n=3 sludges). C(11)-LAS sorption from activated sludge appeared to be partially reversible in river water, while a marked hysteresis phenomenon was observed for azocasein and azoalbumin, implying a low degree of reversibility in their exchange between activated sludge and river water. It has also been displayed that the conductivity variation of bulk water (comprised between 214 and 838 microS cm(-1)) exerted no dramatic effect on the C(11)-LAS desorption from activated sludge flocs, while a little effect of it on azocasein desorption was observed. Thus, biological aggregates as activated sludge flocs can serve as an intermediate carrier for C(11)-LAS, while it represents a sink for proteins. PMID:15950257

Conrad, A; Cadoret, A; Corteel, P; Leroy, P; Block, J-C



Global position analysis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing transcription factor LasR  

PubMed Central

Summary In Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS), the transcriptional regulator LasR controls the expression of more than 300 genes. Several of these genes are activated indirectly via a second, subordinate QS regulator, RhlR. Conserved sequence elements upstream of individual other genes have been shown to bind LasR in vitro. To comprehensively identify all regions that are bound by LasR in vivo, we employed chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with microarray analysis. We identified 35 putative promoter regions that direct the expression of up to 74 genes. In vitro DNA binding studies allowed us to distinguish between cooperative and non-cooperative LasR binding sites, and allowed us to build consensus sequences according to the mode of binding. Five promoter regions were not previously recognized as QS-controlled. Two of the associated transcript units encode proteins involved in the cold-shock response and in Psl exopolysaccharide synthesis, respectively. The LasR regulon includes seven genes encoding transcriptional regulators, while secreted factors and secretion machinery are the most overrepresented functional categories overall. This supports the notion that the core function of LasR is to coordinate the production of extracellular factors, although many of its effects on global gene expression are likely mediated indirectly by regulatory genes under its control.

Gilbert, Kerrigan B.; Kim, Tae Hoon; Gupta, Rashmi; Greenberg, E. P.; Schuster, Martin



Monitoring Changes in Channel Morphology in Las Vegas Wash with Global Fiducials Program Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To borrow from a popular adage, "What happens in Las Vegas [Wash], stays in Las Vegas [Wash]"—but only with a lot of help. This past decade has seen a concerted effort to curb erosion and sediment transport along the 12 mile long channel between East Las Vegas and Lake Mead. Las Vegas Wash is prototypical of an urban river in an arid environment that is being impacted by increasing urban development and impervious surface runoff within its drainage area. Rapid urbanization since the 1970s has increased the flow of water into Las Vegas Wash, causing severe channel destabilization. Within two decades millions of cubic yards of rocks and sediment were scoured out of the wash and transported downstream to Lake Mead. The wetlands that once covered over 2,000 acres within Las Vegas Wash dwindled to 200 acres in the 1990s as the channel became as much as 40 feet deeper and 300 feet wider at some points. In 1999 the Las Vegas Wash Coordination Committee (LVWCC) initiated a 20-year plan to construct erosion control structures (weirs) for channel stabilization and rock riprap for stream bank protection. The hope is to design structures that will slow down the water flow, trap sediments, and to eventually restore much of the wetland environment. Using high-resolution satellite imagery from the Global Fiducials Program Library housed at the U. S. Geological Survey, this transition is being tracked from 1999 to the present. From November 1999 to July 2008 new residential and commercial development has claimed an additional 12 square kilometers (3000 acres) of land in Henderson, NV, along the south side of Las Vegas Wash. Even with the increased volume of surface and groundwater runoff entering the wash, current sediment yields are much lower than the 1999 totals. The imagery documents the construction of 14 of the 22 LVWCC planned weirs by the year 2011. It also shows many miles of stream bank stabilization by riprap, planting of riparian vegetation and placing of obstructions in the channel. The replanting of native vegetation on storm debris flats is stabilizing some of the soil in the wash and also rejuvenating much of the wetland habitat. Las Vegas Wash is a test bed for the design and implementation of innovative methods for modifying stream morphology to achieve desirable results, as some of these methods are deemed successful and some are not as effective. The lessons learned about curbing erosion and sediment transport within Las Vegas Wash may be applied to other urban streams in arid environments.

Wheeler, D. J.



Environmental Regulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Las and Rhl Quorum-Sensing Systems?  

PubMed Central

The lasI-lasR and the rhlI-rhlR quorum-sensing systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulate the expression of numerous cellular and secreted virulence factor genes and play important roles in the development of biofilms. The las and rhl systems themselves are known to be directly or indirectly regulated by a number of transcriptional regulators, and consequently, their expression is sensitive to environmental conditions. In this report, the activities of these two quorum-sensing systems have been examined systematically under 46 growth conditions, and the regulation by environmental conditions has been investigated. The relative timing and strength of expression of these two systems varied significantly under different conditions, which contrasts with the notion of a preset hierarchy with these two systems in P. aeruginosa. Depending on the growth conditions, the correlation between each synthase and its cognate transcriptional regulator also varied, suggesting that the transcription of these genes independently allows for further fine tuning of each system. Finally, we observe that the activities of both the lasI-lasR and the rhlI-rhlR quorum-sensing systems were dramatically enhanced in the presence of extracts of sputum samples from cystic fibrosis patients.

Duan, Kangmin; Surette, Michael G.



Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

Leiker, T. J.; Abney, S. R.; Goodbred, S. L.; Rosen, M. R.



Roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl quorum-sensing systems in control of elastase and rhamnolipid biosynthesis genes.  

PubMed Central

Two quorum-sensing systems (las and rhl) regulate virulence gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The las system consists of a transcriptional activator, LasR, and LasI, which directs the synthesis of the autoinducer N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone (PAI-1). Induction of lasB (encoding elastase) and other virulence genes requires LasR and PAI-1. The rhl system consists of a putative transcriptional activator, RhlR, and RhlI, which directs the synthesis of N-butyryl homoserine lactone (PAI-2). Rhamnolipid production in P. aeruginosa has been reported to require both the rhl system and rhlAB (encoding a rhamnosyltransferase). Here we report the generation of a delta lasI mutant and both delta lasI delta rhlI and delta lasR rhlR::Tn501 double mutants of strain PAO1. Rhamnolipid production and elastolysis were reduced in the delta lasI single mutant and abolished in the double-mutant strains. rhlAB mRNA was not detected in these strains at mid-logarithmic phase but was abundant in the parental strain. Further RNA analysis of the wild-type strain revealed that rhlAB is organized as an operon. The rhlAB transcriptional start was mapped, and putative sigma 54 and sigma 70 promoters were identified upstream. To define components required for rhlAB expression, we developed a bioassay in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that PAI-2 and RhlR are required and sufficient for expression of rhlA. To characterize the putative interaction between PAI-2 and RhlR, we demonstrated that [3H]PAI-2 binds to E. coli cells expressing RhlR and not to those expressing LasR. Finally, the specificity of the las and rhl systems was examined in E. coli bioassays. The las system was capable of mildly activating rhlA, and similarly, the rhl system partly activated lasB. However; these effects were much less than the activation of rhlA by the rhl system and lasB by the las system. The results presented here further characterize the roles of the rhl and las quorum-sensing systems in virulence gene expression.

Pearson, J P; Pesci, E C; Iglewski, B H



Discovery of LAS101057: A Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious A2B Adenosine Receptor Antagonist.  


The structure-activity relationships for a series of pyrazine-based A2B adenosine receptor antagonists are described. From this work, LAS101057 (17), a potent, selective, and orally efficacious A2B receptor antagonist, was identified as a clinical development candidate. LAS101057 inhibits agonist-induced IL-6 production in human fibroblasts and is active in an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mouse model after oral administration, reducing airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, Th2 cytokine production, and OVA-specific IgE levels. PMID:24900298

Eastwood, Paul; Esteve, Cristina; González, Jacob; Fonquerna, Silvia; Aiguadé, Josep; Carranco, Inés; Doménech, Teresa; Aparici, Mònica; Miralpeix, Montserrat; Albertí, Joan; Córdoba, Mónica; Fernández, Raquel; Pont, Mercè; Godessart, Núria; Prats, Neus; Loza, María Isabel; Cadavid, María Isabel; Nueda, Arsenio; Vidal, Bernat



Discovery of LAS101057: A Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious A2B Adenosine Receptor Antagonist  

PubMed Central

The structure?activity relationships for a series of pyrazine-based A2B adenosine receptor antagonists are described. From this work, LAS101057 (17), a potent, selective, and orally efficacious A2B receptor antagonist, was identified as a clinical development candidate. LAS101057 inhibits agonist-induced IL-6 production in human fibroblasts and is active in an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mouse model after oral administration, reducing airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, Th2 cytokine production, and OVA-specific IgE levels.



After 58 years, an icon on the Las Vegas Strip closes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Las Vegas' Sahara Hotel and Casino closing after more than 58 years Vegas History Nevada: The Boomtown Years Tripping: Implosions Neon Museum that glitters is not gold, and when it comes to the glittering lights of the Vegas Strip, nothing is permanent. This weekend, the Sahara hotel saw its last guests leave as it ended its 58-year run on the Strip. The hotel was the brainchild of one Milton Prell, a former jewelry salesman who ran a bingo parlor in Montana. In 1952, he opened the Sahara, which he envisioned as a "jewel of the desert". The Sahara was the sixth hotel on the Strip, and with its fantastical Congo Room supper club and Casbar Lounge, it was a flourishing part of the "ring-a-ding-ding" 1950s and 1960s scene in Las Vegas. Characters who were part of the Strip's history included legendary entertainers Ray Bolger, Donald O'Connor, and Louis Prime, who performed there for years with his wife, Keely Smith. While plans for the site are in flux, it is hoped that some of the Sahara's iconic neon signs will end up in the nearby Neon Museum.The first link will take visitors to a nice article from this Saturday's Las Vegas Sun about the closing of the Sahara. The second link leads to piece from CNN's blog which also talks about the recent closing of this famed Strip stalwart. The third link will whisk users away to a terrific site from the Las Vegas Sun which chronicles the highs and lows of the Strip's history. Moving on, the fourth link leads to a nice digital collection from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas which documents the boom years of Southern Nevada through images, documents, and other archival items. The fifth link leads to a rather raucous and fun archive of Strip hotel implosions captured for posterity. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of The Neon Museum in Las Vegas, which celebrates neon culture in all of its glory.

Grinnell, Max



Estudio sobre las dosis de radiación y los riesgos de cáncer causados por la prueba atómica “Trinity” realizada en 1945

El NCI tiene planeado realizar entrevistas en profundidad para determinar cuál era la alimentación característica de las poblaciones indígenas americanas, hispanas (latinas) y chicanas que vivían en New Mexico a mediados de 1940 y utilizar información fácilmente disponible sobre la alimentación y el estilo de vida de las poblaciones blancas. Estas entrevistas representan un paso importante para hacer estimaciones de las dosis de radiación generadas por la prueba Trinity.


Cloning and characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa lasR gene, a transcriptional activator of elastase expression.  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery of the lasR gene, which positively regulates elastase expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The lasR gene was cloned by its ability to restore a positive elastase phenotype in strain PA103, a strain which possesses the elastase structural gene (lasB) but fails to synthesize the enzyme. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 716 nucleotides encoding a protein of approximately 27 kDa. A labeled LasR protein of 27 kDa was detected in Escherichia coli by using a T7 RNA polymerase expression system. A chromosomal deletion mutant of the lasR gene was constructed in PAO1 by gene replacement. This mutant (PAO-R1) is devoid of elastolytic activity and elastase antigen. The deduced amino acid sequence of LasR is 27% homologous to the positive activator LuxR of Vibrio fischeri and the suspected activator 28K-UvrC of E. coli. Northern (RNA) analysis of total cellular RNA from PAO1, PAO-R1, and PAO-R1 containing the lasR gene on a multicopy plasmid (pMG1.7) revealed that a functional lasR gene is required for transcription of the elastase structural gene (lasB). Images

Gambello, M J; Iglewski, B H



Las unidades habitacionales y la vivienda en la ciudad de Morelia: apropiación de los espacios abiertos  

Microsoft Academic Search

La apropiación del espacio libre en las unidades habitacionales, genera conflicto y tensión social, por los habitantes- usuarios que crean y desarrollan una cultura urbana; expresada en sus vivencias, que van de lo individual a lo colectivo, de lo privado a lo público; haciendo de los espacios abiertos un lugar diferente. Los habitantes- usuarios buscan la identificación con su espacio,

Pedro Lina Manjares; Ana Rosa Velasco Ávalos



New 40Ar\\/ 39Ar dates from the Las Tazas complex, northern Chile: Tectonic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atacama Fault Zone is a major Mesozoic structure that trends along the Coastal Batholith of northern Chile. Part of the fault zone underwent a kinematic change from dip-slip to strike-slip displacement during the Early Cretaceous. The Las Tazas complex intruded the fault zone during this change. New analyses of country rock protomylonites from the edge of the complex firmly

Jeff Wilson; R. David Dallmeyer; John Grocott



La intercoperación: una respuesta a las actuales demandas del cooperativismo agrario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las cooperativas agrarias son entidades que a lo largo de la historia han demostrado una gran capacidad generadora de bienestar y riqueza para el mundo rural, constituyendo en muchas ocasiones el motor fundamental de la vida económica y social en numerosos territorios, a la vez que el principal instrumento empresarial al servicio de sus habitantes. Con todo, los importantes cambios





Microsoft Academic Search

En estos tiempos de globalización la administración de la cadena de suministro requiere de adaptar el producto a las necesidades del cliente por lo cual existen tres elementos que son inherentes a este evento: cadena de suministro, posposición y herramientas para su análisis. El concepto de cadena de suministro se refiere a un sistema de entidades (proveedores, fabricantes, almacenadores-distribuidores, vendedores

Ulises Mercado Valenzuela; Oliverio Cruz-Mejía




EPA Science Inventory

The hydrogeologic study of the shallow ground-water zone in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada determined the sources and extent of ground-water contamination to develop management alternatives and minimize adverse effects. An extensive, computerized data base utilizing water analyses, wel...



EPA Science Inventory

Perchlorate ion (CIO4-) has been identified in samples of dormant salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) growing in the Las vegas Wash. Perchlorate is an oxidenat, but its reduction is kineticaly hindered. CXoncern over thyrpoid effects caused the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...


Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Las Cruces quadrangle, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Field and laboratory data are presented for 501 water samples and 1817 sediment samples from the Las Cruces Quadrangle, New Mexico. The samples were collected and uranium analysis performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory; multielement analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

Not Available



Temperature trends and Urban Heat Island intensity mapping of the Las Vegas valley area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modified urban climate regions that are warmer than rural areas at night are referred to as Urban Heat Islands or UHI. Islands of warmer air over a city can be 12 degrees Celsius greater than the surrounding cooler air. The exponential growth in Las Vegas for the last two decades provides an opportunity to detect gradual temperature changes influenced by an increasing presence of urban materials. This thesis compares ground based thermometric observations and satellite based remote sensing temperature observations to identify temperature trends and UHI areas caused by urban development. Analysis of temperature trends between 2000 and 2010 at ground weather stations has revealed a general cooling trend in the Las Vegas region. Results show that urban development accompanied by increased vegetation has a cooling effect in arid climates. Analysis of long term temperature trends at McCarran and Nellis weather stations show 2.4 K and 1.2 K rise in temperature over the last 60 years. The ground weather station temperature data is related to the land surface temperature images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper to estimate and evaluate urban heat island intensity for Las Vegas. Results show that spatial and temporal trends of temperature are related to the gradual change in urban landcover. UHI are mainly observed at the airport and in the industrial areas. This research provides useful insight into the temporal behavior of the Las Vegas area.

Black, Adam Leland



EPA Science Inventory

Estimates of quantity and geographic distribution of recharge to the shallow ground-water zone from water use return flows in Las Vegas Valley were made for the years 1973, 1965, 1958, 1950, and 1943 as part of a broader study on the impact of water and land use on ground-water q...



Microsoft Academic Search

La aproximación que se tendrá en este análisis está enfocada en los aportes que desde la ingeniería electrónica se pueden realizar en la solución de necesidades de las empresas y la sociedad regional, nacional y mundial en desarrollos que ilustren a países en condiciones similares o peores que Colombia, en mostrar que están en capacidades de construir una nueva Economía

Rubén Dario Cardenas Espinosa



Geophysical constraints on the location and geometry of the Las Vegas Shear Zone, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We model the basin configuration beneath Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, on the basis of gravity, drillhole, and seismic reflection data. We locate and characterize the various strands of the Las Vegas Valley Shear Zone (LVVSZ) by variations in basin thickness beneath the valley. The pre-Tertiary bedrock surface is complex, with subbasins buried beneath the flat alluvial surface of the valley. We suggest that these basins are formed from transtensional strain. Subbasins elongated N70??W and N50??W are interpreted as strike-slip basins. The deepest subbasin is 5 km west of Frenchman Mountain and strikes N40??E. This basin probably formed by combined movement on nonparallel strands of the LVVZ and an earlier episode of normal faulting. The basin thickness map constrains the minimum depth of the inferred detachment fault beneath Las Vegas Valley to at least 4 km. Seismic reflection data do not image a detachment fault in the upper 10 km beneath Las Vegas Valley. Our results also illustrate the utility of gravity in determining basinal structures and providing a three-dimensional perspective in areas with limited seismic reflection control.

Langenheim, V. E.; Grow, J. A.; Jachens, R. C.; Dixon, G. L.; Miller, J. J.



Evaluating Water Supply and Water Quality Management Options for Las Vegas Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever increasing population in Las Vegas is generating huge demand for water supply on one hand and need for infrastructure to collect and treat the wastewater on the other hand. Current plans to address water demand include importing water from Muddy and Virgin Rivers and northern counties, desalination of seawater with trade- payoff in California, water banking in Arizona

S. Ahmad



The application of activity-based costing to a support kitchen in a Las Vegas casino  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to examine the activity-based costing (ABC) method as a feasible and appropriate tool for the casino and hotel industry to apply to support kitchens in order to eliminate the monthly allocation of overhead based on variable costs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected at a support kitchen in a Las Vegas casino. These data were analyzed

Paige Vaughn; Carola Raab; Kathleen B. Nelson




EPA Science Inventory

An objective methodology presented in a companion paper (Liu et al., 1986) for determining the optimum number and disposition of ambient air quality stations in a monitoring network for carbon monoxide is applied to the Las Vegas, Nevada, area. The methodology utilizes an air qua...


Nivelación interterritorial e ineficiencia de las decisiones presupuestarias: reflexiones para el caso español  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se estudian los efectos negativos de los esquemas de nivelación horizontal sobre la eficiencia en las elecciones fiscales de los gobiernos regionales. Partiendo de unos resultados teóricos básicos, se examinan los aspectos dinámicos del problema, se ofrece alguna evidencia empírica para el caso español y se presenta una solución que combina los criterios de eficiencia y equidad.

Santiago Lago Peñas



Asymptotic Analysis of the Performance of LAS Algorithm for Large MIMO Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we reported a low-complexity likelihood ascent search (LAS) detection algorithm for large MIMO systems with tens to hundreds of antennas that can achieve high spectral efficiencies of the order of tens to hundreds of bps\\/Hz. Through simula- tions, we showed that this algorithm achieves increasingly near SISO AWGN perfor- mance for increasing number of antennas. However, no bit error

Saif K. Mohammed; Ananthanarayanan Chockalingam; B. Sundar Rajan



The Development of Child Subjectivity in "La lengua de las mariposas"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jose Luis Cuerda's film "La lengua de las mariposas" is set in rural Galicia in the immediate lead-up to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. It portrays the tender relationship between a Republican schoolteacher, Don Gregorio, and a boy named Moncho. Upon the Nationalist capture of the town, the young Moncho hurls stones at his friend, but…

Ryan, Lorraine



Las aglomeraciones productivas alrededor de la minería: el caso de la minera Yanacocha S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente es un estudio de caso de la aglomeración productiva generada a raíz de la puesta en marcha del proyecto minero Yanacocha ubicado en Cajamarca. El concepto de aglomeración o cluster industrial se basa sobre el supuesto de que las distintas actividades económicas no se desarrollan aisladamente, sino que, por el contrario, el crecimiento de una de ellas impulsa

Juana R. Kuramoto



La gestión de las aguas subterráneas en el acuífero Mancha Occidental  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN : En este artículo se aborda la problemática que pl antea la recuperación del acuífero Mancha Occidental en el que existe una im portante externalidad ambiental que se deriva de la relación entre las reservas de agua existentes en el acuífero y los humedales Tablas de Daimiel. Para ello, se desarrol lan varios modelos de programación matemática que permiten

Eva Iglesias Martínez



Nutrición deportiva en la infancia: Cumplimiento de las demandas metabólicas del crecimiento y el ejercicio  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractoLos objetivos fundamentales de la infancia son el crecimiento y la maduración óptimos. Estos procesos relacionados con el desarrollo exigen un balance energético y nitrogenado positivo. Aunque la actividad física regular puede intensificar el desarrollo en la infancia, un entrenamiento físico extenuante puede reducir las reservas de energía y nitrógeno del organismo que, entonces, deberán reemplazarse a través de la

C. L. Zanker



Decorative Landscaping Rock as a Source for Heavy Metal Contamination, Las Vegas, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent drought coupled with population growth throughout the southwestern United States has increased the demand for water-efficient landscaping alternatives. As a result, xeriscaping has become a popular approach to landscaping in arid climates. Currently, no regulations control the mineralogy of decorative rocks that are used in these applications. Eight public sites were examined in Las Vegas, NV, where green and

Stephanie A. Mrozek; Brenda J. Buck; Patrick J. Drohan; Amy L. Brock



Crustal structure in the vicinity of Las Vegas, Nevada, from seismic and gravity observations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A seismic-refraction profile indicates that the crust of the Earth increases in thickness by as much as 5 km over a horizontal distance of less than 25 km northeast of Las Vegas, Nevada. This feature correlates with a decrease in the Bouguer anomaly and an increase in the average surface altitude.

Roller, John C.




EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the present and developing capabilities of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada. Its purpose is to present comprehensive information in concise form to enable users of the Laboratory'...


Isolation of the Autoinducer-Quenching Strain that Inhibits LasR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing (QS) has been recognized as a general phenomenon in microorganisms and plays an important role in many pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we used the Agrobacterium tumefaciens biosensor strain NT1 to rapidly screen for autoinducer-quenching inhibitors from bacteria. After initial screening 5389 isolates obtained from land and beach soil, 53 putative positive strains were identified. A confirmatory bioassay was carried out after concentrating the putative positive culture supernatant, and 22 strains were confirmed to have anti-LasR activity. Finally, we determined the strain JM2, which could completely inhibit biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, belonged to the genus Pseudomonas by analysis of 16S rDNA. Partially purified inhibitor factor(s) F5 derived from culture supernatants specifically inhibited LasR-controlled elastase and protease in wild type P. aeruginosa PAO1 by 68% and 73%, respectively, without significantly affecting growth; the rhl-controlled pyocyanin and rhamnolipids were inhibited by 54% and 52% in the presence of 100 ?g/mL of F5. The swarming motility and biofilm of PAO1 were also inhibited by F5. Real time RT-PCR on samples from 100 ?g/mL F5-treated P. aeruginosa showed downregulation of autoinducer synthase (LasRI and rhlI) and cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 50%, 28%, 48%, and 29%, respectively. These results provide compelling evidence that the F5 inhibitor(s) interferes with the las system and significantly inhibits biofilm formation.

Weng, Lixing; Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Yuxiang; Wang, Lianhui



Isolation of the autoinducer-quenching strain that inhibits LasR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  


Quorum sensing (QS) has been recognized as a general phenomenon in microorganisms and plays an important role in many pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we used the Agrobacterium tumefaciens biosensor strain NT1 to rapidly screen for autoinducer-quenching inhibitors from bacteria. After initial screening 5389 isolates obtained from land and beach soil, 53 putative positive strains were identified. A confirmatory bioassay was carried out after concentrating the putative positive culture supernatant, and 22 strains were confirmed to have anti-LasR activity. Finally, we determined the strain JM2, which could completely inhibit biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, belonged to the genus Pseudomonas by analysis of 16S rDNA. Partially purified inhibitor factor(s) F5 derived from culture supernatants specifically inhibited LasR-controlled elastase and protease in wild type P. aeruginosa PAO1 by 68% and 73%, respectively, without significantly affecting growth; the rhl-controlled pyocyanin and rhamnolipids were inhibited by 54% and 52% in the presence of 100 µg/mL of F5. The swarming motility and biofilm of PAO1 were also inhibited by F5. Real time RT-PCR on samples from 100 µg/mL F5-treated P. aeruginosa showed downregulation of autoinducer synthase (LasRI and rhlI) and cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 50%, 28%, 48%, and 29%, respectively. These results provide compelling evidence that the F5 inhibitor(s) interferes with the las system and significantly inhibits biofilm formation. PMID:24736783

Weng, Lixing; Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Yuxiang; Wang, Lianhui



Positive correlation of algD transcription to lasB and lasA transcription by populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes a chronic infection in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis. The P. aeruginosa isolates from these infections, when grown under laboratory conditions, characteristically are mucoid and produce low levels of the more destructive virulence factors, such as exotoxin A and the proteases. We wanted to determine if during the chronic lung infections associated with CF, the expression of alginate was inversely correlated to the expression of exotoxin A, elastase, and the LasA protease. We measured the transcript accumulation of algD, a marker of alginate, toxA, the structural gene for exotoxin A, lasB, the structural gene for elastase, and lasA, the structural gene for LasA protease, from the sputum bacterial populations of 23 patients. In the 131 samples tested, we frequently detected transcripts from the four genes. When a Spearman rank correlation analysis was done on the samples, we found no correlation between algD transcript accumulation and toxA transcript accumulation. This result suggested that toxA was regulated independently of algD. Curiously, we found a positive correlation between algD transcript accumulation and both lasB and lasA transcript accumulation levels. This correlation may not indicate a direct association between algD and either lasA or lasB. More likely, it indicates a common regulatory element in a cascade of regulators or a common environmental cue that triggers transcription.

Storey, D G; Ujack, E E; Mitchell, I; Rabin, H R



¿Qué traen las personas al juego? Experimentos de campo sobre la cooperación en los recursos de uso común  

Microsoft Academic Search

El estudio de la acción colectiva requiere la comprensión de los incentivos individuales y de las restricciones institucionales que guían a las personas en la decisión de cooperar o no, en el grupo que enfrenta este dilema. El uso de ecosistemas locales por parte de grupos de individuos es sólo un ejemplo en el que la extracción individual incrementa el

Cárdenas Juan Camilo; Elinor Ostrom




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen. La corrosión bajo tensión en las armaduras activas puede provocar la fractura de los alambres en condiciones subcríticas, produciendo fallos en estructuras pretensadas. Para garantizar el buen comportamiento del acero frente a la corrosión bajo tensión, la FIP propuso un ensayo estándar en tiocianato amónico. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar cómo influyen las tensiones residuales generadas en

J. M. Atienza; J. Ruiz; M. Elices



Preliminary Study of Favorability for Uranium of the Sangre de Cristo Formation in the Las Vegas Basin, Northeastern New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uranium favorability of the Sangre de Cristo Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) in the Las Vegas basin has been evaluated. The Las Vegas basin project area, located in Colfax, Mora, and San Miguel Counties, New Mexico, comprises about 3,489 sq mi. The form...

R. T. May J. R. Strand B. E. Reid W. R. Phillips



Orientación al mercado y performance en las organizaciones públicas. Un estudio en el ámbito de los gobiernos locales españoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo posee como finalidad vincular los estudios de orientación al mercado desde el ámbito del marketing, con las propuestas de reforma y modernización desde los ámbitos administrativo y político. La orientación al mercado en las organizaciones empresariales, sus antecedentes y consecuencias, constituyen un tema ampliamente investigado en el ámbito empresarial. Sobre la base del análisis de estos trabajos

Amparo Crevera Taulet



Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in water of Lake Dianchi--spatial and seasonal variation, and kinetics of biodegradation.  


For the purpose of elucidating the environmental characteristics of anion surfactants [linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS)] in the water of Lake Dianchi, a sampling investigation in the field from October 2006 to July 2007 and a batch of biodegradation experiments in the laboratory were carried out. The results showed that concentrations of LAS ranged from 18.6 to 260.1 ?g L(-1), and the average concentration was 52.6 ?g L(-1) in Lake Dianchi. The highest concentrations of LAS were found in the Northwest region, and the distribution of LAS varied through seasons, with much lower concentrations in fall than in any other seasons. LAS can be primarily biodegraded by microorganisms in the lake water, and the percentage of degradation was >97% after 28 days. Biodegradation of LAS was well-fitted with the kinetic model presented in this paper, and the half-lives ranged from 3.2 to 16.3 days. Temperature, pH, and initial concentrations could affect the biodegradation of LAS, among which temperature was the major factor influencing on biodegradation of LAS in water of Lake Dianchi. PMID:20072810

Wang, Zhi; Xiao, Bangding; Wu, Xingqiang; Tu, Xinhai; Wang, Yingcai; Sun, Xiaolei; Song, Lirong



Development of Small-Scale Vegetable and Fruit Producers for an Expanding Urban Market in Las Vegas, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Nevada, located along the eastern edge of the Mojave Desert, contains the rapidly growing city of Las Vegas, home to nearly two million people and attracting 40 million visitors each year. Las Vegas has one of the largest food service industries in North America and has emerged as a restaurant destination for tourists due to the growth in quantity

R. L. Morris; H. Gatzke; K. R. Curtis


Evolución y perspectivas de las economías emergentes de Asia Oriental diez años después de la crisis de 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo analiza la evolución de las economías más afectadas por la crisis de 1997: en Tailandia, Indonesia, Malasia, Filipinas y Corea del Sur, en los últimos diez años. Hoy el conjunto de países más afectados por aquel episodio se han re- cuperado plenamente y presentan una situación mucho más sólida. El sis- tema bancario ha sido saneado, las empresas

Joan Ripoll


La democracia constitucional en América Latina y las evoluciones recientes del presidencialismo. Memorias Encuentro del Instituto Iberoamericano de Derecho Constitucional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siempre será oportuno reflexionar sobre la democracia, su contenido, sus desafíos, su presente y su futuro, las transformaciones y percepciones que de ella se tienen. No son pocas las preocupaciones o inquietudes que la democracia suscita en esta parte del mundo, y muestra de ello son los más variados estudios e informes sobre el estado actual de la democracia y

Pedro Pablo Vanegas


Analisis de disponibilidad de infraestructura y acceso a las tecnologias de la informacion (TIC) en America Latina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los paises desarrollados han tenido mas acceso a la economia del conocimiento surgida por la amplia utilizacion de las tecnologias de la informacion y la comunicacion (tic) en las actividades productivas. Los paises de America Latina afrontan la llamada “brecha digital”, aun cuando han tenido avances importantes en el intento por articularse a los circuitos mundiales economicos y de informacion;

Raul Ernesto Acosta Mesa



Bioconcentration and toxicity of dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C12LAS) to aquatic organisms exposed in experimental streams.  


Fish, mollusks, and crustaceans were caged in the tail pool of streams during a C(12)LAS (dodecyl benzene sulfonate) model ecosystem experimental program. Bioconcentration of total C(12)LAS and individual isomers and acute and chronic toxicity were investigated during this study. Toxicity endpoints were based on water and tissue (i.e., body burden) concentrations at which adverse effects were observed. At 32 days, total C(12)LAS bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the fathead minnow and three invertebrate species ranged from 9 to 116. In general, bioconcentration was affected by isomer position, exposure concentration, and species. BCF values tended to decrease as isomer position moved from external (e.g., 2-phenyl) to internal (e.g., 5,6-phenyl). BCFs also decreased as exposure concentration increased. Mean acute 4-d LC(50) values ranged from 1.5 to >3.0 mg/L for the six species tested. Lethal body burdens associated with 50% mortality (LBB(50)) varied from 0.21 to 0.60 mmole/kg (wet weight). During the 32-day chronic exposures, the EC(20) values were 0.27 (0.204-0.352), 0.95 (0.597-1.29), and approximately 1.0 mg/L for Corbicula (length), Hyalella (survival), and fathead minnow (survival), respectively. At these EC(20) values, C(12)LAS body burdens were 0.035, 0.23, and 0.19 mmoles/kg wet weight in Corbicula, Hyalella, and fathead minnow, respectively. Fish exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent had total C(12)LAS tissue concentrations ranging from 0.0005 to 0.0039 mmoles/kg wet weight. These concentrations are approximately 45-360 times below the tissue concentration associated with subtle effects in the model ecosystem stream exposures. Total C(12)LAS body burdens in feral and caged Corbicula exposed to WWTP effluents were approximately 0.0013 mmoles/kg; approximately 25-fold below concentrations associated with effects in stream exposures. PMID:12520396

Versteeg, D J; Rawlings, J M



New 40Ar/ 39Ar dates from the Las Tazas complex, northern Chile: Tectonic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Fault Zone is a major Mesozoic structure that trends along the Coastal Batholith of northern Chile. Part of the fault zone underwent a kinematic change from dip-slip to strike-slip displacement during the Early Cretaceous. The Las Tazas complex intruded the fault zone during this change. New analyses of country rock protomylonites from the edge of the complex firmly constrain the age of the change to 130 Ma and confirm that the complex was emplaced during active displacement along the fault zone. The intrusion heated its immediate country rocks and allowed localised ductile shearing during emplacement. Upper crustal intrusions like the Las Tazas complex are ideal targets for geochronological studies of major shear zones.

Wilson, Jeff; Dallmeyer, R. David; Grocott, John



Structure and tensile strength of LaS(1.4)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tensile strength of LaS(1.4) has been estimated by diametral stress testing at room temperature, 800 and 1300 K. Brittle, tensile-type failures were obtained at all temperatures when the crosshead speed was 0.0021 mm/s; however, a 1300 K test at 0.00085 mm/s produced plastic flow. The microstructure of LaS(1.4) consisted of two phases with beta-La2S3 comprising about 15 vol percent of the structure and gamma-La2S3 the remainder. Because of the limited amount of material available for testing, no correlation between microstructure and mechanical strength could be drawn.

Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Smoak, Richard H.



Magnetic susceptibility patterns in a Cordilleran granitoid: The Las Tazas Complex, northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Las Tazas Complex is a ferromagnetic I-type granitoid that crops out in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile. Magnetic susceptibility patterns across the complex are controlled by modal magnetite contents, rather than overall mineralogy, resulting in an ambiguous correlation between susceptibility magnitude variation and lithological zoning. There is a good correlation between plagioclase magmatic fabric orientations and magnetic fabric orientation, demonstrating that anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements can accurately characterize magmatic fabric patterns in Cordilleran I-type granitoids. However, there is no simple quantitative relationship between magmatic and magnetic fabric intensities. The magmatic and magnetic fabrics share a similar character, and it is clear that AMS fabrics are strongly influenced by the dominant plagioclase fabric across the Las Tazas Complex but cannot be directly equated in quantitative strain analysis.

Wilson, Jeff



Sealing 304L to lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) glass-ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The formation of a crack-free between 300 series stainless steel and a glass-ceramic is difficult owing to the high coefficients of thermal expansion of the stainless steels. Lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) glass-ceramics were successfully developed and sealed to 304L stainless steel. These crack-free seals were fabricated by two techniques: by adjusting the parent glass composition (reducing the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content), or by adjusting the sealing/crystallization cycle. All seals were hermetic, with leak rates < 10{sup -8} cc/sec STP helium. CTE and alloy yield strengths are given which show the feasibility of using these materials to make feedthroughs, pyrotechnic components, etc. Metallography, SEM, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy show the quality and integrity of the glass-ceramic/stainless steel interface. These data are compared to those on the Inconel 718/LAS-glass seal system.

Moddeman, W.E.; Pence, R.E.; Massey, R.T.; Cassidy, R.T. [EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (United States); Kramer, D.P. [EG and G, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electronic Components Div.



An evaluation of the use of renewable energy to pump water in Sacala las Lomas, Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation has been conducted to establish if using renewable energy is technically and economically feasible to pump water\\u000a in Sacala las Lomas, Guatemala. A deep groundwater well has been proposed and a multi-stage pump system is being considered\\u000a to distribute groundwater to users’ homes. A weather station was erected in Sacala to collect site-specific data. Wind velocity,\\u000a wind direction,

Will GranichAndrew; Andrew Curtis Elmore



Adsorption\\/desorption of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) and azoproteins by\\/from activated sludge flocs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study investigated the adsorption\\/desorption by\\/from activated sludge flocs, dispersed in river water or in diluted wastewater, of organic compounds (C11-LAS, azoalbumin and azocasein) at concentrations relevant to environmental conditions. Activated sludge flocs, used as a model of biological aggregates, are characterized by a very heterogeneous matrix able to sorb the three organic compounds tested at 4°C. The adsorbed amount

A. Conrad; A. Cadoret; P. Corteel; P. Leroy; J.-C. Block



Characterization of LasR protein involved in bacterial quorum sensing mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quorum sensing (QS) mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been studied extensively due to its involvement in cystic fibrosis, a deadly disease that is responsible for the death\\u000a of more than a thousand people annually. In order to develop biochemical assay method for screening QS inhibitor, we have\\u000a studied the production and characterization of recombinant LasR protein, which is a

Hai Bo Liu; Kyong Pyo Koh; Joon Hee Lee; Jung Sun Kim; Sunghoon Park



Site response zones and short-period earthquake ground motion projections for the Las Vegas Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deterministic seismic hazard analysis was conducted to address the effect of local soil conditions on earthquake-induced\\u000a strong ground motion in the Las Vegas Basin, Nevada (US). Using a large geological and geotechnical database, two response\\u000a units were defined: a fine-grained unit, predominantly clay; and a coarse-grained unit, predominantly gravel. A moderate number\\u000a of high-quality shallow shear wave velocity measurements

Barbara Luke; Ying Liu



Comenditic and pantelleritic ash-flow tuffs from Volcan Las Navajas, Nayarit, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Two distinctive ash-flow tuffs occur around the base of Volcan Las Navajas, a Pleistocene trachyte - peralkaline rhyolite center located in the northwestern segment of the Mexican Volcanic belt. The lower ash-flow unit is locally up to 65 m thick, is lithic rich and contains pumice blocks of comenditic rhyolite. The unit is not extensively exposed, and thus its areal extent and volume cannot be determined. Its chemical characteristics and stratigraphic relationship to other products erupted from Las Navajas suggest that it is related to the formation of the older of the two calderas which occur on Las Navajas. Unconformably overlying this unwelded ash-flow is a pantelleritic airfall pumice unit which is locally welded. This airfall unit is conformably overlain by a welded as-flow tuff that contains fiamme of pantelleritic composition (72 %SiO/sub 2/, 8% FeO*, 900 ppm Zr, agpaitic index of 1.7) as well as pumice blocks that show evidence of various degrees of mixing between pantellerite and trachyte. This suggests eruption from a chemically zoned magma chamber. This unit is locally up to 20 m thick, although its top has been removed by erosion. It is found on all sides of Las Navajas except on the south where it may be covered by Volcan Sanganguey, a Pleistocene to Recent calc-alkaline volcano. The welded ash-flow has been dated by K - Ar at 0.2+/-0.1 m.y. Stratigraphically and chemically this ash-flow appears to be related to the formation of younger of the two calderas.

Nelson, S.A.; Hebre, J.A.



Calculo del valor de la cuota lactea en las explotaciones de leche gallegas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: El nivel de cuota l�ctea por explotaci�n y la transferencia de cuota entre las distintas explotaciones juegan un papel principal en la reestructuraci�n del sector productor de leche en Espa�a. En este trabajo se estiman el valor de una unidad de cuota, de su valor de capitalizaci�n en el horizonte del a�o 2006 y la concreci�n de algunos determinantes

Jose Carlos De Miguel Dominguez; Tomas Perez Vidal; Xose Anton Rodriguez Gonzalez



Asymptotic Analysis of the Performance of LAS Algorithm for Large-MIMO Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our recent work, we reported an exhaustive study on the simulated bit error rate (BER) performance of a low-complexity likelihood ascent search (LAS) algorithm for detection in large multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with large number of antennas that achieve high spectral efficiencies. Though the algorithm was shown to achieve increasingly closer to near maximum-likelihood (ML) performance through simulations, no

Saif K. Mohammed; A. Chockalingam; B. Sundar Rajan



Giant gas bubbles in a rheomorphic vent fill at the Las Cañadas caldera, Tenerife (Canary Islands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During rheomorphism subsequent to fallout deposition, a portion of the densely welded fallout of the La Grieta Member flowed\\u000a back into the vent from where it was erupted, while the rest of it flowed down the outer slopes of the Las Cañadas caldera\\u000a in Tenerife. The welded fallout and conduit-vent structure are physically connected and constitute a rare example of

Carles Soriano; Daniele Giordano; Inés Galindo; Marcel Hürlimann; Paola Ardia



VIRTUAL, REAL Y COPORAL. El eros cyborg y las identidades en el ciberespacio  

Microsoft Academic Search

El cuerpo en la era de la cibersociedad se transforma en su naturaleza\\/esencia cardinal, biológica y sexual. Las marcas, estereotipo y bases que han diferenciado a los sujetos humanos por corporalidad\\/biología parecen deshacerse merced a la esencia de la sociedad de lo virtual, dando paso a una nueva forma de identificación corporal\\/social\\/cultural de los individuos: el Cyborg y como no

Almudena García Manso



Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-eight fallout trachytic to phonolitic ash layers recovered from Sites 953, 954, and 956 during Leg 157 are interpreted as a result of explosive eruptions of the Las Cañadas edifice on Tenerife. Their biostratigraphic ages range from 0.3 to 3.8 Ma . Tephra layers consist dominantly of highly vesicular pumice and 1-10 vol% phenocrysts. Alkali feldspar occurs in almost all

Uta Rodehorst; Hans-Ulrich Schmincke; Mari Sumita


La gestion de las aguas subterraneas en el acuifero Mancha Occidental  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: En este art�culo se aborda la problem�tica que plantea la recuperaci�n del acu�fero Mancha Occidental en el que existe una importante externalidad ambiental que se deriva de la relaci�n entre las reservas de agua existentes en el acu�fero y los humedales Tablas de Daimiel. Para ello, se desarrollan varios modelos de programaci�n matem�tica que permiten evaluar distintos instrumentos de

Eva Iglesias



Airborne and laboratory remote sensing applications of the CSIRO CO2 laser spectrometer MIRACO2LAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mid-infrared airborne CO2 laser spectrometer (MIRACO2LAS) was developed by CSIRO Division of Exploration and Mining to investigate the potential role of high spectral resolution thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing for improved remote sensing of minerals, especially those silicate minerals that do not have diagnostic features at shorter wavelengths, such as quartz, feldspars, pyroxenes and garnets. Other objectives include testing

L. B. Whitbourn; T. J. Cudahy; J. F. Huntington; P. M. Connor; P. Mason; R. N. Phillips; Peter Hausknecht



Surficial geology and distribution of post-impoundment sediment in Las Vegas Bay, Lake Mead  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sidescan sonar imagery and seismic-reflection profiles were collected in the northwestern part of Las Vegas Bay to map the distribution and volume of sediment that has accumulated in this part of Lake Mead since impoundment. The mapping suggests that three ephemeral streams are the primary source of this sediment, and of these, Las Vegas Wash is the largest. Two deltas off the mouth of Las Vegas Wash formed at different lake elevations and account for 41% of the total volume of post-impoundment sediment within the study area. Deltas off the other two washes (Gypsum and Government) account for only 6% of the total volume. The sediment beyond the front of the deltas is primarily mud, and it only occurs in valley floors, where it forms a flat-lying blanket that is mostly less than 1.5 m thick. Although a thin layer, the fine-grained sediment accounts for approximately 53% of the total post-impoundment sediment volume of 5.7 x 106 m3 that has accumulated in the study area. This sediment appears to have been transported several kilometers from the river sources by density flows.

Twichell, David C.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Rudin, Mark J.; Parolski, Kenneth F.; Rendigs, Richard R.



Earthquakes in the Classroom, Las Vegas, NV: The Nevada Educational Seismic Network (NESN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysics is a term guaranteed to strike fear into the heart of the bravest high school science student. Using math to describe the earth can involve complex equations that can only be deciphered by enigmatic computer programs. But high school science students in the Las Vegas Valley have been given a unique opportunity to gather important research information while learning about geophysics, real-time data collection, and Internet communications in a less threatening environment. Three seismograph stations funded by the Department of Energy and the University of Nevada, Las Vegas have been installed in three different high schools in the Clark County School District. These three stations form a triangle in the Las Vegas Valley basin covering areas where the basin depths change significantly. The geophones are buried outside and a cable connects the sensors and GPS receiver to a digitizer on a local PC. The data is transmitted continuously in real-time via Internet communications protocols to the Seismic Explorer Monitoring Network. There it is available to all schools and to researchers who will analyze the data. These short-period geophones will record small local earthquakes and larger more distant events contributing to real-time seismic network operations in southern Nevada. Students at a school site are able to see live real-time data from other school stations as well as from seismograph stations in southern Nevada, the western US, and the world. Mentored by researchers at the University of Nevada, Reno and University of Nevada, Las Vegas, the teachers and students conduct simple waveform analysis to determine earthquake locations and magnitudes and operate the stations in this cooperative research effort. The goal of this partnership between secondary and university educational systems is to create a successful alliance that will benefit the research community as well as the classroom teacher and his/her students. Researchers will use the data collected from the schools in studies of the structure in the Las Vegas Valley basin and evaluation of the local seismicity. A major goal for the secondary teacher is the development of lesson plans that will use the collected data as a learning tool to help their students gain a better understanding of specific scientific concepts. Using the latest software and data communications technologies, students participating in this project will be on the cutting edge of establishing a model for urban seismic networks.

Hopkins, J.; Snelson, C. M.; Zaragoza, S. A.; Smith, K.; Depolo, D.



Distribution and origin of dissolved gases of groundwaters at Las Cañadas aquifer, Tenerife, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic aquifers commonly trap an important fraction of the main soluble components of fluids released from volcanic-hydrothermal system (CO2, SO2, H2S, HCl, HF, etc.). In particular, the interactions between volcanic gases and volcanic aquifers have been studied through hydrogeochemical parameters, as major and minor ions contents and dissolved gases in groundwaters. In the context of hydrogeochemical studies applied to active volcanic areas, studies of dissolved gases species in groundwater could be a useful tool to better understand the subsurface processes as gas-water-rock interaction or to strengthen the geochemical seismic-volcanic surveillance programs. In this work, we report the results of the geochemical characterization of dissolved gases (N2, O2, Ar, CO2, CH4, CO, H2, He, 222Rn, ?13CTDIC) in 96 groundwater samples from Las Cañadas aquifer (around Teide volcano) between May and October, 2006. The main aims of this work are: (1) to determine the background level of magmatic gas input in the aquifer during quiescent periods, (2) to better define the origin of dissolved gases in Las Cañadas aquifer, specially CO2, (3) to evaluate the gas-water-rock interaction processes occurring at depth, and (4) to delineate high permeable pathway of upward migration of volcanic-hydrothermal gases. In general, the dissolved gas phase in groundwaters of Las Cañadas aquifer is relatively enriched in endogenous gases (CO2, He and H2) while it is relatively depleted in atmospheric gases (N2, O2 and Ar). N2-O2-CO2 triangular diagram shows that dissolved gases in most of analyzed groundwater are variable mixtures of CO2-rich fluids from the volcanic-hydrothermal system (as represent the Teide fumaroles) with dissolved air. The relatively high N2/O2 ratio in some groundwater compared to the air saturated water suggests an O2 consumption during gas-water-rock interactions occurring at depth. Spatial distribution maps show anomalous concentration of 222Rn CH4, H2 and CO2 dissolved in groundwater at the westernmost area of Las Cañadas aquifer, which is in good spatial correlation with geophysical and geochemical anomalies related to 2004-2005 seismic-volcanic unrest at Tenerife Island. Determinations of ?13C values in the total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) in groundwater in Las Cañadas aquifer ranging from -5 to +5 (‰ vs PDB). This result was explained by isotopic fractionation of either volcanic-hydrothermal CO2 partially dissolved in groundwater or due to precipitation of CaCO3 and CO2 degassing related to silicate hydrolysis dissolving Ca2+.

Marrero, R.; Melian, G.; Padron, E.; Sortino, F.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Lopez, D. L.; Perez, N.



An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas  

SciTech Connect

As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of the City of North Las Vegas along with the gross-count-based exposure rate and man-made count contour maps and GIS shape files in electronic format on a compact disk.

Piotr Wasiolek



Efficient Production andProcessing ofElastase andLasAby Pseudomonas aeruginosa Require ZincandCalcium Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theability ofPseudomonas aeruginosatodegrade elastin, a majorcomponent ofconnective tissue, likely contributes toitspathogenicity andmultiplication inhumantissues. Twoextracellular enzymesarerequired forP.aeruginosa elastolytic activity: elastase andLasA.Elastase isazincmetalloprotease, butlittle isknown aboutthestructure ofLasA.When grown undermetalion-deficient conditions, P.aeruginosa culture supernatants were foundtoexhibit a lowlevel ofelastolytic activity, whichcoincided withproduction oflow levels ofthe51-kDaproelastase andno detectable LasA.Byusing this fact toidentify factors thatpromote elastolytic activity, P.aeruginosa PAO1,FRD2,andDG1 were grown inmetalion-deficient medium supplemented withzinc(l0-4




El Informe Anual a la Nación indica que las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer continúan declinando. Se observan tasas menores de cáncer en las poblaciones latinas de los Estados Unidos.

Un informe nuevo de las principales organizaciones oncológicas de la nación informa que el riesgo de los estadounidenses de morir por cáncer continúa descendiendo, y que mantiene una tendencia que comenzó a principios de los años noventa. Preguntas y respuestas



Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo analizó y evaluó las estrategias de desarrollo turístico propuestas por los tres órdenes de gobierno y las sugeridas por organismos internacionales, durante los años 2000 - 2008 en beneficio de Chetumal, Q. Roo. Las estrategias de gobierno compiladas en Instrumentos de Planeación (IP), tienen por objeto ofrecer oportunidades de desarrollo para la ciudad de Chetumal, con proyección en

Edgar Manuel Gutiérrez García



Invasive Species Databases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Held in Las Vegas, Nevada on November 12-13, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The workshop, which was held in Las Vegas, Nevada, on November 12-13, 1998, in association with the American Phytopathological Society and Entomological Society of America, served as the basis for these proceedings. The introductory section for these proc...

R. L. Ridgway W. P. Gregg R. E. Stinner A. G. Brown




Microsoft Academic Search

Se exponen algunos conceptos sobre gestión de la información desde la perspectiva de diversos autores. Se definen ambiente y cultura organizacional en el contexto de las organizaciones y se analiza su influencia en los procesos de gestión de la información.

Esther Paredes Esponda



Removal of nutrients and metals by constructed and naturally created wetlands in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased water use associated with rapid growth in the Las Vegas Valley has inadvertently led to the creation of unique wetland\\u000a systems in Southern Nevada with an abundance of biological diversity. Constructed and naturally created wetlands in the Las\\u000a Vegas Valley watershed were studied to characterize and understand their potential role for improving ecosystem services (i.e.,\\u000a water purification). Nutrient and

Achyut R. Adhikari; Kumud Acharya; Seth A. Shanahan; Xiaoping Zhou



Seismic Data for Evaluation of Ground Motion Hazards in Las Vegas in Support of Test Site Readiness Ground Motion  

SciTech Connect

In this report we describe the data sets used to evaluate ground motion hazards in Las Vegas from nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. This analysis is presented in Rodgers et al. (2005, 2006) and includes 13 nuclear explosions recorded at the John Blume and Associates network, the Little Skull Mountain earthquake and a temporary deployment of broadband station in Las Vegas. The data are available in SAC format on CD-ROM as an appendix to this report.

Rodgers, A



The Las Matras tonalitic–trondhjemitic pluton, central Argentina: Grenvillian-age constraints, geochemical characteristics, and regional implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The N–S trending belt with Grenvillian-age rocks developed in central western Argentina represents the basement of an allochthonous terrane derived from Laurentia during the Early Paleozoic. The Las Matras pluton (36°46?S, 67°07?W) is located at the southern extension of this belt in the Las Matras Block. It consists of a low-Al tonalitic to trondhjemitic facies characteristic of an arc magmatism.

A.M. Sato; H. Tickyj; E. J. Llambiasa; K. Sato



Influence of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the structure of Alphaproteobacteria , Actinobacteria , and Acidobacteria communities in a soil microcosm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is the most used anionic surfactant in a worldwide scale and is considered a high-priority\\u000a pollutant. LAS is regarded as a readily biodegradable product under aerobic conditions in aqueous media and is mostly removed\\u000a in wastewater treatment plants, but an important fraction (20–25%) is immobilized in sewage sludge and persists under anoxic\\u000a conditions.

Jesús González-López; Clementina Pozo; Belén Rodelas



Overexpression of the Brassica napus BnLAS gene in Arabidopsis affects plant development and increases drought tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GRAS proteins are a family of transcription regulators found in plants and play diverse roles in plant growth and development.\\u000a To study the biological roles of GRAS family genes in Brassica napus, an Arabidopsis LAS homologous gene, BnLAS and its two homologs were cloned from B. napus and its two progenitor species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. Relatively high

Minggui Yang; Qingyong Yang; Tingdong Fu; Yongming Zhou



Infraestructuras urbanas de la Segunda Revolución Tecnológica. La difusión del teléfono en las ciudades españolas, 1877-1930  

Microsoft Academic Search

El uso del teléfono es en el mundo globalizado de hoy algo tan indisolublemente ligado a nuestros hábitos cotidianos que resulta casi impensable concebir una época en que tal servicio estuviera ausente. Profundizar en el estudio del origen y desarrollo del teléfono supone, pues, enfrentarse con algunas de las claves de la civilización actual. \\u000a\\u000aLa difusión del teléfono en las

Àngel Calvo Calvo



An Aerial Radiological Survey of the City of North Las Vegas (Downtown) and the Motor Speedway  

SciTech Connect

As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey on December 11-12, 2007, with the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. The survey covered 19.4 square miles (9.2 square miles over the downtown area of the City of North Las Vegas and 10.2 square miles over the Las Vegas Motor Speedway [LVMS]). The flight lines over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1 and 2. A total of four 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 ft of flight line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system-REDAR V using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data in the form of gamma energy spectra were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes sources. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of City of North Las Vegas and LVMS security along with the gross counts-based exposure rate and man-made counts maps.

Piotr Wasiolek



Interferograms showing land subsidence and uplift in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, 1992-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Conservation and Natural Resources-Division of Water Resources and the Las Vegas Valley Water District, compiled 44 individual interferograms and 1 stacked interferogram comprising 29 satellite synthetic aperture radar acquisitions of Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, from 1992 to 1999. The interferograms, which depict short-term, seasonal, and long-term trends in land subsidence and uplift, are viewable with an interactive map. The interferograms show that land subsidence and uplift generally occur in localized areas, are responsive to ground-water pumpage and artificial recharge, and, in part, are fault controlled. Information from these interferograms can be used by water and land managers to mitigate land subsidence and associated damage. Land subsidence attributed to ground-water pumpage has been documented in Las Vegas Valley since the 1940s. Damage to roads, buildings, and other engineered structures has been associated with this land subsidence. Land uplift attributed to artificial recharge and reduced pumping has been documented since the 1990s. Measuring these land-surface changes with traditional benchmark and Global Positioning System surveys can be costly and time consuming, and results typically are spatially and temporally sparse. Interferograms are relatively inexpensive and provide temporal and spatial resolutions previously not achievable. The interferograms are viewable with an interactive map. Landsat images from 1993 and 2000 are viewable for frames of reference to locate areas of interest and help determine land use. A stacked interferogram for 1992-99 is viewable to visualize the cumulative vertical displacement for the period represented by the individual interferograms. The interactive map enables users to identify and estimate the magnitude of vertical displacement, visually analyze deformation trends, and view interferograms and Landsat images side by side. The interferograms and Landsat images are available for download, in formats for use with Geographic Information System software.

Pavelko, Michael T.; Hoffmann, Jorn; Damar, Nancy A.



Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in fluidized bed reactor by microbial consortia in different support materials.  


Four anaerobic fluidized bed reactors filled with activated carbon (R1), expanded clay (R2), glass beads (R3) and sand (R4) were tested for anaerobic degradation of LAS. All reactors were inoculated with sludge from a UASB reactor treating swine wastewater and were fed with a synthetic substrate supplemented with approximately 20 mg l(-1) of LAS, on average. To 560 mg l(-1) COD influent, the maximum COD and LAS removal efficiencies were mean values of 97+/-2% and 99+/-2%, respectively, to all reactors demonstrating the potential applicability of this reactor configuration for treating LAS. The reactors were kept at 30 degrees C and operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18h. The use of glass beads and sand appear attractive because they favor the development of biofilms capable of supporting LAS degradation. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of samples from reactors R3 and R4 revealed that these reactors gave rise to broad microbial diversity, with microorganisms belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, indicating the role of microbial consortia in degrading the surfactant LAS. PMID:20189800

de Oliveira, Lorena Lima; Costa, Rachel Biancalana; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Vich, Daniele Vital; Duarte, Iolanda Cristina Silveira; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio



A brief hydrologic appraisal of the July 3-4, 1975, flash flood in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heavy thunderstorm precipitation on the afternoon of July 3, 1975, between metropolitan Las Vegas and the mountains to the south, west, and north, caused flash flooding in the city area. Total storm precipitation equaled or exceeded 3 inches (76 mm) in some areas. The total storm yield on the area of significant runoff was probably between 20,000 and 25,000 acre-feet (2.5 x 107 m3 and 3.1 x 107 m3) of water. Of this amount, probably less than 3,000 acre-feet (37 x 106 m3) flowed directly to Lake Mead. Peak flows of Tropicana Wash, Flamingo Wash, Las Vegas Creek, and Las Vegas Wash were the highest ever determined. Flooding caused the loss of two lives and inflicted extensive property damage. Total damage was reportedly estimated by the Clark County Flood Control District at $4-5 million. Problems associated with sediment erosion, transportation, and deposition occurred throughout the flooded area. An unknown amount of the material transported during the flood was deposited in Lake Mead near the mouth of Las Vegas Wash. Lateral erosion appeared more prominent than vertical erosion along most major channels, except on Las Vegas Wash at Northshore Road where downcutting threatened the loss of the highway. Sediment deposits were particularly noticeable and troublesome in Flamingo Wash at Caesars Palace parking lot and on the Winterwood Golf Course near the junction of Flamingo Wash and Las Vegas Wash.

Katzer, T. L.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Harmsen, Lynn



Seasonal subsidence and rebound in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, observed by synthetic aperture radar interferometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of areal variations in the subsidence and rebound occurring over stressed aquifer systems, in conjunction with measurements of the hydraulic head fluctuations causing these displacements, can yield valuable information about the compressibility and storage properties of the aquifer system. Historically, stress-strain relationships have been derived from paired extensometer/piezometer installations, which provide only point source data. Because of the general unavailability of spatially detailed deformation data, areal stress-strain relations and their variability are not commonly considered in constraining conceptual and numerical models of aquifer systems. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques can map ground displacements at a spatial scale of tens of meters over 100 km wide swaths. InSAR has been used previously to characterize larger magnitude, generally permanent aquifer system compaction and land subsidence at yearly and longer timescales, caused by sustained drawdown of ground-water levels that produces intergranular stresses consistently greater than the maximum historical stress. We present InSAR measurements of the typically small-magnitude, generally recoverable deformations of the Las Vegas Valley aquifer system occurring at seasonal timescales. From these we derive estimates of the elastic storage coefficient for the aquifer system at several locations in Las Vegas Valley. These high-resolution measurements offer great potential for future investigations into the mechanics of aquifer systems and the spatial heterogeneity of aquifer system structure and material properties as well as for monitoring ongoing aquifer system compaction and land subsidence.

Hoffmann, J.; Zebker, H. A.; Galloway, D. L.; Amelung, F.



Rock magnetic properties and ore microscopy of the iron ore deposit of Las Truchas, Michoacan, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron ore and host rocks have been sampled (90 oriented samples from 19 sites) from the Las Truchas mine, western Mexico. A broad range of magnetic parameters have been studied to characterize the samples: saturation magnetization, Curie temperature, density, susceptibility, remanence intensity, Koenigsberger ratio, and hysteresis parameters. Magnetic properties are controlled by variations in titanomagnetite content, deuteric oxidation, and hydrothermal alteration. Las Truchas deposit formed by contact metasomatism in a Mesozoic volcano-sedimentary sequence intruded by a batholith, and titanomagnetites underwent intermediate degrees of deuteric oxidation. Post-mineralization hydrothermal alteration, evidenced by pyrite, epidote, sericite, and kaolin, seems to be the major event that affected the minerals and magnetic properties. Magnetite grain sizes in iron ores range from 5 to >200 ?m, which suggest dominance of multidomain (MD) states. Curie temperatures are 580±5°C, characteristic of magnetite. Hysteresis parameters indicate that most samples have MD magnetite, some samples pseudo-single domain (PSD), and just a few single domain (SD) particles. AF demagnetization and IRM acquisition indicate that NRM and laboratory remanences are carried by MD magnetite in iron ores and PSD-SD magnetite in host rocks. The Koenigsberger ratio falls in a narrow range between 0.1 and 10, indicating the significance of MD and PSD magnetites.

Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.



INTRAVAL Phase 2: Modeling testing at the Las Cruces Trench Site  

SciTech Connect

Several field experiments have been performed by scientists from the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University at the Las Cruces Trench Site to provide data tc test deterministic and stochastic models for water flow and solute transport. These experiments were performed in collaboration with INTRAVAL, an international effort toward validation of geosphere models for the transport of radionuclides. During Phase I of INTRAVAL, qualitative comparisons between experimental data and model predictions were made using contour plots of water contents and solute concentrations. Detailed quantitative comparisons were not made. To provide data for more rigorous model testing, a third Las Cruces Trench experiment was designed by scientists from the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University. Modelers from the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analysis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, New Mexico State University, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the University of Texas provided predictions of water flow and tritium transport to New Mexico State University for analysis. The corresponding models assumed soil characterizations ranging from uniform to deterministically heterogeneous to stochastic. This report presents detailed quantitative comparisons to field data.

Hills, R.G. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Wierenga, P.J. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil and Water Science; Luis, S.; McLaughlin, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Rockhold, M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Xiang, J.; Scanlon, B. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wittmeyer, G. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses



Ground-water conditions in Las Veags Valley, Clark County, Nevada; part 1 Hydrogeologic Framework  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the lithology, thickness, and extent of valley-fill deposits in Las Vegas Valley, Nev. This information will be used to develop a hydraulic model of the valley's ground-water system. Las Vegas Valley is a structural basin formed by bedrock that ranges in age from Precambrian through Miocene. Gravity data indicate that the deeper parts of the basin are filled with 3,000-5,000 feet of clastic sedimentary deposits that range in age from Miocene through Holocene. These deposits constitute the valley-fill aquifer and yield most of the water pumped in the valley. The upper 1,000 feet of this valley fill consist of coarse-grained deposits (sand and gravel), fine-grained deposits (silt and clay), and heterogeneous deposits that comprise either thinly interbedded coarse- and fine-grained deposits or mixtures of the two. Coarse-grained deposits, in places more than 1,000 feet thick, underlie the south and west sides of the valley and interfinger with fine-grained and heterogeneous deposits toward the center of the valley. Intervals of fairly thin heterogeneous deposits underlie parts of the valley, but they are not laterally persistent. The distribution of coarse-grained and fine-grained deposits in three depth zones of the valley fill (0-200 feet, 200-700 feet, and 700-1,000 feet) suggests that: (1) the Spring Mountains and McCullough Range were the major sources of clastic material for the valley fill; (2) Frenchman Mountain and the Las Vegas Range were emplaced later than the Spring Mountains; (3) the east side of the Spring Mountains, which was originally closer to the center of the valley, has receded westward because of erosion; and (4) shallow, fine-grained deposits (0-200 feet deep) are more susceptible to subsidence than deeper ones. The bedrock basin that underlies Las Vegas Valley consists of a deeply buried part that underlies most of the valley and a shallow bedrock surface on the west side of the valley. The deep part of the basin is bounded on the east by normal faults at the base of Frenchman Mountain, on the west by a possible normal fault that coincides with a zone of fault scarps, on the north by vertical or strike-slip displacement along the Las Vegas shear zone, and on the northwest by a bedrock high that underlies the area between Tule Springs and Corn Creek Springs. The shallow bedrock surface (as much as 1,000 feet deep) underlies the west side of the valley from La Madre Mountain to the McCullough Range. Some of the fault scarps in the valley fill coincide with possible bedrock faults, which suggests a tectonic origin for some of the faulting of valley-fill deposits; however, the area of fault scarps on the west side of the valley also coincides with a rapid lateral change from incompressible bedrock to more compressible valley-fill deposits. Thus, both differential compaction and tectonic movement may be responsible for faulting of valley-fill deposits.

Plume, Russell W.



A male Klug's clearwing butterfly (Dircenna klugii klugii) foraging on a coffee flower (Coffea arabica) in Finca Irlanda of the Sonusco region of Chia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A male KlugÃÂs clearwing butterfly (Dircenna klugii klugii) foraging on a coffee flower (Coffea arabica) in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Shade-grown coffee certification programs distinguish shade management practices that contain significantly higher levels of bird and butterfly diversity. This enhanced biodiversity may provide important ecosystem services, such as pollination, shown here. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (14:3) in June of 2004.

Philpott, Stacy



Aerosol Optical Properties of Smoke from the Las Conchas Wildfire, Los Alamos, NM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Las Conchas wildfire in Northern New Mexico started on June, 26 2011 and spread rapidly, eventually burning an area of 634 km2 (245 mi2). Due to the close proximity to the fire, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was shut down and the town evacuated for several days. Immediately after LANL reopened (7/6/2011) the Earth and Environmental Sciences Division (EES-14) attained unique measurements of the smoke by sampling the ambient air. Three Integrated Photoacoustic/Nephelometer Spectrometers (DMT Inc.) were set up to measure aerosol light absorption and scattering coefficients. A University of Northwest Switzerland thermodenuder was used to remove compounds that are volatile at temperatures up to 200C. The aerosol's optical properties were measured before and after denuding the sample at 405nm (blue), 532nm (green), 781nm (red), and for non-denuded particles also at 375nm (ultraviolet). The aerosol size distributions were measured after the denuder with a Laser Aerosol Spectrometer (LAS, TSI Inc.) and black carbon was measured with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2, DMT Inc.). Additionally, ambient measurements of Total Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) were collected continuously at the LANL air monitoring stations. These measurements are used in conjunction with numerical simulations to determine the bulk optical properties of the aerosol. Aerosols in wildfire smoke are composed of organic and black carbon (soot) particles that are formed during wood combustion and pyrolysis. The optical properties of the smoke particles are complex and lead to large uncertainties in assessing the global climate. During the measurement period, the Las Conchas fire provided very high particle concentrations (up to 200 ?g/m3) that were exploited to investigate their optical properties. By heating the particles to temperatures ranging from 75 to 200C in the denuder, volatile organics were removed and the optical properties of the remaining particles were measured. Denuding of the aerosols, removed the outer organic coatings leaving behind the inner core of black carbon (soot) and any compounds that did not volatize completely. By simultaneously measuring the optical properties of the non-denuded as well as the denuded aerosol, we can study how the coatings affect the optical properties. The absorption coefficient measurements showed that coatings can cause an increase or decrease in absorption. The photoacoustic measurements were also combined with SP2 measurements to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effect of composition on the mass light absorption cross-sections of carbonaceous aerosols emitted by fires.

Gorkowski, K.; Dubey, M. K.; Flowers, B. A.; Aiken, A. C.; Klein, B. Z.; Mazzoleni, C.; Sharma, N.; China`, S.



The degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in the presence of light and natural biofilms: the important role of photosynthesis.  


Photosynthesis of algae usually changes the chemical conditions of microenvironment in natural waters. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the effects of diurnal variation and photosynthesis on behavior of organic pollutants in aquatic environments. In this study, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) was selected as a representative of non-persistent organic pollutants to investigate the degradation of this type of pollutants in the presence of light and natural biofilms by laboratory batch experiments, with special emphasis on the effect of photosynthesis of the biofilms. The maximum decrease of LAS was observed in the coexistence of both illumination and fully active biofilms, and about 75% of the LAS were removed after a 36-h degradation experiment. The removal of LAS was found to be dominated by photosynthesis of the biofilms, with lesser roles attributed to biodegradation and adsorption by the biofilms, and the role of direct photolysis was negligible. The production of some reactive oxygen species might account for the role of photosynthesis in decomposing the LAS. The study confirms the important roles of algae biofilms and their photosynthesis in determining the fate of organic pollutants in aquatic environments. PMID:22742730

Hua, Xiuyi; Li, Ming; Su, Yulong; Dong, Deming; Guo, Zhiyong; Liang, Dapeng



The study of ozone variations in the Las Vegas metropolitan area using remote sensing information and ground observations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban development in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, has grown rapidly in the past fifty years. Associated with this growth has been a change in landscape from natural cover types to developed urban land mixed with planned vegetation canopy throughout in the metropolitan area. Air quality in the Las Vegas Valley has been affected by increases in anthropogenic emissions and concentrations of carbon monoxide, ozone, and criteria pollutants of particular matter. Ozone concentration in the region is generally influenced by synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions, as well as regional transport of pollutants from the western side of Las Vegas. Local influences from ground-level nitrogen oxide emissions and vegetation canopy coverage also affect ozone concentration. Multi-year observational data collected by a network of local air monitoring stations in Clark County, Nevada, indicate that ozone maximums develop in May and June, while minimums exist primarily from November to February. Ozone concentrations are high on the west and northwest sides of the valley. A nighttime ozone reduction in the urban area characterizes the heterogeneous features of spatial distribution for average ozone levels in the Las Vegas urban area. The urban vegetation canopy has a locally positive effect by reducing ozone in urban areas. Decreased ozone levels associated with increased urban development density suggests that the highest ozone concentrations are associated with medium- to low-density urban development in Las Vegas.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.



Late neandertals in southeastern Iberia: Sima de las Palomas del Cabezo Gordo, Murcia, Spain.  


Middle Paleolithic fossil human remains from the Sima de las Palomas in southeastern Iberia (dated to

Walker, Michael J; Gibert, Josep; López, Mariano V; Lombardi, A Vincent; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Zapata, Josefina; Ortega, Jon; Higham, Thomas; Pike, Alistair; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Zilhão, João; Trinkaus, Erik



Mössbauer Study of Ceramic Finds from the Galería de las Ofrendas, Chavín de Huántar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic finds from the Galería de las Ofrendas at Chavín de Huántar and surface finds from the settlement of Chavín were characterised by combining the results of archaeological typology with archaeometric studies using neutron activation analysis, Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thin-section microscopy. Sherds from the pyramid Tello are included in the study as representative of local material. The analyses show that the vessels were made from different raw materials and that different firing procedures were used in their production. Sherds of certain styles largely exhibit similar types of Mössbauer patterns and in many instances also have similar element compositions. This supports the archaeological notion that the vessels were brought to Chavín from the provinces, perhaps on the occasion of a festivity.

Lumbreras, L. G.; Gebhard, R.; Häusler, W.; Kauffmann-Doig, F.; Riederer, J.; Sieben, G.; Wagner, U.



Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain).  


This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited. PMID:21894267

Domínguez-Peñafiel, G; Giménez-Pardo, C; Gegúndez, Mi; Lledó, L



Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae) in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama.  


Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1 +/- 6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within +/-10% of the optimal length but only six (15%) were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/LNSO Index (MEI) (R2=0.54). Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of mega-spawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource. PMID:23025097

Mair, James M; Cipriani, Roberto; Guzman, Hector M; Usan, David



A design for a new catalog manager and associated file management for the Land Analysis System (LAS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to the larger number of different types of files used in an image processing system, a mechanism for file management beyond the bounds of typical operating systems is necessary. The Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) Catalog Manager was written to meet this need. Land Analysis System (LAS) users at the EROS Data Center (EDC) encountered some problems in using the TAE catalog manager, including catalog corruption, networking difficulties, and lack of a reliable tape storage and retrieval capability. These problems, coupled with the complexity of the TAE catalog manager, led to the decision to design a new file management system for LAS, tailored to the needs of the EDC user community. This design effort, which addressed catalog management, label services, associated data management, and enhancements to LAS applications, is described. The new file management design will provide many benefits including improved system integration, increased flexibility, enhanced reliability, enhanced portability, improved performance, and improved maintainability.

Greenhagen, Cheryl



Paleoslope, sea-level and climate controls on Upper Miocene platform evolution, Las Negras area, southeastern Spain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbonate platforms in the Las Negras area evolved from onlapping ramps to fringing reef complexes later draped by cyclic shallow marine strata. Although sea-level history and paleoclimate had an effect on platform evolution, substrate topography played a dominant role. The strata are divided into five depositional sequences of Tortonian and Messinian age. The model of platform evolution provided by the Las Negras area exposures likely has applications for other Miocene carbonate complexes in the Mediterranean and could apply to other carbonate complexes in the rock record.

Franseen, E. K.; Goldstein, R. H.



Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer 1975-2002 con una sección especial sobre las tendencias de tratamiento: preguntas y respuestas

Las organizaciones oncológicas principales de la nación informan que el riesgo de los estadounidenses de morir de cáncer sigue disminuyendo y que las tasas de casos nuevos de cáncer permanecen estables. El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2002, señala que las tasas de mortalidad de cáncer que se observaron para todos los cánceres combinados disminuyeron 1,1 por ciento por año de 1993 a 2002.


La implementación de acuerdos comerciales preferenciales en América Latina: Las experiencias de CH, CR, ES, PE en la implementación de las disposiciones sobre acceso a mercados en el marco de los tratados de libre comercio con Estados Unidos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudio abordará los desafíos y dificultades asociadas con la implementación y administración de las disposiciones sobre acceso a mercados, con especial énfasis en aquellas relacionadas con aduanas y facilitación del comercio. El análisis se realizará para los Tratados de Libre Comercio de Chile - EE.UU; Perú - EE.UU y para el Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Estados Unidos, Centroamérica

Juan Luis Zuñiga; Brian Rankin Staples



Water Quality of la Cuenca Abangares en Las Juntas, Costa Rica: Analysis of water pollution using benthic macroinvertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

El río Abangares tiene contaminación porque de los cantidades de los macro invertebrados en los sedimentos. Después de desordenar las rocas en el río, colecté insectos e identificarlos. Entonces, yo compare los insectos diferentes en los partes del río y hace conclusiones de calidad del agua. Introduction\\/Background: Costa Rica is a country rich with rainforest and natural wonders. The beauty

Valerie Brown


The emplacement of the granitic Las Tazas complex, northern Chile: the relationship between local and regional strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coastal batholith of northern Chile grew under transtensional–extensional conditions that prevailed along the Andean margin during the Mesozoic. The batholith hosts the Atacama Fault Zone, a major arc-parallel fault system which was characterised by sinistral transtensional shearing during the Early Cretaceous. The Las Tazas complex is a composite granitoid intrusion that was emplaced syntectonically along the Atacama Fault Zone

Jeff Wilson; John Grocott



Análisis del papel que ejercen las competencias laborales en el personal que integra la cadena de suministro  

Microsoft Academic Search

El personal logístico es un componente esencial en el análisis de las cadenas de suministros, pues estos son los encargados de lograr que funcione de forma integrada y efectiva. La cadena de suministro es un escalón superior de desarrollo y se encarga de gestionar los flujos desde los proveedores principales hasta el cliente final. Para alcanzar la satisfacción de los

Neyfe Sablón Cossío; Yadney Osmaida Miranda Lorenzo; Alberto Medina León; José Antonio Acevedo Suárez; Varna Hernández Junco



Anomalías de los Mercados Financieros. Análisis de las Empresas Gallegas que cotizan en el Mercado de Renta Variable  

Microsoft Academic Search

El análisis de los resultados económicos de principios del siglo apuntan a una desaceleración de las economías europeas, particularmente la alemana , cuyos efectos adversos también se han reflejado en la Economía Española. En particular, en los mercados financieros se ha constatado una evolución muy irregular, si bien la situación de España respecto a otros mercados de acciones desarrollados, ocupa

Lucy Amigo Dobaño



Bartolome de Las Casas; Protector of the Indians. The Tinker Pamphlet Series for the Teaching of Mexican American Heritage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bartolome de las Casas devoted himself completely to crusading for the rights of the Indians. Although he was never a missionary among Indians, he began projects such as the Indians' conversion in the Land of War in Guatemala, which later became the task of his Dominican colleagues. However, his true importance lay in his role as the Indians'…

Miller, Hubert J.


¿Son las políticas locales una buena estrategia para dinamizar el mercado de trabajo? Algunos elementos para el caso colombiano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: En períodos de bajo crecimiento económico, tiempos de recesión o crisis económica, implementar una política fiscal contra-cíclica puede ser una herramienta fundamental para crear empleo y dinamizar la economía. En Colombia, específicamente en las principales ciudades del país existe una posibilidad concreta para que los gobiernos locales, a través de incrementos del gasto de inversión, impacten positivamente en la

Diana Galvis G; Mauricio López Gonzalez



Hazard Evaluation and Technical Assistance Report HETA 90-114-L2066, National RX Services, Incorporated, Las Vegas, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to a request from a representative of the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at National RX Services, Las Vegas, Nevada. The company was engaged in the mail order ph...

W. Daniels B. Bernard



Long-Term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim Report. Volume 1: Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill w...

B. D. Keller J. B. C. Jackson



Long-Term Assessment of the Oil Spill at Bahia Las Minas, Panama. Interim Report. Volume 2: Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 27, 1986, at least 8 million liters of medium-weight crude oil spilled from a ruptured storage tank into the Bahia Las Minas on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Coral reefs, seagrass communities, and mangroves were affected. The area of the spill w...

B. D. Keller J. B. C. Jackson



Little Girl Lost: Las Vegas Metro Police Vice Division and the Use of Material Witness Holds Against Teenaged Prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the Las Vegas Metro Police Vice Division routine use of material witness holds to detain young prostitutes. The Juvenile court places the girls on material witness holds seeking their cooperation in the prosecution of their traffickers and pimps. The girls languish in detention awaiting the outcome of the adult cases in which they are the central or

Geneva O Brown



Little Girl Lost: Las Vegas Metro Police Vice Division and the Use of Material Witness Holds Against Teenaged Prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the Las Vegas Metro Police Vice Division routine use of material witness holds to detain young prostitutes. The Juvenile court places the girls on material witness holds seeking their cooperation in the prosecution of their traffickers and pimps. The girls languish in detention awaiting the outcome of the adult cases in which they are the central or

Geneva O Brown



Ethnobotany and antibacterial activity of some plants used in traditional medicine of Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla (México)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The village of Zapotitlán de las Salinas is situated in the Valley of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Puebla, Mexico. Plant species used by the local inhabitants to treat gastrointestinal diseases were identified using ethnobotanical, ethnographic and taxonomic methods. Out of 119 interviews, 44 plant species were registered, of which the following are the most frequently used (listed in descending order): Lippia graveolens H.B.

T. Hernández; M. Canales; J. G. Avila; A. Duran; J. Caballero; A. Romo de Vivar; R. Lira



Estado actual del pretratamiento de las intoxicaciones por agentes neuro- tóxicos de guerra con piridostigmina y otras alternativas farmacológicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: El bromuro de piridostigmina (bromuro de 3-dimeti- laminocarboniloxi-N-metilpiridinio) se utiliza como pretrata- miento en escenarios en los que existe riesgo de utilización de agentes neurotóxicos de guerra. De hecho, este pretratamiento fue utilizado por las tropas Aliadas durante la Guerra del Golfo Pérsico. Desde su vuelta a casa muchos veteranos de esta guerra se han quejado de padecer síntomas

Pita R; Martínez-Larrañaga



Microsoft Academic Search

2 RESUMEN Se estudia e ilustra la morfología del polen de las familias Acanthaceae, Vitaceae y Violaceae pertenecientes a la flora del Valle de México; la primera está representada por: Acanthus mollis L., Anisacanthus quadrifidus (Vahl) Standley, Dicliptera peduncularis Nees, Dyschoriste decumbens (Gray) O. Ktze., D. microphylla (Cav.) O. Ktze., Justicia furcata Jacq., Pseuderanthemum praecox (Benth.) Leonard, Ruellia bourgaei Hemsl.,



Las estrategias de promocion y prevencion en el Modelo Integral de Atencion en Salud - Trienio 2003-2006, Tabasco, Mexico.  


RESUMEN Introducción. Las estrategias de atención de salud previstas en el modelo de atención del Estado de Tabasco para el período 2003-2006, se organizaron en dos grupos: i) relacionadas con la promoción de la salud y la prevención de enfermedades; y ii) relacionadas con la gestión y administración de los servicios de salud. La estrategia dirigida a la promoción de salud y la prevención de enfermedades, fue considerada como prioritaria en el nuevo Modelo de Atención de Salud y para ello, se privilegió la participación comunitaria. Objetivo. después de casi 3 años de ejecución, era imprescindible indagar sobre lo alcanzado, para lo cual, se diseñó y ejecutó un ejercicio valorativo, cuya descripción representa el objetivo de este trabajo. Metodología. se realizó un ejercicio valorativo, desarrollado durante los meses de agosto-octubre del año 2006 en Jurisdicciones Sanitarias seleccionadas en el estado de Tabasco, in México. Resultados. destacan hallazgos como, la creación y funcionamiento de los Comités de Salud, la identificación del trabajo intersectorial y la utilidad de la participación comunitaria. Conclusiones. se concluye que en todo modelo de atención de salud, son ineludibles las actividades de promoción y prevención para obtener resultados exitosos. Estas actividades mantienen su vigencia y utilidad, particularmente, las acciones intersectoriales y la toma de decisiones con participación comunitaria. Sin dudas, la creación y funcionamiento del Comité Local de Salud, principal órgano coordinador municipal para las actividades de promoción y prevención, requiere perfeccionar su funcionamiento. PMID:24801791

Calvo, Silvia Martínez; Padrón, Y Hilda Santos



Ambient air monitoring during the 2011 Las Conchas wildland fire near Los Alamos, U.S.A.  

SciTech Connect

Air monitoring data collected during the Las Conchas fire near the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 2011 are presented. Data included are for selected radionuclides and selected metals found in particulate matter. None of these analytes were seen at levels which exceeded any state or federal standards.

Green, Andrew A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schlemann, Shea A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates; Young, Daniel L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Human-Health Pharmaceutical Compounds in Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona, and Las Vegas Wash, Nevada, October 2000-August 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service conducted a reconnaissance study to investigate the occurrence of selected human-health pharmaceutical compounds in water samples collected from Lake Mead on the Colorado River and Las Vegas Wash, a...

R. A. Boyd E. T. Furlong




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen. En este trabajo se analiza el efecto ejercido por tres tipos de recubrimientos superficiales sobre las prestaciones frente al desgaste y la fatiga de una aleación de aluminio 7075, en estado T6, solubilización y maduración al pico de máxima resistencia. Los recubrimientos analizados fueron la deposición mediante la técnica de PVD de una capa de bisulfuro de molibdeno dopada

D. González; M. Brizuela; G. Atxaga; A. M. Irisarri; B. Zamorano


Developing Fieldwork in Social and Cultural Geography: Illustrations from a Residential Field Class in Los Angeles and Las Vegas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that fieldwork develops student understanding of various concerns in social and cultural geography. Recommends using a new approach that focuses on the role of fieldwork in the research process and illustrates this approach by describing an account of a residential field class to Los Angeles (California) and Las Vegas (Nevada). (CMK)

May, Jon




Microsoft Academic Search

Con la finalidad de abordar y analizar los elementos que sustentan la necesidad de integrar la dimensión ambiental al proceso de desarrollo de las competencias laborales, se valora la relación de la especie humana con el medio ambiente a escala mundial, su estado y propósito en Cuba, abordándose la necesidad de desarrollar el Capital Humano dentro de la cultura ambiental

Ana Victoria Nápoles Villa; Clara Marrero Fornaris



Visión de un científico oncólogo que aplica la investigación a la salud humana a través de las fronteras

El doctor Jorge Gómez es el asesor principal del Centro para la Salud Mundial del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer. Dirige la Red de Investigación del Cáncer de los Estados Unidos y América Latina, la cual está realizando un estudio internacional de los factores de riesgo del cáncer de mama y características en las mujeres de América Latina.



Microsoft Academic Search

El análisis de un nuevo documento del Monasterio de las Descalzas Reales, y su relación con otros tantos de diversas procedencias nos aporta una gran cantidad de información hasta ahora desconocida. Por un lado, se refuta la leyenda de que Tomás Luis de Victoria fuera maestro de capilla de la institución, ya que aparecen los maestros que ocuparon el puesto

Ángel Manuel Olmos



Female Adolescent Subjectivities in Las Vegas: Poststructural Thoughts on the Intersections of Gender, Sexuality, Consumer Logic and Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, data collected from an ethnographic study of adolescent girls growing up in the city of Las Vegas in the US is used to further our understanding of the role of mediated sex and consumer culture and in relationship to emerging adolescent female identities. Girls in this study articulated a clear sense of their abilities to make…

Dentith, Audrey M.



Initial Results From the Las Vegas Valley Broadband Array Based on Differential Travel Time Residuals and Interstation Phase Velocities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight broadband seismometers, collectively known as the Las Vegas Valley Broadband array (LVVBB), were deployed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) in September 2002. The LVVBB array recorded data continuously from local and regional earthquakes as well as global teleseisms through late January 2003. The coverage area extends throughout the northeastern regions of the Las Vegas Valley; the area estimated to be the deepest portion of the Las Vegas basin based on gravity data. Differential travel time residuals were calculated through the cross-correlation of P-wave arrivals from global teleseisims to better constrain basin geometry and depth to basement. The calculated delay times show variations up to 0.5 s over distances of 15 km or less. The residual pattern is consistent across the basin and is associated with zones of thicker basin fill. This supports earlier models of the basin. A number of regional earthquakes originating in southern California are linearly aligned with the LVVBB array. Interstation phase velocities of Rayleigh wave propagation from these events are being used to create surface wave dispersion curves to assist in modeling the shear wave velocity structure of the region. Given the current models, average shear velocities of 0.96 km/s and 1.25 km/s characterize the change from shallow to deep sediments. These new results will further constrain the shear wave velocity in the study area, and aid in evaluating the behavior of basin fill for building construction. These studies contribute to the modeling of ground-motions in Las Vegas Valley and can be used to assess the Valley's response in the event of an earthquake or future nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site.

McEwan, D. J.; Snelson, C. M.; Tkalcic, H.; Rodgers, A.



Human-health pharmaceutical compounds in Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona, and Las Vegas Wash, Nevada, October 2000-August 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service conducted a reconnaissance study to investigate the occurrence of selected human-health pharmaceutical compounds in water samples collected from Lake Mead on the Colorado River and Las Vegas Wash, a waterway used to transport treated wastewater from the Las Vegas metropolitan area to Lake Mead. Current research indicates many of these compounds can bioaccumulate and may adversely affect aquatic organisms by disrupting physiological processes, impairing reproductive functions, increasing cancer rates, contributing to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, and acting in undesirable ways when mixed with other substances. These compounds may be present in effluent because a high percentage of prescription and non-prescription drugs used for human-health purposes are excreted from the body as a mixture of parent compounds and degraded metabolite compounds; also, they can be released to the environment when unused products are discarded by way of toilets, sinks, and trash in landfills. Thirteen of 33 targeted compounds were detected in at least one water sample collected between October 2000 and August 2001. All concentrations were less than or equal to 0.20 micrograms per liter. The most frequently detected compounds in samples from Las Vegas Wash were caffeine, carbamazepine (used to treat epilepsy), cotinine (a metabolite of nicotine), and dehydronifedipine (a metabolite of the antianginal Procardia). Less frequently detected compounds in samples collected from Las Vegas Wash were antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim), acetaminophen (an analgesic and anti-inflammatory), cimetidine (used to treat ulcers), codeine (a narcotic and analgesic), diltiazem (an antihypertensive), and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (a metabolite of caffeine). Fewer compounds were detected in samples collected from Lake Mead than from Las Vegas Wash. Caffeine was detected in all samples collected from Lake Mead. Other compounds detected in samples collected from Lake Mead were acetaminophen, carbamazepine, cotinine, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, and sulfamethoxazole.

Boyd, Robert A.; Furlong, Edward T.



Indicator pathogens, organic matter and LAS detergent removal from wastewater by constructed subsurface wetlands  

PubMed Central

Background Constructed wetland is one of the natural methods of municipal and industrial wastewater treatments with low initial costs for construction and operation as well as easy maintenance. The main objective of this study is to determine the values of indicator bacteria removal, organic matter, TSS, ammonia and nitrate affecting the wetland removal efficiency. Results The average concentration of E. coli and total coliform in the input is 1.127?×?1014 and 4.41?×?1014 MPN/100 mL that reached 5.03?×?1012 and 1.13?×?1014 MPN/100 mL by reducing 95.5% and 74.4% in wetland 2. Fecal streptococcus reached from the average 5.88?×?1014 in raw wastewater to 9.69?×?1012 in the output of wetland 2. Wetland 2 could reduce 1.5 logarithmic units of E. coli. The removal efficiency of TSS for the wetlands is 68.87%, 71.4%, 57.3%, and 66% respectively. Conclusions The overall results show that wetlands in which herbs were planted had a high removal efficiency about the indicator pathogens, organic matter, LAS detergent in comparison to a control wetland (without canes) and could improve physicochemical parameters (DO, ammonia, nitrate, electrical conductivity, and pH) of wastewater.



Morphological and physical characteristics of the Virgo Cluster - First results from the Las Campanas photographic survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results are presented of a photographic survey of the Virgo cluster to the faintest convenient limit of the Las Campanas du Pont 2.5 m reflector, performed in order to study the complexity of both the surface and velocity distributions within the central 6 degree radius region. The survey is described and the resulting Catalog is discussed, and the frequency of galaxy types found and listed in the Catalog is described. The physical properties of the dwarfs are summarized, and luminosity functions are given separately for each morphological type. The progressive change of (MBT) faintward along the morphological sequence from Sc I through Sm and Im types is shown, leading to a calibration of the de Vaucouleurs Lambda luminosity index and a determination of its intrinsic dispersion. The preliminary results on the distribution of galaxies of all types in the two principal subclustering regions found are summarized, and the velocity distributions over the face of the 6 degree core are discussed for the various galaxy types.

Sandage, A.; Binggeli, B.; Tammann, G. A.



[Description of a staphylococcal alimentary poisoning outbreak in Las Rosas, Santa Fe Province, Argentina].  


On February 2008, a suspected foodborne outbreak was reported in Las Rosas (Santa Fe Province, Argentina). The formal procedures indicated that an undetermined number of individuals had experienced food poisoning following consumption of vegetable cannelloni bought at a local shop. The manufacturer establishment was audited. Samples from the suspected food, as well as environmental samples and swabs from food handlers were obtained and involved subjects were interviewed. Remnants of ingested food were also obtained. Routine microbiological procedures of the foodborne outbreak revealed the presence of coagulase positive S. aureus subspecies aureus in samples from ingested and raw food, and from manipulators. Indicator microorganisms did not show significant levels and no other foodborne pathogen was isolated. Presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin-producing genes was subsequently investigated, and a positive result for enterotoxin B was shown in S. aureus strains isolated from a food handler as well as from food linked to the outbreak Moreover, these isolates showed 100% similarity by SmaI-PFGE. Timely notification together with coordinated sanitary measures and the availability of appropriate laboratory tools allowed to interrupt the chain of disease transmission by identifying risk and protective factors. PMID:21491063

Brizzio, Aníbal A; Tedeschi, Fabián A; Zalazar, Fabián E



A method based on local approximate solutions (LAS) for inverting transient flow in heterogeneous aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inverse method based on local approximate solutions (LAS inverse method) is proposed to invert transient flows in heterogeneous aquifers. Unlike the objective-function-based inversion techniques, the method does not require forward simulations to assess measurement-to-model misfits; thus the knowledge of aquifer initial conditions (IC) and boundary conditions (BC) is not required. Instead, the method employs a set of local approximate solutions of flow to impose continuity of hydraulic head and Darcy fluxes throughout space and time. Given sufficient (but limited) measurements, it yields well-posed systems of nonlinear equations that can be solved efficiently with optimization. Solution of the inversion includes parameters (hydraulic conductivities, specific storage coefficients) and flow field including the unknown IC and BC. Given error-free measurements, the estimated conductivities and specific storages are accurate within 10% of the true values. When increasing measurement errors are imposed, the estimated parameters become less accurate, but the inverse solution is still stable, i.e., parameter, IC, and BC estimation remains bounded. For a problem where parameter variation is unknown, highly parameterized inversion can reveal the underlying parameter structure, whereas equivalent conductivity and average storage coefficient can also be estimated. Because of the physically-based constraints placed in inversion, the number of measurements does not need to exceed the number of parameters for the inverse method to succeed.

Jiao, Jianying; Zhang, Ye



Diseño de la cadena de suministro de los productos alimenticios que demanda la dirección de alimentación de la Universidad Central de Las Villas  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Dirección de Alimentación de la Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas es la encargada de elaborar y abastecer los alimentos que se consumen en las diferentes dependencias que se destinan para el consumo. Dicha dirección adolece de un desempeño adecuado debido, entre otros aspectos, a la falta de integración, coordinación y racionalidad en sus procesos por carecer de

Manley Torriente Jackson




Microsoft Academic Search

En los últimos años los investigadores han mostrado un creciente interés en las relaciones interorganizativas verticales, principalmente en la Cadena de Suministro. La ausencia de trabajos previos de revisión bibliográfica sobre este tema, que permitan plantear las cuestiones clave a estudiar en Gestión de la Cadena de Suministro, nos ha llevado a realizar un análisis de contenido de la investigación

M. T. Martínez Fernández; T Vallet Bellmunt; R. Barreda Tarrazona



Informe Anual a la Nación indica que los índices generales de cáncer siguen disminuyendo; su sección especial destaca las tendencias actuales y pronósticos del cáncer colorrectal

Los índices de casos nuevos diagnosticados y los índices de muertes de todos los tipos de cáncer combinados disminuyeron en forma considerable en el período más reciente para hombres y mujeres en general, y para la mayoría de las poblaciones raciales y étnicas de Estados Unidos, según un informe de las principales organizaciones de salud y oncológicas.



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: Introducción: Con entrenamiento adecuado, los estudiantes de medicina pueden convertirse en lí- deres de opinión con futura injerencia sobre las políticas de salud, así como ayudar al público a en- tender las consecuencias de los embarazos indeseados y del aborto. El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido examinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre métodos anticonceptivos (MAC) previos al inicio

Guillermo Horacio; Cáceres Pallavidino; Echevarría Avellaneda; Domingo José Pomares



Microsoft Academic Search

La necesidad de recursos privados entre las ENL, tanto para su sostenimiento como para la realización de su labor requiere de estrategias organizativas cada vez más eficaces, por lo que el estudio del fundraising y su eficacia suscita un gran interés. En este trabajo, y basándonos en las conclusiones de estudios previos, pretendemos analizar la relación e influencia de una

M. B. Gutiérrez Villar; R. A. Araque Padilla; M. J Montero Simó



Factores de influencia en la captación de recursos privados en las ONGD españolas\\/Factors of Influence in the Fundraising of the Spanish NGOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

La necesidad de recursos privados entre las Entidades No Lucrativas (ENL), tanto para su sostenimiento como para la realización de su labor requiere de estrategias organizativas cada vez más eficaces, por lo que el estudio del fundraising y su eficacia suscita un gran interés. En este trabajo, y basándonos en las conclusiones de estudios previos, pretendemos analizar la relación e





Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se analizan los factores más relevantes de la cultura organizacional que aparecen en las redes virtuales de fabricación global (RVFG). Estas organizaciones están formadas por empresas muy dinámicas que fabrican todo tipo de productos o servicios, las cuales establecen entre sí relaciones de tipo horizontal y vertical, pudiendo incluso ser competidores, donde no es necesario mantener internamente

J. R Vilana Arto; C. Rodríguez Monroy



La infraestructura y el acceso a las tecnologias de la informacion y la comunicacion (TIC) en America Latina, 2000-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo analiza la evolución de la disponibilidad de infraestructura y acceso a las tic en América Latina entre 2000 y 2007. Se estima un modelo para establecer empíricamente la asociación entre el nivel de disponibilidad de infraestructura y acceso de las tic en estos países y el ingreso per cápita de los mismos. En la literatura revisada se identifican

Raul Acosta Mesa



Degradation of linear alkylabenzene sulfonate (LAS) and its compounds in Donghu Lake (Hubei, P.R.C.) determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), mixture of alkylchain lengths and phenyl position isomers (C10-C13), is widely used as a major constituent of household and industrial detergents in the People's Republic of China. Degradation process and behaviour of LAS compounds during an 82-hour lake water die-away study, with an added LAS concentration of 1.5mg·L-1, was quantified and accomplished by HPLO-UV after extractionon the SepPek C18 reversed-phase cartridges. The degradation rate became progressively faster with increasing chain length. The technique described in this study is fast, sensitive and specific, and can be used to determine low levels of LAS and for establishing water quality criteria and standards relating to LAS and its compounds.

Ayfer, Yediler; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yongyuan; Chen, Junjian



Seismic Wave Amplification in Las Vegas: Site Characterization Measurements and Response Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a multidisciplinary effort to understand seismic wave amplification in Las Vegas Valley, we conducted geotechnical and seismic refraction field studies, geologic and lithologic interpretation, and geophysical model building. Frequency-dependent amplifications (site response) and peak ground motions strongly correlate with site conditions as characterized by the models. The models include basin depths and velocities, which also correlate against ground motions. Preliminary geologic models were constructed from detailed geologic and fault mapping, logs of over 500 wells penetrating greater than 200 m depth, gravity-inversion results from the USGS, and USDA soil maps. Valley-wide refraction studies we conducted in 2002 and 2003 were inverted for constraints on basin geometry, and deep basin and basement P velocities with some 3-d control to depths of 5 km. Surface-wave studies during 2002-2004 characterized more than 75 sites within the Valley for shear velocity to depths exceeding 100 m, including all the legacy sites where nuclear-blast ground motions were recorded. The SASW and refraction-microtremor surface-surveying techniques proved to provide complementary, and coordinating Rayleigh dispersion-curve data at a dozen sites. Borehole geotechnical studies at a half-dozen sites confirmed the shear-velocity profiles that we derived from surface-wave studies. We then correlated all the geotechnical data against a detailed stratigraphic model, derived from drilling logs, to create a Valley-wide model for shallow site conditions. This well-log-based model predicts site measurements better than do models based solely on geologic or soil mapping.

Louie, J. N.; Anderson, J. G.; Luke, B.; Snelson, C.; Taylor, W.; Rodgers, A.; McCallen, D.; Tkalcic, H.; Wagoner, J.



Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama.  


Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development. PMID:20737843

McGowan, Tom; Cunningham, Sarah L; Guzmán, Héctor M; Mair, James M; Guevara, José M; Betts, Tanja



Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network: Keeping Education in the Dark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network is a non-profit organization that is building a completely robotic network of telescopes for education (24 x 0.4m, clusters of 4) and science (18 x 1.0m, clusters of 3 and 2 x 2.0 meters) which will be longitudinally spaced so there will always be at least one cluster in the dark. The network will be completely accessible online with observations being completed in either real-time or queued-based modes. The network will also have the ability to complete very long observations of all kinds of variable objects and include a rapid response system will allow the telescopes to quickly slew to unexpected phenomena and provide around-the-clock monitoring. Students will be able to do research projects using and collecting data from both the long observations (e.g. extrasolar planet follow-up, variable star light curves, etc.) and the quick response (e.g. supernovae, GRBs, etc.), as well as use their own ideas to create personalized projects. Also available online will be a huge archive of data and the ability to use online software to process it. A large library of activities and resources will be available for all age groups and levels of science. LCOGTN will work cooperatively with international organizations to bring a vast amount of knowledge and experience together to create a world class program. Through these collaborations, pilots have already been started in a few European countries, as well as trial programs involving schools partnered between the USA and UK. LCOGTN's education network will provide an avenue for educators and learners to use cutting edge technology to do real science. All you need is a broadband internet connection, computer, and lots of enthusiasm and imagination.

Ross, Rachel J.



Proximal record of the 273 ka Poris caldera-forming eruption, Las Cañadas, Tenerife  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithofacies architecture analysis is applied to the most proximal exposures of the 273 ka Poris Formation, in the Diego Hernandez caldera wall of Las Cañadas. Here, the succession records an opening Plinian phase followed by generation of a pyroclastic density current (PDC) that was partly blocked by near-vent topography. The upper part of the current surmounted the barrier and deposited an ignimbrite veneer. During a hiatus in energetic flow, ash and various ash aggregates were deposited from a hybrid cloud comprising parts of both the Plinian and the co-ignimbrite plumes. Phreatomagmatic explosions then generated currents rich in fine-grained lithics; current waxing with local erosion was followed by pulsing-unsteady waning, recorded in repeated sets of graded tuff. Reversion to magmatic activity was marked by hybrid deposition, as coarse pumice fallout and juvenile ballistics entered pyroclastic currents to form stratified pumice-block tuff. Increasingly energetic flow is recorded in 9 m of mainly massive lapilli tuff that includes evidence of widespread scour and bypass; lithic-rich layers record incremental onset of edifice disruption due to magma withdrawal. Laterally variable stratification and load structures show that the PDC was unsteady and highly non-uniform at times, with locally rapid aggradation of gas-rich ignimbrite. Climactic edifice disruption is marked by a lithic-block layer in erosional contact with the underlying ignimbrite, recording intense pyroclastic current activity and widespread bypass of material to distal volcano slopes. Pumice-block breccia, 10 m thick and with blocks up to 1.2 m in diameter, forms the top of the succession and registers modification of the magmatic plumbing. The timing of collapse to form a major summit depression is uncertain. However, the abrupt termination of the proximal aggradation of coarse breccia, with no record there of any waning-stage pyroclastic currents, suggests subsidence at that time, conceivably with formation of a caldera that contained late-erupted material.

Smith, Natasha J.; Kokelaar, B. Peter



Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutations in lasI and rhlI quorum sensing systems result in milder chronic lung infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the importance of quorum sensing in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, the in vivo pathogenic effects of the wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its double mutant, PAO1 lasI rhlI, in which the signal- generating parts of the quorum sensing systems are defective were compared. The rat model of P. aeruginosa lung infection was used in the present study.

Hong Wu; Zhijun Song; Michael Givskov; Gerd Doring; Dieter Worlitzsch; Kalai Mathee; Jørgen Rygaard; Niels Høiby



Gobierno corporativo y factores determinantes del cambio de auditoria en las empresas no financieras espa¤olas  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente trabajo analizamos el efecto de dos mecanismos de gobierno corporativo como son el consejo de administraci¢n y la comisi¢n de auditor¡a en la decisi¢n de cambio de auditor. Partiendo de una muestra que incluye todas las empresas no financieras cotizadas en el mercado continuo espa¤ol, hemos analizado los 46 cambios de auditor que se han producido entre



Associations between psychological demands, decision latitude, and job strain with smoking in female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little is known of the impact of the work environment on smoking among women holding low-paid jobs in the service\\u000a sector. Purpose: To study the associations between the components of the demand-control model with smoking in hotel room cleaners.\\u000a Methods: We conducted a survey on work and health among 776 female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas. Associations between

Reiner Rugulies; Teresa Scherzer; Niklas Krause



Three-dimensional modeling of shallow shear-wave velocities for Las Vegas, Nevada, using sediment type  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional model of near-surface shear-wave velocity in the deep alluvial basin underlying the metropolitan area\\u000a of Las Vegas, Nevada (USA), is being developed for earthquake site response projections. The velocity dataset, which includes\\u000a 230 measurements, is interpolated across the model using depth-dependent correlations of velocity with sediment type. The\\u000a sediment-type database contains more than 1 400 well and borehole

Barbara Luke; Helena Murvosh; Wanda Taylor; Jeff Wagoner



Tratamiento ayuda a las mujeres jóvenes a preservar la fertilidad durante la quimioterapia para el cáncer de seno

Las mujeres jóvenes con cáncer de seno (mama) lograron preservar la fertilidad durante los tratamientos del cáncer con un fármaco inyectable bloqueador de hormonas que les provocó menopausia temporal. Los resultados del estudio se anunciaron hoy en el congreso anual de la Sociedad Americana de Oncología Clínica (ASCO), y provienen del Estudio de Prevención de la Menopausia Temprana (POEMS), patrocinado por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI).


Analysis of the real estate market in Las Vegas: Bubble, seasonal patterns, and prediction of the CSW indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze 27 house price indices of Las Vegas from June 1983 to March 2005, corresponding to 27 different zip codes. These analyses confirm the existence of a real estate bubble, defined as a price acceleration faster than exponential, which is found, however, to be confined to a rather limited time interval in the recent past from approximately 2003 to mid-2004 and has progressively transformed into a more normal growth rate comparable to pre-bubble levels in 2005. There has been no bubble till 2002 except for a medium-sized surge in 1990. In addition, we have identified a strong yearly periodicity which provides a good potential for fine-tuned prediction from month to month. A monthly monitoring using a model that we have developed could confirm, by testing the intra-year structure, if indeed the market has returned to “normal” or if more turbulence is expected ahead. We predict the evolution of the indices one year ahead, which is validated with new data up to September 2006. The present analysis demonstrates the existence of very significant variations at the local scale, in the sense that the bubble in Las Vegas seems to have preceded the more global USA bubble and has ended approximately two years earlier (mid-2004 for Las Vegas compared with mid-2006 for the whole of the USA).

Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier



LasI/R and RhlI/R quorum sensing in a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa beneficial to plants.  


Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses three quorum-sensing (QS) systems which are key in the expression of a large number of genes, including many virulence factors. Most studies of QS in P. aeruginosa have been performed in clinical isolates and have therefore focused on its role in pathogenicity. P. aeruginosa, however, is regarded as a ubiquitous organism capable of colonizing many different environments and also of establishing beneficial associations with plants. In this study we examined the role of the two N-acyl homoserine lactone systems known as RhlI/R and LasI/R in the environmental rice rhizosphere isolate P. aeruginosa PUPa3. Both the Rhl and Las systems are involved in the regulation of plant growth-promoting traits. The environmental P. aeruginosa PUPa3 is pathogenic in two nonmammalian infection models, and only the double las rhl mutants are attenuated for virulence. In fact it was established that the two QS systems are not hierarchically organized and that they are both important for the colonization of the rice rhizosphere. This is an in-depth genetic and molecular study of QS in an environmental P. aeruginosa strain and highlights several differences with QS regulation in the clinical isolate PAO1. PMID:19525275

Steindler, Laura; Bertani, Iris; De Sordi, Luisa; Schwager, Stephan; Eberl, Leo; Venturi, Vittorio



Petrology, geochemistry and mineralization of the Las Águilas and Virorco mafic-ultramafic bodies, San Luis Province, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The layered mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Sierras de San Luis, Argentina (Las Águilas, Las Higueras and Virorco), constitute a 3-5-km-wide belt that extends over 100 km from NE to SW. They carry a sulphide mineralization consisting of pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite, in veins and as disseminated to massive ore. Disseminated spinels are frequently associated with the sulphide minerals as well as platinum group minerals. A strong correlation between S, Ni, Co, Cu, Cr, Pt and Pd indicates the presence of one to three levels of mineralization within the ultramafic units. The maximum concentration of these elements coincides with the units containing platinum group minerals (PGM) and spinel group minerals. This clear relationship constitutes a good prospecting guide in the search for layers with high-grade ore, probably associated with deeper stratigraphic levels where ultramafic rocks are dominant. The bulk rock chemistry and concentrations of metals and platinum group elements as well as textural evidence suggest that the parental magma was mafic with tholeiitic affinities and MgO rich. The Las Águilas layered mafic-ultramafic body and the remaining bodies in the area bear similar characteristics to well-known stratified complexes developed in extensional tectonic regimes, as it is the case of Jinchuan (China), Kabanga (Tanzania) and Fiambala (Argentina).

Ferracutti, Gabriela; Bjerg, Ernesto; Mogessie, Aberra



Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network: Keeping Citizen Scientists in the Dark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) is creating a network of telescopes at excellent sites around the world providing 24/7 all sky coverage for astronomical observations. The network of telescopes, ranging in size from 0.4 m to 2.0 m, will be available for both scientific and education users. The LCOGT telescopes are being built quickly and will be deployed soon. The two 2.0 m Faulkes Telescopes, one on Haleakala, Maui (FTN), the other at Siding Spring Observatory, Australia (FTS), are currently in operation. There is also a 0.8 m telescope in the Santa Ynez Valley, California (BOS), which is being used for commissioning and for many local outreach programs. The first 1.0 m telescopes will be heading to Chile and South Africa in 2011 and will each be accompanied by a 0.4 m telescope. Other sites, including Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), McDonald Observatory (Texas), Siding Spring (Australia), and Haleakala (Hawaii) will follow, with the possibility of up to two additional sites yet to be selected. The LCOGT education and public outreach effort is transforming into a "Citizen Science" program. Several projects will encompass taking observations through the network, analyzing the data, and sharing the results with other citizen scientists from around the world. The first of these projects, "Agent Exoplanet," will be launched in mid-2011, and will involve analyzing brand-new data to create a light curve of an exoplanet. As the network is not yet complete, this test project will not include actual observing as future ones will. More information about LCOGT and its Citizen Science program can be found online ( In addition to material to get started in the Citizen Science program, the website also includes resources and content for more hands-on activities using archived data, general astronomy pages, network information, complete access to the public data archive, current news, and recent publications. And don't forget to register for the LCOGT monthly newsletter.

Ross, R. J.



Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Lake Mead National Recreation Area; Las Vegas Wash to Opal Mountain, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The study is a geohydrologic reconnaissance of about 170 square miles in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area from Las Vegas Wash to Opal Mountain, Nevada. The study is one of a series that describes the geohydrology of the recreation area and that indentifies areas where water supplies can be developed. Precipitation in this arid area is about 5 inches per year. Streamflow is seasonal and extremely variable except for that in the Colorado River, which adjoins the area. Pan evaporation is more than 20 times greater than precipitation; therefore, regional ground-water supplies are meager except near the Colorado River, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave. Large ground-water supplies can be developed near the river and lakes, and much smaller supplies may be obtained in a few favorable locations farther from the river and lakes. Ground water in most of the areas probably contains more than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, but water that contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids can be obtained within about 1 mile of the lakes. Crystalline rocks of metamorphic, intrusive and volcanic origin crop out in the area. These rocks are overlain by conglomerate and mudstone of the Muddy Creek Formation, gravel and conglomerate of the older alluvium, and sand and gravel of the Chemehuevi Formation and younger alluvium. The crystalline rocks, where sufficiently fractured, yield water to springs and would yield small amounts of water to favorably located wells. The poorly cemented and more permeable beds of the older alluvium, Chemehuevi Formation, and younger alluvium are the better potential aquifers, particularly along the Colorado River and Lakes Mead and Mohave. Thermal springs in the gorge of the Colorado River south of Hoover Dam discharge at least 2,580 acre-feet per year of water from the volcanic rocks and metamorphic and plutonic rocks. The discharge is much greater than could be infiltrated in the drainage basin above the springs. Transbasin movement of ground water probably occurs , and perhaps the larger part of the spring discharge is underflow from Eldorado Valley. The more favorable sites for ground-water development are along the shores of Lakes Mead and Mohave and are the Fire Mountain, Opal Mountain to Aztec Wash, and Hemenway Wash sites. Wells yielding several hundred gallons per minute of water of acceptable chemical quality can be developed at these sites. (USGS)

Laney, R. L.



Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network: Keeping Education in the Dark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) is creating a network of telescopes to be placed around the world providing 24/7 sky coverage of both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. These telescopes will range in size from 0.4 m to 2.0 m and will be available for scientific and educational uses in both real-time and in a queue-scheduler. The educational uses of LCOGT will be primarily online through our website ( where there will be how-to guides, ideas for activities, opportunities for participating in research projects with our astronomers, full access to the public archive, as well as an online community built through forums and groups. Content will be visible to all, although registered users will have the ability to add resources, post on blogs and forums, comment and rate existing pages and resources, collaborate in world-wide projects, and much more. The current network includes the two 2.0 m Faulkes Telescopes on Haleakala, Maui and at Siding Spring, Australia. A 0.8 m telescope located at Sedgwick Reserve in the Santa Ynez Valley is nearly commissioned and will be used both for local outreach events as well as on the LCOGT network. The first pair of 0.4 m telescopes has been deployed to Maui and are enclosed inside the clamshell dome with Faulkes Telescope North (FTN), but still have some time to go before they are fully commissioned. The site in Chile is currently being prepped for three 1.0 m and two pairs of 0.4 m telescopes with the site in South Africa to follow shortly. Other sites include the Canary Islands, a site in North America, one in Asia, and another site in Australia. The 0.4 m telescopes will be deployed by pair and the 1.0 m telescopes will be deployed in groups of two or three, all with research-grade instrumentation.

Ross, R. J.



Enzymatic Depilation of Animal Hide: Identification of Elastase (LasB) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCM B-327 as a Depilating Protease  

PubMed Central

Conventional leather processing involving depilation of animal hide by lime and sulphide treatment generates considerable amounts of chemical waste causing severe environmental pollution. Enzymatic depilation is an environmentally friendly process and has been considered to be a viable alternative to the chemical depilation process. We isolated an extracellular protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain MCM B-327 with high depilation activity using buffalo hide as a substrate. This 33 kDa protease generated a peptide mass fingerprint and de novo sequence that matched perfectly with LasB (elastase), of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In support of this data a lasB mutant of MCM B-327 strain lacked depilatory activity and failed to produce LasB. LasB heterologously over-produced and purified from Escherichia coli also exhibited high depilating activity. Moreover, reintroduction of the lasB gene to the P. aeruginosa lasB mutant via a knock-in strategy also successfully restored depilation activity thus confirming the role of LasB as the depilating enzyme.

Pandeeti, Emmanuel Vijay Paul; Pitchika, Gopi Krishna; Jotshi, Jyotsna; Nilegaonkar, Smita S.; Kanekar, Pradnya P.; Siddavattam, Dayananda



Anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in sediments from the Gulf of Gda?sk (southern Baltic Sea, Poland) and its environmental implications.  


Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is a group of anionic surfactants employed in the formulation of laundry and cleaning products, with a global production rate of 4 million metric tons. Sediments from the Polish coast of the southern Baltic Sea were collected at ten stations. Total LAS concentrations, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, were between 0.04 and 0.72 mg LAS·kg(-1) dry weight. Highest LAS concentrations were found in suspended matter collected from the Vistula River, sediment collected close to the Vistula River mouth and from the Gda?sk Deep, known as the depositional area. With the obtained environmental LAS concentrations, a risk assessment for this surfactant has been carried out, based on publicly available acute and chronic toxicity data in target organisms. The results indicated that LAS could pose a low risk for the existing benthic community applying worst case scenario assessment. This is the first time that levels of LAS have been measured in environmental samples of the southern Baltic Sea. PMID:22006264

Hampel, Miriam; Mauffret, Aourell; Pazdro, Ksenia; Blasco, Julian



Reconciling Scale Mismatch in Water Governance, Hydro-climatic Processes and Infrastructure Systems of Water Supply in Las Vegas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resource systems are a classic example of a common pool resource due to the high cost of exclusion and the subtractability of the resource; for common pool resources, the performance of governance systems primarily depends on how well matched the institutional arrangements and rules are to the biophysical conditions and social norms. Changes in water governance, hydro-climatic processes and infrastructure systems occur on disparate temporal and spatial scales. A key challenge is the gap between current climate change model resolution, and the spatial and temporal scale of urban water supply decisions. This gap will lead to inappropriate management policies if not mediated through a carefully crafted decision making process. Traditional decision support and planning methods (DSPM) such as classical decision analysis are not equipped to deal with a non-static climate. While emerging methods such as decision scaling, robust decision making and real options are designed to deal with a changing climate, governance systems have evolved under the assumption of a static climate and it is not clear if these methods are well suited to the existing governance regime. In our study, these questions are contextualized by examining an urban water utility that has made significant changes in policy to adapt to changing conditions: the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) which serves metropolitan Las Vegas. Like most desert cities, Las Vegas exists because of water; the artesian springs of the Las Vegas Valley once provided an ample water supply for Native Americans, ranchers and later a small railroad city. However, population growth has increased demands far beyond local supplies. The area now depends on the Colorado River for the majority of its water supply. Natural climate variability with periodic droughts has further challenged water providers; projected climate changes and further population growth will exacerbate these challenges. Las Vegas is selected as a case study due to the combined challenges of population growth and climate change, common in the arid west, and due its cooperative institutional response to these challenges, unprecedented in the arid west. To begin to disentangle this question we have analyzed the institutional arrangements and rules which govern water decision making in the Las Vegas Valley and evaluated the existing DSPM used by the SNWA and partner utilities. Presented here are the preliminary results from an ongoing project.

Garcia, M. E.; Alarcon, T.; Portney, K.; Islam, S.



Actin patch assembly proteins Las17p and Sla1p restrict cell wall growth to daughter cells and interact withcis-Golgi protein Kre6p  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytoplasmic tail of Kre6p, a Golgi membrane protein involved in cell wall synthesis, interacts with the actin patch assembly components Las17p and Sla1p in a two-hybrid assay, and Kre6p co-immunoprecipitates with Las17p. Kre6p showed extensive co-localization with Och1p-containing cis-Golgi vesicles. The correct localization of Kre6p requires its cytoplasmic tail, Las17p, Sla1p and Vrp1p, suggesting that the cytoplasmic tail of

Huijuan Li; Howard Bussey



Las Palmeras Molecular Dynamics: A flexible and modular molecular dynamics code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Palmeras Molecular Dynamics (LPMD) is a highly modular and extensible molecular dynamics (MD) code using interatomic potential functions. LPMD is able to perform equilibrium MD simulations of bulk crystalline solids, amorphous solids and liquids, as well as non-equilibrium MD (NEMD) simulations such as shock wave propagation, projectile impacts, cluster collisions, shearing, deformation under load, heat conduction, heterogeneous melting, among others, which involve unusual MD features like non-moving atoms and walls, unstoppable atoms with constant-velocity, and external forces like electric fields. LPMD is written in C++ as a compromise between efficiency and clarity of design, and its architecture is based on separate components or plug-ins, implemented as modules which are loaded on demand at runtime. The advantage of this architecture is the ability to completely link together the desired components involved in the simulation in different ways at runtime, using a user-friendly control file language which describes the simulation work-flow. As an added bonus, the plug-in API (Application Programming Interface) makes it possible to use the LPMD components to analyze data coming from other simulation packages, convert between input file formats, apply different transformations to saved MD atomic trajectories, and visualize dynamical processes either in real-time or as a post-processing step. Individual components, such as a new potential function, a new integrator, a new file format, new properties to calculate, new real-time visualizers, and even a new algorithm for handling neighbor lists can be easily coded, compiled and tested within LPMD by virtue of its object-oriented API, without the need to modify the rest of the code. LPMD includes already several pair potential functions such as Lennard-Jones, Morse, Buckingham, MCY and the harmonic potential, as well as embedded-atom model (EAM) functions such as the Sutton-Chen and Gupta potentials. Integrators to choose include Euler (if only for demonstration purposes), Verlet and Velocity Verlet, Leapfrog and Beeman, among others. Electrostatic forces are treated as another potential function, by default using the plug-in implementing the Ewald summation method. Program summaryProgram title: LPMD Catalogue identifier: AEHG_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 509 490 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6 814 754 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: 32-bit and 64-bit workstation Operating system: UNIX RAM: Minimum 1024 bytes Classification: 7.7 External routines: zlib, OpenGL Nature of problem: Study of Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics of condensed matter systems, as well as kinetics of non-equilibrium processes in the same systems. Solution method: Equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method, Monte Carlo methods. Restrictions: Rigid molecules are not supported. Polarizable atoms and chemical bonds (proteins) either. Unusual features: The program is able to change the temperature of the simulation cell, the pressure, cut regions of the cell, color the atoms by properties, even during the simulation. It is also possible to fix the positions and/or velocity of groups of atoms. Visualization of atoms and some physical properties during the simulation. Additional comments: The program does not only perform molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, it is also able to filter and manipulate atomic configurations, read and write different file formats, convert between them, evaluate different structural and dynamical properties. Running time: 50 seconds on a 1000-step simulation of 4000 argon atoms, running on a single 2.67 GHz Intel processor.

Davis, Sergio; Loyola, Claudia; González, Felipe; Peralta, Joaquín



Assessment of Residential Biomass Burning During Winter in Las Vegas, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of organic matter (OM) and black carbon (BC) were measured at a site in a residential area of Las Vegas, Nevada, and multiple analytical methods were used to determine the amounts attributable to biomass burning. In January 2008, measurements of a wood burning tracer, levoglucosan, were made via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (n=17). In addition, an Aerodyne High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-AMS) measured OM and C2H4O2+, a levoglucosan-derived fragment. During 2007 and 2008, two-channel Aethalometer data were also collected; the difference between the 370 nm and 880 nm channels (UV-BC difference) was used to indicate the presence of wood smoke. Concentrations of OM, BC, C2H4O2+, and levoglucosan, as well as the UV-BC difference, were all highest during the evening hours (generally between 1800 and 0000 LST). Average OM concentrations were 3.3 ?g/m3 during January but were 6.9 ?g/m3 during the overnight hours (between 1700 and 0000 LST). Median levoglucosan concentrations were 0.14 ?g/m3. The correlation of levoglucosan with C2H4O2+ was very high (r2=0.92). During the evening hours, correlation between BC and C2H4O2+ was good (r2=0.79); however, correlation was poor during other hours (r2<0.40), suggesting that other emissions such as mobile-source emissions were likely the dominant source of BC during those hours. C2H4O2+ showed modest correlation with UV-BC (e.g., r2=0.45). Using EPA's positive matrix factorization tool, EPA PMF, on the January HR-AMS data, we determined that biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) constituted 12% of the OM on average, but about 25% of the OM during evening hours. BBOA correlated well with levoglucosan (r2=0.82) and C2H4O2+ (r2=0.93). Levoglucosan measurements suggested that wood burning could constitute 38% of the OM during the overnight periods on average, although this number greatly depends on the assumed ratio of levoglucosan to OM in a source profile for residential biomass burning. The particle size distributions of mass for OM and m/z 60 (which includes other ions but is dominated by C2H4O2+) were quite broad, peaking between 100 nm and 450 nm for m/z 60 and between 200 nm and 450 nm for OM, suggesting relatively fresh aerosol. H/C ratios were highest (typically 1.57) and O/C ratios were lowest (typically 0.25) during evening hours, and the OM/OC ratio was, on average, 1.47, also indicating very fresh aerosol. Using levoglucosan and AMS markers, we can separate residential biomass burning influences from other sources of carbonaceous aerosol in the area.

Brown, S. G.; Lee, T.; Olson, D.; Norris, G.; Roberts, P. T.; Collett, J. L.



Abundancias químicas de las estrellas CP del grupo HgMn ? Leporis y 53 Tauri. II. Boro, Berilio, Carbono, Magnesio, Aluminio y Silicio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se determinan las abundancias químicas de los elementos más livianos presentes en dos estrellas CP del grupo HgMn, ? Lep y 53 Tau, utilizando espectros IUE de alta resolución y técnicas de cálculo de espectros sintéticos. Para el cálculo de las líneas se utiliza la lista mas completa de datos atómicos disponible y el programa SYNTHE. Para el cálculo de la abundancia de un elemento se comparan, para cada imagen, los perfiles observados del mayor número de líneas presentes con los perfiles calculados obtenidos por variación de las abundancias iniciales, reteniendo la abundancia para la cual el acuerdo entre las líneas observadas y calculadas es considerado visualmente el mejor. Los resultados obtenidos son comparados con los estimados por la teoría de la difusión.

López García, Z.; Malaroda, S. M.; Faraggiana, R.


Mapping surface mineralogy and scattering behavior using backscattered reflectance from a hyperspectral midinfrared airborne CO 2 laser system (MIRACO2LAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne, high-spectral resolution, thermal-infrared (TIR) MIRACO 2LAS reflectance data were evaluated for mapping surface mineralogy and scattering behavior for a variety of semi-arid, geological test sites in Australia. MIRACO2LAS is a rapidly tuned, airborne CO2 laser system that measures backscattered (bidirectional) reflectance at 100 wavelengths between 9.1 and 11.2 ?m for 2-m footprints in line profile mode. An operational methodology

Thomas J. Cudahy; Lewis B. Whitbourn; Philip M. Connor; Peter Mason; Richard N. Phillips



The Managua Graben and Las Sierras-Masaya volcanic complex (Nicaragua); pull-apart localization by an intrusive complex: results from analogue modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a well-documented association between pull-apart basins in strike-slip zones and large volcanic caldera complexes. Las Sierras-Masaya volcanic complex, Nicaragua, is a large basaltic lava and ignimbrite shield with nested calderas. The widest caldera is partly underlain by a large and dense intrusive complex, evidenced by a positive gravity anomaly. The Las Sierras Caldera, relating to this cumulate complex,

Guillaume Girard; Benjamin van Wyk de Vries



Bioaccumulation and toxicity of 4-nonylphenol (4NP) and 4-(2-dodecyl)-benzene sulfonate (LAS) in Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta) and Chironomus riparius (Insecta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discharge of surfactants, such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), into water bodies leads to accumulation of the chemicals in the sediments and may thus pose a problem to benthic organisms. To study the bioaccumulation of surfactants, Oligochaeta worm Lumbriculus variegatus was exposed to sediment-spiked, [14C]-labeled 4-NP and 4-(2-dodecyl)-benzene sulfonate (C12-LAS) in three different sediments (S1–S3). The

K. Mäenpää; J. V. K. Kukkonen



Laser Remote Measurements of atmospheric pollutants (Las-R-Map): UV-Visible Laser system description and data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser radar more popularly known as LIDAR LIght Detection And Ranging is becoming one of the most powerful techniques for active remote sensing of the earth s atmosphere Around the globe several new lidar systems have been developed based on the scientific interest Particularly the DIfferential Absorption Lidar DIAL technique is only one which can provide the better accuracy of measuring atmospheric pollutants Using modern advanced techniques and instrumentation a mobile DIAL system called laser remote measurements of atmospheric pollutants hear after referred as Las-R-Map is designed at National Laser Centre NLC --Pretoria 25 r 45 prime S 28 r 17 prime E Las-R-Map is basically used for measuring atmospheric pollutants applying the principle of absorption by constituents The system designed primarily to focus on the following pollutant measurements such as SO 2 CH 4 CO 2 NO 2 and O 3 In future the system could be used to measure few particulate matter between 2 5 mu m and 10 mu m Benzene Hg 1 3-butadiene H 2 S HF and Volatile Organic Compounds VOC Las-R-map comprises of two different laser sources Alexandrite and CO 2 optical receiver data acquisition and signal processor It uses alexandrite laser in the UV-Visible region from 200 nm to 800 nm and CO 2 laser in the Far-IR region from 9 2 mu m to 10 8 mu m Such two different laser sources make feasibility for studying the wide range of atmospheric pollutants The present paper is focused on technical details

Sivakumar, V.; Wyk, H. V.


Discusión de las aproximaciones utilizadas en el estudio de la recombinación dielectrónica de los metales en envolturas estelares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se calcularon nuevos parámetros atómicos del MgI reemplazando los niveles de energía teóricos por los observados. Con ellos se calculó nuevamente el flujo originado en la Recombinación Dielectrónica (RD) del MgII y se comparó con resultados anteriores. Se evaluó también la posible influencia de diferentes fuentes de opacidad, en el flujo originado en la RD de los metales en atmósferas extendidas de estrellas tempranas. En particular, se calculó la profundidad óptica de las líneas de MgI para diferentes condiciones físicas del medio.

Cruzado, A.; di Rocco, H. O.; Ringuelet, A.


Hydrostratigraphic Framework of the Raton, Vermejo, and Trinidad Aquifers in the Raton Basin, Las Animas County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exploration for and production of coalbed methane has increased substantially in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States since the 1990s. During 1999-2004, annual production of natural gas (coalbed methane) from the Raton Basin in Las Animas County, Colorado, increased from 28,129,515 to 80,224,130 thousand cubic feet, and the annual volume of ground water coproduced by coalbed methane wells increased from about 949 million gallons to about 2,879 million gallons. Better definition of the hydrostratigraphic framework of the Raton, Vermejo, and Trinidad aquifers in the Raton Basin of southern Colorado is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of coalbed methane development on the availability and sustainability of ground-water resources. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board, began a study to evaluate the hydrogeology of the Raton Basin in Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, Colorado. Geostatistical methods were used to map the altitude of and depths to the bottoms and tops (structure) and the apparent thicknesses of the Trinidad Sandstone, the Vermejo Formation, and the Raton Formation in Las Animas County, based on completion reports and drillers' logs from about 1,400 coalbed methane wells in the Raton Basin. There was not enough subsurface control to map the structural surfaces and apparent thicknesses of the aquifers in Huerfano County. Geostatistical methods also were used to map the regional water table in the northern part of Las Animas County, based on reported depth to water from completion reports of water-supply wells. Although these maps were developed to better define the hydrostratigraphic framework, they also can be used to determine the contributing aquifer(s) of existing water wells and to estimate drilling depths of proposed water wells. These maps of the hydrostratigraphic framework could be improved with the addition of measured sections and mapping of geologic contacts at outcrops along the eastern and western margins of the Raton Basin.

Watts, Kenneth R.



The emplacement of the granitic Las Tazas complex, northern Chile: the relationship between local and regional strain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coastal batholith of northern Chile grew under transtensional-extensional conditions that prevailed along the Andean margin during the Mesozoic. The batholith hosts the Atacama Fault Zone, a major arc-parallel fault system which was characterised by sinistral transtensional shearing during the Early Cretaceous. The Las Tazas complex is a composite granitoid intrusion that was emplaced syntectonically along the Atacama Fault Zone at ˜130 Ma. Syntectonic emplacement is indicated by a consistent kinematic history between the complex and its wall rocks, together with synchronous crystallisation and shearing ages. In contrast to regional patterns, the Las Tazas complex was emplaced during a local change from vertical east-side-down to dextral transcurrent displacement along the fault zone. During intrusion, strain was partitioned between non-coaxial simple shearing within country-rock mylonites and a flattening strain across the crystallising complex. This combination indicates that the pluton was emplaced under temporary transpressive conditions that were localised around the pluton, probably induced by magma emplacement. Such a difference between local and regional strain suggests that emplacement-related structures should only be related to regional strain-states with great care.

Wilson, Jeff; Grocott, John



An analysis of urban thermal characteristics and associated land cover in Tampa Bay and Las Vegas using Landsat satellite data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Remote sensing data from both Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 systems were utilized to assess urban area thermal characteristics in Tampa Bay watershed of west-central Florida, and the Las Vegas valley of southern Nevada. To quantitatively determine urban land use extents and development densities, sub-pixel impervious surface areas were mapped for both areas. The urban-rural boundaries and urban development densities were defined by selecting certain imperviousness threshold values and Landsat thermal bands were used to investigate urban surface thermal patterns. Analysis results suggest that urban surface thermal characteristics and patterns can be identified through qualitatively based urban land use and development density data. Results show the urban area of the Tampa Bay watershed has a daytime heating effect (heat-source), whereas the urban surface in Las Vegas has a daytime cooling effect (heat-sink). These thermal effects strongly correlated with urban development densities where higher percent imperviousness is usually associated with higher surface temperature. Using vegetation canopy coverage information, the spatial and temporal distributions of urban impervious surface and associated thermal characteristics are demonstrated to be very useful sources in quantifying urban land use, development intensity, and urban thermal patterns. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.



Assessment of the potential toxicity of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) to freshwater animal life by means of cladoceran bioassays.  


The acute and chronic toxic effects of LAS on the cladocerans Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii were tested. Both types of toxicity bioassays and the methods of culture and stock maintenance of the test organisms conformed to the recommendations of ABNT (Brazilian Society of Technical Standards), which closely follow the standard methods of USEPA. The results obtained for EC(50) (48 h) were: 14.17 mg L(-1) for D. similis, 11.84 mg L(-1) for C. dubia and 13.52 mg L(-1) for C. silvestrii. In the chronic toxicity tests performed on C. dubia and C. silvestrii, there was a significant decrease in the fecundity of the exposed animals; the value of NOEC for C. dubia and C. silvestrii were 1.00 mg L(-1) and 2.50 mg L(-1), respectively. Cladoceran bioassays provided evidence that LAS concentration as low as 1.00 mg L(-1) can damage invertebrate animal life in freshwaters, concentrations that can be found in many eutrophic rivers and reservoirs. PMID:20091119

Coelho, Katiuscia da Silva; Rocha, Odete



Detection, Size, Measurement, and Structural Analysis Limits for the 2MASS, UKIDSS-LAS, and VISTA VIKING Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2MASS, UKIDSS-LAS, and VISTA VIKING surveys have all now observed the GAMA 9hr region in the Ks band. Here we compare the detection rates, photometry, basic size measurements, and single-component GALFIT structural measurements for a sample of 37 591 galaxies. We explore the sensitivity limits where the data agree for a variety of issues including: detection, star-galaxy separation, photometric measurements, size and ellipticity measurements, and Sérsic measurements. We find that 2MASS fails to detect at least 20% of the galaxy population within all magnitude bins, however for those that are detected we find photometry is robust (± 0.2 mag) to 14.7 AB mag and star-galaxy separation to 14.8 AB mag. For UKIDSS-LAS we find incompleteness starts to enter at a flux limit of 18.9 AB mag, star-galaxy separation is robust to 16.3 AB mag, and structural measurements are robust to 17.7 AB mag. VISTA VIKING data are complete to approximately 20.0 AB mag and structural measurements appear robust to 18.8 AB mag.

Andrews, Stephen K.; Kelvin, Lee S.; Driver, Simon P.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.



Inhibitor profiling of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor LasB using N-alpha mercaptoamide template-based inhibitors.  


We report on the synthesis and biological evaluation of a focussed library of N-alpha mercaptoamide containing dipeptides as inhibitors of the zinc metallopeptidase Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (LasB, EC The aim of the study was to derive an inhibitor profile for LasB with regard to mapping the S'1 binding site of the enzyme. Consequently, a focussed library of 160 members has been synthesised, using standard Fmoc-solid phase methods (on a Rink-amide resin), in which a subset of amino acids including examples of those with basic (Lys, Arg), aromatic (Phe, Trp), large aliphatic (Val, Leu) and acidic (Asp, Glu) side-chains populated the P'2 position of the inhibitor sequence and all 20 natural amino acids were incorporated, in turn, at the P'1 position. The study has revealed a preference for aromatic and/or large aliphatic amino acids at P'1 and a distinct bias against acidic residues at P'2. Ten inhibitor sequences were discovered that exhibited sub to low micromolar Ki values. PMID:19773163

Cathcart, George R; Gilmore, Brendan F; Greer, Brett; Harriott, Pat; Walker, Brian



2LAs, 3LAs, and the enterprise  

SciTech Connect

This article is about new things that engineers, facility managers and automation system operators need to learn about and understand when it comes to integrating information throughout an enterprise. The goal is to help one better understand the connection between building systems and building intelligence. The authors set the foundation with an overview of the latest concept in network communications, enterprise computing. Because any new technology spawns a number of acronyms, they`ll also investigate new two-, three-, four- and five-letter acronyms that directly affect the changing role of the building automation system (BAS) as it becomes an integral, contributing part of the business. In each case, one or more Internet URLs will be provided for more information.

Hoffmann, T.



Novel Inhibitors of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Factor LasB: a Potential Therapeutic Approach for the Attenuation of Virulence Mechanisms in Pseudomonal Infection?†§  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas elastase (LasB), a metalloprotease virulence factor, is known to play a pivotal role in pseudomonal infection. LasB is secreted at the site of infection, where it exerts a proteolytic action that spans from broad tissue destruction to subtle action on components of the host immune system. The former enhances invasiveness by liberating nutrients for continued growth, while the latter exerts an immunomodulatory effect, manipulating the normal immune response. In addition to the extracellular effects of secreted LasB, it also acts within the bacterial cell to trigger the intracellular pathway that initiates growth as a bacterial biofilm. The key role of LasB in pseudomonal virulence makes it a potential target for the development of an inhibitor as an antimicrobial agent. The concept of inhibition of virulence is a recently established antimicrobial strategy, and such agents have been termed “second-generation” antibiotics. This approach holds promise in that it seeks to attenuate virulence processes without bactericidal action and, hence, without selection pressure for the emergence of resistant strains. A potent inhibitor of LasB, N-mercaptoacetyl-Phe-Tyr-amide (Ki = 41 nM) has been developed, and its ability to block these virulence processes has been assessed. It has been demonstrated that thes compound can completely block the action of LasB on protein targets that are instrumental in biofilm formation and immunomodulation. The novel LasB inhibitor has also been employed in bacterial-cell-based assays, to reduce the growth of pseudomonal biofilms, and to eradicate biofilm completely when used in combination with conventional antibiotics.

Cathcart, George R. A.; Quinn, Derek; Greer, Brett; Harriott, Pat; Lynas, John F.; Gilmore, Brendan F.; Walker, Brian



Novel inhibitors of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor LasB: a potential therapeutic approach for the attenuation of virulence mechanisms in pseudomonal infection.  


Pseudomonas elastase (LasB), a metalloprotease virulence factor, is known to play a pivotal role in pseudomonal infection. LasB is secreted at the site of infection, where it exerts a proteolytic action that spans from broad tissue destruction to subtle action on components of the host immune system. The former enhances invasiveness by liberating nutrients for continued growth, while the latter exerts an immunomodulatory effect, manipulating the normal immune response. In addition to the extracellular effects of secreted LasB, it also acts within the bacterial cell to trigger the intracellular pathway that initiates growth as a bacterial biofilm. The key role of LasB in pseudomonal virulence makes it a potential target for the development of an inhibitor as an antimicrobial agent. The concept of inhibition of virulence is a recently established antimicrobial strategy, and such agents have been termed "second-generation" antibiotics. This approach holds promise in that it seeks to attenuate virulence processes without bactericidal action and, hence, without selection pressure for the emergence of resistant strains. A potent inhibitor of LasB, N-mercaptoacetyl-Phe-Tyr-amide (K(i) = 41 nM) has been developed, and its ability to block these virulence processes has been assessed. It has been demonstrated that thes compound can completely block the action of LasB on protein targets that are instrumental in biofilm formation and immunomodulation. The novel LasB inhibitor has also been employed in bacterial-cell-based assays, to reduce the growth of pseudomonal biofilms, and to eradicate biofilm completely when used in combination with conventional antibiotics. PMID:21444693

Cathcart, George R A; Quinn, Derek; Greer, Brett; Harriott, Pat; Lynas, John F; Gilmore, Brendan F; Walker, Brian



Luminescent reporters and their applications for the characterization of signals and signal-mimics that alter LasR-mediated quorum sensing.  


In many pathogenic bacteria, quorum sensing (QS) controls expression of genes that are involved in virulence, production and resistance to antibiotics, formation and maintenance of microbial multicellular consortia on biotic and abiotic surfaces of medical and industrial importance. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) are the best characterized quorum sensing signals in Gram-negative bacteria. Interference with AHL-mediated QS, therefore, is considered an attractive strategy for controlling virulence in pathogens. The search for AHL signals and their mimics has been facilitated by the development of sensitive bioassays, in which QS reporters luminesce in response to AHL signals. These bioassays have already led to the identification of dozens of compounds with QS modulating activities. The characterization of the mode of action of QS signals and their mimics requires follow-up biochemical studies. Here, we describe a set of luminescent reporters, which could be used in high, medium or low throughput format, for the discovery and validation of agonists or antagonists of the Las QS system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These nearly isogenic reporters contain truncations or point mutations in the AHL binding domain of the AHL receptor LasR, as well as mutations in the promoter for the gene encoding LasI AHL synthase. We also developed reporters for documenting the regulation of lasI and lasR promoters. The use of these reporters significantly streamlines identification and characterization of the Las QS signal agonists and antagonists prior to biochemical experiments. To test the usefulness of these reporters, we carried out bioassays with patulin, a known inhibitor of Las QS. PMID:21031308

Alagely, Ali; Rajamani, Sathish; Teplitski, Max



Water-quality data for the Rio Grande between Picacho Bridge near Las Cruces and Calle del Norte Bridge near Mesilla, New Mexico, 1996-97  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The City of Las Cruces is concerned about water quality in a reach of the Rio Grande that receives outfall from the City of Las Cruces wastewater-treatment plant. Water-quality samples were collected from the Rio Grande at Picacho Bridge near Las Cruces, New Mexico; from the sampling site at the City of Las Cruces wastewater-treatment plant; and from the Rio Grande at Calle del Norte Bridge near Mesilla, New Mexico. The samples were collected on 12 days from August 6, 1996, to February 28, 1997, and were analyzed for a suite of dissolved and total constituents including trace metals. Instantaneous stream discharge was measured concurrently with collection of the Rio Grande samples. At the wastewater- treatment plant, the City of Las Cruces provided instantaneous discharge rates concurrent with sampling. Quality-control measures used in this study to ensure analytical accuracy included replicate sampling, replicate analysis of split samples, ambient blanks, equipment blanks, and analysis of standard reference water samples.

Huff, G. F.



Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Sections Through the Central Appalachian Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses geophysical wireline well logs for a variety of purposes, including stratigraphic correlation (Hettinger, 2001, Ryder, 2002), petroleum reservoir analyses (Nelson and Bird, 2005), aquifer studies (Balch, 1988), and synthetic seismic profiles (Kulander and Ryder, 2005). Commonly, well logs are easier to visualize, manipulate, and interpret when available in a digital format. In recent geologic cross sections E-E' and D-D', constructed through the central Appalachian basin (Ryder, Swezey, and others, in press; Ryder, Crangle, and others, in press), gamma ray well log traces and lithologic logs were used to correlate key stratigraphic intervals (Fig. 1). The stratigraphy and structure of the cross sections are illustrated through the use of graphical software applications (e.g., Adobe Illustrator). The gamma ray traces were digitized in Neuralog (proprietary software) from paper well logs and converted to a Log ASCII Standard (LAS) format. Once converted, the LAS files were transformed to images through an LAS-reader application (e.g., GeoGraphix Prizm) and then overlain in positions adjacent to well locations, used for stratigraphic control, on each cross section. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert paper logs to a digital LAS format using a third-party software application, Neuralog. Included in this report are LAS files for sixteen wells used in geologic cross section E-E' (Table 1) and thirteen wells used in geologic cross section D-D' (Table 2).

Crangle, Robert D., Jr.



Spatial Statistics of the Clark County Parcel Map, Trial Geotechnical Models, and Effects on Ground Motions in Las Vegas Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When deterministically modeling the propagation of seismic waves, shallow shear-wave velocity plays a crucial role in predicting shaking effects such as peak ground velocity (PGV). The Clark County Parcel Map provides us with a data set of geotechnical velocities in Las Vegas Valley, at an unprecedented level of detail. Las Vegas Valley is a basin with similar geologic properties to some areas of Southern California. We analyze elementary spatial statistical properties of the Parcel Map, along with calculating its spatial variability. We then investigate these spatial statistics from the PGV results computed from two geotechnical models that incorporate the Parcel Map as parameters. Plotting a histogram of the Parcel Map 30-meter depth-averaged shear velocity (Vs30) values shows the data to approximately fit a bimodal normal distribution with ?1 = 400 m/s, ?1 = 76 m/s, ?2 = 790 m/s, ?2 = 149 m/s, and p = 0.49., where ? is the mean, ? is standard deviation, and p is the probability mixing factor for the bimodal distribution. Based on plots of spatial power spectra, the Parcel Map appears to be fractal over the second and third decades, in kilometers. The spatial spectra possess the same fractal dimension in the N-S and the E-W directions, indicating isotropic scale invariance. We configured finite-difference wave propagation models at 0.5 Hz with LLNL's E3D code, utilizing the Parcel Map as input parameters to compute a PGV data set from a scenario earthquake (Black Hills M6.5). The resulting PGV is fractal over the same spatial frequencies as the Vs30 data sets associated with their respective models. The fractal dimension is systematically lower in all of the PGV maps as opposed to the Vs30 maps, showing that the PGV maps are richer in higher spatial frequencies. This is potentially caused by a lens focusing effects on seismic waves due to spatial heterogeneity in site conditions.

Savran, W. H.; Louie, J. N.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Pancha, A.



Simulation of unsaturated flow and solute transport at the Las Cruces trench site using the PORFLO-3 computer code  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to test the ability of the PORFLO-3 computer code to simulate water infiltration and solute transport in dry soils. Data from a field-scale unsaturated zone flow and transport experiment, conducted near Las Cruces, New Mexico, were used for model validation. A spatial moment analysis was used to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the mean simulated and observed flow behavior. The scope of this work was limited to two-dimensional simulations of the second experiment at the Las Cruces trench site. Three simulation cases are presented. The first case represents a uniform soil profile, with homogeneous, isotropic hydraulic and transport properties. The second and third cases represent single stochastic realizations of randomly heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields, generated from the cumulative probability distribution of the measured data. Two-dimensional simulations produced water content changes that matched the observed data reasonably well. Models that explicitly incorporated heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields reproduced the characteristics of the observed data somewhat better than a uniform, homogeneous model. Improved predictions of water content changes at specific spatial locations were obtained by adjusting the soil hydraulic properties. The results of this study should only be considered a qualitative validation of the PORFLO-3 code. However, the results of this study demonstrate the importance of site-specific data for model calibration. Applications of the code for waste management and remediation activities will require site-specific data for model calibration before defensible predictions of unsaturated flow and containment transport can be made. 23 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

Rockhold, M.L.; Wurstner, S.K.



An Intensity-Modulated CW LAS System for Application to ASCENDS: Overview of Development, Testing, and Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the development of a capability for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission NASA Langley Langley Research Center (LaRC) and ITT EXELIS are collaborating to develop and demonstrate an approach for measuring column CO2 from space. A Multi-Functional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), a laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) system has been used to demonstrate high precision column CO2 measurements from aircraft platforms. MFLL operates near the 1.57 micron region using an intensity modulated CW LAS system. High precision column CO2 measurements have been demonstrated over several land and ocean surfaces under a variety of atmospheric conditions, and also demonstrated insensitivity to variations in surface reflectivity and altitude. Encoded modulation schemes have been used to minimize the influence of thin clouds on column CO2 measurements. We present examples of these measurements from past flight campaigns, and developments are presented on models to predict the precision and accuracy of these measurements as determined from ground-based range testing at LaRC during July-August 2012. We present a summary of results from testing of the MFLL from the ground using various targets at a distance of 860 m. During these tests measurements are made using well characterized ground targets, controlled background conditions, and a variety of intermediate range, partially reflecting and light attenuating targets that are used as simulants for thin clouds. A variety of modulation schemes are being tested to discriminate against cloud interferences and for evaluating precise ranging capability. Profiles of CO2, relative humidity (RH), pressure, and temperature along the range are being made to validate the CO2 column measurements. These ground-based measurements are valuable to validate models for predicting the precision and accuracy of these measurements, interpretation of measurements from aircraft by the MFLL, and projecting the capability to space.

Ismail, S.; Harrison, F. W.; Dobler, J. T.; Browell, E. V.; Nehrir, A. R.; Lin, B.; Meadows, B.; Vanek, M. D.; Kooi, S. A.; Collins, J. E.; Refaat, T. F.; Yang, M. M.; Choi, Y.; DiJoseph, M.



Heavy Metal Contamination and Salt Efflorescence Associated With Decorative Landscaping Rocks, Las Vegas, Nevada: The Need for Regulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Vegas, Nevada is one of the fastest growing cities in the United States. Faced with water restrictions, decorative rock xeroscaping has become a very popular form of landscaping. Currently, there are no regulations controlling the geochemistry of the decorative rocks that can be used for these purposes. In this study, we examined three sites containing two different decorative rock products. The landscaping rocks, underlying soil, and surface salt crusts were analyzed to determine their mineralogy and chemistry. Methods of analysis include scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP), thin section analysis, and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). Preliminary results indicate the presence of halite (NaCl), bloedite (Na2Mg(SO4)2 4H2O), a hydrated magnesium sulfate, and possibly copper sulfate and copper chloride mineral phases in the surface salt crusts. Both copper minerals are regarded as hazardous substances by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); these agencies have established minimum exposure limits for human contact with these substances. Copper sulfate and copper chloride are not naturally occurring minerals in the soils of the Las Vegas Valley, and analyses indicate that their formation may be attributed to the mineralogy of the decorative landscaping rocks. Further testing is needed to characterize this potential health hazard; however the preliminary results of this study demonstrate the need for regulations controlling the geochemistry of decorative rocks used for urban landscaping.

Mrozek, S. A.; Buck, B. J.; Brock, A. L.



Ternary lanthanum sulfide selenides ?-LaS 2- xSe x (0< x<2) with mixed dichalcogenide anions X22- ( X=S, Se)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed lanthanum sulfide selenides LaS 2- xSe x (0< x<2) were obtained by metathesis reactions starting from anhydrous lanthanum chloride and alkali metal polychalcogenides. The LaS 2- xSe x compounds crystallize in space group P2 1/ a, no. 14, and adopt the ?- LnS 2 ( Ln=Y, La-Lu ) structure type with a pronounced site preference for the chalcogen atoms. The mixed chalcogenides form a complete miscible series with lattice parameters a=820-849 pm, b=413-425 pm and c=822-857 pm ( ??90°) following Vegard's rule. Raman signals indicate the presence of mixed X22- dianions, a species rarely evidenced in literature, besides the well known anions S 22- and Se 22-. The band gaps of the LaS 2- xSe x compounds, determined by optical spectroscopy, decrease nearly linearly with increasing amount of selenium.

Bartsch, Christian; Doert, Thomas



Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C' Through the Central Appalachian Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.

Trippi, Michael H.; Crangle, Robert D., Jr.



The WASP\\/Las17p-interacting protein Bzz1p functions with Myo5p in an early stage of endocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The formation of actin filaments is crucial for endocytosis and other interrelated cellular phenomena such as motility, polarized\\u000a morphogenesis, and cytokinesis. In this paper we have investigated the role of the WASP\\/Las17-interacting protein Bzz1p in\\u000a endocytosis and trafficking to the vacuole. We and others have recently shown that Bzz1p is an actin patch protein that interacts\\u000a directly with Las17p via

A. Soulard; S. Friant; C. Fitterer; C. Orange; G. Kaneva; G. Mirey; B. Winsor



Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning to Address Rapid Change: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision-making and adaptive management (CAM) have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We present the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA), a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: 1) shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; 2) mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision-making; 3) efforts to make information increasingly relevant and reliable; and 4) shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. Yet the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control—including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets—with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. While CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: 1) Creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives which may be crucial from those which may hinder a flexible response to climate change, and 2) Incorporating scenario planning into CAM to explore how climate change may interact with other drivers and alter options for the future, to identify robust management, and to prioritize ecological monitoring efforts. The experiences at LCNCA demonstrate how collaboration and adaptive management can be used to improve social and environmental outcomes and, with a few modifications, may help address the complexity and change that threatens to overwhelm even the best efforts to sustain public lands.

Caves, J. K.; Bodner, G.; Simms, K.; Fisher, L.; Robertson, T.



Characterization of the Sediment Routing System of the Argentine Las Peñas Thrust From ASTER Imagery Interpretation and DEM Terrain Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an arid region north of Mendoza, Argentina active structures of the Precordilleran fold and thrust belt control sedimentation in the proximal Andean foreland basin. Initiation of new thrust faults and along-strike growth of fault-propagation folds drives uplift of hanging-wall source areas. Drainage basin initiation and development in the Las Peñas thrust hanging-wall triggers erosion of sediment, controlling transport and depositional mechanisms in the associated alluvial fan system. Alluvial fans are classified as either sheetflood or debris-flow fans based on the areally dominant process responsible for producing the sediment wedge as recorded in the surface character and morphology of the fans. Traditionally, information about these systems has been directly measured using manual methods such as ground surveying and visible image interpretation. This study implements remote sensing with ASTER spectral data and derived topographic data to characterize both fan surfaces and drainage basins. AST14DMO data include fourteen ASTER Level-1B calibrated nadir looking radiance bands at 15-m (VNIR), 30-m (SWIR) and 90-m (TIR) resolution. AST14DMO also includes the ASTER 30-m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from stereoscopic data from the VNIR sensor. These bands were used in rule-based classification implemented in statistical software. The classification was used for mapping and measuring the patterns and spectral characteristics of fan surfaces. TIR and VNIR explanatory variables in decision trees highlighted differences in fan environmental variables including soil conditions, sediment size, and vegetation (moisture, roughness, and composition) indicative of process and rate of deposition on alluvial fans. Terrain Analysis conducted with the ASTER 30-m DEM focused on morphology of the drainage basin sector of the sediment routing system. Drainage basin characteristics including areal extent, slope, aspect, hypsometric curves, and bedrock geology were identified and compared. The information was used to interpret transport and depositional mechanisms within the system, as well as identify source materials and possible ranges of fluid-sediment concentrations for each basin. The geometry of the developing Las Peñas thrust controls attributes of both drainage basin source areas, and alluvial fan depositional environments as shown by their variation along the fault. The techniques and setting of this study inform interpretations of processes active in modern systems that are applicable to ancient systems on Earth and elsewhere.

Abrahamson, I. S.; Schmitt, J.



Determinantes de las visitas a los parques y jardines urbanos: aplicación de un modelo de gravedad\\/Determinants of the Visits to Urban Parks: A Gravity Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

El trabajo que se presenta pretende modelizar el comportamiento de los ciudadanos en sus visitas a los parques y jardines de las ciudades. Para ello se utiliza una herramienta desarrollada en otras áreas de la economía, pero inédita en el campo de la recreación en zonas verdes urbanas. En concreto se aplica la \\




Summary of chemical data from onsite and laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the surficial aquifer, Las Vegas, Nevada, April and August 1993 and September 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples were collected from groundwater wells in and about the city of Las Vegas, Nevada, and were analyzed for selected major, minor and trace constituents. Analyses of blank and reference samples are summarized as mean and standard deviation values for all positive results.

Reddy, Michael M.; Gunther, Charmaine D.



IR Characterization of BiPropellant Reaction Control Engines During Auxiliary Propulsion Systems Tests at NASA's White Sands Test Facility In Las Cruces, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of a FLIR Systems A40M infrared (IR) digital camera for thermal monitoring of a Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Ethanol bi-propellant Reaction Control Engine (RCE) during Auxiliary Propulsion System (APS) testing at the National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Typically, NASA has relied mostly on the

Elizabeth Holleman


Correlación entre la estructura de bandas y las propiedades físicas de óxidos cerámicos de estructura perovskita con metales de transición (I): Propiedades de conducción electrónica  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este artículo se revisa los principales modelos teóricos, que pretenden dar una explicación sobre las propiedades de con- ducción electrónica de óxidos cerámicos con estructura perovskita, que incluyen en la posición B metales de transición del primer período (Fe, Co, Ni, Mn), en conexión con su estructura de bandas y el carácter de sus electrones más externos, así como



Toxicity and possible food-chain effects of copper, dimethoate and a detergent (LAS) on a centipede ( Lithobius mutabilis) and its prey ( Musca domestica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity of copper (Cu) and two biodegradable chemicals—an insecticide (dimethoate) and a detergent (LAS), was tested on a common forest litter invertebrate carnivore Lithobius mutabilis and its prey, Musca domestica. The chemicals were mixed into artificial food medium for housefly larvae, and the centipedes were kept on contaminated OECD soil and fed contaminated larvae. The concentrations of chemicals were selected

Paulina Kramarz; Ryszard Laskowski



Six month progress report on the Waste Package Project at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, July 1991--January 1992: Management, quality assurance and overview  

SciTech Connect

The progress of the waste package project at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas was the subject of this report. It covered aspects of management and quality assurance, container design, application of ASME Pressure Vessel Codes, structural analysis of containers, design of rock tunnels for storage, and heat transfer phenomena. (MB)

Ladkany, S.G.



Six month progress report on the Waste Package Project at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, July 1991--January 1992: Management, quality assurance and overview  

SciTech Connect

The progress of the waste package project at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas was the subject of this report. It covered aspects of management and quality assurance, container design, application of ASME Pressure Vessel Codes, structural analysis of containers, design of rock tunnels for storage, and heat transfer phenomena. (MB)

Ladkany, S.G.



Una nueva especie de Euglena (Euglenozoa: Euglenales) aislada de ambientes extremófilos en las Pailas de Barro del Volcán Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of euglena isolated from a hot and acid mud pool located in Las Pailas de Barro, Volcán Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica is described. This species inhabits hot and acid environments. Euglena pailasen- sis sp. nov. main features are: the absence of flagella, the presence filaments like \\

Ana Sittenfeld; Maribelle Vargas; Ethel Sánchez; Marielos Mora; Aurelio Serrano


Modelos teóricos que nos ayudan a comprender el gobierno de las sociedades cooperativas, una apuesta por el enfoque de los stakeholders  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad, el entorno competitivo es cada vez más incierto y complejo. Las características de los mercados actuales hacen que sea cada vez más difícil conseguir una ventaja competitiva sostenible en el tiempo para la empresa, por lo que hay que innovar en formas de gestión y de gobierno para ser competitivo. De esta manera, se está produciendo un

Cristina Pedrosa Ortega



Las municipalidades en Costa Rica: Evaluación del sistema tributario y la administración presupuestaria y financiera de los gobiernos locales: Alternativas para su fortalecimiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento analiza el sistema tributario y la administración presupuestaria y financiera de los gobiernos locales en Costa Rica. El trabajo presenta, asimismo, una serie de recomendaciones de políticas y medidas administrativas en el marco de la política de fortalecimiento del régimen municipal a los fines de mejorar la gestión administrativa y tributaria de las municipalidades. Éstas pueden servir de

Marcos Morales



A McOndo Writer's Take on Literature in the Era of Audiovisual and Digital Communication: The Case of Alberto Fuguet's "Las Peliculas de mi vida"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alberto Fuguet, one of the leaders of the McOndo writers who seek cultural direction from the United States and exploit mass-media formulas, is a polarizing figure in contemporary Latin American culture. His most recent full-length novel, the semi-autobiographical "Las peliculas de mi vida" (2003), has led many to conclude that Fuguet is simply a…

Maier, Linda S.




Microsoft Academic Search

La industria turística, llamada por muchos “la industria sin chimeneas”, es una de las actividades económicas con mayor impulso en México, la inmigración de adultos extranjeros con fines de inversión, ha provocado sin duda la aparición de unidades económicas denominadas Bed and Breakfast. La finalidad del trabajo es realizar un análisis de los factores de éxito administrativo de estos negocios

Campos Alvarado; Guzmná Soria Eugenio; De la Garza Carranza María Teresa; Campos Olalde Ofelia



Reproductive Responses of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Cages to Influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late Winter to early Spring  

EPA Science Inventory

To investigate the potential for contaminants in Las Vegas Wash (LW) influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites and two reference locations in Lake Mead....


Long-term continuous measurement of near-road air pollution in Las Vegas: Seasonal variability in traffic emissions impact on local air quality  

EPA Science Inventory

Excess air pollution along roadways is an issue of public health concern and motivated a long-term measurement effort established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Las Vegas, Nevada. Measurements of air pollutants ? including black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO),...


Entrevista a Leandro Cañibano, presidente de la Asociación Española de Contabilidad y Administración de Empresas, sobre las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrevista a Leandro Cañibano, presidente de la Asociación Española de Contabilidad y Administración de Empresas, sobre las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF). Interview to Leandro Cañibano, president of the Spanish Accounting Association of Business Administration, on the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).

Leandro Cañibano



Integrating NASA's Land Analysis System (LAS) image processing software with an appropriate Geographic Information System (GIS): A review of candidates in the public domain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user requirements analysis (URA) was undertaken to determine and appropriate public domain Geographic Information System (GIS) software package for potential integration with NASA's LAS (Land Analysis System) 5.0 image processing system. The necessity for a public domain system was underscored due to the perceived need for source code access and flexibility in tailoring the GIS system to the needs of a heterogenous group of end-users, and to specific constraints imposed by LAS and its user interface, Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). Subsequently, a review was conducted of a variety of public domain GIS candidates, including GRASS 3.0, MOSS, IEMIS, and two university-based packages, IDRISI and KBGIS. The review method was a modified version of the GIS evaluation process, development by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. One IEMIS-derivative product, the ALBE (AirLand Battlefield Environment) GIS, emerged as the most promising candidate for integration with LAS. IEMIS (Integrated Emergency Management Information System) was developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). ALBE GIS is currently under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Engineering Topographic Laboratory (ETL). Accordingly, recommendations are offered with respect to a potential LAS/ALBE GIS linkage and with respect to further system enhancements, including coordination with the development of the Spatial Analysis and Modeling System (SAMS) GIS in Goddard's IDM (Intelligent Data Management) developments in Goddard's National Space Science Data Center.

Rochon, Gilbert L.



The Chronology of Las Palmas Culture: New Radiocarbon Dates on Non-human Terrestrial Materials from William Massey's Cave Burial Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on 13 radiocarbon dates from Las Palmas Culture cave burial sites in the Cape region of Baja California Sur, 12 from three caves excavated by William Massey and one from another cave. These dates are on terrestrial materials associated with bundle burials as wrappings and grave goods. Dates on some human and possibly marine feeding bird samples

Joe D. Stewart; J. Eldon Molto; Paula J. Reimer



BEA Annual Convention: A Look Back at BEA 97 and Preparing for BEA 98, April 3-6, Las Vegas, Nevada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 42nd annual Broadcast Education Association (BEA) Convention ("Reinventing Electronic Media: Multimedia in the New Millennium") for electronic media educators was held April 3-6, 1997 in Las Vegas, Nevada. This article outlines events at the 1997 convention and provides a "sneak peek" at planning for the 1998 convention, "Electronic Media:…

Feedback, 1997



School Resegregation in the Mississippi of the West: Community Counternarratives on the Return to Neighborhood Schools in Las Vegas, 1968-1994  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School desegregation and resegregation in the Mountain West remain understudied despite the substantial impact the region's growth and demographic change have had on racial balance and diversity in schools. Home to the largest school district in the Mountain West and fifth largest school district in the country, Las Vegas's…

Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Sampson, Carrie; Forletta, Felicia



Full House: The Las Vegas building boom has stretched the creativity and resources of the fastest-growing school district in the nation. Edutopia, September/October 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This once sleepy community, founded by Mormon missionaries in 1855 and jumpstarted by gambling 85 years later, now gobbles up real estate faster than a conventioneer chowing down at a midnight buffet. Every day of the week, two acres of Las Vegas area land are developed for commercial or residential use in a frenetic drive to accommodate the…

Furger, Roberta



Assessment of the impact of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the economic development potential of Las Vegas, Clark County, and the surrounding area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth Strategies Organization has completed an assessment of the Las Vegas MSA`s competitiveness in the attraction of new business facilities to the area. That report found that under current business climate conditions and in the present economic development market place, the region is a competitive site for about one hundred of the six hundred types of primary businesses studied. It





EPA Science Inventory

This report contains the papers presented at the Second Conference on Environmental Quality Sensors, held at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Environmental Research Center, Las Vegas, Nevada, on October 10 and 11, 1973. The papers covered such topics as: aircra...


Loss of Control, Sundance Helicopters, Inc., Eurocopter AS350-B2, N37SH, Near Las Vegas, Nevada, December 11, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the December 7, 2011, accident involving a Sundance Helicopters, Inc., Eurocopter AS350-B2 helicopter, N37SH, operating as a Twilight tour sightseeing trip, which crashed in mountainous terrain about 14 miles east of Las Vegas, Nevad...



PA01.43. In-vitro cyto chemical & flow-cytometry studies with las02- a coded herbo-mineral compound  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The drug optimization and understanding the mechanisms of action of drugs on the deregulation of cell cycle which is frequently considered as the cause of progression in cancer can provide important insights for new cancer treatment strategies. The drug LAS02 is a herbo mineral drug prepared as per ancient Ayurvedic literature. Method: In this study the effect of LAS02 was studied by analyzing the effect on cell cycle by flow cytometery on cancer cell lines breast cancer (MCF7), cervical cancer (HELA), colon cancer (COLO 205) and prostate cancer (DU 145), procured from NCCS, Pune. The cells were treated by different doses of LAS02, and assay for proliferation was performed by MTT assay test, subsequently, these were analyzed by flow cytometer for cell cycle analysis. Result: The results showed inhibition of proliferation in MCF7 by 77% and HELA cells by 78% at dose of 500?g/ml in MTT assay. In cell cycle analysis for COLO 205 treated with LAS02, the percentage retention of the cells in G0/ G1 phase was 73.07% at 300?g/ml as compared to 52.16% in the control after 24hrs. In DU 145, treated with LAS02, cells that retained at G0/G1 phase were 79.28% at a dose of 400?g/ml after 48hrs; as compared to control of 62.41%. The apoptosis observed at 400?g/ml drug concentration was 43.51%. Conclusion: The study shows that LAS02 acts as a potent anti cancerous compound by inhibiting proliferation as well as by inducing retention of cells in G0/G1 phase along with apoptosis significantly at in vitro level. Therefore, LAS02 arrests the cancerous cells in G0/G1 phase and prevented the entry of pre cancerous stem cells from G0/G1 phase into G2, the subsequent proliferative stage and inhibits cancer cells from completing the cell cycle. Such a finding is unique with this new drug, which holds a great promise as one of the most effective and safest cancerostatic drug.

Asthana, Aditi; Saxena, R C; Singh, Vandana; Sharma, Vinamra; Srivastava, Ashok; Trivedi, V. P.



The Remote Measurement of Carbon Dioxide by the CO2LAS Instrument during the 2011 ASCENDS Field Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer, CO2LAS, is a laser based instrument developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the remote measurement of the column weighted carbon dioxide concentration from an aircraft. It has undergone a number of developmental and test flights, the most recent of which which was conducted from the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the summer of 2011 as part of the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions through Nights, Days, and Seasons, ASCENDS, Earth Science Decadal Survey Mission Development Studies. We present refined results from two flights conducted during that campaign as well as new results from other flights during that campaign. We demonstrate an improvement on our ability to measure CO2 drawdown due to crop activity during flights over the great plains area, revise our ability to make CO2 column measurements over complex terrain in the presence of snow and demonstrate high spatial resolution measurements of CO2 plumes from individual stack clusters of the Four Corners Power plant. In addition we describe improved algorithms that allow us to discriminate against cloud contamination in the instrument field of view without requiring a range resolved measurement. We will conclude with a brief summary of instrument improvements and plans for future campaigns.

Spiers, G. D.; Menzies, R. T.; Jacob, J. C.; Geier, S.



late Pleistocene and Holocene pollen record from Laguna de las Trancas, northern coastal Santa Cruz County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 2.1-m core from Laguna de las Trancas, a marsh atop a landslide in northern Santa Cruz County, California, has yielded a pollen record for the period between about 30,000 B. P. and roughly 5000 B. P. Three pollen zones are recognized. The earliest is characterized by high frequencies of pine pollen and is correlated with a mid-Wisconsinan interstade of the mid-continent. The middle zone contains high frequencies of both pine and fir (Abies, probably A. grandis) pollen and is correlated with the last full glacial interval (upper Wisconsinan). The upper zone is dominated by redwood (Sequoia) pollen and represents latest Pleistocene to middle Holocene. The past few thousand years are not represented in the core. The pollen evidence indicates that during the full glacial period the mean annual temperature at the site was about 2°C to 3°C lower than it is today. We attribute this small difference to the stabilizing effect of marine upwelling on the temperature regime in the immediate vicinity of the coast. Precipitation may have been about 20 percent higher as a result of longer winter wet seasons.

Adam, David P.; Byrne, Roger; Luther, Edgar



Characteristics of Combined Submerged Membrane Bioreactor with Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) in Treating Lineal Alkylbenzene Sulphonates (LAS) Wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined MBR (cMBR) with granular activated carbon (GAC) was used as a backbone system to treat the synthetic lineal alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) wastewater. The GAC was added in the MBR to improve the resistance of membrane fouling. A parallel conventional MBR (pMBR) without the GAC was run to give a contrast. The results of the process demonstrate that the cMBR process was more efficient than pMBR. It was found that the TMP changes of the cMBR were slower than the pMBR. The results demonstrated that the cMBRs membrane was better than the pMBR's after a clean period run. It was the GAC scrubbing to the membrane that delayed the membrane fouling of the cMBR. Variable critical flux was found in MBR, which showed that the cMBR could make the critical flux better than pMBR in the run time, but GAC could not improve the critical flux at the end of the period for the severe membrane fouling. Based on this theory, a variable critical flux (J) of MBR was put forward, and the relationship of J with time (t) was: J = 16.081e-0.0177t.

Guo, Jifeng; Xia, Siqing; Lu, Yanjun




Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to make maturation scales for two papaya cultivars, of the Solo's group, the most important for exportation and for the internal market: 'Sunrise Solo' and 'Golden'. Fruits were harvested at seven different maturation stages in the tree, on comercial farming located at Linhares-ES, Brazil, based on peel color. It was established a visual maturation

O. Fonseca; Nilton Rocha Leal; Sérgio A. Cenci; Paulo R. Cecon; Ricardo E. Bressan-Smith



Microsoft Academic Search

Esta investigación trata de examinar si las empresas con distinto nivel de intensidad exportadora se diferencian respecto de los elementos competitivos que sustentan su competitividad en el mercado exterior, así como respecto de las estrategias de marketing que implementan en su actividad comercial internacional. Para ello, se examina una muestra de pymes pertenecientes a un clúster agroindustrial competitivo a nivel

David Jiménez Castillo; José Luis Ruiz Real; Manuel Sánchez Pérez



Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological assessment of Laguna de las Salinas, Ponce, Puerto Rico, January 2003-September 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Laguna de Las Salinas is a shallow, 35-hectare, hypersaline lagoon (depth less than 1 meter) in the municipio of Ponce, located on the southern coastal plain of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in the lagoon were collected between January 2003 and September 2004 to establish baseline conditions. During the study period, rainfall was about 1,130 millimeters, with much of the rain recorded during three distinct intense events. The lagoon is connected to the sea by a shallow, narrow channel. Subtle tidal changes, combined with low rainfall and high evaporation rates, kept the lagoon at salinities above that of the sea throughout most of the study. Water-quality properties measured on-site (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and Secchi disk transparency) exhibited temporal rather than spatial variations and distribution. Although all physical parameters were in compliance with current regulatory standards for Puerto Rico, hyperthermic and hypoxic conditions were recorded during isolated occasions. Nutrient concentrations were relatively low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 1.9 milligrams per liter and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.4 milligram per liter. Total organic carbon concentrations ranged from 12.0 to 19.0 milligrams per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll a concentration was 13.4 micrograms per liter. Chlorophyll b was detected (detection limits 0.10 microgram per liter) only twice during the study. About 90 percent of the primary productivity in the Laguna de Las Salinas was generated by periphyton such as algal mats and macrophytes such as seagrasses. Of the average net productivity of 13.6 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day derived from the diel study, the periphyton and macrophyes produced 12.3 grams per cubic meter per day; about 1.3 grams (about 10 percent) were produced by the phytoplankton (plant and algae component of plankton). The total respiration rate was 59.2 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day. The respiration rate ascribed to the plankton (all organisms floating through the water column) averaged about 6.2 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (about 10 percent), whereas the respiration rate by all other organisms averaged 53.0 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (about 90 percent). Plankton gross productivity was 7.5 grams per cubic meter per day; the gross productivity of the entire community averaged 72.8 grams per cubic meter per day. Fecal coliform bacteria counts were generally less than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters; the highest concentration was 600 colonies per 100 milliliters.

Soler-Lopez, Luis R.; Gomez-Gomez, Fernando; Rodriguez-Martinez, Jesus



Fault interaction along the Central Andean thrust front: The Las Peñas thrust, Cerro Salinas thrust and the Montecito Anticline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region in west-central Argentina between the thin-skinned Precordillera and the thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas structural domain is among the most active zones of thrust tectonics in the world. We quantify the rates of deformation on the east-vergent Las Peñas thrust (LPT), and the west-vergent Cerro Salinas thrust (CST). The Montecito anticline (MA) is located at their intersection. We mapped three key locations, collected stratigraphic logs from the MA, dated three ashes using U-Pb in zircon and dated 10 terraces using cosmogenic Be-10 depth profiles. Five terrace levels are present where the Rio Las Peñas crosses the LPT, up to 45 m above the modern river. Cosmogenic dating of the uppermost terrace (T1) yields and age of 123.8 +26.5/-12.3 ka. A reconstruction of this surface using a blind thrust rupture scenario indicates 73 +/- 7 m horizontal shortening and 34 +/- 3 m vertical displacement. Shortening across the structure is therefore 0.59 +0.10/-0.13 mm/yr with a vertical uplift rate of 0.27 +0.05/-0.06 mm/a. Previous work indicates higher rates to the south on the order of 2 mm/yr (Schmidt et al., 2011). Lower terraces give ages of 38.0 +11/-6.2 ka (T2) and 1.5 +5.0/-0.6 ka (T4). Three terrace levels are preserved near the center of the CST. The middle surface (T2) is folded across the axis of the structure and yields an age of 112.5 +33/-14.4 ka. Given 22.9 m surface uplift, this indicates a vertical uplift rate of 0.20 +0.05/-0.06 mm/yr, similar to the rate on the LPT. The upper terrace (T1) yields a younger age (97.1 +29.8/-12.4 ka); the T1 and T2 ages overlap within uncertainty, indicating rapid river incision at the time of their formation. An intercalated ash within the Neogene strata gives an age of 16.2 +/- 0.2. Previous work indicates long-term shortening rates of 0.8 mm/yr (Verges et al., 2007) and that the CST initiated after 8.5 Ma. The lowermost unit exposed in the MA is the Los Pozos Fm., with no indication of syn-depositional deformation. An intercalated ash from the top of this formation yields an age of 5.76 +/- 0.09 Ma. Internal unconformities are present within the overlying transitional unit and the Mogotes Fm., indicating deformation post-dates 5.8 Ma in the MA. An ash within the Mogotes Fm. is 1.52 +/- 0.06 Ma. Slip is modeled as 3.5 km reverse slip across an east-dipping dislocation with a 45 degree dip. This suggests horizontal shortening and vertical uplift of 0.42 mm/yr since the onset of deformation. Uplifted terraces near the center of the MA are 4.7 +0.8/-0.3 ka (T2) and 1.9 +3.4/-1.9 ka (T3), 6 and 4.6 m above the modern river, respectively. This suggests recent vertical uplift or incision rates of 1.3-2.4 mm/yr. These data suggest that deformation in the MA is comparable to that at the LPT and CST. Deformation in the MA could be accelerating, but alternatively, river incision could be accelerating due to climate change.

Schoenbohm, L. M.; Costa, C. H.; Brooks, B. A.; Bohon, W.; Gardini, C.; Cisneros, H.



Sr Isotopes and Migration of Prairie Mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) from Laguna de las Cruces, San Luis Potosi, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asserting mobility of ancient humans is a major issue for anthropologists. For more than 25 years, Sr isotopes have been used as a resourceful tracer tool in this context. A comparison of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios found in tooth enamel and in bone is performed to determine if the human skeletal remains belonged to a local or a migrant. Sr in bone approximately reflects the isotopic composition of the geological region where the person lived before death; whereas the Sr isotopic system in tooth enamel is thought to remain as a closed system and thus conserves the isotope ratio acquired during childhood. Sr isotope ratios are obtained through the geologic substrate and its overlying soil, from where an individual got hold of food and water; these ratios are in turn incorporated into the dentition and skeleton during tissue formation. In previous studies from Teotihuacan, Mexico we have shown that a three-step leaching procedure on tooth enamel samples is important to assure that only the biogenic Sr isotope contribution is analyzed. The same Sr isotopic tools can function concerning ancient animal migration patterns. To determine or to discard the mobility of prairie mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) found at Laguna de las Cruces, San Luis Potosi, México the leaching procedure was applied on six molar samples from several fossil remains. The initial hypothesis was to use 87Sr/86Sr values to verify if the mammoth population was a mixture of individuals from various herds and further by comparing their Sr isotopic composition with that of plants and soils, to confirm their geographic origin. The dissimilar Sr results point to two distinct mammoth groups. The mammoth population from Laguna de Cruces was then not a family unit because it was composed by individuals originated from different localities. Only one individual was identified as local. Others could have walked as much as 100 km to find food and water sources.

Solis-Pichardo, G.; Perez-Crespo, V.; Schaaf, P. E.; Arroyo-Cabrales, J.



Geologic and geophysical maps of the Las Vegas 30' x 60' quadrangle, Clark and Nye counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Las Vegas and Pahrump are two of the fastest growing cities in the US, and the shortage of water looms as among the greatest future problems for these cities. These new maps of the Las Vegas 30 x 60-minute quadrangle provide a geologic and geophysical framework and fundamental earth science database needed to address societal issues such as ground water supply and contamination, surface flood, landslide, and seismic hazards, and soil properties and their changing impact by and on urbanization. The mountain ranges surrounding Las Vegas and Pahrump consist of Mesozoic, Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks. A majority of these rocks are Paleozoic carbonate rocks that are part of Nevada's carbonate rock aquifer province. The Spring Mountains represent a major recharge site in the province, where maximum altitude is 3,632 m (Charleston Peak) above sea level. Rocks in the Sheep and Las Vegas Ranges and Spring Mountains contain correlative, northeast-striking, southeast-verging thrust faults that are part of the Cretaceous, Sevier orogenic belt. These thrusts were offset during the Miocene by the Las Vegas Valley shear system (LVVSZ). We conducted new mapping in the Blue Diamond area, highlighting refined work on the Bird Spring thrust, newly studied ancient landslides, and gravity-slide blocks. We conducted new mapping in the Las Vegas Range and mapped previously unrecognized structures such as the Valley thrust and fold belt; recognition of these structures has led to a refined correlation of Mesozoic thrust faults across the LVVSZ. New contributions in the quadrangle also include a greatly refined stratigraphy of Paleozoic bedrock units based on conodont biostragraphy. We collected over 200 conodont samples in the quadrangle and established stratigraphic reference sections used to correlate units across the major Mesozoic thrust faults. Quaternary deposits cover about half of the map area and underlie most of the present urbanized area. Deposits consist of large coalescing alluvial fans that grade downslope to extensive areas of fine-grained sediment indicative of groundwater-discharge during the Pleistocene. In the central areas of Las Vegas and Pahrump valleys, Quaternary fault scarps associated with past ground-water discharge deposits suggest a genetic relationship. In collaboration with NBMG and University of Nevada, a variety of ages of gravelly alluvium are newly mapped using surficial characteristics and soil development, along with reassessment of previously published mapping during compilation. Reconnaissance geochronology (thermoluminescence and U-series) of eolian and authigenic components of surficial and buried soils and spring deposits is applied to test hypotheses of geomorphic and hydrologic response to climate change over the past 100 k.y.). The major structure in the Las Vegas quadrangle is the LVVSZ. Because the LVVSZ is concealed by thick basin-fill deposits of Quaternary and Tertiary age, it was characterized primarily based on geophysics. Likewise, the newly described State line fault system in Pahrump Valley has also been characterized by geophysics, where geophysically inferred structures correlate remarkably with surface structures defined by our new geologic mapping in the Mound Spring and Hidden Hills Ranch 7.5-minute quadrangles.

Page, William R.; Lundstrom, Scott, C.; Harris, Anita G.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Mahan, Shannon A.; Paces, James B.; Dixon, Gary L.; Rowley, Peter D.; Burchfiel, B. C.; Bell, John W.; Smith, Eugene I.



Effect of Y2O3 on the crystallization kinetics of TiO2 nucleated LAS glass for the production of nanocrystalline transparent glass ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystallization kinetics of metastable ?-quartz solid solution as a desirable phase for the production of transparent lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass ceramics was investigated in the presence of Y2O3. Accordingly, differential thermal analysis scans were performed thoroughly to study the mechanism of crystallization kinetics. The aim of this investigation is to discover the complicated mechanism of crystallization process in the presence of co-additives and accordingly find a way for increasing the transparency of glass ceramics. It is shown that the bulk (3D) growth is intensively increased by the enhancement of Y2O3. Then again, reducing nucleation and increasing growth mechanisms were recognized for the LAS system in the presence of Y2O3. Results of the investigation illustrate that when co-additives are added to glasses, it is necessary to nucleate the optical component separately before the growth process.

Shakeri, Mohammad Sadegh



Toxicity of a Novel Herbomineral Preparation Las01 on Human Cancer Cell Lines and Its Safety Profile in Humans and Animals  

PubMed Central

Polyhedral formulations based on Rasayana therapy described in Charaka Samhita showed remarkable improvement in quality of life of various cancer patients who have been found to be refractory or poor responders to modern chemotherapy and radiation treatment. One of the most recent novel herbomineral preparation, Las01 prepared absolutely as per the instruction given in the ancient Ayurvedic literature has been found to be effective as a potent anticancer drug in the human cell lines, the MCF-7 and Hela cancer cell lines. This novel preparation of Las01 is also found to be devoid of toxicity both in animals as well as in human subjects, which is the main drawback of chemotherapeutic agents used in modern system of medicine. Our results warrant multicentric clinical trials on a large scale which seems to be a future promising drug to cure incurables cancer patients.

Sheikh, Saba; Srivastava, Ashok; Tripathi, Rajesh; Tripathi, Shalini; Trivedi, V. P.; Saxena, R. C.



Gaseous Mercury Monitoring at a Complex Source: The Las Cuevas Decommissioned Mining Complex and Current Hg Storage Facility (Almadén District, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Las Cuevas decommissioned mining complex was the third in importance in the world’s largest mercury mining district: Almadén (south-central Spain). Mining took place during two well differentiated periods: 1. Roman time; and 2. From 1982 to 2000. In 2004 the mine was transformed into a mercury storage and handling facility, away from urban areas. Furthermore, the area served as a test site for the design and implementation of a mercury safe storage vessel, a study funded by European LIFE-Env programme (Project MERSADE, LIFE06 ENV/ES/PREP/03) (Llanos et al., 2010). On this basis, Las Cuevas site can be regarded as a complex source of atmospheric mercury for the local environmental compartments, including emissions from the plant activity, partly reclamated old mineral dumps, contaminated soils, and other minor sources, such as cavities produced by mine collapse. We studied the emissions with two LUMEX RA-915+ Hg analyzers, one LUMEX RA-915Light device and a complete TEKRAN equipment, including Mercury Speciation Unit (model 1130) and Particulate Mercury Unit (Model 1135). Data has been treated with ISC-AERMOD program, in order to obtain models for contamination plumes derived from Las Cuevas whole area. The results confirm the mercury storage facility as the main local source for mercury, releasing some 3,15 kg Hg y-1, whereas contaminated soils and reclamated dumps represent local minor sources. Over 99,9% of local atmospheric mercury is Gaseous Elemental Mercury, with Reactive Gaseous Mercury representing 0,25 per mil, and particulate bound mercury, 1,8 per mil. Citation: Llanos, W.; Higueras, P.; Oyarzun, R.; Esbrí, J.M.; López-Berdonces, M.A.; García-Noguero, E.M.; Martínez-Coronado, A. (2010) A preliminary environmental assessment at the site of the European prototype installation of a safe deposit for surplus mercury from industry: The Las Cuevas mining complex, Almadén District, Spain. Science of the Total Environment, 408: 4901-4905.

Higueras, P. L.; Esbri, J. M.; Llanos, W. R.; Oyarzun, R.; Martinez-Coronado, A.; Grupo de Estudios En Minería Y Medioambiente-Gemm



Ground-water conditions in Las Vegas Valley, Clark County, Nevada; Part 2, Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In sedimentary deposits beneath arid Las Vegas Valley, ground-water levels have declined as much as 280 feet since 1912 in deeper aquifers due to pumping associated with urban development. Accompanying land subsidence has been as great as 5 feet. Predictive simulations show that by maintaining pumpage and recharge at 1980 levels and using municipal wells only during periods of peak water demand, rates of water-level decline and land subsidence will be reduced.

Morgan, David S.; Dettinger, Michael D.



El modelo DRAG–España (IDE 1): Análisis de los principales factores de influencia en el número de accidentes en las carreteras Españolas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  En este trabajo se presentan los principales resultados obtenidos de los modelos de accidentes con heridos y accidentes mortales\\u000a ocurridos en carreteras interurbanas españolas, en el período 1990–2004, desarrollados en base a la metodología de modelos\\u000a econométricos DRAG (Demand Demande Routière, Accidents et Gravité). Las 19 variables utilizadas para el ajuste de los modelos\\u000a DRAG–España (I-DE 1), son de distinta

F. Aparicio; B. Arenas; E. Bernardos; A. Gómez



Real-Time Access to Altimetry and Operational Oceanography Products via OPeNDAP/LAS Technologies : the Example of Aviso, Mercator and Mersea Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Products and Services (P&S) department in the Space Oceanography Division at CLS is in charge of diffusing and promoting altimetry and operational oceanography data. P&S is so involved in Aviso satellite altimetry project, in Mercator ocean operational forecasting system, and in the European Godae /Mersea ocean portal. Aiming to a standardisation and a common vision and management of all these ocean data, these projects led to the implementation of several OPeNDAP/LAS Internet servers. OPeNDAP allows the user to extract via a client software (like IDL, Matlab or Ferret) the data he is interested in and only this data, avoiding him to download full information files. OPeNDAP allows to extract a geographic area, a period time, an oceanic variable, and an output format. LAS is an OPeNDAP data access web server whose special feature consists in the facility for unify in a single vision the access to multiple types of data from distributed data sources. The LAS can make requests to different remote OPeNDAP servers. This enables to make comparisons or statistics upon several different data types. Aviso is the CNES/CLS service which distributes altimetry products since 1993. The Aviso LAS distributes several Ssalto/Duacs altimetry products such as delayed and near-real time mean sea level anomaly, absolute dynamic topography, absolute geostrophic velocities, gridded significant wave height and gridded wind speed modulus. Mercator-Ocean is a French operational oceanography centre which distributes its products by several means among them LAS/OPeNDAP servers as part of Mercator Mersea-strand1 contribution. 3D ocean description (temperature, salinity, current and other oceanic variables) of the North Atlantic and Mediterranean are real-time available and weekly updated. LAS special feature consisting in the possibility of making requests to several remote data centres with same OPeNDAP configurations particularly fitted to Mersea strand-1 problematics. This European project (June 2003 to June 2004) sponsored by the European Commission was the first experience of an integrated operational oceanography project. The objective was the assessment of several existing operational in situ and satellite monitoring and numerical forecasting systems for the future elaboration (Mersea Integrated Project, 2004-2008) of an integrated system able to deliver, operationally, information products (physical, chemical, biological) towards end-users in several domains related to environment, security and safety. Five forecasting ocean models with data assimilation coming from operational in situ or satellite data centres, have been intercompared. The main difficulty of this LAS implementation has lied in the ocean model metrics definition and a common file format adoption which forced the model teams to produce the same datasets in the same formats (NetCDF, COARDS/CF convention). Notice that this was a pioneer approach and that it has been adopted by Godae standards (see F. Blanc's paper in this session). Going on these web technologies implementation and entering a more user-oriented issue, perspectives deal with the implementation of a Map Server, a GIS opensource server which will communicate with the OPeNDAP server. The Map server will be able to manipulate simultaneously raster and vector multidisciplinary remote data. The aim is to construct a full complete web oceanic data distribution service. The projects in which we are involved allow us to progress towards that.

Baudel, S.; Blanc, F.; Jolibois, T.; Rosmorduc, V.



Assessment of the impact of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the economic development potential of Las Vegas, Clark County, and the surrounding area  

SciTech Connect

Growth Strategies Organization has completed an assessment of the Las Vegas MSA`s competitiveness in the attraction of new business facilities to the area. That report found that under current business climate conditions and in the present economic development market place, the region is a competitive site for about one hundred of the six hundred types of primary businesses studied. It is almost competitive as a location for another 80 to 90 types of businesses and is a marginal choice for another 200 business groups. In other words, Clark County, as is, fully satisfies the basic requirements of almost a sixth of the businesses in this study. With minor improvements in areas such as the skill mix of its work force and the quality of its educational facilities and with an effective campaign to improve the area`s image, the Las Vegas area could become a competitive location for about two-thirds of all business groups -- a very large shift in marketability. The proposed nuclear waste repository that he Federal government has proposed for siting at Yucca Mountain more than a hundred miles from Las Vegas would become operational after the turn of the century, more than fifteen years from now. Its influence on business investment decisions would be felt in the mid- to late-1990s if the final decision were made and announced. To measure that impact it would be desirable to establish a baseline that reflects Clark County`s competitiveness as a business facility location in the middle of the next decade. In constructing that baseline, several variables could be considered -- changes in business climate conditions in the area other than the nuclear waste repository; and changes in the location decision process itself resulting from changes in technology and in market pressures.

Boyle, M.R. [Growth Strategies Organization, Reston, VA (USA)



210Pb-derived history of PAH and PCB accumulation in sediments of a tropical inner lagoon (Las Matas, Gulf of Mexico) near a major oil refinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in a sediment core from the tropical freshwater inner lagoon of Las Matas, near the petroleum industrial area of Minatitlán-Coatzacoalcos, in the Gulf of Mexico. A 210Pb-derived chronology was used to reconstruct the historical PAH and PCB accumulation in the site during one century (1906-2005). Both geochemical and sedimentological data indicated that a major change occurred in 1947 ± 4, including a shift to coarser sediments and a significant decrease of Al, Li, Fe, organic C and total N contents. This was likely due to the changes in hydrology caused by the confinement of Las Matas Lagoon due to the construction of the Trans-Isthmus road in 1946. PAHs in these samples show relatively low concentrations (259-1176 ng g-1), and the congener relative abundances indicate the influence of pyrogenic (petroleum combustion) sources. Total PCB concentrations in the sediments ranged from 24 to 77 ng g-1, and are composed by low chlorinated PCBs, with 3- and 4-CB as the prevalent species (51-65% and 29-40%, respectively). PAHs and PCBs were detected at depths corresponding to the early 1900s, when Minatitlán refinery started operations, although their time evolution appears to be influenced by different accumulation processes. The PCB background is most likely produced by the combustion of natural organic matter, and an industrial contribution can be recognized when normalizing with OC contents. We concluded that atmospheric deposition is the most significant source of PAHs and PCBs for this water body. This study also provided evidence of the alteration of the wetlands surrounding this industrial area due to urbanization; the fragmentation and alteration of Las Matas Lagoon hydrology contributes to the gradual loss of the wetlands in the zone.

Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Sprovieri, Mario; Piazza, Rossano; Frignani, Mauro; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Feo, Maria Luisa; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Vecchiato, Marco; Pérez-Bernal, Libia Hascibe; Páez-Osuna, Federico



Two Enzymes of a Complete Degradation Pathway for Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) Surfactants: 4-Sulfoacetophenone Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase and 4-Sulfophenylacetate Esterase in Comamonas testosteroni KF-1  

PubMed Central

Complete biodegradation of the surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) is accomplished by complex bacterial communities in two steps. First, all LAS congeners are degraded into about 50 sulfophenylcarboxylates (SPC), one of which is 3-(4-sulfophenyl)butyrate (3-C4-SPC). Second, these SPCs are mineralized. 3-C4-SPC is mineralized by Comamonas testosteroni KF-1 in a process involving 4-sulfoacetophenone (SAP) as a metabolite and an unknown inducible Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) to yield 4-sulfophenyl acetate (SPAc) from SAP (SAPMO enzyme); hydrolysis of SPAc to 4-sulfophenol and acetate is catalyzed by an unknown inducible esterase (SPAc esterase). Transcriptional analysis showed that one of four candidate genes for BVMOs in the genome of strain KF-1, as well as an SPAc esterase candidate gene directly upstream, was inducibly transcribed during growth with 3-C4-SPC. The same genes were identified by enzyme purification and peptide fingerprinting-mass spectrometry when SAPMO was enriched and SPAc esterase purified to homogeneity by protein chromatography. Heterologously overproduced pure SAPMO converted SAP to SPAc and was active with phenylacetone and 4-hydroxyacetophenone but not with cyclohexanone and progesterone. SAPMO showed the highest sequence homology to the archetypal phenylacetone BVMO (57%), followed by steroid BVMO (55%) and 4-hydroxyacetophenone BVMO (30%). Finally, the two pure enzymes added sequentially, SAPMO with NADPH and SAP, and then SPAc esterase, catalyzed the conversion of SAP via SPAc to 4-sulfophenol and acetate in a 1:1:1:1 molar ratio. Hence, the first two enzymes of a complete LAS degradation pathway were identified, giving evidence for the recruitment of members of the very versatile type I BVMO and carboxylester hydrolase enzyme families for the utilization of a xenobiotic compound by bacteria.

Weiss, Michael; Denger, Karin; Huhn, Thomas



Two enzymes of a complete degradation pathway for linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) surfactants: 4-sulfoacetophenone Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase and 4-sulfophenylacetate esterase in Comamonas testosteroni KF-1.  


Complete biodegradation of the surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) is accomplished by complex bacterial communities in two steps. First, all LAS congeners are degraded into about 50 sulfophenylcarboxylates (SPC), one of which is 3-(4-sulfophenyl)butyrate (3-C(4)-SPC). Second, these SPCs are mineralized. 3-C(4)-SPC is mineralized by Comamonas testosteroni KF-1 in a process involving 4-sulfoacetophenone (SAP) as a metabolite and an unknown inducible Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) to yield 4-sulfophenyl acetate (SPAc) from SAP (SAPMO enzyme); hydrolysis of SPAc to 4-sulfophenol and acetate is catalyzed by an unknown inducible esterase (SPAc esterase). Transcriptional analysis showed that one of four candidate genes for BVMOs in the genome of strain KF-1, as well as an SPAc esterase candidate gene directly upstream, was inducibly transcribed during growth with 3-C(4)-SPC. The same genes were identified by enzyme purification and peptide fingerprinting-mass spectrometry when SAPMO was enriched and SPAc esterase purified to homogeneity by protein chromatography. Heterologously overproduced pure SAPMO converted SAP to SPAc and was active with phenylacetone and 4-hydroxyacetophenone but not with cyclohexanone and progesterone. SAPMO showed the highest sequence homology to the archetypal phenylacetone BVMO (57%), followed by steroid BVMO (55%) and 4-hydroxyacetophenone BVMO (30%). Finally, the two pure enzymes added sequentially, SAPMO with NADPH and SAP, and then SPAc esterase, catalyzed the conversion of SAP via SPAc to 4-sulfophenol and acetate in a 1:1:1:1 molar ratio. Hence, the first two enzymes of a complete LAS degradation pathway were identified, giving evidence for the recruitment of members of the very versatile type I BVMO and carboxylester hydrolase enzyme families for the utilization of a xenobiotic compound by bacteria. PMID:23001656

Weiss, Michael; Denger, Karin; Huhn, Thomas; Schleheck, David



Effects of illegal harvest of eggs on the population decline of leatherback turtles in Las Baulas Marine National Park, Costa Rica.  


Within 19 years the nesting population of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) at Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas declined from 1500 turtles nesting per year to about 100. We analyzed the effects of fishery bycatch and illegal harvesting (poaching) of eggs on this population. We modeled the population response to different levels of egg harvest (90, 75, 50, and 25%) and the effect of eradicating poaching at different times during the population decline. We compared effects of 90% poaching with those of 20% adult mortality because both of these processes were present in the population at Las Baulas. There was a stepwise decline in number of nesting turtles at all levels of egg harvest. Extirpation times for different levels of poaching ranged from 45 to 282 years. The nesting population declined more slowly and survived longer with 20% adult mortality (146 years) than it did with 90% poaching (45 years). Time that elapsed until poaching stopped determined the average population size at which the population stabilized, ranging from 90 to 420 nesting turtles. Our model predicted that saving clutches lost naturally would restore the population when adult mortality rates were low and would contribute more to population recovery when there were short remigration intervals between nesting seasons and a large proportion of natural loss of clutches. Because the model indicated that poaching was the most important cause of the leatherback decline at Las Baulas, protecting nests on the beach and protecting the beach from development are critical for survival of this population. Nevertheless, the model predicted that current high mortality rates of adults will prevent population recovery. Therefore, protection of the beach habitat and nests must be continued and fishery bycatch must be reduced to save this population. PMID:18637915

Tomillo, Pilar Santidrián; Saba, Vincent S; Piedra, Rotney; Paladino, Frank V; Spotila, James R



The Managua Graben and Las Sierras-Masaya volcanic complex (Nicaragua); pull-apart localization by an intrusive complex: results from analogue modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a well-documented association between pull-apart basins in strike-slip zones and large volcanic caldera complexes. Las Sierras-Masaya volcanic complex, Nicaragua, is a large basaltic lava and ignimbrite shield with nested calderas. The widest caldera is partly underlain by a large and dense intrusive complex, evidenced by a positive gravity anomaly. The Las Sierras Caldera, relating to this cumulate complex, is less than 30,000 years old and is probably still hot and ductile. The inner Masaya Caldera hosts an active magmatic system. The volcanic complex is in a dextral transtensional tectonic context of the Nicaraguan Depression. The highly active Managua Graben is on the northern part of the volcano. We speculate that the graben and volcano are linked tectonically, with the graben initiating in response of a regional stress field modified around the dense, ductile intrusive complex. Previous field work and reappraisal of structures with digital elevation model morphological analysis show that the volcano is surrounded by a rhombic fault pattern that may form a nascent pull-apart basin. We have done scaled analogue models to test the effect of intrusion density and rheology anomalies on strike-slip fault geometries. The models show that intrusion density variations alone do not significantly change fault patterns. In contrast, ductile rocks (silicone in the models as analogue for hot mafic intrusive rocks) markedly alter strike-slip fault patterns. In transtension the presence of a ductile intrusion causes the formation of a pull-apart, while in pure strike-slip or transpression, uplift and thrusting is generated. Pull-apart and uplift structures are rhomb-shaped even when the ductile inclusion is circular. We conclude that a pull-apart is developing at Las Sierras-Masaya volcanic complex in response to the transtensive regional deformation regime and the dense, ductile intrusive complex. We suggest that the volcano and graben are one dynamic system and should be monitored as one entity.

Girard, Guillaume; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin



Evapotranspiration of Mixed Shrub Communities in Phreatophytic Zones of the Great Basin D.A. Devitt1, L.K. Fenstermaker2, M. Young2, B. Conrad1 and B. Bird1 1 School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 2 Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water limitations in the arid and semiarid regions of the southwestern United States have led many water managers of municipalities to begin the process of diversifying their water resource portfolios. Las Vegas in particular, is pursuing groundwater exportation from east central basins in Nevada. Estimating evapotranspiration (ET) is a critical component to closing hydrologic balances in these basins. As such, ET was estimated for three valleys in the Great Basin Region of Nevada (USA) during a three year period. ET estimates were made based on an energy balance approach using the eddy covariance method. ET estimates at the basin scale were made by developing empirical relationships between ET and remotely sensed spectral data (Landsat). Groundwater, soil moisture, rainfall and leaf level measurements were used to validate the differences in ET estimates based on site, year and basin. When the ET correlations were based on average NDVI values during the growing period and incorporated previously published values attained for the same valleys during the same time period, we could account for 97% of the variation in the ET estimate for the May 10 to September 5 growing period and 93% of the variation in the ET estimates based on measured or projected yearly ET totals. Variations in yearly ET estimates at the different shrub and grassland sites ranged from 20 to 50 cm during the two dry years (2006, 2007, not including the irrigated site). The amount of winter precipitation was shown to be a significant driving force in the physiological response of the plants and the yearly ET totals. In the case of White River Valley the ratio of winter precipitation to reference evapotranspiration declined from 79% to 11% over the 3 year monitoring period. Such changes led to a direct impact on leaf xylem water potential values of greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus). During the two drier years (2006 and 2007) greasewood plants entered into the growing period with lower mid day levels of ?L reflecting the significant step down in the ratio of winter precipitation to reference evapotranspiration. ET rates in 2007 were highly correlated with the percent cover of greasewood at the monitoring sites (R2=0.96***), regardless of the depth to groundwater. In 2006 both sites which were monitored for an entire 12 month period, ET was shown to exceed precipitation by 55 to 60%. Although a certain amount of uncertainty must be attached to the basin level ET estimates, results suggested that all three basins had annual ET totals in the 150 to 300 million m3 range, with a significant decline from the wetter 2005 year to the drier 2007 year (30 to 47% decline).The utility of the equations generated in this study will need to be further tested over time to capture the intra and inter annual variability in ET at these sites and basins before long term hydrologic balances can be properly assessed.

Devitt, D. A.; Fenstermaker, L. K.; Young, M.; Conrad, B.; Bird, B.



Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) of the Neogene Volcanic Succession at the Sierra Juarez - Las PintasVolcanic Province, Northeastern Baja California, Mexico: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sierra Juarez-Las Pintas Volcanic Province is among the largest in northern Baja California. For this work, we focused on a bimodal volcanic succession of late Miocene age, composed of an extensive ignimbrite unit and few dispersed basaltic flows that crop out in central Sierra Juarez and northern Sierra Las Tinajas. The ignimbrite is zoned, composed by three distinctive members: a basal unwelded white tuff, a mid-section unwelded orange tuff, and an upper red welded tuff. The basaltic flows are olivine-rich. Samples were collected in five sites that define a NE-SW section across the Sierra Juarez Escarpment, in the western boundary of the so-called Gulf Extensional Province. In each of these sites a stratigraphic column composed of more than one geologic unit was sampled. The total number of analyzed cores is ca. 160. The preliminary results show vertical and lateral variations of the AMS of the ignimbrite that can be interpreted in terms of the local flow direction and processes of emplacement of these volcanic deposits. Such variations, in turn, are likely to reflect variations in the dynamics of the eruptive process that produced them. Although the AMS of all the rocks in this province display a complex set of orientations, in this work is shown that when examined in detail important clues concerning the geological evolution of the province can be obtained from these data.

Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Cañón-Tapia, E.; Suárez-Vidal, F.; Gradilla-Martínez, L.



High-level nuclear waste transport and storage assessment of potential impacts on tourism in the Las Vegas area. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project  

SciTech Connect

The literature review and empirical analyses presented in this report were undertaken, for the most part, between August and October 1983. They are not comprehensive. No primary data were gathered, nor were any formal surveys conducted. Additionally, because construction of a repository at Yucca Mountain, if that site is selected for a repository, is not scheduled to begin until 1993, engineering design and planned physical appearance of the repository are very preliminary. Therefore, specific design features or visual appearance were not addressed in the analyses. Finally, because actual transportation routes have not been designated, impacts on tourism generated specifically by transportation activities are not considered separately. Chapter 2 briefly discusses possible means by which a repository could impact tourism in the Las Vegas area. Chapter 3 presents a review of previous research on alternative methods for predicting the response of people to potential hazards. A review of several published studies where these methods have been applied to facilities and activities associated with radioactive materials is included in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 contains five case studies of tourism impacts associated with past events that were perceived by the public to represent safety hazards. These perceptions of safety hazards were evidenced by news media coverage. These case studies were conducted specifically for this report. Conclusions of this preliminary analysis regarding the potential impact on tourism in the Las Vegas area of a repository at Yucca Mountain are in Chapter 5. Recommendations for further research are contained in Chapter 6.




Comparing the suitability of geophysical methods in the study of a cave in marbles: A case study of Gruta de las Maravillas (Aracena, Southwest Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different geophysical methods have been applied to determine the geometry of caves, considering the host rock, depth, dimension, presence of water and other parameters. The Gruta de las Maravillas cave is located in marbles interlayered with gneiss, quartzite and granodiorite along the suture between South Portuguese and Ossa Morena zone. This cave is probably formed as a consequence of the presence of pyrite and iron oxides mineralization that interacted with the surrounding marble host rocks. In order to analyze the continuity of the Gruta de las Maravillas cave (Aracena, southwest Spain) geophysical methods has been used on the known cave in order to check their suitability. These results allow investigating the prolongation of the cave in surrounding areas, performing a comprehensive study of the Cerro del Castillo hill containing the cavity. Microtopography with differential GPS and cave topography with an accuracy of 0.01 m were measured. The first geophysical method employed were a regional microgravity, with and SCINTREX CG-5 gravimeter that reaches an accuracy up to 0.001 mGal. In the obtained residual anomaly map, negative values are associated with negative density contrast, which are related to the known cave position. In addition, residual gravity minima suggest the presence of other unknown cavities. The anomalies attributed to possible new shallow and deep caves have been studied in a second step with the application of other eight detailed geophysical methods along profiles to test the response of each of them to the presence of cavities: microgravity, magnetic, electrical resistivity tomography, induced polarization, seismic P-waves velocity tomography, ray tracing coverage, common offset and ground-penetrating radar. Moreover, the known cave has walls covered with iron oxides that determine magnetic anomaly minima and intermediate resistivity values (~2000 ohm.m) on the ERT profiles versus the host marble rocks (~45000 ohm.m). After a detailed comparison of each method, the best results are obtained by microgravity and ray tracing coverage. Other methods allow to support and precise the cave geometry obtained. The possible continuity of the known Gruta de las Maravillas cave is proposed after this detailed study, practically doubling the extent of present day know cave.

José Martínez Moreno, Francisco; Galindo Zaldívar, Jesús; Pedrera Parias, Antonio; Ullod, Teresa Teixidó i.; Ruano Roca, Patricia; Peña Ruano, Jose Antonio; González Castillo, Lourdes; Ruiz Constan, Ana; López Chicano, Manuel; Martín Rosales, Wenceslao



Synchronous deposition of massive sulphide deposits in the Iberian Pyrite Belt: New data from Las Herrerías and La Torerera ore-bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two small to medium sized massive sulphide deposits, Las Herrerías and La Torerera, located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) are examined from a geological and palynostratigraphic perspective. The palynological assemblages are assignable to the Retispora lepidophyta-Verrucosisporites nitidus (LN) miospore Biozone (Latest Devonian: Latest Famennian/Strunian) of Western Europe. This age permits correlation with some of the main massive sulphide deposits dated so far in the region (viz., Tharsis, Aznalcóllar, Sotiel-Coronada or Neves-Corvo), and validates once again the hypothesis that a single mineralizing event was responsible for the genesis of most of the IPB's massive sulphide deposits. The present study confirms that palynostratigraphy is an invaluable high-resolution biostratigraphic tool in the IPB, applicable to dating, correlation and ore-exploration.

Sáez, Reinaldo; Moreno, Carmen; González, Felipe



Sensing the ups and downs of Las Vegas: InSAR reveals structural control of land subsidence and aquifer-system deformation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land subsidence in Las Vegas, Nevada, United States, between April 1992 and December 1997 was measured using spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar. The detailed deformation maps clearly show that the spatial extent of subsidence is controlled by geologic structures (faults) and sediment composition (clay thickness). The maximum detected subsidence during the 5.75 yr period is 19 cm. Comparison with leveling data indicates that the subsidence rates declined during the past decade as a result of rising ground-water levels brought about by a net reduction in ground-water extraction. Temporal analysis also detects seasonal subsidence and uplift patterns, which provide information about the elastic and inelastic properties of the aquifer system and their spatial variability.

Amelung, F.; Galloway, D. L.; Bell, J. W.; Zebker, H. A.; Laczniak, R. J.



Environmental and geochemical record of human-induced changes in C storage during the last millennium in a temperate wetland (Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park, central Spain)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park has experienced many hydrological and ecological modifications through out its history, both of natural as well as anthropogenic origin, which have affected its carbon storage capacity and carbon fluxes. The study of those variations has been carried out by the analysis of its sedimentary record (geochemistry and pollen) and historical data. The natural changes have a wider variation range than the anthropogenic ones, show repetitive patterns and the system reacts readjusting the equilibrium among its components. Anthropogenic effects depend on the direct or indirect impact on the wetlands of change and its intensity. In addition, the anthropogenic impacts have the capacity of breaking the natural balance of the ecosystem and the internal interactions. ?? 2006 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard.

Dominguez-Castro, F.; Santisteban, J. I.; Mediavilla, R.; Dean, W. E.; Lopez-Pamo, E.; Gil-Garcia, M. J.; Ruiz-Zapata, M. B.



The Tangled Branches (Las Ramas Enredadas): Sexual Risk, Substance Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence Among Hispanic Men who Have Sex with Men  

PubMed Central

Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) experience a number of health disparities including high rates of HIV infection from high risk sex, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence. Although some research is available to document the relationships of these health disparities in the literature, few studies have explored the intersection of these disparities and the factors that influence them. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences that Hispanic MSM residing in South Florida have with high risk sex, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence. Focus groups were conducted and analyzed using grounded theory methodology until data saturation was reached (n = 20). Two core categories with subcategories emerged from the data: The Roots of Risk (Los raices del riesgo) and The Tangled Branches (Las Ramas Enredadas). The results of the study provided some important clinical implications as well as directions for future research with Hispanic MSM.

De Santis, Joseph P.; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Deleon, Diego A.



Similarities in the dolomitization of upper Miocene reef complexes in Mallorca and the Las Negras areas, Spain: Possible evidence for a Mediterranean dolomitizing event during the Messinian  

SciTech Connect

Reef complexes in the Las Negras area and the island of Mallorca, over 600 km to the northeast, contain dolomite with remarkably similar stratigraphic distribution and petrographic characteristics. In both reef complexes dolomite occurs as 5-50 {mu}m euhedral cements and microcrystalline replacement of red-algal fragments and muds. In addition, anhedral, moldic-zoned dolomite cements (5-20 {mu}m) are abundant in the youngest reefs of both areas. All inter-reefal erosional surfaces are cross-cut by dolomite cements. Distribution of dolomite within the reefal sequences is controlled by (1) proximity to the youngest reef margin. Dolomite abundances decrease from 100% to 0% over a 10 km transect into the platform interior in Mallorca. Stratigraphic and petrographic timing support a dolomitization event following exposure of the reefs, during initial deposition of the onlapping Messinian sequence in Mallorca, and before Pliocene deposition in Las Negras. In both areas, dolomitization took place as a Messinian transgression covered the reefs. Evidence for multiple dolomitization events has not been found. Mallorcan dolomites have heavy stable isotopes suggesting saline dolomitizing fluids. One hypothesis for dolomitization invokes brines associated with the deposition of extensive Messinian basinal evaporites. An early Messinian evaporitic lowstand could concentrate marine brines, and with the ensuing transgression bring them in contact with CaCo{sub 3} platforms, dolomitizing them. The similar styles and timing of dolomitization in these two distinct and distant reef settings suggest that dolomitization of late Miocene reefs around the western Mediterranean may have been genetically related to the Messinian salinity crisis.

Oswald, E.J.; Meyers, W.J. (SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)); Franseen, E.K. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (United States))



U.S. Geological Survey Subsidence Interest Group Conference; proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, February 14-16, 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introducation to Papers: This report is a compilation of short papers that are based on oral presentations summarizing the results of recent research that were given at the third meeting of the Subsidence Interest Group held in Las Vegas, Nevada, February 14?16, 1995. The report includes case studies of land subsidence and aquifer-system deformation resulting from fluid withdrawal, geothermal development, and mine collapse. Methods for monitoring land subsidence using Global Positioning System technology for the rapid and accurate measurement of changes in land-surface altitude also are described. The current status of numerical simulation of land subsidence in the USGS is summarized, and several of the short papers deal with the development and application of new numerical techniques for simulation and quantification of aquifersystem deformation. Not all oral presentations made at the meeting are documented in this report. Several of the presentations were of ongoing research and as such, the findings were provisional in nature and were offered at the meeting to stimulate scientific discussion and debate among colleagues. The information presented in this report, although only a subset of the proceedings of the meeting in Las Vegas, should help expand the scientific basis for management decisions to mitigate or control the effects of land subsidence. The short papers describing the results of these studies provide a cross section of ongoing research in aquifer mechanics and land subsidence and also form an assessment of the current technology and 'state of the science.' The analytical and interpretive methods described in this report will be useful to scientists involved in studies of ground-water hydraulics and aquifer-system deformation.

edited by Prince, Keith R.; Leake, Stanley A.



Structural analysis of the L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase domain of Listeria bacteriophage endolysin Ply500 reveals a new member of the LAS peptidase family.  


Similar to many other bacterial cell-wall-hydrolyzing enzymes, the Listeria bacteriophage A500 endopeptidase Ply500 has a modular architecture consisting of an enzymatically active domain (EAD) linked to a cell-wall-binding domain (CBD) in a single polypeptide chain. The crystal structure of the EAD of Ply500 has been solved at 1.8 A resolution. The shape of the enzyme resembles a sofa chair: one alpha-helix and three antiparallel beta-strands form the seat, which is supported by two more alpha-helices, while another alpha-helix together with the following loop give rise to the backrest. A sulfate anion bound to the active site, which harbours a catalytic Zn2+ ion, indicates mechanistic details of the peptidase reaction, which involves a tetrahedral transition state. Despite very low sequence similarity, a clear structural relationship was detected to the peptidases VanX, DDC, MSH and MepA, which belong to the so-called 'LAS' family. Their gross functional similarity is supported by a common bound Zn2+ ion and a highly conserved set of coordinating residues (His80, Asp87 and His133) as well as other side chains (Arg50, Gln55, Ser78 and Asp130) in the active site. Considering the high sequence similarity to the EAD of the Listeria phage endopeptidase Ply118, both enzymes can thus be assigned to the LAS family. The same is the case for the L,D-endopeptidase CwlK from Bacillus subtilis, which shows both functional and amino-acid sequence similarity. The fact that the CBD of Ply500 is closely homologous to the CBD of the Listeria phage N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase PlyPSA, which exhibits a totally different EAD, illustrates the modular composition and functional variability of this class of enzymes and opens interesting possibilities for protein engineering. PMID:18560152

Korndörfer, Ingo P; Kanitz, Alexander; Danzer, Josef; Zimmer, Markus; Loessner, Martin J; Skerra, Arne



Estimates of hydraulic properties from a one-dimensional numerical model of vertical aquifer-system deformation, Lorenzi site, Las Vegas, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land subsidence related to aquifer-system compaction and ground-water withdrawals has been occurring in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, since the 1930's, and by the late 1980's some areas in the valley had subsided more than 5 feet. Since the late 1980's, seasonal artificial-recharge programs have lessened the effects of summertime pumping on aquifer-system compaction, but the long-term trend of compaction continues in places. Since 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey has continuously monitored water-level changes in three piezometers and vertical aquifer-system deformation with a borehole extensometer at the Lorenzi site in Las Vegas, Nevada. A one-dimensional, numerical, ground-water flow model of the aquifer system below the Lorenzi site was developed for the period 1901-2000, to estimate aquitard vertical hydraulic conductivity, aquitard inelastic skeletal specific storage, and aquitard and aquifer elastic skeletal specific storage. Aquifer water-level data were used in the model as the aquifer-system stresses that controlled simulated vertical aquifer-system deformation. Nonlinear-regression methods were used to calibrate the model, utilizing estimated and measured aquifer-system deformation data to minimize a weighted least-squares objective function, and estimate optimal property values. Model results indicate that at the Lorenzi site, aquitard vertical hydraulic conductivity is 3 x 10-6 feet per day, aquitard inelastic skeletal specific storage is 4 x 10-5 per foot, aquitard elastic skeletal specific storage is 5 x 10-6 per foot, and aquifer elastic skeletal specific storage is 3 x 10-7 per foot. Regression statistics indicate that the model and data provided sufficient information to estimate the target properties, the model adequately simulated observed data, and the estimated property values are accurate and unique.

Pavelko, Michael T.



VE-cadherin cleavage by LasB protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa facilitates type III secretion system toxicity in endothelial cells.  


Infection of the vascular system by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) occurs during bacterial dissemination in the body or in blood-borne infections. Type 3 secretion system (T3SS) toxins from Pa induce a massive retraction when injected into endothelial cells. Here, we addressed the role of type 2 secretion system (T2SS) effectors in this process. Mutants with an inactive T2SS were much less effective than wild-type strains at inducing cell retraction. Furthermore, secretomes from wild-types were sufficient to trigger cell-cell junction opening when applied to cells, while T2SS-inactivated mutants had minimal activity. Intoxication was associated with decreased levels of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, a homophilic adhesive protein located at endothelial cell-cell junctions. During the process, the protein was cleaved in the middle of its extracellular domain (positions 335 and 349). VE-cadherin attrition was T3SS-independent but T2SS-dependent. Interestingly, the epithelial (E)-cadherin was unaffected by T2SS effectors, indicating that this mechanism is specific to endothelial cells. We showed that one of the T2SS effectors, the protease LasB, directly affected VE-cadherin proteolysis, hence promoting cell-cell junction disruption. Furthermore, mouse infection with Pa to induce acute pneumonia lead to significant decreases in lung VE-cadherin levels, whereas the decrease was minimal with T2SS-inactivated or LasB-deleted mutant strains. We conclude that the T2SS plays a pivotal role during Pa infection of the vascular system by breaching the endothelial barrier, and propose a model in which the T2SS and the T3SS cooperate to intoxicate endothelial cells. PMID:24626230

Golovkine, Guillaume; Faudry, Eric; Bouillot, Stéphanie; Voulhoux, Romé; Attrée, Ina; Huber, Philippe



Some properties of lithium aluminium silicate (LAS) glass-ceramics used in glass-ceramic to metal compressive seal for vacuum applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the preparation of LAS glass-ceramics and some studies on their thermo-physical properties and microstructure, for compressive seals in vacuum applications. Glass of composition 12.6Li2O-71.7SiO2-5.1Al2O3-4.9K2O-3.2B2O3-2.5P2O5 was prepared by the conventional melt quench technique. Based on differential thermal analysis (DTA) data, glass samples were nucleated at 600°C for 2hr and were then crystallized at 800°C for 2-5hr. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed lithium disilicate to be the major phase. A dwell time of 3hr yielded a sample of good crystallinity. Dilatometric measurements of this sample on a thermo-mechanical analyzer (TMA) measured a thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of 94.61×10-7°C-1. Glass transition temperature (Tg), and dilatometric softening temperature (Tds) of the sample was recorded as 585°C and 830°C respectively. Considering TEC and Tds compression type seals were prepared with SS304 (TEC = 172×10-7°C-1) housing of length 15mm, outer diameter 30mm and inner diameter 15mm. After pre-heat treatment of the metal components, sealing was carried out under a protective atmosphere of flowing Argon gas. The finished seal was tested for leak tightness on a He leak detector. The seal was capable of withstanding a vacuum of 10-6 Torr; at a leak rate of 10-9 Torr lit s-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out on LAS before and after fabrication of compressive seal to elucidate the effect of compressive stress and the presence of metal near the interface. We observe a significant difference in microstructure due to compressive stresses of sealing and due to the presence of metal. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) revealed no interdiffusion of species from glass-ceramic to metal or vice-versa.

Ananthanarayanan, A.; Kumar, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Shrikhande, V. K.; Kothiyal, G. P.



Ground-water conditions in Las Vegas Valley, Clark County, Nevada; Part II, Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater withdrawals in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, primarily for municipal supplies, totaled more than 2.5 million acre-ft between 1912 and 1981, with a peak annual withdrawal rate of 88,000 acre-ft in 1968. Effects of heavy pumping are evident over large areas of the valley but are more pronounced near the major well fields. Secondary recharge from lawn irrigation and other sources is estimated to have totaled more than 340,000 acre-ft during 1972-81. Resulting rises in water-level in shallow, unconfined aquifers in the central and southeastern parts of the valley have caused: widespread water-logging of soils; increased groundwater discharge to Las Vegas Wash and its tributaries; and potential for degradation of water quality in deeper aquifers by accentuating downward vertical hydraulic potential in areas where shallow groundwater has high concentrations of dissolved solids and nitrate. A 3-dimensional groundwater flow model of the valley-fill aquifer system was constructed for use in evaluating possible groundwater management alternatives aimed at alleviating problems related to overdraft and water-logging while maximizing use of the groundwater resources. Natural recharge to the valley-fill aquifers is about 33,000 acre-ft/yr; in 1979, an estimated 44,000 acre-ft of secondary recharge infiltrated to the near-surface and developed-zone aquifers. Peak water use for lawn irrigation during summer results in rates of secondary recharge that may increase threefold from winter rates. Simulated rates of seepage to washes in the valley increased correspondingly from an average of 850 acre-ft/mo in winter to about 1,300 acre-ft/mo in the summer. Groundwater withdrawals by pumping totaled 620,000 acre-ft during 1972-81, and model results indicate that about 190,000 acre-ft of that total was derived from storage. Use of the model as a predictive tool was demonstrated by simulating the effects of using most municipal wells only during the peak-demand season of June 1 through September 20. Results of the 9-year simulation indicated that: (1) long-term rates of water-level decline near the municipal well field would be less than rates for 1972-81, but the magnitude of seasonal fluctuations would increase, and (2) total volume of water released from storage as a result of subsidence would be only 42,000 acre-feet per year, or about half the volume during 1972-81.

Morgan, D. S.; Dettinger, M. D.



Slope-apron deposition in an ordovician arc-related setting: The Vuelta de Las Tolas Member (Suri Formation), Famatina Basin, northwest Argentina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ordovician Suri Formation is part of the infill of the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina, which formed in an active setting along the western margin of early Paleozoic Gondwana. The lower part of this formation, the Vuelta de Las Tolas Member, records sedimentation on a slope apron formed in an intra-arc basin situated on a flooded continental arc platform. The coincidence of a thick Arenig-Llanvirn sedimentary succession and volcanic-plutonic arc rocks suggests an extensional or transtensional arc setting, and is consistent with evidence of an extensional regime within the volcanic arc in the northern Puna region. The studied stratigraphic sections consist of volcanic rocks and six sedimentary facies. The facies can be clustered into four facies associations. Association 1, composed of facies A (laminated siltstones and mudstones) and B (massive mudstones and siltstones), is interpreted to have accumulated from silty-muddy high-and low-density turbidity currents and highly fluid, silty debris flows, with subsequent reworking by bottom currents, and to a lesser extent, hemipelagic suspension in an open-slope setting. Facies association 2 is dominated by facies C (current-rippled siltstones) strata. These deposits are interpreted to record overbank sedimentation from fine-grained turbidity currents. Facies E (matrix-supported volcanic breccias) interbedded with andesitic lava units comprises facies association 3. Deposition was contemporaneous with subaqueous volcanic activity, and accumulated from cohesive debris flows in a coarse-grained wedge at the base of slope. Facies association 4 is typified by facies D (vitric fine-grained sandstones and siltstones) and F (channelized and graded volcanic conglomerates and breccias) deposits. These strata commonly display thinning-and fining-upward trends, indicating sedimentation from highly-concentrated volcaniclastic turbidity currents in a channelized system. The general characteristics of these deposits of fresh pyroclastic detritus suggest that their accumulation was contemporaneous with, or post-dated shallow-water or subaereal explosive volcanism. The Vuelta de Las Tolas Member tends to show an overall random facies patterns reflecting the strong influence of non-cyclical episodic processes related to arc volcanism and slope sedimentation. The scarcity of resident ichnofaunas and the presence of thick packages of uniform mudstones suggest deposition under oxygen-depleted conditions in a topographically confined, ponded sub-basin. Interbasinal correlations favor comparison with Middle Arenig slope-apron successions formed in the northern Puna Basin and suggest a southward prolongation of the Arenig volcanic arc.

Mangano, M. G.; Buatois, L. A.



Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA-2009-0121-3106, University Medical Center, Las Vegas, Navada, March 2010. Evaluation of Exposures to Healthcare Personnel from Cisplatin during a Mock Interperitoneal Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On March 24, 2009, NIOSH received a management request for an HHE at the UMC, in Las Vegas, Nevada. The HHE request was submitted because a new medical procedure was being proposed, and some hospital staff were concerned about potential exposures to cispl...

G. Burr J. Couch




EPA Science Inventory

The Seventh National Ground Water Quality Symposium was held in Las Vegas, Nevada, on September 26-28, 1984. The symposium was dedicated to the memory of Mahdi S. Hantush (1921-1984), a pioneering scientist who specialized in the application of mathematics to solve transient grou...


Informe Anual a la Nación indica una reducción en los índices de incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer; una sección especial revela amplias variaciones en las tendencias del cáncer de pulmón en los estados

Un nuevo informe de las principales organizaciones oncológicas del país muestra que, por primera vez desde la primera publicación del informe en 1998, tanto el índice de incidencia como el de mortalidad para todos los cánceres combinados están disminuyendo en hombres y mujeres.


Los estudios de las dietas alimenticias bajas en grasa, altas en fibra y ricas en frutas y vegetales no revelan efecto alguno en la formación de nuevos pólipos colorrectales en personas con antecedentes de pólipos precancerosos

Dos nuevos estudios sobre el impacto nutricional en personas con alto riesgo de desarrollar cáncer colorrectal no mostraron evidencia de que la dieta afecta la formación de pólipos colorectales precancerosos (pólipos adenomatosos o adenomas) en personas a las que ya se les extrajo un pólipo.


The Guyanas = Las Guayanas. America = Las Americas [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on the Guyanas--French Guyana, Surinam, and Guyana. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or English--in…

Toro, Leonor


Multivariate Analysis, Mass Balance Techniques, and Statistical Tests as Tools in Igneous Petrology: Application to the Sierra de las Cruces Volcanic Range (Mexican Volcanic Belt)  

PubMed Central

Magmatic processes have usually been identified and evaluated using qualitative or semiquantitative geochemical or isotopic tools based on a restricted number of variables. However, a more complete and quantitative view could be reached applying multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests. As an example, in this work a statistical and quantitative scheme is applied to analyze the geochemical features for the Sierra de las Cruces (SC) volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt). In this locality, the volcanic activity (3.7 to 0.5?Ma) was dominantly dacitic, but the presence of spheroidal andesitic enclaves and/or diverse disequilibrium features in majority of lavas confirms the operation of magma mixing/mingling. New discriminant-function-based multidimensional diagrams were used to discriminate tectonic setting. Statistical tests of discordancy and significance were applied to evaluate the influence of the subducting Cocos plate, which seems to be rather negligible for the SC magmas in relation to several major and trace elements. A cluster analysis following Ward's linkage rule was carried out to classify the SC volcanic rocks geochemical groups. Finally, two mass-balance schemes were applied for the quantitative evaluation of the proportion of the end-member components (dacitic and andesitic magmas) in the comingled lavas (binary mixtures).

Velasco-Tapia, Fernando



Multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests as tools in igneous petrology: application to the Sierra de las Cruces volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt).  


Magmatic processes have usually been identified and evaluated using qualitative or semiquantitative geochemical or isotopic tools based on a restricted number of variables. However, a more complete and quantitative view could be reached applying multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests. As an example, in this work a statistical and quantitative scheme is applied to analyze the geochemical features for the Sierra de las Cruces (SC) volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt). In this locality, the volcanic activity (3.7 to 0.5?Ma) was dominantly dacitic, but the presence of spheroidal andesitic enclaves and/or diverse disequilibrium features in majority of lavas confirms the operation of magma mixing/mingling. New discriminant-function-based multidimensional diagrams were used to discriminate tectonic setting. Statistical tests of discordancy and significance were applied to evaluate the influence of the subducting Cocos plate, which seems to be rather negligible for the SC magmas in relation to several major and trace elements. A cluster analysis following Ward's linkage rule was carried out to classify the SC volcanic rocks geochemical groups. Finally, two mass-balance schemes were applied for the quantitative evaluation of the proportion of the end-member components (dacitic and andesitic magmas) in the comingled lavas (binary mixtures). PMID:24737994

Velasco-Tapia, Fernando



Cambrian initiation of the Las Pirquitas thrust of the western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the proto-Andean margin of South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 40Ar/39Ar hornblende crystallization ages from the Las Pirquitas thrust of the Sierra de Pie de Palo, Argentina, indicate that imbrication of the proto-Andean margin had initiated by ca. 515 Ma. The ages do not permit the Pie de Palo block to represent basement of the adjacent Argentine Precordillera terrane, but rather require it to be a separate fragment not juxtaposed with the Precordillera prior to the Ordovician. The Pie de Palo block was likely autochthonous to the Famatina arc of the proto-Andean margin in the Early Cambrian. When combined with existing regional ages of magmatism, metamorphism, and deformation, the ages suggest that east-dipping subduction beneath the Famatina arc initiated by the Early to Middle Cambrian. The newly established convergent margin resulted from a westward shift of the plate boundary at the end of the Pampean orogeny in the eastern Sierras Pampeanas. The Famatina arc persisted as an Andeantype active margin until the collision and accretion of the Precordillera terrane in the Middle Ordovician.

Mulcahy, Sean R.; Roeske, Sarah M.; McClelland, William C.; Nomade, Sébastien; Renne, Paul R.



Risk of exposure to second hand smoke for adolescents in Las Vegas casinos: an evaluation of the Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act.  


Since the Surgeon General's groundbreaking report of 1964, "Smoking and Health," the medical and scientific communities have uncovered the devastating effects of tobacco smoke on health. In reaction to these findings, local and state governments have enacted a variety of clean air acts to prevent unnecessary exposure to this known carcinogen. The Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act (NCIAA), a non-comprehensive smoke-free law, permits smoking in designated areas of casinos, bars, and taverns. With many Las Vegas casinos catering to all ages, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of NCIAA in protecting children from second hand smoke exposure. Using a device that measures ambient air particle matter concentrations, this study sampled the air quality in 15 casino gaming areas and corresponding non-smoking, children-friendly areas. The results indicate that current policy fails to preserve indoor air quality in these children-friendly areas. Furthermore, this research suggests the adoption of a more comprehensive, 100% smoke-free policy as the only effective remedy. PMID:23113419

Cochran, Christopher; Henriques, Dominic; York, Nancy; Lee, Kiyoung




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This work presents a critical review of the historical, theoretical, and neurobiological bases of the theory of moral emotions. Neuroimaging methods and protocols used to study the neural correlates of moral emotions and the analysis of the brain func- tions involved in their processing, permit the formulation of hy- potheses that attempt to understand some emotional and cogni- tive

Roberto E. Mercadillo; José Luis Díaz; Fernando A. Barrios



Las Bases Moleculares del Cáncer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer research has allowed us to discover many genes implied in development of this disease. These genes are suppressors or oncogenes that participate in cellular proliferation, methas- tasis and\\/or capacity of cell to induce vascularization of the tissue. Also, it has allowed the discovery of molecules able to inhibit the growth of cells cancerous. However, periodic check ups continues to

Juan Carlos; Raya Pérez


Bolivia. America = Las Americas [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural information on Bolivia. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or English--in which the topics are written. The quarterly provides an…

Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.


Peru. America = Las Americas [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for elementary teachers to use with migrant students, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Peru's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics included are the people, geographic regions, festivals and celebrations, the economy, natural resources, Lake Titicaca,…

Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra



Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary annotated list of the leafhoppers collected at Fundo Genova, Chanchamayo province and Fundo Santa Teresa, Satipo province, Peru, is presented. A total of 46 species is reported, 28 in the subfamily Cicadellinae, 9 in the subfamily Deltocephalinae, 4 in the subfamily Agalliinae, 1 in the subfamily Gyponinae, 2 in the subfamily Ledrinae, 1 in the subfamily Nioniinae, and

Pedro W. Lozada Robles; Germán A. Arellano Cruz


Colombia. America = Las Americas [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight the many Americas, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides historical and cultural background information on Colombia and features biographies of Colombian leaders and artists. A table of contents indicates the language--Spanish or…

Toro, Leonor; Doran, Sandra


Venezuela. America = Las Americas [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Venezuela's history, geography, economy, and culture for teachers to use with migrant children in the elementary grades. Topics presented in the English portion include climate, land, people, customs, government, arts, food, culture, wildlife,…

Toro, Leonor; Avery, Robert S.


Cómo sentar las bases de una justicia universal: Creación de redes internacionales y ejercicio de la responsabilidad penal en el caso de violaciones de los derechos humanos en Chile y El Salvador \\/ Grounding global justice: international networks and domestic human rights accountability in Chile and El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Para algunos, la detención en Londres del ex-dictador chileno Augusto Pinochet, en 1998, fue una demostración paradigmática de la posible eficacia de las así llamadas «redes globales de la sociedad civil» para hacer efectiva la responsabilidad penal de ex Jefes de Estado por crímenes contra la humanidad. Sin embargo, el presente artículo cuestiona la eficacia de las acciones que pueden

Cath Collins



New ultracool subdwarfs identified in large-scale surveys using Virtual Observatory tools. I. UKIDSS LAS DR5 vs. SDSS DR7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The aim of the project is to improve our knowledge of the low-mass and low-metallicity population to investigate the influence of metallicity on the stellar (and substellar) mass function. Methods: We present the results of a photometric and proper motion search aimed at discovering ultracool subdwarfs in large-scale surveys. We employed and combined the Fifth Data Release (DR5) of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 complemented with ancillary data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), the DEep Near-Infrared Survey (DENIS) and the SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys (SSS). Results: The SDSS DR7 vs. UKIDSS LAS DR5 search returned a total of 32 ultracool subdwarf candidates, only two of which are recognised as a subdwarf in the literature. Twenty-seven candidates, including the two known ones, were followed-up spectroscopically in the optical between 600 and 1000 nm, thus covering strong spectral features indicative of low metallicity (e.g., CaH), 21 with the Very Large Telescope, one with the Nordic Optical Telescope, and five were extracted from the Sloan spectroscopic database to assess (or refute) their low-metal content. We confirm 20 candidates as subdwarfs, extreme subdwarfs, or ultra-subdwarfs with spectral types later than M5; this represents a success rate of ? 60%. Among those 20 new subdwarfs, we identify two early-L subdwarfs that are very likely located within 100 pc, which we propose as templates for future searches because they are the first examples of their subclass. Another seven sources are solar-metallicity M dwarfs with spectral types between M4 and M7 without H? emission, suggesting that they are old M dwarfs. The remaining five candidates do not have spectroscopic follow-up yet; only one remains as a bona-fide ultracool subdwarf after revision of their proper motions. We assigned spectral types based on the current classification schemes and, when possible, we measured their radial velocities. Using the limited number of subdwarfs with trigonometric parallaxes, we estimated distances ranging from ~95 to ~600 pc for the new subdwarfs. We provide mid-infrared photometry extracted from the WISE satellite databases for two subdwarfs and discuss their colours. Finally, we estimate a lower limit of the surface density of ultracool subdwarfs about 5000-5700 times lower than that of solar-metallicity late-M dwarfs. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-0928A.Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

Lodieu, N.; Espinoza Contreras, M.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Solano, E.; Aberasturi, M.; Martín, E. L.



A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions and local area pollution of highspeed rail and air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is one of the most discussed global environmental issues in the world today. Global warming is driven by fossil fuel combustion emissions known as Green-house Gases (GHG). One of the major contributors to GHG emissions is the transport sector, emitting approximately 30% of total U.S. CO 2 emissions in 2010. Air travel contributed approximately 3.5% of total U.S. CO2 in 2008. High-speed Rail (HSR) is often touted as cleaner, more sustainable mode of transport than air travel. HSR is one of few modes of transport capable of competing with air travel for short to medium-haul distances. There has been considerable study of GHG emissions of each independently. Research has also been carried out into the economics and competition of these transport modes. However, there has been very limited study of the comparative emissions of each, apart from one study in Europe (Givoni, 2007). The current study was undertaken with the goal of quantifying potential emission savings due to mode substitution from air travel to HSR in the Los Angeles to Las Vegas corridor. This study only considered the emissions which occurred from the combustion of the relevant fuels, either in power plants or the engines of an aircraft. Emissions from fuel production/refining or transport of fuels were not considered. Another issue compared was Local Area Pollution (LAP), which is a measure of the severity of emissions effect on the environment. This was examined because all emissions from HSR occur close to the surface of the earth, and hence effect the local environment, while only a portion of aircraft emissions do. This study was carried out using internationally recognized emission inventory methodologies. For the air travel emission estimate methodologies and data published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) were used. The HSR energy use was estimated from energy use data from currently running HSR programs, in France, UK and Spain (Alvarez, 2007; Kemp, 2007). The emissions were then estimated using an adjusted tier 3 method. For aviation emissions a tier three method was also used. The findings of this research are mixed. HSR would emit 66% less GHG emissions using today's energy mixes for California and Nevada. Using California's 2020 target energy mix HSR would emit 80% less GHG emissions. However, using today's energy mix HSR would cause 33% more LAP than air travel. Using California's 2020 mix the HSR would cause 22% less LAP the air travel. However this 20% improvement would likely be eroded by aircraft emissions improvement between now and 2020. To conclude, this research found that HSR does offer significant GHG emission reductions, when compared to air travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas. However is less clear regarding LAP, though HSR has the potential to create savings here in the future as well. For other corridors around the U.S.A., earmarked for HSR, similar studies should be carried out to examine the benefits of such mode transfer.

Mullins, Damien


Infrared Camera Characterization of Bi-Propellant Reaction Control Engines during Auxiliary Propulsion Systems Tests at NASA's White Sands Test Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of a FUR Systems A40M infrared (IR) digital camera for thermal monitoring of a Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Ethanol bi-propellant Reaction Control Engine (RCE) during Auxiliary Propulsion System (APS) testing at the National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Typically, NASA has relied mostly on the use of ThermoCouples (TC) for this type of thermal monitoring due to the variability of constraints required to accurately map rapidly changing temperatures from ambient to glowing hot chamber material. Obtaining accurate real-time temperatures in the JR spectrum is made even more elusive by the changing emissivity of the chamber material as it begins to glow. The parameters evaluated prior to APS testing included: (1) remote operation of the A40M camera using fiber optic Firewire signal sender and receiver units; (2) operation of the camera inside a Pelco explosion proof enclosure with a germanium window; (3) remote analog signal display for real-time monitoring; (4) remote digital data acquisition of the A40M's sensor information using FUR's ThermaCAM Researcher Pro 2.8 software; and (5) overall reliability of the system. An initial characterization report was prepared after the A40M characterization tests at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to document controlled heat source comparisons to calibrated TCs. Summary IR digital data recorded from WSTF's APS testing is included within this document along with findings, lessons learned, and recommendations for further usage as a monitoring tool for the development of rocket engines.

Holleman, Elizabeth; Sharp, David; Sheller, Richard; Styron, Jason



Comparison of the binding specificity of two bacterial metalloproteases, LasB of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ZapA of Proteus mirabilis, using N-alpha mercaptoamide template-based inhibitor analogues.  


The metalloproteases ZapA of Proteus mirabilis and LasB of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are known to be virulence factors their respective opportunistic bacterial pathogens, and are members of the structurally related serralysin and thermolysin families of bacterial metalloproteases respectively. Secreted at the site of infection, these proteases play a key role in the infection process, contributing to tissue destruction and processing of components of the host immune system. Inhibition of these virulence factors may therefore represent an antimicrobial strategy, attenuating the virulence of the infecting pathogen. Previously we have screened a library of N-alpha mercaptoamide dipeptide inhibitors against both ZapA and LasB, with the aim of mapping the S1' binding site of the enzymes, revealing both striking similarities and important differences in their binding preferences. Here we report the design, synthesis, and screening of several inhibitor analogues, based on two parent inhibitors from the original library. The results have allowed for further characterization of the ZapA and LasB active site binding pockets, and have highlighted the possibility for development of broad-spectrum bacterial protease inhibitors, effective against enzymes of the thermolysin and serralysin metalloprotease families. PMID:22575503

Carson, Louise; Cathcart, George R; Ceri, Howard; Walker, Brian; Gilmore, Brendan F



Single-particle laser-induced-fluorescence spectra of biological and other organic-carbon aerosols in the atmosphere: Measurements at New Haven, Connecticut, and Las Cruces, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on organic carbon (OC) aerosols, including natural biological aerosols, in the Earth's troposphere, and on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectral methods for studying these aerosols. LIF spectra of atmospheric OC and biological aerosols (having diameters greater than approximately 3 ?m) measured at New Haven, Connecticut, and Las Cruces, New Mexico, are reported. A hierarchical clustering method was used to cluster approximately 90% of the single-particle LIF spectra into 8-10 groups. Some of these groups have spectra that are similar to spectra of some important classes of atmospheric aerosol, such as humic/fulvic acids and humic-like substances, bacteria, cellulose, marine aerosol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A comparison with previous measurements made at Adelphi, Maryland, reveals that the most highly populated clusters found at Adelphi, and some of the less populated ones, also appear in the LIF spectra at New Haven and Las Cruces, even though the regional climates at these locations is different (New England/Atlantic Coastal, for New Haven and Adelphi, and Chihuahuan Desert for Las Cruces), and the measurements were made in different seasons. The results are consistent with some (perhaps most) of the fluorors in OC and biological atmospheric aerosols being common to these three sites. On average, spectra characteristic of humic/fulvic acids and humic-like substances (HULIS) comprise 28-43% of fluorescent particles at all three sites; whereas cellulose-like spectra contribute only 1-3%.

Pan, Yong-Le; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Hill, Steven C.; Rosen, James M.; Chang, Richard K.



Ground-water quality and geochemistry of Las Vegas Valley, Clark County, Nevada, 1981-83; implementation of a monitoring network  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a result of rapid urban growth in Las Vegas Valley, rates of water use and wastewater disposal have grown rapidly during the last 25 years. Concern has developed over the potential water quality effects of this growth. The deep percolation of wastewater and irrigation return flow (much of which originates as imported water from Lake Mead), along with severe overdraft conditions in the principal aquifers of the valley, could combine to pose a long-term threat to groundwater quality. The quantitative investigations of groundwater quality and geochemical conditions in the valley necessary to address these concerns would include the establishment of data collection networks on a valley-wide scale that differ substantially from existing networks. The valley-wide networks would have a uniform areal distribution of sampling sites, would sample from all major depth zones, and would entail repeated sampling from each site. With these criteria in mind, 40 wells were chosen for inclusion in a demonstration monitoring network. Groundwater in the northern half of the valley generally contains 200 to 400 mg/L of dissolved solids, and is dominated by calcium, magnesium , and bicarbonate ions, reflecting a chemical equilibrium between the groundwater and the dominantly carbonate rocks in the aquifers of this area. The intermediate to deep groundwater in the southern half of the valley is of poorer quality (containing 700 to 1,500 mg/L of dissolved solids) and is dominated by calcium, magnesium, sulfate, and bicarbonate ions, reflecting the occurrence of other rock types including evaporite minerals among the still-dominant carbonate rocks in the aquifers of this part of the valley. The poorest quality groundwater in the valley is generally in the lowland parts of the valley in the first few feet beneath the water table, where dissolved solids concentrations range from 2,000 to > 7,000 mg/L , and probably reflects the effects of evaporite dissolution, secondary recharge, and evapotranspiration. The most common water quality constraint on potential groundwater use is the high salinity. No evidence of large-scale contamination of deep groundwater was found in this study. (Author 's abstract)

Dettinger, M. D.



Measurement of Black Carbon Particles and their Mixing State in Wildfire Plumes from New Mexico: Aged Whitewater Baldy Complex in 2012 and Fresh Las Conchas in 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 50% of black carbon (BC) aerosols come from wildfires and are estimated to contribute up to ~0.6 W/m2 warming of the atmosphere globally. Organic carbon (OC) from fires condenses and/or mixes with BC resulting in an overall lower forcing of 0.03 ± 0.12 Wm-2 from biomass burning. However, this reduction depends strongly on the composition of the carbonaceous aerosols and on the mixing state of OC and BC. Detailed model treatments and laboratory measurements indicate that a BC core coated with a non-absorbing OC layer enhances absorption with a positive climate forcing. However, the real-time identification of the coating on this internally mixed BC in the field has only recently become detectable with the analysis of lag times between the scattering and incandescence signals in measurements from the single particle soot photometer (SP2). While fully coated BC has a positive lag time (cBC) in the SP2 data, BC that is located near the surface (nsBC) is associated with a negative lag time (Sedlacek et al. 2012). We investigate BC mixing states in concentrated wildfire plumes from the two largest wildfires in New Mexico's history with different ages. Plumes from the Las Conchas (LC) Fire, a wildfire that occurred in July-August of 2011 and burned ~157K acres, were sampled in the near-field after only a few hours of aging. Older plumes from the Whitewater Baldy (WB) Fire (May-June, 2012) that burned ~300K acres were sampled from further afield with an aging period of 7-9 hours. We find up to 23% of the internally mixed BC to be nsBC in the older WB plume. The nsBC fraction is smaller for the relatively fresh LC plume. Figure 1 shows %nsBC versus plume age as a conceptual framework of increasing %nsBC with age for the wildfire data shown here. SP2 results are corroborated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of single particles collected on nuclepore membranes that clearly show the shifts in morphology. Furthermore, we performed thermal denuding (TD) studies that provide additional information on the nature of the OC and the BC coatings. When the TD was operated at 200C ~50% of the nsBC was removed. For the plumes sampled we show that the majority of the BC exhibits a core-shell coating structure for the range of aging times and conditions sampled here. Figure 1. Percent nsBC plotted versus atmospheric age (HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis) for internally mixed BC in wildfire plumes. (nsBC defined as BC with < 0 usec lag times except for the data approximated from Sedlacek et al.(2012) that uses < -1.25 usec.)

Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, M. K.; Gorkowski, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.



Forest clearing in the Ecuadorian Amazon: A study of patterns over space and time  

PubMed Central

This study tests four hypotheses related to forest clearing over time in Ecuador’s northern Amazon: (1) a larger increase in population over time on a farm (finca) leads to more deforestation; (2) rates of forest clearing surrounding four primary reference communities differ (spatial heterogeneity); (3) fincas farther from towns/communities experience lower rates of forest clearing over time; and (4) forest clearing differs by finca settlement cohort, viz., by year of establishment of the finca. In this paper, we examine the relationship between forest clearing and key variables over time, and compare three statistical models—OLS, random effects, and spatial regression—to test hypotheses. Descriptive analyses indicate that 7–15% of forest area was cleared on fincas between 1990 and 1999; that more recently established fincas experienced more rapid forest clearing; and that population size and forest clearing are both related to distance from a major community. Controlling for key variables, model results indicate that an increase in population size is significantly related to more forest clearing; rates of forest clearing around the four major communities are not significantly different; distances separating fincas and communities are not significantly related to deforestation; and deforestation rates are higher among more recently established fincas. Key policy implications include the importance of reducing population growth and momentum through measures such as improving information about and provision of family planning services; increasing the low level of girls education to delay and reduce fertility; and expanding credit and agricultural extension services to increase agricultural intensification.

Pan, William; Carr, David; Barbieri, Alisson; Bilsborrow, Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath



Scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy study of the misfit layer compounds (LaS) 1.14(NbS 2) n ( n=1, 2) and [(Pb,Sb)S)] 1.14NbS 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The misfit layer compounds (LaS)1.14(NbS2)n (n=1,2) and [(Pb,Sb)S]1.14NbS2 were examined by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In these compounds the NaCl-type double MS (M=La, Pb, Sb) layers (Q layers) alternate with the NbS2 layers (H layers) made up of NbS6 trigonal prisms. It was possible to record AFM and STM images for only the H layers

H Bengel; S Jobic; C Deudon; J Rouxel; D.-K Seo; M.-H Whangbo



NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. New Mexico-Las Cruces NI 13-10 Quadrangle. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Las Cruces two degree quadrangle, New Mexico, are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume 1 of this final report. The work was done by Carson Helicopters, Inc., and International Exploration, Inc. The work was performed for the US Department of Energy - National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Analysis of this radiometric data yielded 192 statistically significant eU anomalies. Of this number, thirty-nine were considered to be of sufficient strength to warrant further investigation.

Not Available



Mesozoic deformation in the Nevada Test Site and vicinity: Implications for the structural framework of the Cordilleran Fold and thrust belt and tertiary extension north of Las Vegas Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed studies in the CP Hills and Mine Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), together with analysis of published maps and cross sections and a reconnaissance of regional structural relations, indicate that the CP thrust of Barnes and Poole [1968] actually comprises two separate, oppositely verging Mesozoic thrust systems: (1) the west vergent CP thrust, which is well exposed in the CP Hills and at Mine Mountain, and (2) the east vergent Belted Range thrust located northwest of Yucca Flat. Regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust forms part of a narrow sigmoidal belt of west vergent folding and thrusting traceable for over 180 km along strike. The Belted Range thrust represents earlier Mesozoic deformation that was probably related to the Last Chance thrust system in southeastern California, as suggested by earlier workers. A reconstruction of the pre-Tertiary geometry of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt in the region between the NTS and the Las Vegas Range bears a close resemblance to other regions of the Cordillera and suggests that west vergent deformation developed in the hinterland of a part of the Sevier fold and thrust belt characterized by substantial structural relief. Reconstruction of the fold and thrust belt also suggests that previous estimates of upper crustal Tertiary extension north of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone (e.g., 80% [Guth, 1981]) are 2 or 3 times too large.

Caskey, S. John; Schweickert, Richard A.



Pronounced site preference and mixed dinuclear dichalcogenide anions (SSe)2- in ternary lanthanum sulfide selenides - The solid solution LaS1.9-LaSe1.9  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ternary lanthanum sulfide selenides LaS1.9-xSex (0 < x < 1.9) were obtained by reaction of the elements in a potassium bromide flux. The ternary compounds adopt the CeSe1.9 structure type (tetragonal, space group P42/n, No. 86) and form a complete solid solution series without indications of ordered superstructures. The lattice parameters of the samples follow Vegard's rule and are found in the range of 915 ? a ? 943 pm and 1644 ? c ? 1703 pm. A pronounced ordering of the distribution of chalcogen atoms is observed which can be attributed to charge density and size effects. The existence of three different types of dichalcogenide anions, namely S22-, Se22- and mixed (SSe)2-, is evidenced by Raman spectroscopy.

Bartsch, Christian; Doert, Thomas



A Quadruple Knockout of lasIR and rhlIR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 That Retains Wild-Type Twitching Motility Has Equivalent Infectivity and Persistence to PAO1 in a Mouse Model of Lung Infection  

PubMed Central

It has been widely reported that quorum-sensing incapable strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are less virulent than wild type strains. However, quorum sensing mutants of P. aeruginosa have been shown to develop other spontaneous mutations under prolonged culture conditions, and one of the phenotypes of P. aeruginosa that is frequently affected by this phenomenon is type IV pili-dependent motility, referred to as twitching motility. As twitching motility has been reported to be important for adhesion and colonisation, we aimed to generate a quorum-sensing knockout for which the heritage was recorded and the virulence factor production in areas unrelated to quorum sensing was known to be intact. We created a lasIRrhlIR quadruple knockout in PAO1 using a published technique that allows for the deletion of antibiotic resistance cartridges following mutagenesis, to create an unmarked QS knockout of PAO1, thereby avoiding the need for use of antibiotics in culturing, which can have subtle effects on bacterial phenotype. We phenotyped this mutant demonstrating that it produced reduced levels of protease and elastase, barely detectable levels of pyoverdin and undetectable levels of the quorum sensing signal molecules N-3-oxododecanoly-L-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl homoserine lactone, but retained full twitching motility. We then used a mouse model of acute lung infection with P. aeruginosa to demonstrate that the lasIRrhlIR knockout strain showed equal persistence to wild type parental PAO1, induced equal or greater neutrophil infiltration to the lungs, and induced similar levels of expression of inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and similar antibody responses, both in terms of magnitude and isotype. Our results suggest, in contrast to previous reports, that lack of quorum sensing alone does not significantly affect the immunogenicity, infectiveness and persistence of P. aeruginosa in a mouse model of acute lung infection.

Lazenby, James J.; Griffin, Phoebe E.; Kyd, Jennelle; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Cooley, Margaret A.



Application of molecular docking and ONIOM methods for the description of interactions between anti-quorum sensing active (AHL) analogues and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR binding site.  


Molecular docking methods were applied to simulate the coupling of a set of nineteen acyl homoserine lactone analogs into the binding site of the transcriptional receptor LasR. The best pose of each ligand was explored and a qualitative analysis of the possible interactions present in the complex was performed. From the results of the protein-ligand complex analysis, it was found that residues Tyr-64 and Tyr-47 are involved in important interactions, which mainly determine the antagonistic activity of the AHL analogues considered for this study. The effect of different substituents on the aromatic ring, the common structure to all ligands, was also evaluated focusing on how the interaction with the two previously mentioned tyrosine residues was affected. Electrostatic potential map calculations based on the electron density and the van der Waals radii were performed on all ligands to graphically aid in the explanation of the variation of charge density on their structures when the substituent on the aromatic ring is changed through the elements of the halogen group series. A quantitative approach was also considered and for that purpose the ONIOM method was performed to estimate the energy change in the different ligand-receptor complex regions. Those energy values were tested for their relationship with the corresponding IC50 in order to establish if there is any correlation between energy changes in the selected regions and the biological activity. The results obtained using the two approaches may contribute to the field of quorum sensing active molecules; the docking analysis revealed the role of some binding site residues involved in the formation of a halogen bridge with ligands. These interactions have been demonstrated to be responsible for the interruption of the signal propagation needed for the quorum sensing circuit. Using the other approach, the structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, it was possible to establish which structural characteristics and chemical requirements are necessary to classify a compound as a possible agonist or antagonist against the LasR binding site. PMID:24626770

Ahumedo, Maicol; Drosos, Juan Carlos; Vivas-Reyes, Ricardo



Hydrologic and geologic characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site relevant to the performance of a potential repository: Day 1, Las Vegas, Nevada to Pahrump, Nevada: Stop 6A. Keane Wonder Spring and regional groundwater flow in the Death Valley region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Yucca Mountain, located ~100 mi northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, has been designated by Congress as a site to be characterized for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This field trip will examine the regional geologic and hydrologic setting for Yucca Mountain, as well as specific results of the site characterization program, The first day focuses on the regional seeing with emphasis on current and paleo hydrology, which are both of critical concern for predicting future performance of a potential repository. Morning stops will be in southern Nevada and afternoon stops will be in Death Valley. The second day will be spent at Yucca Mountain. The filed trip will visit the underground testing sites in the "Exploratory Studies Facility" and the "Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Field Test" plus several surface-based testing sites. Much of the work at the site has concentrated on studies of the unsaturated zone, and element of the hydrologic system that historically has received little attention. Discussions during the second day will comprise selected topics of Yucca Mountain geology, mic hazard in the Yucca Mountain area. Evening discussions will address modeling of regional groundwater flow, the geology and hydrology of Yucca Mountain to the performance of a potential repository. Day 3 will examine the geologic framework and hydrology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Groundwater Basin and then will continue to Reno via Hawthorne, Nevada and the Walker Lake area.

Steinkampf, W.C.



Manejo de las areas verdes urbanas  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente documento (ENV-109) busca dar al lector una base sólida sobre los beneficios, retos y enfoque para el desarrollo de programas sostenibles de manejo de áreas verdes urbanas. El objetivo es abarcar los elementos más importantes que deben ser considerados a la hora de iniciar los proyectos. Se incluye una variedad de estudios de casos de toda América Latina

Mark Sorensen; Valerie Barzetti; Kari Keipi; John R. Williams



Trabajo infantil ambulante en las capitales latinoamericanas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To identify the age, sex, mobility, education, work activity, working hours, street dwelling, and social security coverage in a group of children working in the streets in capital cities in Latin America. Material and Methods. Cross sectional study. A questionnaire was applied to 972 children working in the streets of Bogotá, Guatemala City, Mexico City, Quito and San Salvador.

Angela Ma. Pinzón-Rondón; Leonardo Briceño-Ayala; Juan Carlos Botero; Patricia Cabrera; María Nelcy Rodríguez



"Las Comadres": Rendering Research as Performative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a method for placing Latina college students at the center of research, authors present a dramatic, or performative, text illuminating participants' life stories. The dramatic text serves as a fictional event bringing to light how five Latina students view their ethnic identities and educational values based on messages from family and peers.…

Rodriguez, Katrina L.; Lahman, Maria K. E.



LAS Language Arts Supplement, Spanish. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like its English counterpart, this is a collection of over 100 games and activities whose intent is to increase oral proficiency without requiring reading skills. The collection grew out of the desire to provide remedies for specific linguistic weaknesses in Spanish as identified by the Language Assessment Scales. Because tongue twisters, riddles,…

DeAvila, Edward A.; Duncan, Sharon E.


America = Las Americas. Canada, United States, Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, three magazines provide historical and cultural background information on Canada, the United States, and Mexico and feature biographies of Black and Hispanic leaders. Each edition has a table of contents indicating the language--Spanish…

Toro, Leonor; And Others


Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

Toro, Leonor; And Others


Las características más fascinantes del nuevo Robot  

NASA Video Gallery

impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tamaño, sus instrumentos científicos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...



Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular adhesion and the extracellular matrix are fundamental to maintain the structural and functional organization of the tissues. Cadherins are a group of proteins that participate in the cellular adhesion, and they are classified in five groups according to the structure of the cadherin E. The study of cadherins in the cells and tissues has been important to suggest

Luis Sánchez Sánchez; J M Vicente; Hernández Vázquez; Rebeca López Marure


Formación estelar en las Nubes de Magallanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a review about our knowledge on the stellar formation and chemical evolution in the Magellanic Clouds, in the light of the most recent theoretical and observational findings, and of the enigmas that still need to be clarified as well. Particularly, we show how our knowledge has been changing about the existence of spatial metallicity gradients in both clusters and star field populations of the Magellanic Clouds. We present results obtained from a Washington photometric database of nearly 9 million stars. Finally, we analize the age-metallicity relationship and the star formation history in the Magellanic Clouds and propose new research issues related to this astrophysical field that can be taken advantage by the whole scientific community. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Piatti, A. E.


Galaxias enanas: las voces de la mayoría  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than twenty years after photographic surveys of nearby clusters of galaxies revealed that low-luminosity, or ``dwarf'', galaxies (M_B ? -18 mag) are the numerically dominant population, research on these objects has been boosted by new instrumental and theoretical developments. Among several breakthroughs that have re-shaped our knowledge abut dwarf galaxies, we should point out: the detection of underlying spiral structure, disks/bars in dwarf ``elliptical'' galaxies; the possible evolutionary relation between (some?) dwarf ellipticals and spiral galaxies; the discoveries of ultra-compact and ultra-faint dwarfs; the universality of the color-luminosity relation extending along ˜ 10 mag. A brief review on these subjects is presented, with emphasis on early-type dwarfs and their possible evolutionary relations with other galaxy types. I will particularly address the controversy about which are the objects that extend the E sequence down to the lowest luminosities (if such objects really exist). FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Cellone, S. A.


Las Galaxias Enanas y la Red Cósmica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a cosmological numerical simulation of the Local Group formation, we identify a mechanism able to remove gas from low-mass halos, affecting dramatically their star formation histories. As the Local Group forms, matter bound to it develops an intrincate network of filaments and pancakes, which sweeps a large volume, overtaking and removing the gas of several halos, leaving their dark matter component unaffected. The gas loss is particulary pronunced for low-mass halos, which may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies observed when compared to the large number of low-mass halos expected in the ?CDM cosmological model. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Benítez Llambay, A.; Abadi, M. G.


Las Cámaras Robóticas MASTER-ICATE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article present the basic principles and characteristics of the very wide field cameras VWF-2 installed in MASTER-ICATE. The cameras, mount and roof enclosure could be remotely operated or follow automatically a specific survey. The instruments have been designed to study the optical prompt emission of GRB events (gamma-ray bursts) and to survey the sky for the detection unknown objects and optical transients (OTs). This project is supported by several institutions in Russia (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute) and Argentina (ICATE-CONICET, OAFA, UNSJ). FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Saffe, C.; Levato, H.; Mallamaci, C.; Podestá, F.; López, C.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Belinski, A.; Kornilov, V.; Shatskiy, N.; Denisenko, D.


Principios y Aplicaciones de las Redes Activas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of a new network technology: active networks. The active networks goal is to produce a new networking platform, flexible and extensible at runtime to accommodate the rapid evolution and deployment of networking technologies and also to provide the increasingly sophisticated services demanded by users. A snapshot of the architecture being developed in DARPA active networks

María Calderón Pastor; Marifeli Sedano Ruiz; Santiago Eibe García


Fluorescence spectra and elastic scattering characteristics of atmospheric aerosol in Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA: Variability of concentrations and possible constituents and sources of particles in various spectral clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UV-excited laser-induced-fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectra of single atmospheric particles and the three-band integrating-nephelometer elastic scattering of atmospheric aerosol were measured during four approximately 24-h periods on May 2007 in Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA. Aerosol scattering measurements in the nephelometer red channel (50-nm band centered at 700-nm) ranged from around 3-10 times the molecular (Rayleigh) scattering background. On average 22.8% of particles with size greater than about 1 ?m diameter have fluorescence above a preset fluorescence threshold. A hierarchical cluster analysis indicates that most of the single-particle UV-LIF spectra fall into about 10 categories (spectral clusters) as found previously at other geographic sites (Pinnick et al., 2004; Pan et al., 2007). The clusters include spectra characteristic of various humic/fulvic acids, humic-like-substances (HULIS), chemically aged terpenes, fungal spores, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bacteria, cellulose/pollens, and mixtures of various organic carbon compounds. By far the most populated cluster category is similar to those of chemically aged terpenes/humic-materials; on average this population comprises about 62% of fluorescent particles. Clusters with spectra similar to that of some HULIS aerosol contain on average 10.0% of particles; those characteristic of some fungal spores (or perhaps mixtures of aromatic organic compounds) 8.4% of particles; bacteria-like spectra 1.6% of particles; and cellulose/pollen-like spectra 0.8% of particles. Measurements of fluorescent particles over relatively short (24 min) periods reveal that the concentrations of particles in the most populated clusters are highly correlated, suggesting that the particles populating them derive from the same region; these particles might be composed of crustal material coated with secondary organic carbon. On the other hand, concentrations of particles having cellulose-like spectra are generally uncorrelated with those in any other cluster. No clear distinction in fluorescent aerosol characteristics can be seen for different air mass trajectories arriving at the sampling site, suggesting that fluorescent aerosol particles are primarily of local origin. Integrations of the single-particle UV-LIF spectra over approximate 24 h time intervals reveal two broad peaks around 350 nm and 450 nm (for 263 nm excitation); the 450 nm peak is somewhat similar to that measured previously for water soluble organic carbon derived from aerosol collections. The 350 nm peak apparently has not been seen before in measurements of aerosol collections and may derive from non-soluble primary biological aerosol particles such as fungal spores. Further measurements are needed to investigate in more detail the generality of these results.

Pinnick, R. G.; Fernandez, E.; Rosen, J. M.; Hill, S. C.; Wang, Y.; Pan, Y. L.



Cultivos genéticamente modificados: las promesas y las buenas intenciones no bastan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified crops: promises and good intentions are not enough (refutation to Espinoza et al. 2004, Rev. Biol. Trop. 52 (3): 727-732). The arguments presented by Espinoza et al. in their paper \\

Jaime E. García


Sobre las edades de las componentes del sistema PSR B1855+09  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years several low-mass white dwarfs (helium white dwarfs, He WD) have been detected as companions to millisecond pulsars. In this kind of systems, pulsar emission is activated by mass transfer episodes, which also lead to the formation of the He WD, thus if we set the zero age point at the end of this mass loss transfer episodes, the ages of both objects should be the same. In this sense, PSR B1855+09 system casts some doubts about the correctness of theoretical white dwarf models. The age of the pulsar inferred from its spin-down rate is 5 Gyr. However, existing determination of the mass of the white dwarf companion of this system and recent optical detection of it, which has allowed to infer its effective temperature, have led to an estimative age of 10 Gyr for the white dwarf. Noteworthly, available theoretical calculations used to infer the cooling age of the He WDs, neglect element diffusion. In this work, we present evolutionary calculations for He WDs taking into account the effects of gravitational settling, and chemical and thermal diffusion in a self consistent way, and in particular we use the results to determine cooling ages for He WDs. We find that models within the mass range 0.19 <= M/Msolar <= 0.41 suffer from diffusion-induced thermonuclear flashes, during which an appreciable amount of the hydrogen of the envelope is burnt. Only after the hydrogen envelope has been reduced enough so as not to be able to produce another thermonuclear flash, He WD models evolve towards their final cooling track. During this evolutionary stage, cooling rate is determined by whether stable hydrogen burning is relevant or not. We find that diffusion-induced thermonuclear flashes reduce the hydrogen envelope so as to prevent stable hydrogen burning from being an appreciable source of energy for the models, which are then forced to a rapid cooling. In this way, expected ages for these objects are drastically reduced when compared to the case in which diffusion is neglected (as these models predict thick hydrogen envelopes and thus, a cooling stage dominated by stable hydrogen burning). In particular, we find for the white dwarf companion to PSR B1855+09 an age of 4±2 Gyr, which is in very good agreement with the spin-down age of this pulsar and also shows that the age discrepancy previously found is due to an oversimplification in the physical ingredients of theoretical models.

Serenelli, A. M.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.



Microsoft Academic Search

Hola, me he quedado sorprendido a más no poder, al ver un texto informativo de valor incalculable, sobre el sistema bancario y el dinero: su creación, su préstamo, su gestión, etc., en concreto me refiero al texto perteneciente al manual básico de economía EMVI.

David Sánchez Palacios



Efecto del lavado con etilendiamina sobre las propiedades de las nanopartículas de óxido de estaño  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tin oxide, is a compound used in many technological applications among them as gas sensor and in the production of varistors, electronic devices, electrocatalitic electrodes and fotovoltaic cells, among others. In this work the controlled precipitation method was used to synthesize tin oxide of nanometric size using tin sulfate precursor. The control of different stages of the synthesis process was

M. S. CAStro; J. B. Justo


Informe a la nación indica que continúa la disminución de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer que empezó a principios de los noventa; Una sección especial destaca los cánceres asociados al exceso de peso y a la falta de actividad física adecuada

Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnósticos nuevos de cáncer, que se conoce también como incidencia, bajaron entre los hombres un promedio de 0,6% por año entre 2004 y 2008. Los índices generales de incidencia de cáncer entre las mujeres bajaron 0,5% por año de 1998 hasta 2006; estos índices se nivelaron de 2006 a 2008.


Plan para las Escuelas "Sabatinas" (Plan for the "Saturday Schools").  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Escuelas "Sabatinas" (Saturday Schools) program in Costa Rica will be for adults 18 and over who wish to obtain a primary school diploma on the basis of maturity, and who have enough general knowledge, intelligence, and maturity to undertake independent study supplemented by formal instruction. The course will run two years, 36 weeks a year,…

Campos, Miguel A.; Williams, David R.


Epidemiología de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en la mujer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both mortality due to cerebrovascular disease in individuals aged under 85 years and mortality due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are lower in women than men. In contrast, the age-adjusted 28-day case fatality rate after a first AMI is 20% higher in women, particularly in countries where the incidence of AMI is low. In Spain, the case fatality rate is

Jaume Marrugat; Joan Sala; Jaime Aboal




Microsoft Academic Search

Research carried out in recent decades has identified risk factors and relevant processes in the dynamics of child abuse. Such re- search has highlighted the importance of assisting families, with a view to intervening in dysfunctional parent-child relations and pro- moting positive parenting, especially for younger children. The present paper focuses on the family context as a target of intervention,

Rosa Trenado; Gemma Pons-Salvador; Angeles Cerezo



Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

Libro sobre el control del dolor en pacientes con cáncer. Cubre los métodos y medicinas, así como los efectos físicos y emocionales del dolor. Es una adaptación cultural para el público de habla hispana del libro en inglés Pain Control.


Fear and Loving in Las Vegas: Evolution, Emotion, and Persuasion  

PubMed Central

How do arousal-inducing contexts, such as frightening or romantic television programs, influence the effectiveness of basic persuasion heuristics? Different predictions are made by three theoretical models: A general arousal model predicts that arousal should increase effectiveness of heuristics; an affective valence model predicts that effectiveness should depend on whether the context elicits positive or negative affect; an evolutionary model predicts that persuasiveness should depend on both the specific emotion that is elicited and the content of the particular heuristic. Three experiments examined how fear-inducing versus romantic contexts influenced the effectiveness of two widely used heuristics—social proof (e.g., “most popular”) and scarcity (e.g., “limited edition”). Results supported predictions from an evolutionary model, showing that fear can lead scarcity appeals to be counter-persuasive, and that romantic desire can lead social proof appeals to be counter-persuasive. The findings highlight how an evolutionary theoretical approach can lead to novel theoretical and practical marketing insights.

Griskevicius, Vladas; Goldstein, Noah J.; Mortensen, Chad R.; Sundie, Jill M.; Cialdini, Robert B.; Kenrick, Douglas T.



Diagnóstico diferencial inmunomorfológico de las lesiones quísticas maxilares con queratinización  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesMaxillary cystic lesions with keratinization are controversial lesions that are clinically relevant due to the prognostic implication of the so-called keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT). The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of immunohistochemistry in the identification of KOTs.

Beatriz Vera-Sirera; Julia Guarín; Cecilia López-Valdivia; Enrique Jiménez; Francisco Vera-Sempere


La quimioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

Publicación para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo quimioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la quimioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.


Linfoma cutáneo de células grandes B de las piernas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large B-cell lymphoma of the leg (LBCLL) accounts for 2% of primary cutaneous lymphomas, and the EORTC considers it to be of intermediate prognosis. It usually presents in elderly patients, and manifests clinically as erythematous nodules or tumors, often unilateral, on the lower third of the legs. On rare occasions, it presents with extracutaneous dissemination.We present the case of a

Javier Pedraz; Yolanda Delgado; Marta Ballestero; Javier Fraga; Amaro García-Díez; Jesús Fernández-Herrera




Microsoft Academic Search

Glial evolution still remains unknown, although this process should had required adaptations to the internal medium of the nervous system and to functional needs in the neuroaxis of each species. The hypothesis of the functional and adaptive importance of glia, based on the astrocytary functional multiplicity is supported here as the main objective. The number of glial cells increases in



LAS scheduling to improve the performance of short TCP Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention of the Web and the popularity of file peer-to-pe er based applications had a ma- jor impact on the way the Internet is used today. The characteristics and requirements of these two types of applications differ significantly: Web traffic cons ists of many short flows that comprise at best a few tens of packets. The most important performance

Idris A. Rai; Ernst W. Biersack; Guillaume Urvoy-Keller



Acoustic engineering at Universidad de las Americas, Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustics, like science, an instrument to develop new technologies, comfortable atmospheres, and pleasant sounds, has not had a sufficient push in Ecuador. The shortage of professionals in the area, and the social ignorance of the advances and benefits of acoustics have been part of the problem. The University of the Americas has taken the initiative to develop an undergraduate program-only in the country-of sound and acoustics engineering, to contribute to the formation of professional futures that fortify the recent labor market in the areas of audio, professional, and acoustic engineering. This work presents/displays the results of the studies made for the creation of the race, the curricular mesh, and its projections.

Bravo, Luis A.; Naranjo, Jaime O.; Tassara, Alberto



Como Promover el Exito de las Ninas y las Minorias en las Ciencias y en las Matematicas. Para Padres/sobre Padres (How To Promote the Science and Mathematics Achievement of Females and Minorities. For Parents/about Parents).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some minority and female students traditionally have not been given the help they need to enroll and succeed in mathematics and science classes. Now, however, various approaches are available to give these students the extra attention they need. Parents can help children develop an interest in science and mathematics by: (1) identifying role…

Schwartz, Wendy


University of Nevada (UNLV): Las Vegas, Nevada (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer

A partnership with the University of Nevada and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.


Nevada Power: Clark Station; Las Vegas, Nevada (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer

A partnership with the University of Nevada and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.


Space-based CO2 LAS Measurements for ASCENDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA is investigating the feasibility of an active, laser-based remote sensing mission to enhance the understanding of the role of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the global carbon cycle. In response to the National Research Council (NRC) decadal survey report, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, the NASA Science Mission Directorate has conduced

F. W. Harrison; E. V. Browell; B. Moore



Tratamiento del paludismo pediátrico: Papel de las intervenciones nutricionales  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEl paludismo es una causa primordial de morbilidad y mortalidad en niños, particularmente en África subsahariana. Aunque se ha logrado un progreso considerable en el tratamiento del paludismo pediátrico con el tratamiento de combinación basado en la artemisinina, siguen existiendo numerosos obstáculos que se oponen a la puesta en práctica efectiva de estas nuevas opciones terapéuticas sumamente eficaces. Análogamente, si

Akoto Kwame Osei; Davidson H. Hamer



Epidemiología y Etiopatogenia de las Enfermedades Inflamatorias Intestinales en niños  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiological behavior of the intestinal inflammatory diseases (IBD) has varied in the last decades. In geographic areas of infrequent presentation, like Latin America, the rates of incidence and prevalence have had a frank increase.


Abordaje clínico de las disfunciones sexuales femeninas: perspectiva orgánica  

Microsoft Academic Search

What should be really categorized as female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is under debate, although there is agreement in its relatively high prevalence. The multidimensional and contextual nature of female sexual expression is also acknowledged, and that must be kept in mind when addressing FSD. It is also recognized that it relies on a biological support which can deteriorate by several

Manuel Mas; Delia Báez



La pitiriasis versicolor y las levaduras del género Malassezia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although pityriasis versicolor is the only human disease for which Malassezia yeasts have been fully established as pathogens, it is still not clear which species are implicated. Most studies carried out in recent years support our hypothesis —proposed in 1999— that Malassezia globosa is the predominant species in pityriasis versicolor lesions, at least in temperate climates. Confirmation of this hypothesis

V. Crespo-Erchiga; E. Gómez-Moyano; M. Crespo



La radioterapia y usted: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

E-book para personas que van a recibir o que ya están recibiendo radioterapia contra el cáncer. Contiene información sobre la radioterapia y sus efectos secundarios y describe cómo puede cuidarse durante y después del tratamiento.


Center for the Integral Development of ''Las Gaviotas''.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following research projects in Colombia, are described briefly: development and use of 0.5 to 1.0 kW hydraulic turbines for rural hydroelectric power generation; water pipeline construction; construction of small dams; water pump design; wind mill des...



Control de las Garrapatas del Ganado Vacuno (Cattle Tick Control).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infestation of domestic livestock by ticks is the most expensive parasite problem of animal production. Ticks cause very serious lesions themselves, and transmit diseases caused by protozoans, virus, and bacteria, causing double damage to the animal. Tick...



Consecuencias de las contracciones excentricas del diafragma sobre su funcion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and Objectives: Eccentric contractions are those that occur after a muscle has been stretched, and they can predispose the muscle to damage. Most previous studies have been performed on limb muscles, and the potential consequences of eccentric contractions on the respiratory muscles are therefore unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated eccentric contractions

Joaquim Gea; Ercheng Zhu; Juan B. Galdiz; Norman Comtois; Igor Salazkin; JoseAntonio Fiz; Alejandro Grassino


Consecuencias de las contracciones excéntricas del diafragma sobre su función  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and ObjectivesEccentric contractions are those that occur after a muscle has been stretched, and they can predispose the muscle to damage. Most previous studies have been performed on limb muscles, and the potential consequences of eccentric contractions on the respiratory muscles are therefore unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated eccentric contractions on

Joaquim Gea; Ercheng Zhu; Juan B. Gáldiz; Norman Comtois; Igor Salazkin; José Antonio Fiz; Alejandro Grassino



El cáncer entre las minorías con VIH y sida

Cancer and HIV/AIDS has always been “a tale of two diseases,” according to researchers at the NCI. Infection with HIV not only weakens the immune system, leading to AIDS and increasing the risk of opportunistic infections, but also increases the risk of several types of cancer. This Spanish-language Lifelines articles explains how HIV/AIDS affects cancer risk.


Deployment status of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our global network of telescopes is designed to provide maximally available optical monitoring of time variable sources, from solar system to extra-galactic objects, and ranging in brightness from about 7-20m. We are providing a distributed network with varied apertures but homogeneous instrumentation: optical imaging, with spectroscopic capabilities. A key component is a single centralized process that accepts (in real time) and schedules TAC approved observing requests across the network; then continuously updates schedules based on status, weather and other availability criteria. Requests range from occasional to continuous monitoring, at slow to high-speed cadences (imaging and fast photometry), and includes rapid response to targets of opportunity. Each node of the network must be fully autonomous, with software agents to control and monitor all functions, to provide auto-recovery as necessary, and to announce their status and capabilities up the control structure. Real-time monitoring or interaction by humans should be infrequent. Equipment is designed to be reliable over long periods to minimize hands-on maintenance, by local or LCOGT staff. Our first 1m deployment was to McDonald Obs. in April 2012. Eight more 1m telescopes are close to deployment to complete the Southern ring, scheduled by end-2012.

Pickles, A. J.; Rosing, W.; Martinez, J.; Fulton, B. J.; Sand, D.




Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations change is not an only case. Changes are constant cases at present day. We dont detect change in a conscious way, but change exists. Analysis is a essential ability for the organization survival. Management of this changes will be basic for the success in a competitive word. If firms are flexible, they will change in a right way. Firms

Salvador Roig


Cómo hacer las gestiones con su plan de salud

Hay formas de saber si su plan de salud cubre los costos de atención médica de rutina durante un estudio clínico. Esta información puede servirle para saber con quién comunicarse para solicitar ayuda, preguntas que puede hacer y la información que debe recoger y guardar si decide participar en un estudio clínico.


Religiones omnívoras: el chamanismo chané y las relaciones interétnicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of Arawak origin, the ethnic group identified as the Chané indigenous group in the Amerindian literature, settled on the eastern slopes of the Andes before the Conquest of the Occidental region or Paraguayan Chaco took place. There, this group engaged in complex inter-ethnic relationships with other Guarani-speaking ethnic groups, Chaco

Diego Villar



Control de las Enfermedades Transportadas por el Aire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The air that you breathe indoors may be dangerous to your health. How can we make indoor environments safer? Apply aerobiological engineering principles to buildings to control the bioaerosols in our indoor environments. Retrofit old buildings or specifically design new buildings to control airborne microbes. Develop regulatory standards for indoor environments. Become educated about sources and transmission routes of airborne pathogens.

Wladyslaw Kowalski (Pennsylvania State UniversityâÂÂs Indoor Environment Center;)



[Parenting Information: Drugs. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre las Drojas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two booklets provide basic information about drugs and drug abuse and are part of a series of 22 booklets, designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Let's Talk about Drug Abuse," (booklet #18), reviews foreign substances or drugs young people are often exposed to (i.e., tobacco, alcohol,…

Moreno, Steve


Las técnicas GPS como herramienta en la gestión ambiental  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El presente artículo describe el sistema GPS y sus aplicaciones de manera general y con relación a la gestión ambiental, Se hace referencia a estudios re- lativos a múltiples aplicaciones, estudios que ya se han realizado con un nota- ble éxito. De este artículo se desprende que el sistema GPS es totalmente via- ble en el campo y en

Roberto Rodríguez-Solano Suárez; Santiago Mancebo Quintana



Microsoft Academic Search

Contributions of Symbolic Interactionism to Organizational Theories This paper focuses on the contributions of symbolic interactionism to organizational theories around the following question: How can an organization be perceived by its members as being alien to them- selves? This query stems from the exploration of the relation between the individual and the orga- nization and the construction of a collective

Claudia L. Perlo




Microsoft Academic Search

The present article emphasizes aspects from two important theoretical orientations Relevance Theory and Argumentation Theory - which are performed in the field of Pragmatics, to treatment of the discourse markers of Spanish language. Such theories not only give the first foundations in which are based the development of any study related to discourse markers as well as offer some relevant

Antonio Messias; Nogueira da Silva



Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico is the most important center of concentration of genera and species of cacti, most of which are endemic (73 and 78% respectively). Most of the species occur in the arid or semiarid regions of the country, especially in the southeastern portion of the Chihuahuan Desert, including the Queretaro- Hidalgo Arid Zone. Many of the species are under collecting pressures

HECTOR M. HERNANDEZ; Herbario Nacional


Superestructuras y las propiedades del clustering de galaxias brillantes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is based on the results presented in Yaryura et al. (2012, MNRAS, 426, 708), where the clustering properties of galaxies is analyzed as a function of their large-scale environment. In order to characterize the environment on large scales, we use the catalogue of future virialized superstructures (FVS) by Luparello et al. (2011, MNRAS, 415, 964) and separate samples of luminous galaxies according to whether or not they belong to FVS. The correlations have similar amplitudes at scales r ? 1 h^{-1} Mpc. We have performed a similar analysis using a semi-analytic implementation in a ?CDM cosmological model, where we found that the cross-correlation functions depend on the large-scale structures in a similar way to the observations. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Yaryura, C. Y.; Lares, M.; Luparello, H. E.; Paz, D. J.; Lambas, D. G.; Padilla, N.; Sgró, M. A.


Análisis de las líneas de hidrógeno en emisión en las bandas K y L de estrellas Be  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present K and L-band spectra obtained with the GEMINI/NIRI spectro- graph of a sample of seven Be stars. We particularly study the IR emission lines of the Brackett, Pfund and Humphreys series. Based on emission line intensity ratios we classify each object according to the groups proposed by Mennickent et al. (2009) and discuss the optical depth of the line forming regions. In some particular cases we analize the evolution of the circum- stellar material in the context of recurrent mass loss episodes. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

Granada, A.; Arias, M. L.; Cidale, L.


Medicines and You: A Guide for Older Adults = Las medicinas y usted: Guia para las personas mayores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most people over 65 take many prescription and nonprescription medicines. Because the body is changing and more medicines are taken, many older adults experience harmful reactions to the medicines they take. This booklet, written in both English and Spanish (on facing pages), was developed to help older adults learn more about medicines, recognize…

National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations.


La dinámica de las publicaciones y las patentes como una aproximación al desarrollo científico y tecnológico de los países  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to propose a characterization, different from the traditional ones, of developed and developing countries, in terms of science and technology. First, we identify the generating processes of the publication and patent series of the countries. Then we relate the development stages of the countries (Banze (2000)) with the dynamics of the series. The results

Clemente Forero; Andrés Zambrano




Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species of tineid moths discovered riding on the backs of two species of spiny pocket mice Heteromyidae in Costa Rica are described. Amydria selvae, new species, was found on Heteromys desmarestianus Gray in the rainforest at Finca La Selva and Ptilopsaltis santarosae, new species, occurred on Liomys salvini Thomas in the dry forest at Santa Rosa National Park.



Species composition and seasonal abundance of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in coffee agroecosystems  

PubMed Central

The composition and seasonal occurrence of sandflies were investigated in coffee agroecosystems in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Insect sampling was performed on three plantations located at different altitudes: Finca Guadalupe Zajú [1,000 m above sea level (a.s.l.)], Finca Argovia (613 m a.s.l.) and Teotihuacán del Valle (429 m a.s.l.). Sandflies were sampled monthly from August 2007-July 2008 using three sampling methods: Shannon traps, CDC miniature light traps and Disney traps. Sampling was conducted for 3 h during three consecutive nights, beginning at sunset. A total of 4,387 sandflies were collected during the course of the study: 2,718 individuals in Finca Guadalupe Zajú, 605 in Finca Argovia and 1,064 in Teotihuacán del Valle. The Shannon traps captured 94.3% of the total sandflies, while the CDC light traps and Disney traps captured 4.9% and 0.8%, respectively. More females than males were collected at all sites. While the number of sandflies captured was positively correlated with temperature and relative humidity, a negative correlation was observed between sandfly numbers and rainfall. Five species of sandflies were captured: Lutzomyia cruciata , Lutzomyia texana , Lutzomyia ovallesi , Lutzomyia cratifer / undulata and Brumptomyia sp. Lu. cruciata , constituting 98.8% of the total, was the most abundant species. None of the captured sandflies was infected with Leishmania spp.

Perez, Jeanneth; Virgen, Armando; Rojas, Julio Cesar; Rebollar-Tellez, Eduardo Alfonso; Alfredo, Castillo; Infante, Francisco; Mikery, Oscar; Marina, Carlos Felix; Ibanez-Bernal, Sergio



Species composition and seasonal abundance of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in coffee agroecosystems.  


The composition and seasonal occurrence of sandflies were investigated in coffee agroecosystems in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Insect sampling was performed on three plantations located at different altitudes: Finca Guadalupe Zajú [1,000 m above sea level (a.s.l.)], Finca Argovia (613 m a.s.l.) and Teotihuacán del Valle (429 m a.s.l.). Sandflies were sampled monthly from August 2007-July 2008 using three sampling methods: Shannon traps, CDC miniature light traps and Disney traps. Sampling was conducted for 3 h during three consecutive nights, beginning at sunset. A total of 4,387 sandflies were collected during the course of the study: 2,718 individuals in Finca Guadalupe Zajú, 605 in Finca Argovia and 1,064 in Teotihuacán del Valle. The Shannon traps captured 94.3% of the total sandflies, while the CDC light traps and Disney traps captured 4.9% and 0.8%, respectively. More females than males were collected at all sites. While the number of sandflies captured was positively correlated with temperature and relative humidity, a negative correlation was observed between sandfly numbers and rainfall. Five species of sandflies were captured: Lutzomyia cruciata , Lutzomyia texana , Lutzomyia ovallesi , Lutzomyia cratifer / undulata and Brumptomyia sp. Lu. cruciata , constituting 98.8% of the total, was the most abundant species. None of the captured sandflies was infected with Leishmania spp. PMID:24271002

Pérez, Jeanneth; Virgen, Armando; Rojas, Julio Cesar; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo Alfonso; Alfredo, Castillo; Infante, Francisco; Mikery, Oscar; Marina, Carlos Felix; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio



Hablar el Lenguaje de las Manos Hacia las Manos (Talking the Language of the Hands to the Hands). DB-LINK.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the importance of hands for the person who is deafblind, reviews hand development, and identifies specific teaching skills that facilitate hand development and expressiveness in persons who are deafblind. It notes that the hands of a deafblind individual serve not only as tools but also as sense organs (to compensate for their…

Miles, Barbara



Microsoft Academic Search

The target of this paper is to question the causes of software intellectual property rights violation. To solve this question, the author analyses how has evolved the economic literature of IPR violation showing that the traditional market variables do not fulfill the requirements to explain the IPR violation. Thus, the author proposes that it is necessary to include in the

Pablo Marquez



Learning Partners: Escribamos! Leamos! Juguemos a las Ciencias! Juguemos a las Matematicas! (Learning Partners: Let's Write! Let's Read! Let's Play Mathematics! Let's Play Science!)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish-language document consists of four single-sheet sets of guidelines developed by the Family Involvement Partnership for Learning to assist parents in facilitating their children's elementary school success. The front part of the sheets describes general ways parents can support their children, including modeling writing, reading aloud,…

Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.



Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of air in water supply systems is, in many cases, unavoidable. The air develops into the pipes due to very different reasons and causes a big number of problems, which can become even catastrophic for the installations. A good solution for avoiding these problems is the use of air valves. Most manufacturers provide the graphic behaviour of their

Vicente S. Fuertes Miquel; Pedro L. Iglesias Rey; Joaquín Izquierdo Sebastián; Gonzalo López


Las Migraciones en el Proceso de Integracion de las Americas: Seminario Internacional (Migration in the Integration Process in the Americas: International Seminar). Conference report.  


This conference report of the Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos and the Center for Migration Studies pertains to meetings held in August 1992. Summary information on migration movements in Latin America is presented by region and subject. The topic of integration in the Americas was presented by Mr. Lelio Marmora. Other topics and presenters include the new Colombian Migration Policy (Mr. Carlos Adolfo Arenas), the integration policies in Central America (Mr. Pilar Norza of Costa Rica, Raimundo Alvarado of El Salvador, and Luis Armando Gusman of Nicaragua), the Andean Pact agreements (representatives of each country), US immigration policy (Charles B. Keely), the Mexican integration with Latin America and immigration to the US (Jorge Bustamante), migration to Bolivia and Argentina and Chile, and transnationalism in the Caribbean (Professor Andre Corten). Migration policy needs to be tailored specifically to the situation in Latin America, and greater attention needs to be devoted to labor migrants' rights and working conditions. There are still fundamental differences among countries in policies regarding the free circulation of persons across borders. There is a division among those who support migration and those who are realists. National sovereignty issues are solvable because of a common national past and a relatively homogenous population. Another opinion is that Latin America is more diverse than commonly recognized. Capital is protected more in international agreements than is migrant labor. Regional integration for the US does mean immigration from Mexico. The US sees Mexican migration as a policy problem, and Mexico sees migration as a labor opportunity. PMID:12346329

Berglund, S



Empleo de blanco de calcoflúor para el estudio de las especies de Malassezia por microscopía directa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of calcofluor white for identification of Malassezia species. Fungi of Malassezia genus are known as normal flora in human beings. However, different pathologies due to Malassezia, have been described. Traditionally, early diagnosis was delayed because of the difficulties in culture isolation of these organisms. The aim of this work, is to evaluate the technique of observation microscopy with



The Longitudinal Assessment Study (LAS): Eighteen Year Follow-Up. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Premised on the view that students with more years of Montessori education (MEY) would possess to a higher degree those qualities emphasized in the Montessori environment and that Montessori students would be as successful as students more traditionally educated, this report presents the final assessment for the Longitudinal Assessment Study,…

Glenn, Christopher M.


Estudio hidrodinámico del manantial de El Tempul (Sierra de las Cabras, Cádiz, Sur de España)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrodynamic study of the Sierra de Cabras carbonate aquifer has been done by using large time series of outflow data from El Tempul spring, the main natural discharge point of this system, and rainfall time series in the surroundings stations. The application of correla- tion and spectral analyses to these large time series has shown that this aquifer presents

P. Jiménez; B. Andreo; J. J. Durán; F. Carrasco; J. A. López-Geta; I. Vadillo; M. Vázquez


Estandares: El medio ambiente de las politicas (Standards: The Policy Environment). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest in Spanish offers a snapshot of the standards movement: its origins, the definitions of standards and which ones matter, its successes at the district and state levels, the backlash against the movement, and possible policy directions. While a broad coalition of constituencies has embraced standards-based reform as a means of improving…

Hadderman, Margaret


Analysis of LAS scheduling for job size distributions with high variance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies of Internet traffic have shown that flow size distributions often exhibit a high variability property in the sense that most of the flows are short and more than half of the total load is constituted by a small percentage of the largest flows. In the light of this observation, it is interesting to revisit scheduling policies that are

Idris A. Rai; Guillaume Urvoy-Keller; Ernst W. Biersack



Las Escuelas Bilingues: The Peruvian Experience (Bilingual Schools: The Peruvian Experience).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Summer Institute of Linguistics runs several bilingual schools in the Andean and Amazonian regions of Peru. These are the only public bilingual schools in the country serving the Indian population, a majority of whom do not speak Spanish as their first language. Although public education is now available to some 80 percent of all children, the…

Paulston, Christina Bratt



Microsoft Academic Search

Con la generalización del perfeccionamiento empresarial cada una de nuestras empresas esta llamada al aumento de los niveles de organización, dirección y control de su gestión económica, fundamentado en la necesidad e importancia que reviste para la recuperación de la economía, el control de los recursos materiales, financieros y humanos, aplicando sistemas de registro y control que permitan obtener resultados

Caridad Darromán Savigne; Reynerio Velázquez Leyva



Las políticas públicas de fomento del reciclaje: La regeneración de aceites usados  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los aceites usados son un residuo peligroso del que pueden derivarse graves daños medioambientales si su gestión es inadecuada; al mismo tiempo, tienen un indudable valor económico, ya que conservan gran parte de los hidrocarburos que los lubricantes contenían originalmente. La gestión de los aceites usados ofrece distintas alternativas, dirigidas principalmente al reciclaje, siendo de destacar la combustión y la

Asunción Arner Güerre; Ramón Barberán Ortí; Jesús Mur Lacambra




Microsoft Academic Search

Marine yeasts comprise a group of microorganisms which existence has been questioned. As a result, the knowledge about its physiology and biotechnology use is scarce. The ecological importance of the marine yeasts is due, at least in part, to their contribution in the ocean's organic matter recycling. In addition, they are valuable sources of biological reagents, cell protein, vitamins, pigments,

Mar Bermejo




EPA Science Inventory

The general areas of concern were: Advanced oil processing; Chemical coal cleaning; Synthetic fuels environmental assessment; Synthetic fuels control technology development; High temperature/high pressure particulate treatment; Environmental processes and effects....


Nueva Publicacion Habla de las Necesidades de los Sobrevivientes de cancer Latinos y sus Familias

Esta publicación gratuita combina la información más actual de los profesionales de la salud con anécdotas personales de sobrevivientes de cáncer latinos, sobre cómo enfrentarse a la vida después del tratamiento del cáncer