Sample records for las regiones central

  1. The Las Matras tonalitic–trondhjemitic pluton, central Argentina: Grenvillian-age constraints, geochemical characteristics, and regional implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A.M. Sato; H. Tickyj; E. J. Llambiasa; K. Sato

    2000-01-01

    The N–S trending belt with Grenvillian-age rocks developed in central western Argentina represents the basement of an allochthonous terrane derived from Laurentia during the Early Paleozoic. The Las Matras pluton (36°46?S, 67°07?W) is located at the southern extension of this belt in the Las Matras Block. It consists of a low-Al tonalitic to trondhjemitic facies characteristic of an arc magmatism.

  2. ORIC central region calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Lane, S.N.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Tatum, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    The central region for the K = 100 Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, ORIC, will be modified to provide better orbit centering, focusing of orbits in the axial direction, and phase selection, in order to improve extraction efficiency, and reduce radioactive activation of cyclotron components. The central region is specifically designed for the acceleration of intense light ion beams such as 60 MeV protons and 15--100 MeV alphas. These beams will be used in the production of radioactive atoms in the Radioactive Ion Beam Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. Central Region Drought Outlook 18 April 2013

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Central Region Drought Outlook 18 April 2013 Dr. Dennis Todey State Climatologist South Dakota: State Climatologists Doug Kluck & John Eise (NOAA) American Association of State Climatologists Midwest and High Plains Regional Climate Centers National Drought Mitigation Center/USDA Next Climate/Drought

  4. Central Region Drought Outlook March 21, 2013

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Central Region Drought Outlook March 21, 2013 Pat Guinan Extension/State Climatologist University Midwest and High Plains Regional Climate Centers National Drought Mitigation Center Next Climate/Drought Outlook Webinar April 18th, 2013 (1 PM CDT) Access to Future Climate Webinars and Information http://www.drought.gov/drought

  5. Central Region Drought Outlook August 2, 2012

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Central Region Drought Outlook ­ August 2, 2012 Dr. Jim Angel Illinois State Climatologist Illinois University, National Drought Mitigation Center Next Climate/Drought Outlook Webinar ­ August 16 Access to Climate/Drought Webinars and information http://mrcc.isws.illinois.edu/webinars.htm http

  6. CONCENTRACION INDUSTRIAL EN LAS REGIONES ESPAÑOLAS Y EUROPEAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria-Carmen GUISAN; Maria-Teresa CANCELO; Maria-Rosario DÍAZ

    2010-01-01

    Este documento es una versión actualizada del Capítulo 3 del libro de Guisán, Cancelo, Aguayo y Díaz(2001). El interés de este estudio está en analizar la importancia de la industria sobre la renta y el empleo de las regiones europeas, no sólo por su efecto positivo directo sino también por sus efectos positivos indirectos sobre otros sectores productivos y en

  7. Central region of SKKUCY-9 compact cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, S. Y.; Kim, H. W.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Park, J. K.; Chai, J. S.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-04-01

    The development of a 9 MeV compact cyclotron for the production of radioisotopes for medical applications has been recently completed. The machine accelerates negative hydrogen ions generated from an internal PIG (Penning Ion Gauge) ion source following spiral orbits. Some of the structures designed for early beam acceleration, including a pair of center poles providing ions a circular direction, the head of the ion source, and the electrodes, are located in the center of the cyclotron. In this paper we discuss and evaluate the design of the central region that pulls the ions from the chimney of the ion source and directs them into the equilibrium orbit. The magnetic field produced by the center poles was analyzed using the magnetic solver in OPERA-3D TOSCA, and the phase error and ion equilibrium orbit, which is dependent on the kinetic energy within the designed field, were calculated using CYCLONE v8.4. The electric field produced in the acceleration gap was designed using an electrostatic solver. Then, the single beam trajectory was calculated by our own Cyclotron Beam Dynamics (CBD) code. The early orbits, vertical oscillation, acceptable RF phase and the energy gain during the early turns was evaluated. Final goal was to design the central region by the iterative optimization process and verify it with 1 MeV beam experiment.

  8. North Central Texas Regional Public Transportation Coordination Plan

    E-print Network

    North Central Texas Council of Governments

    2006-12-21

    North Central Texas Council of Governments North Central Texas Regional Public Transportation Coordination Plan Final Report December 21, 2006 North Central Texas Council of Governments North Central Texas Regional Public Transportation... Ken Shetter County Judge, Kaufman County Councilmember, City of Fort Worth Mayor, City of Burleson REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION COUNCIL 2006 ? 2007 Cynthia White, Chair Bill Hale, P.E. Chuck Silcox Commissioner, Denton County District Engineer...

  9. 40 CFR 81.80 - Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.80 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.80 Las Vegas...

  10. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Freeman; D. L. Hadley; D. L. Elliott; W. R. Barchet; R. L. George

    1981-01-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional

  11. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  12. Regional Transit Plan for the Central Texas State Planning Region

    E-print Network

    Central Texas Regional Transportation Advisory Group

    Council of Governments Hill Country Transit District Hill Country Transit District Central Texas Council of Governments, MPO Heart of Central Texas Independent Living Center Central Texas Workforce Bell County Human Services, Killeen Bell County... Human Services, Temple The ARC of Texas Community Development, Killeen TxDOT - Medical Transportation TxDOT - Waco District Agencies and Organizations Represented Public Transportation Hill Country Transit District Funding Sources Texas...

  13. Shear Velocity Structure Beneath the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada From Regional and Teleseismic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwan, D. J.; Snelson, C. M.; Tkalcic, H.; Rodgers, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Las Vegas Valley (LVV), Nevada is located in the central Basin and Range province of western North America. The Valley sits atop a broad sedimentary basin and is susceptible to large earthquakes generated by local and regional faults. During ground motion events, the Las Vegas basin has been found to amplify seismic energy. In addition, the crustal and upper mantle structure of the Valley is poorly understood. Therefore, surface wave data have been used to create shear velocity profiles of the crust and upper mantle beneath LVV using regional and teleseismic events. This project is part of a larger collaborative study, which is characterizing the Las Vegas basin for test site readiness and seismic hazards. Although the frequency of large events is small, the risk associated with such an event is very high for the Valley. As a result, the Las Vegas Valley Broadband array (LVVBB) was deployed in late September 2002 by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Nevada Las Vegas. It consists of a mixture of twelve three-component broadband and short period seismometers deployed in a saw-tooth geometry oriented northeast-southwest across the northeastern and central LVV, above the area estimated to be the deepest portion of the basin. Data examined as part of this study include both regional and global earthquake events recorded within a five-month period on seven of the twelve stations. All seven broadband stations used a three-component Guralp CMG40T sensor with a 40 samples/second sampling rate. Group velocity dispersion curves from Rayleigh waves and Love waves were determined using a multiple filter technique. Rayleigh wave group velocities range from 2.7 to 3.5 km/s for periods from 10 to 30s. Love wave group velocities range from 3.1 to 4.0 km/s for periods from 10 to 100s. In addition, Rg and Lg were examined from local events. 1-D shear velocity profiles of the crust and upper mantle have been produced through inversion along regional source-receiver paths and two-station paths. Shear velocities at depths of 3-5 km have never been directly determined in the Valley; these values will be used to better understand the seismic hazards in the area as well as the tectonic development of southern Nevada in the Basin and Range province.

  14. Acupuncture Produces Central Activations in Pain Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Biella; Maria Luisa Sotgiu; Giulio Pellegata; Eraldo Paulesu; Isabella Castiglioni; Ferruccio Fazio

    2001-01-01

    Acupuncture is largely used for pain control in several pathological conditions. Its effects on the central nervous system are not well defined. We investigated the effect of the application of acupuncture to 13 normal subjects (males, 21–32 years). H215O bolus PET scans were read before the application of the needles (Rest, R) and after 25 min of needle insertion. Data

  15. Incongruence in Destination Image: Central Asia Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Choong-Ki Lee; Soo Kang; Yvette Reisinger; Natalia Kim

    2012-01-01

    The Silk Road has a twenty-five century long history as a network of communication and trade routes from Asia to Europe. This study aims to investigate whether there are significant differences between pre- and post-travel images of Central Asia and whether the incongruence between pre- and post-travel image constructs influences tourists’ satisfaction with the trip and their behavioural intentions. The

  16. 12 CFR 790.2 - Central and regional office organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (1) NCUA's programs are conducted through five Regional Offices...Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont 9 Washington Square...South Carolina, Tennessee, Virgin Islands 7000 Central Parkway,...

  17. Dynamics of the Central Mediterranean Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ozeren; W. E. Holt; A. J. Haines; L. M. Flesch

    2003-01-01

    The Aegean is one of the fastest deforming regions on the planet. The northward motion of the Arabian plate, the westward drift of Turkey, right-lateral shear in Northern Aegean Sea, and complicated deformation patterns in Greece have long been of geophysical interest. In this work we seek to quantify the relative driving forces for active deformation within the Aegean. Specifically,

  18. Inversion Industrial y Empleo en las regiones españolas. 1976-1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Aguayo; M. Carmen Guisan

    2001-01-01

    En este trabajo presentamos la evolucion del empleo en las comunidades autonomas españolas, analizando las diferencias regionales y teniendo en cuenta el importante papel que la inversion industrial tiene como elemento dinamizador de la produccion y el empleo de los sectores no agrarios, tanto desde el punto de vista de la oferta como de la demanda. Todas las regiones españolas

  19. Corneal topography: photokeratoscopy including the central region.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J; Koch-Jensen, P; Osterby, O

    1993-04-01

    The central corneal zone is depicted on keratoscope photographs using a small target aperture and a large object distance. Information on the peripheral area is included by employing a hemispherical target with a dense circular and radial pattern. On a 16 mm (R = 8 mm) reference steel sphere the diameter of the innermost reflected mire is 0.20 mm and the distance between mires 0.13 mm. The standard deviation on focusing precision, determined to 0.20 mm employing a fixed object, corresponds to an error of 0.06% in linear measurements on keratographs. The variation in object distance due to the curved image plane is at most 0.55 mm within 60 deg from the optical axis of the system for the reference sphere. Nevertheless, all reflected mires are distinctly reproduced on the keratoscope photograph. For a test object the slopes of light intensity curves on the passage between black and white areas are reduced by only 1.0% with a variation in object distance of 0.55 mm around focus. PMID:8333255

  20. Neuroimaging: intrinsic lesions of the central skull base region.

    PubMed

    Bag, Asim K; Chapman, Philip R

    2013-10-01

    The sphenoid bone is the osseous foundation of the central skull base. The body of the sphenoid is cuboid in shape and its posterior margin is joined to the basilar occipital bone (basiocciput) via a synchondrosis to form the complete clivus. Traditionally, radiologic discussions of intrinsic disease of the central skull base emphasize marrow space-occupying lesions including metastatic disease, myeloma, and chordoma. Based on our practical experience and the anatomical boundaries of the central skull-based region put forth, we include lesions of the sphenoid sinus and petrous apex in our discussion. We describe lesions that might originate within, be confined to, or principally involve the skeletal foundation of the central skull base, including the pneumatized regions contained within. Intrinsic lesions affecting the central skull base are emphasized and the most important computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings that allow for effective diagnosis, planning, and treatment are highlighted. PMID:24216451

  1. Central Region: A Report Identifying and Addressing the Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the deliberations of the Central Regional Advisory Committee (RAC), one of 10 RACs established under the Educational Technical Assistance Act of 2002 (20 U.S.C. sections 9601 et. seq.) to assess the educational needs of the region. The committee's report outlines the educational needs across the states of Colorado, Kansas,…

  2. Regional input into centralized economic planning: The case of Soviet Central Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terese S. Zimmer

    1985-01-01

    This article uses the case of the Soviet Union to demonstrate that in centrally planned economies there remain both incentives and channels for regional administrators to express local interests to the center and have these interests reflected in national policy decisions. Debate over future economic development in Soviet Central Asia is fascinating in what it reveals concerning the nature of

  3. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.142 Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality...

  4. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.142 Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality...

  5. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.142 Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality...

  6. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.142 Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality...

  7. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.142 Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality...

  8. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality...

  9. 40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.262 North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  10. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  11. 40 CFR 81.264 - West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.264 West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  12. 40 CFR 81.264 - West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.264 West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  13. 40 CFR 81.264 - West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.264 West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  14. 40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.262 North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  15. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  16. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  17. 40 CFR 81.264 - West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.264 West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  18. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  19. 40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.262 North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  20. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality...

  1. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality...

  2. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality...

  3. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality...

  4. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality...

  5. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  6. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

  7. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

  8. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

  9. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

  10. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

  11. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.157 North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality...

  12. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.157 North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality...

  13. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.95 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.95 Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central...

  14. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

  15. 40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.105 South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

  16. 40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.105 South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

  17. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

  18. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

  19. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

  20. 40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.105 South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

  1. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

  2. 40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.105 South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

  3. 40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.105 South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

  4. Active tectonics of the Qom region, Central Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hollingsworth; M. Fattahi; J. A. Jackson; M. Talebian; H. Nazari; A. Bahroudi

    2009-01-01

    Between 50-57°E shortening across the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone is accommodated primarily in the Zagros and Alborz mountains of Iran, which bound the relatively aseismic Central Iranian block. Both the lack of seismicity and the minor variation in GPS velocities across Central Iran suggest this region plays a negligible role in accommodating Arabia-Eurasia shortening at the present day. We examine recent

  5. MOHO ORIENTATION BENEATH CENTRAL CALIFORNIA FROM REGIONAL EARTHQUAKE TRAVEL TIMES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppenheimer, David H.; Eaton, Jerry P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines relative Pn arrival times, recorded by the U. S. Geological Survey seismic network in central and northern California from an azimuthally distributed set of regional earthquakes. Improved estimates are presented of upper mantle velocities in the Coast Ranges, Great Valley, and Sierra Nevada foothills and estimates of the orientation of the Moho throughout this region. Finally, the azimuthal distribution of apparent velocities, corrected for dip and individual station travel time effects, is then studied for evidence of upper mantle velocity anisotropy and for indications of lower crustal structure in central California.

  6. Vascular lesions of the central skull base region.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Philip R; Gaddamanugu, Siddhartha; Bag, Asim K; Roth, Nathan T; Vattoth, Surjith

    2013-10-01

    The arterial and venous structures of the central skull base region form complex anatomical relationships with each other and with adjacent osseous and neural structures. Vascular structures including the cavernous sinuses and internal carotid arteries can be displaced, encased, or invaded by neoplastic, inflammatory, or infectious lesions of the central skull base. Consequently, the vascular structures have a unique role in determining the imaging appearance, clinical significance, and therapeutic options of lesions occurring in the central skull base. This article briefly reviews the basic anatomy of the cavernous sinus and the relationship of the internal carotid artery to the cavernous sinus and central skull base. The major imaging features of some common vascular lesions, including skull base aneurysm, carotid-cavernous fistula, and cavernous sinus thrombosis are presented. PMID:24216454

  7. Extragalactic sources towards the central region of the Galaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhashis Roy; A. Pramesh Rao; Ravi Subrahmanyan

    2005-01-01

    We have observed a sample of 64 small-diameter sources towards the central -6° < l < 6°, -2° < b < 2° of the Galaxy with the aim of studying the Faraday rotation measure near the Galactic Centre region. All the sources were observed at 6- and 3.6-cm wavelengths using the ATCA and the VLA. 59 of these sources are

  8. Central Asian Glacier Sensitivity and Regional Climate: Past and Present

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rupper; G. Roe; A. Gillespie

    2007-01-01

    A surface energy- and mass-balance model that captures the interactions between glaciers and climate on regional-scales is presented. The model is applied to Central Asia because of the diverse climate regimes and unusual glacier history. It is used to understand the sensitivity of equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) to modern interannual climate variability, and to reconcile patterns of ELA changes with

  9. Regional properties of traveling ionospheric disturbances observed in Central China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Wan; H. Yuan; B. Ning; J. Liang

    2000-01-01

    The present work investigates the regional properties of medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) in Central China. By statistically analyzing some 6-year data of an HF Doppler array, we obtain the preferred propagation directions, the scale distribution and the seasonal changes of the observed TIDs. The main results are: (1) Most of the observed TIDs propagate in northeastward and southeastward

  10. Secular evolution in the central regions of galaxies

    E-print Network

    Eric Emsellem

    2001-09-10

    In this paper, I mention a few processes which may play a role in the evolution of the central regions of galaxies. In this context, I briefly discuss some issues regarding the formation of bulges in spirals, the role of supermassive black holes, and the importance of nuclear density waves.

  11. Conflict in Central Africa: Clandestine Networks & Regional\\/Global Configurations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Taylor

    2003-01-01

    Central Africa is currently characterised by conflict and disorder with concomitant social, political, and ecological dislocation. The war(s) in the Democratic Republic of Congo and its borderlands are a catastrophe in the heart of Africa. At the formal level, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) is ridden by tension and rivalries that profoundly call into question the 'official' region-building project.

  12. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  13. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control...Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air...

  14. 40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...Quality Control Regions § 81.250 North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality...

  15. Eficiencia productiva sectorial en las regiones españolas: una aproximación frontera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mercedes Gumbau Albert; Joaquín Maudos Villarroya

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the technical efficiency of the productive sectors of the Spanish regions over the period 1980-91. We estimate a production function using an stochastic frontier approach for the productive sectors under three different distributional assumptions for the inefficiency term. The results obtained show the existence of important inefficiency levels in the production, being

  16. Y-STR polymorphism in Central Anatolian Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Rustamov, Aydin; Gümü?, Güvem; Karabulut, Halil Gürhan; Elhan, Atilla Halil; Kadikiran, Ahmet; Bökesoy, I?ik

    2004-01-28

    Eight Y-chromosome specific STR (Y-STR) loci including DYS19, DYS388, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393 were investigated in a group of males from Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. Healthy 59 males living in this region for at least three generations were included in the study. PCR analysis was carried out with Y-STR specific primers on genomic DNA obtained from peripheral blood samples and size determination of PCR products was performed by silver staining following 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). DYS388 was found to be the locus with lowest diversity (D) whereas DYS389II was the locus with highest diversity. The current study presented a framework of variation for the eight Y-STR loci in Central Anatolian population. PMID:15040921

  17. Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos

    E-print Network

    Farook Rahaman; P. Salucci; P. K. F. Kuhfittig; Saibal Ray; Mosiur Rahaman

    2015-01-05

    An earlier study [Rahaman et al. (2014) & Kuhfittig (2014)] has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

  18. Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos

    E-print Network

    Rahaman, Farook; Kuhfittig, P K F; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Mosiur

    2015-01-01

    An earlier study [Rahaman et al. (2014) & Kuhfittig (2014)] has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

  19. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Las regiones Objetivo 1 españolas en la sociedad de la información: el comercio electrónico como elemento de desarrollo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Bernal Jurado; Juan Carlos Rodríguez Cohard

    2003-01-01

    RESUMEN Las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC) constituyen una de las principales fuerzas de la globalización. El comercio electrónico aprovecha Internet para mejorar la competitividad de las empresas y territorios. En un escenario como el actual, este canal, por un lado, abre posibilidades de desarrollo para las regiones Objetivo 1, pero, por otro, refuerza los factores de crecimiento

  1. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  2. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented.

  3. Density waves in the central regions of galaxies

    E-print Network

    Eric Emsellem

    2001-07-17

    Density waves in the central kpc of galaxies, taking the form of spirals, bars and/or lopsided density distributions are potential actors of the redistribution of angular momentum. They thus play an important role in the overall evolution of the central structures, not mentioning the possible link with the active/non-active nucleus. I present here kinematical evidences for the presence of such structures using new sets of observations: two-dimensional (OASIS/CFHT) and long-slit (ISAAC/VLT) spectrography of nuclear bars and spirals. I also discuss the importance of $m=1$ modes in the nuclear regions of galaxies, illustrating this with newly revealed cases and original N body simulations.

  4. Active tectonics of the Qom region, Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, J.; Fattahi, M.; Jackson, J. A.; Talebian, M.; Nazari, H.; Bahroudi, A.

    2009-12-01

    Between 50-57°E shortening across the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone is accommodated primarily in the Zagros and Alborz mountains of Iran, which bound the relatively aseismic Central Iranian block. Both the lack of seismicity and the minor variation in GPS velocities across Central Iran suggest this region plays a negligible role in accommodating Arabia-Eurasia shortening at the present day. We examine recent deformation in the Qom region, which lies 100 km south of Tehran within the Central Iran block. This region is notable for a number of large earthquakes over the last 30 years: 1980.12.18 (Mw 6.0), 1980.12.22 (Mw 5.7), and 2007.06.18 (Mw 5.4). Body-waveform modeling of these events indicates N-S shortening on a S-dipping thrust fault which projects to the surface along the Qom thrust. Evidence for longer-term uplift is indicated by the increased topography south of the fault, and the exposure of folded Miocene (U. Red Fmtn) and Late Oligocene (Qom Fmtn) deposits. River incision has resulted in numerous river terraces, and in one location an alluvial fan has been offset across the fault. Four samples were collected from the surface of this fan and their ages determined using OSL dating. The results indicate fan abandonment at ~30 kybp. A DEM of the fan was produced using kinematic GPS surveying data, from which 1.0±0.3 m vertical offset was measured. A minimum uplift rate of 0.02 mm/yr and a minimum shortening rate of 0.01 mm/yr are obtained. If the age of the lower (and youngest) terrace is 10 ky, as is typically seen in other locations throughout Iran, the likely range of uplift rates are 0.02-0.2 mm/yr and shortening rates 0.01-0.2 mm/yr. North of Qom city, U. Red Fmtn deposits have been folded into an asymmetric N-verging anticline known as the Alborz anticline. Seismic, well and surface data all indicate this structure has formed as a fault-bend fold above a decollement at 3 km depth which ramps to the surface along the northern limit of the fold. A balanced cross section indicates ~18% shortening (1.5 km) in a period bracketed by the Upper Red Fmtn (<18 Ma) and the Pliocene (>5.3 Ma), yielding shortening rates of 0.1-0.3 mm/yr. The right-lateral Kashan fault lies SE of the Qom region, and appears to be kinematically linked to the thrust faults around Qom, which probably represent thrust terminations. Historical earthquakes have occurred on the Kashan fault, and clear evidence for recent movement is seen in the Quaternary geomorphology. Reconstruction of the geology across the Kashan fault indicates ~45 km of total right-lateral motion, which suggests it has played a significant role in the accommodation of regional shortening. Late Cenozoic estimates of N-S shortening in the Qom region are 0.03-0.5 mm/yr. The difference in GPS velocities north and south of Qom indicates 1.1±1.9 mm/yr shortening across this region. This study suggests that Central Iran plays an important role in accommodating Arabia-Eurasia shortening over Quaternary to geological timescales. Efforts should be made to better constrain the seismic hazard posed by active faults to large populations in the Central Iran region.

  5. Central and regional hemodynamics in prolonged space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazenko, O. G.; Shulzhenko, E. B.; Turchaninova, V. F.; Egorov, A. D.

    This paper presents the results of measuring central and regional (head, forearm, calf) hemodynamics at rest and during provocative tests by the method of tetrapolar rheography in the course of Salyut-6-Soyuz and Salyut-7-Soyuz missions. The measurements were carried out during short-term (19 man-flights of 7 days in duration) and long-term (21 man-flights of 65-237 days in duration) manned missions. At rest, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) as well as heart rate (HR) decreased insignificantly (in short-term flights) or remained essentially unchanged (in long-term flights). In prolonged flights CO increased significantly in response to exercise tests due to an increase in HR and the lack of changes in SV. After exercise tests SV and CO decreased as compared to the preflight level. During lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tests HR and CO were slightly higher than preflight. Changes in regional hemodynamics included a distinct decrease of pulse blood filling (PBF) of the calf, a reduction of the tone of large vessels of the calf and small vessels of the forearm. Head examination (in the region of the internal carotid artery) showed a decrease of PBF of the left hemisphere (during flight months 2-8) and a distinct decline of the tone of small vessels, mainly, in the right hemisphere. During LBNP tests the tone of pre- and postcapillary vessels of the brain returned to normal while PBF of the right and left hemisphere vessels declined. It has been shown that regional circulation variations depend on the area examined and are induced by a rearrangement of total hemodynamics of the human body in microgravity. This paper reviews the data concerning changes in central and regional circulation of men in space flights of different duration.

  6. Genetics/Genomics Research in the Central Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    Genetics-based research within the Biological Resources Discipline (BRD) Science Centers in the Central Region incorporates many aspects of the field of genetics. Research activities range from documenting patterns of genetic variation in order to investigate relationships among species, populations and individuals to investigating the structure, function and expression of genes and their response to environmental stressors. Research in the broad areas of genetics requires multidisciplinary expertise and specialized equipment and instrumentation. Brief summaries of the capabilities of the five BRD Centers are given below.

  7. Particle Production in the Central Region at LHC Energies

    E-print Network

    C. Merino; C. Pajares; Yu. M. Shabelski

    2011-06-13

    We consider the first LHC data for pp collisions in the framework of Regge phenomenology, and the Quark-Gluon String Model, and we present the corresponding predictions for both the integral cross sections and the inclusive densities of secondaries, that are determined by Pomeron exchange. All parameters were fixed long time ago for the description of the data at fixed target energies. The first measurements of the total inelastic cross section by ATLAS and CMS Collaborations are in agreement with our calculations. Also the inclusive densities measured in the central region are in agreement with our theoretical predictions on the accuracy level of about 10-15%.

  8. Extragalactic sources towards the central region of the Galaxy

    E-print Network

    Subhashis Roy; A. Pramesh Rao; Ravi Subrahmanyan

    2007-12-03

    We have observed a sample of 64 small diameter sources towards the central -6 degree < l< 6 degree, -2 degree < b < 2 degree of the Galaxy with the aim of studying the Faraday rotation measure near the Galactic Centre (GC) region. All the sources were observed at 6 and 3.6 cm wavelengths using the ATCA and the VLA. Fifty nine of these sources are inferred to be extragalactic. The observations presented here constitute the first systematic study of the radio polarisation properties of the background sources towards this direction and increases the number of known extragalactic radio sources in this part of the sky by almost an order of magnitude. Based on the morphology, spectral indices and lack of polarised emission, we identify four Galactic HII regions in the sample.

  9. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

  10. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.95 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.95 Central...

  11. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.127 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.127 Central...

  12. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

  13. 40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.195 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.195 Central...

  14. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

  15. 40 CFR 81.219 - Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.219 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.219 Central...

  16. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.236 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.236 Central...

  17. 40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.195 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.195 Central...

  18. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.231 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central...

  19. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.127 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.127 Central...

  20. 40 CFR 81.271 - Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.271 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.271 Central...

  1. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.231 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central...

  2. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.236 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.236 Central...

  3. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.143 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.143 Central...

  4. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

  5. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.231 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central...

  6. 40 CFR 81.271 - Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.271 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.271 Central...

  7. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

  8. Más para ellas - Sugerencias para cerrar la brecha entre géneros en las regiones en desarrollo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Magnoli

    2005-01-01

    Según el pensamiento convencional, la salud y la educación son factores esenciales para el desarrollo económico y social: permiten mejorar la distribución del ingreso y la productividad, y además, los más beneficiados son los pobres. Sin embargo, en muchas regiones del mundo no todos los miembros de la sociedad reciben estos servicios equitativamente. En muchos casos las mujeres están excluidas

  9. Large cutting tools in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China.

    PubMed

    Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong; Li, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Handaxe-bearing sites in China are currently known to occur in a number of alluvial basins, the best known being Dingcun, Bose and Luonan. Bose in the south and Luonan in central China on the northern margin of the Qinling Mountains are most familiar to English-speaking researchers. Here we document the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR) as another major area for large cutting tools (LCTs), located in central China on the southeastern edge of the Qinling Mountains. Large cutting tools are preserved in three terraces of the Han and Dan Rivers in Hubei and Henan Provinces, with dates from ca. 0.8 Ma (millions of years ago) (Terrace 4) to the first half of the Middle Pleistocene (Terrace 3), and possibly to the Late Pleistocene (Terrace 2). This paper reports on LCTs discovered in Terraces 3 and 2, with a majority from the older terrace (and one specimen from Terrace 4). Regional environments during the Middle Pleistocene were relatively warm, humid and stable. Despite the poor quality of raw materials (predominantly quartz phyllite and trachyte for the LCTs), good examples of both handaxes and cleavers are present, plus two types of picks. The LCT technology is compared and contrasted with other Asian industries and with the Acheulean. Overall the DRR LCTs show both technological and morphological similarities with Acheulean LCTs, with some differences that are mainly attributed to raw material properties, subsistence ecology, and 'cultural drift.' The DRR LCTs expand the range of morphological variability of the East Asian material and highlight the need for greater reliance on technological analysis and raw material evaluation for best comparison of Chinese assemblages with the Acheulean tradition. PMID:25223718

  10. Probing the Central Regions of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohfink, Anne M.; Reynolds, C. S.; Mushotzky, R.; Nowak, M.

    2014-01-01

    AGN influence their surroundings via feedback processes and contribute significantly to the evolution of their host galaxies. While this is well established today, our understanding of these processes is incomplete. A missing crucial piece is an understanding of the processes in the heart of the AGN close to the black hole, where a vast majority of the energy is released. My talk explores these central regions in several AGN, both radio-quiet and radio-loud, using the powerful tool of X-ray spectroscopy. I will describe some of the problems (and their solutions) we encountered when trying to study the fundamental parameters, such as black hole spin, which shape these central regions. For the Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9, we find that the accretion disk parameters are dependent on the spectral decomposition. To get a unique decomposition, we need to understand the soft X-ray excess seen in many AGN but not understood to date. Our analysis hints at the soft excess being partially a separate spectral component such as Comptonization. We tested this hypothesis with studies of the UV--X-ray correlation from a Swift monitoring of the source. We obtained an unambiguous detection of both the correlation and previously undetected 4-day time scale UV variability. The confirmation of our X-ray results using UV photometry shows great promise as a proxy for the detection of a Comptonization soft excess in AGN. The second part of my talk will focus on the formation of jets in AGN which is another vital piece in the feedback puzzle. We study the bright radio-loud AGN 3C120, in which a clear disk-jet connection has been established. We will present the best snapshot to date of the central engine structure in any radio-loud AGN, taken with Suzaku in February 2012. To place this deep Suzaku stare into the context of the disk-disruption/jet-ejection cycles displayed by this object, we also analyzed a monitoring of the source in the UV/X-ray (Swift) and radio bands (VLBA). Our observations confirm the current idea of jet formation, which links the ejection of a new jet knot to a disturbance/disruption of the inner parts of the accretion disk.

  11. Central San Juan caldera cluster: regional volcanic framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    Eruption of at least 8800 km3 of dacitic-rhyolitic magma as 9 major ash-slow sheets (individually 150-5000 km3) was accompanied by recurrent caldera subsidence between 28.3 and about 26.5 Ma in the central San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Voluminous andesitic-decitic lavas and breccias were erupted from central volcanoes prior to the ash-flow eruptions, and similar lava eruptions continued within and adjacent to the calderas during the period of explosive volcanism, making the central San Juan caldera cluster an exceptional site for study of caldera-related volcanic processes. Exposed calderas vary in size from 10 to 75 km in maximum diameter, the largest calderas being associated with the most voluminous eruptions. After collapse of the giant La Garita caldera during eruption if the Fish Canyon Tuff at 17.6 Ma, seven additional explosive eruptions and calderas formed inside the La Garita depression within about 1 m.y. Because of the nested geometry, maximum loci of recurrently overlapping collapse events are inferred to have subsided as much as 10-17 km, far deeper than the roof of the composite subvolcanic batholith defined by gravity data, which represents solidified caldera-related magma bodies. Erosional dissection to depths of as much as 1.5 km, although insufficient to reach the subvolcanic batholith, has exposed diverse features of intracaldera ash-flow tuff and interleaved caldera-collapse landslide deposits that accumulated to multikilometer thickness within concurrently subsiding caldera structures. The calderas display a variety of postcollapse resurgent uplift structures, and caldera-forming events produced complex fault geometries that localized late mineralization, including the epithermal base- and precious-metal veins of the well-known Creede mining district. Most of the central San Juan calderas have been deeply eroded, and their identification is dependent on detailed geologic mapping. In contrast, the primary volcanic morphology of the symmetrically resurgent Creede caldera, the volcanic framework for Lake Creede, has been exceptionally preserved because of rapid infilling by moat sediments of the Creede Formation, which were preferentially eroded during the past few million years. The ash-flow tuffs and caldera of the central San Juan region have been widely recognized as exceptional sites for study of explosive volcanic processes, and the results reported here provide new insights into processes of pyroclastic eruption and emplacement, geometric interrelations between caldera subsidence and resurgence, the petrologic diversity of sequential ash-flow eruptions, recurrent eruption of intermediate-composition lavas after each caldera-forming event, associated regional fault development, volume relations between ash-flow eruptions and associated calderas, the emplacement of subvolcanic batholiths, and involvement of mantle-derived mafic phases in magma-generation processes.

  12. 40 CFR 81.82 - El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.82 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.82 El...

  13. Regional Air Quality in central México and emissions inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardo Ruiz-Suarez, Luis; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Agustín García-Reynoso, José; Santos García-Yee, José; Barrera-Huertas, Hugo; Alejandro Torres-Jaramillo, Jorge; Robles-Roldán, Miguel Angel; Gutierrez López, Wilfrido; García-Espinoza, Manuel; Castro-Romero, Telma

    2014-05-01

    Four air quality field campaigns, from 2009 to 2012, during March-April were carried out in several sites in urban, rural and semi-rural sites in Central México. One of the sites was in the Chalco Gap southeast of MCMA (2011), another in the state of Morelos (2011), other two in the state of Puebla (2009 and 2012). All these sites are South and East of the Mexico Basin. The main object of those campaigns was to document regional air quality, mainly in rural and periurban sites, including the photochemical age of regional polluted plumes as they were transported away from the main metropolitan areas within the region. In this paper, we focus on comparisons between observed CO/NOx, and CO/SO2 ratios with those from the National Emissions Inventory and form local inventories reported in state air quality management programs. Comparisons were made with data between 05:00 to 08:00 h to minimize effects photochemical activity and the fast evolution of MLH occurring between 08:00 and 09:00 due to high insolation. Comparisons among observed ratios show a fairly consistent ratio, whereas ratios from emissions inventory are widely variable and only in few sites compare reasonable well with observed ones, indicating the need for homologation of emissions inventories in the country. Also Ozone, CO, NOx and NOy observed time series are compared with WRF-Chem model results for the same campaign periods to evaluate its performance outside MCMA. In addition, observed surface wind speeds and early morning MLH obtained with a tethered balloon are also compared with modeled values to help understanding discrepancies in the trace gases comparisons.

  14. A regional dynamic vegetation-climate model for Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snell, R. S.; Cowling, S. A.; Smith, B.

    2009-12-01

    Global vegetation models simulate the distribution of vegetation as a function of climate. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are also able to simulate the vegetation shifts in response to climate change, which makes them particularly useful for addressing questions about past and future climate scenarios. However, DGVMs have been criticized for using generic plant functional types (PFTs) and running the models at a coarse grid cell resolution. Regional dynamic vegetation models are able to simulate important landscape variation, since they use a finer resolution and specific PFTs for their region. Regional studies have typically focused on boreal or temperate ecosystems in North America and Europe. We will be presenting the results of applying a dynamic regional vegetation-climate model (LPJ-GUESS) for Central America. Initially, the model was run with the described global PFTs. However, several biomes were very poorly represented. Two PFTs were added: a Tropical Needleleaf Evergreen Tree to improve the simulation of the Mixed Pine-Oak biome, and a Desert Shrub to capture the Xeric Shrublands. The overall distribution of biomes was visually similar, however the Kappa statistic indicated a poor agreement with the potential biome map (overall Kappa = 0.301). The Kappa statistic did improve as we aggregated cell sizes and simplified the biomes (overall Kappa = 0.728). Compared to remote sensing data, the model showed a strong correlation with total LAI (r = 0.75). The poor Kappa statistic is likely due to a combination of factors. The way in which biomes are defined by the author can have a large influence on the level of agreement between simulated and potential vegetation. The Kappa statistic is also limited to comparing individual grid cells and thus, cannot detect overall patterns. Examining those areas which are poorly represented will help to identify future work and improve the representation of vegetation in these ecological models. In particular, the model was especially poor at distinguishing between the different ‘dry’ biomes, such as Tropical Dry Forest, Savanna, Grassland and Xeric Shrubland. There are several potential reasons why this might be so. The module which simulates fire in LPJ-GUESS is based on fire requirement for boreal and temperate regions. Fire was underestimated in those areas which were supposed to be Savannas, which is likely why those areas were dominated by a Dry Tropical Forest. Other potential factors include hydraulic redistribution, facilitation, photosynthetic pathway, and the described soil layer.

  15. Central America Regional Climate Change Program: Tools for Your Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Dan; Irving, Bill; Yeager, Carey

    2006-01-01

    USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team, in partnership with EPA, NASA, Oak Ridge National Lab, and the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), have had a significant impact on the region's ability to monitor, mitigate, and adapt to environmental threats. Environmental decision-making tools and data are posted on a website (SERVIR: http://servir.nsstc.nasa.pov/home.html)that provides satellite and geographic data and maps to anybody with an Internet connection. The SERVIR program has been identified as the model for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) - a major international effort to develop a 21st century system for environmental management and disaster response. In coordination with the USAID/EPA program, NASA has developed a GIs tool that enables countries to examine their forest cover and document changes on an annual basis. This information is used in calculating carbon emissions as part of greenhouse gas inventories, but also serves a valuable monitoring function. In addition, USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team in collaboration with EPA are helping countries meet their obligations as signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). EPA is assisting Central American governments to improve the quality of their greenhouse gas emission inventories reported to the UNFCCC through the development of tools and improvements in data quality. New EPA tools developed include software to automatically calculate greenhouse gas emissions for the agricultural and forestry sector inventories, determine key sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and document institutional arrangements. Several of these tools are state of the art and are comparable to tools currently used in the U.S.

  16. 40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...81.138 Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality...Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air... In the State of Arkansas: Chicot County, Clark County, Cleveland...Faulkner County, Garland County, Grant...

  17. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

    2011-01-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation

  18. Central Atlantic regional ecological test site: A prototype regional environment information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Prior to the actual testing of data from ERTS-1, the principal scientific results to date are the establishment of a model or design for a regional land use information system based on remote sensor data and a firm establishment of the RB-57 type high altitude aircraft data base as an important tool in land use mapping. Preliminary user evaluations of the resulting land use data have been favorable, and one of the states, Maryland, has adopted the USGS-GAP land use system as a first step towards mapping their entire state. The State is funding an extension (to the west) of the part of Maryland not covered by CARETS (Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site), using the GAP land use classification and mapping procedures.

  19. Prevalence of children with disabilities in central region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Biritwum, R B; Devres, J P; Ofosu-Amaah, S; Marfo, C; Essah, E R

    2001-01-01

    A cross sectional survey was conducted in Central Region, Ghana to determine the prevalence of children with disabilities. Forty-seven (1.8%) out of a total of 2,556 children under fifteen years of age had disabilities. About a third, had difficulty with movement of which post poliomyelitis infection disability formed the majority. Twelve children (25.5%) had difficulty with hearing and speech (deaf and dumb). Three children were reported as having epilepsy and 2 others had mental retardation. There was no case of total blindness, however, two children complained of poor vision and three others had a squint. Other disabilities identified, included one child each with kyphosis (hunch back), hydrocephalus (very large head) and extensive facial scars from burns. Disability was more common among children who had not been immunized or who did not have immunization card at the time of interview. The prevalence of disability was higher among female children in the rural community and in children with no formal education. Prevalence of disability increased with age. The prevalence of disability was 14.4 per 1,000 for children (1-5) years, 16.6 per 1000 for children (6-9) years and 3.7 per 1,000 for (10-15) years age group. Younger children had better immunization status and lower disability rates. Thirty percent of the children with disability said they were experiencing discrimination especially among the female children. This study has demonstrated that there is a need to intensify the preventive efforts at reducing the problem of childhood disability and to increase public support to the disabled children by avoiding discrimination and encouraging education and training of the disabled children. PMID:11922161

  20. 40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.262 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.262 North...

  1. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South...

  2. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.124 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North...

  3. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South...

  4. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.234 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North...

  5. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.157 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.157 North...

  6. 40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.250 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.250 North...

  7. 40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.260 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South...

  8. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.157 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.157 North...

  9. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.189 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.189 South...

  10. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.257 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North...

  11. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.160 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North...

  12. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.157 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.157 North...

  13. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South...

  14. 40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.196 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.196 South...

  15. 40 CFR 81.215 - East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.215 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.215 East...

  16. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.166 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166 South...

  17. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.257 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North...

  18. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South...

  19. 40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.250 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.250 North...

  20. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South...

  1. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.263 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.263 East...

  2. 40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.196 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.196 South...

  3. 40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.262 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.262 North...

  4. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South...

  5. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South...

  6. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.160 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North...

  7. 40 CFR 81.264 - West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.264 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.264 West...

  8. 40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.196 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.196 South...

  9. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South...

  10. Book Processing Alternatives for the Libraries of the South Central Region of Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowron, Albert

    In 1974 a study was made of alternatives for centralized book processing for the South Central Regional Library (SCRL) of Ontario, Canada. The planners first examined the general benefits of centralized processing as to staff, time, space, standardization cost, coordination, and utilization of new technology, and then examined these benefits…

  11. A modern pollen rain study from the central Andes region of South America

    E-print Network

    Liu, Kam-biu

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE A modern pollen rain study from the central Andes region of South America Carl A is represented in the modern pollen rain of the study area (Webb et al., 1987, 1993). In the central Andes region pollen studies that have been conducted (e.g. Graf, 1981; Hansen et al., 1984, 1994, 2003; Markgraf, 1985

  12. ACCELERATORS: Central region design for a 10 MeV internal ion source cyclotron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Qin; Kai-Feng Liu; Yi-Zhang Feng; Ming-Wu Fan

    2009-01-01

    Internal ion sources are widely adopted in commercial cyclotrons used for short-life isotopes production. Without beam manipulation provided by the external beam injection line, the central region of this type of cyclotron is more sensitive and should be carefully designed. A design study and beam dynamics simulation for the central region of a 10 MeV compact cyclotron is presented. The

  13. Modeling of stress transfer in the Coquimbo region of central Chile

    E-print Network

    Madariaga, Raúl

    Modeling of stress transfer in the Coquimbo region of central Chile A. Gardi,1,2 A. Lemoine,1,3 R Chile, where an exceptional series of more than 12 earthquakes of magnitudes from 6 to 7.6 has occurred. Madariaga, and J. Campos (2006), Modeling of stress transfer in the Coquimbo region of central Chile, J

  14. The Central Regions of M31 in the 3 - 5 micron Wavelength Region

    E-print Network

    T. J. Davidge; Joseph B. Jensen; K. A. G. Olsen

    2006-04-28

    Images obtained with NIRI on the Gemini North telescope are used to investigate the photometric properties of the central regions of M31 in the 3 - 5 micron wavelength range. The light distribution in the central arcsecond differs from what is seen in the near-infrared in the sense that the difference in peak brigh tness between P1 and P2 is larger in M' than in K'; no obvious signature of P3 is dete cted in M'. These results can be explained if there is a source of emission that contributes ~ 20% of the peak M' light of P1 and has an effective temperature of no more than a few hundred K that is located between P1 and P2. Based on the red K-M' color of this source, it is suggested that the emission originates in a circumstellar dust shell surrounding a single bright AGB star. A similar bright source that is ~ 8 arcsec from the center of the galaxy is also detected in M'. Finally, the (L', K-L') color-magnitude diagram of unblended stars shows a domin ant AGB population with photometric characteristics that are similar to those of the most luminous M giants in the Galactic bulge.

  15. The Central Regions of M31 in the 3 - 5 micron Wavelength Region

    E-print Network

    Davidge, T J; Olsen, K A G; Jensen, Joseph B.

    2006-01-01

    Images obtained with NIRI on the Gemini North telescope are used to investigate the photometric properties of the central regions of M31 in the 3 - 5 micron wavelength range. The light distribution in the central arcsecond differs from what is seen in the near-infrared in the sense that the difference in peak brigh tness between P1 and P2 is larger in M' than in K'; no obvious signature of P3 is dete cted in M'. These results can be explained if there is a source of emission that contributes ~ 20% of the peak M' light of P1 and has an effective temperature of no more than a few hundred K that is located between P1 and P2. Based on the red K-M' color of this source, it is suggested that the emission originates in a circumstellar dust shell surrounding a single bright AGB star. A similar bright source that is ~ 8 arcsec from the center of the galaxy is also detected in M'. Finally, the (L', K-L') color-magnitude diagram of unblended stars shows a domin ant AGB population with photometric characteristics that ar...

  16. Techniques for assessing the wind energy resource in the North Central region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has sponsored the development of regional wind energy resource atlases for twelve regions of the United States. The North Central Region, which consists of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Iowa, was one of the regions for which an atlas was assembled. This report is a description of observational and analytical techniques used in

  17. Star Formation Efficiency in the Central 1 kpc Region of Early-Type Spiral Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio K. Inoue; Hiroyuki Hirashita; Hideyuki Kamaya

    2000-01-01

    It has been reported recently that there are some early-type spiral (Sa--Sab)\\u000agalaxies having evident star-forming regions which concentrate in their own\\u000acentral 1-kpc. In such central region, is the mechanism of the star formation\\u000adistinct from that in disks of spiral galaxies? To reveal this, we estimate the\\u000astar formation efficiency (SFE) in this central 1-kpc star-forming region of

  18. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

    2011-01-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it’s important to provide regional climate change\\u000a information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central\\u000a America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of temperature and precipitation

  19. Regional analysis of changes in snow pack in mountainous basins in the central Danube region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Gabor; Juri?eková, Katarina; Gauzer, Balazs; Hlav?ová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Zsideková, Beata

    2013-04-01

    Accurate estimation of the volume of water stored in the snow pack and its rate of release is essential to predict the flow during the snowmelt period. In mountainous drainage basins water stored in the snow pack represents an important component of the water budget. Two modelling tools are compared. The first, HOLV snowmelt model is developed by the Hungarian National Hydrological Forecasting Service (VITUKI NHFS) for regional assessment of snow accumulation and ablation of the central Danube. The model originates from the early 80's and it is under continuous development, while its recent distributed version over a grid with 0.1 degree resolution is in use. The snowmelt model has a flexible structure; it is able to change its own structure in function of data availability. In case when only precipitation and air temperature data are available temperature index method is used. When also other data are accessible (cloudiness, dew point, wind speed) using of energy balance model is to be preferred. If there are suitable data available for calculation of the energy terms, the energy balance method can be applied. The second semi-distributed Hron model, developed at the Slovak University of Technology was applied to a smaller sub-basin to represent spatial distribution of snow cover by simulated snow water equivalent. The upper Hron river basin with an area of 1766 km2 is located in central Slovakia. The conceptual semi-distributed tool applied contains three basic storage components with 15 calibrated parameters, as the flow routing component the cascade of linear reservoirs is used as opposed to the original simple triangular routing function. The snow sub-model uses the temperature index (degree-day) method for snow accumulation and snowmelt calculations. Uncertainty of model parameters was reduced by multi-calibration on the mean daily discharges in the basin outlet and measured stations data of snow water equivalent. Changes in the model parameters during the investigated period also were analyses. The consistency of modelled spatial distribution of snow water equivalent also was checked by the Modis sow satellite data. The results showed a decrease in snow water equivalent and snow depth, and snow duration from the past to the present. The paper also deals with the analysis of changes in depths, duration and spatial distribution of snow cover. Daily snow cover depth observations and weekly snow water equivalent data were available at 6 climatic stations for the period 1961-2010 for the upper Hron while the last two decade sporadic observations and simulated snow depths and snow water equivalent for the entire central Danube region. It is concluded that simulated qualitative information on snow pack across the Alpine-Carpathian region can provide more information on appropriate values of melt parameters than quantitative data on snow water equivalent at a single station location. These simulations appear to provide an adequate representation of snow climatology.

  20. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  1. Operative treatment of subcortical metastatic tumours in the central region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. WalterS; S. A. Kuhn; A. Waschke; R. Kalff; C. Ewald

    2011-01-01

    The operative treatment of subcortical metastatic tumours within the paracentral area is still under discussion. Against the\\u000a background of possible new postoperative neurological deficits and of evolving new radio oncological techniques, the indication\\u000a for surgery is limited only to a subgroup of patients. In this retrospective study we present the clinical results after operative\\u000a treatment of metastases within the central

  2. Fault interaction along the Central Andean thrust front: The Las Peñas thrust, Cerro Salinas thrust and the Montecito Anticline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbohm, L. M.; Costa, C. H.; Brooks, B. A.; Bohon, W.; Gardini, C.; Cisneros, H.

    2013-12-01

    The region in west-central Argentina between the thin-skinned Precordillera and the thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas structural domain is among the most active zones of thrust tectonics in the world. We quantify the rates of deformation on the east-vergent Las Peñas thrust (LPT), and the west-vergent Cerro Salinas thrust (CST). The Montecito anticline (MA) is located at their intersection. We mapped three key locations, collected stratigraphic logs from the MA, dated three ashes using U-Pb in zircon and dated 10 terraces using cosmogenic Be-10 depth profiles. Five terrace levels are present where the Rio Las Peñas crosses the LPT, up to 45 m above the modern river. Cosmogenic dating of the uppermost terrace (T1) yields and age of 123.8 +26.5/-12.3 ka. A reconstruction of this surface using a blind thrust rupture scenario indicates 73 +/- 7 m horizontal shortening and 34 +/- 3 m vertical displacement. Shortening across the structure is therefore 0.59 +0.10/-0.13 mm/yr with a vertical uplift rate of 0.27 +0.05/-0.06 mm/a. Previous work indicates higher rates to the south on the order of 2 mm/yr (Schmidt et al., 2011). Lower terraces give ages of 38.0 +11/-6.2 ka (T2) and 1.5 +5.0/-0.6 ka (T4). Three terrace levels are preserved near the center of the CST. The middle surface (T2) is folded across the axis of the structure and yields an age of 112.5 +33/-14.4 ka. Given 22.9 m surface uplift, this indicates a vertical uplift rate of 0.20 +0.05/-0.06 mm/yr, similar to the rate on the LPT. The upper terrace (T1) yields a younger age (97.1 +29.8/-12.4 ka); the T1 and T2 ages overlap within uncertainty, indicating rapid river incision at the time of their formation. An intercalated ash within the Neogene strata gives an age of 16.2 +/- 0.2. Previous work indicates long-term shortening rates of 0.8 mm/yr (Verges et al., 2007) and that the CST initiated after 8.5 Ma. The lowermost unit exposed in the MA is the Los Pozos Fm., with no indication of syn-depositional deformation. An intercalated ash from the top of this formation yields an age of 5.76 +/- 0.09 Ma. Internal unconformities are present within the overlying transitional unit and the Mogotes Fm., indicating deformation post-dates 5.8 Ma in the MA. An ash within the Mogotes Fm. is 1.52 +/- 0.06 Ma. Slip is modeled as 3.5 km reverse slip across an east-dipping dislocation with a 45 degree dip. This suggests horizontal shortening and vertical uplift of 0.42 mm/yr since the onset of deformation. Uplifted terraces near the center of the MA are 4.7 +0.8/-0.3 ka (T2) and 1.9 +3.4/-1.9 ka (T3), 6 and 4.6 m above the modern river, respectively. This suggests recent vertical uplift or incision rates of 1.3-2.4 mm/yr. These data suggest that deformation in the MA is comparable to that at the LPT and CST. Deformation in the MA could be accelerating, but alternatively, river incision could be accelerating due to climate change.

  3. Nutrición mineral en sistemas ganaderos de las sabanas centrales de Venezuela

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Depablos; Susmira Godoy; Claudio F. Chicco; Jorge Ordoñez

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate mineral nutrition in cattle production systems in the central plains of Venezuela, in well drained (WDS) and poorly drained (PDS) savannas as well as intermediate savannas (IS), nine cattle production units were selected in the municipal district of Pao de San Juan Bautista of Cojedes state, Venezuela, corresponding to a dry tropical forest. Soil, forage, animal blood serum,

  4. Regional vegetation patterns at lake Son Kul reveal Holocene climatic variability in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, Marie; Sorrel, Philippe; Klotz, Stefan; Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhänsli, Hedi

    2014-04-01

    A multiproxy study was conducted on Holocene sediments from the alpine lake Son Kul (3010 m a.s.l, 41°48?33N/75°07?38E) in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan). The combination of high-resolution pollen, palynofacies and magnetic susceptibility data allowed reconstruction of changes in sedimentary and vegetation dynamics regionally at Son Kul between 8350 and ca 2000 cal. BP. Using pollen data to quantify climatic parameters, a quantitative reconstruction of climatic conditions was performed using the "Modern Analogue Vegetation types" (MAV) method and a ranged index of seasonality. The most temperate (e.g. moister) climate conditions occurred between 8350 and 5000-4500 cal. BP when alpine meadow vegetation was enriched in plants requiring moister conditions and trees developed regionally. Conversely, more continental and arid conditions prevailed after 4500 cal. BP with the decline of arboreal vegetation (especially Juniperus) and the extension of an alpine steppe-meadow along with a regional decrease in Poaceae. This climate transition was associated with a change in seasonality as the continentality greatly intensified after 5000-4500 cal. BP. Our results are consistent with other records from the Tien Shan range and the Chinese Province Xinjiang showing that relatively wet conditions prevailed regionally before 5000 cal. BP, whereas reduced moisture conditions were established after that time. From a more global perspective, we highlight that regional rainfall in central Tien Shan and western Central Asia is likely to be predominantly controlled by the Eastern Mediterranean cyclonic system and North Atlantic climate, as based on the close correspondence between climatic archives from western Central Asia, the Levant, the Eastern Mediterranean and Caspian Sea regions. However, the effect of monsoonal dynamics on the regional climatic system in central Tien Shan still remains dubious, since recent modelling studies have shown that no dynamic link exists between humidity in Central Asia and the Indian Summer Monsoon. This study pinpoints the need to explore the effect of remote Eurasian atmospheric circulation patterns on past climate variability in Central Asia.

  5. Central Asia in Trilateral CooperationRegional Potential and Resources of SCO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey Luzyanin

    2007-01-01

    The region, Central Asia, and the regional organisation, SCO, were of significance for China, India and Russia with respect to dealing with threats to security posed by non-state actors such as terrorists and drug-traffickers. The three could also cooperate with regard to energy resources, transport and investment in the region. However, competition could not be ruled out and hence it

  6. Phylogeography of Supralittoral Rocky Intertidal Ligia Isopods in the Pacific Region from Central California to Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Mateos, Mariana; Santamaria, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ligia isopods are widely distributed in the Pacific rocky intertidal shores from central California to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Yet, their biological characteristics restrict them to complete their life cycles in a very narrow range of the rocky intertidal supralittoral. Herein, we examine phylogeographic patterns of Ligia isopods from 122 localities between central California and central Mexico. We expect to find high levels of allopatric diversity. In addition, we expect the phylogeographic patterns to show signatures of past vicariant events that occurred in this geologically dynamic region. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced two mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA). We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We found many divergent clades that, in general, group according to geography. Some of the most striking features of the Ligia phylogeographic pattern include: (1) deep mid-peninsular phylogeographic breaks on the Pacific and Gulf sides of Baja peninsula; (2) within the Gulf lineages, the northern peninsula is most closely related to the northern mainland, while the southern peninsula is most closely related to the central-southern mainland; and, (3) the southernmost portion of the peninsula (Cape Region) is most closely related to the southernmost portion of mainland. Conclusions/Significance Our results shed light on the phylogenetic relationships of Ligia populations in the study area. This study probably represents the finest-scale phylogeographic examination for any organism to date in this region. Presence of highly divergent lineages suggests multiple Ligia species exist in this region. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Gulf of California and Baja peninsula are incongruent with a widely accepted vicariant scenario among phylogeographers, but consistent with aspects of alternative geological hypotheses and phylo- and biogeographic patterns of several other taxa. Our findings contribute to the ongoing debate regarding the geological origin of this important biogeographic region. PMID:20657776

  7. Geospatial database for regional environmental assessment of central Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Klein, Terry L.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Adams, Monique G.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Todorov, Todor I.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McEachron, Luke; Anthony, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the future planning needs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed environmental assessment of the effects of historical mining on Forest Service lands in central Colorado. Stream sediment, macroinvertebrate, and various filtered and unfiltered water quality samples were collected during low-flow over a four-year period from 2004–2007. This report summarizes the sampling strategy, data collection, and analyses performed on these samples. The data are presented in Geographic Information System, Microsoft Excel, and comma-delimited formats. Reports on data interpretation are being prepared separately.

  8. Rhyolitic ignimbrites in the region of Afyon (Central Anatolia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Keller; L. Villari

    1972-01-01

    Occurrence and field relations of an extensive ignimbrite sheet near Afyon in Central Anatolia are described.\\u000a \\u000a These rhyolitic ignimbrites are part of the important Neogene volcanic activity in Turkey and belong to the alignment of volcanic\\u000a complexes along the inner border of the Taurian ranges.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In close stratigraphical connection and in the same tectonic position as the rhyolites there occurs

  9. ARTICLE A modern pollen rain study from the central Andes region of South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl A. Reese; Kam-biu Liu

    2005-01-01

    Aim To provide a greater understanding of the modern pollen rain for the central Andes region of South America, thus laying the groundwork for future pollen studies and the derivation of pollen-climate transfer functions and response surfaces.

  10. Central regions of the early-type galaxies in the NGC 3169 group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. K. Sil'chenko; V. L. Afanasiev

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the central regions of the galaxies in the NGC 3169\\/NGC 3166\\/NGC 3156 group with the multipupil fiber spectrograph of the 6-m telescope; the first (central) galaxy in the group is a spiral (Sa) one and the other two galaxies are lenticular ones. The group is known to have an extended HI cloud with a size of more

  11. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER FROM CENTRALIZED AND SMALL COMMUNITY SUPPLY SYSTEMS IN KAUNAS REGION, LITHUANIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Milius

    2007-01-01

    Summary. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiological quality of drinking water from centralized and small community supply systems in Kaunas region, Lithuania. In total 1345 samples of drinking water were analyzed from both centralist and individual water supplies in 2004 - 2006. The results of our study showed that 94.4% of tested drinking water samples from centralized

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OF THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE REGION'S

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OF THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN or announcement effecting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from the European Union (EU) to the ten EU accession of the Foreign Direct Investments in Central and Eastern Europe Region's Countries The last report regarding

  13. Insect Pollination at North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station – Past and Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, or NCRPIS, is a joint venture among USDA-ARS, the Agricultural Experimental Stations of the 12 North Central States, and Iowa State University (ISU). As a component of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), NCRPIS is dedicated to the conse...

  14. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    E-print Network

    Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile Jay Quade a , Timothy Fisher g a The Desert Laboratory and Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated

  15. A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Harley; Nancy J. Brown; Shaheen R. Tonse; Ling Jin

    2006-01-01

    Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study,

  16. Central Asia Regional IPM Program The Collaborative Program

    E-print Network

    , and fruit crops in the region is growing to enhance local food security and shift from the former policy crop in many of these countries, but the importance of food crops such as wheat, potato, tomato additional pests, and cover additional crops. 3. Although components of IPM programs are in place

  17. Groundwater modeling of the Calera Aquifer region in Central Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Calera Aquifer is the main source of water for irrigated agriculture, industrial, and drinking water purposes in the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 80% of the total groundwater extracted from the Calera Aquifer. In recent years, ...

  18. North Central regional geologic characterization report. Volume 2: Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-08-01

    Volume 8(2) contains the following maps: Geologic map of the Lake Superior Region (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and northern Michigan); Index Map; Overburden Thickness; Faults and Ground Acceleration; Rock and Mineral Resources; Ground Water Basins and Potential Major Discharge Zones; and Ground Water Resource Potential.

  19. Fueling Population Growth in Las Vegas: How Large-scale Groundwater Withdrawal Could Burn Regional Biodiversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    JAMES E. DEACON, AUSTIN E. WILLIAMS, CINDY DEACON WILLIAMS, JACK E. WILLIAMS (; )

    2007-09-01

    This article from the September 2007 issue of BioScience provides information about urban development and the impacts on groundwater and biodiversity. Policy strategies are also discussed. Explosive growth in Las Vegas, Nevada, has stimulated demand for additional water supplies. To meet these needs, local officials hope to obtain rights to about 200,000 acre-feet (246.70 million cubic meters [m3]) per year from a regional groundwater aquifer extending from Salt Lake City, Utah, to Death Valley, California. Officials from satellite communities are pursuing rights to an additional 870,487 acre-feet (1.07 billion m3) per year. If granted, these new permits would trigger declines in groundwater across at least 78 basins covering nearly 130,000 square kilometers. Water-rights decisions have historically interpreted economic development as a more compelling public interest than maintenance of natural systems. If economic development continues to drive allocation decisions, consequent declines in the water table, spring discharge, wetland area, and streamflow will adversely affect 20 federally listed species, 137 other water-dependent endemic species, and thousands of rural domestic and agricultural water users in the region. Reducing consumption and implementing cost-effective technologies, such as recovery of urban runoff and shallow saline groundwater, indirect reuse of potable water, and desalinization, offer ways to meet metropolitan and ecological needs within the limits of the resource.

  20. Energy in central Asia and northwest China: major trends and opportunities for regional cooperation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Dorian; Utkur Tojiev Abbasovich; Mikhail S. Tonkopy; Obozov Alaibek Jumabekovich; Qiu Daxiong

    1999-01-01

    On an energy-equivalent basis Central Asia is predominantly a gas producing region. Potential for oil and hydropower development is vast however. This paper examines the current and predicted future status of the energy industry of Central Asia, and assesses opportunities for regional-wide cooperation in development, transportation, and trade. The findings are based on a just-completed Asian Development Bank survey of

  1. An investigation of seismicity for the Central Anatolia region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özmen, Bülent; Bayrak, Erdem; Bayrak, Yusuf

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the seismicity of Central Anatolia, within the area restricted to coordinates 30-35° longitude and 38-41° latitude, by determining the " a" and " b" parameters in a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relationship using data from earthquakes of moment magnitude (Mw) ? 4.0 that occurred between 1900 and 2010. Based on these parameters and a Poisson model, we aim to predict the probability of other earthquakes of different magnitudes and return periods (recurrence intervals). To achieve this, the study area is divided into six seismogenic zones, using spatial distributions of earthquakes greater than Mw ? 4.0 with active faults. For each seismogenic zone, the a and b parameters in the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relationship were calculated by the least squares method. The probability of occurrence and return periods of various magnitude earthquakes were calculated from these statistics using the Poisson method.

  2. Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.

  3. The Central Region in M100: Observations and Modeling

    E-print Network

    J. H. Knapen; J. E. Beckman; C. H. Heller; I. Shlosman; R. S. de Jong

    1995-06-19

    We present new high-resolution observations of the center of the late-type spiral M100 (NGC 4321) supplemented by 3D numerical modeling of stellar and gas dynamics, including star formation (SF). NIR imaging has revealed a stellar bar, previously inferred from optical and 21 cm observations, and an ovally-shaped ring-like structure in the plane of the disk. The K isophotes become progressively elongated and skewed to the position angle of the bar (outside and inside the `ring') forming an inner bar-like region. The galaxy exhibits a circumnuclear starburst in the inner part of the K `ring'. Two maxima of the K emission have been observed to lie symmetrically with respect to the nucleus and equidistant from it slightly leading the stellar bar. We interpret the twists in the K isophotes as being indicative of the presence of a double inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) and test this hypothesis by modeling the gas flow in a self-consistent gas + stars disk embedded in a halo, with an overall NGC4321-like mass distribution. We have reproduced the basic morphology of the region (the bar, the large scale trailing shocks, two symmetric K peaks corresponding to gas compression maxima which lie at the caustic formed by the interaction of a pair of trailing and leading shocks in the vicinity of the inner ILR, both peaks being sites of SF, and two additional zones of SF corresponding to the gas compression maxima, referred usually as `twin peaks').

  4. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek B. Hall; Paul D. Greger; Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-01-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders,

  5. U.S. Higher Education Regional Accreditation Commission Standards and the Centrality of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Valerie O.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Green, Birgit L.; Raymond, Megan; Borchardt, Melody P.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed the research question "How do regional accrediting standards apply to the central role of community engagement in U.S. institutions of higher education?" Using descriptive and qualitative methods, two sources were analyzed: published standards of the 6 regional accrediting commissions in the United States and the…

  6. New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina. II: The Central Region and the Lower Ninth Ward

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Seed; R. G. Bea; A. Athanasopoulos-Zekkos; G. P. Boutwell; J. D. Bray; C. Cheung; D. Cobos-Roa; L. Ehrensing; L. F. Harder Jr.; J. M. Pestana; M. F. Riemer; J. D. Rogers

    2008-01-01

    The failure of the New Orleans regional flood protection systems, and the resultant catastrophic flooding of much of New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina, represents the most costly failure of an engineered system in U.S. history. This paper presents an overview of the principal events that unfolded in the central portion of the New Orleans metropolitan region during this hurricane, and

  7. Supply adequacy mechanisms and cross-border contracts in the Central American regional electricity market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Karacsonyi; Manuel Tinoco; Ricardo Ríos; Fernando Montoya

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the mechanisms to support generation supply adequacy that have been implemented in the countries of the Central American region and the lessons learned from this experience. Also covered is the role of the Regional Market - which is being implemented- in the support of supply contracts across borders through \\

  8. A Profile of Selected Demographic, Economic and Educational Characteristics of the North Central Region, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Nancy W.; Quinn, C. William

    A detailed regional profile that compares rural and urban populations of seven North Central states (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) is presented in this report. Following an overview of the report, sources, and definitions, the next eight sections discuss the region as a whole and each of the seven states by…

  9. REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

  10. Heat sources for tertiary metamorphism and anatexis in the Annapurna-Manaslu region, central Nepal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Philip; Le Fort, Patrick; Molnar, Peter; Pecher, Arnaud

    1992-01-01

    The metamorphic evolution of the rocks near the Main Central Thrust in the Annapurna-Manaslu region of central Nepal is examined. In this region, all three types of metamorphic features can be observed: regional metamorphism, anatectic granitoids, and inverted metamorphic isograds. In this work, each phase of metamorphism is treated separately to estimate the heat sources required for each process. This approach makes it possible to identify the important parameters for each process, to draw preliminary conclusions about the heat sources required for each of these phases, and to determine which parameters need to be measured more precisely in order to constrain these heat sources.

  11. Mount Chacaltaya Regional GAW Station in the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaratti, Francesco; Forno, Ricardo N.; Lolli, Simone

    2010-05-01

    The Mount Chacaltaya Laboratory (MCL), located 30 km from the city of La Paz , at 5300 m asl, is well known as a cosmic ray laboratory that made important contributions to the Elementary Particles Physics in the 40's and 50's of the last century. Since its beginnings, the MCL has also hosted instruments and experiments devoted to atmospheric research and health studies at high altitude locations. In addition, the Chacaltaya glacier has attracted the interest of worldwide climatologists, due to its dramatic retreat. In fact, this glacier does not exist almost anymore. Recently, the Atmospheric Physics Laboratory (LFA-UMSA) has begun to take permanent and field measurements of some relevant atmospheric parameters at MCL, such as carbon dioxide, aerosols and ultraviolet irradiance. In this work we show some characteristics that made Chacaltaya a Regional GAW Station (CHC), recently nominated by WMO. In addition we show some pioneering steps of this project, supported by research institutes from France, Italy, Switzerland and USA. Finally, thanks to the vigorous co-operation of the Raman lidar group at Goddard Space Flight Center, a new YAG Laser is being installed, to be operated together with the "old" Alexandrite Lidar in the study of aerosols at La Paz.

  12. Probing the central regions of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohfink, Anne Maria

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are one of the key players in the Universe. Their energy output can strongly affect the growth of their host galaxy and can promote or suppress star formation on galactic scales. Most of the processes that determine the power of an AGN as well as the form in which that power is released take place in the immediate surroundings of its supermassive black hole, a region that is still not entirely understood. A comprehension of these inner regions is, however, crucial to any ultimate understanding of the AGN's vast influence. This dissertation explores these close-in environments of the black hole using two approaches: X-ray spectroscopy and variability studies. We begin by summarizing our current understanding of why AGN play such a significant role in galaxy formation. This is followed by a discussion of why X-ray spectroscopy is one of the best means to investigate them. We point out that, in particular, the X-ray reflection spectrum is interesting as it can directly probe parameters such as the black hole spin or the inclination of the accretion disk. Since the reflection spectrum is a broad band component, that usually only contributes a fraction of the total observed X-ray flux, the entire X-ray spectrum requires careful modeling. To perform such modeling and gain access to the parameters of the reflection spectrum, we first select a target in which the spectral decomposition is simplified by the absence of absorption - the Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9. We apply a multi-epoch fitting method that uses more than one spectrum at a time to get the best possible results on the parameters of the reflection spectrum that are invariant on human timescales. This technique enables us to tightly constrain the reflection parameters and leads us to conclude that Fairall 9 most likely possesses a composite soft X-ray excess, consisting of blurred reflection and a separate component such as Comptonization. The reflection spectrum also provides a way to enhance our knowledge of jet formation. We present a multi-wavelength study of the broad line radio galaxy 3C120 centered around a study of the reflection spectrum from two Suzaku and one XMM observation. Our results confirm that jet formation is linked to changes in (and possibly the destruction of) the inner accretion disk, and the high measured spin suggests that the rotational energy could very well be the energy source required to launch the jet. Finally, we present results from variability studies, which present another window into the processes taking place close to the black hole. A 10 year RXTE monitoring of Fairall 9 allows us to discover very rapid flux dips in the X-ray band which only last 5-15 days. While we are unable to determine the exact nature of the dips, we discuss a range of possible models, including the idea that the accretion disk in this radio-quiet AGN may be undergoing sporadic disruptions (via some yet-to-be-determined global instability) in much the same manner as is inferred to occur in 3C120 and other broad-line galaxies. Lastly we turn to the UV variability of Fairall~9 and its connection to the X-ray variability. From 2.5 months of Swift monitoring, we find that Fairall~9 shows significant variability on 4 day timescales, and the analysis of XMM-OM data shows that variability is present even on the time scales of hours. Folding in the X-ray variability, we determined that this fast UV variability can be explained as reprocessing of X-rays. We conclude by explaining how these studies fit into the field of AGN science as a whole and how they can be followed up with future observations.

  13. Gasto en I+D, desarrollo económico y empleo en las regiones españolas y europeas\\/Research Expenditure, Economic Development and Employment in Spanish and European Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. AGUAYO

    2005-01-01

    En este artículo analizamos las principales diferencias regionales que existen en España y en Europa respecto al gasto en Investigación y Desarrollo, I+D, y la importancia que tiene el capital humano, tanto en Educación como en Investigación, para impulsar la producción y el empleo. Analizamos los datos correspondientes a 151 regiones de 25 países europeos en el año 2000 y

  14. Central regions of the early-type galaxies in the NGC 3169 group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. K. Sil’chenko; V. L. Afanasiev

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the central regions of the galaxies in the NGC 3169\\/NGC 3166\\/NGC 3156 group with the multipupil fiber\\u000a spectrograph of the 6-m telescope; the first (central) galaxy in the group is a spiral (Sa) one and the other two galaxies\\u000a are lenticular ones. The group is known to have an extended HI cloud with a size of more

  15. The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies are necessary. Temporary seismic networks have been installed in several Central Asian cities (Bishkek and Karakol, Kyrgyzstan; Dushanbe, Tajikistan; Tashkent, Uzbekistan) within the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA), a regional program of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The empirically estimated site effects have already helped to improve real-time risk scenarios for Bishkek and will be applied to other major cities. - A crucial requirement for disaster risk reduction involves the analysis of the vulnerability of existing building inventories. Whereas traditional approaches are very time- and cost-consuming, and even impossible given the high rate of urbanization in Central Asian capitals, our integrated approach is based on satellite remote sensing and ground-based omni-directional imaging, providing building inventories and thus structural vulnerability over large areas (EMCA, GEM-IDCT). All mentioned activities are carried out within the framework of cooperation between GFZ and regional national institutes, in particular the Central Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences. Altogether, this comprehensive and long-term risk analyses and research program will lead to a better understanding of the coupling of endogene and exogene processes and the identification of their impact on society.

  16. Central Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuck Drury

    Risk Management Committee chairman, and other committee members focused on information secu- rity for the Greater St. Louis Area Council. An inde- pendent audit firm was called in to conduct an ex - ternal and internal computer network vulnerability assessment. The firm attempted to access privileged information and ran industry-standard diagnos- tic scans of the network. As a second project,

  17. Magnetic field near the central region of the Galaxy: rotation measure of extragalactic sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhashis Roy; A. Pramesh Rao; Ravi Subrahmanyan

    2008-01-01

    Aims:We determine the properties of the Faraday screen and the magnetic field near the central region of the Galaxy. Methods: We measured the Faraday rotation measure (RM) towards 60 background extragalactic source components through the -6° region of the Galaxy using the 4.8 and 8.5 GHz bands of the ATCA and VLA. Here we use the measured

  18. Intraspecific Phylogeography of Red Squirrels ( Tamiasciurus hudsonicus ) in the Central Rocky Mountain Region of North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Wilson; Ronald A. Den Bussche; Karen McBee; Lacrecia A. Johnson; Cheri A. Jones

    2005-01-01

    We used variation in a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine phylogeography of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, a boreal-adapted small mammal in the central Rocky Mountain region. AMOVA revealed that 65.66% of genetic diversity was attributable to variation within populations, 16.93% to variation among populations on different mountain ranges, and 17.41% to variation among populations within mountain ranges. Nested

  19. Spatial Distribution Of Cs-137 In Surface Soils On Some Central Rhodopes Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Hr. G.; Srentz, A. K.; Balabanov, N. P.

    2007-04-01

    The subject of investigation are soils from region around village Kiselchovo, town Smolyan, villages Narechen, Bachkovo, Laki, Kosovo, Dobralak, Central Rhodopes region. The samples have been collected from natural soils at a depth of 0-10 cm. The samples have been analyzed for the content of technogenical radionuclide Cs-137. The measurements were taken by precise gamma ray spectrometer. Based on the conducted research an inference can be made that there are radioactive contamination (up to 30 times over the background level).

  20. Lower Palaeozoic sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Kerman region, East-Central Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mir Alireza Hamedi

    1995-01-01

    The Kerman-Tabas region of East-Central Iran contains the thickest and most complete sequence of Early Palaeozoic (Cambrian to Silurian) rocks in Iran and the Middle East, but the stratigraphy is complex.\\u000aDetailed reassessment of stratigraphic relationships between the Early Palaeozoic strata, together with new sedimentological, petrological and palaeontological data, indicate that the Kerman-Tabas region was tectonically active during this period,

  1. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marios Sophocleous

    1992-01-01

    Sophocleous, M., 1992. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics. J. Hydrol., 137: 113-140. The results of a 6 year recharge st,dy in the Great Bend Prairie of t:entral Kansas are statistically analyzed to regionalize the limited number of site-specific but year-round measurements. Emphasis is placed on easily measured parameters and

  2. WFPC2 Images of the Central Regions of Early-Type Galaxies - I. The Data

    E-print Network

    Armin Rest; Frank C. van den Bosch; Walter Jaffe; Hien Tran; Zlatan Tsvetanov; Holland C. Ford; James Davies; Joanna Schafer

    2001-02-15

    We present high resolution R-band images of the central regions of 67 early-type galaxies obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Our sample strikingly confirms the complex morphologies of the central regions of early-type galaxies. In particular, we detect dust in 43 percent of all galaxies, and evidence for embedded stellar disks in a remarkably large fraction of 51 percent. In 14 of those galaxies the disk-like structures are misaligned with the main galaxy, suggesting that they correspond to stellar bars in S0 galaxies. We analyze the luminosity profiles of the galaxies in our sample, and classify galaxies according to their central cusp slope. To a large extent we confirm the clear dichotomy found in previous HST surveys: bright, boxy ellipticals with shallow inner cusps (`core' galaxies) on one hand and faint, disky ellipticals with steep central cusps (`power-law' galaxies) on the other hand. The advantages and shortcomings of classification schemes utilizing the extrapolated central cusp slope are discussed, and it is shown that this cusp slope might be an inadequate representation for galaxies whose luminosity profile slope changes smoothly with radius rather than resembling a broken power-law. In fact, we find evidence for an `intermediate' class of galaxies, that cannot unambiguously be classified as either core or power-law galaxies, and which have central cusp slopes and absolute magnitudes intermediate between those of core and power-law galaxies.

  3. Central Atlantic regional ecological test site: A prototype regional environmental information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A comparison of photomorphic regions from an uncontrolled ERTS-1 mosaic of CARETS to land use areas on a map published in the National Atlas revealed close correlations in non-urban regions. Such regional scale analysis of ERTS-1 data has the potential for providing an economical sampling strategy for selecting sites for more detailed field measurements if other environmental variables can be correlated with patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. ERTS-1 imagery has also revealed for the first time the appearance of CARETS during the winter months. Investigators have identified extensive areas of conifers, which have previously been indistinguishable from deciduous vegetation. Imagery has also shown very clearly the extent of snow cover at a particular time over the region. The evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery used for the land use mapping of the shore zone of CARETS, has shown that the presence or absence of elements of an hierarchal system of shoreline landforms can help identify areas of potential rapid change. Changes in land use class distributions on the Barrier Islands signify the environmental response to natural and man-caused processes. Both environmental vulnerability and sensitivity can be estimated from the repetitive ERTS-1 coverage of long reaches of the CARETS coast. Results indicate potential applications to land use planning, management, and regional environmental quality analysis.

  4. Relationships between coastal tourism and ICM sustainability in the central Visayas region of the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika T. Thiele; Richard B. Pollnac; Patrick Christie

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Integrated Coastal Management Sustainability Research Project (ICMSRP), this study investigated the relationship between tourism and the success and sustainability of processes initiated by one ICM project in particular, the Central Visayas Regional Project (CVRP). CVRP is widely regarded as the first major externally funded coastal management project to take on a community-based, yet integrated, approach to

  5. Historical Abundance and Decline of Chinook Salmon in the Central Valley Region of California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M. Yoshiyama; Frank W. Fisher; Peter B. Moyle

    1998-01-01

    The Central Valley drainage of California formerly produced immense numbers of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Four seasonal runs occur in this system—fall, late-fall, winter, and spring runs. Differences in life history timing and spatial distribution enabled the four runs to use the drainage to the fullest possible extent and once made it one of the richest regions in the world

  6. The State of Economic and Social Development in the North Central Region of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Keith D.; And Others

    Emphasizing patterns of rural economic and social activity in the North Central Region (NCR) of the U.S., this report utilizes U.S. census data to survey and analyze: population distribution; business patterns; agricultural activity; local and county government expenditures; and income distribution. Among the major findings reported are: slightly…

  7. Farm Crisis Response: Extension and Research Activities in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul, Comp.; And Others

    The 12 states comprising the North Central Region have been affected in similar ways by the farm crisis of the 1980s. Statewide surveys show sizeable proportions of farm operations that are experiencing moderately high levels of financial stress. The problems caused by chronic stress on family structure and functioning, the loss of mainstreet…

  8. Residual Weeds of Processing Sweet Corn in the North Central Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of weed community structure in vegetable crops of the North Central Region (NCR) is poor. To characterize weed composition of species persisting in sweet corn to harvest, hereafter called residual weeds, 175 sweet corn fields were surveyed in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2005 to...

  9. Oil and gas of the Maritime Boundry region in the central Gulf of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Q. Foote; R. G. Martin; R. B. Powers

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed study in the first half of 1981 of the oil and gas resource potential in the Maritime Boundry region of the central Gulf where jurisdiction over natural resources by adjacent coastal countries has not yet been established. The study focused on factors critical to the generation, migration, and entrapment of hydrocarbons, such as:

  10. Cucurbit Germplasm Collections at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, USA is one of four primary Plant Introduction Stations in the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), and has responsibility for maintenance, regeneration, characterization, and distribution of the NPGS Cucumis and Cucurbi...

  11. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  12. THE EXTENT OF MINE DRAINAGE INTO STREAMS OF THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are contaminating streams throughout the United States with acidic and metal contaminated waters and sediments. The extent of mining impacts on streams of the coal bearing region of the Central Appalachians and the metal bearing...

  13. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  14. 78 FR 65632 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...York Independent System Operator, Inc. (NYISO), and PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...centralized capacity markets in the ISO-NE, NYISO and PJM regions. Thus, post-technical...certain market design elements, such as NYISO's triennial reset of its capacity...

  15. 78 FR 53450 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...York Independent System Operator, Inc. (NYISO), and PJM Interconnection, L.L.C...centralized capacity markets in the ISO-NE, NYISO, and PJM regions. The Commission may...capacity markets operated by ISO-NE, NYISO and PJM. The report summarizes the...

  16. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  17. Larger geothermal heat pump plants in the central region of Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burkhard Sanner; Erich Mands; Marc K. Sauer

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, several larger geothermal heat pump plants for offices or commercial areas have been designed and built in the central region of Germany, mainly in the Rhein-Main area. Systems with borehole heat exchangers (BHE; in the USA the term Vertical Loop is commonly used) as well as with shallow geothermal doublets (groundwater wells) are operational. New solutions had

  18. Past earthquake history and seismic hazard in Fucino region, Central Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aloe Schlagenhauf; Isabelle Manighetti; Lucilla Benedetti; Yves Gaudemer; Khemrak Pou

    2010-01-01

    Using 36Cl exposure dating (Schlagenhauf et al. 2009), we have recovered the Holocene earthquake history (in last ≈14 ka) of three large active normal faults (Magnola, Velino, Trasacco) in the Fucino region, Central Italy (last large earthquake in 1915, 30 000 casualties), nearby L'Aquila (last large earthquake in April 2009, 300 casualties). Magnola (L ~13 km) and Velino (L ~12

  19. Best Management Practices for Remediation/Restoration of Degraded Soils in the Central Great Plains Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmlands in the Central Great Plains Region (CGPR) have lost topsoil through wind and water erosion induced by tillage and poor soil management (Wheat-fallow management). Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored using organic amendment such as manure and improved crop and soil manageme...

  20. Disaster Resilience and Adaptive Capacity in Central Florida, US, and in Eastern Marmara Region, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naim Kapucu

    2012-01-01

    The article assesses current disaster resiliency policies and practices in Central Florida in the US and in the Eastern Marmara Region in Turkey from a comparative perspective. It identifies core principles and links community resiliency to disasters and to essential behavioral, motivational, affective, and cognitive dynamics, and ultimately to important community outcomes. While Florida appears more prepared and disaster resilient

  1. THE NORTH CENTRAL REGIONAL PLANT INTRODUCTION STATION'S SOUTHWESTERN MAIZE COLLECTION - AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station has existed in Ames, Iowa since 1948. In those 55 years, the maize collection has grown to 18250 accessions. Of those accessions, 236 have sufficient passport data to associate them with Native American tribal groups. Of these 236, 143 originated...

  2. Condom Availability at Four-Year State Universities in the North Central Census Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, K. R.; And Others

    This survey of 66 4-year state universities with enrollments greater than 5,000 students in the North Central census region investigated the availability of condoms on campuses to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The survey sought to determine condom availability, location, cost to students, and…

  3. The Central American Midsummer Drought: Regional Aspects and Large-Scale Forcing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Justin O. Small; Simon P. de Szoeke; Shang-Ping Xie

    2007-01-01

    The midsummer drought (MSD) is a diminution in rainfall experienced during the middle of the rainy season in southern Mexico and Central America, as well as in the adjacent Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and eastern Pacific seas. The aim of this paper is to describe the regional characteristics of the MSD and to propose some possible forcing mechanisms. Satellite and

  4. Reproduction of links between circulation types and precipitation in Central Europe in regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan; Št?pánek, Petr

    2014-05-01

    The study evaluates relationships between large-scale atmospheric circulation (represented by circulation indices and circulation types derived from gridded mean sea level pressure) and daily precipitation amounts over three regions in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) with different precipitation regimes. We examine how ENSEMBLES regional climate model (RCM) simulations driven by re-analysis reproduce the observed links and capture differences in the links between the regions (lowlands vs. highlands) and seasons. We study the links of circulation to (i) mean precipitation over the regions, (ii) probability of wet days, and (iii) probability of extreme daily precipitation (exceeding threshold defined by a high quantile of precipitation distribution in a given season). Relatively strong links between atmospheric circulation and the precipitation characteristics are found in the observed data. The links are generally more pronounced for highland than lowland regions. More wet days and higher precipitation amounts are found for cyclonic and stronger flows, and for westerly and north-easterly flows. The RCMs are generally able to capture basic features of the links; nevertheless, they have difficulties to reproduce some more specific features and differences in the links between the regions. The results also suggest that good performance in some precipitation characteristics may be due to compensating errors rather than model's perfection. Reference: Plavcová E., Kyselý J., Št?pánek P., 2014: Links between circulation types and precipitation in Central Europe in the observed data and regional climate model simulations. International Journal of Climatology, doi 10.1002/joc.3882.

  5. Atmospheric Transport of Arid Aerosol from Desert Regions of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Boris; Solomon, Paul; Sitnov, Sergei; Grechko, Evgeny; Maximenkov, Leonid; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    Investigation of atmospheric transport of arid aerosol from Central Asia was held within the ISTC project 3715. Particular attention was paid to the removal of aerosol from the Aral Sea region and its further transport, because aerosol and pollutants emission from Central Asia affect the airspace of the entire Asian continent. At the same time measurements of aerosols in the atmosphere of Central Asia are holding in a small number of stations, and currently available data are insufficient to define the initial conditions and/or verification of models of long-range transport. To identify sources of pollution transported from Central Asia, in Kyrgyzstan measurement and sampling of air were organized: at the station on the northern slope of the Kirgiz Range, 30 km south of Bishkek, at an altitude of 1700 m above sea level (Bishkek Site, 42,683N; 74,694E ), and on permanent alpine Teploklyuchenka lidar station in the Central Tien Shan at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level (Lidar Site, 42,467N; 78,533E). The chemical analysis of collected aerosol and soils samples was carried out. Measurements of aerosol at these stations have been merged with the simulation of the trajectories of air masses in the study region and with the satellite (the Terra and Aqua satellites) observations of aerosol optical thickness in this region. Satellite data for the region 43-47 N, and 58-62 E (Aral Sea) from April 2008 to September 2009 were analyzed. The moments were selected, when the value of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was greatest (more than 0.5), and the transport from the Aral Sea region to the observation sites took place. For each of these days, the forward trajectories, which started at 6 points within the region, were calculated using the HYSPLIT model. The days, on which the trajectories reached the BISHKEK and LIDAR sites, were determined from the data obtained. Calculations on the basis of the RAMS model were performed for these days. These calculations were performed using a grid of 160*120*30 points. The obtained meteorological fields were used in the HYPACT model; the source of Lagrangian particles was located over the Aral Sea region. As the result for 2008 11 days were detected when aerosol from the Aral Sea was actively transported to the observation sites. Comparative chemical analysis of aerosol samples at the stations of observation and soil samples from the Aral Sea region would confirm the presence of emissions and regional transport. It should be noted that the main source of aerosol in Central Asia is Taklamakan desert. Average value and AOT variability over it several times higher than corresponding AOT values over the rest of the region. The greatest variability aerosol over Taklamakan observed from late March to mid-May. For example, on April 22, 2008 average of the AOT in cell 5° x 5° over the western part of Taklamakan - value reached 3,171. AOT virtually throughout the region positively correlated with AOT over Taklamakan desert. The most noticeable effect makes an aerosol of Taklamakan found in the south-east Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan in the east and north of the Tibetan highlands. The impact of the Aral Sea area is restricted significantly less. In doing so, AOT in the central part of the region reveals a weak negative correlation with the AOT over the Aral Sea.

  6. Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS): A prototype regional environmental information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Accomplishments have included: (1) completion of the research design for the USGS/CARETS demonstration project; (2) preparation of photomossics and land use maps at a scale of 1:100,000 for entire area; (3) demonstration of the feasibility of extracting several categories of land use information from ERTS-1 MSS data for a portion of the CARETS region; (4) demonstration of the feasibility of detecting some significant land use changes on ERTS-1 imagery; (5) demonstration of the feasibility of attaching environmental impact significance to the remote sensor-derived land use data; (6) delivery of land use information derived from high altitude aircraft data to the Maryland state planning agency for use in its statewide land use inventory; (7) demonstration of high interest by other use groups in the test region in products and services provided by investigation; and (8) determination of the viability of setting up a computerized geographic information system as part of the CARETS investigation, to facilitate handling of sensor-derived land use data in a variety of formats to suit user requirements.

  7. Deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos from peripheral and central regions of the rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Coin, P.G. (National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States) Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States) Durham Veterans Administration Medical Centers, NC (United States)); Roggli, V.L. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States) Durham Veterans Administration Medical Centers, NC (United States)); Brody, A.R. (National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The authors investigated the pulmonary deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos in the context of their previously developed model of asbestos in the rat. Adult male rats were exposed for 3 hr to an aerosol of chrysotile asbestos. Subgroups were sacrificed up to 29 days postexposure and the lungs of the animals fixed. Peripheral and central regions of the left lung were resected, digested, and analyzed for fiber content by scanning electron microscopy. Pulmonary deposition did not differ between peripheral and central regions. There was no evidence of translocation of fibers from central to peripheral regions. The average diameter of retained fibers decreased over time, consistent with longitudinal splitting. The average length of retained fibers increased over time, consistent with longitudinal splitting. The average length of retained fibers increased over time, consistent with slower clearance of longer fibers. A novel counting scheme to ensure accurate fiber number measurements, allowing the calculation of clearance rates for fibers 0.5 {ge} 16 {mu}m in length. Fibers of length {ge}16 {mu}m were cleared slowly, if at all. These findings could have important implications for the pathogenesis of asbestos-related pleural disease. Many fibers are deposited in the peripheral region, and the longest ({ge}16 {mu}m) will persist there for extended periods.

  8. August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bina; F. Vacha; J. Vodova

    2003-01-01

    Central Bohemian Region is located in a shape of a ring surrounding the capitol of Prague. Its total territorial area is 11.014 sq.km and population of 1 130.000 inhabitants. According to EU nomenclature of regional statistical units, the Central Bohemian Region is classified as an independent NUTS II. Bohemia's biggest rivers, Vltava and Labe form the region's backbone dividing it

  9. Central regions of the early-type galaxies in the NGC 3169 group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil'chenko, O. K.; Afanasiev, V. L.

    2006-08-01

    We have investigated the central regions of the galaxies in the NGC 3169/NGC 3166/NGC 3156 group with the multipupil fiber spectrograph of the 6-m telescope; the first (central) galaxy in the group is a spiral (Sa) one and the other two galaxies are lenticular ones. The group is known to have an extended HI cloud with a size of more than 100 kpc that is associated in its position, orientation, and rotation with the central galaxy NGC 3169. The mean age of the stellar populations in the centers of all three galaxies has been found to be approximately the same, ˜1 Gyr. Since the galaxies are early-type ones and since NGC 3166 and NGC 3156 show no global star formation, we are dealing here with a synchronous star formation burst in the centers of all three galaxies.

  10. Infraestructura para la mayor integración de las Américas. VI Cumbre de las Américas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tito Yepes

    2011-01-01

    Introducción. Promover la mayor integración física en las Américas tiene como objetivo desencadenar efectos cascada sobre la productividad, el comercio intrarregional y la inserción de los países en la economía mundial. La adecuación y expansión de la infraestructura regional, sub-regional y nacional como carreteras, ferrocarriles, puertos, aeropuertos y centrales de generación eléctrica tendrá un efecto positivo sobre la competitividad regional

  11. Regional Options for Addressing the Water, Energy and Food Nexus in Central Asia and the Aral Sea Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Granit; Anders Jägerskog; Andreas Lindström; Gunilla Björklund; Andrew Bullock; Rebecca Löfgren; George de Gooijer; Stuart Pettigrew

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the water, energy and food nexus in Central Asia as an avenue to seek regional solutions to common challenges. A benefit-sharing scheme was in place between the countries in the Central Asia in the Soviet Union era, but since independence unilateral action has been the norm. It is concluded that a regional integrative approach would be beneficial

  12. Microsurgical Treatment for Central Gyrus Region Meningioma With Epilepsy as Primary Symptom

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wen-shuai; Zhou, Xiao-yang; Li, Zhao-jian; Xie, Hong-wei; Fan, Ming-chao; Sun, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this article was to investigate the operation outcome, complications, and the patient’s quality of life after surgical therapy for central gyrus region meningioma with epilepsy as the primary symptom. Methods All patients get at least 6 months of follow-up (range, 6–34 mo) after surgery. They underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and video electroencephalography, and their clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, microsurgical methods, and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed. Results The meningioma was located in the front and back of the central sulcus vein in 3 and 2 patients, respectively; in the compressed precentral gyrus and central sulcus vein in 3 patients; and in the precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus each in 1 patient; beside the right sagittal sinus and invaded a thick draining vein on the brain surface in 1 patient and beside the right sagittal sinus and close to the precentral gyrus in 2 patients; invaded the superior sagittal sinus in 8 patients; crossed the cerebral falx and compressed cortex gyrus veins in 1 patient; invaded duramater and irritated skull hyperplasia in 3 patients; invaded duramater and its midline infiltrated into the superior sagittal sinus, was located behind the precentral gyrus, and enveloped the central sulcus vein. They were resected and classified by Simpson standards: 17 of the 26 patients had grade I, 6 patients had in grade II, and 3 patients had in grade III. Conclusions Resection of central gyrus region meningioma by microsurgical technique avoids injury to the cerebral cortex, central sulcus vein, and other draining veins. Microsurgery improves the total resection rate, reduces recurrence rate, and lowers disability or death rate. PMID:24999673

  13. Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk University, Seokjangdong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)] [Dongguk University, Seokjangdong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

  14. Faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of the family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Central Anatolian region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of Turkey. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for Turkey, with emphasis on the Central Anatolian region. PMID:21864150

  15. Hydrological characteristics of the Rongbuk Glacier catchment in Mt. Qomolangma region in the central Himalayas, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weigang Liu; Jiawen Ren; Xiang Qin; Jingshi Liu; Qiang Liu; Xiaoqing Cui; Yetang Wang

    2010-01-01

    From 8 April to 11 October in 2005, hydrological observation of the Rongbuk Glacier catchment was carried out in the Mt. Qomolangma\\u000a (Everest) region in the central Himalayas, China. The results demonstrated that due to its large area with glacier lakes at\\u000a the tongue of the Rongbuk Glacier, a large amount of stream flow was found at night, which indicates

  16. Collisional Acceleration of Electrons in Central Regions of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew G. Baring; Karl Schwarzschild

    Coulomb collisions between relativistic protons and cold electrons are investigated to determine the resulting electron excitation spectrum. The cold electrons could be the end products of a pair cascade, such as is used in models of the X-ray and gamma-ray AGN continuum, while the protons are injected into the central region of an AGN by some acceleration process. Large-angle Coulomb

  17. Antigenic structure of the central conserved region of protein G of bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed Central

    Langedijk, J P; Meloen, R H; Taylor, G; Furze, J M; van Oirschot, J T

    1997-01-01

    Epitopes were resolved at the amino acid level for nine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the central conserved region of protein G of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV-G). Peptide binding studies showed which amino acids in the epitope contributed to antibody binding. The details of the epitopes were compared with the high-resolution structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the central conserved region of BRSV-G, and this indicated which face of the central conserved region is the antigenic structure. The major linear epitope of the central conserved region of BRSV-G is located at the tip of the loop, overlapping a relatively flat surface formed by a double disulfide-bonded cystine noose. At least one, but possibly two sulfur atoms of a disulfide bridge that line the conserved pocket at the center of the flat surface, is a major contributor to antibody binding. Some of the residue positions in the epitope have mutated during the evolution of RSV-G, which suggests that the virus escaped antibody recognition with these mutations. Mutations that occur at positions 177 and 180 may have only a local effect on the antigenic surface, without influencing the structure of the backbone, whereas mutations at positions 183 and 184 will probably have major structural consequences. The study explains the antigenic, structural, and functional importance of each residue in the cystine noose which provides information for peptide vaccine design. Additionally, analysis of the epitopes demonstrated that two point mutations at positions 180 and 205 define the preliminary classification of BRSV subgroups. PMID:9094683

  18. The magnetic field structure of the central region in M 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gießübel, R.; Beck, R.

    2014-11-01

    Context. The Andromeda Galaxy (M 31) is the nearest grand-design spiral galaxy. Thus far, most studies in the radio regime concentrated on the 10 kpc ring. The central region of M 31 has significantly different properties than the outer parts: The star formation rate is low, and inclination and position angle are largely different from the outer disk. Aims: The existing model of the magnetic field in the radial range 6 ? r ? 14 kpc is extended to the innermost part r ? 0.5 kpc to ultimately achieve a picture of the entire magnetic field in M 31. Methods: We combined observations taken with the VLA at 3.6 cm and 6.2 cm with data from the Effelsberg 100-m telescope to fill the missing spacings of the synthesis data. The resulting polarization maps were averaged in sectors to analyse the azimuthal behaviour of the polarized intensity (PI), rotation measure (RM), and apparent pitch angle (?obs). We developed a simplified 3D model for the magnetic field in the central region to explain the azimuthal behaviour of the three observables. Results: Our 3D model of a quadrupolar or dipolar dynamo field can explain the observed patterns in PI, RM, and ?obs, while a 2D configuration is not sufficient to explain the azimuthal behaviour. In addition and independent of our model, the RM pattern shows that the spiral magnetic field in the inner 0.5 kpc points outward, which is opposite to that in the outer disk, and has a pitch angle of ?33°, which is much larger than that of 8°-19° in the outer disk. Conclusions: The physical conditions in the central region differ significantly from those in the 10 kpc ring. In addition, the orientation of this region with respect to the outer disk is completely different. The opposite magnetic field directions suggest that the central region is decoupled from the outer disk, and we propose that an independent dynamo is active in the central region. FITS files of the recombined Stokes IQU images at the two frequencies are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/571/A61

  19. Peripheral and central sensitization in remote spinal cord regions contribute to central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Susan M; Du, Junhui; Tan, Huai Yu; Nesic, Olivera; Hargett, Gregory L; Bopp, Anne C; Yamani, Ammar; Lin, Qing; Willis, William D; Hulsebosch, Claire E

    2009-12-15

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) developing after spinal cord injury (SCI) is described by the region affected: above-level, at-level and below-level pain occurs in dermatomes rostral, at/near, or below the SCI level, respectively. People with SCI and rodent models of SCI develop above-level pain characterized by mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Mechanisms underlying this pain are unknown and the goals of this study were to elucidate components contributing to the generation of above-level CNP. Following a thoracic (T10) contusion, forelimb nociceptors had enhanced spontaneous activity and were sensitized to mechanical and thermal stimulation of the forepaws 35 days post-injury. Cervical dorsal horn neurons showed enhanced responses to non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimulation as well as thermal stimulation of receptive fields. Immunostaining dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells and cord segments with activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3, a marker for neuronal injury) ruled out neuronal damage as a cause for above-level sensitization since few C8 DRG cells expressed AFT3 and cervical cord segments had few to no ATF3-labeled cells. Finally, activated microglia and astrocytes were present in thoracic and cervical cord at 35 days post-SCI, indicating a rostral spread of glial activation from the injury site. Based on these data, we conclude that peripheral and central sensitization as well as reactive glia in the uninjured cervical cord contribute to CNP. We hypothesize that reactive glia in the cervical cord release pro-inflammatory substances which drive chronic CNP. Thus a complex cascade of events spanning many cord segments underlies above-level CNP. PMID:19853381

  20. Magnetic field near the central region of the Galaxy: Rotation measure of extragalactic sources

    E-print Network

    Subhashis Roy; A. Pramesh Rao; Ravi Subrahmanyan

    2007-12-03

    To determine the properties of the Faraday screen and the magnetic field near the central region of the Galaxy, we measured the Faraday rotation measure (RM) towards 60 background extragalactic source components through the -6 deg < l <6 deg, -2 deg < b < 2 deg region of the Galaxy using the 4.8 and 8.5 GHz bands of the ATCA and VLA. Here we use the measured RMs to estimate the systematic and the random components of the magnetic fields. The measured RMs are found to be mostly positive for the sample sources in the region. This is consistent with either a large scale bisymmetric spiral magnetic fields in the Galaxy or with fields oriented along the central bar of the Galaxy. The outer scale of the RM fluctuation is found to be about 40 pc, which is much larger than the observed RM size scales towards the non-thermal filaments (NTFs). The RM structure function is well-fitted with a power law index of 0.7 +/- 0.1 at length scales of 0.3 to 100 pc. If Gaussian random processes in the ISM are valid, the power law index is consistent with a two dimensional Kolmogorov turbulence. If there is indeed a strong magnetic field within 1 degree (radius 150 pc) from the GC, the strength of the random field in the region is estimated to be 20 microGauss. Given the highly turbulent magnetoionic ISM in this region, the strength of the systematic component of the magnetic fields would most likely be close to that of the random component. This suggests that the earlier estimated milliGauss magnetic field near the NTFs is localised and does not pervade the central 300 pc of the Galaxy.

  1. -Regional analysis of litter quality in the central grassland region of North America -395 Journal of Vegetation Science 13: 395-402, 2002

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    - Regional analysis of litter quality in the central grassland region of North America - 395, and strongly influence plant morphology and tissue chemistry. We analysed regional pat- terns of plant litter us to isolate the effects of climate from those of plant functional types on litter quality. Our

  2. Sulcus-Based MR Analysis of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Located in the Central Region

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Pauline; Mellerio, Charles; Chassoux, Francine; Rivière, Denis; Cachia, Arnaud; Charron, Sylvain; Lion, Stéphanie; Mangin, Jean-François; Devaux, Bertrand; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are mainly located in the frontal region, with a particular tropism for the central sulcus. Up to 30% of lesions are undetected (magnetic resonance [MR]-negative FCD patients) or belatedly diagnosed by visual analysis of MR images. We propose an automated sulcus-based method to analyze abnormal sulcal patterns associated with central FCD, taking into account the normal interindividual sulcal variability. Methods We retrospectively studied 29 right-handed patients with FCD in the central region (including 12 MR negative histologically-confirmed cases) and 29 right-handed controls. The analysis of sulcal abnormalities from T1-weighted MR imaging (MRI) was performed using a graph-based representation of the cortical folds and an automated sulci recognition system, providing a new quantitative criterion to describe sulcal patterns, termed sulcus energy. Results Group analysis showed that the central sulcus in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the FCD exhibited an abnormal sulcal pattern compared with controls (p = 0.032). FCDs were associated with abnormal patterns of the central sulci compared with controls (p = 0.006), a result that remained significant when MR-negative and MR-positive patients were considered separately, while the effects of sex, age and MR-field were not significant. At the individual level, sulcus energy alone failed to detect the FCD lesion. We found, however, a significant association between maximum z-scores and the site of FCD (p = 0.0046) which remained significant in MR-negative (p = 0.024) but not in MR-positive patients (p = 0.058). The maximum z-score pointed to an FCD sulcus in four MR-negative and five MR-positive patients. Conclusions We identified abnormal sulcal patterns in patients with FCD of the central region compared with healthy controls. The abnormal sulcal patterns ipsilateral to the FCD and the link between sulcus energy and the FCD location strengthen the interest of sulcal abnormalities in FCD patients. PMID:25822985

  3. Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salciarini, D.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Conversini, P.; Baum, R.L.; Michael, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework, and we use it to analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides in an area in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. As shown on a landslide inventory map produced by the Italian National Research Council, the area has been affected in the past by shallow landslides, many of which have transformed into debris flows. Input data for the TRIGRS model include time-varying rainfall, topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water table depth, and material strength and hydraulic properties. Because of a paucity of input data, we focus on parametric analyses to calibrate and test the model and show the effect of variation in material properties and initial water table conditions on the distribution of simulated instability in the study area in response to realistic rainfall. Comparing the results with the shallow landslide inventory map, we find more than 80% agreement between predicted shallow landslide susceptibility and the inventory, despite the paucity of input data.

  4. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  5. The Central California Regional Obesity Prevention Program: Changing Nutrition and Physical Activity Environments in California's Heartland

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Sarah E.; Capitman, John; Ruwe, Mathilda; Boyle, Maria; Flores, George

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the Central California Regional Obesity Prevention Program (CCROPP) are to promote safe places for physical activity, increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and support community and youth engagement in local and regional efforts to change nutrition and physical activity environments for obesity prevention. CCROPP has created a community-driven policy and environmental change model for obesity prevention with local and regional elements in low-income, disadvantaged ethnic and rural communities in a climate of poor resources and inadequate infrastructure. Evaluation data collected from 2005–2009 demonstrate that CCROPP has made progress in changing nutrition and physical activity environments by mobilizing community members, engaging and influencing policymakers, and forming organizational partnerships. PMID:20864732

  6. The Central California Regional Obesity Prevention Program: changing nutrition and physical activity environments in California's heartland.

    PubMed

    Schwarte, Liz; Samuels, Sarah E; Capitman, John; Ruwe, Mathilda; Boyle, Maria; Flores, George

    2010-11-01

    The goals of the Central California Regional Obesity Prevention Program (CCROPP) are to promote safe places for physical activity, increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and support community and youth engagement in local and regional efforts to change nutrition and physical activity environments for obesity prevention. CCROPP has created a community-driven policy and environmental change model for obesity prevention with local and regional elements in low-income, disadvantaged ethnic and rural communities in a climate of poor resources and inadequate infrastructure. Evaluation data collected from 2005-2009 demonstrate that CCROPP has made progress in changing nutrition and physical activity environments by mobilizing community members, engaging and influencing policymakers, and forming organizational partnerships. PMID:20864732

  7. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region-specific differences in the ecological functions performed by macroinvertebrates in forested depressional wetlands.

  8. A Near-IR Spectroscopic Survey of the Central Regions of Field Ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, David; Bothun, Gregory

    1999-02-01

    We propose to obtain central region K-band spectra for a sample of N ~ 30 field elliptical galaxies. An analysis of the central near-IR colors of these galaxies suggests that some of these galaxies may contain first-ascent giant branches (FGB) similar to the unusual FGB seen in the metal-rich Galactic globular clusters Liller 1 and NGC 6440. We wish to test this hypothesis by measuring the equivalent widths of the Na I 2.207(micron) and Ca I 2.263(micron) as well as the CO 2.36(micron) index. These new EW and CO index measurements will be compared to previously published data for K and M giants in the Local Solar Neighborhood, Baade's Window, and the Liller 1 and NGC 6440 clusters.

  9. Amino Acids That Centrally Influence Blood Pressure and Regional Blood Flow in Conscious Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2012-01-01

    Functional roles of amino acids have increasingly become the focus of research. This paper summarizes amino acids that influence cardiovascular system via the brain of conscious rats. This paper firstly describes why amino acids are selected and outlines how the brain regulates blood pressure and regional blood flow. This section includes a concise history of amino acid neurotransmitters in cardiovascular research and summarizes brain areas where chemical stimulations produce blood pressure changes mainly in anesthetized animals. This is followed by comments about findings regarding several newly examined amino acids with intracisternal stimulation in conscious rats that produce changes in blood pressure. The same pressor or depressor response to central amino acid stimulations can be produced by distinct mechanisms at central and peripheral levels, which will be briefly explained. Thereafter, cardiovascular actions of some of amino acids at the mechanism level will be discussed based upon findings of pharmacological and regional blood flow measurements. Several examined amino acids in addition to the established neurotransmitter amino acids appear to differentially activate brain structures to produce changes in blood pressure and regional blood flows. They may have physiological roles in the healthy brain, but pathological roles in the brain with cerebral vascular diseases such as stroke where the blood-brain barrier is broken. PMID:22690328

  10. Multichannel seismic profiles crossing source regions of megathrust earthquakes and slow slip events off-Boso, central Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Miura; M. Yamashita; N. Takahashi; T. No; S. Kodaira; K. Nozaki; R. Kobayashi

    2009-01-01

    Off-Boso is a southeastern coastal region of Boso peninsula neighboring Tokyo metropolitan, locating central Japan. This region is one of the most complex plate configuration regions on the earth because the Pacific Plate (PAP) and the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) are subducting beneath off-Boso reigon, which is a part of North American Plate (NAP) (or Okhotsk Plate). Associated with the

  11. Obstacles in provision of anti-retroviral treatment to drug users in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: A regional overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Bobrova; Anya Sarang; Raminta Stuikyte; Konstantin Lezhentsev

    2007-01-01

    Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia is currently the region with the fastest growing HIV epidemic, mainly among injecting drug users (IDUs). This study explored access to anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment among IDUs and evaluated obstacles to gaining access to treatment. Semi-structured questionnaires were collected from 21 countries from agencies which deliver services to IDUs (N=55), including AIDS centres, drug

  12. Telemagmatic metamorphism superimposed on regional metamorphism: Evidence from coals in central China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Coal (Lower Permian No. 1) in north-central Henan province, central China, exhibits a zoned rank distribution. The rank varies between high-volatile bituminous and anthracite. Highest rank coal occurs in a northwest-southeast trending zone that cuts across the center of the study area. Coal rank decreases from this central zone towards both the northeast and southwest. Core data indicate that the anthracite is currently overlain by over 4,600 m of sedimentary cover, which represents more or less continuous sedimentation during the Permian and Triassic. In the lower rank area to the southwest, erosion has removed all but approximately 1,000 m of strata. The rank distribution in this area has been attributed to regional metamorphism by previous workers as the higher coal rank coincides with the thicker strata. However, this study reveals that anthracite in the area has a much higher vitrinite reflectance, between 3--6% (Ro max, in oil), with some locations exhibiting reflectances greater than 6%. Petrographically, the anthracite is characterized by well developed pores (5--10 [mu]m in diameter) and mosaic structure. It is suggested that the higher heat flow is due to the presence of deep-seated plutons. It is proposed that coal metamorphism in this area involved three stages: (1) Pre-orogenic (early Permian-late Triassic). Regional metamorphism produced coals of subbituminous to high-volatile bituminous rank; (2) Orogenic (early Jurassic-late Cretaceous). Telemagmatic metamorphism resulted in zones of higher rank coal (medium volatile through anthracite rank); (3) Post-orogenic (Tertiary-Quaternary). Shallow burial depth due to the tectonic uplift followed by erosion had a negligible effect on coal rank. It is suggested, therefore, that coalification in this area is the result of regional metamorphism overprinted by telemagmatic metamorphism.

  13. Crustal structure of the Pannonian-Carpathian region, Central Europe, from ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Carpathian Basins Project Working Group

    2010-12-01

    The Pannonian Basin of Central Europe is a major extensional basin surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. During the evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, extension of the crust and lithosphere created several inter-related basins of which the Pannonian basin is the largest. Imaging the seismic velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle may help us understand the structure and geodynamic evolution of this part of central Europe. Here, we use ambient noise tomography to investigate the crust and uppermost mantle structure in the region. We have collected and processed continuous data from 56 temporary stations deployed in the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) for 16 months (2005-2007) and 41 permanent broadband stations; this dataset enables the most well-resolved images of the S-wave structure of the region yet obtained. We computed the cross-correlation between vertical component seismograms from pairs of stations and stacked the correlated waveforms over 1-2 years to estimate the Rayleigh wave Green’s function. Frequency-time analysis is used to measure the group velocity dispersion curves, which are then inverted for the group velocity maps. Our 4-10 s group velocity maps exhibit low velocity anomalies which clearly defined the major sediment depo-centers in the Carpathian region. A broad low velocity anomaly in the center of the 5 s group velocity map can be associated with the Pannonian Basin, whereas an anomaly in the southeastern region is related to the Moesian platform. Further east, the Vienna Basin can also be seen on our maps. A fast anomaly in the central region can be associated with the Mid-Hungarian line. At periods from 18 to 24 seconds, group velocities become increasingly sensitive to crustal thickness. The maps also reveal low-velocity anomalies associated with the Carpathians. The low velocity anomalies are probably caused by deeper crustal roots beneath the mountain ranges which occur due to isostatic compensation. CBP working group: G. Houseman, G. Stuart, Y. Ren, B. Dando, P. Lorinczi, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, UK; E. Hegedus, A. Kovács, I. Török, I. László, R. Csabafi, Eötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute, Budapest, Hungary; E. Brüeckl, H. Hausmann, W. Loderer, T-U Wien, Vienna, Austria; S. Radovanovic, V. Kovacevic, D. Valcic, S. Petrovic-Cacic, G. Krunic, Seismological Survey of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; A. Brisbourne, D. Hawthorn, A. Horleston, V. Lane, SEIS-UK, Leicester University, UK.

  14. Preliminary Assessment of The Impact of Landslides In The Umbria Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.; Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.

    The Umbria Region of Central Italy has a long history of mass movements. Landslides range in from fast moving rock falls and debris flows, most abundant in mountain ar- eas, to deep-seated, slow moving complex failures extending several hectares in the hilly part of the Region. Landslides occur every year in the Region, but the economic damage is largely unknown. In the framework of a nation wide attempt to evaluate landslide risk, we have completed a new landslide inventory map for the entire Um- bria Region. The map was prepared through the systematic analysis of various sets of vertical aerial photographs, including 1:33,000 photographs flown in 1954-55, and 1:13,000 scale photographs taken in 1977. Landslides identified the aerial photographs were mapped at 1:10,000 scale on detailed regional topographic maps (CTR series). The new inventory supersedes all previous landslide maps prepared at smaller scales, and contains more than 45,000 landslides, for a total landslide area of about 770 sqkm, 10 percent of the entire region. We have used the new inventory map to complete a preliminary assessment of the impact of landslides in the Umbria Region. The inven- tory map, digitized and stored into a GIS, was superimposed to the available maps of land-use, of the distributions of built-up areas (towns, villages and dwellings), and of the infrastructure (including major and secondary roads, and railways). The location and extent of the built up areas, and of the section of roads and railways placed on landslide deposits were identified. An attempt was also made to compare the location and extent of these potentially dangerous sites with the distribution of the "sites at rel- evant landslide risk" identified by the Regional Government of Umbria, and studied by us in a previous work

  15. Gamma-rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Central Region of the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale Dario; /CERN; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2009-02-01

    In this article, we review the prospects for the FERMI satellite (formerly known as GLAST) to detect gamma-rays from dark matter annihilations in the Central Region of the Milky Way, in light of the recent observations and discoveries of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. While the existence of significant astrophysical backgrounds in this part of the sky limits FERMI's discovery potential to some degree, this can be mitigated by exploiting the peculiar energy spectrum and angular distribution of the dark matter annihilation signal relative to those of astrophysical backgrounds.

  16. Fertility levels and trends in Arsi and Shoa regions of Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailemariam, A

    1991-10-01

    Levels and trends of fertility in the Arsi and Shoa regions of Central Ethiopia are examined, using data from the 1986 Population, Health and Nutrition baseline survey of the Ministry of Health of Ethiopia. The population has high fertility. Total fertility of six children per woman in the late 1960s increased to eight children per woman in the early 1980s, then declined to seven children per woman in the mid-1980s. Urban fertility declined by a substantial amount during the 15 years before the survey while rural fertility increased during the same period. The implications of high fertility are considered. PMID:1939287

  17. Vortex flows with suspended separation regions and long-range untwisted central jets

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovich, G.N.; Trofimov, R.S.

    1988-05-01

    A study is made of possible physicoaerodynamic configurations of vortical flow with suspended separation regions and untwisted central jets. Such flows are encountered in power plants (heat exchangers, combustion chambers, and chemical reactors) and in nature (tornadoes). The basic configurations of several flows of this type are described, including the structure of a flow formed by coaxial cocurrent twisted jets, the flow in a conical swirl chamber with the formation of an untwisted long-range axial jet, the flow pattern in a gas turbine engine chamber, and some considerations regarding the aerodynamics of a tornado.

  18. [Breeding sites of horseflies (Tabanidae) in the southern and central regions of Tomsk Province].

    PubMed

    Fominykh, V G; Eremina, L G

    1984-01-01

    Breeding places of 10 species of tabanids from southern and central regions of the Tomsk district were studied. They are connected with the Ob river, its tributaries Tom and Chulym, with the Baksa, Kirgizka, Chernaja and Ushaika rivers, flood-plain waterbodies, meadow lowlands, forest bogged up areas and with water bodies near animal breeding farms. The average density of larvae is 7.3 spec./m2. Most abundant were members of the genus Hybomitra (54.4%) and Tabanus (38.4%). The density of larvae depends on the time of their collection and their generic belonging. PMID:6493804

  19. Gamma rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Central Region of the Galaxy

    E-print Network

    Pasquale Dario Serpico; Dan Hooper

    2010-06-25

    In this article, we review the prospects for the Fermi satellite (formerly known as GLAST) to detect gamma rays from dark matter annihilations in the Central Region of the Milky Way, in particular on the light of the recent astrophysical observations and discoveries of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. While the existence of significant backgrounds in this part of the sky limits Fermi's discovery potential to some degree, this can be mitigated by exploiting the peculiar energy spectrum and angular distribution of the dark matter annihilation signal relative to those of astrophysical backgrounds.

  20. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  1. Spider poisoning: a report of six cases from the Central Anatolian region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akyildiz, Ba?ak; Kurto?lu, Selim; Poyrazo?lu, Hakan; Ozcan, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Spiders exist in every place and ecosystem. Spiders in tropical regions are particularly poisonous and can be dangerous to humans. Nearly 20,000 spider species are known, and almost all are venomous, although only 60 species worldwide are poisonous in humans. In our area, eight species are reported as poisonous in humans. Although most cases of spider bite are benign and require no intervention, severe local and systemic reactions may occur sometimes in the pediatric population, resulting in admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. In this report, we present the cases of six children from the Central Anatolian region in Turkey who were seriously affected by spider bites, and we review the literature on spider envenomation. PMID:20196396

  2. Intraspecific phylogeography of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in the central Rocky Mountain region of North America.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory M; Den Bussche, Ronald A; McBee, Karen; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Jones, Cheri A

    2005-11-01

    We used variation in a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine phylogeography of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, a boreal-adapted small mammal in the central Rocky Mountain region. AMOVA revealed that 65.66% of genetic diversity was attributable to variation within populations, 16.93% to variation among populations on different mountain ranges, and 17.41% to variation among populations within mountain ranges. Nested clade analysis revealed two major clades that likely diverged in allopatry during the Pleistocene: a southern clade from southern Colorado and a northern clade comprising northern Colorado, Wyoming, eastern Utah, and eastern Idaho. Historically restricted gene flow as a result of geographic barriers was indicated between populations on opposite sides of the Green River and Wyoming Basin and among populations in eastern Wyoming. In some instances genetic structure indicated isolation by distance. PMID:16247688

  3. Numerical study of local\\/regional atmospheric changes caused by a large solar central receiver power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Bhumralkar; A. J. Slemmons; K. C. Nitz

    1981-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical atmospheric mesoscale model with a vertical cross section is applied to study the potential local\\/regional atmospheric effects of the installation of a 100 MWe solar thermal central receiver power plant in California. The plant comprises heliostats (mirrors) covering a portion of ground surface and reflecting sunlight onto a central receiving tower. The model is able to simulate

  4. Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the central star forming region in NGC 1140 (exp 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Gallagher, John S. Iii

    1994-01-01

    We present broadband images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope's Planetary Camera of the central supergiant H II region in the amorphous galaxy NGC 1140. These images allow observations to a resolution of about 13 pc at the galaxy, and they reveal that its central 1/2 kpc contains 6-7 blue, luminous, compact super star clusters, many of which would be comparable in luminosity to globular clusters at the same age. A blue arc-shaped structure near the center may be a grouping of less luminous, R136/NGC 2070-sized clusters or a sheet of OB stars. Additional somewhat less luminous and redder clusters are also found farther out from the center. If these clusters are older, they too could have had luminosities comparable to those of the central six clusters at a comparable age. Thus, we find that NGC 1140 is remarkable in the number of extreme clusters that it has formed recently in a relatively small area of the galaxy. Since NGC 1140 exhibits global characteristics that are consistent with a recent merger, these clusters are likely to be a product of that event. This galaxy adds to the number of cases where rapid star formation has evidently produced super star clusters.

  5. 2000 resource assessment of selected coal beds and zones in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Northern and Central Appalachian Basin Coal Regions Assessment Team

    2001-01-01

    This report includes results of a digital assessment of six coal beds or zones in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions that produce over 15 percent of the Nation's coal. Other chapters include an executive summary, a report on geology and mining, a report summarizing other selected coal zones that were not assessed, and a report on USGS coal availability and recoverablity studies in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions.

  6. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 ?g m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2 to 90 ?g m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 ?g m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources from Europe; South, East, and Central Asia; and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.

  7. Geochemical tracers for the groundwater and streams in central mountainous regions of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Jin-Lun; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chen, Ai-Ti; Fu, Ching-Chou; Lin, Shih-Jung; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Yunshuen

    2014-05-01

    Noble gases have been considered as sensitive tracers for groundwater due to their unique geochemical characteristics. In this study, groundwater of the monitoring wells and river water were collected for geochemical analysis, including Radon concentration and Helium isotopes, from central mountainous regions of Taiwan to discuss their fluid sources. The results of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic values are -77.8~-36.5o and -10.7~-6.3o respectively, falling on the local meteoric water line of Taiwan. It revealed that groundwater source in studied area is mainly from the precipitation. The helium isotopic ratios of the samples range from 0.78 to 1.13 Ra. It implies that, in addition to the air-saturated water, there are additional sources for the groundwater in central mountainous regions of Taiwan. Interestingly the water sample from Liwu River was detected high 222Rn concentration, 7.66 kBq/m3, which is much higher than background values in normal river water. It suggests that local groundwater with high 222Rn concentration of 1.38~75.4 kBq/m3 may play important role for the Liwu River. Combined with other geochemical tracers, like 87Sr/86Sr and carbon isotopes of DIC, we will further discuss possible interaction between the groundwater and surface water with bed rocks.

  8. Study of the Seismic Cycle of large Earthquakes in central Peru: Lima Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norabuena, E. O.; Quiroz, W.; Dixon, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    Since historical times, the Peruvian subduction zone has been source of large and destructive earthquakes. The more damaging one occurred on May 30 1970 offshore Peru’s northern city of Chimbote with a death toll of 70,000 people and several hundred US million dollars in property damage. More recently, three contiguous plate interface segments in southern Peru completed their seismic cycle generating the 1996 Nazca (Mw 7.1), the 2001 Atico-Arequipa (Mw 8.4) and the 2007 Pisco (Mw 7.9) earthquakes. GPS measurements obtained between 1994-2001 by IGP-CIW an University of Miami-RSMAS on the central Andes of Peru and Bolivia were used to estimate their coseismic displacements and late stage of interseismic strain accumulation. However, we focus our interest in central Peru-Lima region, which with its about 9’000,000 inhabitants is located over a locked plate interface that has not broken with magnitude Mw 8 earthquakes since May 1940, September 1966 and October 1974. We use a network of 11 GPS monuments to estimate the interseismic velocity field, infer spatial variations of interplate coupling and its relation with the background seismicity of the region.

  9. Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, H.; Hou, S.; Kaspari, S.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2014-02-01

    Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu (DSP) Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER) Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the DSP and the ER ice core drilling sites is only ~ 125 km, the stable isotopic record (?18O or ?D) of the DSP core is interpreted in previous studies as a temperature proxy, while the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that remarkable discrepancy in precipitation seasonality between the two sites may account for their disparate isotopic interpretations. At the ER core site, the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) precipitation is dominating due to topographic blocking of the moisture from westerlies by the high ridges of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), which results in a negative correlation between the ER ?18O or ?D record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas in response to the "amount effect". At the DSP core site, in comparison with the ISM precipitation, the wintertime precipitation associated with the westerlies is likely more important owing to its local favorable topographic conditions for interacting with the western disturbances. Therefore, the DSP stable isotopic record may be primarily controlled by the westerlies. Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

  10. Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, H.; Hou, S.; Kaspari, S.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER) Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ∼125 km, the stable isotopic record (?18O or ?D) of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that the different interpretations of the Dasuopu and Everest isotopic records may not be contradictive. The north-south and west-east seesaws of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitation are primarily responsible for precipitation falling at the ER site, which results in a negative correlation between the ER ?18O or ?D record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas, corresponding to the "amount effect". In addition to the ISM precipitation, non-summer monsoonal precipitation associated with winter westerlies also significantly contributes to precipitation falling at the Dasuopu site, which may cause a positive correlation between the Dasuopu stable isotopic record and temperature, in response to the "temperature effect". Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

  11. Sixteen additional enhancers associated with the chicken Sox2 locus outside the central 50-kb region.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Ryuji; Uchikawa, Masanori; Kondoh, Hisato

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox2 plays a central role in the regulation of neuro-sensory development, and many other developmental processes. To gain an in depth understanding of the Sox2 gene regulation, we previously investigated the Sox2-proximal 50-kb region of the chicken genome to determine enhancers based on functional assays using chicken embryo electroporation. We identified 11 enhancers with specificity for neuro-sensory tissues. In this study, we extended the analysis of Sox2 locus-associated enhancers to a 200-kb region and identified 16 additional enhancers with functions in neuro-sensory development. These enhancers roughly correspond to a fraction of the sequence blocks that are highly conserved between chicken and mammalian genomes. The neural enhancers were activated in sequence, thereby creating a complex pattern of functional overlaps in the developing central nervous system (CNS). The variations in the specificities of the sensory enhancers also reflected the intermediate steps of sensory tissue development. This study provides an example where a single transcription factor gene has numerous regulatory elements that allow it to fulfill many functional roles in different biological contexts. PMID:25431100

  12. Intraseasonal variability of organized convective systems in the Central Andes: Relationship to Regional Dynamical Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, K. I.; Slayback, D. A.; Nicholls, S.; Yager, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes extend from the west coast of Colombia (10N) to the southern tip of Chile (53S). In southern Peru and Bolivia, the Central Andes is split into separate eastern and western cordilleras, with a high plateau (? 3000 m), the Altiplano, between them. Because 90% of the Earth's tropical mountain glaciers are located in the Central Andes, our study focuses on this region, defining its zonal extent as 7S-21S and the meridional extent as the terrain 1000 m and greater. Although intense convection occurs during the wet season in the Altiplano, it is not included in the lists of regions with frequent or the most intense convection. The scarcity of in-situ observations with sufficient density and temporal resolution to resolve individual storms or even mesoscale-organized cloud systems and documented biases in microwave-based rainfall products in poorly gauged mountainous regions have impeded the development of an extensive literature on convection and convective systems in this region. With the tropical glaciers receding at unprecedented rates, leaving seasonal precipitation as an increasingly important input to the water balance in alpine valley ecosystems and streams, understanding the nature and characteristics of the seasonal precipitation becomes increasingly important for the rural economies in this region. Previous work in analyzing precipitation in the Central Andes has emphasized interannual variability with respect to ENSO, this is the first study to focus on shorter scale variability with respect to organized convection. The present study took advantage of the University of Utah's Precipitation Features database compiled from 14 years of TRMM observations (1998-2012), supplemented by field observations of rainfall and streamflow, historical gauge data, and long-term WRF-simulations, to analyze the intraseasonal variability of precipitating systems and their relationship regional dynamical features such as the Bolivian High. Through time series and wavelet analysis, we found an important 8-10 day cycle related to but lagging convective surges in the Amazon basin and enhanced upper-level cyclonic flow around the Bolivian High. The majority of the organized convection in the region tended to be weak (< 5 mm/hr rain rates) and shallow (< 12 km). The timing of response (i.e., formation and distribution of organized convection) due to changes in moisture transport around the Bolivian High was similar in the wetter eastern and drier western cordilleras of the Central Andes. The response to upper level moisture transport was modulated by local soil moisture and elevation slope and aspect, with higher elevation, eastern facing peaks having a stronger response than western-facing and lower elevation areas. Streamflow data support the hypothesis that the majority of the light rainfall infiltrates the shallow sub-surface, rather than contributing to surface channel runoff, helping to sustain the high altitude peatlands in the Andean valleys.

  13. Regional frequency analysis for mapping drought events in north-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, J. H.; Verbist, K.; Wallis, J. R.; Schaefer, M. G.; Morales, L.; Cornelis, W. M.

    2011-08-01

    SummaryDroughts are among the most important natural disasters, particularly in the arid and semiarid regions of the world. Proper management of droughts requires knowledge of the expected frequency of specific low magnitude precipitation totals for a variety of durations. Probabilistic approaches have often been used to estimate the average recurrence period of a given drought event. However, probabilistic model fitting by conventional methods, such as product moment or maximum likelihood in areas with low availability of long records often produces highly unreliable estimates. Recognizing the need for adequate estimates of return periods of severe droughts in the arid and semiarid region of Chile, a regional frequency analysis method based on L-moments (RFA-LM) was used for estimating and mapping drought frequency. Some adaptations to the existing procedures for forming homogeneous regions were found necessary. In addition, a new 3-parameter distribution, the Gaucho, which is a special case of the 4-parameter Kappa distribution, was introduced, and the analysis procedure was improved by the developments of two new software tools named L-RAP, to perform the RFA-LM analysis, and L-MAP, to map the resulting drought maps. Eight homogeneous sub-regions were delineated using the Gaucho distribution and used to construct return period maps for drought events with 80% and 40% precipitation of the normal. The study confirms the importance of a sub-regional homogeneity test, and the usefulness of the Gaucho distribution. The RFA-LM showed that droughts with a 40% precipitation of the normal have return periods that range from 4 years at the northern arid boundary of the study area to 22 years at the southern sub-humid boundary. The results demonstrate the need for different thresholds for declaring a drought than those currently in use for drought characterization in north-central Chile.

  14. The Early Proterozoic structural and tectonic history of the south central Lake Superior Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueng, Wen-Long C.; Larue, Dave K.

    1988-06-01

    The early Proterozoic tectonic evolution of the south central Lake Superior region is complex, owing to the presence of four tectonostratigraphic terranes, which were affected by six phases of deformation. The four terranes are the passive margin of the Superior craton, two paraautochthonous passive margin terranes (Crystal Falls and Florence-Niagara terranes), and a southern magmatic arc complex which is probably allochthonous with respect to the other terranes. Four of the six deformational episodes accompanied subhorizontal shortening, while two were caused by subvertical shortening. The first and the most penetrative phase of deformation is marked by subhorizontal shortening in a NNE-SSW direction. The second and fourth deformations were characterized by subvertical shortening and did not significantly modify the structural orientations from previous events in the study area. The third, fifth, and sixth deformations mostly caused open folding, and shortening directions were NW, NE, and W, respectively. Because all the terranes in the south central Lake Superior region share parallel deformational histories, it is suggested that the accretion of these terranes occurred during the first deformational episode. After removal of younger deformational effects, including open folding of the suture zone, the tectonostratigraphic assemblages in this region show the following sequence from NNE to SSW: a platformal assemblage overlying sialic basement, a basinal assemblage of tholeiitic volcanic rocks overlain by deep-water turbidites, an assemblage of basin floor deposits (Crystal Falls terrane) with apparently no demonstratably underlying crystalline basement, a fault-bounded terrane with highly strained passive margin strata (Florence-Niagara terrane), and a calc-alkaline magmatic arc assemblage. Such an arrangement of tectonostratigraphic assemblages is comparable with cross sections through Phanerozoic accretionary continental margins and therefore supports an arc-continent collision model.

  15. Bias in the centroid moment tensor for central Asian earthquakes: Evidence from regional surface wave data

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, H.J. [Geophysics Group, Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)] [Geophysics Group, Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Surface waves recorded on the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) station Urumqi (WMQ) are analyzed for 26 centroid moment tensor (CMT) earthquakes located within an epicentral distance of 1300 km. Applying a simple grid search method for source parameter retrieval, I obtain revised estimates of the focal depth, fault strike, and seismic moment (M{sub 0}) from amplitude spectra of Love and Rayleigh waves and compare these estimates with the CMT best double-couple solutions. The comparisons show that residuals are unbiased for focal depth and fault strike, where population spreads are {plus_minus}13 km and {plus_minus}17{degree}, respectively. On the other hand, M{sub 0} estimates are found to be biased, with CMT M{sub 0} larger than regional estimates by an average of 0.27{plus_minus}0.04 log units. The results for focal depth and strike are consistent with previous global and regional studies comparing independent estimates with CMT results. Recent full-waveform modeling studies for central Asian earthquakes support the findings of bias in M{sub 0} estimates. I suggest that causes for M{sub 0} bias may be related to great thicknesses of continental crust in Hindu Kush and Tien Shan regions and to data censoring practices at small magnitudes. M{sub 0}:m{sub b} scaling relationships for central Asian earthquakes show better agreement with western U.S. scaling when M{sub 0} estimates determined in this study are used. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  16. Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere in Central America and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Díaz, Alberto; Ruiz, Javier; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; Kirby, Jon F.; Álvarez-Gómez, José A.; Tejero, Rosa; Capote, Ramón

    2014-04-01

    As a proxy for long-term lithospheric strength, the effective elastic thickness (Te) can be used to understand the relationship between lithospheric rheology and geodynamic evolution of complex tectonic settings. Here we present, for the first time, high-resolution maps of spatial variations of Te in Central America and surrounding regions from the analysis of the coherence between topography and Bouguer gravity anomaly using multitaper and wavelet methods. Regardless of the technical differences between the two methods, there is a good overall agreement in the spatial variations of Te recovered from both methods. Although absolute Te values can vary in both maps, the qualitative Te structure and location of the main Te gradients are very similar. The pattern of the Te variations in Central America and surrounding regions agrees well with the tectonic provinces in the region, and it is closely related to major tectonic boundaries, where the Middle American and Lesser Antilles subduction zones are characterized by a band of high Te on the downgoing slab seaward of the trenches. These high Te values are related to internal loads (and in the case of the southernmost tip of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone also associated with a large amount of sediments) and should be interpreted with caution. Finally, there is a relatively good correlation, despite some uncertainties, between surface heat flow and our Te results for the study area. These results suggest that although this area is geologically complex, the thermal state of the lithosphere has profound influence on its strength, such that Te is strongly governed by thermal structure.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Snowfall in Central New York - A Lake Effect Dominated Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, Justin Joseph

    Central New York is located in one of the snowiest regions in the United States, with the city of Syracuse, New York the snowiest metropolis in the nation. Snowfall in the region generally begins in mid-November and lasts until late-March. Snow accumulation occurs from a multitude of conditions: frontal systems, mid-latitude cyclones, Nor'easters, and most notably lake-effect storms. Lake effect snowfall (LES) is a difficult parameter to forecast due to the isolated and highly variable nature of the storm. Consequently, studies have attempted to determine changes in snowfall for lake-effect dominated regions. Annual snowfall patterns are of particular concern as seasonal snowfall totals are vital for water resources, winter businesses, agriculture, government and state agencies, and much more. Through the use of snowfall, temperature, precipitation, and location data from the National Weather Service's Cooperative Observer Program (COOP), spatial and temporal changes in snowfall for Central New York were determined. In order to determine climatic changes in snowfall, statistical analyses were performed (i.e. least squares estimation, correlations, principal component analyses, etc.) and spatial maps analyzed. Once snowfall trends were determined, factors influencing the trends were examined. Long-term snowfall trends for CNY were positive for original stations (˜0.46 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1) and homogenously filtered stations (0.23 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1). However, snowfall trends for shorter time-increments within the long-term period were not consistent, as positive, negative, and neutral trends were calculated. Regional differences in snowfall trends were observed for CNY as typical lake-effect areas (northern counties, the Tug Hill Plateau and the Southern Hills) experienced larger snowfall trends than areas less dominated by LES. Typical lake-effect months (December - February) experienced the greatest snowfall trend in CNY compared to other winter months. The influence of teleconnections on seasonal snowfall in CNY was not pronounced; however, there was a slight significant (5%) correlation (< 0.35) with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. It was not clear if changes in air temperature or changes in precipitation were the cause of variations in snowfall trends. It was also inconclusive if the elevation or distance from Lake Ontario resulted in increased snowfall trends. Results from this study will aid in seasonal snowfall forecasts in CNY, which can be used to predict future snowfall. Even though the study area is regionally specific, the methods may be applied to other lake effect dominated areas to determine temporal and spatial variations in snowfall. This study will enhance climatologists and operational forecasters' awareness and understanding of snowfall, especially lake effect snowfall in CNY.

  18. Downscaling GRACE satellite data for sub-region groundwater storage estimates in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuss, A. M.; Newcomer, M. E.; Hsu, W.; Bourai, A.; Puranam, A.; Landerer, F. W.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Valley aquifer (CVA) is a vital economic and environmental resource for California and the United States, and supplies water for one of the most agriculturally productive regions in the world. Recent estimates of groundwater (GW) availability in California have indicated declines in GW levels that may pose a threat to sustainable groundwater use in this region. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) can be used to estimate variations in total water storage (TWS) and are therefore used to estimate GW storage changes within the CVA. However, using GRACE data in the CVA is challenging due to the coarse spatial resolution and increased error. To compensate for this, we used a statistical downscaling approach applied to GRACE data at the sub-region level using GW storage estimates from the California Department of Water Resources' (DWR) C2VSim hydrological model. This method produced a spatially and temporally variable GW anomaly dataset for sub-region GW management and for analysis of GW changes influenced by spatial and temporal variability. An additional challenge for this region is the influence of natural climate variability, altering GW recharge and influencing pumping practices. Understanding the effects of climate variability on GW storage changes, may improve GRACE TWS and GW estimates during periods of increased rain or droughts. Thus, the GRACE TWS and GW storage estimates were compared to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) using singular spectral analysis (SSA). Results from SSA indicate that variations in GRACE TWS are moderately correlated to PDO (10-25 year cycle), although low correlations were observed when compared to ENSO (2-7 year cycle). The incorporation of these new methods for estimating variations in groundwater storage in highly productive aquifers may improve water management techniques in California.

  19. Molecular analysis of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes in the Central-East region of Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Tunisia, country of intermediate endemicity for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, most molecular studies on the virus have been carried out in the North of the country and little is known about other regions. The aim of this study was to determine HBV genotype and subgenotypes in Central-East Tunisia. A total of 217 HBs antigen positive patients were enrolled and determination of genotype was investigated in 130 patients with detectable HBV DNA. HBV genotyping methods were: PCR-RFLP on the pre-S region, a PCR using type-specific primers in the S region (TSP-PCR) and partial sequencing in the pre-S region. Results Three genotypes (D, B and A) were detected by the PCR-RFLP method and two (D and A) with the TSP-PCR method, the concordance between the two methods was 93%. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 strains, retrieved the same genotype (D and A) for samples with concordant results and genotype D for samples with discordant results. The sequences of discordant genotypes had a restriction site in the pre-S gene which led to erroneous result by the PCR-RFLP method. Thus, prevalence of genotype D and A was 96% and 4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of two subgenotypes D1 (55%) and D7 (41%). Only one strain clustered with D3 subgenotype (3%). Conclusions Predominance of subgenotype D7 appears to occur in northern regions of Africa with transition to subgenotype D1 in the East of the continent. HBV genetic variability may lead to wrong results in rapid genotyping methods and sequence analysis is needed to clarify atypical results. PMID:21050489

  20. MAPPING THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE PPN CRL 618 AT SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION AT 350 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Yang, Chun-Hui [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sahai, Raghvendra [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sanchez Contreras, Carmen [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-20

    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at {approx}0.''3-0.''5 resolutions. Two components are seen in the 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in a 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base; and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC{sub 3}N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain millimeter-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC{sub 3}N and HCN and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in CH{sub 2}CHCN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within {approx}630 AU (0.''7) of the central star. A simple radiative transfer model is used to derive the kinematics, physical conditions, and the chemical abundances in the dense core. The dense core is expanding and accelerating, with the velocity increasing roughly linearly from {approx}3 km s{sup -1} in the innermost part to {approx}16 km s{sup -1} at 630 AU. The mass-loss rate in the dense core is extremely high with a value of {approx}1.15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The dense core has a mass of {approx}0.47 M{sub Sun} and a dynamical age of {approx}400 yr. It could result from a recent enhanced heavy mass-loss episode that ends the asymptotic giant branch phase. The isotopic ratios of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N are 9 {+-} 4 and 150 {+-} 50, respectively, both lower than the solar values.

  1. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

  2. Regional tectonic synthesis of central foldbelt and Indus plain of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Dolan, P.

    1989-03-01

    A regional tectonic synthesis based on detailed interpretation of 32 Landsat images, review of literature and maps, and integration of a regional stratigraphic analysis reveals a great deal about the development and distribution of deformational features in Pakistan and indicates a number of oil and gas exploration opportunities that may have been overlooked. It appears that the original shape of the Indian and Eurasian plates and their convergence vector through time controlled the overall pattern of deformation resulting from their collision. The details of plate convergence history, distribution of previously existing structural features, distribution of lithologic units, and their mechanical properties profoundly influence the morphology and architecture of the ranges comprising the Central foldbelt and the effects of the collision in the Indus Plain. In particular, the distribution of low-viscosity units that act as detachment zones (e.g., the Infracambrian evaporite sequence, Cretaceous and Eocene shales and evaporites) control the location of folded thrust belts, thrust duplexes, and passive-roof complexes. Taken together, the tectonic synthesis and regional stratigraphic analysis indicate a wide variety of untested exploration opportunities. These opportunities range from the obvious testing of undrilled structures within productive foldbelts such as the Potwar Plateau and Sulaiman Range to the pursuit of distal folds and the more obscure extension of foldbelts beneath the alluvial cover of the Indus Plain and delta.

  3. Livestock pathology in the central African region: some epidemiological considerations and control strategies.

    PubMed

    Awa, Daniel Ndzingu; Achukwi, Mbunkah Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Disease consistently features among the major constraints of livestock production in the central African region, orchestrating important economic losses. This article reviews livestock diseases of economic importance, including foot-and-mouth disease, trypanosomosis and dermatophilosis in cattle, peste des petits ruminants and gastrointestinal helminthosis in sheep and goats, and Newcastle disease in poultry. Some aspects of epidemiology such as pathogen identification, prevalence and risk factors are examined in the light of research findings in the region. Control tools such as vaccines, chemotherapeutic or prophylactic agents, and protocols developed for their efficient use are also reviewed. Constraints to the effective use of these tools have been identified as mostly due to institutional insufficiencies and measures for improvement have been proposed. These include the promotion of private professional veterinary services endowed with greater responsibility in animal health care, creation and promotion of community-based animal health care units in areas of marginal professional coverage, and adoption of a regional approach to the control of diseases of economic importance. PMID:20074399

  4. SO2 measurements at a high altitude site in the central Himalayas: Role of regional transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naja, Manish; Mallik, Chinmay; Sarangi, Tapaswini; Sheel, Varun; Lal, Shyam

    2014-12-01

    Continuous measurements of a climatically important acidic gas, SO2, were made over Nainital (29.37°N, 79.45°E; 1958 m amsl), a regionally representative site in the central Himalayas, for the first time during 2009-2011. Unlike many other sites, the SO2 levels over Nainital are higher during pre-monsoon (345 pptv) compared to winter (71 pptv). High values during pre-monsoon are attributed to the transport of air masses from regions viz. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), northern India and north-East Pakistan, which are dotted with numerous industries and power plants, where coal burning occurs. Transport from the polluted regions is evinced from good correlations of SO2 with wind speed, NOy and UV aerosol index during these periods. Daytime elevations in SO2 levels, influenced by 'valley winds' and boundary layer evolution, is a persistent feature at Nainital. SO2 levels are very much lower during monsoon compared to pre-monsoon, due to oxidation losses and wet scavenging. Despite this, SO2/NOy slopes are high (>0.4) both during pre-monsoon and monsoon, indicating impacts of point sources. The SO2 levels during winter are lower as the measurement site is cut off from the plains due to boundary layer dynamics. Further, the SO2 levels during winter nights are the lowest (lesser than 50 pptv) and resemble free tropospheric conditions.

  5. An Economic, Hydrologic, and Environmental Assessment of Water Management Alternative Plans for the South Central Texas Region*1

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    water scarcity has motivated the South Central Texas Regional Water Planning Group to actively engage to the restrictions imposed in Texas Senate Bill 1477.1 This regional water scarcity has motivated the SCTRWPGAn Economic, Hydrologic, and Environmental Assessment of Water Management Alternative Plans

  6. Anarchism and the Archaeology of Anarchic Societies: Resistance to Centralization in the Coast Salish Region of the Pacific Northwest Coast

    E-print Network

    Kohler, Tim A.

    Salish Region of the Pacific Northwest Coast Author(s): Bill Angelbeck and Colin Grier Reviewed work of Anarchic Societies Resistance to Centralization in the Coast Salish Region of the Pacific Northwest Coast by Bill Angelbeck and Colin Grier Throughout human history, people have lived in societies without

  7. Central Asia Regional IPM CRSP Project Report: October 2007-March 2008 Submitted by: Dr. K. Maredia and Dr. D. Baributsa

    E-print Network

    agents for controlling pest on cotton and vegetable crops in Central Asia. Research focusing control in cotton fields in the Andijan region (Uzbekistan) and Osh region (Kyrgyzstan) resulted-10 nectar plant species) into existing vegetables crops in Hissor valley of Tajikistan. In collaboration

  8. The Diversity of Coolia spp. (Dinophyceae Ostreopsidaceae) in the Central Great Barrier Reef Region

    PubMed Central

    Momigliano, Paolo; Sparrow, Leanne; Blair, David; Heimann, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background Dinoflagellates are important primary producers, crucial in marine food webs. Toxic strains, however, are the main causative agents of non-bacterial seafood poisoning, a major concern for public health worldwide. Despite their importance, taxonomic uncertainty within many genera of dinoflagellates is still high. The genus Coolia includes potentially harmful species and the diversity within the genus is just starting to become apparent. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, cultures were established from strains of Coolia spp. isolated from the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Cultures were identified based on thecal plate morphology and analyses of sequences (18S, ITS and 28S) from the nuclear rRNA operon. We report that the central GBR harbors a high diversity of Coolia species, including two species known to be capable of toxin production (C. tropicalis and C. malayensis), as well as the non-toxic C. canariensis. The strain of C. canariensis isolated from the GBR may in fact be a cryptic species, closely related but nevertheless phylogenetically distinct from the strain on which the holotype of C. canariensis was based. We also found evidence of the occurrence of a cryptic species morphologically very similar to both C. malayensis and C. monotis. The consequences of taxonomic confusion within the genus are discussed. Conclusion/Significance The central GBR region harbors a previously unreported high diversity of Coolia spp., including two species known to potentially produce toxins. The presence of a cryptic species of unknown toxicity highlights the importance of cryptic diversity within dinoflagellates. PMID:24194962

  9. Mesozoic Kinematic Evolution of the Central Atlantic Inferred From Regional Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labails, C.; Olivet, J.; Aslanian, D.; Sichler, B.; Roest, W.; Evain, M.

    2007-12-01

    The magnetic anomaly signature of Central Atlantic margins is well defined by the gridded data published by Verhoef et al. (1996) on the North American region. However, a gridded dataset for the West African margin (South of the Canary Islands) was lacking. We have used magnetic data from the Geodas database, an Ifremer dataset and personnal communication from H.A. Roeser and W.J.M. Van der Linden in order to produce a gridded magnetic data of the Dakhla margin and to better constrain the kinematics of Central Atlantic early opening. Our model adopts the breakup timing of 195 Ma as proposed by Sahabi et al. (2004) - 20 myr earlier than what was generally proposed in previous models. According to our interpretation of the newly compiled magnetic data, the early opening of Central Atlantic was characterized by three distinct phases. In contrast to other models, we propose that for the first 30 myr (195-165 Ma, Lias-Dogger) the oceanic accretion was extremely slow (~0.8 cm/y). At the Blake Spur time, (around 165 Ma, Callovian basis), a drastic change occurred, both in the relative plate motions (initially NNW-SSE, it becomes NO-SE) and spreading rate (that increases up to ~ 4.8 cm/y). The BSMA (Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly) is related to a great basement topographic change. From magnetic chron M22 (150 Ma, Tithonian basis) onwards, the spreading rate slowed down to about 2.6 cm/y and remained constant until magnetic chron M0 (125 Ma, Barremian-Aptian limit).

  10. African American Funeral Programs from the East Central Georgia Regional Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-06

    Based at the East Central Georgia Regional Library, the African American Funeral Programs collection consists of over 1,000 funeral programs dated from 1933 to 2008. Most of the programs are from churches in Augusta, Georgia, and the surrounding area, with a few outliers coming from New York and Florida. These materials are tremendously important historical resources, as most programs contain a photograph of the deceased, an obituary, and a list of surviving relatives. Visitors can browse the collection by name, year of death, city, or funeral site. Additionally, they may wish to use the advanced search feature on the homepage. First-time visitors may wish to click on the featured obituary on the "From the collection" graphic. It's a remarkable collection and one that is worth passing along to friends and colleagues.

  11. Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.

    2013-12-01

    Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential recharge) and by inferring ET through difference, modeling, and gas exchange. In April 2013 prior to planting, we installed 10 passive capillary wick lysimeters below the effective rooting zone (z=100 cm) in potato (n=6) and maize (n=4) cropping systems to collect drainage at a 10-minute time-step under cultivation on Isherwood Farms, a sixth-generation family farm in the Wisconsin Central Sands region. Lysimeters were also instrumented to measure soil moisture and temperature at depth (z=10, 20, 40, 80 cm). Farm operators initiated center-pivot irrigation when soil moisture dropped to approximately 50% of plant available water content. Results show that drainage for May-July 2013 was 43 × 53 mm and 48 × 41 mm in irrigated potato and maize cropping systems, respectively, despite 320 mm of precipitation received during the experimental period, which was 15% above average for this region. Soil moisture consistently fluctuated in response to precipitation/irrigation events at the 10 and 20 cm soil depths, but rarely fluctuated in response to precipitation/irrigation events at the 40 and 80 cm soil depths, supporting the low drainage observed during the growing season. Future work will couple these drainage data to ongoing phenological, micrometeorological, and gas exchange observations in order to infer ET and calculate crop water budgets on a seasonal basis.

  12. Magnetic Fields and Mass Inflow in Central Regions of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer; Ehle, Matthias; Fletcher, Andrew; Harnett, Julienne; Shoutenkov, Vladimir; Shukurov, Anvar; Sokoloff, Dmitry

    2005-08-01

    Radio continuum emission is an excellent tracer of star formation in central regions of galaxies. We observed a sample of 20 galaxies with massive bars. The regular magnetic fields around the bar, as traced by the polarized emission, do not always follow the gas flow predicted from numerical simulations and show little compression by the shock. The galaxies with the longest bars show the strongest deviations of the magnetic field pattern from axial symmetry, and most of them host nuclear rings. The total magnetic fields in these nuclear rings of up to ~= 100 ?G are among the strongest fields known in spiral galaxies. The regular field in the nuclear ring of NGC 1097 is of spiral shape. Magnetic stress in the ring can drive mass inflow of about one solar mass per year which is sufficient to feed the active nucleus. This process may also work in non-barred galaxies.

  13. A Near-IR Spectroscopic Survey of the Central Regions of Field Ellipticals: Continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, David; Bothun, Gregory

    2000-02-01

    We propose to obtain central region K-band spectra for a sample of N ~ 30 field elliptical galaxies. An analysis of the central near-IR colors of these galaxies suggests that some of these galaxies may contain first-ascent giant branches (FGB) similar to the unusual FGB seen in the metal-rich Galactic globular clusters Liller 1 and NGC 6440. We wish to test this hypothesis by measuring the equivalent widths of the Na I 2.207(micron) and Ca I 2.263(micron) as well as the CO 2.36(micron) index. These new EW and CO index measurements will be compared to previously published data for K and M giants in the Local Solar Neighborhood, Baade's Window, and the Liller 1 and NGC 6440 clusters. These spectra can also be used to assess cosmic dispersion in the elliptical galaxy stellar population properties, which has important implications for SBF distance measurements and the study of high- redshift galaxies.

  14. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Giantsis, Ioannis A.; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J.; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P.

    2014-01-01

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ?ST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

  15. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?–9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900–13,800 and 12,700–9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

  16. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2014-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ∼0.2) in CA vary seasonally with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ∼10 ?g m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2-90 ?g m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ∼0.1 ?g m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD, and PM2.5, PM10, BC, organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in the Kyrgyz Republic (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrate that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning and anthropogenic sources from Europe, South, East and CA, and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.

  17. Electrical conductivity of mantle in the North Central region of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiora, Daniel N.; Okeke, Francisca N.; Yumoto, K.

    2015-01-01

    The mantle electrical conductivity profile of the North Central region of Nigeria was determined using the quiet day ionospheric current variations (Sq). The employed magnetic averaged hourly data were obtained from Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) ground based observatories at two Nigerian stations located at Ilorin (8°30?N, 4°33?E) and Abuja (8°59?N, 7°23?E) for the year 2009 and 2010. The magnetometer data from Pankshin (9°20?N, 9°27?E) and Katsina-Ala (7°10?N, 9°17?E) for the same years were equally employed. The separation of both the internal and external field contributions to the Sq variations was successfully carried out employing spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). Transfer function was performed in computing the conductivity-depth profile for North Central region of Nigeria from the paired external and internal coefficients of the SHA. The conductivity value of approximately 0.039 S/m was estimated at a depth of 100 km which rose gradually to 0.087 S/m at 207 km depth and 0.142 S/m at 367 km (close to the base of upper mantle). Subsequently, the conductivity profile continued rising to a value of 0.144 S/m at 442 km, 0.164 S/m at 653 km and 0.174 S/m at 710 km. Finally, value of approximately 0.195 S/m at a depth of 881 km and 0.240 S/m at 1100 km depth were recorded at the lower mantle with no indication of leveling off. Some evidence of discontinuities near 100-214 km, 214-420 km, 420-640 km, 640-900 km and 900-1100 km were clearly obvious. The sharp increase in conductivity from about 100 km depth to 230 km was interpreted to correspond to the global seismic low velocity zone - the asthenosphere.

  18. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

  19. Prevalence and distribution of children with congenital heart diseases in the central Anatolian region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ba?pinar, Osman; Karaaslan, Sevim; Oran, Bülent; Baysal, Tamer; Elmaci, A Midhat; Yorulmaz, Alaaddin

    2006-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most frequent malformation at birth. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of congenital heart disease, their different types, and the detection rate among children in the central Anatolian region in Turkey. The study was conducted during an eight-year period (March 1995-December 2002). The prevalence of CHD in a large tertiary care hospital in the central Anatolian region in Turkey was studied. The diagnosis of a structural defect was based on echocardiographic study. The following age groups were considered: neonates, infants and toddlers, preschool children, schoolchildren, and adolescents. In the study period, 1,693 children were found to have CHD; 1253 patients were neonates and infants. Total prevalence of CHD over the study period was 7.77 per 1000 live-born. The prevalence increased from 6.35 to 9.65 per 1000 live births between 1995 and 2002 (p < 0.05). The average age at diagnosis was 2.2 +/- 3.64 years (1 day to 18 years, median 5 months). There were 863 (51%) boys and 830 (49%) girls, with a male/female ratio of 1:1. Isolated ventricular septal defect (32.6%) was the most frequent acyanotic anomaly, and tetralogy of Fallot (5.8%) was the most frequent cyanotic anomaly. The commonest non-cardiac anomalies with CHD were musculoskeletal anomalies. Down syndrome was determined in 83 patients (78.3%) from all syndromic CHD cases. Congenital heart disease is a very significant health problem. It requires urgent measures in terms of organization of early diagnosis and proper management. The prevalence rate is comparable to that of similar developed countries. Increasing incidence of CHD might be attributed to more diagnoses with new technologic development or it may indicate a real increase in the defects. PMID:17172068

  20. A regional inventory of rock glaciers and protalus ramparts in the central Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Brardinoni, Francesco; Alberti, Stefano; Frattini, Paolo; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2013-03-01

    We present a regional inventory of rock glaciers (n = 1514) and protalus ramparts (228) for the Lombardy region, central Italian Alps. To identify and classify the landforms we inspect three sequential air-orthophoto mosaics and a 2 m-DSM, and conduct confirmatory field work. The inventory forms an empirical basis to analyze: (i) the relative contribution of hillslope (i.e., talus slopes) and glacial (i.e., moraines) sediment stores to rock glacier sediment supply; (ii) linkages between the landforms inventoried and local topographic attributes; (iii) the spatial variability of periglacial activity in relation to a parsimonious set of environmental variables (i.e., elevation, precipitation, and lithology); and (iv) the effects of the Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition on the distribution of intact and relict landforms. This analysis reveals that the elevation of rock glacier termini can vary over 200 m as a function of slope aspect. In turn, the distribution of rock glaciers among aspect categories is controlled by the structure of the valley network that promotes NW and SE exposures. Talus rock glaciers prevail numerically over the glacier-related typology, even though the latter population appears to have increased during the Holocene. Relict and intact rock glaciers have distinct spatial patterns in that the former display, on average, a 400-m elevation drop and a less clustered distribution towards northern aspects, suggesting that they have developed in more "permafrost-prone" climatic conditions. Analyzing the study region through a 27.5 km-grid has been instrumental for showing that the rock glacier specific area and terminus elevation are: (i) positively correlated with terrain elevation; and (ii) negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation. As a consequence, in relation to Holocene generalized atmospheric temperature rise, intact rock glaciers have progressively disappeared from the wetter and milder portions of the central Italian Alps. Analysis of rock glacier occurrence across litho-tectonic sectors does not provide conclusive dependences and requires further analysis. This inventory, which represents a necessary preliminary step for modelling the spatial distribution of discontinuous permafrost at the regional scale, fills a critical geographic gap in the context of ongoing permafrost research in the European Alps (e.g., PermaNET).

  1. Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008?July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

  2. Risk analysis of first and last frost occurrences in the Central Alborz region, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, M.; Hajjam, S.; Khalili, A.; Kamali, G. A.; Stigter, C. J.

    2007-03-01

    Central Alborz is one of the important agricultural regions of Iran. Occurrence of the first frost in fall and the last frost in spring causes damage to the crops in this region every year. Information about the probable dates of frost occurrence helps farmers in preventing or reducing the damages caused by frost. Six stations, with 34 years of daily minimum temperature data, were selected at various elevations. Dates of frost occurrences in three degrees of severity (mild, moderate, and severe) and frost-free periods were obtained for each year. Appropriate distributions were determined for each frost series (dates of frosts and frost-free periods) on the basis of relevant statistical methods. It was found that the Pearson type III distribution was most appropriate. Probability distribution was constructed for each frost series. Frost occurrences up to a given date and maximum lengths of frost-free periods, with their probabilities, were determined. Correlations between the dates of frost occurrence and elevation, and between the maximum lengths of frost-free periods and elevation were identified in some probability levels. Our results show a positive correlation between the frequency of frost and elevation, and a significant negative correlation between the duration of frost-free period and elevation. Frost is more frequent in higher areas. The shortest and the longest frost-free periods occur on top of high mountains and on low altitude areas, respectively.

  3. Functional Importance of Covalent Homodimer of Reelin Protein Linked via Its Central Region*

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Norihisa; Kitago, Yu; Beppu, Ayako; Kohno, Takao; Morishita, Shunsuke; Gomi, Hiroki; Nagae, Masamichi; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Takagi, Junichi

    2011-01-01

    Reelin is a 3461-residue secreted glycoprotein that plays a critical role in brain development through its action on target neurons. Although it is known that functional reelin protein exists as multimer formed by interchain disulfide bond(s) as well as through non-covalent interactions, the chemical nature of the multimer assembly has been elusive. In the present study, we identified, among 122 cysteines present in full-length reelin, the single critical cysteine residue (Cys2101) responsible for the covalent multimerization. C2101A mutant reelin failed to assemble into disulfide-bonded multimers, whereas it still exhibited non-covalently associated high molecular weight oligomeric states in solution. Detailed analysis of tryptic fragments produced from the purified reelin proteins revealed that the minimum unit of the multimer is a homodimeric reelin linked via Cys2101 present in the central region and that this cysteine does not connect to the N-terminal region of reelin, which had been postulated as the primary oligomerization domain. A surface plasmon resonance binding assay confirmed that C2101A mutant reelin retained binding capability toward two neuronal receptors apolipoprotein E receptor 2 and very low density lipoprotein receptor. However, it failed to show signaling activity in the assay using the cultured neurons. These results indicate that an intact higher order architecture of reelin multimer maintained by both Cys2101-mediated homodimerization and other non-covalent association present elsewhere in the reelin primary structure are essential for exerting its full biological activity. PMID:21844191

  4. Investigation of regional geokinematics of central Europe using permanent GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogusz, J.; Figurski, M.; Kontny, B.; Jarosinski, M.; Klos, A.; Grzempowski, P.

    2012-12-01

    Since 2009 the Centre of Applied Geomatics of the Military University of Technology acts as one of the 18 Local Analysis Centers within EPN (EUREF Permanent Network). The duty of the LAC is to process a subnetwork of EPN stations and deliver weekly free network solutions to the Combination Centre as well as make research aimed at interpretation of obtained sites' coordinates. We have used satellite data from more than 300 permanent sites located in Europe, incorporated to EPN and supplemented by the sites operated within Polish GBAS (Ground-Based Augmentation System) called ASG-EUPOS for investigation of the regional geokinematic effects. These observations were processed by means of combining the normal equations using BERNESE 5.0 software. The velocities of permanent sites were determined from time series (geocentric coordinates) in two ways: using robust estimation using M-estimators and with CATREF software with no significant differences obtained. The several methods of interpolation of velocities into regular grid were tested. The research on regional kinematics was done by scientific description of continuous velocity model in comparison with different discontinuous models with geological structure taken into consideration. Finally the strain rates of Central Europe were elaborated using GRID_STRAIN software and compared to the previously determined empirical models.

  5. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring results and regional generalized data showed 1-1.5 % Corg lost during last 50 years period and active processes of CO2 emission and humus profile eluvial-illuvial redistribution too. Forest-steppe Chernozems are usually characterized by higher stability than steppe ones. The ratio between erosive and biological losses in humus supplies can be ten¬tatively estimated as fifty-fifty with strong spatial variability due to slope and land-use parameters. These processes have essentially different sets of environmental consequences and ecosystem services that we need to understand in frame of agroecological problems development prediction. A drop of Corg content below threshold "humus limiting content" values (3-4% of Corg) considerably reduces effectiveness of used fertilizers and possibility of sustainable agronomy here. This problem environmental and agroecological situation can be essentially improved by new federal law on environmentally friendly agriculture but it's draft is still in the process of deliberation. Quantitative analysis of principal ecosystem services, soil cover patterns and degradation processes in parameters of land qualities help us in developing different-scale projects for agricultural and urban land-use, taking into attention not only economical benefits but environmental functions too. The conceptions of ecosystem services and local land resource management are becoming more and more popular at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia due to innovation application of basic agroecology, ecological monitoring and soil science achievements.

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of the changing drought characteristics in Bundelkhand region of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T.; Jaiswal, R. K.; Nayak, P. C.; Ghosh, N. C.

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of meteorological and hydrological drought characteristics including the dry spell analysis for planning of supplemental irrigation has been carried out for Bearma basin in Bundelkhand region of Central India. The Bundelkhand region has been under a spell of recurrent droughts. In the last decade, widespread droughts were felt during 2002-2003 and 2007-2008. The drought frequency varies between 1 in 3 years in Rehli and Deori and 1 in 5 years in Hatta. Rehli and Deori blocks falling in Sagar district have been identified to be drought prone. The meteorological drought characteristics evaluated by standardized precipitation index (SPI) indicated that drought severity has increased greatly with the drought intensity varying between -1.22 in Deori and -0.97 in Rehli. The streamflow drought characteristics have been evaluated using streamflow drought index (SDI), whereas the groundwater drought characteristics evaluated by groundwater drought index (GDI). The maximum groundwater drought intensity is observed in Rehli (-0.44). Two critical dry spells (CDS) of 14-18 days invariably occur during the principal rainy months of July and August, for which provision of life-saving supplementary irrigation is essential for the rain-fed agriculture. A drought management plan (DMP) has been developed, based on basin relevant drought indicators and drought triggers, designed and fined tuned to actual drought conditions in the basin. Based on the supply and demand scenario during droughts, an appropriate drought response plan linked to prevailing drought levels has been developed, to effectively manage the scarce water resources during persistent drought scenario. Results of the study are quite promising and the concept of DMP can be replicated to other basins in the region taking into account the basin relevant indicators as necessary.

  7. A SEARCH FOR RR LYRAE VARIABLES IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF M54

    SciTech Connect

    Montiel, Edward J. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mighell, Kenneth J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    We have analyzed archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations of the central region of the globular cluster M54. The 12 irregularly timed observations (6 F555W, 6 F814W) were reduced using the HSTphot stellar photometry package. Our statistical analysis of the HSTphot photometry yielded 50 variable stars that are likely RR Lyrae candidates. These candidates were missed by previous ground-based searches for RR Lyraes due to the extreme crowding in the core of M54. We performed two checks on our sample of RR Lyrae candidates to determine how different they were from the other variable candidates. The first test was a numerical analysis comparing the ratio of variable candidates to the total number of stars within the blue horizontal branch, the RR Lyrae region, and the red giant branch. We found ratios of 0.61%, 13%, and 1.1% in these regions, respectively. Our next test was a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, which allowed us to find out how different our 50 RR Lyrae candidates were from the 50 brightest other variable candidates. According to the K-S test, there is only a 0.0004% probability that these two populations are similar, indicating that our RR Lyrae candidates do indeed exhibit some real fluctuation in their brightness. We sampled the light curves of confirmed RR Lyrae light curves to simulate the HST observing conditions and found that a signature of variability in 2911 out of the 4000 (72%) generated 'stars'. We estimate that there maybe as many as 19 more RR Lyrae candidates that were undetected in the WFPC2 field of view. The presence of additional RR Lyraes has implications into the current Oosterhoff classification for the cluster.

  8. Attenuation Tomography Based on Strong Motion Data: Case Study of Central Honshu Region, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Verma, O. P.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional frequency dependent S-wave quality factor (Q?(f)) value for the central Honshu region of Japan has been determined in this paper using an algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data. The method of inversion for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients is proposed by H ashida and S himazaki (J Phys Earth. 32, 299-316, 1984) and has been used and modified by J oshi (Curr Sci. 90, 581-585, 2006; Nat Hazards. 43, 129-146, 2007) and J oshi et al. (J. Seismol. 14, 247-272, 2010). Twenty-one earthquakes digitally recorded on strong motion stations of Kik-net network have been used in this work. The magnitude of these earthquake ranges from 3.1 to 4.2 and depth ranging from 5 to 20 km, respectively. The borehole data having high signal to noise ratio and minimum site effect is used in the present work. The attenuation structure is determined by dividing the entire area into twenty-five three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness having different frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor. Shear wave quality factor values have been determined at frequencies of 2.5, 7.0 and 10 Hz from record in a rectangular grid defined by 35.4°N to 36.4°N and 137.2°E to 138.2°E. The obtained attenuation structure is compared with the available geological features in the region and comparison shows that the obtained structure is capable of resolving important tectonic features present in the area. The proposed attenuation structure is compared with the probabilistic seismic hazard map of the region and shows that it bears some remarkable similarity in the patterns seen in seismic hazard map.

  9. The Central Region of the Nearby Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4945: A Pair of Spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lien-Hsuan; Taam, Ronald E.; Yen, David C. C.; Muller, S.; Lim, J.

    2011-04-01

    NGC 4945 is a Seyfert 2 galaxy at a distance of 3.82 Mpc. Its relative proximity has permitted a detailed Submillimeter Array study of the circumnuclear molecular gas in a galaxy exhibiting an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Based on an analysis of the high-resolution velocity field of the central region (20'' × 20'', 1'' = 19 pc), we demonstrate that the S-shaped structure of the isovelocity contours is well reproduced by the numerical results of a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation. In particular, the velocity structure is represented by the bending produced by a shock along the spiral density waves, which are excited at the outer-inner Lindblad resonance (OILR) by a fast rotating bar. The simulated density map reveals a pair of tightly wound spirals in the center which pass through most of the ring-like (claimed to be a circumnuclear starburst ring by other authors) high-intensity region in the observations as well as intersect several Pa? emission line knots located outside the ring-like region. The calculated mass inflow rate at a scale of 50 pc is about three times the inferred mass accretion rate of the AGNs of NGC 4945. We find that self-gravity of the gas is important and should be included in our model for NGC 4945. The model is compared with the gas orbit model discussed in Lim et al., and it is shown that the hydrodynamic model provides a better match to the observed position-velocity diagram and, hence, provides a more reliable prediction of the OILR position.

  10. A study for design of the new N = 1 central region of the Princeton University AVF cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Moohyun; OH, Saewoong

    1988-02-01

    As part of the long-term upgrading project of the Princeton University AVF University of AVF cyclotron, we have carried out design studies of the axial injection system and the accompanying new central regions for the cyclotron. Such studies were required by the desire to accelerate high charge-state ions as well as polarized ions in the cyclotron. At present, an internal PIG source provides beams of various charge states. The design studies of this new system were carried out on the basis of detailed beam orbit dynamics investigations. In this paper, we present studies for the existing central region for the first-harmonic ( N = 1) mode of acceleration and design procedures of the new central region.

  11. A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R.; Jin, Ling

    2006-12-01

    Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured concentrations for O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, and CO at about 100 ground observation stations within the CCOS domain. Comparisons were made both for time series and for statistically aggregated metrics, to assess model performance over the whole modeling domain and for the individual air basins within the domain. The model tends to over-predict ozone levels along the coast where observed levels are generally low. Inland performance in the San Joaquin Valley is generally better. Model-measurement agreement for night-time ozone is improved by evaluating the sum of predicted O{sub 3} + NO{sub 2} against observations; this removes from the comparison the effect of any ozone titration that may occur. A variety of diagnostic simulations were conducted to investigate the causes for differences between predictions and observations. These included (1) enhanced deposition of O{sub 3} to the ocean, (2) reduced vertical mixing over the ocean, (3) attenuation of sunlight by coastal stratus, (4) the influence of surface albedo on photochemistry, and (5) the effects of observation nudging on wind fields. Use of advanced model probing tools such as process analysis and sensitivity analysis is demonstrated by diagnosing model sensitivity to boundary conditions and to weekday-weekend emission changes.

  12. CENTRAL REGIONS OF BARRED GALAXIES: TWO-DIMENSIONAL NON-SELF-GRAVITATING HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Yoon, Doosoo [FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Teuben, Peter J., E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The inner regions of barred galaxies contain substructures such as off-axis shocks, nuclear rings, and nuclear spirals. These substructures may affect star formation, and control the activity of a central black hole (BH) by determining the mass inflow rate. We investigate the formation and properties of such substructures using high-resolution, grid-based hydrodynamic simulations. The gaseous medium is assumed to be infinitesimally thin, isothermal, and non-self-gravitating. The stars and dark matter are represented by a static gravitational potential with four components: a stellar disk, a bulge, a central BH, and a bar. To investigate various galactic environments, we vary the gas sound speed, c{sub s} , as well as the mass of the central BH, M{sub BH}. Once the flow has reached a quasi-steady state, off-axis shocks tend to move closer to the bar major axis as c{sub s} increases. Nuclear rings shrink in size with increasing c{sub s} , but are independent of M{sub BH}, suggesting that the ring position is not determined by the Lindblad resonances. Rings in low-c{sub s} models are narrow since they are occupied largely by gas on x{sub 2}-orbits and well decoupled from nuclear spirals, while they become broad because of large thermal perturbations in high-c{sub s} models. Nuclear spirals persist only when either c{sub s} is small or M{sub BH} is large; they would otherwise be destroyed completely by the ring material on eccentric orbits. The shape and strength of nuclear spirals depend sensitively on c{sub s} and M{sub BH} such that they are leading if both c{sub s} and M{sub BH} are small, weak trailing if c{sub s} is small and M{sub BH} is large, and strong trailing if both c{sub s} and M{sub BH} are large. While the mass inflow rate toward the nucleus is quite small in low-c{sub s} models because of the presence of a narrow nuclear ring, it becomes larger than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when c{sub s} is large, providing a potential explanation of nuclear activity in Seyfert galaxies.

  13. Origin and evolution of mountainous regions north of Tibet, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, D.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The huge deformation field associated with the Indo-Eurasia collision provides an unrivalled opportunity to investigate the origin and evolution of anomalously high topography in an intraplate, continental interior setting. Mountainous regions north of Tibet and south of the Hangay Dome are hyper-arid with internally drained basins and very low erosion rates. Consequently, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Directly north of Tibet, the Beishan is an anomalous plateau region whose first-order topography cannot be explained by Tertiary-Quaternary faulting, although second-order topographic culminations within the plateau are due to Quaternary-Recent transpressional fault displacements. The Beishan appears to be a peripheral bulge due to significant underthrusting of the Tarim-Dunhuang Block beneath the northern margin of Tibet. North of the Beishan region, the Eastern Tien Shan and Gobi Altai are essentially a transpressional basin and range province whose origin is due to thrust and oblique-slip thrust reactivation of older basement structures and diffuse sinistral strike-slip faulting. The angular relationship between SHmax and older structural trends is the first-order control on the kinematics of Quaternary faulting in the region and the style of mountain building. Restraining bends, thrust blocks and diverse transpressional fault arrays generate a complex 3D orogenic architecture that differs significantly from a contractional fold and thrust belt. Late Cenozoic uplift of the Gobi Altai, eastern Tien Shan and Altai orogens is due to diffuse transpressional reactivation of a mechanically weak Paleozoic terrane collage sandwiched between more rigid Precambrian basement blocks, representing the ';soft' core of Central Asia. Southeast of Mongolia and northeast of Tibet, the Lang Shan, Yabrai Shan and Helan Shan mountainous regions comprise footwall block uplifts associated with Ordos Basin extension and the left-lateral strike-slip termination of the Altyn Tagh Fault system. The Lang Shan and Yabrai Shan display regionally peneplained footwall summit ridges elevated 0.5-1 km above their surroundings. Their active mountain fronts are defined by high frontal fault scarps that are cut by slot canyons with extremely low valley width/valley height ratios. In many places, the mountain fronts are defined by trapezoidal facets instead of triangular facets attesting to low erosion rates and relatively high uplift rates. Between Tibet and the Hangay Dome, anomalously high topography is best explained by upper crustal faulting as a distant response to NE-directed compressional stresses generated by the continued Indo-Eurasia collision 2000+ kms to the south. However, if the crust and lithospheric mantle are mechanically coupled as has been suggested by joint analysis of SKS splitting and surface deformation data in Tibet and elsewhere in Asia, then upper crustal flower structures and other transpressional ranges in the Beishan, easternmost Tien Shan and Gobi Altai must be balanced at depth by vertical thickening, crustal shortening and along-strike displacements. This may therefore contribute to more diffuse regional topographic uplift and lateral crustal ';extrusion' similar to the Tibetan region to the south.

  14. Precipitation frequency analysis based on regional climate simulations in Central Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chun-Chao; Gan, Thian Yew; Hanrahan, Janel L.

    2014-03-01

    A Regional Climate Model (RCM), MM5 (the Fifth Generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model), is used to simulate summer precipitation in Central Alberta. MM5 was set up with a one-way, three-domain nested framework, with domain resolutions of 27, 9, and 3 km, respectively, and forced with ERA-Interim reanalysis data of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The objective is to develop high resolution, grid-based Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves based on the simulated annual maximums of precipitation (AMP) data for durations ranging from 15-min to 24-h. The performance of MM5 was assessed in terms of simulated rainfall intensity, precipitable water, and 2-m air temperature. Next, the grid-based IDF curves derived from MM5 were compared to IDF curves derived from six RCMs of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) set up with 50-km grids, driven with NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy) Reanalysis II data, and regional IDF curves derived from observed rain gauge data (RG-IDF). The analyzed results indicate that 6-h simulated precipitable water and 2-m temperature agree well with the ERA-Interim reanalysis data. However, compared to RG-IDF curves, IDF curves based on simulated precipitation data of MM5 are overestimated especially for IDF curves of 2-year return period. In contract, IDF curves developed from NARCCAP data suffer from under-estimation and differ more from RG-IDF curves than the MM5 IDF curves. The over-estimation of IDF curves of MM5 was corrected by a quantile-based, bias correction method. By dynamically downscale the ERA-Interim and after bias correction, it is possible to develop IDF curves useful for regions with limited or no rain gauge data. This estimation process can be further extended to predict future grid-based IDF curves subjected to possible climate change impacts based on climate change projections of GCMs (general circulation models) of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).

  15. Patient satisfaction with the endoscopy experience and willingness to return in a central Canadian health region

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Russell; Nugent, Zoann; Graff, Lesley A; Schumacher, Frederick; Bernstein, Charles N; Singh, Harminder

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patient experiences with endoscopy visits within a large central Canadian health region were evaluated to determine the relationship between the visit experience and the patients’ willingness to return for future endoscopy, and to identify the factors associated with patients’ willingness to return. METHODS: A self-report survey was distributed to 1200 consecutive individuals undergoing an upper and/or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy at any one of the six hospital-based endoscopy facilities in the region. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the association between the patients’ overall rating of the visits and willingness to return for repeat procedures under similar medical circumstances. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with willingness to return for repeat endoscopy and overall satisfaction (rating) of the visit. RESULTS: A total of 529 (44%) individuals returned the questionnaire, with 45% rating the visit as excellent and 56% indicating they were extremely likely to return for repeat endoscopy. There was a low moderate correlation between overall rating of the visit and patients’ willingness to return for repeat endoscopy (r=0.30). The factors independently associated with patient willingness to return for repeat endoscopy included perceived technical skills of the endoscopists (OR 2.7 [95% CI 1.3 to 5.5]), absence of pain during the procedure (OR 2.2 [95% CI 1.3 to 3.6]) and history of previous endoscopy (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.4 to 4.1]). In contrast, the independent factors associated with the overall rating of the visit included information provided pre- and postprocedure, wait time before and on the day of the visit, and the physical environment. CONCLUSIONS: To facilitate patient return for needed endoscopy, it is important to assess patients’ willingness to return because positive behavioural intent is not simply a function of satisfaction with the visit. PMID:23712300

  16. Helium Isotope Compositions in Springs From the Three Sisters Region, Central Oregon, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Soest, M. C.; Kennedy, B. M.; Evans, W. C.; Mariner, R. H.

    2001-12-01

    The Three Sisters region has recently come under increased scrutiny after the discovery by Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR) of a broad area of uplift centered approximately 5 km west of the South Sister volcanic edifice (Wicks et al., 2001). The bulge, which at its center reaches a maximum of 10 cm, formed between 1998-2000. The exact cause for the uplift is unknown, but observations from other volcanoes and results from numerical modeling imply that the most likely cause is the movement of magma up to mid-crustal ( ~6.5 km depth) levels (Wicks et al., 2001). The area of uplift coincides with an area where spring chemistry shows anomalously high levels of chloride and carbon emissions (Ingebritsen et al., 1994). These features pre-date the bulge by at least a decade and can also be indicative of a magmatic source. It is unclear if the bulge and the geochemical anomalies are directly related, but both point to the presence of magma below the Three Sisters area. Within the scope of a monitoring project that has recently been initiated to study the development of the bulge and any accompanying changes in the fluid/gas chemistry of springs in the Three Sisters area, 10 gas samples were collected for noble gas analysis in July 2001. Two of these samples were taken from cold bubbling springs located close to the center of the bulge and the remaining 8 were obtained from well documented geothermal springs within the general area of Central Oregon. Helium isotope ratios (reported as Rc/Ra where Rc = air corrected 3He/4Hesample and Ra = 3He/4Heair) for these 8 samples range from 2.8 to 5.1 Ra which is in agreement with existing data reported in a study carried out by Unocal in the early 1980's of geothermal springs in this area. The data show a relationship with distance to the bulge/South Sister volcano: all samples within a radius of ~30 km have helium isotope ratios in the range of 4.5 to 5.1 Ra, while samples that fall outside this radius have distinctly lower helium isotope ratios (<4 Ra). The two samples from the center of the uplift area have helium isotope ratios that are significantly higher (7.4 and 8.6 Ra) than the data for the other springs. This clearly demonstrates the presence of a mantle derived magma at some depth below the bulge and the occurrence of permeable pathways to the surface for gas of magmatic origin. At this time, due to a lack of literature noble gas data for the exact area of the bulge, it cannot be determined if the occurrence of these high ratios, which are a common feature in other Cascade Range volcanoes, coincided with the formation of the bulge or if they predate the uplift. This remains a subject for further study. References: Wicks, C. Jr., Dzurisin, D, Ingebritsen, S. E., Thatcher, W., Lu, Z., and Iversen, J. (2001) Magmatic activity beneath the quiescent Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, abstract AGU Fall meeting, this volume. Ingebritsen, S. E., Mariner, R. H., and Sherrod, D. R. (1994) Hydrothermal systems of the Cascade Range, North-Central Oregon. USGS Professional paper 1044-L 88p. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge Unocal for granting permission to use helium isotope data collected by them during a regional study in the early 1980's.

  17. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05?C 002 and 08?C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05?C 002 and 55?S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

  18. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  19. A study of dirigibles for use in the Peruvian Selva Central Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for dirigibles as transports in the Selva Central region of Peru was evaluated by means of a mission and economic analysis. A total requirement to transport over 19 million tons (t) of agricultural produce, lumber, and meat was projected by the year 2004. A primary route involving zones for loading and delivering this cargo was identified. Although dirigibles are capable of short field operation, all existing airfields must be enlarged in width to allow for all conditions of wind and weather and to provide space for overnight mooring. A maintenance base and operations headquarters, complete with hangar and other service facilities would be required. The quantities of cargo to be carried establish requirements for fleets of dirigibles of various sizes and capacities. Cargo capacities of 5 to 100 tons were identified. Fleet sizes up to 106 dirigibles (in 20 t capacities) would be required. Dirigibles were assumed to be of the nonrigid type except in the 100 t category for which rigid characteristics were assumed. A method of determining dirigible costs was developed. The values derived were then applied to an economic analysis to determine initial investment and operating costs. It was found that larger dirigibles of approximately 20 t capacities or higher could offer significant cost benefits over airplanes, provided cruise speeds were higher than 100 km/hr.

  20. A study of dirigibles for use in the Peruvian Selva Central region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for dirigibles as transports in the Selva Central region of Peru was evaluated by means of a mission and economic analysis. A total requirement to transport over 19 million tons (t) of agricultural produce, lumber and meat was projected by the year 2004. A primary route involving zones for loading and delivering this carbo was identified. Although dirigibles are capable of short field operation, all existing airfields must be enlarged in width to allow for all conditions of wind and weather and to provide space for overnight mooring. A maintenance base and operations headquarters, complete with hangar and other service facilities would be required. The quantities of cargo capacities of 5 to 100 tons were identified. Fleet sizes up to 106 dirigibles (in 20 t capacities) would be required. Dirigibles were assumed to be of the nonrigid type except in the 100 t category for which rigid characteristics were assumed. A method of determining dirigible costs was developed. The values derived were then applied to an economic analysis to determine initial investment and operating costs. It was found that larger dirigibles of approximately 20 t capacities or higher could offer significant cost benefits over airplanes, provided cruise speeds were higher than 100km/hr.

  1. The changing pattern of perinatal mortality and causes of death in central Anatolian region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ecevit, Ayse; Oguz, Suna Serife; Tarcan, Aylin; Yazici, Canan; Dilmen, Ugur

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the perinatal mortality is presented in 2009 compared to 1998. Changing patterns of the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR), the stillbirth rate (SBR), early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR) and the causes of the perinatal mortality in Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital (ZTBH) were described. This is the largest maternity hospital of Ankara in the central Anatolian region of Turkey. The total deliveries were 22,777 and 18,567 in 1998 and 2009, respectively. PNMR was 27.7 per 1000, and SBR was 23.7 per 1000 total births. ENMR was 4 per 1000 in 1998. PNMR is 20.7 per 1000, and SBR was 16.3 per 1000 and ENMR was 4.6 per 1000 total births in 2009. It is important to know the causes of mortality. In this study, the causes of perinatal deaths were classified according to the Wigglesworth classification. Antepartum stillbirth (62.3%) was the most frequent cause in 1998. Perinatal asphyxia is the majority (46.6%) of the perinatal deaths in 2009. This study shows that even prenatal care is getting better, obstetric care as well as close follow-up throughout the intrapartum period and diminishing the preterm delivery rate is also important for preventing and reducing perinatal mortality. PMID:22339476

  2. First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Cirovi?, Duško; Penezi?, Aleksandra; Pavlovi?, Ivan; Kuliši?, Zoran; Cosi?, Nada; Burazerovi?, Jelena; Maleti?, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans. PMID:25410390

  3. Differential sensitivity to regional-scale drought in six central US grasslands.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Alan K; Carroll, Charles J W; Denton, Elsie M; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Collins, Scott L; Smith, Melinda D

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems often vary dramatically in their responses to drought, but the reasons for this are unclear. With climate change forecasts for more frequent and extensive drought in the future, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms that determine differential ecosystem sensitivity to drought is needed. In 2012, the Central US experienced the fourth largest drought in a century, with a regional-scale 40 % reduction in growing season precipitation affecting ecosystems ranging from desert grassland to mesic tallgrass prairie. This provided an opportunity to assess ecosystem sensitivity to a drought of common magnitude in six native grasslands. We tested the prediction that drought sensitivity is inversely related to mean annual precipitation (MAP) by quantifying reductions in aboveground net primary production (ANPP). Long-term ANPP data available for each site (mean length = 16 years) were used as a baseline for calculating reductions in ANPP, and drought sensitivity was estimated as the reduction in ANPP per millimeter reduction in precipitation. Arid grasslands were the most sensitive to drought, but drought responses and sensitivity varied by more than twofold among the six grasslands, despite all sites experiencing 40 % reductions in growing season precipitation. Although drought sensitivity generally decreased with increasing MAP as predicted, there was evidence that the identity and traits of the dominant species, as well as plant functional diversity, influenced sensitivity. A more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms leading to differences in drought sensitivity will require multi-site manipulative experiments designed to assess both biotic and abiotic determinants of ecosystem sensitivity. PMID:25651805

  4. Agrophysical assessment of alluvial calcareous soils of the Çumra region of Central Anatolia in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shein, E. V.; Erol, S. A.; Milanovskii, E. Yu.; Verkhovtseva, N. V.; Mikayilov, F. D.; Er, F.; Ersahin, S.

    2014-07-01

    Some physical (density, coefficient of filtration, particle-size composition, etc.) and chemical (contents of carbonates, organic carbon, nitrogen, etc.) properties of an alluvial calcareous soil were studied in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra region). These heavy-textured (medium clay) soils with a low content of organic carbon (less than 1%) have favorable agrophysical properties due to the stable structure of the pore space. The studies of the water regime of soils under drop irrigation confirm the favorable hydrological properties of these soils. The use of the known agrophysical estimates (after Medvedev, the index of the optimal water regime, etc.) has revealed the high dispersal of the data related to the low humus content in these heavy-textured soils. The favorable structure of the pore space is suggested to be stipulated by the active activity of the numerous and diverse representatives of soil biota. Four phyla predominate in the microbio-logical composition of the soils studied; among them, Actinobacteria is the dominant. The composition of this phylum is dominated by the elevated number of both higher ( Streptomyces) and lower (three species of Rhodococcus) actinobacteria. The high biodiversity of bacteria against the background of their great total number and the developed trophic interactions in the microbial community promote the well-balanced production of specific metabolites, including gaseous ones (CO2, H2). This circumstance allows this clayey soil to function rather actively while protecting the pore space against compaction and maintaining the optimal density, porosity, and hydrological properties.

  5. Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, Tatiana V.; Giglio, Louis; Boschetti, Luigi; Justice, Christopher O.

    2012-06-01

    Central Asian dry lands are grass- and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia. This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually. Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia. Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region. Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution. Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data. We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001 and 2009. The results show that on average ˜15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area burned in August and September in grasslands. Fire is used as a common crop residue management practice across the region. Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan, where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands, respectively, are burned annually.

  6. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucchese, Fernando; Medori, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.). In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation), Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises), while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules). Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread knowledge of means of conserving foodstuffs, they also led to the use of products easily available within each home. The values of E.I. (ethnobotanicity index) for the upper Molise region are considered amongst the highest in Italian areas. Nevertheless, like the values for other areas of Italy, they are lower than those of many Spanish areas, perhaps (and not only) because of the more rapid cultural erosion experienced in Italy. PMID:18334029

  7. Calibration of strong motion models for Central America region and its use in seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Climent, A.; Benito, M. B.; Piedra, R.; Lindholm, C.; Gaspar-Escribano, J.

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a study aimed at choosing the more suitable strong-motion models for seismic hazard analysis in the Central America (CA) Region. After a careful revision of the state of the art, different models developed for subduction and volcanic crustal zones, in tectonic environment similar to those of CA, were selected. These models were calibrated with accelerograms recorded in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and El Salvador. The peak ground acceleration PGA and Spectral Acceleration SA (T) derived from the records were compared with the ones predicted by the models in similar conditions of magnitude, distance and soil. The type of magnitude (Ms, Mb, MW), distance (Rhyp, Rrup, etc) and ground motion parameter (maximum horizontal component, geometrical mean, etc ) was taken into account in the comparison with the real data. As results of the analysis, the models which present a best fit with the local data were identified. These models have been applied for carrying out seismic hazard analysis in the region, in the frame of the RESIS II project financed by the Norwegian Foreign Department and also by the Spanish project SISMOCAES. The methodology followed is based on the direct comparison between PGA and SA 5 % damped response values extracted from actual records with the corresponding acceleration values predicted by the selected ground-motion models for similar magnitude, distance and soil conditions. Residuals between observed and predicted values for PGA, and SA (1sec) are calculated and plotted as a function of distance and magnitude, analyzing their deviation from the mean value. Besides and most important, a statistical analysis of the normalized residuals was carry out using the criteria proposed by Scherbaum et al. (2004), which consists in categorizing ground motion models based in a likelihood parameter that reflects the goodness-of-fit of the median values as well as the shape of the underlying distribution of ground motion residuals. Considering the results of the both analysis the conclusions can be drawn in the following paragraphs. Analyses of residuals show that in some cases the best adjustments of PGA and SA values do not always favor the same equation. Consequently, the following equations that present reasonable adjustments for both parameters are finally selected: Schmidt (2010) and Zhao et al (2006) for shallow crustal sources; Schmidt (2010), Zhao et al (2006), Youngs et al. (1997) and Lin & Lee (2008) for subduction interface and Schmidt (2010), Youngs et al (1997), Zhao et al (2006) and Garcia et al (2005) for inslab subduction sources. Finally, to improve the development of proper models of attenuation of the region, it is recommended to the governmental and private institutions, to support the implementation of permanent strong ground motion networks in all Central America countries, especially in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama, including free field stations. In case of Costa Rica and El Salvador to strengthen the networks that already they operate.

  8. The range of regional climate change projections in central Europe: How to deal with the spread of climate model results?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rechid; D. Jacob; R. Podzun

    2010-01-01

    The regional climate change projections for central Europe in the 21st century show a large spread of simulated temperature and precipitation trends due to natural variability and modelling uncertainties. The questions are how to extract robust climate change signals and how to transfer the range of possible temperature and precipitation trends to climate change impact studies and adaptation strategies? Within

  9. Ecological and agricultural productivity indices and their dynamics in a sub-humid\\/semi-arid region from central Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Ritter Ort??z; E. Jáuregui Ostos; S. Guzmán Ru??z; A. Estrada Betancourt; H. Muñoz Nava; J. Suárez Sánchez; Ma. del Carmen Corona Vargas

    2004-01-01

    Using precipitation data from a semi-arid region in the highlands of central Mexico, historical values of productivity are assessed. Production models based on climatic indices are discussed. An empirical rain simulation equation shows that it is possible to reproduce the expected values of productivity from observed ecosystems and agricultural yields. A graphical method is proposed to estimate intrinsic growth rate

  10. Alternative Crop Rotations in the Semi-arid Central Great Plains Region: How Much Fallow? Evaluating the Economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The traditional crop production system in the semi-arid Central Great Plains Region (CGPR) of the U.S.A. is winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer fallow (WF) or one crop every two years. This system is not a long-term sustainable dryland system. It is conducive to soil degradation and provide...

  11. Managing the Night Off-Peak Power Demand in the Central Region UPS with Newly Commissioned NPP Capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Aminov, R. Z. [Saratov Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Pron’, D. M. [Yu. A. Gagarin Saratov State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-15

    The use of hydrogen technologies as a controlled-load consumer based on the newly commissioned base-load nuclear power plants to level out the daily load profile is justified for the Unified Power System (UPS) of the Central Region of Russia, as an example, for the period till 2020.

  12. Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

  13. Are the regional variations in Central American arc lavas due to differing basaltic versus peridotitic slab sources of fluids?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars H. Rüpke; Jason Phipps Morgan; Matthias Hort; James A. D. Connolly

    2002-01-01

    Central American arc volcanism shows strong regional trends in lava chemistry that result from differing slab contributions to arc melting. However, the mechanism that transfers slab-derived trace elements into the mantle wedge remains largely unknown. By using a dynamic model for mantle flow and fluid release, we model the fate of three different slab-fluid sources: sediment, ocean crust, and serpentinized

  14. Central Virginia Community College and Virginia's Region 2000: A Quality First Partnership for a Community of Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelan, Belle; And Others

    Based on the principles of quality and productivity improvement, Central Virginia Community College's (CVCC's) Quality First initiative is designed to provide continuous quality training to existing business, government, and educational institutions and enhance regional development activities to attract new business and jobs. Since its inception…

  15. A study for design of the new N = 1 central region of the Princeton University AVF cyclotron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moohyun Yoon; Saewoong Oh

    1988-01-01

    As part of the long-term upgrading project of the Princeton University AVF University of AVF cyclotron, we have carried out design studies of the axial injection system and the accompanying new central regions for the cyclotron. Such studies were required by the desire to accelerate high charge-state ions as well as polarized ions in the cyclotron. At present, an internal

  16. Transport mechanisms and the potential movement of planktonic larvae in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mc B. Williams; E. Wolanski; J. C. Andrews

    1984-01-01

    It is suggested that considerable inter-reef dispersal of reef fishes and many benthic invertebrates is likely in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef. Larvae are most abundant in spring-summer when currents on the outer shelf, where most of the coral reefs occur, are almost entirely unidirectional and southeastward (longshore). Net drift on the outer shelf at this time

  17. Reissner's fiber and the wall of the central canal in the lumbo-sacral region of the bovine spinal cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Rodríguez; Silvia Hein; Roberto Yulis; Luis Delannoy; Inés Siegmund; Estéban Rodríguez

    1985-01-01

    Reissner's fiber (RF) of the subcommissural organ (SCO), the central canal and its bordering structures, and the filum terminale were investigated in the bovine spinal cord by use of transmission electron microscopy, histochemical methods and light-microscopic immunocytochemistry. The primary antisera were raised against the bovine RF, or the SCO proper. Comparative immunocytochemical studies were also performed on the lumbo-sacral region

  18. The central region of the Fornax cluster. I. A catalog and photometric properties of galaxies in selected CCD fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hilker; Markus Kissler-Patig; Tom Richtler; Leopoldo Infante; Hernan Quintana

    1999-01-01

    We present a photometric catalog (based on V and I photometry) of galaxies in the central regions of the Fornax galaxy cluster. Our 11 CCD fields cover 0.17 square degrees in total. The limiting surface brightness is around 24 mag arcsec(-2) , similar to that of \\\\cite[Ferguson's (1989]{ferg}) catalog, whereas our limiting total magnitude is around V =~ 22 mag,

  19. Teaching English Language Learner Students: Professional Standards in Elementary Education in Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 122

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen; Wang, Xin; Ryan, Susan; Cicchinelli, Louis F.

    2012-01-01

    This report on professional teaching standards in the Central Region examines what K-8 general education teachers are expected to know and be able to do in order to teach English language learner students. It reviews the standards for coverage of six topics that the research literature suggests are important for improving student achievement. Key…

  20. Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Ken Takiyama; Kai Masuda; Hisayuki Toku; Takahiro Koyama; Kenji Taruya; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Yasushi Yamamoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

    2001-01-01

    Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited

  1. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kirilenko; N. Dronin

    2010-01-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major

  2. THE EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM EXCLOSURES ON RANGE PLANTS IN THE CENTRAL ANATOLIAN REGION OF TURKEY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last fifty years, almost half of the steppe rangeland in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey (CAR) has been converted to cropping land without an equivalent reduction in grazing animals. This has led to heavy grazing pressure on rangeland vegetation. A study was initiated in June 2003 ...

  3. Comparative study of Regional Urban Growth (RUG) model projections for new EU members in central Europe and the Baltic States 

    E-print Network

    Langner, Pawel

    2009-11-26

    Urban modelling and land-cover changes are well discussed in literature and are in a focal point of many researches. Regional urban growth (RUG) model for central Europe and the Baltic States projects land-cover changes and their volume...

  4. Genepool of Wild Populations of Forage and Grain Legume Crops of Northwest and Central Regions of Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An international plant collection expedition to the northwest and central regions of Russia was undertaken in 2007 to collect seed of wild-growing perennial grass and legume species that have potential for forage and turf applications. These collections are of interest in breeding and selection pro...

  5. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin Region of South-Central Ontario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sleeves; M. Strickland; R. Frank; J. Rasper; C. W. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species

  6. Las Vegas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of Las Vegas, NV was acquired on August, 2000 and covers an area 42 km (25 miles) wide and 30 km (18 miles) long. The image displays three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. McCarran International Airport to the south and Nellis Air Force Base to the NE are the two major airports visible. Golf courses appear as bright red areas of worms. The first settlement in Las Vegas (which is Spanish for The Meadows) was recorded back in the early 1850s when the Mormon church, headed by Brigham Young, sent a mission of 30 men to construct a fort and teach agriculture to the Indians. Las Vegas became a city in 1905 when the railroad announced this city was to be a major division point. Prior to legalized gambling in 1931, Las Vegas was developing as an agricultural area. Las Vegas' fame as a resort area became prominent after World War II. The image is located at 36.1 degrees north latitude and 115.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Jet Production in the Central Rapidity Region in 1.8 TeV Proton and Antiproton Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Yeong-Dong; /Chicago U.

    1989-06-01

    In this thesis we study the jet production cross section in the central rapidity region in {bar p}p collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.8 TeV. The pseudo-rapidity {eta} is defined as {eta} {triple_bond} -ln(tan({theta}/2)), where {theta} is the angle between the directions of the jet momentum and the proton beam. We will call the region -0.7 < {eta} < 0.7 the 'central rapidity' region by definition. The goal of this thesis is to determine two kinds of differential cross sections for jet production: an inclusive jet Et distribution d{sigma}/dEt, and the distribution in invariant mass d{sigma}/dM{sub JJ} of two jet systems. These spectra serve to check the strong interaction theory, and thus to look for new phenomena, at the highest available energy. The strong interaction theory will be discussed.

  8. Deformation in the hinge region of a chevron fold, Valley and Ridge Province, central Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narahara, David K.; Wiltschko, David V.

    The hinge region of an asymmetrical chevron fold in sandstone, taken from the Tuscarora Formation of central Pennsylvania, U.S.A., was studied in detail in an attempt to account for the strain that produced the fold shape. The fold hinge consists of a medium-grained quartz arenite and was deformed predominantly by brittle fracturing and minor amounts of pressure solution and intracrystalline strain. These fractures include: (1) faults, either minor offsets or major limb thrusts, (2) solitary well-healed quartz veins and (3) fibrous quartz veins which are the result of repeated fracturing and healing of grains. The fractures formed during folding as they are observed to cross-cut the authigenic cement. Deformation lamellae and in a few cases, pressure solution, occurred contemporaneously with folding. The fibrous veins appear to have formed as a result of stretching of one limb: they cross-cut all other structures. Based upon the spatial relationships between the deformation features, we believe that a neutral surface was present during folding, separating zones of compression and extension along the inner and outer arcs, respectively. Using the strain data from the major faults, the fold can be restored back to an interlimb angle of 157°; however, the extension required for such an angle along the outer arc is much more than was actually measured. This disparity between observed and required deformation suggests that the rest of the folding strain may be attributed to minor faulting, isolated severe pressure solution and to slight grain movements; we were not able to recognize the latter. We propose that a single episode of deformation produced the chevron fold causing the brittle deformation after the sandstone had been lithified. This brittle deformation was accomplished by faulting together with the translation of individual sandstone blocks which do not contain significant internal deformation.

  9. Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Olson, M.L.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Tate, M.T.; Engle, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg) speciation ?????" reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), elemental Hg (Hg??), and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5), were determined from June to November 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1) a 1114 megawatt (MW) coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2) a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3) a smaller (465 MW) coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of RGM, Hg?? and Hg-PM 2.5, were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3) measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.41 ppbv; measured at 50 km site). The finding that RGM, Hg??, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1) the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2) the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3) RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg??. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

  10. Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, A.; Olson, M. L.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Tate, M. T.; Engle, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg) speciation - reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), elemental Hg (Hg°), and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5), were determined from June to November 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1) a 1114 megawatt (MW) coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2) a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3) a smaller (465 MW) coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of RGM, Hg° and Hg-PM2.5, were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3) measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.41 ppbv; measured at 50 km site). The finding that RGM, Hg°, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1) the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2) the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3) RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg°. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

  11. Burden of Complicated Malaria in a Densely Forested Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh State (Central India)

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vidhan; Basak, Sanjay; Bhandari, Sneha; Bharti, Praveen K.; Thomas, Trilok; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Singh, Neeru

    2014-01-01

    Background A prospective study on severe and complicated malaria was undertaken in the tribal dominated area of Bastar division, Chhattisgarh (CG), Central India, with an objective to understand the clinical epidemiology of complicated malaria in patients attending at a referral hospital. Methods Blood smears, collected from the general medicine and pediatric wards of a government tertiary health care facility located in Jagdalpur, CG, were microscopically examined for malaria parasite from July 2010 to December 2013. The Plasmodium falciparum positive malaria cases who met enrollment criteria and provided written informed consent were enrolled under different malaria categories following WHO guidelines. PCR was performed to reconfirm the presence of P.falciparum mono infection among enrolled cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify different risk factors using STATA 11.0. Results A total of 40,924 cases were screened for malaria. The prevalence of malaria and P.falciparum associated complicated malaria (severe and cerebral both) in the hospital was 6% and 0.81%, respectively. P.falciparum malaria prevalence, severity and associated mortality in this region peaked at the age of>4–5 years and declined with increasing age. P.falciparum malaria was significantly more prevalent in children than adults (P<0.00001). Among adults, males had significantly more P.falciparum malaria than females (P<0.00001). Case fatality rate due to cerebral malaria and severe malaria was, respectively, 32% and 9% among PCR confirmed mono P.falciparum cases. Coma was the only independent predictor of mortality in multivariate regression analysis. Mortality was significantly associated with multi-organ complication score (P?=?0.0003). Conclusion This study has revealed that the pattern of morbidity and mortality in this part of India is very different from earlier reported studies from India. We find that the peak morbidity and mortality in younger children regardless of seasonality. This suggests that this age group needs special care for control and clinical management. PMID:25531373

  12. Relict rock glaciers in alpine catchments: A regional study in Central Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Pauritsch, Marcus; Winkler, Gerfried

    2013-04-01

    Alpine catchments represent an important freshwater source in many regions. Catchments in the subalpine to nival altitudinal levels are generally characterised by higher precipitation, lower evapotranspiration and consequently higher discharge rates compared to lower elevated areas of the montane and foothill levels of the same region. Particularly in crystalline mountain regions in the mid- to high latitudes glacial and periglacial sediments cover larger areas and form important aquifers in alpine catchments. Typical periglacial landforms in mountain areas are rock glaciers. Relict rock glaciers consist of sediment accumulations without permafrost at present. This rock glacier type has a strong influence on water storage capacities and discharge behaviour of the catchments. The hydraulic properties of rock glaciers have a positive impact on flood-risk reduction and the riparian ecology below rock glacier springs during dry periods. Furthermore, the exceptional high discharge rates at springs at the front of relict rock glaciers compared to nearby non-rock glacier springs are also of economic interest. Knowledge about morphometric characteristics of rock glacier catchments helps to increase the understanding of the groundwater system and discharge dynamics of rock glaciers. In this context the main objectives of our study are (a) to assess and quantitatively describe rock glacier catchments at a regional scale by analysing different morphometric parameters of the catchments and (b) to combine the rock glacier catchment properties with water balance data. In doing so, at first an inventory of 295 rock glacier catchments was established for the 2440 km² large study area (Niedere Tauern Range, Styria) in Central Austria ranging from 590 to 2862 m a.s.l.. In a second step, the inventory data were combined with area-wide precipitation, discharge and evapotranspiration data. Results reveal that 108 km² or 4.4% of the entire study area belongs to rock glacier catchments. This proportion increases to 8.6% for areas above 1500 m a.s.l. and even to 23% for areas above 2000 m a.s.l.. Results for a 626 km² large subunit (Seckauer Tauern Range) reveal that even 15.6% of the area above 1500 m a.s.l. and more 42% above 2000 m a.s.l. are influenced by relict rock glaciers as aquifers. A total water volume of 4240 Mio m³ is precipitated annually (mean value for the normal period 1971-2000) in the entire study area. 22% of this water is evapotranspirated and the remaining water is the discharge of the catchments. Despite the fact that 8.6% of the entire Niedere Tauern Range above 1500 m a.s.l. belong to rock glacier catchments, about 9.5% of the total discharge and 9.2% of the total precipitation originates in the rock glacier catchments. In contrast, only 7.9% of all precipitated water is evapotranspirated in these catchments. In the subunit Seckauer Tauern Range the same figures for rock glacier catchments are substantially higher and more pronounced in their differences with 15.6% for area, 16.8% for precipitation, 14.5% for evapotranspiration and even 17.3% for discharge. These figures exemplarily show that rock glaciers and their catchments are highly relevant in the alpine water cycle of the study area.

  13. Water Quality and Evaluation of Pesticides in Lakes in the Ridge Citrus Region of Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choquette, Anne F.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2009-01-01

    Water chemistry, including major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and pesticide compounds, was compared between seven lakes surrounded by citrus agriculture and an undeveloped lake on the Lake Wales Ridge (herein referred to as the Ridge) in central Florida. The region has been recognized for its vulnerability to the leaching of agricultural chemicals into the subsurface due to factors including soils, climate, and land use. About 40 percent of Florida's citrus cultivation occurs in 'ridge citrus' areas characterized by sandy well drained soils, with the remainder in 'flatwoods citrus' characterized by high water tables and poorly drained soils. The lakes on the Ridge are typically flow-through lakes that exchange water with adjacent and underlying aquifer systems. This study is the first to evaluate the occurrence of pesticides in lakes on the Ridge, and also represents one of the first monitoring efforts nationally to focus on regional-scale assessment of current-use pesticides in small- to moderate-sized lakes (5 to 393 acres). The samples were collected between December 2003 and September 2005. The lakes in citrus areas contained elevated concentrations of major inorganic constituents (including alkalinity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate), total nitrogen, pH, and pesticides compared to the undeveloped lake. Nitrate (as N) and total nitrogen concentrations were typically elevated in the citrus lakes, with maximum values of 4.70 and 5.19 mg/L (milligrams per liter), respectively. Elevated concentrations of potassium, nitrate, and other inorganic constituents in the citrus lakes likely reflect inputs from the surficial ground-water system that originated predominantly from agricultural fertilizers, soil amendments, and inorganic pesticides. A total of 20 pesticide compounds were detected in the lakes, of which 12 compounds exceeded the standardized reporting level of 0.06 ug/L (microgram per liter). Those most frequently detected above the 0.06-ug/L level were aldicarb sulfoxide, diuron, simazine degradates hydroxysimazine and didealkylatrazine (DDA), bromacil, norflurazon, and demethyl norflurazon which occurred at detection rates ranging from 25 to 86 percent of samples, respectively. Typically, pesticide concentrations in the lake samples were less than 1 microgram per liter. The number of targeted pesticide compounds detected per lake in the citrus areas ranged from 9 to 14 compared to 3 compounds detected at trace levels in the undeveloped lake. Consistent detections of parents and degradates in quarterly samples indicated the presence of pesticide compounds in the lakes many months or years (for example, bromacil) after their application, signaling the persistence of some pesticide compounds in the lakes and/or ground-water systems. Pesticide degradate concentrations frequently exceeded parent concentrations in the lakes. This study was the first in the Ridge citrus region to analyze for glyphosate - widely used in citrus - and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), neither of which were detected, as well as a number of triazine degradates, including hydroxysimazine, which were detected. The lake pesticide concentrations did not exceed current Federal aquatic-life benchmarks, available for 10 of the 20 detected pesticide compounds. Limited occurrences of bromacil, diuron, or norflurazon concentrations were within about 10 to 90 percent of benchmark guidelines for acute effects on nonvascular aquatic plants in one or two of the lakes. The lake pesticide concentrations for several targeted pesticides were relatively high compared to corresponding national stream-water percentiles, which is consistent with this region's vulnerability for pesticide leaching into water resources. Several factors were evaluated to gain insight into the processes controlling pesticide transport and fate, and to assess their utility for estimating th

  14. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two basins at the northeast edge of the burned area tributary to Rio del Oso and Vallecitos Creek. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings identify the areas of highest probability of the largest debris flows. Basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings include upper Santa Clara Canyon in the northern section of the burn scar, and portions of Peralta, Colle, Bland, Cochiti, Capulin, Alamo, and Frijoles Canyons in the southern section of the burn scar. Three basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings also occur in areas upstream from the city of Los Alamos—the city is home to and surrounded by numerous technical sites for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential debris flows in the burned area could affect the water supply for Santa Clara Pueblo and several recreational lakes, as well as recreational and archeological resources in Bandelier National Monument. Debris flows could damage bridges and culverts along State Highway 501 and other roadways. Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into areas downstream from the modeled basins along the valley floors, where they could affect human life, property, agriculture, and infrastructure in those areas. Additionally, further investigation is needed to assess the potential for debris flows to affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and to increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize areas where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Las Conchas Fire.

  15. August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

    2003-04-01

    Central Bohemian Region is located in a shape of a ring surrounding the capitol of Prague. Its total territorial area is 11.014 sq.km and population of 1 130.000 inhabitants. According to EU nomenclature of regional statistical units, the Central Bohemian Region is classified as an independent NUTS II. Bohemia's biggest rivers, Vltava and Labe form the region's backbone dividing it along a north-south line, besides that there are Sazava and Berounka, the two big headwaters of Vltava, which flow through the region and there also are some cascade man made lakes and 2 important big dams - Orlik and Slapy on the Vltava River in the area of the region. Overflowing of these rivers and their feeders including cracking of high-water dams during the floods in August 2002 caused total or partial destruction or damage of more than 200 towns and villages and total losses to the extend of 450 mil. EUR. The worst impact was on damaged or destroyed human dwellings, social infrastructure (schools, kindergartens, humanitarian facilities) and technical infrastructure (roads, waterworks, power distribution). Also businesses were considerably damaged including transport terminals in the area of river ports. Flowage of Spolana Neratovice chemical works caused critical environmental havoc. Regional crisis staff with regional Governor in the lead worked continuously during the floods and a regional integrated rescue system was subordinated to it. Due to the huge extent of the floods the crisis staff coordinated its work with central bodies of state including the Government and single "power" resorts (army, interior, transport). Immediately after floods a regional - controlled management was set up including an executive body for regional revitalisation which is connected to state coordinating resort - Ministry for Local Development, EU sources and humanitarian aid. In addition to a program of regional revitalisation additional preventive flood control programs are being developed including fields of: urban planning revision, river flow measures, revision of operation mode of dams, modification of waterworks' conception in areas liable to flooding and finally a program of power sources prevention during emergency situation (this program had been started before the floods). Regional establishment puts emphasis on preparation of preventive projects and management mentioned. An international co-operation of regions affected by floods and possibly building of joint teams for prevention measures proposal would be very effective and useful.

  16. Regional data refine local predictions: modeling the distribution of plant species abundance on a portion of the central plains.

    PubMed

    Young, Nicholas E; Stohlgren, Thomas J; Evangelista, Paul H; Kumar, Sunil; Graham, Jim; Newman, Greg

    2012-09-01

    Species distribution models are frequently used to predict species occurrences in novel conditions, yet few studies have examined the consequences of extrapolating locally collected data to regional landscapes. Similarly, the process of using regional data to inform local prediction for species distribution models has not been adequately evaluated. Using boosted regression trees, we examined errors associated with extrapolating models developed with locally collected abundance data to regional-scale spatial extents and associated with using regional data for predictions at a local extent for a native and non-native plant species across the northeastern central plains of Colorado. Our objectives were to compare model results and accuracy between those developed locally and extrapolated regionally, those developed regionally and extrapolated locally, and to evaluate extending species distribution modeling from predicting the probability of presence to predicting abundance. We developed models to predict the spatial distribution of plant species abundance using topographic, remotely sensed, land cover and soil taxonomic predictor variables. We compared model predicted mean and range abundance values to observed values between local and regional. We also evaluated model prediction performance based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. We show that: (1) extrapolating local models to regional extents may restrict predictions, (2) regional data can help refine and improve local predictions, and (3) boosted regression trees can be useful to model and predict plant species abundance. Regional sampling designed in concert with large sampling frameworks such as the National Ecological Observatory Network may improve our ability to monitor changes in local species abundance. PMID:21912866

  17. Sedimentation and provenance of the Antofagasta region of the southern Puna Plateau, central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renjie; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Sobel, Edward R.; Carrapa, Barbara; Davis, Donald W.

    2014-05-01

    Stratigraphic and provenance studies of Cenozoic non-marine sedimentary basins in the Central Andean Puna Plateau provide insight into the regional development and dynamics. The southern plateau hosts several poorly exposed intramontane basins bounded by basement-involved ~N-S striking thrust faults; their origin is explained differently by contrasting geodynamic models. This study focuses on the Antofagasta region (NW Argentina). The top of the studied basin was over-thrust by basement rocks along a west-dipping thrust fault, which was likely active during exhumation of the Calalaste range to the west (25-29 Ma, Carrapa et al., 2005). We studied three sections SW of Antofagasta de la Sierra. S3 (552 m) is the lowest section and is composed of mud playa to sandflat sediments, with at least two paleosol horizons. Lower S2 (1,263 m) contains ~300 meters of proximal alluvial fan sediments. Upper S2 is composed of fluvial to shallow lacustrine sediments. The separation between the top of S2 and the bottom of S1 (1,062 m) is ~540 m. The lower ~600 m of S1 is composed of thick, distal alluvial fan and braided river sediments. In the upper S1, the depositional environment changes to fluvial-alluvial, with a paleosol developed at the top of S1. Imbricated pebbles suggest prevailing eastward paleoflow. Modal compositions of 18 sandstones plot in the mixed zone on a Qm-F-Lt plot, and the transitional continental and recycled orogenic zones on a Qt-F-L plot (Dickinson, 1985). Their compositions cluster and do not show any evolutionary trends, despite being sampled from a ~3000 m-thick sedimentary column. However, when combined with data from the Quinoas Formation (Late Eocene to Late Oligocene) and the Chacras Formation (Late Oligocene to Early Miocene), outcropped west of the study site (Carrapa et al., 2005), the Antofagasta samples mark the beginning of an evolving trend towards the dissected arc and transitional arc zones. We analyzed U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from eight samples. Four young grains from three samples near the top of S2 yield ages of 38-39.5 Ma. If these grains were derived from air-fall volcanics, they indicate a late Eocene depositional age for the studied strata, but otherwise they give a maximum age estimate. We tentatively favour the former interpretation. For all samples, detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra show significant late Cambrian to early Ordovician and Precambrian (~1000-1400 Ma, ~1700-1900 Ma) sources. The ~1000-1400 Ma cluster is well matched with ages from the Sierra de Maz, to the west. A minor Permian-Triassic source (~240-290 Ma) is also present which could reflect limited exposures of plutonic rocks west of the study site. Our work suggests that the ~3000 meter thick unit in the Antofagasta basin is time-equivalent of the Quinoas Formation and accumulated with a high sedimentation rate. The sediments were sourced primarily from the west, with little input from volcanics. The consistent western source regions and the rapid subsidence lead us to favour a foreland-type origin for the late Eocene Antofagasta Basin.

  18. 78 FR 37537 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...establishment, centralized capacity markets have continued to evolve. Meanwhile, the mix of resources is also evolving in response to changing market conditions, including low natural...resources. This changing resource mix may result in future...

  19. 78 FR 45521 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...regulations, renewable portfolio standards, state resource planning policies, emerging technologies and fuels such as shale gas, price responsive demand and electric storage) and address their impacts on centralized capacity markets. 2:45...

  20. Regional distance shear-coupled PL propagation within the northern Altiplano, central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Jennifer L.; Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George

    1999-12-01

    Properties of the shear-coupled P wavetrain (SPL) from regional earthquakes provide important information about the structure of the crust and upper mantle. We investigate broad-band seismic data from intermediate-depth earthquakes and develop a grid search technique using synthetic seismograms to study the sensitivity of SPL and to model the crustal structure of the northern Altiplano, central Andes. Waveforms from an earthquake that occurred on 1994 December 12 within the Nazca slab beneath the Altiplano display a clear SPL wavetrain at the temporary stations deployed during the BANJO and SEDA experiments. We relocate this event and determine the moment tensor by inverting the complete long-period waveforms. With these source parameters fixed, we perform sensitivity analyses using a reflectivity technique to compute synthetic seismograms at a distance of 313 km (BANJO station 2, SALI). We find that, at this distance, the long-period SPL wavetrain is sensitive to the following model parameters, in order of decreasing sensitivity: crustal VP/VS, mantle VP/VS, average crustal velocity, crustal thickness, focal depth, distance (location), crustal Q? and Q?, and mantle velocity. We develop a grid search method to investigate the four parameters of the crust/upper mantle model to which the synthetic seismograms are most sensitive at SALI (crustal VP/VS, mantle VP/VS, average crustal velocity, crustal thickness). Trade-offs exist among all four of the model parameters, resulting in a range of acceptable crustal models that provide excellent fits between the data and synthetic seismograms in the passband of 15-100 s at a single station. However, by using data at a range of distances (150-450 km) we find that the model that provides the best overall fit between the data and synthetic seismograms, and thus best approximates the average characteristics of the crust and upper mantle structure of the northern Altiplano, is characterized by an average crustal velocity of 6.0 km s-1, a crustal Poisson's ratio (?crust) of 0.25 and a mantle Poisson's ratio (?mantle) of 0.27. The resulting models confirm previous estimates of low Poisson's ratios, low average crustal velocity and thick crust in the Altiplano.

  1. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal lands could produce ~29 × 109 L ethanol y-1, or about 48% of the 2007 U.S. Congress legislative mandate.

  2. Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction environment of groundwater. On the other hand, rate of samples exceeded the standards of nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen (10 mg/l) was about 15%, and maximum concentration was about 6 to 7 times the standard. Nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen were detected in shallow groundwater in most upland, with very intense pollution on the uplands in the northern part of the plain. Causes of the pollution were assumed as unsuitable treatments of livestock excrement, superfluous fertilization, leaking of living drainage and so on.

  3. Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, A.; Olson, M. L.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Tate, M. T.; Engle, M. A.

    2010-05-01

    Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg) speciation- reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), elemental Hg (Hg°), and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5), were determined from June to November, 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1) a 1114 megawatt (MW) coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2) a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3) a smaller (465 MW) coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of Hg°, Hg-PM2.5, and RGM were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. Median concentrations of Hg°, Hg-PM2.5, and RGM were 1.3-1.4 ng m-3, 2.6-5.0 pg m-3, and 0.6-0.8 pg m-3, respectively. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3) measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.4 ppbv; measured at 50 km site). The finding that RGM, Hg°, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1) the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2) the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3) RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg°. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

  4. Gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region, Qinling mountains, central China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Zhang, Z.; Xu, W.; Qiu, Y.; Deng, J.

    2002-01-01

    The gold-rich Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region in eastern Shaanxi and western Henan provinces, central China, lies about 30-50 km inland of the southern margin of the North China craton. More than 100 gold deposits and occurrences are concentrated in the Xiaoqinling (west), Xiaoshan (middle), and Xiong'ershan (east) areas. Late Archean gneiss of the Taihua Group, and Middle Proterozoic metavolcanic rocks of the Xiong'er Group are the main host rocks for the deposits. Mesozoic granitoids (ca. 178-104 Ma) are present in most gold districts, but deposits are typically hosted in the Precambrian basement rocks hundreds of meters to as far as 10 km from the intrusions and related hornfels zones. Deposits in the Xiaoqinling and Xiaoshan areas are best classified as orogenic gold deposits, with ores occurring in a number of distinct belts both in quartz veins and disseminated in altered metamorphic rocks. Alteration assemblages are dominated by quartz, sericite, pyrite, and carbonate minerals. The ore-forming fluids were low salinity, CO2-rich, and characterized by isotopically heavy ??18O. Four deposits (Dongchuang, Wenyu, Yangzhaiyu, and Dahu) in the Xiaoqinling area each contain resources of about 1 Moz Au. Some of the gold deposits in the Xiong'ershan area represent more shallowly emplaced tellurium-enriched orogenic systems, which include resources of approximately 1-1.5 Moz Au at Shanggong and Beiling (or Tantou). Others are epithermal deposits (e.g., Qiyugou and Dianfang) that are hosted in volcanic breccia pipes. Isotopic dates for all gold deposits, although often contradictory, generally cluster between 172-99 Ma and are coeval with emplacement of the post-kinematic granitoids. The gold deposits formed during a period of relaxation of far-field compressional stresses, clearly subsequent to the extensive Paleozoic-early Mesozoic accretion of are terranes and the Yangtze craton onto the southern margin of the North China craton. Hydrothermal and magmatic events occurred locally where extension-related Precambrian basement uplifting took place along the craton margin. Fluids for the orogenic gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling, Xiaoshan, and Xiong'ershan areas may have been released from evolving magmas or resulted from prograde metamorphic reactions within the uplift zones. Alternatively, for the epithermal gold deposits at shallower levels in the Xiong'ershan area, gold-transporting fluids were mainly exsolved from coeval magmas, although meteoric water was also involved in these hydrothermal systems.

  5. CRA-1 Uncovers a Double-Strand Break-Dependent Pathway Promoting the Assembly of Central Region Proteins on Chromosome Axes During C. elegans Meiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarit Smolikov; Kristina Schild-Prüfert; Mónica P. Colaiácovo

    2008-01-01

    The synaptonemal complex (SC), a tripartite proteinaceous structure that forms between homologous chromosomes during meiosis, is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation. Here we identify CRA-1, a novel and conserved protein that is required for the assembly of the central region of the SC during C. elegans meiosis. In the absence of CRA-1, central region components fail to extensively localize onto

  6. What is success and what is failure of transition? A critical review of two decades of agricultural reform in the Europe and Central Asia region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Wandel; Agata Pieniadz; Thomas Glauben

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the outcome of the transformation of a centrally planned into a market economy over the past two decades in the case of agriculture in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. It focuses on the question of how transition progress in the region's agriculture can be evaluated and compared adequately. The article presents a set of arguments

  7. Residual Weeds of Processing Sweet Corn in the North Central Region Martin M. Williams II, Tom L. Rabaey, and Chris M. Boerboom*

    E-print Network

    Sims, Gerald K.

    Residual Weeds of Processing Sweet Corn in the North Central Region Martin M. Williams II, Tom L. Rabaey, and Chris M. Boerboom* Knowledge of weed community structure in vegetable crops of the north central region (NCR) is poor. To characterize weed species composition present at harvest (hereafter

  8. Past earthquake history and seismic hazard in Fucino region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlagenhauf, Aloe; Manighetti, Isabelle; Benedetti, Lucilla; Gaudemer, Yves; Pou, Khemrak

    2010-05-01

    Using 36Cl exposure dating (Schlagenhauf et al. 2009), we have recovered the Holocene earthquake history (in last ?14 ka) of three large active normal faults (Magnola, Velino, Trasacco) in the Fucino region, Central Italy (last large earthquake in 1915, 30 000 casualties), nearby L'Aquila (last large earthquake in April 2009, 300 casualties). Magnola (L ~13 km) and Velino (L ~12 km) are parts of a ~45 km-long NNW-striking fault system (‘western Fucino north' or WFN), while Trasacco (L ~30 km) is part of another yet adjacent fault system. We have analyzed the 36Cl content of 400 exhumed scarp samples collected at 6 sites along the faults, 4 on Magnola, one on Velino, and one on Trasacco. The Magnola and Velino faults broke concurrently in the past. Their rupturing occurred in phases apparently cycling at three different time scales: 1) The Magnola-Velino system primarily broke in discrete phases of paroxysmal activity (11-7.5 ka, then 5-3.5 ka), each lasting 2-4 ka, separated by ~3 kyrs-long quiescence phases. The paroxysmal phases actually led to the breakage of the entire WFN system. 2) During each paroxysmal phase, 3-4 large ‘rupture episodes' occurred at 0.5-1 ka intervals, each producing at most 1.5-3 m of vertical slip on the faults. In more detail, the last major rupture episodes to have broken the Magnola and Velino faults occurred ~13.7, 10.7, 9.2, 8.5, 7.4, 4.8, 3.8, 3.3, and 1.1 ka ago (uncertainties of 0.5-1 ka on average). 3) Each of those rupture episodes seems to have been an earthquake sequence, made of several large earthquakes repeating at short time intervals (a few 10-100 yrs) and breaking in cascade the entire WFN fault system. If each earthquake broke a single major fault within the WFN system, the magnitudes estimated for those earthquakes are ~6.5-6.9. The adjacent Trasacco fault shows a similar behavior, as it primarily broke during two 2-3 kyrs-long periods of paroxysmal activity, at 14.5-12 ka and 8.5-6.5 ka, which thus do not coincide in time with those recognized on the Magnola-Velino system. Assuming that the faults reload at a constant rate (mean slip rate estimated from our measurements), our data suggest that the faults have entered a paroxysmal phase when they had reached a certain threshold of cumulative strain. Though the Magnola-Velino fault system has not broken since long (?1.1 ka), the cumulative strain it has accommodated since then is still far below the threshold discussed above. By contrast, though part of the Trasacco fault has broken less than a century ago (1915), the fault is approaching the cumulative strain threshold from which it may enter in a paroxysmal phase. Though those results need further refinements, they suggest that seismic hazard in the Fucino region is high. References : Schlagenhauf A., Gaudemer Y., Benedetti L., Manighetti I., Palumbo L, Schimmelpfennig I., Finkel R., and Pou K. Using in-situ Chlorine-36 cosmonuclide to recover past earthquake histories on limestone normal fault scarps: A reappraisal of methodology and interpretations; in revision Geophys. J. Int., 2009

  9. Past earthquake history and seismic hazard in Fucino region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlagenhauf, A.; Manighetti, I.; Benedetti, L. C.; Gaudemer, Y.; Pou, K.

    2009-12-01

    Using the reappraised 36Cl exposure dating protocol developed by Schlagenhauf et al. (Schlagenhauf et al., Using in-situ Chlorine-36 cosmonuclide to recover past earthquake histories on limestone normal fault scarps: A reappraisal of methodology and interpretations; Submitted to Geophys. J. Int., 2009; see also Benedetti et al., this meeting), we have recovered the Holocene earthquake history (in last 14 ka) of three important active normal faults (Magnola, Velino, Trasacco) in the Fucino region (Central Italy), site of a Mw 7 devastating earthquake in 1915, and a few km south of L’Aquila where the April 2009 earthquake occurred. Magnola (L: 13 km) and Velino (L: 12 km) are parts of a 45 km-long NNW-striking fault system (‘Western Fucino north’ or WFN), while Trasacco (L: 30 km) is part of another yet adjacent fault system. We have analyzed the 36Cl content of 400 exhumed scarp samples collected at 6 sites along the faults, 4 on Magnola, one on Velino, and one on Trasacco. The modeling of the 36Cl profiles yield similar earthquake ages at the 5 sites along Magnola and Velino, suggesting that the two faults broke concurrently in the past, about 13.7, 10.7, 9.2, 8.5, 7.4, 4.8, 3.8, 3.3, and 1.1 ka ago (average uncertainties of 0.5-1 ka). Their rupturing occurred in phases apparently cycling at three different time scales: 1) The Magnola-Velino system primarily broke in discrete phases of paroxysmal activity (11-7.5 ka, then 5-3.5 ka), each lasting 2-4 ka, separated by 3 kyrs-long quiescence phases. The paroxysmal phases led to the breakage of the entire WFN system. 2) During each paroxysmal phase, 3-4 large ‘rupture episodes’ occurred at 0.5-1 ka intervals, each producing at most 1.5-3 m of vertical slip on the faults. 3) Each of those rupture episodes seems to have been an earthquake sequence, made of several large earthquakes repeating at short time intervals (a few 10-100 yrs) and breaking in cascade the entire WFN fault system. If each earthquake broke a single major fault within the WFN system, the maximum magnitudes estimated for those earthquakes are 6.5-6.9. In the Fucino plain, the adjacent Trasacco fault shows a similar behavior, as it primarily broke during two 2-3 kyrs-long periods of paroxysmal activity, at 14.5-12 and 8.5-6.5 ka, which thus do not coincide in time with those recognized on the Magnola-Velino system. Assuming that the faults reload at a constant rate (mean slip rate estimated from our measurements), our data suggest that the faults have entered a paroxysmal phase when they had reached a certain threshold of cumulative strain. Though the Magnola-Velino fault system has not broken since long (about 1 ka), the cumulative strain it has accommodated since then is still below the threshold discussed above. By contrast, though part of the Trasacco fault has broken less than a century ago (1915), the fault is approaching the cumulative strain threshold from which it may enter in a paroxysmal phase. Though those results need further refinements, they suggest that seismic hazard in the Fucino region is high.

  10. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among injecting drug users in the Central-West Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Matos, Márcia Alves Dias; Ferreira, Renata Carneiro; Rodrigues, Fabiana Perez; Marinho, Tamíris Augusto; Lopes, Carmen Luci Rodrigues; Novais, Antônia Carlos Magalhães; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Souto, Francisco José Dutra; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was investigated in 149 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Of these individuals, 19 were positive for HBV DNA, resulting in an occult HBV infection prevalence of 12.7% (19/149); six of these 19 individuals had anti-HBV core and/or anti-HBV surface antibodies and 13 were negative for HBV markers. All IDUs with occult hepatitis B reported sexual and/or parenteral risk behaviours. All HBV DNA-positive samples were successfully genotyped. Genotype D was the most common (17/19), followed by genotype A (2/19). These findings reveal a high prevalence of occult HBV infection and the predominance of genotype D among IDUs in Brazil's Central-West Region. PMID:23778654

  11. Acidification and recovery of aquatic ecosystems in south central Ontario,Canada: regional application of the MAGIC model Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(4), 561573 (2003) EGU

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Acidification and recovery of aquatic ecosystems in south central Ontario,Canada: regional Acidification and recovery of aquatic ecosystems in south central Ontario, Canada: regional application recovery from acidification. Keywords: regional dynamic model, sulphate, acid neutralising capacity

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Nelson, Philip H.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Rouse, William A.; Saltus, Richard W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Shah, Anjana K.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids remain to be found in this area.

  13. The Effects of Long-Term Grazing Exclosures on Range Plants in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hüseyin K. F?r?nc?o?lu; Steven S. Seefeldt; Bilal ?ahin

    2007-01-01

    Over the last fifty years, almost half of the steppe rangeland in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey (CAR) has been converted\\u000a to cropland without an equivalent reduction in grazing animals. This shift has led to heavy grazing pressure on rangeland\\u000a vegetation. A study was initiated in June 2003 using 6 multiscale Modified-Whittaker plots to determine differences in plant\\u000a composition

  14. Rare earth element and clay minerals of paddy soils from the central region of the Mekong River, Laos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Egashira; K. Fujii; S. Yamasaki; P. Virakornphanich

    1997-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) content, particle-size distribution, and clay mineralogical composition were analyzed for the paddy soils collected from the central region of the Mekong River, Laos, to study the origin and inherent potentiality of soils. REE as the chondrite-normalized curve of the plot of Ce\\/Eu against Eu\\/Sm were found to be useful for grouping soils according to their

  15. Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Takiyama, Ken [Hiroshima University (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2001-05-15

    Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited states is found to indicate least effects by the collisions to ensure the LIF method.

  16. The Mid Summer Drought in Middle and Central Americas as simulated by a regional atmosphere-ocean model. Regional extent and the ocean remote and local influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Lopez, B.; Cabos, W.; Quintanar Isaias, A.

    2013-05-01

    A 30 year model climatology (1979-2010) is analyzed to study the tendencies and variability of the Mid Summer Drought comparing against the CRU observed climatology over the same period. The model used is a state-of-the-art regional atmosphere-ocean coupled model (REMO) developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. A simulation with 0.5 degree horizontal resolution is used to perform the analysis of precipitation over the region. Inspection of model annual and seasonal precipitation reveals that these compare well with CRU observed climatology both in amplitude and pattern. The exception is Southern Mexico and portions of Central America which the model underestimates during the rainy seasons. However, the spatial patterns of the Mid Summer Drought (MSD) are well represented over Mexico and Central America. It is found that both the onset and end of the MSD over Southern Mexico are profoundly influenced by the state of the Eastern Pacific Ocean particularly in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and Central America. On this model climatology the remote influence of Atlantic and Pacific oceans plays a crucial role in the second pluvial peak at the end of the MSD around September.

  17. Late Holocene Decline of Beech Populations in the Central Great Lakes Region: Drought- Induced Vegetation Change in a Humid Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, R. K.; Jackson, S. T.; Taylor, M.; Pendall, E.; Sousa, V. A.

    2007-12-01

    A large decline in beech populations ( Fagus grandifolia) has been well-documented from pollen records in southeastern Michigan and Southern Ontario between 1000 and 600 BP. These records reveal that declines in beech pollen were generally associated with increases in oak ( Quercus) and pine ( Pinus). The beech decline probably extended eastward into western Pennsylvania and New York, although beech populations in Upper Michigan remained unaffected or even expanded during this time period. The causes of these forest changes and their spatial patterning is not completely understood, although they have been variously attributed to anthropogenic disturbance, climatic cooling, or drought. Recent paleoclimate evidence from the region indicates that the most severe droughts of the last 2000 years occurred between 1000 and 700 BP. However, direct attribution of drought as a cause of the decline has been problematic because of uncertainties associated with comparison of radiocarbon-dated chronologies. We have conducted tandem investigations of pollen, charcoal, hydroclimate proxies (testate amoebae, humification), and a temperature proxy (d18O of Sphagnum cellulose) from the archives contained in three Sphagnum-dominated peatlands of the region. Two of these peatlands were located within the region of the beech decline (eastern, lower Michigan) and the other was outside the decline region (Upper Michigan). Our results reveal that a series of large droughts, likely the combined result of decreased summer precipitation and warm temperatures, were associated with the beech decline. Large wildfires were also associated with the droughts. Neither droughts nor beech declines were recorded in Upper Michigan. High-resolution analysis of beech pollen and hydroclimate proxies at sites that experienced the droughts reveals complex dynamics at multidecadal timescales between 1000-700 BP, with large fluctuations in beech pollen, available moisture, and charcoal concentrations. Our study demonstrates the potential of using the tandem application of pollen, charcoal, and a wide variety of vegetation-independent climatic proxies to assess ecological responses to climate variability at multidecadal timescales. Although moisture variability is not generally recognized as a driver of ecological change in humid regions, our data indicate that ecologically significant thresholds have been crossed in the recent past.

  18. Determining the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes of PFI data in central region Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad Kamaruddin, Saadi Bin; Md Ghani, Nor Azura; Mohamed Ramli, Norazan

    2013-04-01

    The concept of Private Financial Initiative (PFI) has been implemented by many developed countries as an innovative way for the governments to improve future public service delivery and infrastructure procurement. However, the idea is just about to germinate in Malaysia and its success is still vague. The major phase that needs to be given main attention in this agenda is value for money whereby optimum efficiency and effectiveness of each expense is attained. Therefore, at the early stage of this study, estimating unitary charges or materials price indexes in each region in Malaysia was the key objective. This particular study aims to discover the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes in construction industry by different regions in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia (Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, and Melaka). The unitary charges indexes data used were from year 2002 to 2011 monthly data of different states in the central region Peninsular Malaysia, comprising price indexes of aggregate, sand, steel reinforcement, ready mix concrete, bricks and partition, roof material, floor and wall finishes, ceiling, plumbing materials, sanitary fittings, paint, glass, steel and metal sections, timber and plywood. At the end of the study, it was found that Backpropagation Neural Network with linear transfer function produced the most accurate and reliable results for estimating unitary charges price indexes in every states in central region Peninsular Malaysia based on the Root Mean Squared Errors, where the values for both estimation and evaluation sets were approximately zero and highly significant at p < 0.01. Therefore, artificial neural network is sufficient to forecast construction materials price indexes in Malaysia. The estimated price indexes of construction materials will contribute significantly to the value for money of PFI as well as towards Malaysian economical growth.

  19. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations among Patients from the North, Central and South Regions of Angola

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Joana Morais; Bello, Gonzalo; Guimarães, Monick L.; Sojka, Marta; Morgado, Mariza G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Angola presents a very complex HIV-1 epidemic characterized by the co-circulation of several HIV-1 group M subtypes, intersubtype recombinants and unclassified (U) variants. The viral diversity outside the major metropolitan regions (Luanda and Cabinda) and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (DRM) since the introduction of HAART in 2004, however, has been barely studied. Methods One hundred and one individuals from the Central (n?=?44), North (n?=?35), and South (n?=?22) regions of Angola were diagnosed as HIV-1 positive and had their blood collected between 2008 and 2010, at one of the National Referral Centers for HIV diagnosis, the Kifangondo Medical Center, located in the border between the Luanda and Bengo provinces. Angolan samples were genotyped based on phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses of the pol (PR/RT) gene and their drug resistance profile was analyzed. Results Among the 101 samples analyzed, 51% clustered within a pure group M subtype, 42% were classified as intersubtype recombinants, and 7% were denoted as U. We observed an important variation in the prevalence of different HIV-1 genetic variants among country regions, with high frequency of subtype F1 in the North (20%), intersubtype recombinants in the Central (42%), and subtype C in the South (45%). Statistically significant difference in HIV-1 clade distribution was only observed in subtype C prevalence between North vs South (p?=?0.0005) and Central vs South (p?=?0.0012) regions. DRM to NRTI and/or NNRTI were detected in 16.3% of patients analyzed. Conclusions These results demonstrate a heterogeneous distribution of HIV-1 genetic variants across different regions in Angola and also revealed an unexpected high frequency of DRM to RT inhibitors in patients that have reported no antiretroviral usage, which may decrease the efficiency of the standard first-line antiretroviral regimens currently used in the country. PMID:22952625

  20. The Regional Tectonic Stress Field in Central and Southern California, and its Relevance to Fault Interaction Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townend, J.; Zoback, M. D.

    2001-12-01

    Fault interaction and earthquake triggering models depend strongly on the regional stress orientation and magnitude and on the assumed constitutive laws governing fault slip. In this study we compare observations with theoretical studies of principal stress orientations in Central and Southern California to provide an appropriate regional stress orientation model for use in fault interaction studies. First, we compare in situ stress orientations obtained from focal mechanism inversions and wellbore breakouts with stress orientations calculated from lithospheric buoyancy (based on topographic and geoid data) and plate interaction effects (based on geodetic and geologic data; Flesch et al., 2000). The two sets of results exhibit a remarkable degree of overall consistency, implying that the principal source of stress acting along the plate boundary is that resulting from lithospheric buoyancy. A relatively small component of the stress field appears to stem from plate interaction effects. In particular, both the theoretical and observed stress fields indicate that the regional orientation of SHmax is NNE-SSW, and is generally at an angle to the strike of the San Andreas fault of >80° in Central California and ~60--65° in Southern California. These results provide a model of regional stress orientations in Central and Southern California that should prove useful in future studies of fault interaction and seismic triggering. Because there appears to be no significant variation of SHmax orientations in the near field of the San Andreas fault in either region, this analysis supports the hypothesis that the frictional strength the San Andreas fault is markedly lower than that of the surrounding crust.

  1. Las Islas de los Changos (the Monkey Islands): the economic impact of ecotourism in the region of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2006-05-01

    This study evaluates the popularity and economic impact of Las Islas de los Changos (the Monkey Islands) as an ecotourism site on Lake Catemaco in the Los Tuxtlas region of Veracruz, Mexico. Two small island colonies of exotic primates, stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides), have proved to be highly beneficial for the local economy as the main attraction for tourists in this region. From July 1991 to June 1992, data were collected on the number of tourists who took boat trips to visit the primates, and the amount of money spent on tours to the islands. The data suggest that at least 28,470 passengers visit these primate troops annually and spend approximately 88,970 U.S. dollars (USD). Follow-up questionnaires during July 1997 to June 2000 to hotelkeepers and tourist boat operators identified the Monkey Islands as the primary destination for tourists to this region. A comparison of the net income obtained by local ecotourism operators with wages earned through other types of employment in the Los Tuxtlas region, such as working in natural reserves, agriculture, or renting grazing land for cattle, show the relative importance of Las Islas de Los Changos in sustaining the local economy. PMID:16541437

  2. An assessment of fire occurrence regime and performance of Canadian fire weather index in south central Siberian boreal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, T.; Guo, X.

    2014-07-01

    Wildfire is the dominant natural disturbance in Eurasian boreal region, which acts as a major driver of the global carbon cycle. An effectiveness of wildfire management requires suitable tools for fire prevention and fire risk assessment. This study aims to investigate fire occurrence patterns in relation to fire weather conditions in the remote south central Siberia region. The Canadian Fire Weather Index derived from large-scale meteorological reanalysis data was evaluated with respects to fire regimes during 14 consecutive fire seasons in south central Siberian environment. All the fire weather codes and indices, including the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), the Duff Moisture Code (DMC), the Drought Code (DC), the Buildup Index (BUI), the Initial Spread Index (ISI), and the Fire Weather Index (FWI), were highly reflected inter-annual variation of fire activity in south central Siberia. Even though human-caused fires were major events in Russian boreal forest including south central Siberia, extreme fire years were strongly correlated with ambient weather conditions (e.g. Arctic Oscillation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind), showing by in-phase (or positive linear relationship) and significant wavelet coherence between fire activity and DMC, ISI, BUI, and FWI. Time series observation of 14 fire seasons showed that there was an average of about 3 months lags between the peaks of fire weather conditions and fire activity, which should take into account when using coarse scale fire weather indices in the assessment of fire danger in the study area. The results are expected to contribute to a better reconstruction and prediction of fire activity using large-scale reanalysis data in remote regions in which station data are very few.

  3. Quantification of the impact of moisture source regions on the oxygen isotope composition of precipitation over Eagle Cave, central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krklec, Kristina; Domínguez-Villar, David

    2014-06-01

    The 5-day reconstruction of air mass history for the days with precipitation at Eagle Cave (central Spain), together with the determination of moisture uptake locations along back trajectories, is used to identify the moisture sources of precipitation for this site from 2009 to 2011. During this 3-year period, around 30% of precipitation at Eagle Cave originated from the moisture recycled within the Iberian Peninsula (IP), with the Proximal Atlantic being also a main source region of moisture, whereas the Mediterranean Sea and the Distal Atlantic have large variability during the studied period and other source regions are minor precipitation contributors. The comparison of monthly oxygen isotope composition of precipitation at Eagle Cave with the monthly percentage of precipitation originated in source regions shows a significant negative correlation for the IP region. Thus, the moisture recycling process in the IP region explains 12% of the variability of the monthly oxygen isotope composition of precipitation (p-value < 0.1). However, when temperature, amount of precipitation and all source regions are considered, 74% of the variability of the monthly oxygen isotope composition of precipitation is explained (p-value < 0.05). Therefore, although for Eagle Cave amount of precipitation and temperature are main contributors of the precipitation oxygen isotope variability (r2 = 0.54; p-value < 0.001), the moisture uptake distribution among source regions is a substantial control and should be considered when interpreting oxygen isotope speleothem records from this cave. This

  4. Evolution of Surface Water Extent in the Boreal Regions of Central Siberia During the 1988 to 2003 Summers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mognard, N. M.; Grippa, M.; Biancamaria, S.; Letoan, T.

    2005-12-01

    Arctic warming has accelerated since the 1980s, driving an array of complex and ecological changes in the boreal regions. A recent study concluded that climate warming on high latitude permafrost-controlled lakes and wetlands may well be the cause of their widespread disappearance. In this paper we analyse 15 years of passive microwave SSM/I data from 1988 until 2003, to estimate the timing of snowmelt and the evolution of surface water extent during the summer. We consider an area in Central Siberia that includes the Ob river basin and we divide it into 3 regions according to the type of permafrost (the region of continuous permafrost with average temperatures less then -7°C, the region of discontinuous permafrost with average temperatures between -7°C and -1°C, and the southern area with average ground temperatures higher than -1°C). Over the 15 years period analysed the surface water extent in July and August decreased in the continuous permafrost region while it increased in the discontinuous permafrost and in the southern regions. These trends are interpreted by comparison with trends in snowmelt timings as well as temperatures and precipitation in each permafrost region.

  5. Central African Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: building and strengthening regional workforce capacity in public health.

    PubMed

    Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Namsenmo, Abel; Illunga, Benoit Kebella; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Kuaban, Christopher; Mbopi-Kéou, Francois-Xavier; Gabsa, Wilfred; Mulumba, Leopold; Bangamingo, Jean Pierre; Ngulefac, John; Dahlke, Melissa; Mukanga, David; Nsubuga, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Central African Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (CAFELTP) is a 2-year public health leadership capacity building training program. It was established in October 2010 to enhance capacity for applied epidemiology and public health laboratory services in three countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of the program is to develop a trained public health workforce to assure that acute public health events are detected, investigated, and responded to quickly and effectively. The program consists of 25% didactic and 75% practical training (field based activities). Although the program is still in its infancy, the residents have already responded to six outbreak investigations in the region, evaluated 18 public health surveillance systems and public health programs, and completed 18 management projects. Through these various activities, information is shared to understand similarities and differences in the region leading to new and innovative approaches in public health. The program provides opportunities for regional and international networking in field epidemiology and laboratory activities, and is particularly beneficial for countries that may not have the immediate resources to host an individual country program. Several of the trainees from the first cohort already hold leadership positions within the ministries of health and national laboratories, and will return to their assignments better equipped to face the public health challenges in the region. They bring with them knowledge, practical training, and experiences gained through the program to shape the future of the public health landscape in their countries. PMID:22359692

  6. Coastal Resource Management in the Philippines: A Case Study in the Central Visayas Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Antoinette “Toni” Parras

    2001-01-01

    The ongoing destruction of wild coastal resources in the Philippines is rendering vast tracts of coral reef and other marine habitats unable to support productive fisheries. Progressive approaches to coastal resource management integrate local resource users into management plans while seeking support and consistency of regulations from central government. This community-based or comanagement concept has spurred various interdisciplinary programs, including

  7. Regional Variation in Epiphytic Macrolichen Communities in Northern and Central California Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Jovan; Bruce McCune

    2004-01-01

    We studied epiphytic macrolichen communities in northern and central California to 1) describe how gradients in community composition relate to climate, topography, and stand structure and 2) define subregions of relatively homogeneous lichen communities and environ- mental conditions. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to characterize landscape-level trends in lichen community composition from 211 plots. We found two gradients in lichen

  8. DELINEATION OF HOMOGENEOUS FLOOD REGIONS IN CENTRAL INDIA USING SINGLE AND COMPLETE LINKAGE METHODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BHAGABAT P. PARIDA

    Methods of single and complete linkage were used for clustering the flood sites of central India, using attributes such as maximum rainfall in design duration, average ?-index, catchment area, basin slope, length of main stream, and mean annual peak flood data, which have been considered to be responsible for flood generation. Based on clear-cut clusters on the dendrogram. Complete linkage

  9. A Survey of the Bait Industry in the North-Central Region of the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas G. Meronek; Fred A. Copes; Daniel W. Coble

    1997-01-01

    We obtained information from a survey on characteristics of the bait industry and estimates of quantities and values of bait in 1992 in six north-central states: Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. Baitfish, ranked in decreasing order of volume sold, were fathead minnows Pimephales promelas; a group of fishes sold as “lake shiners,” including the emerald shiner Notropis

  10. Application of multi-element statistical analysis for regional geochemical mapping in Central Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsuyuki Ohta; Noboru Imai; Shigeru Terashima; Yoshiko Tachibana

    2005-01-01

    Some 434 stream sediment samples were collected in Central Japan for a nationwide geochemical mapping project. The resulting geochemical maps are compared with geological, mineral resource and land use maps. Spatial distribution patterns of elemental concentrations in stream sediments are determined mainly by surface geology. Elevated elemental concentrations of alkali elements, Be, Ga, Y, Cs, Ba, lanthanide (Ln), Tl, Th,

  11. Reproductive biology in Acacia caven (Mol.) Mol. (Leguminosae) in the central region of Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSE LUIS BARANELLI; ANDREA A. COCUCCI; ANA M. ANTON

    1995-01-01

    Studies on Acacia caven (Mol.) Mol. in central Argentina indicate that the species is polygamous (andromonoecious), some plants having a high proportion of staminate heads. Though pollen:ovule ratios of flowers, inflorescences and plants are at a level common for 'facultative xenogamic' systems, controlled pollination shows a marked xenogamy. The ratio between pollen grains in the polyad and the maximum number

  12. The range of regional climate change projections in central Europe: How to deal with the spread of climate model results?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechid, D.; Jacob, D.; Podzun, R.

    2010-09-01

    The regional climate change projections for central Europe in the 21st century show a large spread of simulated temperature and precipitation trends due to natural variability and modelling uncertainties. The questions are how to extract robust climate change signals and how to transfer the range of possible temperature and precipitation trends to climate change impact studies and adaptation strategies? Within the BMBF funded research priority "KLIMZUG - Managing Climate Change in the Regions of the Future", innovative strategies for adaptation to climate change are developed. The funding activity particularly stresses the regional aspect since the global problem climate change must be tackled by measures at regional and local level. The focus of the joint project "KLIMZUG-NORD - Strategic Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region" is to establish an interdisciplinary network between the research, administrative and economic sectors in this region. The regional climate change information is provided by the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology as input for climate change impact assessments. The cross-sectional task "climate change" is to prepare consistent regional climate data and to advise on its reasonable use. The project benefits from the results of the ENSEMBLES EU project, in which an extensive set of regional climate change simulations at 50 km horizontal resolution were performed for 1950 to 2100. For impact studies, higher horizontal resolutions are required. With the regional climate model REMO, three global climate change scenarios from ECHAM5-MPIOM were downscaled to 50 km with three ensemble members each. In a second step, some members were further downscaled to 10 km for central Europe. For the global and regional simulations, the trends were analysed and indicate a strong internal climate variability, which further increases the range of climate change simulation results. This all recommends the application of 1. several RCMs to consider the uncertainty of downscaling methods, 2. different ensemble members of a certain climate change scenario to consider internal climate variability, 3. different global climate change scenarios to consider the influence of greenhouse gas emissions. The spread of climate change information needs to be transported into impact assessments in order to develop flexible adaptation strategies.

  13. Degradación de Marismas Costera: el Impacto de la Eutrofización en la Supervivencia del las Marismas Costeras en New England y Central California, USA. (Salt Marsh Deterioration in New England and Central California: Impacts of Eutrophication on Salt Marsh Survival.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Las marismas costeras proporcionan numerosos beneficios a los ecosistemas, incluyendo la proporción del hábitat de la flora y fauna, la protección de las zonas costeras contra inundaciones durante eventos extremos, mejoran la calidad del agua para las almejas y ostras a través de...

  14. R-HydroNET: A Regional, Electronic, Hydrographic Data Network for South America, Central America, and the Caribbean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Global Hydrology Research Group at the University of New Hampshire provides this excellent resource on regional hydrometeorological data for South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. Available in English, Spanish, or Portuguese, the data are organized by geographic location. Two large data sets are available to the general public: Monthly Time Series and Climatological (site-specific resolution) Hydrometeorological Data Sets, and Monthly Temperature and Precipitation Data Sets (30-minute spatial scale resolution). Data may be downloaded by country/ region (.zip, .tar, ascii, or .ps formats). Given the general paucity of publicly available, baseline information for this important region, R-HydroNET is a solid template upon which future data may be added.

  15. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin region of south-central Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Steeves, T.; Strickland, M. (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Parry Sound, Ontario (Canada)); Frank, R.; Rasper, J. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)); Douglas, C.W.

    1991-03-01

    Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species in the same area in 1972-74. Algonquin Region is a forested area of 43,000 km{sup 2} on the Precambrian shield, and has no major industrial or agricultural development. Except for DDT, which was used in the 1950's and 1960's to control biting insects around tourist establishments, there has been little use of OCIs or PCBs in this area. Their occurrence in the Algonquin Region is most likely due to atmospheric transport.

  16. Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts

    2003-01-01

    In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and

  17. 63 FR 55774 - Bureau of Prisons Central Office, Regional Offices, Institutions, and Staff Training Centers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-10-16

    ...503.4 Bureau of Prisons Southeast Regional Office. The Bureau of Prisons Southeast Regional Office...a) United States Penitentiary (USP) Atlanta, Georgia...30315-0182. (b) Federal Correctional Institutions (FCI...33521-1029. (d) Federal Prison Camps (FPC): (1...32509-0001. (e) Federal Detention Center (FDC) Miami...503.5 Bureau of Prisons North......

  18. Metal concentration and X-ray cool spectral component in the central region of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ohashi, Takaya; Fabian, Andrew C.; Canizares, Claude R.; Ikebe, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Yamashita, Koujun

    1994-01-01

    Spatially resolved energy spectra in the energy range 0.5-10 keV have been measured for the Centaurus cluster of galaxies with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). Within 10 min (200 kpc) from the cluster center, the helium-like iron K emission line exhibits a dramatic increase toward the center rising from an equivalent width approximately 500 eV to approximately 1500 eV corresponding to an abundance change from 0.3 to 1.0 solar. The presence of strong iron L lines indicates an additional cool component (kT approximately 1 keV) within 10 min from the center. The cool component requires absorption in excess of the galactic value and this excess absorption increases towards the central region of the cluster. In the surrounding region with radius greater than 10 min, the spectra are well described by a single temperature thermal model with kT approximately 4 keV and spatially uniform abundances at about 0.3-0.4 times solar. The detection of metal-rich hot and cool gas in the cluster center implies a complex nature of the central cluster gas which is likely to be related to the presence of the central cD galaxy NGC 4696.

  19. Metal concentration and X-ray cool spectral component in the central region of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ohashi, Takaya; Fabian, Andrew C.; Canizares, Claude R.; Ikebe, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Yamashita, Koujun

    1994-06-01

    Spatially resolved energy spectra in the energy range 0.5-10 keV have been measured for the Centaurus cluster of galaxies with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). Within 10 min (200 kpc) from the cluster center, the helium-like iron K emission line exhibits a dramatic increase toward the center rising from an equivalent width approximately 500 eV to approximately 1500 eV corresponding to an abundance change from 0.3 to 1.0 solar. The presence of strong iron L lines indicates an additional cool component (kT approximately 1 keV) within 10 min from the center. The cool component requires absorption in excess of the galactic value and this excess absorption increases towards the central region of the cluster. In the surrounding region with radius greater than 10 min, the spectra are well described by a single temperature thermal model with kT approximately 4 keV and spatially uniform abundances at about 0.3-0.4 times solar. The detection of metal-rich hot and cool gas in the cluster center implies a complex nature of the central cluster gas which is likely to be related to the presence of the central cD galaxy NGC 4696.

  20. Late Quaternary herpetofauna of the Central Great Lakes region, U.S.A.: Zoogeographical and paleoecological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, J. Alan

    Late Quaternary herpetological records from the Central Great Lakes States of Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio allow for reflections on reinvasion of herpetological species into previously uninhabitable areas, as well as some comments on paleoclimate. Advances of the Wisconsinan Laurentide ice sheet obliterated herpetological habitat in all of Michigan as well as much of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio; it also restricted herpetological habitat in the southern parts of the three latter states. By about 15-14 ka BP a rich herpetofauna, similar to the one that occurs in the area today, and suggesting a moderate climate, occurred in southwestern Indiana. Turtle faunas in central Indiana (13-12 ka BP) and west-central Ohio (11-10 ka BP) suggest that warm summer climates existed in those areas at the time. On the other hand authentic reptile records are unknown from the Pleistocene of Michigan, and considering the pollen record, that state probably had a much colder climate during postglacial Late Wisconsinan times. A well-developed turtle fauna associated with temperate deciduous forest occurred in southern Michigan about 6 ka BP, and a rich herpetofauna, similar to the one that occurs in the area today, occurred in southwestern Indiana about 4 ka BP. This evidence suggests the possibility that the herpetological reinvasion of the Central Great Lakes region might have been nearly complete by Mid-Holocene times.

  1. Evaluation of phase bunching in the central region of a cyclotron by a radial probe with a plastic scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kurashima, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2014-12-01

    A new technique for evaluating the phase bunching performance in the central region of a cyclotron was developed. A newly-developed radial probe with a 6-mm-wide, 5-mm-height plastic scintillator was applied to analysis of the correlation between the internal beam phase distribution and the initial beam phase, defined by adjusting the relative RF phase of the beam buncher. The phase distribution measurement system, comprising the radial probe equipped with a plastic scintillator and the signal-processing modules, had a sufficiently good time resolution of 45 ps full-width at half-maximum for the phase bunching evaluation. The correlations between the buncher phase and the measured phase distribution for the acceleration harmonic number h=1 and 2 were consistent with the calculation result of the geometric trajectory analysis. For h=1 case of a 107 MeV 4He2+ beam, the internal beam phase region spread over 71 RF degrees full-width at quarter-maximum (FWQM) for the acceptable buncher phase region of 48 RF degrees, and no evidence of the phase bunching effect was observed. For h=2 case of a 260 MeV 20Ne7+ beam, the internal beam phase region for the acceptable buncher phase region of 59 RF degrees was compressed into 21 RF degrees FWQM. The phase bunching effect was sharply evident for h=2, and contributed to increase of the acceptable beam phase region and the beam intensity per phase width.

  2. Natural infection of Anaplasma platys in dogs from Umbria region (Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Morganti, Giulia; Mangili, Vittorio; Fruganti, Gabriele; Miglio, Arianna

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasma platys is a tick-borne pathogen causing the Infectious Canine Cyclic Thrombocytopenia. The pathogenesis of this disease is not yet well understood, due to the wide variety of clinico-pathological patterns described worldwide and to the high prevalence of co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens occurring in endemic areas. The present paper reports 3 cases of infection by A. platys occurring in dogs native to Central Italy, considered a non-endemic area to date. Infections were initially diagnosed based on clinical data and observation of morulae within platelets and then confirmed by biomolecular techniques. Moreover, two dogs showed an immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, as yet not described in literature in association with A. platys infection. The symptoms and the pathological findings observed will be discussed, as well as the importance to include this pathogen in the differential diagnosis of tick-borne diseases even in Central Italy. PMID:24715593

  3. Seismotectonic pattern and the source region of volcanism in the central part of Sunda Arc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleš Špi?ák; Václav Hanuš; Ji?í Van?k

    2005-01-01

    The seismotectonic pattern in the central part of the Sunda Arc (Java, Nusa Tenggara) was studied in relation to the distribution of active calc-alkaline volcanoes, using global seismological data. Hypocentral determinations of the International Seismological Centre from the period 1964–1999, as relocated by Engdahl, and Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor Solutions from the period 1976–2003 were used. The following phenomena, which

  4. Reproductive biology in Acacia caven(Mol.) Mol. (Leguminosae) in the central region of Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Luis Baranelli; Andrea A. Cocucci; Ana M. Anton

    1995-01-01

    Studies onAcacia caven(Mol.) Mol. in central Argentina indicate that the species is polygamous (andromonoecious), some plants having a high proportion of staminate heads. Though pollen\\/ovule ratios of flowers, inflorescences and plants are at a level common for ‘facultative xenogamic’ systems, controlled pollination shows a marked xenogamy. The ratio between pollen grains in the polyad and the maximum number of seeds

  5. Advective heat transport associated with regional Earth degassing in central Apennine (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.; Cardellini, C.; Caliro, S.; Chiarabba, C.; Frondini, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we show that the main springs of the central Apennine transport a total amount of heat of ˜2.2×109 J s-1. Most of this heat (57%) is the result of geothermal warming while the remaining 43% is due to gravitational potential energy dissipation. This result indicates that a large area of the central Apennines is very hot with heat flux values >300 mW m-2. These values are higher than those measured in the magmatic and famously geothermal provinces of Tuscany and Latium and about 1/3 of the total heat discharged at Yellowstone. This finding is surprising because the central Apennines have been thought to be a relatively cold area. Translated by CO2 rich fluids, this heat anomaly suggests the existence of a thermal source such as a large magmatic intrusion at depth. Recent tomographic images of the area support the presence of such an intrusion visible as a broad negative velocity anomaly in seismic waves. Our results indicate that the thermal regime of tectonically active areas of the Earth, where meteoric waters infiltrate and deeply circulate, should be revised on the basis of mass and energy balances of the groundwater systems.

  6. Paleomagnetic evidence for the age and extent of middle Tertiary counterclockwise rotation, Dixie Valley region, west central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, M.R.; Geissman, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data obtained from Oligocene to lower Miocene igneous rocks and middle Miocene basaltic rocks of fifteen localities from a region surrounding Dixie Valley in west central Nevada indicate that parts of the area experienced counterclockwise vertical-axis rotation, and these data provide constraints on the extent and timing of rotation. Counterclockwise vertical-axis rotation probably exceeding 30?? is indicated for Oligocene to lower Miocene rocks in the central part of the study area. Paleomagnetic data indicate that Oligocene to lower Miocene rocks at some localities in the northern and southern parts of the study area (e.g., the Golconda Canyon locality) probably did not experience significant Tertiary counterclockwise rotation. -from Authors

  7. Research on the Porphyry Copper Deposit for Feature Extraction and Prediction Methods in Central Asia Tectonic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, K.; Ma, Y.; Xie, M.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.

    2011-12-01

    With the leaping of geologica data, the demand to application of geological data is increasing and complex. How better to extract the excrescent information of geochemical anomalies and models of extracting altered information have been the important problem of geologists concerned. Taking metallogenic districts of Baerkashi as typical study area and combining multi temporal remote sensing data and field work results, With the constantly changing knowledge of the division of metallogenic belts and types and characteristics of metallogenic formations in adjacent regions of Xinjiang, we made use of new model to extracting the altered information in whole study area.This article mainly comparative study the the method of extracting multivariate information based on fractal technique in Western Junggar area which had a better prospect of looking for porphyry copper deposits.the authors emphasize that in comparing the geology and mineral resources in Xinjiang with those in its adjacent regions it is necessary to gain knowledge of their research histories and seek to make such comparison based on ascertaining basic ore- controlling elements. In addition, in Central Asia mineralization related to Early Paleozoic continental crustal accretion is quite important, All these belong to the characteristics of the Central Asian metallogenic megaprovince and must be fully considered in the comparative study. that the Central Asian metallogenic belt ore concentration distribution of the prediction and mineralization element association show certain zonation from intrusive bodies to wallrocks. The porphyry copper metallization is characterized by tectonic magmatic hydrothermal overprinting. This study provides some new facts for the understanding of the porphyry copper mineralization regularity and mechanism in the tectonic domain of Central Asia.

  8. Geologic map of the west-central Buffalo National River region, northern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a geologic map database of the map area that improves understanding of the regional geologic framework and its influence on the regional groundwater flow system. Furthermore, additional edits were made to the Ponca and Jasper quadrangles in the following ways: new control points on important contacts were obtained using modern GPS; recent higher resolution elevation data allowed further control on placement of contacts; some new contacts were added, in particular the contact separating the upper and lower Everton Formation.

  9. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and discuss the impact of climate change on future development of the region.

  10. A preliminary assessment of earthquake ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and implications to the Las Vegas region

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G.; Green, R.K.; Sun, J.I. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Pezzopane, S.K. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Abrahamson, N.A. [Abrahamson (Norm A.), Piedmont, CA (United States); Quittmeyer, R.C. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    As part of early design studies for the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, the authors have performed a preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of ground shaking. A total of 88 Quaternary faults within 100 km of the site were considered in the hazard analysis. They were characterized in terms of their probability o being seismogenic, and their geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, recurrence model, and slip rate. Individual faults were characterized by maximum earthquakes that ranged from moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 5.1 to 7.6. Fault slip rates ranged from a very low 0.00001 mm/yr to as much as 4 mm/yr. An areal source zone representing background earthquakes up to M{sub w} 6 1/4 = 1/4 was also included in the analysis. Recurrence for these background events was based on the 1904--1994 historical record, which contains events up to M{sub w} 5.6. Based on this analysis, the peak horizontal rock accelerations are 0.16, 0.21, 0.28, and 0.50 g for return periods of 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 10,000 years, respectively. In general, the dominant contributor to the ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain are background earthquakes because of the low slip rates of the Basin and Range faults. A significant effect on the probabilistic ground motions is due to the inclusion of a new attenuation relation developed specifically for earthquakes in extensional tectonic regimes. This relation gives significantly lower peak accelerations than five other predominantly California-based relations used in the analysis, possibly due to the lower stress drops of extensional earthquakes compared to California events. Because Las Vegas is located within the same tectonic regime as Yucca Mountain, the seismic sources and path and site factors affecting the seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain also have implications to Las Vegas. These implications are discussed in this paper.

  11. Geometry and Kinematics in the Central Broad-Line Region of a Seyfert 1 Galaxy

    E-print Network

    Kollatschny, W

    2002-01-01

    We recorded spectra of the highly variable Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk110 in a variability campaign with the 9.2m Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory in order to study the detailed line profile variations of the broad emission lines. Here we show that only an AGN model predicting the formation of the broad Hb line emission in the wind of an accretion disk matches the observed 2-D variability pattern. Furthermore, we derive an improved mass of the central supermassive black hole of M = 1.0(+1.0,-0.5)E7 M_sun from the Hb velocity-delay map.

  12. Geometry and Kinematics in the Central Broad-Line Region of a Seyfert 1 Galaxy

    E-print Network

    W. Kollatschny; K. Bischoff

    2002-03-14

    We recorded spectra of the highly variable Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk110 in a variability campaign with the 9.2m Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory in order to study the detailed line profile variations of the broad emission lines. Here we show that only an AGN model predicting the formation of the broad Hb line emission in the wind of an accretion disk matches the observed 2-D variability pattern. Furthermore, we derive an improved mass of the central supermassive black hole of M = 1.0(+1.0,-0.5)E7 M_sun from the Hb velocity-delay map.

  13. Pulpwood production in the north-central region, 1991. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Piva, R.J.

    1993-11-29

    The report includes all primary products made from reconstituted wood fiber. In addition to wood pulp, this includes particleboard products made from chips, shavings, wafers, flakes, strands, and sawdust. The report presents the production by county of the raw fiber material delivered to mills. Thus, these data report only that portion of the timber harvest used as raw material and do not necessarily reflect the volume of growing stock harvested. Pulp and particleboard mills using North Central States timber in 1991 reported their pulpwood receipts by species group and county of origin.

  14. Transneuronal tracing of central autonomic regions involved in cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Juan; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Hai-Jian; Liu, Tong-Yan; Ding, Lei; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Ye-Bo

    2014-07-15

    Stimulation of cardiac afferents (CA) increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. The goal of the current study is to determine the central autonomic nuclei involved in the regulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) which has been proved in previously functional studies. Neuroanatomical method and pseudorabies virus (PRV) transynaptic retrograde trace technique will be performed to investigate the relationship between kidney and heart and the temporal order of the most PRV-labeled neurons in the central nervous system. Recombinant PRV expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was injected into the left kidney of rats as a specific trans-synaptic retrograde tracer in neurons. After 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 days, brain, spinal cord and heart were collected for immunofluorescence staining. The temporal order of PRV labeled neurons was found in the ipsilateral intermediolateral nucleus (IML) of T8-T12 spinal segments on day 3; bilateral rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) on day 4; and left and right ventricular walls and ventricular septum of the heart on day 9. In rats with renal denervation, no PRV-infected neurons or cardiomyocytes were found after PRV injection. In conclusion, PRV trans-synaptic retrograde trace confirms that CA, NTS, PVN, RVLM, IML and renal nerves do exist to be involved in the regulation of CSAR and there is a close relationship between heart and kidney. CA is mainly located in the left ventricular wall, right ventricular wall and ventricular septum. PMID:24819915

  15. Detection and monitoring of ongoing aseismic slip in the Tokai region, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Shinzaburo; Murakami, Makoto; Kaidzu, Masaru; Tada, Takashi; Sagiya, Takeshi; Hatanaka, Yuki; Yarai, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Takuya

    2002-11-01

    Analysis of global positioning system data shows that the rate of crustal deformations in the Tokai region of Japan, a seismic gap area, changed over the past 18 months. Kalman filtering analysis shows aseismic slip on the plate boundary in the western Tokai region centered on Lake Hamana, adjacent to the anticipated Tokai earthquake source area. The cumulative moment magnitude reaches 6.7 in June 2002 with a relative slip increase northeast of Lake Haman from January 2002. An existence of aseismic slip in the western Tokai supports the hypothesis of a silent event as the cause of uplifting several days before the 1944 Tonankai earthquake. PMID:12364622

  16. Helium Isotope Compositions in Springs From the Three Sisters Region, Central Oregon, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Van Soest; B. M. Kennedy; W. C. Evans; R. H. Mariner

    2001-01-01

    The Three Sisters region has recently come under increased scrutiny after the discovery by Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR) of a broad area of uplift centered approximately 5 km west of the South Sister volcanic edifice (Wicks et al., 2001). The bulge, which at its center reaches a maximum of 10 cm, formed between 1998-2000. The exact cause for the uplift

  17. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wafaa M. El-Ghanim; Loutfy M. Hassan; Tarek M. Galal; Abdelfattah Badr

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the

  18. NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Brindha; R. Rajesh; R. Murugan; L. Elango

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking

  19. MSU Workplan for Central Asia Regional IPM Program The Collaborative Program

    E-print Network

    , and fruit crops in the region is growing to enhance local food security and shift from the former policy crop in many of these countries, but the importance of food crops such as wheat, potato, tomato to farmers, address additional pests, and cover additional crops. #12;3. In the absence of a formal

  20. MSU Workplan for Central Asia Regional IPM Program The Collaborative Program

    E-print Network

    , and fruit crops in the region is growing to enhance local food security and shift from the former policy crop in many of these countries, but the importance of food crops such as wheat, potato, tomato additional pests, and cover additional crops. 3. Although components of IPM programs are in place

  1. There's no place like home: crown-of-thorns outbreaks in the central pacific are regionally derived and independent events.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Molly A; Bird, Christopher E; Skillings, Derek J; Smouse, Peter E; Toonen, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant biological disturbances on a tropical coral reef is a population outbreak of the fecund, corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci. Although the factors that trigger an initial outbreak may vary, successive outbreaks within and across regions are assumed to spread via the planktonic larvae released from a primary outbreak. This secondary outbreak hypothesis is predominantly based on the high dispersal potential of A. planci and the assertion that outbreak populations (a rogue subset of the larger population) are genetically more similar to each other than they are to low-density non-outbreak populations. Here we use molecular techniques to evaluate the spatial scale at which A. planci outbreaks can propagate via larval dispersal in the central Pacific Ocean by inferring the location and severity of gene flow restrictions from the analysis of mtDNA control region sequence (656 specimens, 17 non-outbreak and six outbreak locations, six archipelagos, and three regions). Substantial regional, archipelagic, and subarchipelagic-scale genetic structuring of A. planci populations indicate that larvae rarely realize their dispersal potential and outbreaks in the central Pacific do not spread across the expanses of open ocean. On a finer scale, genetic partitioning was detected within two of three islands with multiple sampling sites. The finest spatial structure was detected at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, between the lagoon and forereef habitats (<10 km). Despite using a genetic marker capable of revealing subtle partitioning, we found no evidence that outbreaks were a rogue genetic subset of a greater population. Overall, outbreaks that occur at similar times across population partitions are genetically independent and likely due to nutrient inputs and similar climatic and ecological conditions that conspire to fuel plankton blooms. PMID:22363570

  2. There's No Place Like Home: Crown-of-Thorns Outbreaks in the Central Pacific Are Regionally Derived and Independent Events

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Molly A.; Bird, Christopher E.; Skillings, Derek J.; Smouse, Peter E.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant biological disturbances on a tropical coral reef is a population outbreak of the fecund, corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci. Although the factors that trigger an initial outbreak may vary, successive outbreaks within and across regions are assumed to spread via the planktonic larvae released from a primary outbreak. This secondary outbreak hypothesis is predominantly based on the high dispersal potential of A. planci and the assertion that outbreak populations (a rogue subset of the larger population) are genetically more similar to each other than they are to low-density non-outbreak populations. Here we use molecular techniques to evaluate the spatial scale at which A. planci outbreaks can propagate via larval dispersal in the central Pacific Ocean by inferring the location and severity of gene flow restrictions from the analysis of mtDNA control region sequence (656 specimens, 17 non-outbreak and six outbreak locations, six archipelagos, and three regions). Substantial regional, archipelagic, and subarchipelagic-scale genetic structuring of A. planci populations indicate that larvae rarely realize their dispersal potential and outbreaks in the central Pacific do not spread across the expanses of open ocean. On a finer scale, genetic partitioning was detected within two of three islands with multiple sampling sites. The finest spatial structure was detected at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, between the lagoon and forereef habitats (<10 km). Despite using a genetic marker capable of revealing subtle partitioning, we found no evidence that outbreaks were a rogue genetic subset of a greater population. Overall, outbreaks that occur at similar times across population partitions are genetically independent and likely due to nutrient inputs and similar climatic and ecological conditions that conspire to fuel plankton blooms. PMID:22363570

  3. The central region of the Fornax cluster -- I. A catalog and photometric properties of galaxies in selected CCD fields

    E-print Network

    M. Hilker; M. Kissler-Patig; T. Richtler; L. Infante; H. Quintana

    1998-07-14

    We present a photometric catalog (based on V and I photometry) of galaxies in the central regions of the Fornax galaxy cluster. Our 11 CCD fields cover 0.17 degrees in total. The limiting surface brightness is around 24 mag arsec^-2, similar to that of Ferguson's (1989, AJ 98, 367) catalog, whereas our limiting total magnitude is around V = 22 mag, about two magnitudes fainter. It is the surface brightness limit, however, that prevents us from detecting the counterparts of the faintest Local Group dwarf spheroidals. The photometric properties of all objects are presented as a catalog. The properties and fit parameters of the surface brightness profiles for a sub-sample are presented as a second catalog (both catalogs are available in electronic form at the CDS). We can only add 4 new dwarf galaxies to Ferguson's catalog. However, we confirm that the dwarf galaxies in Fornax follow a similar surface brightness-magnitude relation as the Local Group dwarfs. They also follow the color (metallicity) - relation seen in other galaxy clusters. A formerly suspected excess of dwarf galaxies surrounding the central cD galaxy NGC 1399 can finally be ruled out. An enhanced density of objects around NGC 1399 can indeed be seen, but it appears displaced with respect to the central galaxy and is identified as a background cluster at z = 0.11 in Paper II of these series, which will discuss spectroscopic results for our sample.

  4. Regional landslide hazard assesment for Kulon Progo Area, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnawati, D.

    2009-12-01

    Karanganyar region is situated in a dynamic volcanic region in Java Island, where rain-induced landslides are frequent and widespread. Shallow-rapid earth slides triggered by heavy rainfall are the most common landslide type occurring on the steep slope and had resulted in major casualties, whilst deep soil creeping is more prominant on the gentle slope which creat a lot of damages on the houses and infrastructure. A landslide hazard assessment had been conducted to support the landslide mitigation program in this region. Such assessment was carried out by applying a semi qualitative approach (Analytical Hierarchical Process) where a weighting system was applied to assess the level of importance of each controlling parameter as suggested by Saaty (1980). Existing conditions of each controlling parameters were also assessed based on relative hierarchical system by applying scoring. Geographical Information System was used as a tool in such analysis and mapping process. The isohyet map was also prepared from statistical and spatial analyses on rain fall data. Finally, two different scenarios of landslide hazard maps were established, i.e. the scenario without any rainfall (Scenario 1) and with the reainfall (Scenario 2). It was found that the most susceptible zone of landslide was localised on the steep slope (with the inclination beyond 45o ) of jointed andesitic breccia, which was covered by thinck silty clay and situated close to the stream zone (Scenario 1). However from the hazard map and analysis on scenario 2, it can be identified that the susceptible zone expanded larger due to the rainfall, covering most region of the west-slope area of Lawu Volcano. Therefore, it can be concluded that the rainfall intensity is very crucial to induce the landslide not only in the most susceptible zone, but also in the larger area which also include the less susceptbile zone. This findings is also crucial to support the development of landslide spatial-early-warning system in the region.

  5. Energy-consumption patterns of low-income groups and minorities: a central Kentucky regional study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.S.

    1982-02-01

    Based on the primary data of a sample collected from the Central Kentucky area, several descriptive statistical analyses were performed to establish some characteristics of energy-consumption patterns of minorities and/or the poor. In doing so, the Average Percentage of Disposable Income (APDI) spent on energy was calculated and utilized for the purpose of comparisons between different sub-samples with different socio-economic and ethnic backgrounds. The APDI is also used to measure the possible impact of energy price increases on the poor. This study also indicates that the poor pay more for electricity as compared to higher-income groups for home maintenance due exclusively to the pricing policy of utility companies. The poor also seem to experience a more-severe impact from rising energy costs than higher-income groups, although the extent of this cannot be quantitatively measured.

  6. Pulpwood production in the north-central region, 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Piva, R.J.

    1995-04-18

    Pulp and particleboard mills using North Central States timber in 1993 reported their pulpwood receipts by species group and county of origin. The report presents the results of the survey, analyzes the data, compares results with those of 1992 or earlier years, and discusses trends in pulpwood production and use. The report includes all primary products made from reconstituted wood fiber. In addition to wood pulp, this includes particleboard and engineered lumber products made from chips, shavings, wafers, flakes, strands, and sawdust. This report presents the production by county of the raw fiber material delivered to mills. Thus, these data report only that a portion of the timber harvest used as raw material and do not necessarily reflect the volume of growing stock harvested.

  7. Numerical study of local/regional atmospheric changes caused by a large solar central receiver power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhumralkar, C. M.; Slemmons, A. J.; Nitz, K. C.

    1981-06-01

    A two-dimensional numerical atmospheric mesoscale model with a vertical cross section is applied to study the potential local/regional atmospheric effects of the installation of a 100 MWe solar thermal central receiver power plant in California. The plant comprises heliostats (mirrors) covering a portion of ground surface and reflecting sunlight onto a central receiving tower. The model is able to simulate the changes in surface characteristics associated with the installation of heliostats and other power plant ancillaries and can also simulate the effects of waste heat from cooling towers. The model equations are integrated to simulate typical summer and atypical summer. The results for typical summer conditions at the site and in the surrounding region demonstrate that the power plant has the potential to increase local humidity and wind circulation but cannot induce the formation of clouds or rain. The results for atypical summer conditions show that the solar power plant is potentially able to increase the wind circulation and form clouds and rain. It is noted, however, that the life cycle of such formations is only 2-3 h.

  8. Chlorophyll enhancement in the central region of the Bay of Biscay as a result of internal tidal wave interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muacho, S.; da Silva, J. C. B.; Brotas, V.; Oliveira, P. B.; Magalhaes, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    A multi-sensor satellite approach based on ocean colour, sunglint and Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery is used to study the impact of interacting internal tidal (IT) waves on near-surface chlorophyll-a distribution, in the central Bay of Biscay. Satellite imagery was initially used to characterize the internal solitary wave (ISW) field in the study area, where the “local generation mechanism” was found to be associated with two distinct regions of enhanced barotropic tidal forcing. IT beams formed at the French shelf-break, and generated from critical bathymetry in the vicinities of one of these regions, were found to be consistent with “locally generated” ISWs. Representative case studies illustrate the existence of two different axes of IT propagation originating from the French shelf-break, which intersect close to 46°N, - 7°E, where strong IT interaction has been previously identified. Evidence of constructive interference between large IT waves is then presented and shown to be consistent with enhanced levels of chlorophyll-a concentration detected by means of ocean colour satellite sensors. Finally, the results obtained from satellite climatological mean chlorophyll-a concentration from late summer (i.e. September, when ITs and ISWs can meet ideal propagation conditions) suggest that elevated IT activity plays a significant role in phytoplankton vertical distribution, and therefore influences the late summer ecology in the central Bay of Biscay.

  9. Deacetylation of phosphoglycerate mutase in its distinct central region by SIRT2 down-regulates its enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Tsusaka, Takeshi; Guo, Tingting; Yagura, Teiti; Inoue, Toshiaki; Yokode, Masayuki; Inagaki, Nobuya; Kondoh, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    Substantially high rate of glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect, is a well-known feature of cancers, and emerging evidence suggests that it supports cancerous proliferation/tumor growth. Phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM), a glycolytic enzyme, is commonly up-regulated in several cancers, and recent reports show its involvement in the Warburg effect. Here, a comprehensive analysis shows that PGAM is acetylated at lysines 100/106/113/138 in its central region, and a member of the Sirtuin family (class III deacetylase), SIRT2, is responsible for its deacetylation. Over-expression of SIRT2 or mutations at the acetylatable lysines of PGAM attenuates cancer cell proliferation with a concomitant decrease in PGAM activity. We also report that the acetyltransferase PCAF (p300/CBP-associated factor) interacts with PGAM and acetylates its C-terminus, but not the central region. As prior evidence suggests that SIRT2 functions as a tumor suppressor, our results would provide support for the mechanistic basis of this activity. PMID:25195573

  10. Early Pleistocene climate changes in the central Mediterranean region as inferred from integrated pollen and planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannin, Sébastien; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Lécuyer, Christophe; Martineau, François

    2007-03-01

    Vegetation inherited from a Pliocene subtropical climate evolved through obliquity oscillations and global cooling leading to modern conditions. An integrated, highly time-resolved record of pollen and stable isotopes ( ?18O and ?13C of Globigerina bulloides) was obtained to understand vegetation responses to Early Pleistocene climate changes. Continental and marine responses are compared in the Central Mediterranean region with a particular consideration of environmental changes during anoxic events. Pollen data illustrate vegetation dynamics as follows: [1] development of mesothermic elements (warm and humid conditions); [2] expansion of mid- and high-altitude elements (cooler but still humid conditions); and [3] strengthening of steppe and herb elements (cooler and dry conditions). These successions correlate with precession. ?18O variations recorded by Globigerina bulloides define two cycles (MIS 43-40) related to obliquity. At northern low- to mid-latitudes, the pollen signal records temperature and wetness changes related to precession even during global climate changes induced by obliquity. This may result in unexpected increasing wetness during glacial periods, which has to be considered specific to the Central and Eastern Mediterranean region. Lastly, an analysis of anoxic events reveals that enhanced runoff is indicated by increasing frequency of the riparian trees Liquidambar and Zelkova.

  11. Spatial and temporal characteristics of heat waves over Central Europe in an ensemble of regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, Ond?ej; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the capability of regional climate models (RCMs) to reproduce spatial and temporal characteristics of severe Central European heat waves. We analysed an ensemble of seven RCM simulations driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis over the 1961-2000 period, in comparison to observed data from the E-OBS gridded dataset. Heat waves were defined based on regionally significant excesses above the model-specific 95 % quantile of summer daily maximum air temperature distribution and their severity was described using the extremity index. The multi-model mean reflected the observed characteristics of heat waves quite well, but considerable differences were found among the individual RCMs. The RCMs had a tendency to simulate too many heat waves that were shorter but their temperature peak was more pronounced on average compared to E-OBS. Deficiencies were found also in reproducing interannual and interdecadal variability of heat waves. Using as an example the most severe Central European heat wave that occurred in 1994, we demonstrate that its magnitude was underestimated in all RCMs and that this bias was linked to overestimation of precipitation during and before the heat wave. By contrast, a simulated precipitation deficit during summer 1967 in the majority of RCMs contributed to an "erroneous" heat wave. This shows that land-atmosphere coupling is crucial for developing severe heat waves and its proper reproduction in climate models is essential for obtaining credible scenarios of future heat waves.

  12. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: multiresistant tick.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fabrício Amadori; Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Ferreira, Maiara Sanitá Tafner; Gregorio, Fabiano de Vargas; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the acaricide resistance of tick populations in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), which has not previously been reported. Fifty-four cattle farms were visited and specimens of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were collected and subjected to the adult immersion test, using nine commercial acaricides in the amidine, pyrethroid and organophosphate groups. Climatic data, including monthly precipitation, were recorded. The results from the present study demonstrated that seven of the acaricides analyzed presented mean efficacy values of less than 95%, with large differences among the products tested. Nine of them exhibited satisfactory and unsatisfactory acaricide results on at least one farm. In conclusion, the farms located in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, exhibited populations of R. (Boophilus) microplus with variable degrees of susceptibility to different acaricides, thus suggesting that resistance to the active compounds exists. It is suggested that treatment protocols should be implemented at the beginning of winter and summer, using the acaricides that showed efficacy in the adult immersion test. PMID:25271453

  13. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it`s new marketing plan.

  14. Structure and Kinematics of CO (J=2-1) Emission in the Central Region of NGC 4258

    E-print Network

    S. Sawada-Satoh; P. T. P. Ho; S. Muller; S. Matsushita; J. Lim

    2006-12-12

    We present 12CO (J=2-1) observations towards the central region of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4258 with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Our interferometric maps show two arm-like elongated components along the major axis of the galaxy, with no strong nuclear concentration. The CO (2-1) morphology and kinematics are similar to previous CO (1-0) results. The velocity field of the components agrees with the general galactic rotation, except for the east elongated component, which shows a significant velocity gradient along the east-west direction. In order to account for the velocity field, we propose the kinematical model where the warped rotating disk is also expanding. The line ratio of CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) reveals that the eastern component with the anomalous velocity gradient appears to be warmer and denser. This is consistent with the gas in this component being closer to the center, being heated by the central activities, and possibly interacted by expanding motions from the nuclear region.

  15. Physical properties of Oxia/Lunae Planum and Arabia-type units in the central equatorial region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Edwin L., III

    1992-01-01

    Classification and mapping of surficial units in the central equatorial region of Mars Consortium data identified the relatively dark but 'red' materials that cover Lunae Planum and surround the Meridiani materials of Oxia Palus inertia region of Arabia. Oxia Province consists of the regions dominated by the characteristically dark 'red' Oxia materials, but it includes darker streaks and splotches of relatively 'blue' Meridiani materials and brighter 'red' deposits of dust belonging to Eos Province (the bright 'red' border between Oxia and regional Meridiani deposits to the south) and Xanthe Province (the moderately bright 'red' dust deposits in western Chryse Planitia and its vicinity, including the VL-1 landing site). Two Oxia units were recognized: a darker unit present on Lunae Planum and east of Oxia Palus that have intermediate to high inertias. Oxia Province surrounds the extremely low thermal inertia Arabia Province in the east part of the study area, and occurs as isolated patches within Arabia (often including splotches of Meridiani materials within the Oxia patches). Arabia Province's materials have been widely interpreted as unconsolidated dust deposits which are currently forming at this stage of Mars' precessional climate cycle, although the persistence of stable, moderately strong albedo contracts among Arabia materials has not been addressed in those models. A systematic interpretation of Oxia and Arabia Province materials based on currently available remote sensing data is given.

  16. Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapalee, Gloria; Steyaert, Louis T.; Hall, Forrest G.

    2001-12-01

    Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important, particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients.

  17. Regional fuel load modeled for two contrasting years in central and southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hely, C.; Dowty, P. R.; Alleaume, S.; Caylor, K. K.; Shugart, H. H.

    2001-12-01

    Fuel load has been modeled for southern hemisphere Africa for the 1991-92 and 1999-2000 growing seasons. The 1991-92 year was generally dry due to a strong El Nino event in contrast to the particularly wet year of 1999-2000. The method integrates site-level process modeling with 15 day AVHRR NDVI data. The site model was used to simulate landscape light-use efficiency (LUE) at a series of sites in the Kalahari region ranging from evergreen woodland to arid shrubland. This site-level LUE is extrapolated over the southern African region with gridded tree cover data and gridded rainfall. The predicted net primary production (NPP) is allocated into the different fuel types (grass, litter, twigs) using empirical based relationships. The model results are compared with field measurements of fuel load at a number of sites. The results will be used for modeling of biomass burning emissions.

  18. Seasonal pattern of regional carbon balance in the central Rocky Mountains from surface and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Ankur R.; Moore, David J. P.; Ahue, William K. M.; Wilkes, Phillip T. V.; de Wekker, Stephan F. J.; Brooks, Bjorn G.; Campos, Teresa L.; Stephens, Britton B.; Monson, Russell K.; Burns, Sean P.; Quaife, Tristan; Aulenbach, Steven M.; Schimel, David S.

    2011-12-01

    High-elevation forests represent a large fraction of potential carbon uptake in North America, but this uptake is not well constrained by observations. Additionally, forests in the Rocky Mountains have recently been severely damaged by drought, fire, and insect outbreaks, which have been quantified at local scales but not assessed in terms of carbon uptake at regional scales. The Airborne Carbon in the Mountains Experiment was carried out in 2007 partly to assess carbon uptake in western U.S. mountain ecosystems. The magnitude and seasonal change of carbon uptake were quantified by (1) paired upwind-downwind airborne CO2 observations applied in a boundary layer budget, (2) a spatially explicit ecosystem model constrained using remote sensing and flux tower observations, and (3) a downscaled global tracer transport inversion. Top-down approaches had mean carbon uptake equivalent to flux tower observations at a subalpine forest, while the ecosystem model showed less. The techniques disagreed on temporal evolution. Regional carbon uptake was greatest in the early summer immediately following snowmelt and tended to lessen as the region experienced dry summer conditions. This reduction was more pronounced in the airborne budget and inversion than in flux tower or upscaling, possibly related to lower snow water availability in forests sampled by the aircraft, which were lower in elevation than the tower site. Changes in vegetative greenness associated with insect outbreaks were detected using satellite reflectance observations, but impacts on regional carbon cycling were unclear, highlighting the need to better quantify this emerging disturbance effect on montane forest carbon cycling.

  19. Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Andreae; R. W. Talbot; T. W. Andreae; R. C. Harriss

    1988-01-01

    We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both

  20. Deep Crustal Earthquakes in the Sierras Pampeanas Region of the South Central Andean Backarc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Alvarado; S. Beck; G. Zandt; R. Fromm; M. Araujo; M. Bufaliza; E. Triep

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years almost 500 earthquakes with depths less than 50 km and magnitudes over 4.0 have occurred in the Andean cordillera and backarc region between 29-34S as a consequence of the compression between the Nazca and South American plates. Many of these earthquakes as well as large (M>7) damaging shallow earthquakes in 1861, 1894, 1944, 1952 and

  1. Eruptive history of the Dieng Mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C. Dan; Sushyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location.

  2. Eruptive history of the Dieng mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.D.; Sukhyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location. 6 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Regional winter climate of the southern central Andes: Assessing the performance of ERA-Interim for climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusticucci, Matilde; Zazulie, Natalia; Raga, Graciela B.

    2014-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of using reanalysis (ERA-Interim) for climate studies over the southern central Andes in South America, we have compared the most recent version of different data sets available to the community. The data sets include gridded in situ observations: Climate Research Unit (CRU), Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), and University of Delaware; merged satellite and in situ data: Global Precipitation Climatology Project; and satellite estimates: Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. We pay particular attention to the region between 30° and 37°S and also the period 1970-1976 to evaluate the data sets. This is the period of maximum availability of meteorological stations in the region. Whereas all data sets provide an adequate representation of mean winter, GPCC provides the best for winter precipitation due to the large number of stations included in gridding. The CRU data set has fewer observations throughout the period. Although it cannot reproduce the localized maxima in the Andes, it provides a better representation of the regional precipitation and is best suited to evaluate trends. The temperature in the region is best estimated by CRU. We evaluate the ERA-Interim reanalysis to determine potential shortcomings. The trends in the region were analyzed during the period 1979-2010, and while CRU indicates a significant decrease in winter precipitation, ERA-Interim shows virtually no significant trends. Interannual variability is well represented by ERA-Interim, and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, which has been proven to be the principal source of year to year precipitation variability in the region, is highly correlated there.

  4. Canadian groundwater inventory: Regional hydrogeological characterization of the south-central part of the maritimes basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivard, C.; Michaud, Y.; Deblonde, C.; Boisvert, V.; Carrier, C.; Morin, R.H.; Calvert, T.; Vigneault, H.; Conohan, D.; Castonguay, S.; Lefebvre, R.; Rivera, A.; Parent, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Maritimes Groundwater Initiative (MGWI) is a large, integrated, regional hydrogeological study focusing on a representative area of the Maritimes Basin in eastern Canada. The study area covers a land surface of 10 500 km2, of which 9 400 km2 are underlain by sedimentary rocks. This sedimentary bedrock is composed of a sequence of discontinuous strata of highly variable hydraulic properties, and is generally overlain by a thin layer of glacial till(mostly 4-8 m thick, but can reach 20 m). Depending on the area, 46 to 100% of the population relieson groundwater for water supply, either from municipal wells or from private residential wells. The main objectives of this project were to improve the general understanding of groundwater-flow dynamics and to provide baseline information and tools for a regional groundwater-resource assessment. This bulletin presents the current state of understanding of this hydrogeological system, along with the methodology used to characterize and analyze its distinct behaviour at three different scales. This regional bedrock aquifer system contains confined and unconfined zones, and each of its lenticular permeable strata extends only a few kilometres. Preferential groundwater recharge occurs where sandy till is present. The mean annual recharge rate to the bedrock is estimated to range between 130 and 165 mm/a. Several geological formations of this basin provide good aquifers, with hydraulic conductivity in the range 5x10-6 to 10-4m/s. Based on results of numerical flow modelling, faults were interpreted to have a key role in the regional flow. Pumping-test results revealed that the fractured aquifers can locally be very heterogeneous and anisotropic, but behave similarly to porous media. Work performed at the local scale indicated that most water-producing fractures seem to be subhorizontal and generally oriented in a northeasterly direction, in agreement with regional structures and pumping-test results. Almost all residential wells are shallow (about 20 m) open holes that are cased only through the surficial sediments.

  5. Timing of Proterozoic regional deformation in the southern Manzano Mountains, central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, P.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Bowring, S.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences); Karlstrom, K.E. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Early Proterozoic supracrustal and plutonic rocks of the Manzano Mtns have sustained a remarkably complex history of ductile deformation, metamorphism, and plutonism. A comparison of field relations and deformational features between the two southernmost plutons suggests that they differ greatly in timing of intrusion with respect to regional deformation. The Monte Largo pluton consists of medium-grained granodiorite and quartz monzonite that is bounded on three sides by strongly deformed quartzite and phyllite. An S1 foliation is folded by upright, N-trending folds (F2). S2, axial planar to F2, is mylonitic along the E pluton margin. The degree of deformation in the pluton is comparable to that in the country rock. The Monte Largo pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.66 Ga. The Priest pluton is a 10-km-long, N-S elongate, megacrystic quartz monzonite that is intrusive into quartzite sand schists. Large microcline crystals define a magmatic foliation. The body contains a weakly to moderately well-developed NE-striking tectonic foliation defined by flattened quartz grains, best developed along the W margin. On the N end of the pluton, map-scale folds in quartzite and schist have been cross-cut, and a contact metamorphic aureole cross-cuts country rock structures. The degree of deformation in the pluton is significantly less than that of country rock quartzites, some of which are mylonitic. The Priest Pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.45 Ga. These data suggest that the ca. 1.66 Ga Monte Largo pluton is syntectonic with respect to regional deformation, whereas the ca. 1.45 Ga priest pluton is post-tectonic with respect to the regional deformation.

  6. Effects of fire on regional evapotranspiration in the central Canadian boreal forest

    SciTech Connect

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Peckham, Scott D.; Gower, Stith T.; Ewers, Brent

    2009-04-08

    Changes in fire regimes are driving the carbon balance of much of the North American boreal forest, but few studies have examined fire-driven changes in evapotranspiration (ET) at a regional scale. This study used a version of the Biome-BGC process model with dynamic and competing vegetation types, and explicit spatial representation of a large (106 km2) region, to simulate the effects of wildfire on ET and its components from 1948 to 2005 by comparing the fire dynamics of the 1948-1967 period with those of 1968-2005. Simulated ET averaged, over the entire temporal and spatial modeling domain, 323 mm yr-1; simulation results indicated that changes in fire in recent decades decreased regional ET by 1.4% over the entire simulation, and by 3.9% in the last ten years (1996-2005). Conifers dominated the transpiration (EC) flux (120 mm yr-1) but decreased by 18% relative to deciduous broadleaf trees in the last part of the 20th century, when increased fire resulted in increased soil evaporation, lower canopy evaporation, lower EC and a younger and more deciduous forest. Well- and poorly-drained areas had similar rates of evaporation from the canopy and soil, but EC was twice as high in the well-drained areas. Mosses comprised a significant part of the evaporative flux to the atmosphere (22 mm yr-1). Modeled annual ET was correlated with net primary production, but not with temperature or precipitation; ET and its components were consistent with previous field and modeling studies. Wildfire is thus driving significant changes in hydrological processes, changes that may control the future carbon balance of the boreal forest.

  7. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. V - Deconvolution of the central highlands region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, A. E.; Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Haines, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of thorium in the lunar central highlands measured from orbit by the Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer is subjected to a deconvolution analysis to yield improved spatial resolution and contrast. Use of two overlapping data fields for complete coverage also provides a demonstration of the technique's ability to model concentrations several degrees beyond the data track. Deconvolution reveals an association between Th concentration and the Kant Plateau, Descartes Mountain and Cayley plains surface formations. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains model with Th less than 1 part per million, which is typical of farside highlands but is infrequently seen over any other nearside highland portions of the Apollo 15 and 16 ground tracks. It is noted that, if the Cayley plains are the result of basin-forming impact ejecta, the distribution of Th concentration with longitude supports an origin from the Imbrium basin rather than the Nectaris or Orientale basins. Nectaris basin materials are found to have a Th concentration similar to that of the Descartes Mountains, evidence that the latter may have been emplaced as Nectaris basin impact deposits.

  8. Rb-Sr dating of Paleozoic glauconite from the Llano region, central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, John P.; Long, Leon E.

    1980-05-01

    Glauconite from eight stratigraphic horizons (Cambrian to Pennsylvanian) in the Llano Uplift, central Texas and two Cretaceous glauconites were analyzed by the Rb-Sr method. Only two untreated samples provide ages in agreement with those anticipated from current best estimates of the geologic time scale. With one exception all the other apparent ages fall short of the estimated age of deposition by as much as 22%. Low ages, the pattern customarily observed, are attributed to postdepositional loss of radiogenic 87Sr from expandable layers by weathering or during diagenesis. Detailed leaching experiments using a variety of reagents were performed to characterize the behavior of glauconite. The most promising treatment, which we recommend as standard procedure in all future studies, is with ammonium acetate which is able to purge the mineral of loosely-bound Rb and Sr while leaving tightly-bound components intact. After appropriate leach, three other Rb-Sr ages were brought into coincidence with their estimated ages of deposition. In contrast an Upper Cambrian glauconite was found to be extremely resistant to further alteration by chemical attack', providing an age of 429 ± 17 M yr. Although 17% short of the age of deposition, this age is interpreted as the time of a real event: diagenetic recrystallization induced by burial. Comparison of data from four samples indicates that for Paleozoic glauconite, conditions exist in which the Rb-Sr system is less susceptible to mild disturbance than is the K-Ar system.

  9. Evolution of mantle sources in the Black Hills region of the central Arizona Transition Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, S. (Centenary College, Shreveport, LA (United States). Dept. of Geology); Wittke, J.H. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Two principal Tertiary basaltic units occur in the central Arizona Transition Zone: [1] the Hickey Formation (10--15 Ma) and [2] the Perkinsville and Verde Formations (3--8 Ma). Lavas in these units were extruded before and after local Basin and Range extensional faulting. Middle Miocene Hickey volcanic centers are spaced across the Transition Zone, in a line roughly perpendicular to the edge of the Colorado Plateau. Early Hickey flows are commonly alkaline and include both potassic (shoshonite, trachybasalt, tephrite) and sodic lavas (basanite, alkali olivine basalt, hawaiite). Production of alkaline lavas was followed by the extrusion of subalkaline lavas (tholeite, basaltic andesite). Early Pliocene Perkinsville and Verde lavas are mostly subalkaline with subordinate alkaline flows that are less alkalic than the Hickey flow. Detailed trace-element and isotopic data reveal a systematic transition from lithospheric to mixed, to asthenospheric lavas. These data suggest that the size of the lithospheric component in Transition Zone magmas decreased with time as asthenospheric liquids stripped the lithosphere of its easily fusible components. Basin and Range extension of the thermally-worked lithosphere permitted eruption of essentially unmodified asthenospheric melts. The transition from lithosphere-dominated magmas to asthenosphere-dominated magmas took about 10 Ma in this area.

  10. Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary and paleovegetation history of the eastern Solimões Basin, central Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Silveira, Rosemery; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix

    2013-10-01

    Palynological and stratigraphical analyses were carried out on the outcrops of the Solimões River to present new information about freshwater paleoenvironments of a fluvial-deltaic and meandering river system, evaluate the vegetation changes in the upper Solimões and Içá Formations in the eastern Solimões Basin, and the role of the Purus Arc in the evolution of central Amazon during the upper Neogene. The upper Miocene to Pliocene Solimões Formation is related to a fluvial-deltaic system, with fine-grained sediments of the prodelta-lacustrine environment supplied by meandering distributaries and delta front environment. The lake and distributaries were surrounded by extensive deltaic and floodplains colonized by lowland freshwater forests under wet climate conditions, persisting until the Pliocene. The Içá Formation started to deposit unconformably on the Solimões Formation during the Pleistocene, following the development of extensive meandering channels surrounded by floodplains of an essentially fluvial system linked to development of the present eastward direction of the Amazon River until the Atlantic coast. These floodplains were colonized by few palm species and pteridophytes of lowland freshwater forests during the Pleistocene. Additionally, no algae and fungi were observed, which may be related to drier climate conditions and/or different morphological conditions than the upper Solimões Formation.

  11. Water-resources information for the Withlacoochee River region, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Robert A.; Anderson, Warren; Navoy, Anthony S.; Smoot, James L.; Belles, Roger G.

    1981-01-01

    Daily water use in the Withlacoochee River region in 1977 averaged about 2,005 million gallons per day, 94 percent being saline surface water used in thermoelectric power-generation cooling. The largest user of freshwater was Hernando County, using 43.02 million gallons per day. The Floridan aquifer in the region consists mostly of limestones and dolomites, and is as much as 1,500 feet thick. Transmissivities are known to be as high as 25 million feet squared per day. Yields of 2,000 gallons per minutes from 12-inch wells are possible. Although the range in fluctuations of the potentiometric surface is as great as 20 feet, no significant change has occurred since the 1930 's when data were first collected. The quality of water in the Floridan aquifer is generally excellent. Saltwater is present in the aquifer near the Gulf Coast and in extreme east Marion County, near the St. Johns River. The predominant chemical type for both streams and springs is calcium and magnesium bicarbonate due to the dissolution process of the carbonate rocks. The majority of the streams have average dissolved-solid concentrations between 100 and 200 milligrams per liter, maximum-observed specific conductance between 250 and 750 micromhos per centimeter, and average total nitrogen concentrations of less than 1.2 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

  12. Crustal structure of east central Oregon: relation between Newberry Volcano and regional crustal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Catchings, R.D.; Mooney, W.D.

    1988-09-10

    A 180-km-long seismic refraction transect from the eastern High Cascades, across Newberry Volcano, to the eastern High Lava Plains is used to investigate the subvolcanic crustal and upper mantle velocity structure there. Near-surface volcanic flows and sedimentary debris (1.6--4.7 km/s), ranging from 3 to 5 km in thickness, overlie subvolcanic Basin and Range structures. East and west of Newberry Volcano, the subvolcanic basement (5.6 km/s) has been downwarped, producing 5-km-deep basins. The midcrust (8- to 28-km depth) is characterized by velocities ranging from 6.1 to 6.5 km/s and varies laterally in thicknesses. The lowercrust is characterized by an unusually high velocity (about 7.4 km/s), and its geometry mirrors the subvolcanic basement geometry. The Moho is located at a depth of 37 km and represents a transition to an upper mantle velocity of 8.1 km/s. The shallow subsurface (1.2 km) beneath Newberry Volcano is characterized by high-velocity (5.6 km/s, versus 4.1 km/s for the surrounding area) intrusions and appears to be located on a basement high. Beneath the seismic fraction array at Newberry Volcano, an absence of low-velocity anomalies suggests that large silicic magma chambers do not exist in the upper crust, but apparent high attenuation of the seismic wave field may be consistent with either partial melts in small volumes, elevated crustal temperatures, and/or poor geophone-recording site coupling. The east central Oregon velocity structure is nearly identical to that of the northwestern Nevada Basin and Range and the Modoc Plateau of northeastern California, and variations in the deep crustal structure about Newberry Volcano are consistent with tectonism involving crustal underplating, melting, and extension.

  13. Geothermal potential of the Lavic Lake Region, Central Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenstein, A.M.; Sabin, A.E.; Meade, D.M. [China Lake Air Weapons Station, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Lavic Lake is a playa lake located immediately south of Pisgah Crater within lands controlled by the Marine Corps Air/Ground Combat Center in the central Mojave Desert. The Department of the Navy`s Geothermal Program Office (GPO) recently completed a second season of drilling to assess the geothermal potential at Lavic Lake. Drilling was preceded by geologic reconnaissance and a detailed gravity and ground magnetic survey. Lavic Lake is bounded to the west by the northwest-trending, right-lateral Pisgah fault and an unnamed west-trending fault to the north. The {approximately}200 ka Sunshine basalt flows and the {approximately}2-20 ka Pisgah basalt flows straddle these northwest- and west-trending faults, respectively, in the Lavic Lake area. An extensional depression related to a right bend of the Pisgah fault forms the southwest end of Lavic Lake and was the focus of the above studies. A localized 10 mgal gravity low and a coincident 500 gamma aeromagnetic low are centered within this depression. The combination of elevated temperature gradients in initial shallow holes, recent basaltic volcanism, a seismicly active fluid conduit (Pisgah fault), and hydrothermal alteration in the nearby hectorite deposit prompted the GPO to focus deeper drilling adjacent to the geophysical anomalies at the southwest end of Lavic Lake. Drilling results reveal that the geothermal potential for electrical use is negligible; however, LLTGH-5 and -6 both encountered highly fractured zones. LLTGH-6 crossed a zone of warm (110{degrees}F) fluid at 750 ft and intercepted highly fractured granitic basement at 4,175 ft.

  14. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF G331.5-0.1: THE LUMINOUS CENTRAL REGION OF A GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Merello, Manuel; Bronfman, Leonardo; Garay, Guido [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Nyman, Lars-Ake [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Evans, Neal J. II [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Walmsley, C. Malcolm [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2013-09-01

    We report molecular line and dust continuum observations toward the high-mass star-forming region G331.5-0.1, one of the most luminous regions of massive star formation in the Milky Way, located at the tangent region of the Norma spiral arm, at a distance of 7.5 kpc. Molecular emission was mapped toward the G331.5-0.1 GMC in the CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) and C{sup 18}O(J = 1 {yields} 0) lines with NANTEN, while its central region was mapped in CS(J = 2 {yields} 1 and J = 5 {yields} 4) with SEST, and in CS(J = 7 {yields} 6) and {sup 13}CO(J = 3 {yields} 2) with ASTE. Continuum emission mapped at 1.2 mm with SIMBA and at 0.87 mm with LABOCA reveal the presence of six compact and luminous dust clumps, making this source one of the most densely populated central regions of a GMC in the Galaxy. The dust clumps are associated with molecular gas and they have the following average properties: size of 1.6 pc, mass of 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }, molecular hydrogen density of 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, dust temperature of 32 K, and integrated luminosity of 5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} L{sub Sun }, consistent with values found toward other massive star-forming dust clumps. The CS and {sup 13}CO spectra show the presence of two velocity components: a high-velocity component at {approx} - 89 km s{sup -1}, seen toward four of the clumps, and a low-velocity component at {approx} - 101 km s{sup -1} seen toward the other two clumps. Radio continuum emission is present toward four of the molecular clumps, with spectral index estimated for two of them of 0.8 {+-} 0.2 and 1.2 {+-} 0.2. A high-velocity molecular outflow is found at the center of the brightest clump, with a line width of 26 km s{sup -1} (FWHM) in CS(J = 7 {yields} 6). Observations of SiO(J = 7 {yields} 6 and J = 8 {yields} 7), and SO(J{sub K} = 8{sub 8} {yields} 7{sub 7} and J{sub K} = 8{sub 7} {yields} 7{sub 6}) lines provide estimates of the gas rotational temperature toward this outflow >120 K and >75 K, respectively.

  15. Quantification and regionalization of groundwater recharge in South-Central Kansas: Integrating field characterization, statistical analysis, and GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    A practical methodology for recharge characterization was developed based on several years of field-oriented research at 10 sites in the Great Bend Prairie of south-central Kansas. This methodology combines the soil-water budget on a storm-by-storm year-round basis with the resulting watertable rises. The estimated 1985-1992 average annual recharge was less than 50mm/year with a range from 15 mm/year (during the 1998 drought) to 178 mm/year (during the 1993 flood year). Most of this recharge occurs during the spring months. To regionalize these site-specific estimates, an additional methodology based on multiple (forward) regression analysis combined with classification and GIS overlay analyses was developed and implemented. The multiple regression analysis showed that the most influential variables were, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation, average maximum springtime soil-profile water storage, average shallowest springtime depth to watertable, and average springtime precipitation rate. Therefore, four GIS (ARC/INFO) data "layers" or coverages were constructed for the study region based on these four variables, and each such coverage was classified into the same number of data classes to avoid biasing the results. The normalized regression coefficients were employed to weigh the class rankings of each recharge-affecting variable. This approach resulted in recharge zonations that agreed well with the site recharge estimates. During the "Great Flood of 1993," when rainfall totals exceeded normal levels by -200% in the northern portion of the study region, the developed regionalization methodology was tested against such extreme conditions, and proved to be both practical, based on readily available or easily measurable data, and robust. It was concluded that the combination of multiple regression and GIS overlay analyses is a powerful and practical approach to regionalizing small samples of recharge estimates.

  16. Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

  17. Seismic Wave Velocity Heterogeneity and Discontinuity Topography of the D" Region beneath the Caribbean and Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Y.; Kuo, B.; Hung, S.

    2012-12-01

    Triplication arrivals generated by shear wave interaction with a sharp velocity increase at the top of the D" region have been argued for the widespread presence of a D" velocity discontinuity beneath the Caribbean and Central America. Seismic tomography models have also shown strong lateral velocity heterogeneity in this region. To simultaneously investigate seismic velocity variations in the lowermost mantle and the D" discontinuity topography which trade off against each other, we model triplication waveforms from deep earthquakes in South America subduction zones and recorded by dense transportable USArray and permanent broadband stations in North America and Canada. The sourcestation configuration provides triplication arrivals which have the bottoming depths directly sampling D" in our study region. We divide sources and stations into a suite of linear transects. Then we employ a global search method which combines reflectivity synthetics and neighborhood algorithm (NA) to seek an optimal 1-D velocity model in the lowermost mantle around midway of each transect which best fits differential traveltimes (ScS-S, Sdiff-SKS and Scd-S) and triplication waveforms. All the differential times are corrected for contributions from heterogeneous mantle structure above D" using global tomography models. Though triplication shear waves emerge frequently between direct S and core-reflected ScS phases across the study area, as reported in previous studies, there are still a number of localized regions sampled by shear waves which contain no triplications. It implies that there exists strong lateral velocity heterogeneity and gradient in D" as well as significant topographic undulation of the D" discontinuity over the study region.

  18. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic growth increases the risk of AIDS transmission and violence. Highways connect secluded localities and may threaten local populations. This region has been undergoing rapid localized development booms, thus creating outposts of rapid and temporary migration, which may introduce health risks to remote areas. PMID:20553625

  19. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom. PMID:23961067

  20. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom. PMID:23961067

  1. Deep Crustal Earthquakes in the Sierras Pampeanas Region of the South Central Andean Backarc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, P. M.; Beck, S.; Zandt, G.; Fromm, R.; Araujo, M.; Bufaliza, M.; Triep, E.

    2003-12-01

    In the last 20 years almost 500 earthquakes with depths less than 50 km and magnitudes over 4.0 have occurred in the Andean cordillera and backarc region between 29-34S as a consequence of the compression between the Nazca and South American plates. Many of these earthquakes as well as large (M>7) damaging shallow earthquakes in 1861, 1894, 1944, 1952 and 1977 are associated with the Precordillera and Sierras Pampeanas, characterized by a thinn-skinned fold and thrust belt that contrast with the thick-skinned basement cored uplifts deformation, respectively. This high level of crustal seismicity corresponds to a segment of flat slab subduction beneath Argentina. Very few crustal earthquakes occur in the high cordillera in the volcanic arc region that shut off approximately 10 Ma ago when the subducting slab became flat. We have used regional broadband seismic waveforms recorded on the portable CHilean Argentinean Geophysical Experiment network to determine focal mechanisms and depths for 22 crustal earthquakes (M > 3.6) during 2001 and 2002. We first located the earthquakes and then used a least squares moment tensor inversion technique to match 3-component data to determine the best focal mechanism and depth. A simple crust and upper mantle velocity model was used in the inversions (crustal thickness 45 km, crustal Vp=6.2 km/sec, Vp/Vs=1.70). Our results indicate that 20 of the events have predominately thrust fault focal mechanisms with an average P-axis azimuth orientation of 97° . More than 85% of the earthquakes had locations in the Pampean Ranges and focal depths between 18 and ~40 km, corresponding to mid to lower crust. The furthest east crustal earthquakes occur inland nearly 800 km from the trench. Five of the events are concentrated near the oldest part of the Pampean Ranges (Sierra Pie de Palo), which was also the site of the most recent large damaging crustal earthquake (1977 San Juan earthquake). We identified only one shallow strike-slip event (depth=7 km) near the Sierra de Cordoba (Eastern Pampean Ranges). The depths of the crustal earthquakes in the mid to lower crust implies that brittle faulting associated with the basement cored uplifts in the Sierras Pampeanas extends to deep crustal levels. This implies the Pampean crust is very cold, perhaps a result of the refrigeration effect of the flat subduction of the Nazca slab that insulates the South American lithosphere from warm asthenosphere.

  2. Thermal equilibrium of pure electron plasmas across a central region of magnetic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Michael; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn

    2009-06-01

    Measurements of the equilibria of plasmas created by emission from a biased filament located off the magnetic axis in the Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) [T. S. Pedersen, J. P. Kremer, R. G. Lefrancois et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 50, 372 (2006)] show that such plasmas have equilibrium properties consistent with the inner surfaces being in a state of cross-surface thermal equilibrium. Numerical solutions to the equilibrium equation were used to fit the experimental data and demonstrate consistency with cross-surface thermal equilibrium. Previous experiments in CNT showed that constant temperatures across magnetic surfaces are characteristic of CNT plasmas, implying thermal confinement times much less than particle confinement times. These results show that when emitting off axis there is a volume of inner surfaces where diffusion into that region is balanced by outward transport, producing a Boltzmann distribution of electrons. When combined with the low thermal energy confinement time this is a cross-surface thermal equilibrium.

  3. A link between North Atlantic cooling and dry events in the core SW monsoon region in Lonar Lake, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Philip; Gaye, Birgit; Prasad, Sushma; Plessen, Birgit; Stebich, Martina; Anoop, Ambili; Riedel, Nils; Basavaiah, Nathani

    2014-05-01

    A sediment core from Lonar Lake in central India covers the complete Holocene and was used to reconstruct the monsoon history of the core SW-monsoon region. We compare C/N ratios, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, grain size, as well as amino acid derived degradation proxies with climatically sensitive proxies of other records from South Asia and the North Atlantic region. The comparison reveals some more or less contemporaneous climate shifts. At Lonar Lake, a general long term climate transition from wet conditions during the early Holocene to drier conditions during the late Holocene, delineating the insolation curve, can be reconstructed. Several phases of shorter term climate alteration that superimpose the general climate trend correlate with cold phases in the North Atlantic region. The most pronounced climate deteriorations indicated by our data occurred between 6.2 - 5.2, 4.65 - 3.9, and 2.05 - 0.55 cal ka BP. The strong dry phase between 4.65 - 3.9 cal ka BP at Lonar Lake corroborates the hypothesis that severe climate deterioration contributed to the decline of the Indus Civilisation about 3.9 ka BP.

  4. Glacial stratigraphy of the Bulkley River region: A depositional framework for the late Pleistocene in central British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, A.J.; Broster, B.E.; Levson, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    A depositional framework for late Pleistocene sediments in central British Columbia was developed from the composite stratigraphy of glacial sediments found in the Bulkley River region. Nonglacial deposits correlated to the Olympia Nonglacial Interval, are overlain in succession by sub-till, ice-advance sediments, Late Wisconsinan (Fraser Glaciation) till, and late-glacial sediments. Due to local erosion and depositional variability, some of the units are not continuous throughout the region and differ locally in their thickness and complexity. At the onset of the Fraser Glaciation, ice advance was marked by rising base levels in rivers, lake ponding, and ice marginal sub-aqueous deposition. Physiography and glacier dynamics influenced the position of drainage outlets, direction of water flow, and ponding. The region was completely ice covered during this glaciation and ice-flow directions were variable, being dominantly influenced by the migrating position of ice divides. Deglaciation was marked by the widespread deposition of fine-grained sediments in proglacial lakes and glaciofluvial sands and gravels at locations with unrestricted drainage.

  5. Surficial geology of the Safsaf region, south-central Egypt, derived from remote-sensing and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.A.; Breed, C.S.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    We used a decorrelation-stretched image of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Bands 1, 4, and 7 and field data to map and describe the main surficial units in the hyperarid Safsaf region in south-central Egypt. We show that the near-infrared bands on Landsat TM, which are sensitive to very subtle changes in mineralogy common to arid regions, significantly improve the geologist's capability to discriminate geologic units in desert regions. These data also provide the spatial and spectral information necessary to determine the migration patterns and provenance of eolian materials. The Safsaf area was the focus of our post flight field studies using Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data following the discovery of buried paleochannels in North Africa. Most of the channels discernible on SIR images are not expressed in TM data, but traces of a few channels are present in both the SIR and the TM data within the Wadi Safsaf area. Here we present a detailed digital examination of the SIR and the TM-band reflectance and reflectance-ratio data at three locations of the more obvious surface expressions of the buried channels. Our results indicate that the TM expressions of the channels are not purely topographic but are more compositional in nature. Two possibilities may account for the TM expressions of the buried channels: 1) concentrations of windblown, iron-rich materials that accumulated along subtle curvilinear topograpohic traps, or 2) curvilinear exposures of an iron-rich underlying unit of the flat sand sheet. ?? 1993.

  6. Climate and glacier changes in Mt. Everest region in Central Southern Himalaya (Nepal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakuri, Sudeep; Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Guyennon, Nicolas; D'Agata, Carlo; Smiraglia, Claudio; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-04-01

    Mount Everest region influenced by monsoon-dominated climate system is characterized by dense distribution of debris-covered glaciers. Very low number of papers has addressed on the interdisciplinary linkage of hydro-meteorological process and the glacier dynamics in high elevation areas. Here we present the glacier changes from 1958 to 2011 and the meteorological observations from 1992 to 2011 with the aim of understanding coupled climate-glacier dynamics using satellite imagery, historical maps and insitu field measurements. We developed reconstructed single series for temperature and precipitation through the monthly quantile mapping and expectation maximization techniques from the insitu observations in different automatic weather stations located in the Mt. Everest region. Multi-temporal satellite products and topographic maps were used for glacier terminus, surface and snowline altitude (SLA) analysis from 1958 to 2011. We observed the continuous shrinkage of glaciers since 1958 to 2011 with accelerated rate in the recent years. The average terminus retreatment of analyzed 29 glaciers was about 372±37 m (7.0 m a-1) in 1958 to 2011 with retreat rate of 6.1±1.9 m a-1 in 1958-75 and nearly its double in 2008-11. The glacier surface area had loss of 14.3±5.9 % (0.27 % a-1) from 396.2 km2 to 339.5 km2 in 53 years with the loss by 0.12 %a-1 in 1958-75 to 0.70 % a-1 in recent years. The smaller glaciers with

  7. Miocene to Recent structural evolution of the Nevado de Toluca volcano region, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Palomo, A.; Macías, J. L.; Garduño, V. H.

    2000-03-01

    Based on aerial photography, satellite imagery, and detailed field work, a geological and structural model of Nevado de Toluca and its surroundings is presented. The Nevado de Toluca volcano is built upon the intersection of three complex fault systems of different age, orientation, and kinematics. These systems from the older to the younger are: (a) The Taxco-Querétaro Fault System (NNW-SSE) with clear expression south of the volcano; (b) The San Antonio Fault System (NE-SW) that runs between the San Antonio and Nevado de Toluca volcanoes; and (c) The Tenango Fault System (E-W) located to the east of Nevado de Toluca volcano. Our field data, supported by previous studies, suggest that these systems have coexisted since the late Miocene. In addition, the stratigraphy, chronology, and kinematics of fault planes point to the existence of at least three main deformation events that have affected the region since the late Miocene. During the early Miocene, an extensional phase with the same deformation style as the Basin and Range tectonics of northern Mexico caused the formation of horsts and grabens south of Nevado de Toluca and allowed the intrusion of sub-vertical dikes oriented NW-SE and NNW-SSE. During the middle Miocene, a transcurrent episode generated NE-SW faults that presented two main motions: the first movement was left-lateral with a ?3 oriented NW-SE and later turned into normal through a counter-clockwise rotation of ?3 up to a N-S position. The latest deformation phase started during the late Pliocene and produced oblique extension ( ?3 oriented NE-SW) along E-W-trending faults that later changed to pure extension by shifting of ?3 to a N-S orientation. These faults appear to control the late Pleistocene to Holocene monogenetic volcanism, the flank collapses of Nevado de Toluca volcano and the seismic activity of the region.

  8. Reduction of Risk in Exploration and Prospect Generation through a Multidisciplinary Basin-Analysis Program in the South-Central Mid-Continent Region

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Barker, C.; Fite, J.; George, S.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.; Jordan, J., Szpakiewicz, M.; Person, M.; Reeves, T.K.; Safley, E.; Swenson, J.B.; Volk, L.; and Erickson, R.

    1999-04-02

    This report will discuss a series of regional studies that were undertaken within the South-Central Mid-Continent region of the U.S. Coverage is also provided about a series of innovative techniques that were used for this assessment.

  9. Real time measurements of strongly localized potential profile through Stark effects in the central core region of an inertial-electrostatic fusion device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; K. Takiyama; Y. Yamamoto; K. Masuda; H. Toku; T. Koyama; Kenji Taruya; H. Hashimoto; Masami Ohnishi; H. Horiike; N. Inoue

    1999-01-01

    Real time measurements of the electric fields were made in the central cathode core region of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device by the laser-induced fluorescence method by use of Stark effects. Preliminary results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center and also the existence of energetic electrons in the localized region near potential peaks

  10. Cardiovascular risk predictors in central Slovakian Roma children and adolescents: regional differences.

    PubMed

    Hujová, Zuzana; Alberty, Roman; Ahlers, Ivan; Ahlersová, Eva; Paulíková, Edita; Desatniková, Júlia; Gábor, Drahoslav; Hrubá, Frantiska

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine some Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk factors in 174 Roma children and adolescents (88 males and 86 females) aged 7-18 in 3 Central Slovakian cities (44 from Zilina, 39 from Bansk, Bystrica and 91 from Rimavská Sobota). Venous blood samples were drawn in the morning, after a 12 hour overnight fast for biochemical analysis. Total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were determined enzymatically. HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) after selective precipitation lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein B and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated by the Friedewald Formula. Serum levels of apolipoproteins (apo A, apo B) were analyzed immunochemically. Concentration of lipoprotein a [Lp(a)] was analyzed by immunonephelometric method (Beckman-Coulter System). Anthropometric measurements, including weight, height, waist and hip circumference were used to calculate the sum of the body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Measured blood pressure (BP) was used to classify for hypertension. Significant differences were determined in serum levels of LDL-C (p < 0.05; by Tukey HSD test multiple comparison more significant difference was determined between Zilina and Rimavská Sobota p < 0.046), TG (p = 0.008), apo A (p < 0.001), Lp(a) (p = 0.042), WHR (p < 0.001), BMI (p < 0.001), sBP (p < 0.001) and dBP (p = 0.012) in Roma individuals of all locality groups. The Roma population from Rimavsk, Sobota had (in comparison to the examined populations) statistically higher values of TC, TG, LDL-C, lower HDL-C. The population showed significant relation of TG and stress at home (p = 0.03) and at school (p = 0.01), HDL-C and cigarette smoking (p = 0.004), apo A and cigarette smoking (p = 0.02) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.006), WHR and cigarette smoking (p = 0.02). Risk values of WHR, apo B and Lp(a) were mostly determined in Zilina's population (WHR significantly connected with family history CVD p = 0.03, cigarette smoking p = 0.02 and leisure time physical activity p < 0.001) and BMI, apo A and BP in Banská Bystrica. WHR was positively correlated to BP and negatively to HDL-C and TG only in Roma participants from Rimavská Sobota. BMI was positively correlated to systolic BP in populations from Banská Bystrica and Rimavská Sobota. The results of the study should improve the paediatric health treatment and prevention of CVD risk predictors for Roma from different cities. PMID:21033608

  11. NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one of the sources for nitrate in groundwater. The recharge of rainwater through the indiscriminately dumped animal wastes also adds to nitrate in groundwater. As the population of denitrifying microbes (Agrobacterium sp.) in the topsoil increased, the nitrate concentration in groundwater decreased. The wells in the investigated region have been demarcated into safe and unsafe wells for consumption of water with respect to nitrate. The quality of groundwater in this region must be improved by denitrifying the groundwater before using it for consumption. Reduced dependence on nitrogen-rich fertilizers can also lower the influx of nitrates to a large extent. As the dumping of animal waste is also a reason behind high nitrate in groundwater, it would be better to use them as a biofertilizer. Due to the detrimental biological effects of nitrate, treatment and prevention methods must be considered to protect groundwater aquifers from nitrate leaching. Moreover, it is also important to educate the local population about keeping their surroundings clean, alternate use of the animal waste (as fuel) and to follow hygienic sanitation practices.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF MEMBERS IN THE CENTRAL AND OUTER REGIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Serra, Ana Laura [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Torino (Italy); Diaferio, Antonaldo, E-mail: serra@ph.unito.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-05-10

    The caustic technique measures the mass of galaxy clusters in both their virial and infall regions and, as a byproduct, yields the list of cluster galaxy members. Here we use 100 galaxy clusters with mass M{sub 200} {>=} 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} extracted from a cosmological N-body simulation of a {Lambda}CDM universe to test the ability of the caustic technique to identify the cluster galaxy members. We identify the true three-dimensional members as the gravitationally bound galaxies. The caustic technique uses the caustic location in the redshift diagram to separate the cluster members from the interlopers. We apply the technique to mock catalogs containing 1000 galaxies in the field of view of 12 h {sup -1} Mpc on a side at the cluster location. On average, this sample size roughly corresponds to 180 real galaxy members within 3r{sub 200}, similar to recent redshift surveys of cluster regions. The caustic technique yields a completeness, the fraction of identified true members, f{sub c} = 0.95 {+-} 0.03, within 3r{sub 200}. The contamination, the fraction of interlopers in the observed catalog of members, increases from f{sub i}=0.020{sup +0.046}{sub -0.015} at r{sub 200} to f{sub i}=0.08{sup +0.11}{sub -0.05} at 3r{sub 200}. No other technique for the identification of the members of a galaxy cluster provides such large completeness and small contamination at these large radii. The caustic technique assumes spherical symmetry and the asphericity of the cluster is responsible for most of the spread of the completeness and the contamination. By applying the technique to an approximately spherical system obtained by stacking the individual clusters, the spreads decrease by at least a factor of two. We finally estimate the cluster mass within 3r{sub 200} after removing the interlopers: for individual clusters, the mass estimated with the virial theorem is unbiased and within 30% of the actual mass; this spread decreases to less than 10% for the spherically symmetric stacked cluster.

  13. Current Genetic Epidemiology of ?-Thalassemias and Structural Hemoglobin Variants in the Lazio Region (Central Italy) Following Recent Migration Movements.

    PubMed

    Amato, Antonio; Cappabianca, Maria Pia; Colosimo, Alessia; Perri, Maria; Grisanti, Paola; Zaghis, Ivo; Ponzini, Donatella; Lerone, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the changing pattern of mutational spectrum of ?-thalassemia (?-thal) in the Lazio region (Central Italy), as consequence of recent demographic variations. From 1994 until present, 256 immigrant subjects with hemoglobin disorders (including 191 heterozygotes and 65 homozygotes or compound heterozygotes) coming from 44 different foreign countries, have been molecularly characterized. 14 ?-globin gene mutations were identified and their frequencies reflect different ethnic origins: 8 of these mutations account for 76.97% of all molecular defects, while 6 of them are much rare, representing less than 2% of the total. These data differ, both in type and percentage, from the mutational spectrum detected in the native population in 1995. Since a few defects are prevalent in each country, a proper strategy for the identification of mutations in immigrant individuals relies on the prior knowledge of their frequency in native ethnic group. PMID:20975770

  14. Current Genetic Epidemiology of ?-Thalassemias and Structural Hemoglobin Variants in the Lazio Region (Central Italy) Following Recent Migration Movements

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Antonio; Cappabianca, Maria Pia; Colosimo, Alessia; Perri, Maria; Grisanti, Paola; Zaghis, Ivo; Ponzini, Donatella; Lerone, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the changing pattern of mutational spectrum of ?-thalassemia (?-thal) in the Lazio region (Central Italy), as consequence of recent demographic variations. From 1994 until present, 256 immigrant subjects with hemoglobin disorders (including 191 heterozygotes and 65 homozygotes or compound heterozygotes) coming from 44 different foreign countries, have been molecularly characterized. 14 ?-globin gene mutations were identified and their frequencies reflect different ethnic origins: 8 of these mutations account for 76.97% of all molecular defects, while 6 of them are much rare, representing less than 2% of the total. These data differ, both in type and percentage, from the mutational spectrum detected in the native population in 1995. Since a few defects are prevalent in each country, a proper strategy for the identification of mutations in immigrant individuals relies on the prior knowledge of their frequency in native ethnic group. PMID:20975770

  15. High Spatial Resolution KAO Far-Infrared Observations of the Central Regions of Infrared-Bright Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Beverly J. Smith; P. M. Harvey

    1996-05-06

    We present new high spatial resolution Kuiper Airborne Observatory 50 micron and/or 100 micron data for 11 infrared-bright galaxies. We also tabulate previously published KAO data for 11 other galaxies, along with the IRAS data for the bulges of M 31 and M 81. We find that L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) correlate with CO (1 - 0) intensity and tau(100). Galaxies with optical or near-infrared signatures of OB stars in their central regions have higher values of I(CO) and tau(100), as well as higher far-infrared surface brightnesses and L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) ratios. L(FIR)/L(H(alpha)) does not correlate strongly with CO and tau(100). These results support a scenario in which OB stars dominate dust heating in the more active galaxies and older stars are important in quiescent bulges.

  16. [Genetic structure of people from the Volga-Ural region and Central Asia from data of Alu-polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Khusainova, R I; Akhmetova, V L; Kutuev, I A; Salimova, A Z; Korshunova, T Iu; Lebedev, Iu B; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2004-04-01

    Nine Alu loci (Ya5NBC5, Ya5NBC27, Ya5NBC148, Ya5NBC182, YA5NBC361, ACE, ApoA1, PV92, TPA25) were analyzed in six ethnic populations (Trans-Ural Bashkirs, Tatars-Mishars, Mordovians-Moksha, Mountain Maris, Udmurts, and Komi-Permyaks) of the Volga-Ural region and in three Central Asian populations (Uzbeks, Kazakhs, and Uigurs). All Alu insertions analyzed appeared to be polymorphic in all populations examined. The frequency of insertion varied from 0.110 in Mountain Maris at the Ya5NBC5 locus to 0.914 in Tatars at the ApoA1 locus. The data on the allele frequency distribution at nine loci point to the existence of substantial genetic diversity in the populations examined. The value of the observed heterozygosity averaged over nine Alu insertions varied from 0.326 in Mountain Maris to 0.445 in Kazakhs and Uigurs. The level of the interpopulation genetic differences for the Volga-Ural population (Fst = 0.061) was higher than for the populations of Central Asia (Fst = 0.024), Europe (Fst = 0.02), and Southeastern Asia (Fst = 0.018). The populations examined were highly differentiated both in respect of linguistic characteristics and the geographical position. The data obtained confirmed the effectiveness of the marker system used for the assessment of genetic differentiation and the relationships between the ethnic groups. PMID:15174289

  17. Modeling water balance distribution in a natural semiarid region of central Mexico using a SVAT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Braud, I.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Centro de Investigaciones Del Agua de Querétaro

    2010-12-01

    Around the world water is becoming insufficient, especially in the semiarid regions where there is a high inter-annual variability in the amount and distribution of the rainfall. Studies on this kind of environments would allow us to understand the mechanisms that determine the spatial and temporal distribution of the water balance components. The study was carried out from October 2005 to October 2008 in two semiarid sites located in the south of the Mexican Plateau: El Carmen in Guanajuato State and Cadereyta in Queretaro State. The work aim was to provide a better understanding of the hydrological processes that occur in semiarid ecosystems, quantifying and modeling the water balance in order to define the distribution of the water and energy balance components in El Carmen and Cadereyta. For this purpose, the SiSPAT (Simple Soil Plant Atmosphere Transfer) model was used based on a parameterization of the soil, plants and atmosphere components. It was found that, using SiSPAT, the water balance components were particularly sensitive to parameters associated with the soil and the leaf area index. The model results showed that during the studied period, the annual evapotranspiration in Cadereyta was less than PG (-10 and -5%) and above PG for El Carmen (10 y 30%). Runoff and percolation at 5m were null. Finally in both sites there was a simulated loss of water stored in the soil.

  18. Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Ernesto; Macías, Analía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Fernández, Analía; Canal, Ana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Cataldi, Angel; Caimi, Karina; Zumárraga, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011). By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism. PMID:24676658

  19. Distribution of pediatric bone and soft tissue tumors in the central Black Sea region.

    PubMed

    Ç?rakl?, Alper; Dabak, Nevzat; Ç?rakl?, Sevgi; Sezgin, Hicabi; Göçer, Hasan; Bar??, Sancar

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate pediatric cases treated surgically for an initial diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumor between January 1987 and January 2012. This retrospective study evaluated 328 patients with pathologically confirmed tumor from a total of 374 patients hospitalized with an initial diagnosis of tumor. The cases were analyzed with respect to frequency, age, gender, and localization. One hundred and eighty (54.8%) males and 148 (45.2%) females, with a mean age of 13 years (range: 1-18 years), were included in the study. The tumors were determined as 258 (78.6%) bone tumors and 70 (21.4%) soft tissue tumors. The most common benign bone tumor was observed to be osteochondroma (n=61, 30.7%), and the most common malignant bone tumor was osteosarcoma (n=31, 52.6%). The most common benign soft tissue tumor was hemangioma, which is a vascular tumor (n=28, 43.8%), and the most common malignant soft tissue tumor was rhabdomyosarcoma (n=5, 83.3%). It is thought that similar studies will serve to form larger series and facilitate inter-regional comparisons by collecting data from centers that surgically treat bone and soft tissue tumors, thereby benefitting both pediatric and public health. PMID:25341592

  20. The central core region of yeast ribosomal protein L11 is important for subunit joining and translational fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Rhodin, Michael H. J.; Rakauskait?, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    Yeast ribosomal protein L11 is positioned at the intersubunit cleft of the large subunit central protuberance, forming an intersubunit bridge with the small subunit protein S18. Mutants were engineered in the central core region of L11 which interacts with Helix 84 of the 25S rRNA. Numerous mutants in this region conferred 60S subunit biogenesis defects. Specifically, many mutations of F96 and the A66D mutant promoted formation of halfmers as assayed by sucrose density ultracentrifugation. Halfmer formation was not due to deficiency in 60S subunit production, suggesting that the mutants affected subunit-joining. Chemical modification analyses indicated that the A66D mutant, but not the F96 mutants, promoted changes in 25S rRNA structure, suggesting at least two modalities for subunit joining defects. 25S rRNA structural changes were located both adjacent to A66D (in H84), and more distant (in H96-7). While none of the mutants significantly affected ribosome/tRNA binding constants, they did have strong effects on cellular growth at both high and low temperatures, in the presence of translational inhibitors, and promoted changes in translational fidelity. Two distinct mechanisms are proposed by which L11 mutants may affect subunit joining, and identification of the amino acids associated with each of these processes are presented. These findings may have implications for our understanding of multifaceted diseases such as Diamond–Blackfan anemia which have been linked in part with mutations in L11. PMID:21519857

  1. The central core region of yeast ribosomal protein L11 is important for subunit joining and translational fidelity.

    PubMed

    Rhodin, Michael H J; Rakauskait?, Rasa; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2011-06-01

    Yeast ribosomal protein L11 is positioned at the intersubunit cleft of the large subunit central protuberance, forming an intersubunit bridge with the small subunit protein S18. Mutants were engineered in the central core region of L11 which interacts with Helix 84 of the 25S rRNA. Numerous mutants in this region conferred 60S subunit biogenesis defects. Specifically, many mutations of F96 and the A66D mutant promoted formation of halfmers as assayed by sucrose density ultracentrifugation. Halfmer formation was not due to deficiency in 60S subunit production, suggesting that the mutants affected subunit-joining. Chemical modification analyses indicated that the A66D mutant, but not the F96 mutants, promoted changes in 25S rRNA structure, suggesting at least two modalities for subunit joining defects. 25S rRNA structural changes were located both adjacent to A66D (in H84), and more distant (in H96-7). While none of the mutants significantly affected ribosome/tRNA binding constants, they did have strong effects on cellular growth at both high and low temperatures, in the presence of translational inhibitors, and promoted changes in translational fidelity. Two distinct mechanisms are proposed by which L11 mutants may affect subunit joining, and identification of the amino acids associated with each of these processes are presented. These findings may have implications for our understanding of multifaceted diseases such as Diamond--Blackfan anemia which have been linked in part with mutations in L11. PMID:21519857

  2. Kinematic nature and origin of regional-scale ductile shear zones in the central Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, She Fa; Libby, John W.; Wyche, Stephen; Riganti, Angela

    2004-12-01

    Regional-scale, northwest- and northeast-trending ductile shear zones, 1- to 6-km wide and over 100-km long, are the most conspicuous structures in the central Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. They are commonly developed along granite-greenstone contacts, but are centred in strongly foliated granite and granitic gneiss. A wide range of kinematic indicators, including well-developed S-C fabrics, C'-type shear band cleavage, and abundant asymmetric porphyroclasts, consistently indicate sinistral movement on northwest-trending shear zones and dextral movement on northeast-trending shear zones. Major planar fabrics within the ductile shear zones include (1) a northwest- or northeast-trending foliation parallel to the shear zones, (2) a northerly trending gneissic banding, and (3) a northerly trending foliation. The northwest- and northeast-trending foliations with associated asymmetric structural elements and a shallowly plunging mineral lineation were developed during a progressive, inhomogeneous east-west shortening event (D 3) characterized by low-temperature, noncoaxial deformation. Formation of the northerly trending gneissic banding and associated symmetric structural elements is attributed mainly to east-west coaxial shortening (D 2) in a high-temperature state during, or shortly after, granite intrusion. The northerly trending foliation within the ductile shear zones commonly forms the S-fabric of S-C fabrics that was either developed during D 3, same time as the C-fabric, or was reactivated from S 2 foliations. Therefore, major planar fabrics in the regional-scale ductile shear zones of the central Yilgarn Craton can be ascribed to two tectonic events (D 2 and D 3), and deformation within the shear zones includes both coaxial and noncoaxial components.

  3. Sequence analysis for detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from the Central Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential of genetic testing to rapidly diagnose drug resistance has lead to the development of new diagnostic assays. However, prior to implementation in a given setting, the association of specific mutations with specific drug resistance phenotypes should be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate molecular markers in predicting drug resistance in the Central Region of Cameroon. Results From April 2010 and March 2011, 725 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were enrolled and all positive cultures were tested for drug susceptibility. A total of 63 drug resistant and 100 drug sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates were screened for genetic mutations in katG, inhA, ahpC, rpoB, rpsL, rrs, gidB and embCAB loci using DNA sequencing. Of the 44 isoniazid resistant (INHR) isolates (24 high level, 1 ?g/ml and 20 low level, 0.2 ?g/ml), 73% (32/44) carried the katG315 and/or the -15 inhA promoter mutations. Of the 24 high level INHR, 17 (70.8%) harbored katG315 mutation, 1 a point mutation (-15C???T) in the inhA promoter and 6 were (25.0%) wild types. Thus, for INHR high level detection, katG315 mutation had a specificity and a sensitivity of 100% and 70.8% respectively. Of the 20 low level INHR, 10 (50.0%) had a -15C???T mutation in the inhA promoter region, and 1 (2.2%) a -32G???A mutation in the ahpC promoter region. All of the 7 rifampicin resistant (RIFR) isolates carried mutations in the rpoB gene (at codons Ser531Leu (71.4%), His526Asp (14.3%), and Asp516Val (14.3%)). Of the 27 streptomycin resistant (SMR) isolates, 7 carried mutations at the rpsL and the gidB genes. 1 of the 2 ethambutol resistant (EMBR) isolates displayed a mutation in embB gene. Conclusion This study provided the first molecular investigation assessing the correlation of phenotypic to genotypic characteristics on MTB isolates from the Central Region of Cameroon using DNA sequencing. Mutations on rpoB, katG315 and -15 point mutations in inhA promoter loci could be used as markers for RIF and INH -resistance detection respectively. PMID:24884632

  4. Assessment of land cover changes in Lake Olbolossat region of the Central Kenyan highlands using Landsat satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriithi, Zacharia; Olang, Luke

    2013-04-01

    The region around Lake Olbolossat located in the central Kenyan highlands has witnessed significant land-use changes, which are today believed to be major cause of the dwindling Lake volumes. Very few studies have been carried out in the region due to limited observed in-situ data important for monitoring purposes. It is thus urgent that contemporary cost effective techniques are explored to asses the space and time land cover changes with a view to provide information required for appropriate land and water resource management. In this preliminary study, the land cover changes around Lake Olbolossat region were investigated using remotely sensed data obtained from Landsat satellites. Two imageries for 1989 and 2010 when significant changes were witnessed in the area were selected for the study. The maximum-Likelihood function of the supervised classification technique was applied to classify and discern the changes. Five predominant land cover classes that included forest land, built-up area, water body, flood plain and farmland were selected for the study. From the results obtained, the area of the Lake (water body) was noted to have shrunk significantly by 68%. Farmlands in the region were noted to have increased by about 31% largely due to the favorable humid climatic conditions for commercial and subsistence agriculture. The study also revealed that built-up areas increased by about 33% consequent of the rise in the human population. The flood plain area was noted to have reduced by about 26% as most of the area were gradually been turned to farmland. The study also revealed intense deforestation in the upstream Aberdare forest, which was noted to have reduced in area by about 30% during the study period. In general, the study revealed significant land cover changes worth provoking the need for a better land-use planning system to avoid further decline and extinction of Lake Olbolossat. Keywords: Lake Olbolossat; Landsat satellite; Maximum-Likelihood; Supervised classification.

  5. Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapalee, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.

    2001-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important; particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Investigation of upper crust anisotropy in Ghaen-Birjand region, east-central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheitanchi, Mohammad-Reza; Zarifii, Zoya

    2004-09-01

    A number of aftershocks of the May 10th 1997, Zirkuh (Ghaen-Birjand) destructive earthquake have been used to investigate the anisotropy in the upper crust by observing shear wave splitting. Particle motion diagram and aspect ratio methods were used as two different approaches to obtain splitting parameters. Clear shear wave splitting was observed on the records of the selected aftershocks, indicating that the media in the region was highly anisotropic. By using particle motion method, the direction of fast shear wave was found 22°N±19°E, while the delay time between the fast and slow shear waves was obtained to be (65±16) ms. By aspect ratio method, the direction of fast shear wave was determined to be 35°N±18°E and the delay time between fast and slow shear waves was found to be (49±10) ms. For a simple horizontal layer with a thickness about 5 km and uniformly distributed anisotropy, a stress aligned cracks model was used and the result was interpreted in terms of vertical aligned cracks in the direction of N22°E, having a density about 0.01. It is assumed that cracks are fluid-filled since they are located in the upper crust. Finally, by using Hudson cracks model for three crack densities 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, the velocity curves of shear wave were plotted as a function of angle between the symmetrical axis of cracks and the azimuth of source to receiver. It was concluded that when shear wave was polarized parallel to the crack surface, the velocity was uniform, but the velocity curve varied clearly if shear wave was polarized perpendicular to the crack surface.

  7. Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

  8. Resistance for anti-tuberculosis drugs in central Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Salih; Unsal, Meftun; Cebi, Hasan Hamza; Akgunes, Alper

    2010-01-01

    One of the primary aims in tuberculosis (TB) management is to detect new cases as early as possible, and instigate the most appropriate therapy, for which it is important to know the characteristics of TB drug resistance in society. The aim of our study was to determine the resistance status of tuberculosis in the Samsun region of Turkey. To achieve that, the medical records of 1,029 pulmonary tuberculosis patients admitted to Samsun Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Hospital between 2004 and 2006 were analyzed for drug resistance characteristics. In order to define the problem, isolates were tested on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. For drug susceptibility testing, isoniazid (I), streptomycin (S), ethambutol (E), rifampicin (R) and the radiometric Bactec 460 TB system were used. Eighty-six percent (86%) of the cases (623/721) were new patients, and 13.5% (98/721) were previously treated cases. One hundred and thirty-four (134) of the 721 patients (18.6%) had resistance to one or more drugs. Resistance to any drug was determined in 16.9% (105/623) cases of new patients. I resistance was 13.2%, any R resistance was 2.9%, and multi-drug resistance (MDR) was 1.9%. In previously treated cases, resistance to any drug was 29.6%, any I resistance was 26.5%, any R resistance was 15.3%, and MDR was 13.3%. It was concluded that resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is an important problem in Samsun. PMID:20734758

  9. Cattle ticks in Cameroon: Is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus absent in Cameroon and the Central African region?

    PubMed

    Awa, D N; Adakal, H; Luogbou, N D D; Wachong, K H; Leinyuy, I; Achukwi, M D

    2015-03-01

    In most parts of the world, ticks are rapidly developing resistance to commonly used acaricides thus rendering control difficult. This constraint is further compounded by the introduction of new species in areas where they did not exist before. Such is the case with the introduction into and rapid spread of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in some countries of West Africa. With the looming threat of its further spread in the region, the objective of the present study was to update knowledge on cattle ticks in Cameroon. Among 19,189 ticks collected monthly from 60 animals in 5 herds from March 2012 to February 2013, Rh. (B.) decoloratus was the most abundant species with a relative prevalence of 62.2%, followed by Amblyomma variegatum (28.4%), Rh. (B.) annulatus (0.2%), Rh. (B.) geigyi (0.03%), other Rhipicephalus spp. (8.4%) and Hyalomma spp. (0.3%). Rh. (B.) decoloratus and A. variegatum were also the most widely distributed in space. Infestation rate was generally high, with average tick count/animal of about 80 during peak periods. Tick distribution and abundance in the different sites was as varied as the underlying factors, among which the most important were management systems and climatic factors. The effects of rainfall and temperature were confounded by other factors and difficult to evaluate. However, it appears tick development depends among other factors, on a humidity threshold, above which there is not much more effect. Rh. microplus was not found during this study, but more extensive tick collections have to be done to confirm this. In conclusion, cattle tick infestation in Cameroon remains an important cause for concern. Farmers need assistance in the use and management of acaricides in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the development of resistance. Although Rh. microplus was not found, its introduction from other West African countries is imminent if adequate measures, especially in the control and limitation of animal movements, are not taken. PMID:25575435

  10. Water resources of the Fort Union coal region, east-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slagle, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    The shallow ground-water system in the Fort Union coal region overlies the Upper Cretaceous Bearpaw Shale. It includes the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and the overlying Hell Creek Formation, Paleocene Fort Union Formation, and Pleistocene and Holocene glacial deposits, terrace deposits, and alluvium. Two general flow patterns are present in aquifers above the Hell Creek Formation and a third may occur in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer. Recharge to the shallow ground-water system from direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall is about 50 ,000 acre-ft/yr. Discharge from the system is to perennial streams (about 5,000 acre-ft/yr to the Redwater River), withdrawal by wells (about 2,000 acre-ft/yr for livestock use and 2,500 acre-ft/yr for domestic use), and 34 to 45 in./yr to evapotranspiration. Primary constituents in water above the Hell Creek Formation are sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate, and dissolved-solids concentrations are about 1,800 mg/L; water below a depth of about 200 feet contains more sodium and bicarbonate. Water in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer has an average dissolved-solids concentration of 1,180 mg/L. Flows in most streams have large seasonal variations, with the largest flows occurring in the spring as a result of snowmelt and rainfall. Dissolved-solids concentrations of streams generally are largest during low flow and smallest during high flow. Concentrations ranged from 160 to 6,960 mg/L in small streams and from 400 to 600 mg/L in the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. (USGS)

  11. Occurrence of drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in river waters from the Madrid Region (Central Spain).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; López de Alda, M; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates, for the first time, the occurrence of 10 drugs of abuse, six metabolites, and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain and one of the most densely populated in Europe. The results of this study have shown the presence of 14 out of the 19 compounds analyzed at concentrations ranging from 1.45 to 1020 ng L(-1). The most ubiquitous compounds, found in 100% of the samples, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-like compound ephedrine (EPH), the opioids morphine (MOR), methadone (METH), and the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three investigated benzodiazepines alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). Meanwhile, the largest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (up to 1020 ng L(-1)), BE (823 ng L(-1)), EDDP (151 ng L(-1)), and LOR (167 ng L(-1)). The only not detected compounds were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (OH-LSD), and ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Overall, the levels measured are comparatively higher than those previously reported in Europe. Comparison of the results obtained for samples collected on different days (Thursday and Sunday) did not show meaningful differences between weekdays and weekends. The lack of (eco)toxicological data does not permit to predict or disregard potential adverse effects on wildlife. Risk assessment in humans would require further knowledge, not currently available, on exposure to these compounds through other routes like drinking water and/or food. PMID:24083902

  12. CHANDRA IDENTIFICATION OF 26 NEW BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CFA), Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We have previously identified 10 M31 black hole candidates (BHCs) in M31 from their X-ray properties alone. They exhibit ''hard state'' emission spectra that are seen at luminosities {approx}<10% Eddington in X-ray binaries (XBs) containing a neutron star (NS) or black hole, at luminosities that significantly exceed the NS threshold. Nine of these are associated with globular clusters (GCs); hence, these are most likely low mass X-ray binaries; eight are included in this survey. We have recently discovered that analysis of the long term 0.5-4.5 keV variability of XBs via structure functions allows us to separate XBs from active galactic nuclei, even though the emission spectra are often similar; this has enabled us to search for BHCs outside of GCs. We have identified 26 new BHCs (12 strong, 14 plausible) within 20' of the M31 nucleus (M31*), using 152 Chandra observations spaced over {approx}13 yr; some of our classifications were enhanced with XMM-Newton observations. Of these, seven appear within 100'' of M31*; this supports the theory suggesting that this region experiences enhanced XB production via dynamical processes similar to those seen in GCs. We have found a parameter space where our BHCs are separated from Galactic NS binaries: we show that modeling a simulated hard state spectrum with a disk blackbody + blackbody model yields parameters that lie outside the space occupied by NS binaries that are modeled this way. The probability that our BHCs all lie within the NS parameter space is {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -29}.

  13. Upper mantle structure beneath central Eurasia using a source array of nuclear explosions and waveforms at regional distances

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, P.; Walter, W.R.; Zandt, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-09-10

    The authors have observed consistent broadband, regional, three-component P waveforms from a set of 11 explosions that occurred at the former Soviet test site in Kazakhstan during 1988 and 1989 and have modeled most of the prominent features in these waveforms to determine upper mantle structure beneath central Eurasia. Using a subset of events as a source array, they have identified four consistent arrivals during the first 15 s of P waves recorded at the Soviet/Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) stations Arti (ARU) (d {approx} 1500 km) and Garm (GAR) (d {approx} 1380 km). These arrivals show consistent variations in frequency content, relative timing, and amplitudes from event to event despite a range in source magnitude (m{sub b}) between 4.9 and 6.1. They have also identified consistent features in P waveforms of these events recorded at Obninsk (OBN) (d {approx} 2880 km). The authors argue that most of the prominent features in these waveforms can be explained by reflections at or refractions near discontinuities or large velocity gradients in the upper mantle. They show that a model with discontinuities of approximately 3.0% and 6.5% near 200 km and 400 km, respectively, produces a better fit to the broadband data at ARU and GAR than previous models for this region. This model also produces a good match to waveforms recorded at OBN and NORESS, however, this model is not unique. For example, the authors show that it is also possible to produce similar waveforms by replacing the 200 km discontinuity with a large, notch shaped, low velocity zone between approximately 100 and 140 km. Based on reflectivity synthetics, they suggest that additional data, especially from distances less than 1000 km, should indicate which of these models is more accurate. Comparison of these results with other upper mantle studies shows that the central Eurasian upper mantle is similar to the upper mantle of the central and eastern USA. 34 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    2013-05-01

    Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence. However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms to cover and area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We identify land subsidence in twenty-one areas, including seventeen cities, namely from east to west, Puebla, Mexico city, Toluca de Lerdo, Queretaro, San Luis de la Paz, south of San Luis de la Paz, Celaya, south of Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi, west of Villa de Arista, Morelia, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon, Aguascalientes, north of Aguascalientes, Zamora de Hidalgo, Guadalajara, Ahuacatlan, and Tepic. Subsidence rates of 30 cm/yr are observed in Mexico City, while in the other locations typical rates of 5-10 cm/yr are noticed. Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico. Averaged 2007-2011 ground velocity map from ALOS InSAR time-series in central Mexico, revealing land subsidence in 21 locations. The color scale shows red colors as subsidence and blue colors as uplift. The emplacement of subsiding cities are shown by black diamonds and labeled for reference, the ones included in the UNESCO World Heritage list are shown with an asterisk.

  15. Source mechanisms of the 2000 earthquake swarm in the West Bohemia/Vogtland region (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horálek, Josef; Šílený, Jan

    2013-08-01

    An earthquake swarm of magnitudes up to ML = 3.2 occurred in the region of West Bohemia/Vogtland (border area between Czech Republic and Germany) in autumn 2000. This swarm consisted of nine episodic phases and lasted 4 months. We retrieved source mechanisms of 102 earthquakes with magnitudes between ML = 1.6 and 3.2 applying inversion of the peak amplitudes of direct P and SH waves, which were determined from ground motion seismograms. The investigated events cover the whole swarm activity in both time and space. We use data from permanent stations of seismic network WEBNET and from temporal stations, which were deployed in the epicentral area during the swarm; the number of stations varied from 7 to 18. The unconstrained moment tensor (MT) expression of the mechanism, which describes a general system of dipoles, that is both double-couple (DC) and non-DC sources, was applied. MTs of each earthquake were estimated by inversion of three different sets of data: P-wave amplitudes only, P- and SH-wave amplitudes and P-wave amplitudes along with the SH-wave amplitudes from a priori selected four `base' WEBNET stations, the respective MT solutions are nearly identical for each event investigated. The resultant mechanisms of all events are dominantly DCs with only insignificant non-DC components mostly not exceeding 10 per cent. We checked reliability of the MTs in jackknife trials eliminating some data; we simulated the mislocation of hypocentre or contaminated the P- and SH-wave amplitudes by accidental errors. These tests proved stable and well constrained MT solutions. The massive dominance of the DC in all investigated events implies that the 2000 swarm consisted of a large number of pure shears along a fault plane. The focal mechanisms indicate both oblique-normal and oblique-thrust faulting, however, the oblique-normal faulting prevails. The predominant strikes and dips of the oblique-normal events fit well the geometry of the main fault plane Nový Kostel (NK) and also match the strike, dip and rake of the largest ML = 4.6 earthquake of a strong swarm in 1985/86. On the contrary, the 2000 source mechanisms differ substantially from those of the 1997-swarm (which took place in two fault segments at the edge of the main NK fault plane) in both the faulting and the content of non-DC components. Further, we found that the scalar seismic moment M0 is related to the local magnitude ML used by WEBNET as M0 ? 101.12ML, which differs from the scaling law using moment magnitude Mw, that is M0 ? 101.5Mw.

  16. Efficient measurement of endogenous neurotransmitters in small localized regions of central nervous systems in vitro with HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xuesi M.; Feldman, Jack L.

    2007-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is widely used to determine neurotransmitter concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). Finding the optimal methods to sample from CNS tissue poses a challenge for neuroscientists. Here we describe a method that allows assay of neurotransmitters (or other chemicals) in small regions (down to 180 ?m in diameter) in in vitro preparations concurrently with electrophysiological recordings. The efficiency for measuring small amounts of chemicals is enhanced by a sample collecting pipette with filter paper at the tip that makes close contact with the target region in CNS tissue. With a wire plunger in the calibrated pipette controlled by a microsyringe pump, there is virtually no dead volume. Samples in a volume of 10 ?l (taken, e.g., at 2 ?L/min over 5 minutes) can be injected into a HPLC machine with microbore columns. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method by measuring acetylcholine (ACh) in the ventral horn and its surrounding areas of the spinal cord in en bloc brainstem-spinal cord preparations. In control conditions, endogenous ACh levels in these regions were detectable. Application of neostigmine (an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterases (AChEs)) increased ACh concentrations, and at the same time, induced tonic/seizure-like activity in efferent motor output recorded from cervical ventral nerve roots. Higher ACh concentrations in the ventral horn were differentiated from nearby regions: the lateral and midline aspects of the ventral spinal cord. In addition, ACh in the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) and the hypoglossal nucleus in medullary slice preparations can also be measured. Our results indicate that the method proposed in this study can be used to measure neurotransmitters in small and localized CNS regions. Correlation between changes in neurotransmitters in target regions and the neuronal activities can be revealed in vitro. Our data also suggest that there is endogenous ACh release in spinal ventral motor columns at 4th cervical (C4) level that regulates the respiratory-related motor activity. PMID:17092561

  17. Efficient measurement of endogenous neurotransmitters in small localized regions of central nervous systems in vitro with HPLC.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xuesi M; Feldman, Jack L

    2007-03-15

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is widely used to determine neurotransmitter concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). Finding the optimal methods to sample from CNS tissue poses a challenge for neuroscientists. Here, we describe a method that allows assay of neurotransmitters (or other chemicals) in small regions (down to 180mum in diameter) in in vitro preparations concurrently with electrophysiological recordings. The efficiency for measuring small amounts of chemicals is enhanced by a sample collecting pipette with filter paper at the tip that makes close contact with the target region in CNS tissue. With a wire plunger in the calibrated pipette controlled by a microsyringe pump, there is virtually no dead volume. Samples in a volume of 10muL (taken, e.g., at 2muL/min over 5min) can be injected into a HPLC machine with microbore columns. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method by measuring acetylcholine (ACh) in the ventral horn and its surrounding areas of the spinal cord in en bloc brainstem-spinal cord preparations. In control conditions, endogenous ACh levels in these regions were detectable. Application of neostigmine (an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterases (AChEs)) increased ACh concentrations, and at the same time, induced tonic/seizure-like activity in efferent motor output recorded from cervical ventral nerve roots. Higher ACh concentrations in the ventral horn were differentiated from nearby regions: the lateral and midline aspects of the ventral spinal cord. In addition, ACh in the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) and the hypoglossal nucleus in medullary slice preparations can also be measured. Our results indicate that the method proposed in this study can be used to measure neurotransmitters in small and localized CNS regions. Correlation between changes in neurotransmitters in target regions and the neuronal activities can be revealed in vitro. Our data also suggest that there is endogenous ACh release in spinal ventral motor columns at fourth cervical (C4) level that regulates the respiratory-related motor activity. PMID:17092561

  18. Regional metamorphism in the Condrey Mountain Quadrangle, north-central Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotz, Preston Enslow

    1979-01-01

    A subcircular area of about 650 km 2 in northern California and southwestern Oregon is occupied by rocks of the greenschist metamorphic facies called the Condrey Mountain Schist. This greenschist terrane is bordered on the east and west by rocks belonging to the amphibolite metamorphic facies that structurally overlie and are thrust over the Condrey Mountain Schist. The amphibolite facies is succeeded upward by metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks belonging to the greenschist metamorphic facies. The Condrey Mountain Schist is composed predominantly of quartz-muscovite schist and lesser amounts of actinolite-chlorite schist formed by the metamorphism of graywacke and spilitic volcanic rocks that may have belonged to the Galice Formation of Late Jurassic age. Potassium-argon age determinations of 141?4 m.y. and 155?5 m.y. obtained on these metamorphic rocks seem to be incompatible with the Late Jurassic age usually assigned the Galice. The rocks that border the amphibolite facies are part of an extensive terrane of metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks belonging to the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt. The metavolcanic rocks include some unmetamorphosed spilite but are mostly of the greenschist metamorphic facies composed of oligoclase (An15-20) and actinolite with subordinate amounts of chlorite and clinozoisiteepidote. The interbedded sedimentary rocks are predominantly argillite and slaty argillite, less commonly siliceous argillite and chert, and a few lenticular beds of marble. On the south, high-angle faults and a tabular granitic pluton separate the greenschist metavolcanic terrane from the amphibolite facies rocks; on the east, nonfoliated amphibolite is succeeded upward, apparently conformably, by metasedimentary rocks belonging to the greenschist metavolcanic terrane. In the southern part of Condrey Mountain quadrangle, an outlier of a thrust plate composed of the Stuart Fork Formation overlies the metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. The Stuart Fork in this region is composed of siliceous phyllite and phyllitic quartzite and is believed to be the metamorphosed equivalent of rocks over which it is thrust. In the Yreka-Fort Jones area, potassium-argon determinations on mica from the blueschist facies in the Stuart Fork gave ages of approximately 220 m.y. (Late Triassic) for the age of metamorphism. Rocks of the amphibolite facies structurally overlie the Condrey Mountain Schist along a moderate to steeply dipping thrust fault. The amphibolite terrane is composed of amphibolite and metasedimentary rocks in approximately equal amounts accompanied by many bodies of serpentinite and a number of gabbro and dioritic plutons. Most of the amphibolite is foliated, but some is nonfoliated; the nonfoliated amphibolite has an amphibolite mineralogy and commonly a relict volcanic rock texture. The nonfoliated amphibolite occurs on the southern and eastern borders of the amphibolite terrane between the areas offoliated amphibolite and the overly ing metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Hornblende and plagioclase (An30-35) are the characteristic minerals, indicating that the rocks are of the almandine-amphibolite metamorphic facies. The metasedimentary rocks interbedded with the amphibolites include siliceous schist and phyllite, minor quartzite, and subordinate amounts of marble. Potassium-argon age dates obtained on hornblende from foliated amphibolite yield ages of 146?4 and 148? 4 m.y., suggesting a Late Jurassic metamorphic episode. Mafic and ultramafic rocks are widespread in the amphibolite terrane but are almost entirely absent from the area of greenschist facies metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. The ultramafic rocks, predominantly serpentinite, occur as a few large bodies and many small tabular concordant bodies interleaved with the foliated rocks. The ultramafic rocks include harzburgite and d1lIlite and their serpentinized equivalents. In the Condrey Mountain quadrangle, probably more t

  19. Upper Jurassic Norphlet formation: new frontier for hydrocarbon prospecting in the central and eastern Gulf of Mexico regions

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-04-01

    Since the discovery of oil in 1967 from the Smackover Formation at Toxey field, Choctaw County, Alabama, and of condensate in 1968 from the Norphlet Formation at Flomaton field, Escambia County, Alabama, the Upper Jurassic has become the primary exploration target in southwestern Alabama. Norphlet petroleum traps in the region are principally combination traps involving favorable stratigraphy and salt anticlines (Copeland field), extensional fault traps associated with salt movement (Flomaton field), and faulted salt anticlines (Hatter's Pond and Lower Mobile Bay-Mary Ann fields). Reservoir rocks include marine, dune, and fluvial sandstone lithofacies. Sandstone porosity involves both primary intergranular and secondary dissolution and fracture. Smackover algal carbonate mudstone is probably the source for much of the Norphlet hydrocarbon, but downdip Norphlet marine shales may also be source rocks. The central and eastern Gulf of Mexico regions should continue to be excellent areas to explore for hydrocarbons in the years ahead. Successful Norphlet petroleum prospecting in the area has involved the identification of favorable sandstone lithofacies and structural hydrocarbon traps by using geologic and geophysical methods. Future Norphlet discoveries will require the delineation of stratigraphic and structural/stratigraphic combination hydrocarbon traps using seismic-stratigraphic techniques.

  20. Upper Jurassic Norphlet formation: new frontier for hydrocarbon prospecting in the central and eastern Gulf of Mexico regions

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-04-01

    Since the discovery of oil in 1967 from the Smackover Formation at Toxey field, Choctaw County, Alabama, and of condensate in 1968 from the Norphlet Formation at Flomaton field, Escambia County, Alabama, the Upper Jurassic has become the primary exploration target in southwestern Alabama. Norphlet petroleum traps in the region are principally combination traps involving favorable stratigraphy and salt anticlines (Copeland field), exensional fault traps associated with salt movement (Flomaton field), and faulted salt anticlines (Hatter's Pond and Lower Mobile Bay-Mary Ann fields). Reservoir rocks include marine, dune, and fluvial sandstone lithofacies. Sandstone porosity involves both primary intergranular and secondary dissolution and fracture. Smackover algal carbonate mudstone is probably the source for much of the Norphlet hydrocarbon, but downdip Norphlet marine shales may also be source rocks. The central and eastern Gulf of Mexico regions should continue to be excellent areas to explore for hydrocarbons in the years ahead. Successful Norphlet petroleum prospecting in the area has involved the identification of favorable sandstone lithofacies and structural hydrocarbon traps by using geologic and geophysical methods. Future Norphlet discoveries will require the delineation of stratigraphic and structural/stratigraphic combination hydrocarbon traps using seismic-stratigraphic techniques.