Sample records for las regiones central

  1. The Las Matras tonalitic–trondhjemitic pluton, central Argentina: Grenvillian-age constraints, geochemical characteristics, and regional implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A.M. Sato; H. Tickyj; E. J. Llambiasa; K. Sato

    2000-01-01

    The N–S trending belt with Grenvillian-age rocks developed in central western Argentina represents the basement of an allochthonous terrane derived from Laurentia during the Early Paleozoic. The Las Matras pluton (36°46?S, 67°07?W) is located at the southern extension of this belt in the Las Matras Block. It consists of a low-Al tonalitic to trondhjemitic facies characteristic of an arc magmatism.

  2. West Central Texas Regional Transportation Final Report 

    E-print Network

    West Central Texas Council of Governments

    2006-01-01

    WEST CENTRAL TEXAS REGIONAL REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FINAL REPORT NOVEMBER 2006 West Central Texas Regional Transit Coordination Plan Final Report and Executive Summary November 2006 A&R Consulting The Goodman... Workshops 177 Appendix C - Public Meetings 183 West Central Texas Regional Transit Coordination Plan Final Report and Executive Summary November 2006 A&R Consulting The Goodman Corporation November 2006 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...

  3. Regional Education Profile: Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Profiles of the educational systems in the seven Central American countries are presented, along with an introductory essay by Rene Greenwald, "Higher Education in Central America: Trends and Developments: 1985-86." Country profiles are provided for Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. For each country, an…

  4. The central region of M83

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. W. Houghton; N. Thatte

    2008-01-01

    We combine VLT\\/ISAAC near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with archival HST\\/WFPC2 and HST\\/NICMOS imaging to study the central 20 × 20arcsec2 of M83. Our NIR indices for clusters in the circumnuclear starburst region are inconsistent with simple instantaneous burst models. However, models of a single burst dispersed over a duration of 6 Myr fit the data well and provide the clearest evidence

  5. Central region of SKKUCY-9 compact cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, S. Y.; Kim, H. W.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Park, J. K.; Chai, J. S.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-04-01

    The development of a 9 MeV compact cyclotron for the production of radioisotopes for medical applications has been recently completed. The machine accelerates negative hydrogen ions generated from an internal PIG (Penning Ion Gauge) ion source following spiral orbits. Some of the structures designed for early beam acceleration, including a pair of center poles providing ions a circular direction, the head of the ion source, and the electrodes, are located in the center of the cyclotron. In this paper we discuss and evaluate the design of the central region that pulls the ions from the chimney of the ion source and directs them into the equilibrium orbit. The magnetic field produced by the center poles was analyzed using the magnetic solver in OPERA-3D TOSCA, and the phase error and ion equilibrium orbit, which is dependent on the kinetic energy within the designed field, were calculated using CYCLONE v8.4. The electric field produced in the acceleration gap was designed using an electrostatic solver. Then, the single beam trajectory was calculated by our own Cyclotron Beam Dynamics (CBD) code. The early orbits, vertical oscillation, acceptable RF phase and the energy gain during the early turns was evaluated. Final goal was to design the central region by the iterative optimization process and verify it with 1 MeV beam experiment.

  6. Regional sinkhole susceptibility maps: The Latium Region case (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Vigna, F.; Teoli, P.; Mazza, R.; Leoni, G.; Capelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Several and frequent studies were internationally presented about landslide susceptibility, meanwhile in literature is missing a broad diffusion of studies regarding sinkhole susceptibility. That's why sinkhole recurrence depends on several geological conditions related to specific geological and hydrogeological context (sinkhole prone area) that vary case by case. Notwithstanding this regionalization problem of sinkhole recurrence, in the central Appenine sedimentary basins (Italy) a certain number of geological, geomorphologic and hydrogeological conditions (sinkhole predisposing issues) can be considered in common between the surveyed sinkholes. Eventually this could be compared with similar geological conditions and sinkhole occurrence in the rest of Italy or in other countries. In this case study is presented a probabilistic approach regarding the Latium Region deriving from the comparison between the regional sinkhole inventory realized during a precedent project and the dataset of the new Hydrogeological Map of Latium Region (scale 1:100.000). Indexed elements, chosen because associated to the majority of sinkhole phenomena, are: outcropping lithologies, water table depth, main faults (even if buried), hydrothermal springs, land use and the epicentres of recent earthquakes. These indexed elements were weighted and combined in a matrix which preliminary result is the sinkhole susceptibility map of Latium Region. When definitively validated, this approach could be suitable for local authorities to planning more targeted studies in major hazard areas.

  7. Indiana University's Center for Languages of the Central Asian Region's

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    Indiana University's Center for Languages of the Central Asian Region's Summer Workshop for Afghan: Center for Languages of the Central Asian Region Attention: Amber Kent Indiana University Eigenmann Hall-mail. If you have any questions, please e-mail akkent@indiana.edu. #12;Indiana University's Center

  8. Regional gravity investigation of Honduras, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ander, Mark E.; Aiken, Carlos L. V.; De la Fuente, Maricio F.

    1991-03-01

    A regional gravity study of Honduras was performed as part of a major study of the geothermal resource potential of Honduras. This study was conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory, in cooperation with the Honduras government. Regional offshore free-air and onshore Bouguer gravity maps, and residual/isostatic gravity maps of Honduras and surrounding regions were produced. From these data several regional crustal and upper mantle models were produced. These models pass through two local geothermal sites, Platanares and San Ignacio. The regional geologic and tectonic implications of the models and their relevance to the geothermal potential of Honduras and to six well known geothermal sites in particular are examined. No obvious regional structures observed in the gravity data can explain the thermal enhancement in general or the specific geothermal sites. More local tectonic or structural conditions must control the distribution of the thermally enhanced areas.

  9. Acupuncture Produces Central Activations in Pain Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Biella; Maria Luisa Sotgiu; Giulio Pellegata; Eraldo Paulesu; Isabella Castiglioni; Ferruccio Fazio

    2001-01-01

    Acupuncture is largely used for pain control in several pathological conditions. Its effects on the central nervous system are not well defined. We investigated the effect of the application of acupuncture to 13 normal subjects (males, 21–32 years). H215O bolus PET scans were read before the application of the needles (Rest, R) and after 25 min of needle insertion. Data

  10. West Central Texas Regional Transportation Final Report

    E-print Network

    West Central Texas Council of Governments

    the county. Local transit service (less than 5 miles is $1.00.). Travel from Comanche to Brownwood is $6.00 each way. Travel from Comanche to Stephensville is $8.00 each way: ? Shopping trips to Brownwood and Stephensville; ? Medical appointments... Counties 1 Chapter 3 ? Service Provider Profiles and Capabilities 55 Chapter 4 - Existing Regional Coordination 98 SECTION 2 - REGIONAL SERVICE COORDINATION PLANNING Planning Process and Work Plan...

  11. The Study of Soil Radioactivity around Central Region of Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Erkhembayar, Ts.; Norov, N.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.; Odsuren, M. [Nuclear Research Center, National University of Mongolia (Mongolia)

    2009-03-31

    The specific radioactivity of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K were measured in soil samples around some provinces of Central region in Mongolia using the HP-Ge gamma-spectrometer. The effective equivalent dose was determined.

  12. The impact of landslides in the Umbria region, central Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guzzetti; P. Reichenbach; M. Cardinali; F. Ardizzone; M. Galli

    2003-01-01

    The Umbria Region of Central Italy has a long history of mass movements. Landslides range from fast moving rock falls and debris flows, most abundant in mountain areas, to slow moving complex failures extending up to several hectares in the hilly part of the Region. Despite landslides occurring every year in Umbria, their impact remains largely unknown. We present an

  13. 40 CFR 81.215 - East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.215 East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  14. 40 CFR 81.215 - East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.215 East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  15. 40 CFR 81.215 - East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.215 East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  16. 40 CFR 81.215 - East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.215 East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  17. 40 CFR 81.215 - East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.215 East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  18. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

  19. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

  20. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

  1. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

  2. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

  3. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  4. 40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.262 North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  5. 40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.262 North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  6. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  7. 40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.262 North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  8. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  9. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

  10. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.127 Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central New York Intrastate Air Quality...

  11. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.157 North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality...

  12. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.157 North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality...

  13. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.157 North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality...

  14. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.157 North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality...

  15. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  16. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.143 Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  17. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  18. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  19. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.143 Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  20. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.143 Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  1. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  2. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  3. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  4. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  5. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.143 Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  6. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  7. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  8. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.143 Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  9. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

  10. 40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.260 South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  11. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.95 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.95 Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central...

  12. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.263 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central...

  13. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.127 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.127 Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central New...

  14. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.127 Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central New York Intrastate Air Quality...

  15. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.127 Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central New York Intrastate Air Quality...

  16. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.127 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.127 Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central New...

  17. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.95 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.95 Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central...

  18. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality...

  19. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality...

  20. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  1. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  2. 40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.250 North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  3. 40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.250 North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  4. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  5. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  6. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  7. Regional Transit Plan for the Central Texas State Planning Region 

    E-print Network

    Central Texas Regional Transportation Advisory Group

    2006-01-01

    STATE PLANNING REGION (23) Table DP.1 . Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 Geographic area: Bell County. Texas [For information on confidentiality protection. nonsampling error. and definitions. see text] . Represents zero... ................. Average household size of owner-occupied units . Average household size of renter-occupied units . Table DP.3 . Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000 Geographic area: Bell County. Texas [Data based on a sample . For information...

  8. MOHO ORIENTATION BENEATH CENTRAL CALIFORNIA FROM REGIONAL EARTHQUAKE TRAVEL TIMES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppenheimer, David H.; Eaton, Jerry P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines relative Pn arrival times, recorded by the U. S. Geological Survey seismic network in central and northern California from an azimuthally distributed set of regional earthquakes. Improved estimates are presented of upper mantle velocities in the Coast Ranges, Great Valley, and Sierra Nevada foothills and estimates of the orientation of the Moho throughout this region. Finally, the azimuthal distribution of apparent velocities, corrected for dip and individual station travel time effects, is then studied for evidence of upper mantle velocity anisotropy and for indications of lower crustal structure in central California.

  9. Crop Rotation in the Blackland Region of Central Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner); Killough, D. T. (David Thornton)

    1927-01-01

    of crops . on the land appears to offer the most promising immediate solution of the problem. Rotation of crops distributes the labor, helps to keep down weeds, controls insect pests. and crop diseases, and makes possible the production of feed crops... .............................. .............................. .............................. Blackland Region Pounds .......... 215 218 193 196 190 188 187 196 187 196 187 I94 103 180 lb4 166 154 151 .......... ........ ........ CROP ROTATION IN BLACKLAND REGION OF CENTRAL TEXAS 7 tloil of crops aids in the control of insect...

  10. Moho Orientation Beneath Central California From Regional Earthquake Travel Times

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Oppenheimer; Jerry P. Eaton

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of relative Pn travel times recorded by 238 stations of the U.S. Geological Survey central California seismic network (CALNET) from 77 regional earthquakes and explosions shows that arrivals are progressively delayed to the northeast in both the Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada foothills. By dividing the CALNET into 10 subarrays and assuming laterally uniform velocities for a crust over

  11. Secular evolution in the central regions of galaxies

    E-print Network

    Eric Emsellem

    2001-09-10

    In this paper, I mention a few processes which may play a role in the evolution of the central regions of galaxies. In this context, I briefly discuss some issues regarding the formation of bulges in spirals, the role of supermassive black holes, and the importance of nuclear density waves.

  12. Management of Forested Wetland Ecosystems in the Central Hardwood Region

    E-print Network

    knowledge of managment of these systems we've discusse with a paper on the restoration of degraded forestedFNR-151 Management of Forested Wetland Ecosystems in the Central Hardwood Region Edited by Scott D t and troughs in channel flow. They protect stream and river banks from e water quality by filtering sediments

  13. Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) is a non-governmental agency dedicated to solving environmental problems in Central and Eastern Europe. Established in 1990 by the US, the European Commission, and Hungary, and based in Hungary, REC fulfils its mission "through encouraging cooperation among non-governmental organizations, governments and businesses, supporting the free exchange of information and promoting public participation in environmental decision-making." The Website is straightforward and simple to navigate; content includes background information on the REC, a summary of REC programs, publications, and searchable databases of contacts in the environmental field.

  14. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.257 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  15. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South...

  16. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.160 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  17. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  18. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.160 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  19. 40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.262 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.262 North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  20. 40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.196 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South...

  1. 40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.189 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South...

  2. 40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.196 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.196 South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South...

  3. 40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.262 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.262 North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  4. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South...

  5. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.124 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  6. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South...

  7. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  8. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.257 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  9. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  10. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South...

  11. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan...

  12. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.166 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166 South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South...

  13. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.157 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.157 North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  14. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  15. Density waves in the central regions of galaxies

    E-print Network

    Eric Emsellem

    2001-07-17

    Density waves in the central kpc of galaxies, taking the form of spirals, bars and/or lopsided density distributions are potential actors of the redistribution of angular momentum. They thus play an important role in the overall evolution of the central structures, not mentioning the possible link with the active/non-active nucleus. I present here kinematical evidences for the presence of such structures using new sets of observations: two-dimensional (OASIS/CFHT) and long-slit (ISAAC/VLT) spectrography of nuclear bars and spirals. I also discuss the importance of $m=1$ modes in the nuclear regions of galaxies, illustrating this with newly revealed cases and original N body simulations.

  16. Active tectonics of the Qom region, Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, J.; Fattahi, M.; Jackson, J. A.; Talebian, M.; Nazari, H.; Bahroudi, A.

    2009-12-01

    Between 50-57°E shortening across the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone is accommodated primarily in the Zagros and Alborz mountains of Iran, which bound the relatively aseismic Central Iranian block. Both the lack of seismicity and the minor variation in GPS velocities across Central Iran suggest this region plays a negligible role in accommodating Arabia-Eurasia shortening at the present day. We examine recent deformation in the Qom region, which lies 100 km south of Tehran within the Central Iran block. This region is notable for a number of large earthquakes over the last 30 years: 1980.12.18 (Mw 6.0), 1980.12.22 (Mw 5.7), and 2007.06.18 (Mw 5.4). Body-waveform modeling of these events indicates N-S shortening on a S-dipping thrust fault which projects to the surface along the Qom thrust. Evidence for longer-term uplift is indicated by the increased topography south of the fault, and the exposure of folded Miocene (U. Red Fmtn) and Late Oligocene (Qom Fmtn) deposits. River incision has resulted in numerous river terraces, and in one location an alluvial fan has been offset across the fault. Four samples were collected from the surface of this fan and their ages determined using OSL dating. The results indicate fan abandonment at ~30 kybp. A DEM of the fan was produced using kinematic GPS surveying data, from which 1.0±0.3 m vertical offset was measured. A minimum uplift rate of 0.02 mm/yr and a minimum shortening rate of 0.01 mm/yr are obtained. If the age of the lower (and youngest) terrace is 10 ky, as is typically seen in other locations throughout Iran, the likely range of uplift rates are 0.02-0.2 mm/yr and shortening rates 0.01-0.2 mm/yr. North of Qom city, U. Red Fmtn deposits have been folded into an asymmetric N-verging anticline known as the Alborz anticline. Seismic, well and surface data all indicate this structure has formed as a fault-bend fold above a decollement at 3 km depth which ramps to the surface along the northern limit of the fold. A balanced cross section indicates ~18% shortening (1.5 km) in a period bracketed by the Upper Red Fmtn (<18 Ma) and the Pliocene (>5.3 Ma), yielding shortening rates of 0.1-0.3 mm/yr. The right-lateral Kashan fault lies SE of the Qom region, and appears to be kinematically linked to the thrust faults around Qom, which probably represent thrust terminations. Historical earthquakes have occurred on the Kashan fault, and clear evidence for recent movement is seen in the Quaternary geomorphology. Reconstruction of the geology across the Kashan fault indicates ~45 km of total right-lateral motion, which suggests it has played a significant role in the accommodation of regional shortening. Late Cenozoic estimates of N-S shortening in the Qom region are 0.03-0.5 mm/yr. The difference in GPS velocities north and south of Qom indicates 1.1±1.9 mm/yr shortening across this region. This study suggests that Central Iran plays an important role in accommodating Arabia-Eurasia shortening over Quaternary to geological timescales. Efforts should be made to better constrain the seismic hazard posed by active faults to large populations in the Central Iran region.

  17. Genetics/Genomics Research in the Central Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    Genetics-based research within the Biological Resources Discipline (BRD) Science Centers in the Central Region incorporates many aspects of the field of genetics. Research activities range from documenting patterns of genetic variation in order to investigate relationships among species, populations and individuals to investigating the structure, function and expression of genes and their response to environmental stressors. Research in the broad areas of genetics requires multidisciplinary expertise and specialized equipment and instrumentation. Brief summaries of the capabilities of the five BRD Centers are given below.

  18. Human mucin gene MUC5AC: organization of its 5'-region and central repetitive region.

    PubMed Central

    Escande, F; Aubert, J P; Porchet, N; Buisine, M P

    2001-01-01

    Human mucin gene MUC5AC is clustered with MUC2, MUC5B and MUC6 on chromosome 11p15.5. We report here the full length cDNA sequence upstream of the repetitive region of human MUC5AC. We have also determined the sequence of its large central tandem repeat array. The 5'-region reveals high degree of sequence similarity with MUC2 and MUC5B and codes for 1336 amino acids organized into a signal peptide, four pro-von Willebrand factor-like D domains (D1, D2, D' and D3) and a short domain which connects to the central repetitive region. In the central region, 17 major domains have been identified. Nine code for cysteine-rich domains (Cys-domains 1-9) and exhibit high sequence similarity to the cysteine-rich domains described in the central region of MUC2 and MUC5B. Cys-domains 1-5 are interspersed by domains enriched with serine, threonine, and proline residues. Cys-domains 1-9 are interspersed by four domains (TR1-TR4) composed of various numbers of MUC5AC-type repeats. Southern-blot analyses reveal allelic variations both in length and nucleotide sequence. The length polymorphism which is due to variable numbers of tandem repeats is located in TR1 and TR4, whereas a mutation polymorphism detected with TaqI is located in Cys-domain 6. In this study, the organization of MUC5AC has been entirely elucidated showing extensive similarity to the other chromosome 11p15 MUC genes, particularly MUC5B, and providing additional arguments for common evolution from a single ancestral gene. PMID:11535137

  19. Kinematics of the Central Regions of NGC 1672

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R.; Dottori, H.; Carranza, G.

    2001-07-01

    We present two-dimensional spectroscopy and broad band imaging of the LINER galaxy NGC 1672. The velocity field and morphology of the central 2kpc indicate higher mass concentration than in normal spirals, offsets between the nuclear continuum baricenter and the kinematical center, and between both and the cente r of the bar. Satoh's model fit to the velocity field reveals non-axisymmetric residuals, not well correlated with the bar or the circumnuclear ring of HII regions. The inner rotation curve locates the ring of star formation on an ILR, and not near the peak of ?-?/{2}, as suggested by previous works, also claiming the ring rotating faster than its ambient, result not confirmed h ere.

  20. Placing Central European climate archives into a regional tephrochronological framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, C. S.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lotter, A. F.; Filippi, M. L.; Pollard, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    A number of Lateglacial and Early Holocene lacustrine records from Central and Southern Europe have been shown to contain both visible and micro-tephra deposits, which can be correlated to volcanic eruptions from multiple volcanic sources. Detailed environmental proxy records, which outline local and regional responses to the abrupt climatic changes of the Last Glacial to Interglacial transition (LGIT), are thus constrained within a regional tephrochronological framework. Amongst other volcanic markers, the Laacher See Tephra, erupted from the Eifel region of Germany at 12,880 ±120 varve yrs BP (Brauer et al., 1999), and the Vedde Ash, erupted from Iceland between 12,225 and 11,832 cal. yrs BP (Blockley et al., 2007), are found within some of the same lake cores (e.g., Blockley et al., 2008). These key horizons, which bracket the onset of the Younger Dryas Interstadial, provide precise and absolutely dated tie points around which a detailed picture of the timing of local and regional environmental transitions can be constructed. The presence of the Vedde Ash in the Swiss lake sites allows a direct linkage to the Greenland Ice Core chronology (Mortensen et al., 2005) and highlights the potential for key tephra deposits to be found and correlated across wide geographical areas. This paper summarises the results of tephrochronological investigations into a suite of Central European records, which includes: Soppensee and Rotsee, in Central Switzerland; Rotmeer, in Southern Germany; and Lavarone, in Northern Italy. Chemical analysis of each tephra deposit has been carried out and the sources of the eruption events have been identified. Where appropriate, tephra ages have been transferred from high-precision annually-resolved chronologies and integrated with Bayesian-based radiocarbon age models for the sites. The environmental archives of the LGIT at each site are then compared on a common timescale, and further comparisons are made with other published European tephra-bearing records. References: Blockley, S.P.E., Bronk Ramsey, C. and Pyle, D.M. 2008. Improved age modelling and high-precision age estimates of late Quaternary tephras, for accurate palaeoclimate reconstruction. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 177(1), pp. 251-262. Blockley, S.P.E., Lane, C.S., Lotter, A.F. and Pollard, A.M. 2007. Evidence for the presence of the Vedde Ash in Central Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26(25-28), pp. 3030-3036. Brauer, A., Endres, C., Negendank, J.F.W., 1999a. Lateglacial calendar year chronology based on annually laminated sediments from Lake Meerfelder Maar, Germany. Quaternary International 61, 17-25. Mortensen, A.K., Bigler, M., Grönvold, K., Steffensen, J.P. and Johnsen, S.J. 2005. Volcanic ash layers from the last glacial termination in the NGRIP ice core. Journal of Quaternary Science, 20(3), pp. 209-219.

  1. Probing the Central Regions of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohfink, Anne M.; Reynolds, C. S.; Mushotzky, R.; Nowak, M.

    2014-01-01

    AGN influence their surroundings via feedback processes and contribute significantly to the evolution of their host galaxies. While this is well established today, our understanding of these processes is incomplete. A missing crucial piece is an understanding of the processes in the heart of the AGN close to the black hole, where a vast majority of the energy is released. My talk explores these central regions in several AGN, both radio-quiet and radio-loud, using the powerful tool of X-ray spectroscopy. I will describe some of the problems (and their solutions) we encountered when trying to study the fundamental parameters, such as black hole spin, which shape these central regions. For the Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9, we find that the accretion disk parameters are dependent on the spectral decomposition. To get a unique decomposition, we need to understand the soft X-ray excess seen in many AGN but not understood to date. Our analysis hints at the soft excess being partially a separate spectral component such as Comptonization. We tested this hypothesis with studies of the UV--X-ray correlation from a Swift monitoring of the source. We obtained an unambiguous detection of both the correlation and previously undetected 4-day time scale UV variability. The confirmation of our X-ray results using UV photometry shows great promise as a proxy for the detection of a Comptonization soft excess in AGN. The second part of my talk will focus on the formation of jets in AGN which is another vital piece in the feedback puzzle. We study the bright radio-loud AGN 3C120, in which a clear disk-jet connection has been established. We will present the best snapshot to date of the central engine structure in any radio-loud AGN, taken with Suzaku in February 2012. To place this deep Suzaku stare into the context of the disk-disruption/jet-ejection cycles displayed by this object, we also analyzed a monitoring of the source in the UV/X-ray (Swift) and radio bands (VLBA). Our observations confirm the current idea of jet formation, which links the ejection of a new jet knot to a disturbance/disruption of the inner parts of the accretion disk.

  2. Central San Juan caldera cluster: regional volcanic framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    Eruption of at least 8800 km3 of dacitic-rhyolitic magma as 9 major ash-slow sheets (individually 150-5000 km3) was accompanied by recurrent caldera subsidence between 28.3 and about 26.5 Ma in the central San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Voluminous andesitic-decitic lavas and breccias were erupted from central volcanoes prior to the ash-flow eruptions, and similar lava eruptions continued within and adjacent to the calderas during the period of explosive volcanism, making the central San Juan caldera cluster an exceptional site for study of caldera-related volcanic processes. Exposed calderas vary in size from 10 to 75 km in maximum diameter, the largest calderas being associated with the most voluminous eruptions. After collapse of the giant La Garita caldera during eruption if the Fish Canyon Tuff at 17.6 Ma, seven additional explosive eruptions and calderas formed inside the La Garita depression within about 1 m.y. Because of the nested geometry, maximum loci of recurrently overlapping collapse events are inferred to have subsided as much as 10-17 km, far deeper than the roof of the composite subvolcanic batholith defined by gravity data, which represents solidified caldera-related magma bodies. Erosional dissection to depths of as much as 1.5 km, although insufficient to reach the subvolcanic batholith, has exposed diverse features of intracaldera ash-flow tuff and interleaved caldera-collapse landslide deposits that accumulated to multikilometer thickness within concurrently subsiding caldera structures. The calderas display a variety of postcollapse resurgent uplift structures, and caldera-forming events produced complex fault geometries that localized late mineralization, including the epithermal base- and precious-metal veins of the well-known Creede mining district. Most of the central San Juan calderas have been deeply eroded, and their identification is dependent on detailed geologic mapping. In contrast, the primary volcanic morphology of the symmetrically resurgent Creede caldera, the volcanic framework for Lake Creede, has been exceptionally preserved because of rapid infilling by moat sediments of the Creede Formation, which were preferentially eroded during the past few million years. The ash-flow tuffs and caldera of the central San Juan region have been widely recognized as exceptional sites for study of explosive volcanic processes, and the results reported here provide new insights into processes of pyroclastic eruption and emplacement, geometric interrelations between caldera subsidence and resurgence, the petrologic diversity of sequential ash-flow eruptions, recurrent eruption of intermediate-composition lavas after each caldera-forming event, associated regional fault development, volume relations between ash-flow eruptions and associated calderas, the emplacement of subvolcanic batholiths, and involvement of mantle-derived mafic phases in magma-generation processes.

  3. IeDEA Region 2: Caribbean, Central and South America Network Version: 1 July 2008

    E-print Network

    IeDEA Region 2: Caribbean, Central and South America Network Version: 1 July 2008 1 The CCASAnetDEA Caribbean, Central, and South America Network for HIV Research (CCASAnet) has instituted a process are #12;IeDEA Region 2: Caribbean, Central and South America Network Version: 1 July 2008 2 given

  4. Regional Air Quality in central México and emissions inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardo Ruiz-Suarez, Luis; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Agustín García-Reynoso, José; Santos García-Yee, José; Barrera-Huertas, Hugo; Alejandro Torres-Jaramillo, Jorge; Robles-Roldán, Miguel Angel; Gutierrez López, Wilfrido; García-Espinoza, Manuel; Castro-Romero, Telma

    2014-05-01

    Four air quality field campaigns, from 2009 to 2012, during March-April were carried out in several sites in urban, rural and semi-rural sites in Central México. One of the sites was in the Chalco Gap southeast of MCMA (2011), another in the state of Morelos (2011), other two in the state of Puebla (2009 and 2012). All these sites are South and East of the Mexico Basin. The main object of those campaigns was to document regional air quality, mainly in rural and periurban sites, including the photochemical age of regional polluted plumes as they were transported away from the main metropolitan areas within the region. In this paper, we focus on comparisons between observed CO/NOx, and CO/SO2 ratios with those from the National Emissions Inventory and form local inventories reported in state air quality management programs. Comparisons were made with data between 05:00 to 08:00 h to minimize effects photochemical activity and the fast evolution of MLH occurring between 08:00 and 09:00 due to high insolation. Comparisons among observed ratios show a fairly consistent ratio, whereas ratios from emissions inventory are widely variable and only in few sites compare reasonable well with observed ones, indicating the need for homologation of emissions inventories in the country. Also Ozone, CO, NOx and NOy observed time series are compared with WRF-Chem model results for the same campaign periods to evaluate its performance outside MCMA. In addition, observed surface wind speeds and early morning MLH obtained with a tethered balloon are also compared with modeled values to help understanding discrepancies in the trace gases comparisons.

  5. Central America Regional Climate Change Program: Tools for Your Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Dan; Irving, Bill; Yeager, Carey

    2006-01-01

    USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team, in partnership with EPA, NASA, Oak Ridge National Lab, and the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), have had a significant impact on the region's ability to monitor, mitigate, and adapt to environmental threats. Environmental decision-making tools and data are posted on a website (SERVIR: http://servir.nsstc.nasa.pov/home.html)that provides satellite and geographic data and maps to anybody with an Internet connection. The SERVIR program has been identified as the model for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) - a major international effort to develop a 21st century system for environmental management and disaster response. In coordination with the USAID/EPA program, NASA has developed a GIs tool that enables countries to examine their forest cover and document changes on an annual basis. This information is used in calculating carbon emissions as part of greenhouse gas inventories, but also serves a valuable monitoring function. In addition, USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team in collaboration with EPA are helping countries meet their obligations as signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). EPA is assisting Central American governments to improve the quality of their greenhouse gas emission inventories reported to the UNFCCC through the development of tools and improvements in data quality. New EPA tools developed include software to automatically calculate greenhouse gas emissions for the agricultural and forestry sector inventories, determine key sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and document institutional arrangements. Several of these tools are state of the art and are comparable to tools currently used in the U.S.

  6. 78 FR 37537 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...technical conference on centralized capacity markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System Operators (RTOs/ISOs) (centralized capacity markets). The technical conference will take place on September 25, 2013 beginning at...

  7. How Did States in the Central Region Evaluate Supplemental Educational Services in 2007?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Zoe; Wegner, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    In state needs assessment meetings held in late June 2008, the leadership of two Central Region state departments of education, South Dakota and Missouri, asked Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central to determine how the states in the region evaluate their supplemental educational service (SES) providers. Specifically, these SEA staff…

  8. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

    2011-01-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation

  9. Heat sources for tertiary metamorphism and anatexis in the Annapurna-Manaslu region, central Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip England; Patrick Le Fort; Peter Molnar; Arnaud Pecher

    1992-01-01

    The metamorphic evolution of the rocks near the Main Central Thrust in the Annapurna-Manaslu region of central Nepal is examined. In this region, all three types of metamorphic features can be observed: regional metamorphism, anatectic granitoids, and inverted metamorphic isograds. In this work, each phase of metamorphism is treated separately to estimate the heat sources required for each process. This

  10. Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C' Through the Central Appalachian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Crangle, Robert D., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.

  11. Central exclusive quarkonia production in the forward region at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Katharina

    2015-06-01

    The LHCb detector and LHC running conditions are ideally suited to measure central exclusive production. Recent results of central exclusive production of J/?, ?(2S) and double charmonium are presented. Results are consistent with theoretical expectations. Prospects for measurements of central exclusive production with a new detector installed for the next running period are discussed.

  12. Correlating Seismicity and Subsidence in the Tokai Region, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiemer, S.; Woessner, J.; Yoshida, A.; Hosono, K.; Noguchi, S.; Takayama, H.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the correlation between seismicity rate changes as well as changes in the earthquake size distribution (b-value) of earthquakes and transients in geodetic data in the Tokai area of Central Japan. As a first target, we analyze the period of accelerated subsidence in the period 1988 - 1990. Three largely independent seismic catalogs cover this region: NIED, JMA and JUNEC, offering a unique opportunity to verify seismicity anomalies based on independent sources. We spatially and temporally map out seismicity rates, finding that a significant decrease in the earthquake rate of M > 2.0 events coincides with the accelerated subsidence period; however, this anomaly disappears when including smaller magnitudes in the analysis. This relative quiescence of larger events can readily be explained when interpreting the transient in seismicity in the framework of a change in the earthquake size distribution, or b-value. The background b-value of about 0.8 increased in the period 1987.5 to 1989.5 to a value of b=1.2 and is confirmed in all three data sets. This b-value transient occurred in the immediate vicinity of a patch of low b-value in the centre of Suruga Bay (b=0.5) that could be interpreted as a major locked patch or asperity. We also analyze stress tensor inversions of NIED focal mechanism data, finding an increase in thrusting type earthquakes for the anomalous period show. While a unique interpretation of the relationship between subsidence, b-value and stress tensor inversion results is not possible, we propose that an increase in the locking strength, a slow stick event, is consistent with all observations. We are now investigating the seismicity transients accompanying the recent slow slip event that started in the year 2000. Our ultimate goal is to construct a quantitative model that relates micro-seismicity and deformation data in the Tokai region.

  13. Las regiones Objetivo 1 españolas en la sociedad de la información: el comercio electrónico como elemento de desarrollo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Bernal Jurado; Juan Carlos Rodríguez Cohard

    2003-01-01

    RESUMEN Las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC) constituyen una de las principales fuerzas de la globalización. El comercio electrónico aprovecha Internet para mejorar la competitividad de las empresas y territorios. En un escenario como el actual, este canal, por un lado, abre posibilidades de desarrollo para las regiones Objetivo 1, pero, por otro, refuerza los factores de crecimiento

  14. Kinematics of the Central Regions of NGC 1672

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.; Dottori, H.; Goldes, G.

    1999-02-01

    We present the detailed velocity field of the central 2 kpc of the LINER galaxy NGC 1672. The isovelocity map shows a rotational pattern with a velocity gradient of 50 km s-1 arcsec-1 in the inner 6" (1''~70 pc), indicating a mass of ~9×108 Msolar inside a radius of 125 pc, equivalent to a density of ~2×1011 Msolar kpc-3. It also shows some asymmetries on a larger scale. An offset of ~60 pc between the nuclear continuum barycenter and the kinematical center is also found. Satoh's model fitting to the observed velocity field reveals several nonaxisymmetric residuals, which do not correlate well with the bar or the circumnuclear ring of H II regions. The inner rotation curve of NGC 1672 reveals that the circumnuclear ring of star formation is located on an inner Lindblad resonance (ILR), and not near the peak of the Lindblad curve, ?-(?/2), as suggested by previous works, which also claimed that the ring rotates faster than its ambient. This motion is not confirmed by the two-dimensional residual-velocity map.

  15. Collision of Anternae Central Regions Observed by Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Chandra image shows the central regions of two colliding galaxies known collectively as the Antennae (NGC-4038/4039). The Chandra image reveals a large population of extremely bright x-ray sources in this area of intense star formation. These x-ray sources, which emit 10 to several hundred times more x-ray power than similar sources in our own galaxy, are believed to be either massive black holes, or black holes that are beaming their energy toward Earth. In this x-ray image, red represents the low energy band, green intermediate, and blue the highest observed energies. The white and yellow sources are those that emit significant amounts of both low and high energy x-rays. About 60 million light years from Earth in the constellation Corvus, the Antennae Galaxies got their nickname from the wispy anntennae-like streams of gas as seen by optical telescopes. These ongoing wisps are believed to have been produced approximately 100 million years ago by the collision between the gala

  16. Collision of Anternae Central Regions Observed by Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Chandra image shows the central regions of two colliding galaxies known collectively as the Antennae (NGC-4038/4039). The dozens of bright pointy-like sources are neutron stars or black holes pulling gas off nearby stars. The bright fuzzy patches are multimillion degree gas superbubbles, thousands of light years in diameter that were produced by the accumulated power of thousands of supernovae. The remaining glow of x-ray emission could be due to many faint x-ray sources or to clouds of hot gas in the galaxies. About 60 million light years from Earth in the constellation Corvus, the Antennae Galaxies got their nickname from the wispy anntennae-like streams of gas as seen by optical telescopes. These ongoing wisps are believed to have been produced approximately 100 million years ago by the collision between the galaxies. Although it is rare for stars to hit each other during a galactic collision, clouds of dust and gas do collide. Compression of these clouds can lead to the rebirth of millions of stars, and a few million years later, to thousands of supernovae.

  17. Regional variation in canopy transpiration of Central European beech forests.

    PubMed

    Schipka, Florian; Heimann, Jutta; Leuschner, Christoph

    2005-03-01

    Forest hydrologists have hypothesised that canopy transpiration (E(c)) of European temperate forests occurs at rather similar rates in stands with different tree species and hydrologic regimes. We tested this hypothesis by synchronously measuring xylem sap flow in four mature stands of Fagus sylvatica along a precipitation gradient with the aim (1) of exploring the regional variability of annual canopy transpiration (E(c(t))) in this species, and (2) of analysing the relationship between precipitation (P) and E(c(t)). E(c(t)) rates of 216, 225, 272 and 303 mm year(-1) corresponded to precipitation averages of 520, 710, 801 and 1,040 mm year(-1) in the four stands. We explored the regional variability of E(c(t)) in Central European colline to sub-montane beech stands in two meta-analyses based on (1) existing sap flow data on beech (n=5 observations), or (2) all canopy transpiration data on beech obtained by different techniques (sap flow, micrometeorological or soil water budget approaches, n=25). With a coefficient of variation (CV) of 20%, the regional variability of E(c(t)) (213-421 mm year(-1)) was smaller than the variation in corresponding precipitation (550-1,480 mm year(-1)). The mean E(c(t)) for beech was 289 (+/-58) mm year(-1) (n=25). A humped-shaped relationship between E(c(t)) and P, with a broad transpiration maximum in the precipitation range from ca. 700 to 1,000 mm year(-1), was found which may indicate soil moisture limitation of transpiration for P 1,000 mm year(-1). Thus, the precipitation level significantly influences canopy transpiration of humid temperate forests; however, the size of the P influence on E(c(t)) and, in part, the direction of its effect differ from forests in semi-arid or arid climates. European beech has the capacity to maintain high E(c) rates in both humid and partly dry summer climates (P<550 mm year(-1)). PMID:15682345

  18. 40 CFR 81.82 - El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.82 Section...PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.82 El Paso-Las...Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The El...

  19. Energy and development in Central America. Volume I: regional assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

  20. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

    2011-01-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it’s important to provide regional climate change\\u000a information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central\\u000a America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of temperature and precipitation

  1. Star Formation Efficiency in the Central 1 kpc Region of Early-Type Spiral Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio K. Inoue; Hiroyuki Hirashita; Hideyuki Kamaya

    2000-01-01

    It has been reported recently that there are some early-type spiral (Sa--Sab)\\u000agalaxies having evident star-forming regions which concentrate in their own\\u000acentral 1-kpc. In such central region, is the mechanism of the star formation\\u000adistinct from that in disks of spiral galaxies? To reveal this, we estimate the\\u000astar formation efficiency (SFE) in this central 1-kpc star-forming region of

  2. Regional Art History: A Procedural Model for Research, Central Ohio 1945-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christopher A.

    This paper documents the creation of a procedural model for researching regional art history. It focuses on the region of Central Ohio and identifies art historical resources and a sampling of artists from 1945-1995. Topics discussed include: art history in Europe and in the United States; the problem of researching regional art history; review of…

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OF THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE REGION'S

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OF THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN or announcement effecting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from the European Union (EU) to the ten EU accession of the Foreign Direct Investments in Central and Eastern Europe Region's Countries The last report regarding

  4. Regional Hydrological Response to Climate Change in Mexico and Central America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Karmalkar; R. S. Bradley; H. F. Diaz

    2009-01-01

    Future changes in precipitation amount and variability are among the most important and serious projected consequences of climate change. Central America (CAM) shows most of its climate variability in precipitation. Thus, the large hydrological response to global warming can have negative consequences on agricultural activities and the ecosystem dynamics in the region. Indeed, Central America is considered to be a

  5. Rhyolitic ignimbrites in the region of Afyon (Central Anatolia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Keller; L. Villari

    1972-01-01

    Occurrence and field relations of an extensive ignimbrite sheet near Afyon in Central Anatolia are described.\\u000a \\u000a These rhyolitic ignimbrites are part of the important Neogene volcanic activity in Turkey and belong to the alignment of volcanic\\u000a complexes along the inner border of the Taurian ranges.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In close stratigraphical connection and in the same tectonic position as the rhyolites there occurs

  6. Energy in central Asia and northwest China: major trends and opportunities for regional cooperation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Dorian; Utkur Tojiev Abbasovich; Mikhail S. Tonkopy; Obozov Alaibek Jumabekovich; Qiu Daxiong

    1999-01-01

    On an energy-equivalent basis Central Asia is predominantly a gas producing region. Potential for oil and hydropower development is vast however. This paper examines the current and predicted future status of the energy industry of Central Asia, and assesses opportunities for regional-wide cooperation in development, transportation, and trade. The findings are based on a just-completed Asian Development Bank survey of

  7. Regional variation in canopy transpiration of Central European beech forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Schipka; Jutta Heimann; Christoph Leuschner

    2005-01-01

    Forest hydrologists have hypothesised that canopy transpiration (Ec) of European temperate forests occurs at rather similar rates in stands with different tree species and hydrologic regimes. We tested this hypothesis by synchronously measuring xylem sap flow in four mature stands of Fagus sylvatica along a precipitation gradient with the aim (1) of exploring the regional variability of annual canopy transpiration

  8. A new plate motions model for the central Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, L.; Schettino, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although the plate kinematics associated with the opening of the central Atlantic ocean after the break-up of Pangaea has been the subject of several studies since the late 1960s, there are still open problems and debated solutions to the tectonic evolution of this area. In particular, the initial fit of Pangaea, the spreading directions during the early stages of opening, the existence of ridge jumps, and the entity of deformation processes in northwest Africa are still subject to different interpretations by distinct research groups. We performed a reassessment of the central Atlantic plate kinematics since the early Jurassic through a re-examination of marine magnetic anomalies and fracture zone trends. A total of 432 ship tracks from the NGDC GEODAS database for the time interval from 1964 through 1994 in the area comprised between the Fifteen-Twenty FZ and the Azores triple junction were analyzed. The data quality was assessed through the examination of Kp indices, and 191 magnetic profiles were extracted having an azimuth that differed from the fracture zones trend by less than 30° and did not cross any fracture zone. Magnetic data collected during moderately disturbed days (Kp > 5) were also filtered away. The 191 ship track segments were projected onto flow lines that parallel existing fracture zones in order to avoid shape distortion of the magnetic anomalies. Finally, the magnetic data were high-pass filtered to remove trends. A new advanced software tool for the analysis and interpretation of the anomalies was developed in order to improve the reliability of magnetic anomaly identifications. The main result of this work is a new map of the magnetic lineations in the central Atlantic, which overcomes the flaws of previous maps. The structural pattern that results from this study evidences that: 1) a unique spreading direction existed during the early and middle Jurassic, and until the M25 - M21 time interval in the late Jurassic. Such a spreading direction is compatible with that proposed in a recent model of opening of the proto-Atlantic, but extends the trend well beyond the early Jurassic; 2) an independent Moroccan plate existed during the Oligocene and early Miocene, with spreading rates as high as 40 mm/yr north of the Atlantis FZ. The results of this study have important implications for the western Mediterranean plate kinematics.

  9. The Shapley Supercluster. I. Spectroscopic Observations in the Central Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Quintana; A. Ramirez; Jorge Melnick; Somak Raychaudhury; Eric Slezak

    1995-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the kinematics of the Shapley supercluster based on radial velocities for 1087 galaxies in the clusters A3558 (Shapley 8), A3528 (Klemola 21), A3532 (Klemola 22), A3530, A3556 (SC 1321-314), A3559 (CE 1327-292), A3560, A3562, SC 1329-314 and in the intercluster region of the core of the supercluster, of which 367 are new measurements. We

  10. Varieties of Cotton for the Blackland Region of Central Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Killough, D. T. (David Thornton); Dunlavy, Henry; Rea, H. E. (Homer Earl)

    1929-01-01

    Antonio) : P. C. MANGELSDORF, SC. D., Agronomist; EI. B. PARKS, B. S., Chief in charge of Corn and Small Grain Investi- A M ALFX B. S. Queen Breeder gations FEED CON~ROL ~ERVICE: D. T. KI~LOUGH, M. S., Agronomist; Cotton F. D. FULLER, M. S., Chref... at Temple, Bell County, Texas,* near the center from north to south of the Blackland region of the State. The Substation is approximately 125 miles south of Dallas and 140 miles northeast of San Antonio, and is accessible to the Missouri, Kansas and Texas...

  11. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  12. From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

  13. Trends and discontinuities in regional rainfall of West and Central Africa: 1951-1989

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GIL MAHE; GEOFFROY WOTLING

    2001-01-01

    Standardized regional mean annual rainfall series are analysed over the period 1951-1989 from a data set of 891 rainfall stations which covers 23 countries of West and Central Africa. Missing values are estimated by using regionalized indexes computed on the basis of a morpho-climatic delimitation of 44 homogeneous climatic units. Searches for statistical discontinuities in rainfall series show no discontinuity

  14. U.S. Higher Education Regional Accreditation Commission Standards and the Centrality of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Valerie O.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Green, Birgit L.; Raymond, Megan; Borchardt, Melody P.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed the research question "How do regional accrediting standards apply to the central role of community engagement in U.S. institutions of higher education?" Using descriptive and qualitative methods, two sources were analyzed: published standards of the 6 regional accrediting commissions in the United States and the…

  15. Crustal Structure Beneath the Kanto-Koshinetsu Region, Central Japan Inferred from Receiver Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Igarashi; N. Hirata

    2005-01-01

    We applied the receiver function technique using multiple-taper method to estimate crust, uppermost mantle, and the subducting plate structure in the Kanto-Koshinetsu region, central Japan. This region is characterized by many faults and tectonic lines, and moreover the Philippine Sea plate subducts northward and the Pacific plate subducts westward. We analyzed P-wave seismograms recorded by regional seismographic networks from August

  16. Mount Chacaltaya Regional GAW Station in the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaratti, Francesco; Forno, Ricardo N.; Lolli, Simone

    2010-05-01

    The Mount Chacaltaya Laboratory (MCL), located 30 km from the city of La Paz , at 5300 m asl, is well known as a cosmic ray laboratory that made important contributions to the Elementary Particles Physics in the 40's and 50's of the last century. Since its beginnings, the MCL has also hosted instruments and experiments devoted to atmospheric research and health studies at high altitude locations. In addition, the Chacaltaya glacier has attracted the interest of worldwide climatologists, due to its dramatic retreat. In fact, this glacier does not exist almost anymore. Recently, the Atmospheric Physics Laboratory (LFA-UMSA) has begun to take permanent and field measurements of some relevant atmospheric parameters at MCL, such as carbon dioxide, aerosols and ultraviolet irradiance. In this work we show some characteristics that made Chacaltaya a Regional GAW Station (CHC), recently nominated by WMO. In addition we show some pioneering steps of this project, supported by research institutes from France, Italy, Switzerland and USA. Finally, thanks to the vigorous co-operation of the Raman lidar group at Goddard Space Flight Center, a new YAG Laser is being installed, to be operated together with the "old" Alexandrite Lidar in the study of aerosols at La Paz.

  17. Paleoseismological analysis in Tehran region (Central Alborz, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritz, J. F.; Nazari, H.; Solaymani, S.; Salamati, R.; Rizza, M.; Ghorashi, M.; Abbassi, M. R.; Balescu, S.; Michelot, J. L.; Massault, M.; Mahan, S.

    2008-12-01

    The North Tehran, Taleghan and Mosha faults are three major active faults menacing the 15 millions peoples leaving in Tehran metropolis and its suburbs areas. These three faults located at the southern piedmont of Central Alborz and have been described as the sources of several large historical earthquakes in the past. To assess the seismic hazard associated with these faults, we carried paleoseismological studies. The North Tehran fault: Our study shows that the fault extends up to 110 km and corresponds to a reverse fault associated with a left-lateral component within its north-western part. This fault zone is also characterized by secondary active fold-and-thrust structures affecting the alluvial deposits within Tehran itself (e.g. Milad Tower foreberg). Between Tehran and Karaj, where the fault trend changes from NE-SW (eastwards) to NW-SE (westwards), we found a ~ 3 m fault scarp affecting the Pleistocene-Holocene deposits. Trenching across the scarp showed a N 115° E trending 30° N dipping reverse fault. We found evidences for 8 events (Mw > 6.5) during the past ~30000 years yielding a [3200- 4100 yrs] mean return period. The shortening rate across the fault is ~ 0.25 mm/yr during the Late Pleistocene - Holocene. The Taleghan fault: So far described as a south-dipping reverse fault, our study shows that the Taleghan fault is not a reverse fault but a left-lateral strike-slip fault with a normal component. Its strike, dip and rake within its eastern part are 105, 60° and -20/40°, respectively. Our paleoseismological analysis shows that 2 (maybe 3) events with magnitudes Mw ? 7 occurred during the past ~ 3500 years. The recurrence interval for earthquakes is comprised between ~1200 and ~1800 years and the horizontal slip rate is ~ 1.5 mm/yr. The Mosha fault: As for the Taleghan fault, we found many evidences at different scales, of left-lateral strike slip movements associated with a small normal component showing that the Mosha active fault is mainly a left-lateral strike-slip fault, and not a revere fault as previously described Our paleoseismological investigations allowed us to determine a minimum slip rate of 2.2 ± 0.5 mm/yr along the eastern part of the Mosha fault. Along this segment, our analyses within several trenches brought evidences for several seismic ground ruptures having occurred during the past ~10000 years - including probably one among the two historical earthquakes having occurred in 1665 AD and 1830 AD. Combining stratigraphical and kinematics evidences allowed us to conclude that these ruptures were caused by seismic events with Magnitude Mw >7. Using radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dates, we estimated the return periods for these large events to be comprised between 1200 and 1600 years.

  18. Vertigenesis in soils of the central chernozemic region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitrov, N. B.

    2012-09-01

    On the basis of soil studies along routes and on key plots, 35 new areas of soils with definite features of vertigenesis have been identified in Belgorod and Voronezh oblasts and in the northern part of Volgograd oblast (in the Don River basin). Earlier, vertic soils were not noted for these areas. In the studied region, their portion in the soil cover is much less than 1%. All the delineated areas of vertic soils are confined to the outcrops of swelling clay materials of different origins (marine, lacustrine, glacial, and colluvial sediments) and ages (Quaternary or Tertiary) that may be found in four landscape positions: (1) in the deep closed depressions within vast flat watersheds; (2) in the bottoms of wide hollows on interfluvial slopes and, sometimes, on steeper slopes of local ravines; (3) in the hydromorphic solonetzic soil complexes, and (4) on step-like interfluvial surfaces with the outcrops of Tertiary clays. Within the studied areas, soils with different degrees of expression (six grades) of vertic properties are present. These soils belong to the type of dark vertic soils proper and to vertic subtypes of different soil types according to the Russian soil classification system; according to the WRB system, they belong to Vertisols proper and to reference soil units with a Vertic prefix in the groups of Chernozems, Phaeozems, and Solonetzes. Statistical data on the morphometric indices of the vertic properties (the depth and thickness of the soil horizons with slickensides, a wedge-shaped structure, and cracks filled with material from the upper horizons) and the depth and thickness of the Vertic horizon are analyzed.

  19. Trade policies in Central Asia after EU enlargement and before Russian WTO accession: Regionalism and integration into the world economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Pomfret

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the choices between regionalism and multilateralism, and the impact of WTO membership on the five Central Asian countries. The two main sections analyse (1) why the large number of regional trade agreements signed by the Central Asian countries had little economic impact, and (2) the consequences for these countries of WTO accession. The Central Asian countries’ relationship

  20. The Importance of Local and Regional Factors on the Vegetation of Created Wetlands in Central Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Svitok; Richard Hrivnák; Helena O?ahe?ová; Daniela Dúbravková; Peter Pa?ove-Balang; Vladimír Slobodník

    We assessed the relative importance of regional and local processes to wetland plant diversity in created depressional wetlands\\u000a in Central Europe (Košské mokrade wetlands, central Slovakia). Twelve wetlands were sampled for vegetation, water chemistry,\\u000a morphological, and hydrological data in 2008. A total of 39 plant species were found in the wetlands, dominated by Typha latifolia L. The results support the

  1. Impact of Human Activity on Regional Forest Composition and Dynamics in Central New England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice L. Fuller; David R. Foster; Jason S. McLachlan; Natalie Drake

    2003-01-01

    Historical and ecological data from north-central Massachusetts suggest that widespread and inten- sive human disturbance after European settlement led to a shift in forest composition and obscured regional patterns of species abundance. A paleoeco- logical approach was required to place recent forest dynamics in a long-term context. Pollen and char- coal data from 11 small lakes in north-central Massachusetts were

  2. Impact of Human Activity on Regional Forest Composition and Dynamics in Central New England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice L. Fuller; David R. Foster; Jason S. McLachlan; Natalie Drake

    1998-01-01

    Historical and ecological data from north-central Massachusetts suggest that widespread and intensive human disturbance after\\u000a European settlement led to a shift in forest composition and obscured regional patterns of species abundance. A paleoecological\\u000a approach was required to place recent forest dynamics in a long-term context. Pollen and charcoal data from 11 small lakes\\u000a in north-central Massachusetts were used to reconstruct

  3. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

  4. Urban impacts on regional carbonaceous aerosols: case study in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Tate E; Sheesley, Rebecca J

    2014-08-01

    Rural and background sites provide valuable information on the concentration and optical properties of organic, elemental, and water-soluble organic carbon (OC, EC, and WSOC), which are relevant for understanding the climate forcing potential of regional atmospheric aerosols. To quantify climate- and air quality-relevant characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in the central United States, a regional background site in central Texas was chosen for long-term measurement. Back trajectory (BT) analysis, ambient OC, EC, and WSOC concentrations and absorption parameters are reported for the first 15 months of a long-term campaign (May 2011-August 2012). BT analysis indicates consistent north-south airflow connecting central Texas to the Central Plains. Central Texas aerosols exhibited seasonal trends with increased fine particulate matter (< 2.5 microm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) and OC during the summer (PM2.5 = 10.9 microg m(-3) and OC = 3.0 microg m(-3)) and elevated EC during the winter (0.22 microg m(-3)). When compared to measurements in Dallas and Houston, TX, central Texas OC appears to have mixed urban and rural sources. However central Texas EC appears to be dominated by transport of urban emissions. WSOC averaged 63% of the annual OC, with little seasonal variability in this ratio. To monitor brown carbon (BrC), absorption was measured for the aqueous WSOC extracts. Light absorption coefficients for EC and BrC were highest during summer (EC MAC = 11 m2 g(-1) and BRC MAE365 = 0.15 m2 g(-1)). Results from optical analysis indicate that regional aerosol absorption is mostly due to EC with summertime peaks in BrC attenuation. This study represents the first reported values of WSOC absorption, MAE365, for the central United States. Implications: Background concentration and absorption measurements are essential in determining regional potential radiative forcing due to atmospheric aerosols. Back trajectory, chemical, and optical analysis of PM2.5 was used to determine climatic and air quality implications of urban outflow to a regional receptor site, representative of the central United States. Results indicate that central Texas organic carbon has mixed urban and rural sources, while elemental carbon is controlled by the transport of urban emissions. Analysis of aerosol absorption showed black carbon as the dominant absorber, with less brown carbon absorption than regional studies in California and the southeastern United States. PMID:25185394

  5. Fault interaction along the Central Andean thrust front: The Las Peñas thrust, Cerro Salinas thrust and the Montecito Anticline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbohm, L. M.; Costa, C. H.; Brooks, B. A.; Bohon, W.; Gardini, C.; Cisneros, H.

    2013-12-01

    The region in west-central Argentina between the thin-skinned Precordillera and the thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas structural domain is among the most active zones of thrust tectonics in the world. We quantify the rates of deformation on the east-vergent Las Peñas thrust (LPT), and the west-vergent Cerro Salinas thrust (CST). The Montecito anticline (MA) is located at their intersection. We mapped three key locations, collected stratigraphic logs from the MA, dated three ashes using U-Pb in zircon and dated 10 terraces using cosmogenic Be-10 depth profiles. Five terrace levels are present where the Rio Las Peñas crosses the LPT, up to 45 m above the modern river. Cosmogenic dating of the uppermost terrace (T1) yields and age of 123.8 +26.5/-12.3 ka. A reconstruction of this surface using a blind thrust rupture scenario indicates 73 +/- 7 m horizontal shortening and 34 +/- 3 m vertical displacement. Shortening across the structure is therefore 0.59 +0.10/-0.13 mm/yr with a vertical uplift rate of 0.27 +0.05/-0.06 mm/a. Previous work indicates higher rates to the south on the order of 2 mm/yr (Schmidt et al., 2011). Lower terraces give ages of 38.0 +11/-6.2 ka (T2) and 1.5 +5.0/-0.6 ka (T4). Three terrace levels are preserved near the center of the CST. The middle surface (T2) is folded across the axis of the structure and yields an age of 112.5 +33/-14.4 ka. Given 22.9 m surface uplift, this indicates a vertical uplift rate of 0.20 +0.05/-0.06 mm/yr, similar to the rate on the LPT. The upper terrace (T1) yields a younger age (97.1 +29.8/-12.4 ka); the T1 and T2 ages overlap within uncertainty, indicating rapid river incision at the time of their formation. An intercalated ash within the Neogene strata gives an age of 16.2 +/- 0.2. Previous work indicates long-term shortening rates of 0.8 mm/yr (Verges et al., 2007) and that the CST initiated after 8.5 Ma. The lowermost unit exposed in the MA is the Los Pozos Fm., with no indication of syn-depositional deformation. An intercalated ash from the top of this formation yields an age of 5.76 +/- 0.09 Ma. Internal unconformities are present within the overlying transitional unit and the Mogotes Fm., indicating deformation post-dates 5.8 Ma in the MA. An ash within the Mogotes Fm. is 1.52 +/- 0.06 Ma. Slip is modeled as 3.5 km reverse slip across an east-dipping dislocation with a 45 degree dip. This suggests horizontal shortening and vertical uplift of 0.42 mm/yr since the onset of deformation. Uplifted terraces near the center of the MA are 4.7 +0.8/-0.3 ka (T2) and 1.9 +3.4/-1.9 ka (T3), 6 and 4.6 m above the modern river, respectively. This suggests recent vertical uplift or incision rates of 1.3-2.4 mm/yr. These data suggest that deformation in the MA is comparable to that at the LPT and CST. Deformation in the MA could be accelerating, but alternatively, river incision could be accelerating due to climate change.

  6. Geoquímica Orgánica de las unidades sedimentarias de la Cuenca Central de Falcón

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Martínez; Jean Montero; José Vicente Gutiérrez; César González

    The Falcon Central Basin comprises a thick tertiary sedimentary sequence, containing several black- organic shale strata, as well as coals. Occurrence of oil seeps and petroleum fields require the establishment of type, amount and quality of organic matter inside this basin, helping to a better orientation in exploratory studies. On the basis of that, and taking in account the accumulative

  7. Diversidad geoquímica en las unidades tectónicas mesozoicas de afinidad oceánica de la Cordillera Central, República Dominicana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Escuder Viruete; J. F. Lewis; G. Draper

    Accreted terranes, comprising a wide variety of Jurassic and Cretaceous igneous and sedimentary rocks, are an important and conspi- cuous feature of Dominican Republic geology. Within the variably deformed and metamorphosed Mesozoic rocks of the Cordillera Central Dominicana, five main igneous suites have been identified: oceanic intraplate metabasalts, mid-oceanic ridge metabasalts, island arc tho- leiites, boninites and backarc basin metabasalts.

  8. Improved modeling of soil organic carbon in a semiarid region of Central East Kazakhstan using EPIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hector J. Causarano; Paul C. Doraiswamy; Nadiya Muratova; Konstantin Pachikin; Gregory W. McCarty; Bakhyt Akhmedov; Jimmy R. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Inappropriate land use and soil mismanagement produced wide-scale soil and environmental degradation to the short-grass steppe\\u000a ecosystem in the semiarid region of central east Kazakhstan. A limitation for determining the impacts of land use changes\\u000a on soil organic carbon (SOC) is the dearth of information on SOC stocks under the predominant land uses in the region. Here\\u000a we used the

  9. Intraspecific Phylogeography of Red Squirrels ( Tamiasciurus hudsonicus ) in the Central Rocky Mountain Region of North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Wilson; Ronald A. Den Bussche; Karen McBee; Lacrecia A. Johnson; Cheri A. Jones

    2005-01-01

    We used variation in a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine phylogeography of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, a boreal-adapted small mammal in the central Rocky Mountain region. AMOVA revealed that 65.66% of genetic diversity was attributable to variation within populations, 16.93% to variation among populations on different mountain ranges, and 17.41% to variation among populations within mountain ranges. Nested

  10. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marios Sophocleous

    1992-01-01

    Sophocleous, M., 1992. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics. J. Hydrol., 137: 113-140. The results of a 6 year recharge st,dy in the Great Bend Prairie of t:entral Kansas are statistically analyzed to regionalize the limited number of site-specific but year-round measurements. Emphasis is placed on easily measured parameters and

  11. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION AND DIEL MIGRATION OF EUPHAUSIIDS IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT

    E-print Network

    VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION AND DIEL MIGRATION OF EUPHAUSIIDS IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT MARSH J. YOUNGBLUTH1 ABSTRAcr The density, vertical range, and diel movement of total zooplankton biomass as well as a smaller number and higher density of several species. Diel vertical movement among

  12. THE EXTENT OF MINE DRAINAGE INTO STREAMS OF THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are contaminating streams throughout the United States with acidic and metal contaminated waters and sediments. The extent of mining impacts on streams of the coal bearing region of the Central Appalachians and the metal bearing...

  13. Spatial modelling of sprinkler irrigation suitability in a Central Brazilian Cerrado region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Zeilhofer; Suzy Mara Klemp

    2011-01-01

    Sprinkler irrigation, an agricultural production system that is causing increasing conflict among water resource users, is expanding quickly in the Central Western Cerrado regions of Brazil. To subsidize watershed management and concession of water rights, GIS-based spatial modelling was applied to spatially predict relative likelihood of the installation of centre sprinkler irrigation systems. Interpretation of multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper and

  14. Access to Supplemental Educational Services in the Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Zoe; Wegner, Sandra K.

    2007-01-01

    The Central Region states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) lag behind the nation in the rate of participation in supplemental educational services that schools failing to make adequate progress for three consecutive years must offer to eligible students under the No Child Left Behind Act. This study…

  15. Residual Weeds of Processing Sweet Corn in the North Central Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of weed community structure in vegetable crops of the North Central Region (NCR) is poor. To characterize weed composition of species persisting in sweet corn to harvest, hereafter called residual weeds, 175 sweet corn fields were surveyed in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2005 to...

  16. Epidemiological Peculiarity of Septoria Species on Winter Wheat in the Central Region of the Russian Federation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency of Septoria species on the host plant and development of disease were estimated during three growing seasons on five winter wheat cultivars in the Central region of the Russian Federation. Frequency of the species in the different plant growth stages varied. During the early growth sta...

  17. Epizoic Freshwater Algae on Emys orbicularis (Testudinata: Emydidae) from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elif Neyran Soylu; Arif Gönülol; Atakan Sukatar; Dinçer Ayaz; Cemal Varol Tok

    2006-01-01

    We surveyed the epizoic algae growing on Emys orbicularis from several sites in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey during the nesting season (May-August) of 2005. Fifty-three algae species were found on carapaces of thirty-five E. Orbicularis, with considerable variation in the algal communities from different sites.

  18. PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF THE CENTRAL GRASSLAND REGION OF THE UNITED STATES1,3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. E. SALA; W. J. PARTON; L. A. JOYCE; W. K. LAUENROTH

    1988-01-01

    Aboveground net primary production of grasslands is strongly influenced by the amount and distribution of annual precipitation. Analysis of data collected at 9500 sites throughout the central United States confirmed the overwhelming importance of water availability as a control on production. The regional spatial pattern of production reflected the east-west gradient in annual precipitation. Lowest values of aboveground net primary

  19. THE NORTH CENTRAL REGIONAL PLANT INTRODUCTION STATION'S SOUTHWESTERN MAIZE COLLECTION - AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station has existed in Ames, Iowa since 1948. In those 55 years, the maize collection has grown to 18250 accessions. Of those accessions, 236 have sufficient passport data to associate them with Native American tribal groups. Of these 236, 143 originated...

  20. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  1. Airborne aerosols over central Africa during the Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Ruellan; Hélène Cachier; Annie Gaudichet; Pierre Masclet; Jean-Pierre Lacaux

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO) conducted over central Africa in November 1996, 24 airborne aerosol samples were obtained and further analyzed for black and organic carbon (BC and OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), soluble ions, elemental composition, and morphology. Particles were collected in the different atmospheric layers either

  2. Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Hartse; S. R. Taylor; W. S. Phillips; G. E. Randall

    1996-01-01

    In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5

  3. Short-range correlations in the central region at ISR energies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pirilä; Stefan Pokorski

    1973-01-01

    Present data are found to be consistent with a simple model for pionisation in the central region. There is an independent production of clusters of particles. These clusters decay isotropically without correlations between decay products, with a Poisson distribution in the number of decay products and with a mean multiplicity of three particles per cluster. (4 refs).

  4. Condom Availability at Four-Year State Universities in the North Central Census Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, K. R.; And Others

    This survey of 66 4-year state universities with enrollments greater than 5,000 students in the North Central census region investigated the availability of condoms on campuses to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The survey sought to determine condom availability, location, cost to students, and…

  5. ccsd00000779 THE DARK MATTER DISTRIBUTION IN THE CENTRAL REGIONS OF

    E-print Network

    ccsd­00000779 (version 1) : 23 Oct 2003 THE DARK MATTER DISTRIBUTION IN THE CENTRAL REGIONS 91125, USA Cosmological N-body simulations predict that dark matter halos should have a universal shape analyze stellar velocity dispersion data for the BCGs in conjunction with the arc redshifts and lens

  6. Central Atlantic regional ecological test site: A prototype regional environmental information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A comparison of photomorphic regions from an uncontrolled ERTS-1 mosaic of CARETS to land use areas on a map published in the National Atlas revealed close correlations in non-urban regions. Such regional scale analysis of ERTS-1 data has the potential for providing an economical sampling strategy for selecting sites for more detailed field measurements if other environmental variables can be correlated with patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. ERTS-1 imagery has also revealed for the first time the appearance of CARETS during the winter months. Investigators have identified extensive areas of conifers, which have previously been indistinguishable from deciduous vegetation. Imagery has also shown very clearly the extent of snow cover at a particular time over the region. The evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery used for the land use mapping of the shore zone of CARETS, has shown that the presence or absence of elements of an hierarchal system of shoreline landforms can help identify areas of potential rapid change. Changes in land use class distributions on the Barrier Islands signify the environmental response to natural and man-caused processes. Both environmental vulnerability and sensitivity can be estimated from the repetitive ERTS-1 coverage of long reaches of the CARETS coast. Results indicate potential applications to land use planning, management, and regional environmental quality analysis.

  7. West Texas nursing education portal project: developing a regional centralized application system.

    PubMed

    Allen, Patricia; Billings, Lynda; Cannon, Sharon; Majors, Jennifer; Sportsman, Susan; Ballesteros, Pauline A; Bezinque, Kim; Bolton, Cathy; Cottenoir, Marla; Edwards, Carmen; Louder, Justin; O'Neal, Cynthia; Morgan, Jackolyn; Reyes, Helen; Ross, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Because of the nursing shortage and a demand for maximum enrollment, a group of five baccalaureate and seven associate degree nursing programs in West Texas first met in 2007 to form the West Texas Nursing Education Consortium (WTNEC). To emphasize the importance of scale and distance, the West Texas region is larger than all of the northeastern states combined. The founding group agreed that the first mission of WTNEC should be to pool resources in order to increase admission and graduation rates for WTNEC schools. Two years later, this mission is being accomplished by the implementation of a plan designed to increase participating schools' admissions, retention, and graduation rates. A grant proposal was written and funded to develop a central regionalization of the application process for entry into WTNEC generic programs (associates degree in nursing and bachelor of science in nursing), with the goal of decreasing and possibly eliminating student vacancy rates in member schools and perhaps reducing the resources needed by each school for the admission process. The implemented centralized application system allowed prospective students to apply online to the centralized admission portal. Students maintained the freedom to choose the nursing program(s) they wanted to attend, but they were also made aware of possible openings in other participating schools. The admission portal also saved potential students time and money by submitting one centralized application, resulting in consolidation of the nursing school application process. Eleven of the 12 consortium schools participated in the centralized application system. PMID:21596353

  8. Experiments with clustering of catchments in PCA-reduced space and regionalization of a hydrological model (Central Alborz region, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Mohammad; Solomatine, Dimitri; Salajegheh, Ali; Mohseni Saravi, Mohsen; Malekian, Arash; Corzo, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the possibility of simulating time series of daily streamflows in ungauged catchments based on climatic and physiographic similarity. The study area is located in central Alborz region in Iran. Fourteen (14) proper catchments, with the area ranged between 16 to 827Km2, in this region selected for testing. After applying Principal Component Analysis for selecting the most important parameters among the different climatic and physiographic parameters, five components which could explain more than 90% of variances of the data were selected and according to the values of the coefficients in selected PCA components, five parameters including: Area, Annual Rainfall, Annual temperature, gravelius compactness coefficient and mean elevation, were selected as the measures for clustering. Then mentioned parameters entered in K-means clustering analysis method to classify the catchments. Finally the catchments divided in three different clusters. Using the well known HBV model, we built a model for the closest catchment to the center of each cluster. Then, the thirteen (13) HBV model parameters were calibrated using Genetic Algorithm. We assumed that the remained catchments in each cluster are ungauged, and using the calibrated model, the daily time series of streamflows simulated in the remained catchments in the considered cluster (as the receiver catchments). Nash Sutcliffe and RMSE indices used to comparing the simulated and recorded data. The experiments with the considered case study confirmed that the model regionalization based on the physiographic and climatic characteristics could be a useful instrument in hydrological studies. Key words: Regionalization, HBV, PCA, Cluster, Catchment, central Alborz region

  9. Deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos from peripheral and central regions of the rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Coin, P.G. (National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States) Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States) Durham Veterans Administration Medical Centers, NC (United States)); Roggli, V.L. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States) Durham Veterans Administration Medical Centers, NC (United States)); Brody, A.R. (National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The authors investigated the pulmonary deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos in the context of their previously developed model of asbestos in the rat. Adult male rats were exposed for 3 hr to an aerosol of chrysotile asbestos. Subgroups were sacrificed up to 29 days postexposure and the lungs of the animals fixed. Peripheral and central regions of the left lung were resected, digested, and analyzed for fiber content by scanning electron microscopy. Pulmonary deposition did not differ between peripheral and central regions. There was no evidence of translocation of fibers from central to peripheral regions. The average diameter of retained fibers decreased over time, consistent with longitudinal splitting. The average length of retained fibers increased over time, consistent with longitudinal splitting. The average length of retained fibers increased over time, consistent with slower clearance of longer fibers. A novel counting scheme to ensure accurate fiber number measurements, allowing the calculation of clearance rates for fibers 0.5 {ge} 16 {mu}m in length. Fibers of length {ge}16 {mu}m were cleared slowly, if at all. These findings could have important implications for the pathogenesis of asbestos-related pleural disease. Many fibers are deposited in the peripheral region, and the longest ({ge}16 {mu}m) will persist there for extended periods.

  10. Faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of the family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Central Anatolian region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of Turkey. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for Turkey, with emphasis on the Central Anatolian region. PMID:21864150

  11. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties and Zoogeographical Composition of the Family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Central Anatolian region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of Turkey. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for Turkey, with emphasis on the Central Anatolian region. PMID:21864150

  12. Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk University, Seokjangdong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)] [Dongguk University, Seokjangdong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

  13. Climatic variability, fire, and vegetation modeling in the North American Central Grassland Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1994-06-01

    In developing an equilibrium vegetation model for assessing the sensitivity of natural vegetation to climatic change in the Central Grasslands, we encountered difficulties in establishing solely climatic determinants for grasslands. Under the normal climate, woody plant dominance was predicted for much of the region supporting open grassland at the time of European settlement. Climatic data for historic periods and a fire model were used to test whether grass dominance was promoted by (1) climatic periods distinct from the normal period, (2) by fire, or (3) by the interactive effect of both. Grass/woody ratios in test simulations exhibited spatio-temporal variation produced by complex interactions among PET, precipitation seasonality, competition for soil moisture, and fuel characteristics determining fire intensity. Results support concepts of plant community thresholds and multiple steady states in the Central Grassland region.

  14. Assessment of geothermal energy potential by geophysical methods: Nev?ehir Region, Central Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K?yak, Alper; Karavul, Can; Gülen, Levent; Pek?en, Ertan; K?l?ç, A. R?za

    2015-03-01

    In this study, geothermal potential of the Nev?ehir region (Central Anatolia) was assessed by using vertical electrical sounding (VES), self-potential (SP), magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and gravity 3D Euler deconvolution structure analysis methods. Extensive volcanic activity occurred in this region from Upper Miocene to Holocene time. Due to the young volcanic activity Nev?ehir region can be viewed as a potential geothermal area. We collected data from 54 VES points along 5 profiles, from 28 MT measurement points along 2 profiles (at frequency range between 320 and 0.0001 Hz), and from 4 SP profiles (total 19 km long). The obtained results based on different geophysical methods are consistent with each other. Joint interpretation of all geological and geophysical data suggests that this region has geothermal potential and an exploration well validated this assessment beyond doubt.

  15. Structure of the central regions of some galaxies with ultraviolet excess. II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. V. Abramyan; K. A. Saakayan; É. E. Khachikyan

    1991-01-01

    Using direct plates obtained at the prime focus of the 2.6-m telescope of the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (ZU-21 plates), we have investigated the central regions of ultraviolet galaxies. For seven galaxies, listed in Table 1, double nuclei have been found for the first time. The plates were analyzed using the PDS 1010A--CM4 densitometer complex by means of a program for

  16. Gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region, Qinling Mountains, central China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingwen Mao; Richard J. Goldfarb; Zhengwei Zhang; Wenyi Xu; Yumin Qiu; Jun Deng

    2002-01-01

    The gold-rich Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region in eastern Shaanxi and western Henan provinces, central China, lies about 30-50 km inland of the southern margin of the North China craton. More than 100 gold deposits and occurrences are concentrated in the Xiaoqinling (west), Xiaoshan (middle), and Xiong'ershan (east) areas. Late Archean gneiss of the Taihua Group, and Middle Proterozoic metavolcanic rocks of the

  17. Ecological notes on the species of Phacus Dujardin (Euglenophyta) from the central region of Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mário Jorge Pereira; Ulisses M. M Azeiteiro

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-one species, belonging to the genus Phacus, were identified during the study of samples from the central region of Portugal collected in lentic systems. The abundance of each taxon was determined. Water samples were taken for determination, by means of standard methods, of physicochemical parameters (water temperature, pH, organic matter (K2Cr2O7), conductivity, alkalinity, nitrogen as N(NH4+), N(NO2–) and N(NO3–), orthophosphate

  18. Active oblique extension in the central Apennines (Italy): evidence from the Fucino region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Piccardi; Yves Gaudemer; Paul Tapponnier; Mario Boccaletti

    1999-01-01

    The Fucino Basin is a flat Quaternary depression within the central Apennines. It is surrounded by active normal faults with small oblique-slip components. Surface faulting was observed along the east side of the basin during the Ms=7.0 Avezzano earthquake of 1915. In order to understand the kinematics of recent strain better and to assess the seismic hazard of this region,

  19. Local and regional variations in Central American arc lavas controlled by variations in subducted sediment input

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina C. Patino; Michael J. Carr; Mark D. Feigenson

    2000-01-01

    The sedimentary section (at DSDP Site 495) on the subducting Cocos Plate has large stratigraphic changes in incompatible\\u000a elements and element ratios, the result of early carbonate deposition followed by late hemipelagic deposition. Lavas from\\u000a Central America define both local and regional geochemical trends that reflect the strong influence of the two Cocos Plate\\u000a sediment units. Element ratios with large

  20. Strangeness evolution in the central region of a heavy-ion collision with transverse flow effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kajantie; M. Kataja; P. V. Ruuskanen

    1986-01-01

    Strangeness evolution in the central region of an ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision is studied by using a numerically computed boost invariant cylindrically symmetric hydrodynamic flow. Kinetic equations describing the evolution through quark-gluon plasma, mixed and hadron phases are derived. With reasonable collision terms the conclusion is that the strangeness density (=weighted sum of the strange quark density and the sum of

  1. Peripheral and central sensitization in remote spinal cord regions contribute to central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Susan M.; Du, Junhui; Tan, Huai Yu; Nesic, Olivera; Hargett, Gregory L.; Bopp, Anne C.; Yamani, Ammar; Lin, Qing; Willis, William D.; Hulsebosch, Claire E.

    2009-01-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) developing after spinal cord injury (SCI) is described by the region affected: above-level, at-level and below-level pain occurs in dermatomes rostral, at/near, or below the SCI level, respectively. People with SCI and rodent models of SCI develop above-level pain characterized by mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Mechanisms underlying this pain are unknown and the goals of this study were to elucidate components contributing to the generation of above-level CNP. Following a thoracic (T10) contusion, forelimb nociceptors had enhanced spontaneous activity and were sensitized to mechanical and thermal stimulation of the forepaws 35 days post-injury. Cervical dorsal horn neurons showed enhanced responses to non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimulation as well as thermal stimulation of receptive fields. Immunostaining dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells and cord segments with activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3, a marker for neuronal injury) ruled out neuronal damage as a cause for above-level sensitization since few C8 DRG cells expressed AFT3 and cervical cord segments had few to no ATF3-labeled cells. Finally, activated microglia and astrocytes were present in thoracic and cervical cord at 35 days post-SCI, indicating a rostral spread of glial activation from the injury site. Based on these data, we conclude that peripheral and central sensitization as well as reactive glia in the uninjured cervical cord contribute to CNP. We hypothesize that reactive glia in the cervical cord release pro-inflammatory substances which drive chronic CNP. Thus a complex cascade of events spanning many cord segments underlies above-level CNP. PMID:19853381

  2. Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salciarini, D.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Conversini, P.; Baum, R.L.; Michael, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework, and we use it to analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides in an area in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. As shown on a landslide inventory map produced by the Italian National Research Council, the area has been affected in the past by shallow landslides, many of which have transformed into debris flows. Input data for the TRIGRS model include time-varying rainfall, topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water table depth, and material strength and hydraulic properties. Because of a paucity of input data, we focus on parametric analyses to calibrate and test the model and show the effect of variation in material properties and initial water table conditions on the distribution of simulated instability in the study area in response to realistic rainfall. Comparing the results with the shallow landslide inventory map, we find more than 80% agreement between predicted shallow landslide susceptibility and the inventory, despite the paucity of input data.

  3. Sulcus-Based MR Analysis of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Located in the Central Region

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Pauline; Mellerio, Charles; Chassoux, Francine; Rivière, Denis; Cachia, Arnaud; Charron, Sylvain; Lion, Stéphanie; Mangin, Jean-François; Devaux, Bertrand; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are mainly located in the frontal region, with a particular tropism for the central sulcus. Up to 30% of lesions are undetected (magnetic resonance [MR]-negative FCD patients) or belatedly diagnosed by visual analysis of MR images. We propose an automated sulcus-based method to analyze abnormal sulcal patterns associated with central FCD, taking into account the normal interindividual sulcal variability. Methods We retrospectively studied 29 right-handed patients with FCD in the central region (including 12 MR negative histologically-confirmed cases) and 29 right-handed controls. The analysis of sulcal abnormalities from T1-weighted MR imaging (MRI) was performed using a graph-based representation of the cortical folds and an automated sulci recognition system, providing a new quantitative criterion to describe sulcal patterns, termed sulcus energy. Results Group analysis showed that the central sulcus in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the FCD exhibited an abnormal sulcal pattern compared with controls (p = 0.032). FCDs were associated with abnormal patterns of the central sulci compared with controls (p = 0.006), a result that remained significant when MR-negative and MR-positive patients were considered separately, while the effects of sex, age and MR-field were not significant. At the individual level, sulcus energy alone failed to detect the FCD lesion. We found, however, a significant association between maximum z-scores and the site of FCD (p = 0.0046) which remained significant in MR-negative (p = 0.024) but not in MR-positive patients (p = 0.058). The maximum z-score pointed to an FCD sulcus in four MR-negative and five MR-positive patients. Conclusions We identified abnormal sulcal patterns in patients with FCD of the central region compared with healthy controls. The abnormal sulcal patterns ipsilateral to the FCD and the link between sulcus energy and the FCD location strengthen the interest of sulcal abnormalities in FCD patients. PMID:25822985

  4. Investigating drought over the Central Highland, Vietnam, using regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Minh Tue; Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Pham, Duc Minh; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2015-07-01

    The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has been computed based on the monthly precipitation for different observed and modelled datasets over the Central Highland, Vietnam during the period 1990-2005. Station data from a total of 13 stations were collected from the study region and used for benchmarking to compare gridded observation data and two regional climate models (RCMs). Various characteristics of drought across the study region were analyzed using spatial and temporal distributions, number of drought events, their frequency and their deficit. The RCMs were able to capture the SPI temporal distributions of station data fairly well. The analysis from RCMs showed close estimation for the number of drought events to station data and gridded observations. In terms of Drought Deficit and frequency, the RCMs matched the station data better than gridded observations. The drought trend was carried out using a Modified Mann-Kendall trend test which yielded no clear trends that suggested the need for longer records of data. The results also highlight uncertainties in gridded data and the need for robust station data quality and record lengths. The regional climate models proved to be appropriate tools in assessing drought over the study area as they can serve as good proxies over data sparse regions, especially in developing countries, for studying detailed climate features at sub regional and local scales.

  5. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  6. AN ECONOMIC, HYDROLOGIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF WATER MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVE PLANS FOR THE SOUTH CENTRAL TEXAS REGION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhazn Gillig; Bruce A. McCarl; Frederick O. Boadu

    2001-01-01

    Regional water scarcity has motivated the South Central Texas Regional Water Planning Group to actively develop water management plans to address long-\\/short-term regional water needs. This study, therefore, develops an integrated Edwards Aquifer groundwater and river system simulation model to determine the \\

  7. Preliminary Assessment of The Impact of Landslides In The Umbria Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.; Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.

    The Umbria Region of Central Italy has a long history of mass movements. Landslides range in from fast moving rock falls and debris flows, most abundant in mountain ar- eas, to deep-seated, slow moving complex failures extending several hectares in the hilly part of the Region. Landslides occur every year in the Region, but the economic damage is largely unknown. In the framework of a nation wide attempt to evaluate landslide risk, we have completed a new landslide inventory map for the entire Um- bria Region. The map was prepared through the systematic analysis of various sets of vertical aerial photographs, including 1:33,000 photographs flown in 1954-55, and 1:13,000 scale photographs taken in 1977. Landslides identified the aerial photographs were mapped at 1:10,000 scale on detailed regional topographic maps (CTR series). The new inventory supersedes all previous landslide maps prepared at smaller scales, and contains more than 45,000 landslides, for a total landslide area of about 770 sqkm, 10 percent of the entire region. We have used the new inventory map to complete a preliminary assessment of the impact of landslides in the Umbria Region. The inven- tory map, digitized and stored into a GIS, was superimposed to the available maps of land-use, of the distributions of built-up areas (towns, villages and dwellings), and of the infrastructure (including major and secondary roads, and railways). The location and extent of the built up areas, and of the section of roads and railways placed on landslide deposits were identified. An attempt was also made to compare the location and extent of these potentially dangerous sites with the distribution of the "sites at rel- evant landslide risk" identified by the Regional Government of Umbria, and studied by us in a previous work

  8. Crustal structure of the Pannonian-Carpathian region, Central Europe, from ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Carpathian Basins Project Working Group

    2010-12-01

    The Pannonian Basin of Central Europe is a major extensional basin surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. During the evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, extension of the crust and lithosphere created several inter-related basins of which the Pannonian basin is the largest. Imaging the seismic velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle may help us understand the structure and geodynamic evolution of this part of central Europe. Here, we use ambient noise tomography to investigate the crust and uppermost mantle structure in the region. We have collected and processed continuous data from 56 temporary stations deployed in the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) for 16 months (2005-2007) and 41 permanent broadband stations; this dataset enables the most well-resolved images of the S-wave structure of the region yet obtained. We computed the cross-correlation between vertical component seismograms from pairs of stations and stacked the correlated waveforms over 1-2 years to estimate the Rayleigh wave Green’s function. Frequency-time analysis is used to measure the group velocity dispersion curves, which are then inverted for the group velocity maps. Our 4-10 s group velocity maps exhibit low velocity anomalies which clearly defined the major sediment depo-centers in the Carpathian region. A broad low velocity anomaly in the center of the 5 s group velocity map can be associated with the Pannonian Basin, whereas an anomaly in the southeastern region is related to the Moesian platform. Further east, the Vienna Basin can also be seen on our maps. A fast anomaly in the central region can be associated with the Mid-Hungarian line. At periods from 18 to 24 seconds, group velocities become increasingly sensitive to crustal thickness. The maps also reveal low-velocity anomalies associated with the Carpathians. The low velocity anomalies are probably caused by deeper crustal roots beneath the mountain ranges which occur due to isostatic compensation. CBP working group: G. Houseman, G. Stuart, Y. Ren, B. Dando, P. Lorinczi, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, UK; E. Hegedus, A. Kovács, I. Török, I. László, R. Csabafi, Eötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute, Budapest, Hungary; E. Brüeckl, H. Hausmann, W. Loderer, T-U Wien, Vienna, Austria; S. Radovanovic, V. Kovacevic, D. Valcic, S. Petrovic-Cacic, G. Krunic, Seismological Survey of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; A. Brisbourne, D. Hawthorn, A. Horleston, V. Lane, SEIS-UK, Leicester University, UK.

  9. Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ellis, William G., Jr.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Mcnamara, Donna P.; Simpson, Joanne

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5 deg - 50 deg N, 90 deg - 105 deg W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month of June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO produced from oxidation of methane, isoprene, and anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Calculations of deep convective venting are based on the method pf Pickering et al.(1992a) which uses a satellite-derived deep convective cloud climatology along with transport statistics from convective cloud model simulations of observed prototype squall line events. This study uses analyses of convective episodes in 1985 and 1989 and CO measurements taken during several midwestern field campaigns. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer over this moderately polluted region provides a net (upward minus downward) flux of 18.1 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month to the free troposphere during early summer. Shallow cumulus and synoptic-scale weather systems together make a comparable contribution (total net flux 16.2 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month). Boundary layer venting of CO with other O3 precursors leads to efficient free troposheric O3 formation. We estimate that deep convective transport of CO and other precursors over the central United States in early summer leads to a gross production of 0.66 - 1.1 Gmol O3/d in good agreement with estimates of O3 production from boundary layer venting in a continental-scale model (Jacob et al., 1993a, b). On this respect the central U.S. region acts as s `chimney' for the country, and presumably this O3 contributes to high background levels of O3 in the eastern United States and O3 export to the North Atlantic.

  10. CS J = 2 yields 1 emission toward the central region of M82

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. E.; Walker, C. K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Martin, R. N.

    1990-01-01

    M82 is an irregular (Type II) galaxy located at a distance of approximately 3.5 Mpc. Its unusual appearance and high luminosity, particularly in the infrared, has led many astronomers to classify it as a starburst galaxy. This interpretation is supported by the observation of a large number of radio continuum sources within the central arcminute of the galaxy. These sources are thought to be associated with supernova remnants. The starburst in the central region of the galaxy is believed to have been triggered by tidal interaction with either M81 or the HI cloud surrounding the M81 group. High angular resolution CO-12 J=1 to 0 maps by Nakai (1984) and Lo et al. (1987) indicate the existence of a 400 to 450 pc rotating ring of molecular material about the central region of M82. Red- and blue-shifted absorption components of the HI and OH lines measured by Weliachew et al. (1984) provided the first evidence for the presence of the ring. Many astronomers, each using a different angular resolution, have compared CO-12 J=1 to 0, J=2 to 1, and J=3 to 2 emission and concluded that a large fraction of the CO emission is optically thin. Additional observations suggest that the molecular material toward the center of M82 is clumpy and dense. Unlike the lower rotational transitions of CO, CS is excited only at relatively high densities, n sub H sub 2 greater than or equal to 10(exp 4) cm(-3). It is in clouds with these densities that stars are expected to form. This makes CS an excellent probe of star formation regions. Researchers observed the CS J=2 to 1 transition (97.981 GHz) toward 52 positions in M82 using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 12 m telescope.

  11. Tectonic style and regional relations of the central Nevada thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, J.M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Taylor, W.J. (UNLV, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Geoscience); Fryxell, J.E. (California State, San Bernardino, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Schmitt, J.G. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Vandervoort, D.S. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Walker, J.D. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The Mesozoic( ) Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) lies in a geographically and structurally central position in the Great Basin. Understanding the structural geometries and timing of deformation in this belt is critical to reconstructing pre-thrusting sedimentary basins, post-thrusting sediment source locations and the syn- to post-thrusting Cretaceous Newark Canyon basins. The authors recent detailed studies in the thrust belt better constrain the structural geometries, associated sedimentary basins and timing of deformation in the CNTB. They suggest that contractile structures in the CNTB east and south of Railroad Valley are part of the same orogen as the Eureka belt which north and west of that valley. Therefore, the CNTB is an essentially continuous orogen for 250 km along strike, from Alamo to Eureka, Nevada. The structural style effects paleogeographic reconstructions. The CNTB is made up of a stack of at least six separate thrusts. Many thrusts have long ramps that cut from the Mississippian into the Cambrian ([approximately] 2,200 m of section) suggesting large vertical uplifts. Shortening in the CNTB is bracketed between Late Permian and Cretaceous, but regional correlations indicate it may be Jurassic to Cretaceous. The youngest contraction is no younger than Early Cretaceous as indicated by (1) folding and thrusting of parts of the Albian-Aptian Newark Canyon Formation, (2) intrusion of an anticline by the 84.6 Ma (new date) Troy stocked, and (3) intrusion of another anticline by the [approximately]100 Ma (new date) Lincoln stock. The onset of shortening is more difficult to ascertain because Triassic and Jurassic rocks are not present. Rocks as young as Pennsylvanian in the south and Permian in central region are deformed. A Jurassic age is based on regional correlations with the Jurassic Elko orogenic belt.

  12. Tracing impacts of local and regional emission sources on the aerosols over Central Himalayan region during GVAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Shivraj; Sagar, Ram; Pant, P.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Venkata Phanikumar, Devulapalli; Dumka, Umesh Chandra; Pant, Vimlesh; Singh, Narendra; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Naja, Manish; Satheesh, S. K.

    2012-07-01

    Observational site ARIES, Nainital (29.4°N, 79.5°E; 1950 m a.m.s.l) is ideally located to study the tropospheric background (TB) of various atmospheric components and their characteristics representing northern India. Observations at this site could provide useful information of the aerosol properties before, after and during the south-west monsoon. Higher levels of trace gases and aerosols surround this region during winter/spring period in space-borne observations. This period also coincides with the intensive crop residue burning season in the region. In view of this, extensive observation of aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters are made at the site under the Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment-Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (RAWEX-GVAX) from June 2011. This experiment thus pose an unique opportunity to study the impact of local and regional pollution and study the influence of long-range transport to the pristine region of Central Himalayas. Results from collocated in-situ measurement of aerosol physical properties [absorption coefficient (? ab), scattering coefficients (? s), back scatter ratio (Bfr), aerosol number concentration (Ncn), Cloud condensation nuclei count (Nccn), single scattering albedo (? ), angstrom exponent (? ), hygroscopic growth factor, f(RH)] with state of the art measurement techniques are presented here. Preliminary analyses of the measurements show that the site is mostly dominated by small size fraction of aerosol (mainly accumulation mode), whose number concentration varies from below 500 cm-3 to above 6000 cm-3 during the study period (upto November 2011). The '? ', '? ' and hygroscopic property of the aerosol observed in GVAX indicate a lesser possibility of impact from fossil fuel combustion as compared to that from biomass/firewood burning. Though daily variations show dominance of local impact, possibility of long-range transport however, cannot be ruled out. Anticipating possibility of both local and long-range transport impact, available satellite products over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of relevance to biomass burning (Carbon monoxide, Aerosol Optical Depth, Fire products, etc) have been exploited to relate to the observed aerosol physical properties during GVAX. The findings are expected to reveal the linkages between local and regional emission sources (biomass burning in particular) and atmospheric perturbations.

  13. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  14. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Impact on Elementary School Mathematics in the Central Region. Final Report. NCEE 2011-4005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randel, Bruce; Beesley, Andrea D.; Apthorp, Helen; Clark, Tedra F.; Wang, Xin; Cicchinelli, Louis F.; Williams, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted by the Central Region Educational Laboratory (REL Central) administered by Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning to provide educators and policymakers with rigorous evidence about the potential of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (CASL) to improve student achievement. CASL is a widely used professional…

  15. Nonsyndromic Synchronous Multifocal Central Giant Cell Granulomas of the Maxillofacial Region: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Munde, Anita; Modi, Priyanka; Karle, Ravindra; Wankhede, Pranali; Shoeb, Safia

    2015-01-01

    Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign proliferation of fibroblasts and multinucleated giant cells that almost exclusively occurs in the jaws. It commonly occurs in young adults showing a female predilection in the anterior mandible. Multifocal CGCGs in maxillofacial region are very rare and suggestive of systemic diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, an inherited syndrome such as Noonan-like multiple giant cell lesion syndrome or other disorders. Only 10 cases of multifocal CGCGs in the maxillofacial region without any concomitant systemic disease have been reported in the English literature. Here, we report an unusual case of 36 year-old female presented with non-syndromic synchronous, multifocal CGCGs in the left posterior mandible and left posterior maxilla without any concomitant systemic disease. Relevant literature is reviewed and the incidence, clinical features, radiological features, differential diagnosis and management of CGCGs are discussed.

  16. Projecting the vegetation response to climatic change in the North American Central Grasslands Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. (Environmental Research Lab., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1993-06-01

    An interdisciplinary modeling effort is underway in which high-resolution climate change projections will drive the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System (MAPSS) to simulate vegetation change in the Central Grasslands Region. MAPSS calculates a complete site water balance and solves for the leaf area (LAI) of both woody and grass lifeforms in full competition for both light and water. Fire is a necessary constraint on simulated shrub LAI throughout much of the grasslands region, and incorporation of weather variability is critical for obtaining accurate tree/grass LAI ratios in the Prairie Peninsula. Initial estimates of the potential impact of climatic change include significant changes in both lifeform LAI and the distribution of subformation vegetation types, but the magnitude and even the direction of change varies with the climate scenario and with assumptions concerning wind speed and plant water-use efficiency.

  17. Intraspecific phylogeography of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in the central Rocky Mountain region of North America.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory M; Den Bussche, Ronald A; McBee, Karen; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Jones, Cheri A

    2005-11-01

    We used variation in a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine phylogeography of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, a boreal-adapted small mammal in the central Rocky Mountain region. AMOVA revealed that 65.66% of genetic diversity was attributable to variation within populations, 16.93% to variation among populations on different mountain ranges, and 17.41% to variation among populations within mountain ranges. Nested clade analysis revealed two major clades that likely diverged in allopatry during the Pleistocene: a southern clade from southern Colorado and a northern clade comprising northern Colorado, Wyoming, eastern Utah, and eastern Idaho. Historically restricted gene flow as a result of geographic barriers was indicated between populations on opposite sides of the Green River and Wyoming Basin and among populations in eastern Wyoming. In some instances genetic structure indicated isolation by distance. PMID:16247688

  18. Using A Gridded Global Data Set To Characterize Regional Hydroclimate In Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaria, E. M.; Maurer, E. P.; Sheffield, J.; Bustos, E.; Poblete, D.; Vicuna, S.; Meza, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    Central Chile is facing dramatic projections of climate change, with a consensus for declining precipitation, negatively affecting hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. Rising from sea level to 6,000 meters within a distance of 200 kilometers, precipitation characterization is difficult due to a lack of long-term observations, especially at higher elevations. For understanding current conditions and recent hydroclimatological change, as well as to provide a baseline for downscaling climate model projections, a temporally and spatially complete data set of daily precipitation is essential. We use a gridded global daily meterological data set at 0.25 degree resolution for 1948-2008, and adjust it using monthly precipitation observations interpolated to the same grid using a cokriging method with elevation as covariate. For validation, we compare daily statistics of the adjusted gridded precipitation to station observations. For further validation we drive a hydrology model with the gridded 0.25-degree meteorology and compare stream flow statistics with observed flow. We validate the high elevation precipitation by comparing the simulated snow extent to MODIS images. Results show that the daily adjusted precipitation can accurately capture the statistical properties of extreme events as well as the sequence of wet and dry events. The new precipitation fields has been used to simulate the hydrological cycle of three basins in the region. The adjusted gridded data set will be used in downscaling efforts to be able to evaluate the vulnerability of the region's water resources to projected climate changes during the twenty-first century. Stakeholders in Central Chile will be able to use this information to plan potential adaptation responses to simulated changes in water availability in the region. This demonstrates the successful use of a global gridded data product in a relatively data-sparse region to capture hydroclimatological characteristics and extremes.

  19. Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, H.; Hou, S.; Kaspari, S.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2014-02-01

    Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu (DSP) Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER) Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the DSP and the ER ice core drilling sites is only ~ 125 km, the stable isotopic record (?18O or ?D) of the DSP core is interpreted in previous studies as a temperature proxy, while the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that remarkable discrepancy in precipitation seasonality between the two sites may account for their disparate isotopic interpretations. At the ER core site, the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) precipitation is dominating due to topographic blocking of the moisture from westerlies by the high ridges of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), which results in a negative correlation between the ER ?18O or ?D record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas in response to the "amount effect". At the DSP core site, in comparison with the ISM precipitation, the wintertime precipitation associated with the westerlies is likely more important owing to its local favorable topographic conditions for interacting with the western disturbances. Therefore, the DSP stable isotopic record may be primarily controlled by the westerlies. Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

  20. X-Ray Probing of the Central Regions of Clusters of Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Kazuo Makishima; Hajime Ezawa; Yasushi Fukazawa; Hirohiko Honda; Yasushi Ikebe; Tuneyoshi Kamae; Ken'ichi Kikuchi; Kyoko Matsushita; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Takaya Ohashi; Tadayuki Takahashi; Takayuki Tamura; Haiguang Xu

    2001-04-04

    Results of ASCA X-ray study of central regions of medium-richness clusters of galaxies are summarized, emphasizing differences between cD and non-cD clusters. The intra-cluster medium (ICM) is likely to consist of two (hot and cool) phases within $\\sim 100$ kpc of a cD galaxy, where the ICM metallicity is also enhanced. In contrast, the ICM in non-cD clusters appears to be isothermal with little metallicity gradient right to the center. The gravitational potential exhibits a hierarchical nesting around cD galaxies, while a total mass-density profile with a central cusp is indicated for a non-cD cluster Abell~1060. The iron-mass-to-light ratio of the ICM decreases toward the center in both types of clusters, although it is radially constant in peripheral regions. The silicon-to-iron abundance ratio in the ICM increases with the cluster richness, but remains close to the solar ratio around cD galaxies. These overall results are interpreted without appealing to the popular cooling-flow hypothesis. Instead, an emphasis is put on the halo-in-halo structure formed around cD galaxies.

  1. Discriminating Mining Induced Seismicity from Natural Tectonic Earthquakes in the Wasatch Plateau Region of Central Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, J. R.; Pankow, K. L.; Koper, K. D.; McCarter, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    On average, several hundred earthquakes are located each year within the Wasatch Plateau region of central Utah. This region includes the boundary between the relatively stable Colorado Plateau and the actively extending Basin and Range physiographic provinces. Earthquakes in this region tend to fall in the intermountain seismic belt (ISB), a continuous band of seismicity that extends from Montana to Arizona. While most of the earthquakes in the ISB are of tectonic origin, events in the Wasatch Plateau also include mining induced seismicity (MIS) from local underground coal mining operations. Using a catalog of 16,182 seismic events (-0.25 < M < 4.5) recorded from 1981 to 2011, we use double difference relocation and waveform cross correlation techniques to help discriminate between these two populations of events. Double difference relocation greatly improves the relative locations between the many events that occur in this area. From the relative relocations, spatial differences between event types are used to differentiate between shallow MIS and considerably deeper events associated with tectonic seismicity. Additionally, waveform cross-correlation is used to cluster events with similar waveforms—meaning that events in each cluster should have a similar source location and mechanism—in order to more finely group seismic events occurring in the Wasatch Plateau. The results of this study provide both an increased understanding of the influence mining induced seismicity has on the number of earthquakes detected within this region, as well as better constraints on the deeper tectonic structure.

  2. Sensitivity of superconducting gravimeters in central Europe on variations in regional river and drainage basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, C.; Weise, A.

    2011-10-01

    As underpinned by various studies in the last years, temporal changes of the Earth's gravity field contain a wealth of information on mass redistribution processes in the Earth's system particularly associated with variations in continental water storage. By combining satellite and terrestrial observations with superconducting gravimeters (SG) a maximum of information can be gained due to the different temporal and spatial sampling. Esp. the cluster of superconducting gravimeters in central Europe is well suited for studies related to spatial and temporal changes in continental water storage. Due to the distribution of SG sites different sensitivities of the instruments are to be expected on changes in the various river and drainage basins which could, if sufficiently pronounced, be deployed to pinpoint areas in which main discrepancies between modelled and actual water storage changes occur and would thus allow us to fine-tune hydrological models. Based on the WaterGap Global Hydrological Model (WGHM), this sensitivity of the SG observations is investigated. One compartment of the WGHM is surface water, thus comprising rivers, flooding areas, and major reservoirs. This contribution is given for the total cell of 0.5° × 0.5° and not localized, e.g. in a riverbed, therefore the question arises to which extent localization or non-localization of this compartment affects the estimate if the respective surface waters are in the vicinity of 50 km around the SG stations. It can be shown, however, that the lateral distribution of the surface water masses plays only a negligible role for the central European stations meaning distributed surface water masses are an acceptable simplification when estimating hydrological effects. It emerges that variations in water storage in regions outside central Europe produce comparable effects on gravity at all sites and the impact of basins within central Europe is clearly distinguishable among the SG stations.

  3. Regional frequency analysis for mapping drought events in north-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, J. H.; Verbist, K.; Wallis, J. R.; Schaefer, M. G.; Morales, L.; Cornelis, W. M.

    2011-08-01

    SummaryDroughts are among the most important natural disasters, particularly in the arid and semiarid regions of the world. Proper management of droughts requires knowledge of the expected frequency of specific low magnitude precipitation totals for a variety of durations. Probabilistic approaches have often been used to estimate the average recurrence period of a given drought event. However, probabilistic model fitting by conventional methods, such as product moment or maximum likelihood in areas with low availability of long records often produces highly unreliable estimates. Recognizing the need for adequate estimates of return periods of severe droughts in the arid and semiarid region of Chile, a regional frequency analysis method based on L-moments (RFA-LM) was used for estimating and mapping drought frequency. Some adaptations to the existing procedures for forming homogeneous regions were found necessary. In addition, a new 3-parameter distribution, the Gaucho, which is a special case of the 4-parameter Kappa distribution, was introduced, and the analysis procedure was improved by the developments of two new software tools named L-RAP, to perform the RFA-LM analysis, and L-MAP, to map the resulting drought maps. Eight homogeneous sub-regions were delineated using the Gaucho distribution and used to construct return period maps for drought events with 80% and 40% precipitation of the normal. The study confirms the importance of a sub-regional homogeneity test, and the usefulness of the Gaucho distribution. The RFA-LM showed that droughts with a 40% precipitation of the normal have return periods that range from 4 years at the northern arid boundary of the study area to 22 years at the southern sub-humid boundary. The results demonstrate the need for different thresholds for declaring a drought than those currently in use for drought characterization in north-central Chile.

  4. Simulations of the future precipitation climate of the Central Andes using a coupled regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, S.; Mohr, K. I.

    2014-12-01

    The meridional extent and complex orography of the South American continent contributes to a wide diversity of climate regimes ranging from hyper-arid deserts to tropical rainforests to sub-polar highland regions. Global climate models, although capable of resolving synoptic-scale South American climate features, are inadequate for fully-resolving the strong gradients between climate regimes and the complex orography which define the Tropical Andes given their low spatial and temporal resolution. Recent computational advances now make practical regional climate modeling with prognostic mesoscale atmosphere-ocean coupled models, such as the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system, to climate research. Previous work has shown COAWST to reasonably simulate the both the entire 2003-2004 wet season (Dec-Feb) as validated against both satellite and model analysis data. More recently, COAWST simulations have also been shown to sensibly reproduce the entire annual cycle of rainfall (Oct 2003 - Oct 2004) with historical climate model input. Using future global climate model input for COAWST, the present work involves year-long cycle spanning October to October for the years 2031, 2059, and 2087 assuming the most likely regional climate pathway (RCP): RCP 6.0. COAWST output is used to investigate how global climate change impacts the spatial distribution, precipitation rates, and diurnal cycle of precipitation patterns in the Central Andes vary in these yearly "snapshots". Initial results show little change to precipitation coverage or its diurnal cycle, however precipitation amounts did tend drier over the Brazilian Plateau and wetter over the Western Amazon and Central Andes. These results suggest potential adjustments to large-scale climate features (such as the Bolivian High).

  5. Physical properties of Meridiani Sinus-type units in the central equatorial region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, Edwin L., III

    1992-01-01

    Classification and mapping of surficial units in the central equatorial region of Mars (30 degrees N to 20 degrees S, 57 degrees E to 75 degrees W) using enhanced color images and Mars Consortium data identified four major color/albedo units in the dark, reddish-gray regions that form the classical dark albedo markings of Mars, including Meridiani Sinus. The darkest, least red (relatively 'blue') materials form splotches (some with dune forms) in craters, inter-crater depressions, and part of Valles Marineris. These form the 'Dark Blue' Meridiani unit. Abundant materials that have higher albedos and are somewhat redder than the 'Dark Blue' unit have uniquely high green/(violet + red) color ratios in Viking Orbiter images. These materials, named 'Green-blue' Meridiani surround and mix with 'Dark Blue' Meridiani patches and are abundant on crater rims and local elevations. Discontinuous, patchy deposits with still higher albedos and much redder colors have morphologies classified of the Type Ib bright depositional dust streaks and sheets that were classified by Thomas et al. These dust deposits, which appear to be optically thin and patchy and are darker and not as red as other Type Ib dust deposits on Mars, and their Meridiani substrates, were designated the 'Red' Meridiani unit. Distinctive deposits that form highly eroded mesas and escarpments in northern Meridiani Sinus were named 'Light Blue' Meridiani, since they are not as red as other materials with moderately high albedos. Large areas dominated by these units form Meridiani Province in the central equatorial region of Mars.

  6. Substantial primary production in the land-remote region of the central and northern Scotia Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M. J.; Atkinson, A.; Korb, R. E.; Venables, H. J.; Pond, D. W.; Gordon, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Scotia Sea area has high productivity relative to the Southern Ocean as a whole, but this displays strong latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Elucidating the extent of these from a single cruise is problematic, given the high variability of bloom timing and location in this region. Therefore, this study used data from transects across the central Scotia Sea in spring, summer and autumn of 2006, 2008 and 2009, combined with satellite data, to obtain a larger-scale appreciation of the latitudinal contrasts in phytoplankton standing stock and primary production across the region. Concentrations of nitrate, phosphate and particularly silicic acid increased towards the south of the transect with the latter showing a step change at the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF). Changes in seasonal nutrient concentrations indicated increasing phytoplankton uptake north of ˜57°S that peaked at ˜53°S in the Georgia Basin. Based on seasonal depletions of nitrate relative to phosphate, the highest relative nitrate uptake occurred northwest of South Georgia on the periphery of the Georgia Basin, indicating efficient nitrate use here due to iron-replete conditions. An integrative approach to examine these gradients was with the use of 10-year satellite climatology data. These showed that the lowest mean chlorophyll a (chl- a) values were in the central/northern Scotia Sea, but these were still substantial values, 67% of values within the Georgia Basin bloom. Cruise data on chl- a and on microplankton biomass from cell counts support this finding of substantial biomass in the central Scotia Sea; since these averaged half of values in the iron-fertilised bloom of the Georgia Basin downstream of South Georgia. Given that our transect was nearly 1000 km long and in parts was land remote with low iron concentrations, the relatively high production in the central and northern Scotia Sea is surprising. Iron levels may be maintained here by efficient recycling and irregular injections, possibly for example from dust deposition or shelf-derived inputs from the south. The moderate chl- a concentration across the mid-Scotia Sea and southwest of South Georgia reflect periodic, non-ice-associated blooms that occur in some years and not others. These may provide a connection between the large populations of krill inhabiting the northern and southern fringes of the Scotia Sea.

  7. Ecological zonation of zooplankton in the COAST study region off central Oregon in June and August 2001 with consideration of

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Stephen

    Ecological zonation of zooplankton in the COAST study region off central Oregon in June and August changes in vertical distribution and data on direction and magnitude of currents at depths where. Citation: Lamb, J., and W. Peterson (2005), Ecological zonation of zooplankton in the COAST study region

  8. Assessing the Capability of a Regional-Scale Weather Model to Simulate Extreme Precipitation Patterns and Flooding in Central Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marla R. Knebl Lowrey; Zong-Liang Yang

    2008-01-01

    A regional-scale weather model is used to determine the potential for flood forecasting based on model- predicted rainfall. Extreme precipitation and flooding events are a significant concern in central Texas, due to both the high occurrence and severity of flooding in the area. However, many current regional prediction models do not provide sufficient accuracy at the watershed scale necessary for

  9. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl Regions) Using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique and Neutron Activation Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Ermakova; M. V. Frontasyeva; S. S. Pavlov; E. A. Povtoreiko; E. Steinnes; Ye N. Cheremisina

    2004-01-01

    Data of 34 elements, including heavy metals, halogens, rare earth elements, U, and Th in 139 moss samples, collected in Central Russia in 2000–2002 in the Tver and Yaroslavl regions and in the northern part of the Moscow region, are presented. Factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the mosses. The

  10. Geomorphological evidence for late Quaternary tectonic deformation of the Cape Region, coastal west central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Beau B.; Hengesh, James V.

    2015-07-01

    A late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage 5e) emergent marine sequence fringes the coastline of the Cape Region of coastal west central Australia and provides elevation and age control to characterize the locations and rates of crustal deformation. There is a systematic measurable change in relative paleo sea-level elevations across the Cape Region. High-precision leveling of modern and Pleistocene shoreline features indicates the minimum elevation range of MIS 5e shoreline features along the coast is 10.4 m. This compares with the 2.5 m elevation range for observed modern shoreline analogs. The lack of continuity of MIS 5e shoreline elevations along 300 km of coastline demonstrates continuing tectonic deformation along coastal anticlines in the Cape Region. Topographic expression of MIS 5e features indicates tectonic uplift consistent with late Neogene to Quaternary deformation on the Cape Cuvier and Cape Range anticlines. Post-MIS 5e tectonic uplift rates are up to 0.054 ± 0.035 mm/yr at fold axial locations. Estimated subsidence rates are - 0.013 ± 0.034 mm/yr on fold limbs. While the estimated vertical tectonic deformation is small and the rates are low, the geomorphological data also demonstrate tectonic activity, not stability.

  11. ENSO Related Streamflow Anomalies in Central Chile: Regionalization and Seasonal Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, R.; Aceituno, P.

    2002-12-01

    The electric power system in Chile is mainly supported by hydro-electric plants that exploit river basins located in the central portion of the country. There, the hydrological annual regime is modulated by the particular characteristics of the rainy season during the austral winter (May-September) and the snowmelt season during spring and summer. Several studies have documented the significant impact of ENSO on interannual rainfall variability (and snow accumulation at high elevation over the Andes) along this region. Above normal rainfall is typically observed during El Nino episodes from 30 S to 35 S in winter, and from 35 S to 38 S in spring, while a tendency for below average precipitation has been documented for the region 38 S- 40 S during summers coinciding with this phenomenon in the equatorial Pacific. In this study the impact of the ENSO signal on river discharges is analyzed and a statistical method is developed to forecast the streamflow during the snowmelt season (October-January), based on information of sea surface temperature and sea level pressure during fall and early winter at key regions in the tropical and extra-tropical Pacific.

  12. Mesozoic Kinematic Evolution of the Central Atlantic Inferred From Regional Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labails, C.; Olivet, J.; Aslanian, D.; Sichler, B.; Roest, W.; Evain, M.

    2007-12-01

    The magnetic anomaly signature of Central Atlantic margins is well defined by the gridded data published by Verhoef et al. (1996) on the North American region. However, a gridded dataset for the West African margin (South of the Canary Islands) was lacking. We have used magnetic data from the Geodas database, an Ifremer dataset and personnal communication from H.A. Roeser and W.J.M. Van der Linden in order to produce a gridded magnetic data of the Dakhla margin and to better constrain the kinematics of Central Atlantic early opening. Our model adopts the breakup timing of 195 Ma as proposed by Sahabi et al. (2004) - 20 myr earlier than what was generally proposed in previous models. According to our interpretation of the newly compiled magnetic data, the early opening of Central Atlantic was characterized by three distinct phases. In contrast to other models, we propose that for the first 30 myr (195-165 Ma, Lias-Dogger) the oceanic accretion was extremely slow (~0.8 cm/y). At the Blake Spur time, (around 165 Ma, Callovian basis), a drastic change occurred, both in the relative plate motions (initially NNW-SSE, it becomes NO-SE) and spreading rate (that increases up to ~ 4.8 cm/y). The BSMA (Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly) is related to a great basement topographic change. From magnetic chron M22 (150 Ma, Tithonian basis) onwards, the spreading rate slowed down to about 2.6 cm/y and remained constant until magnetic chron M0 (125 Ma, Barremian-Aptian limit).

  13. A Study of X-Ray Sources in the Central Region of NGC 1569 with Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heike, K.; Awaki, H.; Hayashida, K.; Weaver, K. A.

    The dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569 was observed for 96.8 ks with Chandra. We detected several variable X-ray point sources in the central region of NGC 1569. Inparticular, two bright point sources, CXOU 043048.1+645050 and CXOU 043048.6+645058, exhibit a prominent variability in time. Fitting with the disk blackbody model, we find that CXOU 043048.1+645050 may be a stellar mass black hole with ˜ 20M?. From the fact that CXOU 043048.6+645058 has a short time variability and flat spectrum, we concluded that this source may be a neutron star binary. We calculated the luminosity ratio of the soft X-ray band to other energy bands, and find that NGC 1569 has a typical luminosity ratio found in starburst galaxies.

  14. Regional behavior and evolution of the Edwards aquifer (South-Central Texas).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabeza Diaz de Cerio, Yoar; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Green, Ronald T.; Fratesi, Beth; Bertetti, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Karst aquifers are highly heterogeneous systems where flow regime is dominated by dissolution conduits. It is important to know the behavior of these conduit networks in order to being able to manage them correctly. In this work we focus on the Edwards aquifer, one of the most prolific artesian aquifers in the world, that is located in south-central Texas, USA, and included in the Trinity-Edwards system. A regional flow model for the Edwards aquifer has been developed using the code TRANSIN IV. For this purpose, It was necessary a reconceptualization of previous conceptual models of Edwards aquifer in order to include the contributing zone and evaluate the role that this area plays in the Edwards aquifer recharge. Chemical data for major and trace elements in the study area have been used for evaluating the relations between Trinity and Edwards aquifers and the evolution of dissolution within the Edwards aquifer.

  15. The central 1 kpc starburst region of M82 with Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukita, Mihoko

    2014-08-01

    Galactic winds are one of the most dramatic forms of stellar feedback in the local universe, and an important ingredient of galaxy evolution. These kpc-scale outflows are driven by high-pressure hot gas (~10^7 - 10^8 K) originating in supernova explosions and stellar winds from powerful starbursts. We present a detailed spectral analysis of the central ~1 kpc region of M82 using ~500 ks of Chandra ACIS-S observations. We have constructed high spatial resolution (1"-10") thermodynamic maps. We will discuss the spatial correlations of these parameter values with star-forming activity, as well as warm and cold gas. We also discuss the detection and origin of the Fe K emission lines (K alpha, He-like and Ly alpha).

  16. Lung cancer in Florida. Risks associated with residence in the central Florida phosphate mining region

    SciTech Connect

    Stockwell, H.G.; Lyman, G.H.; Waltz, J.; Peters, J.T.

    1988-07-01

    A case-control study that included 25,398 cases of lung cancer among Florida residents, first diagnosed in 1981-1983, was conducted to determine if residence in the central Florida phosphate mining region was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. A twofold increase in lung cancer risk was observed among male nonsmokers who lived in the study area. Risks were evaluated for all major lung cancer cell types, with the highest risks observed for small cell carcinoma of the lung. Among cigarette smokers, a slight, but not statistically significant, additional increase in risk was associated with residence in the study area. Among women, no significant elevations in risk were observed for persons who lived in the study area. The greatest increase in risk among women was for small cell carcinomas, but the elevations were not statistically significant.

  17. Prevalence of trypanosome infections in dogs from Chagas disease endemic regions in Panama, Central America.

    PubMed

    Pineda, V; Saldaña, A; Monfante, I; Santamaría, A; Gottdenker, N L; Yabsley, M J; Rapoport, G; Calzada, J E

    2011-06-10

    The prevalence of canine trypanosomosis was investigated in two Chagas disease endemic rural communities located in the central region of Panama. Serologic tests for Trypanosoma cruzi infection revealed a prevalence of 11.1%. Hemocultures coupled with PCR analysis demonstrated a Trypanosoma rangeli infection rate of 5.1%. An overall trypanosome infection index of 16.2% (16/99) was detected in this canine population. One dog had a mixed infection of T. cruzi and T. rangeli. Six of the trypanosome-infected dogs belong to people who were diagnosed of Chagas disease. We conclude that dogs from this rural area of Panama are frequently infected with trypanosomes transmitted by the sylvatic vector, Rhodnius pallescens, and suggest that dogs are important in the peridomestic transmission cycle of trypanosomes as reservoirs and hosts. The epidemiological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21273002

  18. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Giantsis, Ioannis A.; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J.; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P.

    2014-01-01

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ?ST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

  19. Investment in higher order central processing regions is not constrained by brain size in social insects

    PubMed Central

    Muscedere, Mario L.; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Moreau, Corrie S.; Traniello, James F. A.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which size constrains the evolution of brain organization and the genesis of complex behaviour is a central, unanswered question in evolutionary neuroscience. Advanced cognition has long been linked to the expansion of specific brain compartments, such as the neocortex in vertebrates and the mushroom bodies in insects. Scaling constraints that limit the size of these brain regions in small animals may therefore be particularly significant to behavioural evolution. Recent findings from studies of paper wasps suggest miniaturization constrains the size of central sensory processing brain centres (mushroom body calyces) in favour of peripheral, sensory input centres (antennal and optic lobes). We tested the generality of this hypothesis in diverse eusocial hymenopteran species (ants, bees and wasps) exhibiting striking variation in body size and thus brain size. Combining multiple neuroanatomical datasets from these three taxa, we found no universal size constraint on brain organization within or among species. In fact, small-bodied ants with miniscule brains had mushroom body calyces proportionally as large as or larger than those of wasps and bees with brains orders of magnitude larger. Our comparative analyses suggest that brain organization in ants is shaped more by natural selection imposed by visual demands than intrinsic design limitations. PMID:24741016

  20. Functional-environmental assessment of Chernozems' technogenic changes in the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deviatova, Tatiana; Jablonskikh, Lidiia; Alaeva, Liliia; Negrobova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Long-term research revealed the significant changes in Chernozems of the recreational, urban, industrial and transport areas in the eastern part of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia. They are reflected in the soil properties and regimes disturbances that determine their environmental functions. The level of the Chernozems' anthropogenic degradation is usually determined not only by their pollutants composition and quantity but by landscape, microclimatic, hydrological and soil features too. The Chernozems strongest degradation has been observed in the industrial zone and central part of Voronezh, and also in the 20-m zone of the highway "Don" with maximum technogenic input intensity and depth. The Chernozems' resistance to contamination is determined by their texture, organic matter content and quality, microbial activity and biochemical processes, pH and redox power. The level of the pollution impact on the organic substances decomposition can be evaluated according to the extracellular biological processes changes from their standard rates: <10% - low-hazard, 10-25% - moderately hazardous, 25-50% - hazardous, > 50% - very hazardous (ecotoxicological scale). The investigated soil types and subtypes have essentially different resistance to their contamination. In case of the gray forest soils already medium input of pollutants often results in irreversible changes in their biocenosis functions. In case of the leached Chernozems 50%-drop in their biological state occurs only at high levels of pollution. The developed criteria reflect the man-made ecosystems' soil principal changes and can be useful in prediction of their environmental functions.

  1. Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)

    PubMed Central

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

  2. Occurrence of hypogenic caves in a karst region: Examples from central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galdenzi, S.; Menichetti, M.

    1995-07-01

    The caves of the Umbria and Marche regions in central Italy are made up of three-dimensional maze systems that display different general morphologies due to the various geological and structural contexts. At the same time, the internal morphologies of the passages, galleries, and shafts present some similarity, with solutional galleries characterized by cupolas and blind pits, anastamotic passages, roof pendants, and phreatic passages situated at different levels. Some of these caves are still active, as is the case for Frassassi Gorge, Parrano Gorge, and Acquasanta Terme, with galleries that reach the phreatic zone, where there is a rising of highly mineralized water, rich in hydrosulfydric acid, and with erosion of limestone walls and the formation of gypsum. Elsewhere there are fossil caves, such as Monte Cucco and Pozzi della Piana, where large speleothems of gypsum are present 500 m or more above the regional water table. In all of these important karst systems it is possible to recognize basal input points through fracture and intergranular porosity networks at the base of the oxidizing zone in the core of the anticline, where mineralized water rises up from the Triassic evaporitic layers in small hydrogeological circuits. Different underground morphologies can derive from the presence of a water table related to an external stream or from the confined setting of the carbonate rocks, underlying low permeable sedimentary cover, where artesian conditions can occur.

  3. A survey and a molecular dynamics study on the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. Unlike most other amyloid forming neurodegenerative diseases, these can be highly infectious. Prion diseases occur in a variety of species. They include the fatal human neurodegenerative diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), Kuru, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, the chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep and goats, etc. Transmission across the species barrier to humans, especially in the case of BSE in Europe, CWD in North America, and variant CJDs (vCJDs) in young people of UK, is a major public health concern. Fortunately, scientists reported that the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins (PrP) controls the formation of diseased prions. This article gives a detailed survey on PrP hydrophobic region and does molecular dynamics studies of human PrP(110-136...

  4. eHealth for Remote Regions: Findings from Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening Project.

    PubMed

    Sajwani, Afroz; Qureshi, Kiran; Shaikh, Tehniat; Sayani, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Isolated communities in remote regions of Afghanistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Tajikistan lack access to high-quality, low-cost health care services, forcing them to travel to distant parts of the country, bearing an unnecessary financial burden. The eHealth Programme under Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening (CAHSS) Project, a joint initiative between the Aga Khan Foundation, Canada and the Government of Canada, was initiated in 2013 with the aim to utilize Information and Communication Technologies to link health care institutions and providers with rural communities to provide comprehensive and coordinated care, helping minimize the barriers of distance and time. Under the CAHSS Project, access to low-cost, quality health care is provided through a regional hub and spoke teleconsultation network of government and non-government health facilities. In addition, capacity building initiatives are offered to health professionals. By 2017, the network is expected to connect seven Tier 1 tertiary care facilities with 14 Tier 2 secondary care facilities for teleconsultation and eLearning. From April 2013 to September 2014, 6140 teleconsultations have been provided across the project sites. Additionally, 52 new eLearning sessions have been developed and 2020 staff members have benefitted from eLearning sessions. Ethics and patient rights are respected during project implementation. PMID:25980715

  5. Epidemiological survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the west-central region of Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daixiong; Zhang, Yun; Shen, Haoxian; Wei, Yongfang; Huang, Di; Tan, Qiming; Lan, Xianqi; Li, Qingli; Chen, Zecheng; Li, Zhengtu; Ou, Le; Suen, Huibing; Ding, Xue; Luo, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaomin; Zhan, Ximei

    2011-08-01

    The study was to understand the Angiostrongylus cantonensis infectious situation of rodent definitive host, snail intermediate host, and local residents in the west-central region of Guangdong Province in China. The snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata collected from the survey place were digested with artificial gastric juice, and the third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis in the snails were examined under microscope. The heart and lung of rats captured from the survey place were taken to check the adult of A. cantonensis. The questionnaire surveys related to the infection of A. cantonensis were taken in local residents randomly selected, and the IgG antibody against A. cantonensis was tested in those residents with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 1,391 rats including eight kinds of rats, such as Rattus norvegicus, Rattus flavipectus, Bandicota indica, Rattus sladeni, Mus musculus, Rattus rattoides, Suncus Murinus, and Rattus confucianus, were examined and 132 of them were infected by A. cantonensis, with an average infection rate of 9.49% and a mean intensity of A. cantonensis in infected rats was 9.39. A total of 3,184 snails A. fulica and 3,723 snails P. canaliculata were detected. The average infection rates of them were 25.03% (797/3,184) and 6.50% (242/3,723), respectively. There were 180 positive samples of IgG antibody against A. cantonensis in 1,800 serum samples of the residents, with a positive rate of 10.00%. The west-central region of Guangdong Province is the natural focus of A. cantonensis. In comparison with the investigation results in other regions of China, the infection rate of rat definitive host is at the middle level; in the intermediate host, the infection rate of snail A. fulica is above the middle level, and the infection rate of snail Pomacea canaliculata is below the middle level. Some local residents had already been infected by A. cantonensis or at the risk of being infected. PMID:21301874

  6. Cenozoic normal faulting and regional doming in the southern Hangay region, Central Mongolia: implications for the origin of the Baikal rift province

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Cunningham

    2001-01-01

    The Hangay Dome in central Mongolia is a mountainous region covering more than 200,000km2 with numerous flat-topped peaks over 3000m that preserve a Late Cretaceous–Paleogene erosion surface. Doming began in the middle Oligocene producing more than 2000m of regional topographic uplift. The range represents an important kinematic link between the Baikal rift province to the north and Altai transpressional ranges

  7. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring results and regional generalized data showed 1-1.5 % Corg lost during last 50 years period and active processes of CO2 emission and humus profile eluvial-illuvial redistribution too. Forest-steppe Chernozems are usually characterized by higher stability than steppe ones. The ratio between erosive and biological losses in humus supplies can be ten¬tatively estimated as fifty-fifty with strong spatial variability due to slope and land-use parameters. These processes have essentially different sets of environmental consequences and ecosystem services that we need to understand in frame of agroecological problems development prediction. A drop of Corg content below threshold "humus limiting content" values (3-4% of Corg) considerably reduces effectiveness of used fertilizers and possibility of sustainable agronomy here. This problem environmental and agroecological situation can be essentially improved by new federal law on environmentally friendly agriculture but it's draft is still in the process of deliberation. Quantitative analysis of principal ecosystem services, soil cover patterns and degradation processes in parameters of land qualities help us in developing different-scale projects for agricultural and urban land-use, taking into attention not only economical benefits but environmental functions too. The conceptions of ecosystem services and local land resource management are becoming more and more popular at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia due to innovation application of basic agroecology, ecological monitoring and soil science achievements.

  8. A SEARCH FOR RR LYRAE VARIABLES IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF M54

    SciTech Connect

    Montiel, Edward J. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mighell, Kenneth J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    We have analyzed archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations of the central region of the globular cluster M54. The 12 irregularly timed observations (6 F555W, 6 F814W) were reduced using the HSTphot stellar photometry package. Our statistical analysis of the HSTphot photometry yielded 50 variable stars that are likely RR Lyrae candidates. These candidates were missed by previous ground-based searches for RR Lyraes due to the extreme crowding in the core of M54. We performed two checks on our sample of RR Lyrae candidates to determine how different they were from the other variable candidates. The first test was a numerical analysis comparing the ratio of variable candidates to the total number of stars within the blue horizontal branch, the RR Lyrae region, and the red giant branch. We found ratios of 0.61%, 13%, and 1.1% in these regions, respectively. Our next test was a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, which allowed us to find out how different our 50 RR Lyrae candidates were from the 50 brightest other variable candidates. According to the K-S test, there is only a 0.0004% probability that these two populations are similar, indicating that our RR Lyrae candidates do indeed exhibit some real fluctuation in their brightness. We sampled the light curves of confirmed RR Lyrae light curves to simulate the HST observing conditions and found that a signature of variability in 2911 out of the 4000 (72%) generated 'stars'. We estimate that there maybe as many as 19 more RR Lyrae candidates that were undetected in the WFPC2 field of view. The presence of additional RR Lyraes has implications into the current Oosterhoff classification for the cluster.

  9. Altitude dependency of future snow cover changes over Central Japan evaluated by a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Hiroaki; Hara, Masayuki; Yoshikane, Takao; Ishizaki, Noriko N.; Uno, Fumichika; Hatsushika, Hiroaki; Kimura, Fujio

    2013-11-01

    Sea of Japan side of Central Japan is one of the heaviest snowfall areas in the world. We investigate near-future snow cover changes on the Sea of Japan side using a regional climate model. We perform the pseudo global warming (PGW) downscaling based on the five global climate models (GCMs). The changes in snow cover strongly depend on the elevation; decrease in the ratios of snow cover is larger in the lower elevations. The decrease ratios of the maximum accumulated snowfall in the short term, such as 1 day, are smaller than those in the long term, such as 1 week. We conduct the PGW experiments focusing on specific periods when a 2 K warming at 850 hPa is projected by the individual GCMs (PGW-2K85). The PGW-2K85 experiments show different changes in precipitation, resulting in snow cover changes in spite of similar warming conditions. Simplified sensitivity experiments that assume homogenous warming of the atmosphere (2 K) and the sea surface show that the altitude dependency of snow cover changes is similar to that in the PGW-2K85 experiments, while the uncertainty of changes in the sea surface temperature influences the snow cover changes both in the lower and higher elevations. The decrease in snowfall is, however, underestimated in the simplified sensitivity experiments as compared with the PGW experiments. Most GCMs project an increase in dry static stability and some GCMs project an anticyclonic anomaly over Central Japan, indicating the inhibition of precipitation, including snowfall, in the PGW experiments.

  10. Modeling of stress transfer in the Coquimbo region of central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardi, A.; Lemoine, A.; Madariaga, R.; Campos, J.

    2006-04-01

    We study the seismicity and stress transfer in the Coquimbo region of central Chile, where an exceptional series of more than 12 earthquakes of magnitudes from 6 to 7.6 has occurred since July 1997. In this area, the oceanic Nazca plate is subducted under the continental lithosphere of South America. Below 50 km, the downgoing slab slips aseismically with respect to the South American plate at a rate close to 6.5 cm/yr. The Coquimbo region was the site of major earthquakes of M > 8 in 1880 and 1943. After many years of quiescence, the seismic activity of the plate interface suddenly increased in mid-1997 and continued at least until 2004. The first group of events occurred in July 1997 in the middle of the locked plate interface. In October 1997, the activity moved inland to the Punitaqui-Ovalle area, just above the transition from the seismogenic zone to that of aseismic slip. The main event of the series was the M = 7.6 15 October 1997 Punitaqui earthquake. This is an intraslab compressional earthquake that occurred at ˜60 km depth, on a subvertical plane located very close to the downdip edge of the seismogenic coupled interface. We performed simulations of Coulomb stress transfer for earthquakes near the bottom of the seismogenic zone. We found that a simple model of stress transfer from the aseismic slip at depths greater than 50 km can explain the triggering not only of the Punitaqui earthquake but also of the July 1997 sequence. Additional simulations show that the seismicity that followed the 1997 event for almost 7 years can also be simply explained as a result of increased Coulomb stresses on the seismogenic plate interface as a result of the 1997 event and aseismic slip.

  11. X-rays from HH 80, HH 81, and the Central Region

    E-print Network

    Steven H. Pravdo; Yohko Tsuboi; Yoshitomo Maeda

    2004-03-10

    We report detections of X-rays from HH 80 and HH 81 with the ACIS instrument on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. These are among the most luminous HH sources in the optical and they are now the most luminous known in X-rays. These X-rays arise from the strong shocks that occur when the southern extension of this bipolar outflow slams into the ambient material. There is a one-to-one correspondence between regions of high X-ray emission and high H? emission. The X-ray luminosities of HH 80 and HH 81 are 4.5 and 4.3 x 1031 erg s-1, respectively, assuming the measured low-energy absorption is not in the sources. The measured temperature of the HH plasma is not as large as that expected from the maximum velocities seen in the extended tails of the optical emission lines. Rather it is consistent with the ~106 K temperature of the ?narrow? core of the optical lines. There is no observed emission from HH 80 North, the northern extension of the bipolar flow, based upon a measurement of lower sensitivity. We imaged the central region of the bipolar flow revealing a complex of X-ray sources including one near, but not coincident with the putative power source in the radio and infrared. This source, CXOPTM J181912.4-204733, has no counterparts at other wavelengths and is consistent in luminosity and spectrum with a massive star with AV ~ 90 mag. It may contribute significantly to the power input to the complex. Alternatively, this emission might be extended X-rays from outflows close to the power source. We detect 94 X-ray sources overall in this area of star formation.

  12. A sharp Moho step under the Central and Eastern Betics, Western Mediterranean region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Heit, Benjamin; Morales, Jose; Heit, Xiaohui; Molina-Aguilera, Antonio; Stich, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    We map the lithospheric structure under the central and eastern Betics (western Mediterranean region) interpreting P-receiver functions obtained from two dense seismic profiles (HIRE and Transcorbe profiles of ~120 km and 160 km of length, respectively). The goal is to study the lithospheric structure and its variations between the different geological domains, from the Alboran domain in the south (metamorphic rocks), the External zones (sedimentary rocks) and the Variscan terrains of the Iberian Massif in the north. One of the profiles (HIRE), North-South oriented, crosses the Sierra Nevada Mountains, one of the prominent features in the Western Mediterranean tectonic region with the highest topography of the Iberia peninsula (~3400 m). The spacing between stations, around 2km, allows mapping with high accuracy of the variations of the crustal structure. We observe a sharp Moho step of ~15 km under the Internal zones of the Alboran domain coinciding the thinner crust with the highest topography along the profile. This agrees with the prior hypothesis about the lack of crustal root underneath Sierra Nevada Mountains and opens a question about the source of the dynamic compensation of its topography. Previous studies showed that the Iberian crust understrust the Alboran domain under its contact with the External zones observing the presence of slab-type feature of Iberian lithosphere at the western Betics while tearing and delamination of this Iberian slab is proposed at eastern Betics. We observe that the Iberian crust undertrust the Alboran domain and terminate sharply under the contact between the Alpujarride and the Nevado-Filabre complexes (Alboran domain).

  13. Particulate matter source apportionment in a village situated in industrial region of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, P; Hovorka, J; Krouzek, J; Hopke, P K

    2013-12-01

    The bilinear receptor model positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to apportion particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 1-10 microm (PM1-10) sources in a village, Brezno, situated in an industrial region of northern Bohemia in Central Europe. The receptor model analyzed the data sets of 90- and 60-min integrations of PM1-10 mass concentrations and elemental composition for 27 elements. The 14-day sampling campaigns were conducted in the village in summer 2008 and winter 2010. Also, to ensure seasonal and regional representativeness of the data sets recorded in the village, the spatial-temporal variability of the 24-hr PM10 and PM1-10 within 2008-2010 in winter and summer across the multiple sites was evaluated. There were statistically significant interseasonal differences of the 24-hr PM data, but not intrasummer or intrawinter differences of the 24-hr PM1-10 data across the multiple sites. PMF resolved seven sources of PM1-10. They were high-temperature coal combustion; combustion in local heating boilers; marine aerosol; mineral dust; primary biological/wood burning; road dust, car brakes; and gypsum. The main summer factors were assigned to mineral dust (38.2%) and primary biological/wood burning (33.1%). In winter, combustion factors dominated (80%) contribution to PM1-10. The conditional probability function (CPF) helped to identified local sources of PM1-10. The source of marine aerosol from the North Sea and English Channel was indicated by the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT). PMID:24558704

  14. Helium Isotope Compositions in Springs From the Three Sisters Region, Central Oregon, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Soest, M. C.; Kennedy, B. M.; Evans, W. C.; Mariner, R. H.

    2001-12-01

    The Three Sisters region has recently come under increased scrutiny after the discovery by Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR) of a broad area of uplift centered approximately 5 km west of the South Sister volcanic edifice (Wicks et al., 2001). The bulge, which at its center reaches a maximum of 10 cm, formed between 1998-2000. The exact cause for the uplift is unknown, but observations from other volcanoes and results from numerical modeling imply that the most likely cause is the movement of magma up to mid-crustal ( ~6.5 km depth) levels (Wicks et al., 2001). The area of uplift coincides with an area where spring chemistry shows anomalously high levels of chloride and carbon emissions (Ingebritsen et al., 1994). These features pre-date the bulge by at least a decade and can also be indicative of a magmatic source. It is unclear if the bulge and the geochemical anomalies are directly related, but both point to the presence of magma below the Three Sisters area. Within the scope of a monitoring project that has recently been initiated to study the development of the bulge and any accompanying changes in the fluid/gas chemistry of springs in the Three Sisters area, 10 gas samples were collected for noble gas analysis in July 2001. Two of these samples were taken from cold bubbling springs located close to the center of the bulge and the remaining 8 were obtained from well documented geothermal springs within the general area of Central Oregon. Helium isotope ratios (reported as Rc/Ra where Rc = air corrected 3He/4Hesample and Ra = 3He/4Heair) for these 8 samples range from 2.8 to 5.1 Ra which is in agreement with existing data reported in a study carried out by Unocal in the early 1980's of geothermal springs in this area. The data show a relationship with distance to the bulge/South Sister volcano: all samples within a radius of ~30 km have helium isotope ratios in the range of 4.5 to 5.1 Ra, while samples that fall outside this radius have distinctly lower helium isotope ratios (<4 Ra). The two samples from the center of the uplift area have helium isotope ratios that are significantly higher (7.4 and 8.6 Ra) than the data for the other springs. This clearly demonstrates the presence of a mantle derived magma at some depth below the bulge and the occurrence of permeable pathways to the surface for gas of magmatic origin. At this time, due to a lack of literature noble gas data for the exact area of the bulge, it cannot be determined if the occurrence of these high ratios, which are a common feature in other Cascade Range volcanoes, coincided with the formation of the bulge or if they predate the uplift. This remains a subject for further study. References: Wicks, C. Jr., Dzurisin, D, Ingebritsen, S. E., Thatcher, W., Lu, Z., and Iversen, J. (2001) Magmatic activity beneath the quiescent Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, abstract AGU Fall meeting, this volume. Ingebritsen, S. E., Mariner, R. H., and Sherrod, D. R. (1994) Hydrothermal systems of the Cascade Range, North-Central Oregon. USGS Professional paper 1044-L 88p. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge Unocal for granting permission to use helium isotope data collected by them during a regional study in the early 1980's.

  15. On the galaxy luminosity function in the central regions of the Coma cluster

    E-print Network

    A. Biviano; F. Durret; D. Gerbal; O. Le Fèvre; C. Lobo; A. Mazure; E. Slezak

    1994-11-07

    We have obtained new redshifts for 265 objects in the central 48~$\\times$~25~arcmin$^2$ region of the Coma cluster. When supplemented with literature data, our redshift sample is 95~\\% complete up to a magnitude b$_{26.5}$=18.0 (the magnitudes are taken from the photometric sample of Godwin et al. 1983). Using redshift-confirmed membership for 205 galaxies, and the location in the colour-magnitude diagram for another 91 galaxies, we have built a sample of cluster members which is complete up to b$_{26.5}$=20.0. We show that the Coma cluster luminosity function cannot be adequately fitted by a single Schechter (1976) function, because of a dip in the magnitude distribution at b$_{26.5}$$\\sim$17. The superposition of an Erlang (or a Gauss) and a Schechter function provides a significantly better fit. We compare the luminosity function of Coma to those of other clusters, and of the field. Luminosity functions for rich clusters look similar, with a maximum at $M_{b} \\simeq -19.5 + 5 \\times \\log h_{50}$, while the Virgo and the field luminosity functions show a nearly monotonic behaviour. These differences may be produced by physical processes related to the environment which affect the luminosities of a certain class of cluster galaxies.

  16. Monitoring of the Central Region of the Globular Cluster M15 = NGC 7078: New Variable Stars

    E-print Network

    Alexander P. Zheleznyak; Valery V. Kravtsov

    2003-10-14

    We obtained a series of more than two hundred R-band CCD images for the crowded central (115"x77") region of the metal-poor globular cluster M15 with an angular resolution of 0.5"-0.9" in most images. Optimal image subtraction was used to identify variable stars. Brightness variations were found in 83 stars, 55 of which were identified with known cluster variables and the remaining 28 are candidates for new variables. Two of them are most likely SX Phe variables. The variability type of two more stars is incertain. The remaining stars were tentatively classified as RR Lyrae variables. A preliminary analysis of published data and our results shows that the characteristics of RR Lyrae variables in the densest part (rstars shifts toward shorter periods; i.e., there is an increase in the fraction of stars pulsating with periods stars with 0.35d-0.40d. The ratio of the number of these short-period RR Lyrae variables to the number of fundamental-tone (RR0) pulsating variables changes appreciably. We found and corrected the error of transforming the coordinates of variables V128-155 in M15 to the coordinate system used in the catalog of variable stars in globular clusters.

  17. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  18. Regional subsidence history and 3D visualization with MATLAB of the Vienna Basin, central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Novotny, J.; Wagreich, M.

    2013-12-01

    This study reconstructed the subsidence history by the backstripping and 3D visualization techniques, to understand tectonic evolution of the Neogene Vienna Basin. The backstripping removes the compaction effect of sediment loading and quantifies the tectonic subsidence. The amount of decompaction was calculated by porosity-depth relationships evaluated from seismic velocity data acquired from two boreholes. About 100 wells have been investigated to quantify the subsidence history of the Vienna Basin. The wells have been sorted into 10 groups; N1-4 in the northern part, C1-4 in the central part and L1-2 in the northernmost and easternmost parts, based on their position within the same block bordered by major faults. To visualize 3D subsidence maps, the wells were arranged to a set of 3D points based on their map location (x, y) and depths (z1, z2, z3 ...). The division of the stratigraphic column and age range was arranged based on the Central Paratethys regional Stages. In this study, MATLAB, a numerical computing environment, was used to calculate the TPS interpolation function. The Thin-Plate Spline (TPS) can be employed to reconstruct a smooth surface from a set of 3D points. The basic physical model of the TPS is based on the bending behavior of a thin metal sheet that is constrained only by a sparse set of fixed points. In the Lower Miocene, 3D subsidence maps show strong evidence that the pre-Neogene basement of the Vienna Basin was subsiding along borders of the Alpine-Carpathian nappes. This subsidence event is represented by a piggy-back basin developed on top of the NW-ward moving thrust sheets. In the late Lower Miocene, Group C and N display a typical subsidence pattern for the pull-apart basin with a very high subsidence event (0.2 - 1.0 km/Ma). After the event, Group N shows remarkably decreasing subsidence, following the thin-skinned extension which was regarded as the extension model of the Vienna Basin in the literature. But the subsidence in Group C decreases gradually, which demonstrates a trend of increasing thermal subsidence during the Middle to Upper Miocene. The traditional model cannot explain the thermal subsidence observed in the central part. This study supports a non-uniform extension model changing from the thin-skinned extension in the northern part to the thick-skinned extension in the central part. And 3D subsidence maps propose the existence of a decoupling between lithospheric and crustal extensions along the Steinberg Fault. Group L shows very different subsidence trends compared to Group C and N. In this Group a subsidence halt occurred in the late Lower Miocene. After the halt, Group L1 shows small tectonic and subsidence events. Some former studies presented that the area of Group L1 uplifted during the early Middle Miocene. It can be concluded that the missing sediments were eroded by the local uplift. But the subsidence of Group L2 stopped completely. It suggests that Group L2 was not influenced by the extension of the strike-slip fault system.

  19. Student Mobility in Rural and Nonrural Districts in Five Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 089

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Andrea; Moore, Laurie; Gopalani, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the extent and distribution of student mobility in five Central Region states. The study, which calculated student mobility percentages in each state and compared percentages by locale (city, suburb, town, and rural locale, and degree of rurality) within each state, found no consistent patterns across locales. Research…

  20. Alternative Crop Rotations in the Semi-arid Central Great Plains Region: How Much Fallow? Evaluating the Economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The traditional crop production system in the semi-arid Central Great Plains Region (CGPR) of the U.S.A. is winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer fallow (WF) or one crop every two years. This system is not a long-term sustainable dryland system. It is conducive to soil degradation and provide...

  1. The Urban Heat Island of the North-Central Texas Region and Its Relation to the 2011 Severe Texas Drought

    E-print Network

    Winguth, Arne

    The Urban Heat Island of the North-Central Texas Region and Its Relation to the 2011 Severe Texas Dallas­Fort Worth, Texas, metropolitan and rural sites have been used to calculate the urban heat island positive trend in the urban heat island of 0.148C decade21 in the Dallas­Fort Worth metropolitan area from

  2. The range of regional climate change projections in central Europe: How to deal with the spread of climate model results?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rechid; D. Jacob; R. Podzun

    2010-01-01

    The regional climate change projections for central Europe in the 21st century show a large spread of simulated temperature and precipitation trends due to natural variability and modelling uncertainties. The questions are how to extract robust climate change signals and how to transfer the range of possible temperature and precipitation trends to climate change impact studies and adaptation strategies? Within

  3. Managing the Night Off-Peak Power Demand in the Central Region UPS with Newly Commissioned NPP Capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Aminov, R. Z. [Saratov Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Pron’, D. M. [Yu. A. Gagarin Saratov State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-15

    The use of hydrogen technologies as a controlled-load consumer based on the newly commissioned base-load nuclear power plants to level out the daily load profile is justified for the Unified Power System (UPS) of the Central Region of Russia, as an example, for the period till 2020.

  4. PUNTO. DESIGN TRAINING CENTER FOR SMALL-SIZED BUSINESS OWNERS AND ENTREPRENEURS IN THE CENTRAL AMERICAN REGION

    E-print Network

    Miselem, Maria Jose

    2012-05-31

    Proposed is a thesis project to develop and plan aspects of punto.: a design training center geared to advising start-up and small businesses in the Central American region. The center will have a mission of: (a) directly engaging with small firms...

  5. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin Region of South-Central Ontario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sleeves; M. Strickland; R. Frank; J. Rasper; C. W. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species

  6. Popular Participation and Farming Systems Research and Extension: Examining the Central Visayas Regional Project 1 in Bohol, Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubchen, Jonathan M.

    The Central Visayas Regional Project (CVRP) 1 aims to use community based participation to address environmental dilemmas, particularly watershed management, which are exacerbated by harmful local production practices. The CVRP employs many characteristics of Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR&E) which provides technical training in…

  7. Natural contamination with arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater of the Central–West region of Chaco, Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia S. Blanes; Edgar E. Buchhamer; María C. Giménez

    2011-01-01

    This study covered the central agricultural region of the Chaco province, which lacks a permanent river networks. However, during the rainy period there is localized groundwater recharge. About 84 groundwater samples were taken during the period April-December 2007. These groundwater samples were collected from two different depths: 62 samples from shallow wells (4 to 20 m) and 24 samples from

  8. External Drivers of Institutional Change in Central Asia – Regional Integration Schemes and the Role of Russia and China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Schweickert; Inna Melnykovska; Hedwig Plamper

    2012-01-01

    Russia and China are assumed to challenge democratization and to promote autocracy. In a first step, we analyze Central Asia as the most-likely case, considering both Russia and China as relevant external actors. We develop a concept for our analysis based on the different strategies of Russia (dominance) and China (doing-business) towards the region and present the results of a

  9. Teaching English Language Learner Students: Professional Standards in Elementary Education in Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 122

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen; Wang, Xin; Ryan, Susan; Cicchinelli, Louis F.

    2012-01-01

    This report on professional teaching standards in the Central Region examines what K-8 general education teachers are expected to know and be able to do in order to teach English language learner students. It reviews the standards for coverage of six topics that the research literature suggests are important for improving student achievement. Key…

  10. ccsd-00000779(version1):23Oct2003 THE DARK MATTER DISTRIBUTION IN THE CENTRAL REGIONS OF

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ccsd-00000779(version1):23Oct2003 THE DARK MATTER DISTRIBUTION IN THE CENTRAL REGIONS OF GALAXY, USA Cosmological N-body simulations predict that dark matter halos should have a universal shape analyze stellar velocity dispersion data for the BCGs in conjunction with the arc redshifts and lens

  11. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucchese, Fernando; Medori, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.). In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation), Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises), while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules). Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread knowledge of means of conserving foodstuffs, they also led to the use of products easily available within each home. The values of E.I. (ethnobotanicity index) for the upper Molise region are considered amongst the highest in Italian areas. Nevertheless, like the values for other areas of Italy, they are lower than those of many Spanish areas, perhaps (and not only) because of the more rapid cultural erosion experienced in Italy. PMID:18334029

  12. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored maps provide a regional summary of the new mapping at a scale of 1:200,000, a scale that is sufficient to show the general distribution and relationships of the map units but not to distinguish the more detailed elements that are present in the database. The report is the product of cooperative work by the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, William Lettis and & Associates, Inc. (WLA), and the California Geological Survey. An earlier version was submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey by WLA as a final report for a NEHRP grant (Witter and others, 2005). The mapping has been carried out by WLA geologists under contract to the NEHRP Earthquake Program (Grant 99-HQ-GR-0095) and by the California Geological Survey.

  13. Active oblique extension in the central Apennines (Italy): evidence from the Fucino region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, Luigi; Gaudemer, Yves; Tapponnier, Paul; Boccaletti, Mario

    1999-11-01

    The Fucino Basin is a flat Quaternary depression within the central Apennines. It is surrounded by active normal faults with small oblique-slip components. Surface faulting was observed along the east side of the basin during the Ms=7.0 Avezzano earthquake of 1915. In order to understand the kinematics of recent strain better and to assess the seismic hazard of this region, we carried out a detailed geomorphic and structural study of the faults around the basin. Fault scarp heights were accurately measured with total station profiles, and vertical slip rates were estimated assuming slope offsets to post-date the end of periglacial abrasion (14+/-4 kyr BP). To the north, the most prominent fault, the Magnola fault, appears to have an average postglacial throw rate of 0.7+/-0.3 mm yr-1 and, together with the Velino fault, to be capable of generating earthquakes of maximum magnitudes of 6.9-7.3 with recurrence intervals of 1000-3000 yr. East of the basin, the Serrone, Parasano and Ventrino faults form a right-stepping horsetail of the Giovenco fault. Current vertical slip rates on the three former faults appear to be between 0.5 and 1.4, 0.5 and 1.0, and 0.3 and 1.1 mm yr-1, respectively. Infrequent maximum-magnitude earthquakes on them may also exceed 7, particularly in the case of coupled rupture, with loosely constrained recurrence intervals (up to several thousand years). The right-lateral slip components implied by the most recent slickensides and by geomorphic offsets on the NW-SE-trending normal faults of the area suggest that the blocks they bound rotate counterclockwise, consistent with oblique left slip on the NNW-SSE-trending Giovenco and Ovindoli faults to the east. Sinistral shear parallel to the latter faults, the maximum relief across the Magnola fault, and the postglacial slope offsets measured suggest that the extension rate across the central Apennines might be of the order of 6+/-3 mm yr-1 in a N20 deg+/-10 degE direction, more northerly than hitherto inferred.

  14. Jet Production in the Central Rapidity Region in 1.8 TeV Proton and Antiproton Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Yeong-Dong; /Chicago U.

    1989-06-01

    In this thesis we study the jet production cross section in the central rapidity region in {bar p}p collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.8 TeV. The pseudo-rapidity {eta} is defined as {eta} {triple_bond} -ln(tan({theta}/2)), where {theta} is the angle between the directions of the jet momentum and the proton beam. We will call the region -0.7 < {eta} < 0.7 the 'central rapidity' region by definition. The goal of this thesis is to determine two kinds of differential cross sections for jet production: an inclusive jet Et distribution d{sigma}/dEt, and the distribution in invariant mass d{sigma}/dM{sub JJ} of two jet systems. These spectra serve to check the strong interaction theory, and thus to look for new phenomena, at the highest available energy. The strong interaction theory will be discussed.

  15. Regional hydrogeochemical groundwater characterization and Natural Arsenic occurrence in Upper Valtellina Valley (Central Italian Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Reyes, Fredy; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the research is the characterization of the alpine Upper Valtellina Valley (central Italian Alps, 800 km2) aquifers by means of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, As speciation, isotopic and whole-rock analyses. In particular, the main focus of the study was the understanding of the processes responsible for As release and mobilization into the groundwater. Historical chemical data from springs, wells, lakes, rivers and public fountains were collected from the Lombardy Region Health Agency (ASL) and implemented into a geodatabase. The available groundwater chemistry analyses (3050) from five municipalities (Bormio, Livigno, Valdidentro, Valdisotto and Valfurva) cover a relatively long time span between 1996 and 2011. Moreover, samples across the entire study area and covering one full hydrologic year 2012-2013 were collected during four different campaigns (June 2012, October 2012, May 2013, and September 2013) and analyzed . During these campaigns, water samples have been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by dissolution of the main ions Ca - Mg and SO4-HCO3; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) the average yearly temperatures (about 12°C for cold springs, and between 18°C and 42° for thermal springs) are nearly constant through the year; (5) dominant oxidizing environments have been observed for most of the cold springs and also for the thermal springs; (6) anthropogenic contamination is absent, while natural contamination of Arsenic affects most of the springs, with a natural background level for the entire UVV of 33 µg/L; (7) both As (V) and As (III) are present in all the springs analyzed, with a marked prevalence of As (V) among the cold springs. These conditions suggest that the cold springs in the UVV belong to recent aquifers, hydrochemically immature, where the presence of Arsenic is mostly related to alkali desorption and sulphide oxidation, while the thermal springs derive from the rapid uprise of deep-circulation water, with a high concentration of geothermal arsenic.

  16. Central Region of Talin Has a Unique Fold That Binds Vinculin and Actin*

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Alexandre R.; Bate, Neil; Goult, Benjamin T.; Patel, Bipin; Kopp, Petra M.; Emsley, Jonas; Barsukov, Igor L.; Roberts, Gordon C. K.; Critchley, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Talin is an adaptor protein that couples integrins to F-actin. Structural studies show that the N-terminal talin head contains an atypical FERM domain, whereas the N- and C-terminal parts of the talin rod include a series of ?-helical bundles. However, determining the structure of the central part of the rod has proved problematic. Residues 1359–1659 are homologous to the MESDc1 gene product, and we therefore expressed this region of talin in Escherichia coli. The crystal structure shows a unique fold comprised of a 5- and 4-helix bundle. The 5-helix bundle is composed of nonsequential helices due to insertion of the 4-helix bundle into the loop at the C terminus of helix ?3. The linker connecting the bundles forms a two-stranded anti-parallel ?-sheet likely limiting the relative movement of the two bundles. Because the 5-helix bundle contains the N and C termini of this module, we propose that it is linked by short loops to adjacent bundles, whereas the 4-helix bundle protrudes from the rod. This suggests the 4-helix bundle has a unique role, and its pI (7.8) is higher than other rod domains. Both helical bundles contain vinculin-binding sites but that in the isolated 5-helix bundle is cryptic, whereas that in the isolated 4-helix bundle is constitutively active. In contrast, both bundles are required for actin binding. Finally, we show that the MESDc1 protein, which is predicted to have a similar fold, is a novel actin-binding protein. PMID:20610383

  17. Central region of talin has a unique fold that binds vinculin and actin.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Alexandre R; Bate, Neil; Goult, Benjamin T; Patel, Bipin; Kopp, Petra M; Emsley, Jonas; Barsukov, Igor L; Roberts, Gordon C K; Critchley, David R

    2010-09-17

    Talin is an adaptor protein that couples integrins to F-actin. Structural studies show that the N-terminal talin head contains an atypical FERM domain, whereas the N- and C-terminal parts of the talin rod include a series of ?-helical bundles. However, determining the structure of the central part of the rod has proved problematic. Residues 1359-1659 are homologous to the MESDc1 gene product, and we therefore expressed this region of talin in Escherichia coli. The crystal structure shows a unique fold comprised of a 5- and 4-helix bundle. The 5-helix bundle is composed of nonsequential helices due to insertion of the 4-helix bundle into the loop at the C terminus of helix ?3. The linker connecting the bundles forms a two-stranded anti-parallel ?-sheet likely limiting the relative movement of the two bundles. Because the 5-helix bundle contains the N and C termini of this module, we propose that it is linked by short loops to adjacent bundles, whereas the 4-helix bundle protrudes from the rod. This suggests the 4-helix bundle has a unique role, and its pI (7.8) is higher than other rod domains. Both helical bundles contain vinculin-binding sites but that in the isolated 5-helix bundle is cryptic, whereas that in the isolated 4-helix bundle is constitutively active. In contrast, both bundles are required for actin binding. Finally, we show that the MESDc1 protein, which is predicted to have a similar fold, is a novel actin-binding protein. PMID:20610383

  18. Soil loss tolerance in the central chernozemic region of the European part of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, M. S.; Abdulkhanova, D. R.

    2013-07-01

    To calculate the soil loss tolerance for chernozems of the central chernozemic region, a linear modification of Skidmore's equation was used. The soil loss tolerance values were obtained with due account for the soil type, the degree of erodibility, and the crop rotation pattern. The maximum possible value (10 t/ha per year) was obtained for a typical noneroded chernozem in all the crop rotations. Close values were obtained for noneroded leached and typical chernozems (9.6-9.9 t/ha per year depending on the crop rotation pattern). The soil loss tolerance for the noneroded podzolized chernozem was somewhat lower: 9.1 t/ha per year in the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation and 6.3 t/ha/year in the grain-intertilled crop rotation. With an increase in the degree of the soil erosion, the soil loss tolerance decreased in all the variants of the experiment with an especially abrupt decrease in the grain-intertilled crop rotation (from 9.9-10.0 to 0.3-2.0 t/ha per year in the, respectively, noneroded and slightly eroded ordinary and typical chernozems). In the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation, these differences were much smaller: in the slightly eroded typical chernozem the soil loss tolerance was estimated at 9.7 t/ha per year, while, in the slightly eroded typical chernozem, at 8.1 t/ha per year. The moderately eroded chernozems without the addition of manure could only be used in the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation; the soil loss tolerance was estimated at 9.0 t/ha per year for the typical chernozem and 4.3 t/ha per year for the ordinary chernozem.

  19. Burden of Complicated Malaria in a Densely Forested Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh State (Central India)

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vidhan; Basak, Sanjay; Bhandari, Sneha; Bharti, Praveen K.; Thomas, Trilok; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Singh, Neeru

    2014-01-01

    Background A prospective study on severe and complicated malaria was undertaken in the tribal dominated area of Bastar division, Chhattisgarh (CG), Central India, with an objective to understand the clinical epidemiology of complicated malaria in patients attending at a referral hospital. Methods Blood smears, collected from the general medicine and pediatric wards of a government tertiary health care facility located in Jagdalpur, CG, were microscopically examined for malaria parasite from July 2010 to December 2013. The Plasmodium falciparum positive malaria cases who met enrollment criteria and provided written informed consent were enrolled under different malaria categories following WHO guidelines. PCR was performed to reconfirm the presence of P.falciparum mono infection among enrolled cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify different risk factors using STATA 11.0. Results A total of 40,924 cases were screened for malaria. The prevalence of malaria and P.falciparum associated complicated malaria (severe and cerebral both) in the hospital was 6% and 0.81%, respectively. P.falciparum malaria prevalence, severity and associated mortality in this region peaked at the age of>4–5 years and declined with increasing age. P.falciparum malaria was significantly more prevalent in children than adults (P<0.00001). Among adults, males had significantly more P.falciparum malaria than females (P<0.00001). Case fatality rate due to cerebral malaria and severe malaria was, respectively, 32% and 9% among PCR confirmed mono P.falciparum cases. Coma was the only independent predictor of mortality in multivariate regression analysis. Mortality was significantly associated with multi-organ complication score (P?=?0.0003). Conclusion This study has revealed that the pattern of morbidity and mortality in this part of India is very different from earlier reported studies from India. We find that the peak morbidity and mortality in younger children regardless of seasonality. This suggests that this age group needs special care for control and clinical management. PMID:25531373

  20. Deformation in the hinge region of a chevron fold, Valley and Ridge Province, central Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narahara, David K.; Wiltschko, David V.

    The hinge region of an asymmetrical chevron fold in sandstone, taken from the Tuscarora Formation of central Pennsylvania, U.S.A., was studied in detail in an attempt to account for the strain that produced the fold shape. The fold hinge consists of a medium-grained quartz arenite and was deformed predominantly by brittle fracturing and minor amounts of pressure solution and intracrystalline strain. These fractures include: (1) faults, either minor offsets or major limb thrusts, (2) solitary well-healed quartz veins and (3) fibrous quartz veins which are the result of repeated fracturing and healing of grains. The fractures formed during folding as they are observed to cross-cut the authigenic cement. Deformation lamellae and in a few cases, pressure solution, occurred contemporaneously with folding. The fibrous veins appear to have formed as a result of stretching of one limb: they cross-cut all other structures. Based upon the spatial relationships between the deformation features, we believe that a neutral surface was present during folding, separating zones of compression and extension along the inner and outer arcs, respectively. Using the strain data from the major faults, the fold can be restored back to an interlimb angle of 157°; however, the extension required for such an angle along the outer arc is much more than was actually measured. This disparity between observed and required deformation suggests that the rest of the folding strain may be attributed to minor faulting, isolated severe pressure solution and to slight grain movements; we were not able to recognize the latter. We propose that a single episode of deformation produced the chevron fold causing the brittle deformation after the sandstone had been lithified. This brittle deformation was accomplished by faulting together with the translation of individual sandstone blocks which do not contain significant internal deformation.

  1. Energy and development in Central America. Volume I: Regional assessment. Final report October 1979-February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

  2. Residual Weeds of Processing Sweet Corn in the North Central Region Martin M. Williams II, Tom L. Rabaey, and Chris M. Boerboom*

    E-print Network

    Sims, Gerald K.

    Residual Weeds of Processing Sweet Corn in the North Central Region Martin M. Williams II, Tom L. Rabaey, and Chris M. Boerboom* Knowledge of weed community structure in vegetable crops of the north central region (NCR) is poor. To characterize weed species composition present at harvest (hereafter

  3. What is success and what is failure of transition? A critical review of two decades of agricultural reform in the Europe and Central Asia region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Wandel; Agata Pieniadz; Thomas Glauben

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the outcome of the transformation of a centrally planned into a market economy over the past two decades in the case of agriculture in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. It focuses on the question of how transition progress in the region's agriculture can be evaluated and compared adequately. The article presents a set of arguments

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis miescheriana from pigs in the central region of China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenchao; Qian, Weifeng; Li, Xiaojun; Wang, Tianqi; Ding, Ke; Huang, Tengfei

    2013-03-01

    Sarcocystosis is an important food-borne parasitosis in humans and various animals. Sarcocystis miescheriana and Sarcocystis suihominis are pathogenic to pigs; S. suihominis is also distinctly pathogenic to humans. Intermediate and final hosts can harbor more than one Sarcocystis species, so the exact identification for Sarcocystis infection in various hosts is essential to control sarcocystosis in humans and important economic animals including pigs. In this study, four isolates of sarcocysts from slaughtered pigs (SmJY1-SmJY4) in the central region of China, in Henan province, were collected and examined by transmission electron microscopy and 18S rRNA sequence analysis to identify the Sarcocystis species in pigs in China. The results showed that cysts in the diaphragm muscles have a thick cyst wall with a number of palisade-like protrusions up to 4.38 ?m in length. Inside these protrusions, there were 13-16 fibrils per protrusion. Bradyzoites in cysts showed typical characteristics of Apicomplexa including a conoid, many micronemes, dense bodies, one big nucleus, and a number of amylopectin granules. These ultrastructural results suggest that characteristics of tissue cysts of the isolates SmJY1-SmJY4 were similar to those of S. miescheriana. The sequence similarities of SmJY1-SmJY4 with S. miescheriana were 99-99.5 %, and the sequence similarities of SmJY1-SmJY4 with S. suihominis were much lower. Results of the ultrastructural observation in combination with molecular characterization based on the 18S rRNA sequence represent the first demonstration of S. miescheriana in pigs in China. In addition, results of the histological examination showed that the cysts of S. miescheriana had two types of cyst wall, a palisade-like thick wall and another smoothly thin wall, and could cause obvious atrophy, degeneration, and necrosis of muscle fibers in the diaphragm of naturally infected pigs. These findings will provide an important reference for the examination of Sarcocystis species in the slaughter quarantine of live pigs and in the control of sarcocystosis in pigs. PMID:23224613

  5. Prospective evaluation of regional oxygen saturation to estimate central venous saturation in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Koch, Christian; Röhrig, Rainer; Monz, Tobias; Hecker, Andreas; Uhle, Florian; Schneck, Emanuel; Weigand, Markus A; Lichtenstern, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Current treatment guidelines for sepsis claim an early goal-directed hemodynamic optimization including fluid resuscitation, use of vasopressors and inotropic agents. We investigated the correlation between the prominent treatment goal central venous saturation (ScvO2) and the frontal and the thenar regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) measured by near infrared spectroscopy. Secondary, we examined the value of ScvO2, lactate levels and rSO2 as surrogate markers of an impaired tissue oxygenation for outcome prediction in sepsis. This prospective, observational study was performed at the surgical intensive care unit of the University Hospital Giessen. A total of 50 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock were included. ScvO2, rSO2 and lactate were measured at sepsis diagnosis (baseline), 24 and 48 h, thereafter. We investigated the predictive value of frontal and thenar rSO2 for a decreased SvcO2 under 70 %. For survivor and non-survivors ScvO2, rSO2 and lactate were analysed. Patients with ScvO2 >70 % showed a trend to higher levels of fontal rSO2 (62.81 ± 8.06 vs. 53.54 ± 15.48; p = 0.058). ROC-analysis revealed a minor prediction of a decreased ScvO2 by frontal rSO2 levels at baseline (AUC = 0.687; 95 % CI 0.511-0.863; p = 0.047). Combined measurements of lactate and ScvO2 showed significantly elevated mortality for patients with ScvO2 ?70 % and lactate levels ?2.5 mmol/l (log rank test p = 0.004). In the group with ScvO2 <70 % and lactate levels <2.5 mmol/l no patients died during the observation period. Frontal rSO2 correlates with ScvO2 but both frontal and thenar rSO2 do not exactly discriminate between patients with high or low ScvO2 in sepsis. The combination of elevated lactate >2.5 mmol/l and ScvO2 >70 % is highly associated with poor outcome in ICU patients with sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. PMID:25757404

  6. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal lands could produce ~29 × 109 L ethanol y-1, or about 48% of the 2007 U.S. Congress legislative mandate.

  7. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    E-print Network

    Bradley, Raymond S.

    of Central America, the biodiversity hotspot is home to lowland dry and montane/ cloud forests that host all give rise to numerous climate and ecological zones, horizontally and vertically. These steep climatic

  8. The Saghand Region, Central Iran: UPb geochronology, petrogenesis and implications for Gondwana Tectonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAHANDAR RAMEZANI; ROBERT D. TUCKER

    2003-01-01

    The Saghand area of East-Central Iran exposes rocks that comprise the substratum of the Central Iranian continental terrane, as part of the larger Alpine- Himalayan orogenic system. Our new U-Pb ages and geochemical data from the magmatic, metamorphic and siliciclastic rocks of the Saghand area unravel three main episodes of orogenic activity in the latest Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian, the Late Triassic,

  9. Groundwater quality, nitrate pollution and irrigation environmental management in the Neogene sediments of an agricultural region in central Thessaly (Greece)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Stamatis; K. Parpodis; ?. Filintas; ?. Zagana

    The degradation of groundwater quality, which has been noted in the recent years, is closely connected to the intensification\\u000a of agriculture, the unreasonable use of chemical fertilizers and the excess consumption of large volumes of irrigation water.\\u000a In the hilly region of central Thessaly in Greece, which suffers the consequences of intense agricultural use, a hydrogeological\\u000a study is carried out,

  10. Assessment of groundwater quality and contamination problems ascribed to an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa region, Central Portugal)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Neves; M. J. Matias

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of groundwater quality and its environmental implications in the region of the abandoned Cunha Baixa uranium\\u000a mine (Central Portugal) was carried out from 1995 to 2004. Shallow groundwater is the major water supply source for irrigation\\u000a in the neighbourhood of Cunha Baixa village. Water samples from the mine site as well as from private wells were collected\\u000a in

  11. Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Takiyama, Ken [Hiroshima University (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2001-05-15

    Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited states is found to indicate least effects by the collisions to ensure the LIF method.

  12. The vegetation of metalliferous and non-metalliferous grasslands in two former mine regions in Central Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viera Banásová; Othmar Horak; Milada ?iamporová; Miriam Nadubinská; Irene Lichtscheidl

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the composition of the vegetation in two former mining regions in Central Slovakia: Banská Štiavnica with\\u000a predominant Pb-Zn contamination and Staré Hory with a very high Cu content in the soil. Old heaps rich in heavy metals are\\u000a covered with specific vegetation. On the Cu-rich spoil heaps, species-poor plant communities with prevailing Agrostis stolonifera, Avenella flexuosa, Acetosella vulgaris,

  13. Rb\\/Sr isotope studies of Cretaceous granitoids in the central Chukchi region: correctness of geochronological interpretation of results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Efremov; S. I. Dril’; G. P. Sandimirova; I. V. Sandimirov

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the Rb\\/Sr isotopic ages of Cretaceous granitoid complex in the central Chukchi region has been verified. The performed studies showed that the Rb\\/Sr isotopic ages of late-orogenic granitoids are not reliable. Their variation can be explained in terms of the mixing of primary mantle magmas with continental-crust matter. Most probably, the variation is due to the constant

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Nelson, Philip H.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Rouse, William A.; Saltus, Richard W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Shah, Anjana K.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids remain to be found in this area.

  15. Calibration of Shallow Borehole Drilling Sites Using the Electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique in the Granitoids of Central Region, Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Ewusi; Jerry S. Kuma

    2011-01-01

    The electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) technique has been used to calibrate existing successful and dry borehole drilling\\u000a locations in the Cape Coast Granitoid Complex of the Central Region of Ghana. The area has a low groundwater potential and\\u000a most of the communities do not have access to potable water. Surface water is generally expensive to treat and is therefore\\u000a not

  16. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper thrust system) affecting the Marboré sandstones and the Paleocene limestones, deformed by angular south-vergent folds and their related axial plane foliation. The transect explained above clearly summarizes the alpine evolution of northern part of the Sierras Interiores. Moreover, well data available indicate the presence of two thrust soled in the lower calcareous section covering Triassic evaporites at 5 km depth and 8 km to the south of the Sierras Interiores. Because the Triassic evaporites constitute a main decollement level in the South Pyrenean Zone, the deeper thrust system is associated to the emplacement of the Gavarnie nappe. Lanaja, J.M., 1987, Contribución de la exploración petrolífera al conocimiento de la Geología de España, IGME, Madrid, 465 p. Rodríguez, L., Cuevas, J., 2008. Geogaceta 44, 51-54. Rodríguez, L., Cuevas, J., Tubia, J.M., 2011. Geophysical Research Abstracts 13, 2273.

  17. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2015-04-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  18. Dynamic, inter-subunit interactions between the N-terminal and central mutation regions of cardiac ryanodine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zheng; Wang, Ruiwu; Tian, Xixi; Zhong, Xiaowei; Gangopadhyay, Jaya; Cole, Richard; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Chen, S. R. Wayne; Wagenknecht, Terence

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) have been linked to certain types of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Two mutation hotspots that lie in the N-terminal and central regions of RyR2 are predicted to interact with one another and to form an important channel regulator switch. To monitor the conformational dynamics involving these regions, we generated a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair. A yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) was inserted into RyR2 after residue Ser437 in the N-terminal region, and a cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was inserted after residue Ser2367 in the central region, to form a dual YFP- and CFP-labeled RyR2 (RyR2S437-YFP/S2367-CFP). We transfected HEK293 cells with RyR2S437-YFP/S2367-CFP cDNAs, and then examined them by using confocal microscopy and by measuring the FRET signal in live cells. The FRET signals are influenced by modulators of RyR2, by domain peptides that mimic the effects of disease causing RyR2 mutations, and by various drugs. Importantly, FRET signals were also readily detected in cells co-transfected with single CFP (RyR2S437-YFP) and single YFP (RyR2S2367-CFP) labeled RyR2, indicating that the interaction between the N-terminal and central mutation regions is an inter-subunit interaction. Our studies demonstrate that FRET analyses of this CFP- and YFP-labeled RyR2 can be used not only for investigating the conformational dynamics associated with RyR2 channel gating, but potentially, also for identifying drugs that are capable of stabilizing the conformations of RyR2. PMID:20427316

  19. Late Holocene Decline of Beech Populations in the Central Great Lakes Region: Drought- Induced Vegetation Change in a Humid Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, R. K.; Jackson, S. T.; Taylor, M.; Pendall, E.; Sousa, V. A.

    2007-12-01

    A large decline in beech populations ( Fagus grandifolia) has been well-documented from pollen records in southeastern Michigan and Southern Ontario between 1000 and 600 BP. These records reveal that declines in beech pollen were generally associated with increases in oak ( Quercus) and pine ( Pinus). The beech decline probably extended eastward into western Pennsylvania and New York, although beech populations in Upper Michigan remained unaffected or even expanded during this time period. The causes of these forest changes and their spatial patterning is not completely understood, although they have been variously attributed to anthropogenic disturbance, climatic cooling, or drought. Recent paleoclimate evidence from the region indicates that the most severe droughts of the last 2000 years occurred between 1000 and 700 BP. However, direct attribution of drought as a cause of the decline has been problematic because of uncertainties associated with comparison of radiocarbon-dated chronologies. We have conducted tandem investigations of pollen, charcoal, hydroclimate proxies (testate amoebae, humification), and a temperature proxy (d18O of Sphagnum cellulose) from the archives contained in three Sphagnum-dominated peatlands of the region. Two of these peatlands were located within the region of the beech decline (eastern, lower Michigan) and the other was outside the decline region (Upper Michigan). Our results reveal that a series of large droughts, likely the combined result of decreased summer precipitation and warm temperatures, were associated with the beech decline. Large wildfires were also associated with the droughts. Neither droughts nor beech declines were recorded in Upper Michigan. High-resolution analysis of beech pollen and hydroclimate proxies at sites that experienced the droughts reveals complex dynamics at multidecadal timescales between 1000-700 BP, with large fluctuations in beech pollen, available moisture, and charcoal concentrations. Our study demonstrates the potential of using the tandem application of pollen, charcoal, and a wide variety of vegetation-independent climatic proxies to assess ecological responses to climate variability at multidecadal timescales. Although moisture variability is not generally recognized as a driver of ecological change in humid regions, our data indicate that ecologically significant thresholds have been crossed in the recent past.

  20. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alberdi, Antxon; Hernández-García, Lorena [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, P.O. Box 3004, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Colina, Luis [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Efstathiou, Andreas [School of Sciencies, European University Cyprus, Diogenes Street, Engomi, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Miralles-Caballero, Daniel [Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Väisänen, Petri [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 Cape Town (South Africa); Packham, Christopher C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Rajpaul, Vinesh [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ?100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Pa?, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 ?m emission, as well as the Pa? line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Pa? map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r ? 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  1. The Large-Scale Oscillations Influence Over the Interdecadal Climate Variability in Mexico's Central Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jofre, R.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Tereshchenko, I.; Atmospheric Sciences Climatology Climate Variability

    2013-05-01

    Climate in the highlands of Mexico displays high variability due to its complex terrain and elevation. The knowledge to elucidate the principal forcings of these variations can be useful for forecasting annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation over this area. Due to its complexity a small area in the highlands was delimited with defined physical boundaries, encompassing several states of Mexico. The study area was defined as Mexico's Central Region (MCR), which is located between 19.5 ° - 22.5 ° N and 98.5 ° - 104 ° W. Most of this area overlies the plateau of Anahuac, whose physical boundaries extend to the north from the "Sierras Transversales" (composed by the "Sierra de Zacatecas", the "Sierra de la "Breña" and the "Sierra de San Luis") to the "Eje Neovolcánico" to the south; east and west boundaries are confined by the "Sierra Madre Oriental" and the "Sierra Madre Occidental", respectively. Daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation series from a total of 112 weather stations were obtained from CLICOM and ERICIII databases. Several climatic indices with average periods of phase oscillations greater than five years, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDOI), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMOI), The Arctic Oscillation (AOI), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAOI), and Aleutian Low Pressure (ALPI) on a monthly basis for all series, except the ALPI series which is on annual rate, were also used in this study. Indices data were obtained from the web site http://www.cicimar.ipn.mx/oacis/Indices_Climaticos.php/. The common period of all series was 1961-2000. We applied Principal Component Analysis to precipitation and temperature series to identify the principal modes of variation of the series. The first mode explained more than 68% of the variance in the original series and corresponds to annual variations. Contour maps were useful to elucidate that temperature variations are highly correlated with the terrain elevation, and that the variation of precipitation results from a combined effect between altitude and distance from the seaboard. Correlations between climatic indices and standardized anomalies of temperature and precipitation series were computed. Correlation analysis was applied first with no time lag between the series, and then until the lag offsetting was equal to half the average of each oscillation period of the series. In all cases the climatic index preceded the temperature and precipitation series. Significant correlations were found through the calculations. The strongest correlations were found between the ALPI and temperature, and precipitation series; Correlation between climatic indices and the maximum temperature was stronger than correlation between climatic indices and the other variables. The NAOI displays low correlation with temperature and precipitation series, so we conclude that North Atlantic Oscillation does not influence significantly to the climate variability of MCR.

  2. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as <100 nm) fundamentally distinct from the larger size materials. Naturally occurring mineral nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous suspension (no change in average particle size up to several months of storage). Particle surface charge (in water) ranged from -31mV to -34.5mV (pH = 5.7 - 6.2), this reflects the predominantly negative surface charge of kaolinites in soil environment effectively screening the positive charge of Fe oxides. Kaolinites appeared as single crystals (pseudo hexagonal platelets) while Fe oxides occurred mostly as micro-aggregates, with individual particles often not morphologically distinct with particle size <10nm. In addition, several anatase (TiO2) nanoparticles were also found. Both kaolinites and Fe oxides nanoparticles were crystalline, as evidenced from XRD measurements and HRTEM imaging. Distinction between different crystalline forms of Fe oxides (mainly hematite and goethite) was only possible with XRD, which revealed also subtle differences in mineralogical composition of the clay fraction (<2µm) and nanofraction (<100nm). The kaolinite's crystallite size (calculated from XRD data) was found to range 14-17nm in the nanofraction and 26-50nm in the clay fraction. For hematite, it was 13nm in the nanofraction and ranged from 21-30nm in the clay fraction. Such small particles can be expected to play an important role in soil sorption processes with implications on nutrient and contaminant cycling. Identification and understanding of the properties of naturally occurring nanoparticles in soils can therefore help soil scientists to better understand retention/mobilization of nutrients and pollutants in soils.

  3. Characterisation of feeding systems of goat farmers in the central region of Jamaica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. H. Asiedu; A. L. Fearon; J. M. Seaton

    Static diagnosis data for 165 goat farmers in three parishes (St Elizabeth, Manchester and Clarendon) in central Jamaica were analysed in order to characterise the feeding systems. Categorical data analysis was used to fit Y by X where Y (dependent variables) were main feed type, forage type, forage delivery method and supplement type, and X (independent variables) were parish, educational

  4. Regional geology of nuclear Central America and petroleum prospects of Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.R.; Nair, K.M.; Ramanathan, R.

    1989-03-01

    The subsurface stratigraphy and structural evolution of nuclear Central American are reviewed in the light of new data from Belize. The northern Belize Corozal basin is the southern continuation of the Yucatan platform of Mexico and the eastern extension of the Peten basin of Mexico and Guatemala. The southern Belize basin is contiguous with the Chapayal basin of Guatemala.

  5. Centralized power and divided space: `Fractured regions' in the Israeli `ethnocracy'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oren Yiftachel

    2001-01-01

    This paper uses a critical political-geographical perspective to account for the high centrality of power found in Israel. It suggests that the concentration of power have not been solely caused by national solidarity and integration or by metropolitan development, as commonly explained, but also by the territorial `fracturing' of the main social and ethnic groups in Israel\\/Palestine. This has prevented

  6. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Irrigation Waters in Thessaly Region, Central Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. K. Mitsios; E. E. Golia; C. D. Tsadilas

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to provide information on heavy metals concentrations in soils and in irrigation water in Thessaly, Central Greece, where tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is cultivated. Tobacco tends to accumulate high levels of heavy metals, especially Cadmium. During the years 1998, 1999, and 2000, 795 surface soil samples (0 to 30 cm depth) and 200 water samples were

  7. A Multiscale Application of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes in the Central Mediterranean Area and Alpine Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V.; Peresan, A.; Aoudia, A.; Panza, G. F.

    2011-01-01

    We study the parameters A, B, and C of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE) in the Central Mediterranean area and Alpine region on the basis of a variable space and time scale approach. We make use of regional and local earthquake catalogues. Accordingly, we investigate three different scales: the scale of the Central Mediterranean and Alpine region spanning different geological domains, the scale of the Alps focusing on a single geological entity, and the scale of an active fault system at the junction between the southeastern Alps and the external Dinarides in Northeastern Italy and Western Slovenia. Maps based on the varied time and location scales are compared with each other. The observed temporal variability of the A, B, C coefficients indicates significant changes of seismic activity at the time scales of a few decades. Therefore, it is highly recommended to use all the data available for long-term seismic hazard assessment in conjunction with a real-time monitoring of these characteristics for possible evaluation of time-dependent risk at the intermediate-term scales of a few years. The confirmed fractal nature of earthquakes and their distribution in space implies that the traditional estimations of seismic hazard for cities and urban agglomerations are usually underestimated. The degree of underestimation by traditional methods of seismic risk at a city is illustrated by providing estimates of hazard and related personal hazard, which are oversimplified examples of seismic risk assessment accounting for fractal properties of earthquakes in the major cities of the Central Mediterranean and Alpine region.

  8. Simulations of Future Drought Conditions in Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türke?, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent; An, Nazan

    2015-04-01

    In this work, projected future changes in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology, inter-annual and seasonal variability and climatic aridity/humidity conditions for the period 2070-2100 over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (from 1970 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by using 2 different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation almost all part of the domain. The results of our study show that surface temperatures in the region will increase from 3 °C up to more than 7 °C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period 2070-2100 with respect to past period 1970-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation and also resultant or associated increased aridity and more frequent and severe drought events very likely adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already characterised with mostly arid and semi-arid climate and ecosystems.

  9. High star formation activity in the central region of a distant cluster at z=1.46

    E-print Network

    Hayashi, Masao; Koyama, Yusei; Tanaka, Ichi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Sadanori

    2009-01-01

    We present an unbiased deep [OII] emission survey of a cluster XMMXCS J2215.9-1738 at z=1.46, the most distant cluster to date with a detection of extended X-ray emission. With wide-field optical and near-infrared cameras (Suprime-Cam and MOIRCS, respectively) on Subaru telescope, we performed deep imaging with a narrow-band filter NB912 (lambda_c=9139A, Delta_lambda=134A) as well as broad-band filters (B, z', J and Ks). From the photometric catalogues, we have identified 44 [OII] emitters in the cluster central region of 6'x6' down to a dust-free star formation rate of 2.6 Msun/yr (3 sigma). Interestingly, it is found that there are many [OII] emitters even in the central high density region. In fact, the fraction of [OII] emitters to the cluster members as well as their star formation rates and equivalent widths stay almost constant with decreasing cluster-centric distance up to the cluster core. Unlike clusters at lower redshifts (z<1) where star formation activity is mostly quenched in their central re...

  10. Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts

    2003-01-01

    In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and

  11. Evaluation of phase bunching in the central region of a cyclotron by a radial probe with a plastic scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kurashima, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2014-12-01

    A new technique for evaluating the phase bunching performance in the central region of a cyclotron was developed. A newly-developed radial probe with a 6-mm-wide, 5-mm-height plastic scintillator was applied to analysis of the correlation between the internal beam phase distribution and the initial beam phase, defined by adjusting the relative RF phase of the beam buncher. The phase distribution measurement system, comprising the radial probe equipped with a plastic scintillator and the signal-processing modules, had a sufficiently good time resolution of 45 ps full-width at half-maximum for the phase bunching evaluation. The correlations between the buncher phase and the measured phase distribution for the acceleration harmonic number h=1 and 2 were consistent with the calculation result of the geometric trajectory analysis. For h=1 case of a 107 MeV 4He2+ beam, the internal beam phase region spread over 71 RF degrees full-width at quarter-maximum (FWQM) for the acceptable buncher phase region of 48 RF degrees, and no evidence of the phase bunching effect was observed. For h=2 case of a 260 MeV 20Ne7+ beam, the internal beam phase region for the acceptable buncher phase region of 59 RF degrees was compressed into 21 RF degrees FWQM. The phase bunching effect was sharply evident for h=2, and contributed to increase of the acceptable beam phase region and the beam intensity per phase width.

  12. The central and northern Appalachian Basin-a frontier region for coalbed methane development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is the world's second largest coalbed-methane (CBM) producing basin. It has nearly 4000 wells with 1996 annual production at 147.8 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Cumulative CBM production is close to 0.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). The Black Warrior Basin of Alabama in the southern Appalachian basin (including a very minor amount from the Cahaba coal field) accounts for about 75% of this annual production and about 75% of the wells, and the remainder comes from the central and northern Appalachian basin. The Southwest Virginia coal field accounts for about 95% of the production from the central and northern parts of the Appalachian basin. Production data and trends imply that several of the Appalachian basin states, except for Alabama and Virginia, are in their infancy with respect to CBM development. Total in-place CBM resources in the central and northern Appalachian basin have been variously estimated at 66 to 76 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), of which an estimated 14.55 Tcf (~ 20%) is technically recoverable according to a 1995 U.S. Geological Survey assessment. For comparison in the Black Warrior basin of the 20 Tcf in-place CBM resources, 2.30 Tcf (~ 12%) is technically recoverable. Because close to 0.9 Tcf of CBM has already been produced from the Black Warrior basin and the proved reserves are about 0.8 Tcf for 1996 [Energy Information Administration (EIA), 1997]. U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 1996 Annual Report. U.S. Department of Energy DOE/EIA-0216(96), 145 pp.], these data imply that the central and northern Appalachian basin could become increasingly important in the Appalachian basin CBM picture as CBM resources are depleted in the southern Appalachian basin (Black Warrior Basin and Cahaba Coal Field). CBM development in the Appalachian states could decrease the eastern U.S.A.'s dependence on coal for electricity. CBM is expected to provide over the next few decades a virtually untapped source of unconventional fossil fuel in the Appalachian states, where the CBM resources are large and the demand for cleaner fossil-fuel energy is high.The central and northern Appalachian basin could become increasingly important in the Appalachian basin coalbed methane (CBM) picture as CBM resources are depleted in the southern Appalachian basin. Total in-place CBM resources in the central and the northern Appalachian basin have been estimated at 66 to 76 Tcf, of which 14.55 Tcf is technically recoverable.

  13. Upper crustal tomographic images of the Amiata-Vulsini geothermal region, central Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chiarabba; A. Amato; A. Fiordelisi

    1995-01-01

    We computed the three-dimensional P wave velocity structure of the upper crust beneath the adjacent Amiata and Vulsini Quaternary volcanoes (central Italy), inverting local earthquake arrival times. We used 676 selected earthquakes out of more than 3000 (in the M range 1.5-4.0) located between 1977 and 1992 by two contiguous microseismic networks operated by Ente Nazionale Energia Elettrica to monitor

  14. Geological evolution, regional perspectives and hydrocarbon potential of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. W. Fyhn; Lars H. Nielsen; Lars O. Boldreel; Le D. Thang; Jørgen Bojesen-Koefoed; Henrik I. Petersen; Nguyen T. Huyen; Nguyen A. Duc; Nguyen T. Dau; Anders Mathiesen; Ian Reid; Dang T. Huong; Hoang A. Tuan; Le V. Hien; Hans P. Nytoft; Ioannis Abatzis

    2009-01-01

    Seismic stratigraphic and structural analyses of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam, based on 2-D seismic data, indicate that the initial rifting began during the latest Cretaceous? or Palaeogene controlled by left-lateral transtension along the East Vietnam Boundary Fault Zone (EVBFZ) and northwest–southeast directed extension east of the EVBFZ. Rifting stopped due to transpression during middle Oligocene times

  15. Advective heat transport associated with regional Earth degassing in central Apennine (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, G.; Cardellini, C.; Caliro, S.; Chiarabba, C.; Frondini, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we show that the main springs of the central Apennine transport a total amount of heat of ˜2.2×109 J s-1. Most of this heat (57%) is the result of geothermal warming while the remaining 43% is due to gravitational potential energy dissipation. This result indicates that a large area of the central Apennines is very hot with heat flux values >300 mW m-2. These values are higher than those measured in the magmatic and famously geothermal provinces of Tuscany and Latium and about 1/3 of the total heat discharged at Yellowstone. This finding is surprising because the central Apennines have been thought to be a relatively cold area. Translated by CO2 rich fluids, this heat anomaly suggests the existence of a thermal source such as a large magmatic intrusion at depth. Recent tomographic images of the area support the presence of such an intrusion visible as a broad negative velocity anomaly in seismic waves. Our results indicate that the thermal regime of tectonically active areas of the Earth, where meteoric waters infiltrate and deeply circulate, should be revised on the basis of mass and energy balances of the groundwater systems.

  16. Currently active regions of decelerating-accelerating seismic strain in central Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Papazachos; E. M. Scordilis; D. G. Panagiotopoulos; C. B. Papazachos; G. F. Karakaisis

    2007-01-01

    Accelerating preshock seismic strain in a broad (critical) region and decelerating preshock seismic strain in a narrower (seismogenic) region constitute a model for intermediate-term prediction of strong main shocks. An effort is made in the present work for a forward test of the Decelerating-Accelerating Seismic Strain (D-AS) model by identifying such patterns and estimating the corresponding, probably ensuing, strong main

  17. The mineral resource potential of the Nordre Strøm- fjord - Qasigiannguit region, southern and central West Greenland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Stendal; Jette Blomsterberg; Sven Monrad Jensen; Mogens Lind; Heine Buus Madsen; Bo Møller Nielsen; Leif Thorning; Claus Østergaard

    Assessment of the mineral resource potential of the region between Sukkertoppen Iskappe and the south- ern part of Nuussuaq, West Greenland (66°N to 70°15´N; Fig. 1) is part of a regional resource assessment pro- gramme of the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) for 2000-2003. The year 2000 was dedicated to the compilation of existing data and the outlining

  18. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of NW and central Himalayas and the adjoining region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Madan Mohan; Das, Josodhir; Kamal; Das, Ranjit

    2015-04-01

    The Himalayan region has undergone significant development and to ensure safe and secure progress in such a seismically vulnerable region there is a need for hazard assessment. For seismic hazard assessment, it is important to assess the quality, consistency, and homogeneity of the seismicity data collected from different sources. In the present study, an improved magnitude conversion technique has been used to convert different magnitude scales to moment magnitude scale. The study area and its adjoining region have been divided into 22 seismogenic zones based upon the geology, tectonics, and seismicity including source mechanism relevant to the region. Region specific attenuation equations have been used for seismic hazard assessment. Standard procedure for PSHA has been adopted for this study and peak ground motion is estimated for 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years at the bed rock level. For the 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, the PGA values vary from 0.06 to 0.36 g and 0.11 to 0.65 g, respectively considering varying b-value. Higher PGA values are observed in the southeast part region situated around Kaurik Fault System (KFS) and western parts of Nepal.

  19. Regional central serotonin receptor binding in rats treated chronically with high-dose 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Pranzatelli

    1991-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (L-5-HTP) exerted differential regional effects on central 5-HT receptors in rats treated chronically by intraperitoneal injections of large incremental doses (50–200 mg\\/kg). There were significant reductions in Bmax of agonist-labelled (-35%) and antagonist-labelled (-20%) 5-HT2 sites in cortex but no changes in brainstem. Kd and nH were unaffected by L-5-HTP. Bmax of 5-HT1 sites (unsubtyped)

  20. Quantitative reconstructions of changes in regional openness in north-central Europe reveal new insights into old questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Giesecke, Thomas; Theuerkauf, Martin; Feeser, Ingo; Behre, Karl-Ernst; Beug, Hans-Jürgen; Chen, Su-Hwa; Christiansen, Jörg; Dörfler, Walter; Endtmann, Elisabeth; Jahns, Susanne; de Klerk, Pim; Kühl, Norbert; Lata?owa, Ma?gorzata; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Rasmussen, Peter; Stockholm, Jette Raal; Voigt, Ricarda; Wiethold, Julian; Wolters, Steffen

    2012-07-01

    By applying the recently developed model REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites) (Sugita, 2007) to pollen data from a large number of sites across Northern Germany and Denmark, we construct maps of regional patterns in landscape openness and in cover abundance of key plant taxa in the cultural landscape of north-central Europe for selected time slices in the Holocene. The results indicate that the pattern of landscape openness across the regions of northern Germany and Denmark prior to the introduction of agriculture was affected by soil conditions and degree of continentality. The 8.2 ka climate event did not lead to a general decrease in tree cover, although some changes in species composition were observed. The early phases of agriculture also had little effect on landscape openness at the regional scale, but later human impact lead to large scale deforestation and development of arable areas, grasslands and of heathlands in the north-western part of the region. The timing and degree of deforestation, and the weight between arable and grazing areas varied in space, partly due to differences in natural conditions, partly due to differences in cultural impact.

  1. A Cooperative Career Education Project Involving the Fayette County Schools, Eastern Kentucky University, and Central Kentucky Vocational Region. Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, John D.

    The 3-year project was intended to provide for a systematic delivery of career development experiences within each of the three institutions involved--Fayette County Schools, Eastern Kentucky University, and the Central Kentucky Vocational Region--with central activity located in the Fayette County Schools. Major project themes centered on…

  2. Lithospheric structure in the Baikal-central Mongolia region from integrated1 geophysical-petrological inversion of surface-wave data and topographic elevation2

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan G.

    1 Lithospheric structure in the Baikal-central Mongolia region from integrated1 geophysical the inversion to central Mongolia, south of the24 Baikal Rift Zone, a key area of deformation in Asia-asthenosphere boundary, petro-physical modeling,35 Mongolia, Baikal Rift, mantle composition36 37 38 39 1. Introduction40

  3. Pulpwood production in the north-central region, 1991. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Piva, R.J.

    1993-11-29

    The report includes all primary products made from reconstituted wood fiber. In addition to wood pulp, this includes particleboard products made from chips, shavings, wafers, flakes, strands, and sawdust. The report presents the production by county of the raw fiber material delivered to mills. Thus, these data report only that portion of the timber harvest used as raw material and do not necessarily reflect the volume of growing stock harvested. Pulp and particleboard mills using North Central States timber in 1991 reported their pulpwood receipts by species group and county of origin.

  4. Ecological characterization of the central and northern California coastal region. Volume III, Part 2. Community composition lists

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    An extensive listing of species for each habitat type is offered in this volume. Many thousands of plant and animal species are found within the central and northern California coastal region. Preparation of a useful list of species required identifying and recognizing the most common or characteristic species of the region. In addition to the common or characteristic plants and animals the list also included commercial, recreational, and rare, threatened, endangered, and fully protected species. An annotated species data entry form was prepared for each species chosen. Entries on the form included scientific and common names, taxonomic division, intermediate group name, distribution by watershed or basin, legal status, habitat, feeding habits, trophic level, abundance, habitat use, and literature references.

  5. Isotope dating of ultrapotassic magmatism in the central Chukchi region: Rb-Sr age and geochemistry of monzonites from the Linkor stock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Efremov; V. D. Kozlov; G. P. Sandimirova

    2008-01-01

    Isotope dating of ultrapotassic magmatism in the central Chukchi region was carried out. Based on the Rb-Sr isochron age of monzonites from the Linkor stock (107±2.2. Ma) and using earlier obtained geochronological isotope data, we have estimated the time of one of the stages of ultrapotassic magmatism, 107–113 Ma. Igneous rocks of this age occur throughout the central Chikchi region,

  6. Assessment of regional change in nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Central Valley, California, USA, 1950s-2000s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

    2013-01-01

    A regional assessment of multi-decadal changes in nitrate concentrations was done using historical data and a spatially stratified non-biased approach. Data were stratified into physiographic subregions on the basis of geomorphology and soils data to represent zones of historical recharge and discharge patterns in the basin. Data were also stratified by depth to represent a shallow zone generally representing domestic drinking-water supplies and a deep zone generally representing public drinking-water supplies. These stratifications were designed to characterize the regional extent of groundwater with common redox and age characteristics, two factors expected to influence changes in nitrate concentrations over time. Overall, increasing trends in nitrate concentrations and the proportion of nitrate concentrations above 5 mg/L were observed in the east fans subregion of the Central Valley. Whereas the west fans subregion has elevated nitrate concentrations, temporal trends were not detected, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of the water quality in this area and geologic sources of nitrate, combined with sparse and uneven data coverage. Generally low nitrate concentrations in the basin subregion are consistent with reduced geochemical conditions resulting from low permeability soils and higher organic content, reflecting the distal portions of alluvial fans and historical groundwater discharge areas. Very small increases in the shallow aquifer in the basin subregion may reflect downgradient movement of high nitrate groundwater from adjacent areas or overlying intensive agricultural inputs. Because of the general lack of regionally extensive long-term monitoring networks, the results from this study highlight the importance of placing studies of trends in water quality into regional context. Earlier work concluded that nitrate concentrations were steadily increasing over time in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, but clearly those trends do not apply to other physiographic subregions within the Central Valley, even where land use and climate are similar.

  7. Transneuronal tracing of central autonomic regions involved in cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Juan; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Hai-Jian; Liu, Tong-Yan; Ding, Lei; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Ye-Bo

    2014-07-15

    Stimulation of cardiac afferents (CA) increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. The goal of the current study is to determine the central autonomic nuclei involved in the regulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) which has been proved in previously functional studies. Neuroanatomical method and pseudorabies virus (PRV) transynaptic retrograde trace technique will be performed to investigate the relationship between kidney and heart and the temporal order of the most PRV-labeled neurons in the central nervous system. Recombinant PRV expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was injected into the left kidney of rats as a specific trans-synaptic retrograde tracer in neurons. After 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 days, brain, spinal cord and heart were collected for immunofluorescence staining. The temporal order of PRV labeled neurons was found in the ipsilateral intermediolateral nucleus (IML) of T8-T12 spinal segments on day 3; bilateral rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) on day 4; and left and right ventricular walls and ventricular septum of the heart on day 9. In rats with renal denervation, no PRV-infected neurons or cardiomyocytes were found after PRV injection. In conclusion, PRV trans-synaptic retrograde trace confirms that CA, NTS, PVN, RVLM, IML and renal nerves do exist to be involved in the regulation of CSAR and there is a close relationship between heart and kidney. CA is mainly located in the left ventricular wall, right ventricular wall and ventricular septum. PMID:24819915

  8. Development of regional skews for selected flood durations for the Central Valley Region, California, based on data through water year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamontagne, Jonathan R.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Berenbrock, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Flood-frequency information is important in the Central Valley region of California because of the high risk of catastrophic flooding. Most traditional flood-frequency studies focus on peak flows, but for the assessment of the adequacy of reservoirs, levees, other flood control structures, sustained flood flow (flood duration) frequency data are needed. This study focuses on rainfall or rain-on-snow floods, rather than the annual maximum, because rain events produce the largest floods in the region. A key to estimating flood-duration frequency is determining the regional skew for such data. Of the 50 sites used in this study to determine regional skew, 28 sites were considered to have little to no significant regulated flows, and for the 22 sites considered significantly regulated, unregulated daily flow data were synthesized by using reservoir storage changes and diversion records. The unregulated, annual maximum rainfall flood flows for selected durations (1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 15-day, and 30-day) for all 50 sites were furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using the expected moments algorithm program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual flood-duration data. Bayesian generalized least squares regression procedures used in earlier studies were modified to address problems caused by large cross correlations among concurrent rainfall floods in California and to address the extensive censoring of low outliers at some sites, by using the new expected moments algorithm for fitting the LP3 distribution to rainfall flood-duration data. To properly account for these problems and to develop suitable regional-skew regression models and regression diagnostics, a combination of ordinary least squares, weighted least squares, and Bayesian generalized least squares regressions were adopted. This new methodology determined that a nonlinear model relating regional skew to mean basin elevation was the best model for each flood duration. The regional-skew values ranged from -0.74 for a flood duration of 1-day and a mean basin elevation less than 2,500 feet to values near 0 for a flood duration of 7-days and a mean basin elevation greater than 4,500 feet. This relation between skew and elevation reflects the interaction of snow and rain, which increases with increased elevation. The regional skews are more accurate, and the mean squared errors are less than in the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data's National skew map of Bulletin 17B.

  9. X-ray Measurements of the Gravitational Potential Profile in the Central Region of the Abell 1060 Cluster of Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Takayuki Tamura; Kazuo Makishima; Yasushi Fukazawa; Yasushi Ikebe; Haiguang Xu

    2000-02-23

    X-ray spectral and imaging data from ASCA and ROSAT were used to measure the total mass profile in the central region of Abell 1060, a nearby and relatively poor cluster of galaxies. The ASCA X-ray spectra, after correcting for the spatial response of the X-ray telescope, show an isothermal distribution of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) within at least $\\sim$ 12' (or $160h_{70}^{-1}$ kpc; $H_0 = 70 h_{70}$ km s$^{-1}$Mpc$^{-1}$) in radius of the cluster center. The azimuthally averaged surface brightness profile from the ROSAT PSPC exhibits a central excess above an isothermal $\\beta$ model. The ring-sorted ASCA GIS spectra and the radial surface brightness distribution from the ROSAT PSPC were simultaneously utilized to constrain the gravitational potential profile. Some analytic models of the total mass density profile were examined. The ICM density profile was also specified by analytic forms. The ICM temperature distribution was constrained to satisfy the hydrostatic equilibrium, and to be consistent with the data. Then, the total mass distribution was found to be described better by the universal dark halo profile proposed by Navarro, Frenk, and White (1996;1997) than by a King-type model with a flat density core. A profile with a central cusp together with a logarithmic radial slope of $\\sim 1.5$ was also consistent with the data. Discussions are made concerning the estimated dark matter distribution around the cluster center.

  10. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two basins at the northeast edge of the burned area tributary to Rio del Oso and Vallecitos Creek. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings identify the areas of highest probability of the largest debris flows. Basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings include upper Santa Clara Canyon in the northern section of the burn scar, and portions of Peralta, Colle, Bland, Cochiti, Capulin, Alamo, and Frijoles Canyons in the southern section of the burn scar. Three basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings also occur in areas upstream from the city of Los Alamos—the city is home to and surrounded by numerous technical sites for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential debris flows in the burned area could affect the water supply for Santa Clara Pueblo and several recreational lakes, as well as recreational and archeological resources in Bandelier National Monument. Debris flows could damage bridges and culverts along State Highway 501 and other roadways. Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into areas downstream from the modeled basins along the valley floors, where they could affect human life, property, agriculture, and infrastructure in those areas. Additionally, further investigation is needed to assess the potential for debris flows to affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and to increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize areas where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Las Conchas Fire.

  11. Influence of irrigation schemes used in regional climate models on evapotranspiration estimation: Results and comparative studies from California's Central Valley agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorooshian, Soroosh; Li, Jialun; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Gao, Xiaogang

    2012-03-01

    The agricultural sector is the largest consumer of water in California. The impacts of irrigation on local and/or regional weather and climate have been studied and reported in recent literature. However, because of the lack of observations and realistic irrigation schemes employed in the numerical models, most previous studies fall in the category of sensitivity tests, focusing on temperature variations. The results being reported in this paper are obtained by incorporating into the MM5/Noah land surface model an irrigation method practiced in California's farming sector. The proposed irrigation scheme is based on the principle that irrigation occurs when available soil-water content is less than the maximum allowable water depletion (SWm), which depends on both soil type and crop type. The study's focus was to evaluate the impact of a more realistic irrigation scheme on surface fluxes, especially evapotranspiration (ET). It is demonstrated that more accurate amounts and patterns of ET in the Central Valley are realized, as compared to ET estimates (in terms of amounts and spatial distribution) obtained from remotely sensed observation as well as in situ ground data. It is demonstrated that significant discrepancies of ET estimates between different irrigation schemes used in regional hydroclimate modeling exist, which may result in erroneous conclusions about the impact of irrigation on regional water balance, especially over and near agricultural areas.

  12. The planetary nebulae population in the central regions of M32: the SAURON view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Sarzi; Gary A. Mamon; Michele Cappellari; Eric Emsellem; Roland Bacon; Roger L. Davies; P. Tim de Zeeuw

    2011-01-01

    Extragalactic planetary nebulae (PNe) are not only useful as distance signposts or as tracers of the dark matter content of their host galaxies, but constitute also good indicators of the main properties of their parent stellar populations. Yet, so far, the properties of PNe in the optical regions of galaxies where stellar population gradients can be more extreme have remained

  13. Plant diversity differs between young and old mesic meadows in a central European low mountain region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar Waesch; Thomas Becker

    2009-01-01

    Effects of habitat age on species diversity are an important issue in plant conservation. However, effects of habitat age on mesic meadows are poorly investigated. Here we compare plant species richness between old mesic meadows (>150 years) and young mesic meadows (40–60 years) in a low mountain region (Thuringian Forest, Germany). Species richness and species traits were determined in 20

  14. Simulating Climate Change in Central America Using PRECIS Regional Modeling System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Karmalkar; R. S. Bradley; H. F. Diaz

    2006-01-01

    Highland tropical forests are rich in endemic species and crucial in maintaining freshwater resources in many regions. Much of their remarkable biodiversity is due to the steep climate gradients found on tropical mountains. These gradients are significantly altered due to warming, affecting many species living on the mountain slopes. Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest shows biological changes associated with changes

  15. Identification of Regional Soil Quality Factors and Indicators: I. Central and Southern High Plains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Brejda; Thomas B. Moorman; Douglas L. Karlen; Thanh H. Dao

    and Parkin, 1994). Soil functions that soil quality influ- ences include the ability (i) to accept, hold, and release Appropriate indicators for assessing soil quality on a regional scale nutrients and other chemical constituents; (ii) to accept, using the National Resource Inventory (NRI) are unknown. Our hold, and release water to plants and surface and objectives were to (i) identify

  16. 78 FR 53450 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...for each of the eastern Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs)/Independent System Operators (ISOs) to give a 15 minute...The report summarizes the approaches taken by each of these RTOs/ISOs with respect to these design elements and discusses...

  17. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA SPP. IN CENTRAL CALIFORNIA RELATED TO REGIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY

    E-print Network

    Cochlan, William P.

    .) Harmful Algae 2002. Florida and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography areas are negative anomalies. Data are for Monterey Bay. The dashed vertical lines indicate major bloom major HAB bloom events off the California coast, focusing on the Monterey Bay region from 1990

  18. Regional landslide hazard assesment for Kulon Progo Area, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnawati, D.

    2009-12-01

    Karanganyar region is situated in a dynamic volcanic region in Java Island, where rain-induced landslides are frequent and widespread. Shallow-rapid earth slides triggered by heavy rainfall are the most common landslide type occurring on the steep slope and had resulted in major casualties, whilst deep soil creeping is more prominant on the gentle slope which creat a lot of damages on the houses and infrastructure. A landslide hazard assessment had been conducted to support the landslide mitigation program in this region. Such assessment was carried out by applying a semi qualitative approach (Analytical Hierarchical Process) where a weighting system was applied to assess the level of importance of each controlling parameter as suggested by Saaty (1980). Existing conditions of each controlling parameters were also assessed based on relative hierarchical system by applying scoring. Geographical Information System was used as a tool in such analysis and mapping process. The isohyet map was also prepared from statistical and spatial analyses on rain fall data. Finally, two different scenarios of landslide hazard maps were established, i.e. the scenario without any rainfall (Scenario 1) and with the reainfall (Scenario 2). It was found that the most susceptible zone of landslide was localised on the steep slope (with the inclination beyond 45o ) of jointed andesitic breccia, which was covered by thinck silty clay and situated close to the stream zone (Scenario 1). However from the hazard map and analysis on scenario 2, it can be identified that the susceptible zone expanded larger due to the rainfall, covering most region of the west-slope area of Lawu Volcano. Therefore, it can be concluded that the rainfall intensity is very crucial to induce the landslide not only in the most susceptible zone, but also in the larger area which also include the less susceptbile zone. This findings is also crucial to support the development of landslide spatial-early-warning system in the region.

  19. Agroecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in Chernozems at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Sergey; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The ecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in soil cover of the agroecosystems is the important issue of the regional agroecological monitoring which results are actively used for landscape-adaptive land-use design with rational, environmental friendly fertilizing systems. The virgin forest-steppe plots without anthropogenous impacts are usually used as background data of microelements content in dominated zonal Chernozems. The average background content of zinc, copper, cobalt and manganese mobile forms (extracted with ?? 4,8 buffer) in 10-20 cm layer of virgin Leached Chernozem at the federal reserve «Belogorye» (monitoring site «Jamskaya Steppe») are accordingly 0.75, 0.19, 0.14 and 12.8 mg/kg. According to RF actual evaluation scale for arable soils the background microelements content in the investigated virgin Chernozems have been corresponded to low level for mobile forms of zinc, copper and cobalt, and to middle level - for manganese ones that essentially limits their natural fertility. The results of carried out in the Belgorod Region in 2010-2014 agroecological monitoring have shown, that most of the arable soils are characterized by low content of the mobile forms of manganese (60 %) zinc (99,2 % of total area), cobalt (94,1 %) and copper (100 %) too that became a serious problem for intensive farming active development in the region. During active agroecological monitoring period since 1990-1994 to 2010-2014 the average regional contents of the principal microelements mobile forms have been essentially decreased: from 1,44 to 0,53 mg/kg in case of zinc, from 17,5 to 9,2 mg/kg in case of manganese - due to low level of micronutrient fertilizers and manure application. It determined the current priority in the agrochemical service development in the region with new DSS-supported agrotechnologies design and essentially increased level of profitable application of traditional and non-traditional organic and mineral-organic fertilizers.

  20. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it`s new marketing plan.

  1. Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapalee, Gloria; Steyaert, Louis T.; Hall, Forrest G.

    2001-12-01

    Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important, particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients.

  2. Effectiveness of traditional climatic responses in the central Texas region in maintaining thermal comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, D. (Trinity Univ., San Antonio, TX); Chabannes, G.

    1982-01-01

    Traditional building responses to the Central Texas climate are compared and evaluated in a parametric study. Building parameters of size, shape, orientation, capacitance and resistance values of materials, ceiling height, porch chading devices, and ventilation strategies are simulated using the DEROB computer code. Unassisted thermal comfort parameters of air temperature and mean radiant surface temperature are tabulated by hour into temperature bins to allow comparison of the relative effect of each response. Results indicate that high capacitance materials are more effective in maintaining thermal comfort in winter, and high resistance materials are more effective in summer. Building elongation improves summer performance, but reduces winter performance. Increased ceiling height provides marginal improvement in both winter and summer performance of traditional structures. The presence of a porch shading device improves summer performance slightly, but degrades winter performance by a similar degree. Ventilation strategies also show an improvement in summer building performance.

  3. Pulpwood production in the north-central region, 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Piva, R.J.

    1995-04-18

    Pulp and particleboard mills using North Central States timber in 1993 reported their pulpwood receipts by species group and county of origin. The report presents the results of the survey, analyzes the data, compares results with those of 1992 or earlier years, and discusses trends in pulpwood production and use. The report includes all primary products made from reconstituted wood fiber. In addition to wood pulp, this includes particleboard and engineered lumber products made from chips, shavings, wafers, flakes, strands, and sawdust. This report presents the production by county of the raw fiber material delivered to mills. Thus, these data report only that a portion of the timber harvest used as raw material and do not necessarily reflect the volume of growing stock harvested.

  4. Two-dimensional generalization of Gaussian rings and dynamics of the central regions of flat galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratyev, B. P.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the idea of a single Gaussian elliptical ring on a circular two-dimensional ring or, in the limit, a continuous disc is generalized. Such a ring (hereafter, the R-ring) can consist of identical Keplerian elliptic orbits, of fixed a and e, uniformly portioned on the azimuth angle, or/and filled with orbits that precess around a central star or black hole. The special method of radially averaging the mass of moving bodies is developed. For this wide annulus, we compute the surface density, the two-dimensional and three-dimensional potentials, the mutual gravitational energy and the rotational energy. The surface density has two sharp peaks at the edges of the R-ring and a deep internal minimum. The Newtonian potential of the R-ring is carefully studied and the spatial equipotential surfaces are calculated. The force of attraction at the edges of the R-ring strives for infinity, and in cavity the circular orbits do not exist. The R-rings can be formed naturally in systems of bodies with a large central mass and play a dynamical role. The model is applied to the assessment of some properties of the clockwise disc in the centre of the Galaxy. For the relation of the rotational energy to the module of mutual gravitational energy, we found ? ? 0.29. The R-ring model offers an explanation for the existence of sharp local minima on rotation curves, which are observed in many flat galaxies. We discuss the physical sources of apsidal precession, and of the associated time-scales. We have found the relations of time-scales of apsidal precession from the supermassive black hole and the nuclear star cluster for orbits inside and outside the cluster. The apsidal precession rate of stars can largely be determined not to be a relativistic effect from the black hole and the Newtonian gravitational influence of the densest stellar cluster around the supermassive black hole.

  5. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosman, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study includes all major Cenozoic aquifer systems in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Alabama, Arkansas, westernmost Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas. Although Cenozoic deposits are not uniformly differentiated, interstate correlations of major Paleocene and Eocene units are generally established, and the altitude of the top and thickness of seven units were mapped. Younger deposits are not as well differentiated; therefore, only three of the younger units were mapped.

  6. Regional trends in the oxygen isotopic compositions of granitoid plutons, central and southern Appalachians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Wesolowski; J. R. Sans; C. P. Thornton; H. Ohmoto

    1985-01-01

    Whole-rock oxygen isotope analyses of 125 samples from 87 plutons, together with average values from 20 additional plutons reported by Wenner (1981) and Casadevall and Rye (1980), representing nearly every major post-Grenville pluton of the crystalline Appalachians of Maryland-Alabama, are summarized. The high-¹⁸O granitoids of the Blue Ridge, Ashland-Wedowee, and Inner Piedmont belts are indicative of source regions with a

  7. Eruptive history of the Dieng Mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C. Dan; Sushyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location.

  8. 1 MANEJO INTEGRADO DE LAS PLAGAS DE INSECTOS EN HORTALIZAS Manejo integrado de las plagas de insectos en hortalizas Principios y referencias técnicas para la Sierra Central de Perú

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jurgen Kroschel

    2009-01-01

    Durante el transcurso de las últimas décadas se ha incrementado fuertemente la demanda política y popular por contar con alimentos de bajo costo, abundantes y siempre disponibles para las populaciones urbanas. Como respuesta a esta demanda, apoyados por las tendencias y oportunidades de la globalización, surgen fuertes intereses que contribuyen a la creación de una agricultura industrial. Esta agricultura se

  9. Complement selectively elicits glutamate release from nerve endings in different regions of mammal central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Merega, Elisa; Di Prisco, Silvia; Lanfranco, Massimiliano; Severi, Paolo; Pittaluga, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Our study was aimed at investigating whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could, in addition to its well-documented post-synaptic activity, also pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in central nervous system (CNS). Complement (dilution 1 : 10 to 1 : 10000) elicited the release of preloaded [(3) H]-d-aspartate ([(3) H]d-ASP) and endogenous glutamate from mouse cortical synaptosomes in a dilution-dependent manner. It also evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse hippocampal, cerebellar, and spinal cord synaptosomes, as well as from rat and human cortical nerve endings, but left unaltered the release of GABA, [(3) H]noradrenaline or [(3) H]acetylcholine. Lowering external Na(+) (from 140 to 40 mM) or Ca(2+) (from 1.2 to 0.1 mM) ions prevented the 1 : 300 complement-evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse cortical synaptosomes. Complement-induced releasing effect was unaltered in synaptosomes entrapped with the Ca(2+) ions chelator 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N', tetra-acetic acid or with pertussis toxin. Nifedipine,/?-conotoxin GVIA/?-conotoxin MVIIC mixture as well as the vesicular ATPase blocker bafilomycin A1 were also inefficacious. The excitatory amino acid transporter blocker DL-threo-ß-benzyloxyaspartic acid, on the contrary, reduced the complement-evoked releasing effect in a concentration-dependent manner. We concluded that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings, where it was accounted for by carrier-mediated release. Our observations afford new insights into the molecular events accounting for immune and CNS crosstalk. We investigated whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). Our data provide evidence that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings, where it was accounted for by carrier-mediated release. Our observations add new insights to the knowledge of the molecular events accounting for immune and CNS crosstalk. EAAT = excitatory amino acid transporter. PMID:24387009

  10. Effects of fire on regional evapotranspiration in the central Canadian boreal forest

    SciTech Connect

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Peckham, Scott D.; Gower, Stith T.; Ewers, Brent

    2009-04-08

    Changes in fire regimes are driving the carbon balance of much of the North American boreal forest, but few studies have examined fire-driven changes in evapotranspiration (ET) at a regional scale. This study used a version of the Biome-BGC process model with dynamic and competing vegetation types, and explicit spatial representation of a large (106 km2) region, to simulate the effects of wildfire on ET and its components from 1948 to 2005 by comparing the fire dynamics of the 1948-1967 period with those of 1968-2005. Simulated ET averaged, over the entire temporal and spatial modeling domain, 323 mm yr-1; simulation results indicated that changes in fire in recent decades decreased regional ET by 1.4% over the entire simulation, and by 3.9% in the last ten years (1996-2005). Conifers dominated the transpiration (EC) flux (120 mm yr-1) but decreased by 18% relative to deciduous broadleaf trees in the last part of the 20th century, when increased fire resulted in increased soil evaporation, lower canopy evaporation, lower EC and a younger and more deciduous forest. Well- and poorly-drained areas had similar rates of evaporation from the canopy and soil, but EC was twice as high in the well-drained areas. Mosses comprised a significant part of the evaporative flux to the atmosphere (22 mm yr-1). Modeled annual ET was correlated with net primary production, but not with temperature or precipitation; ET and its components were consistent with previous field and modeling studies. Wildfire is thus driving significant changes in hydrological processes, changes that may control the future carbon balance of the boreal forest.

  11. Timing of Proterozoic regional deformation in the southern Manzano Mountains, central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, P.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Bowring, S.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences); Karlstrom, K.E. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Early Proterozoic supracrustal and plutonic rocks of the Manzano Mtns have sustained a remarkably complex history of ductile deformation, metamorphism, and plutonism. A comparison of field relations and deformational features between the two southernmost plutons suggests that they differ greatly in timing of intrusion with respect to regional deformation. The Monte Largo pluton consists of medium-grained granodiorite and quartz monzonite that is bounded on three sides by strongly deformed quartzite and phyllite. An S1 foliation is folded by upright, N-trending folds (F2). S2, axial planar to F2, is mylonitic along the E pluton margin. The degree of deformation in the pluton is comparable to that in the country rock. The Monte Largo pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.66 Ga. The Priest pluton is a 10-km-long, N-S elongate, megacrystic quartz monzonite that is intrusive into quartzite sand schists. Large microcline crystals define a magmatic foliation. The body contains a weakly to moderately well-developed NE-striking tectonic foliation defined by flattened quartz grains, best developed along the W margin. On the N end of the pluton, map-scale folds in quartzite and schist have been cross-cut, and a contact metamorphic aureole cross-cuts country rock structures. The degree of deformation in the pluton is significantly less than that of country rock quartzites, some of which are mylonitic. The Priest Pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.45 Ga. These data suggest that the ca. 1.66 Ga Monte Largo pluton is syntectonic with respect to regional deformation, whereas the ca. 1.45 Ga priest pluton is post-tectonic with respect to the regional deformation.

  12. Notes on Cordyceps species Collected from the Central Region of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2005-12-01

    The present study was carried out to explore the Cordyceps species and other entomopathogenic fungal flora around Kathmandu Valley and a few high altitude locations of Nepal. In this paper, we report eight Cordyceps species as new to Nepal: C. gracilis, C. ishikariensis, C. liangshanensis, C. martialis, C. militaris, C. pruinosa, C. sphecocephala and C. tricentri. We also mention a few allied genera such as Beauveria, Hirsutella and Paecilomyces from Nepal. Further collections from different ecological regions of Nepal will show the richness of entomopathogenic fungal floral diversity of Nepal. PMID:24049507

  13. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. V - Deconvolution of the central highlands region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, A. E.; Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Haines, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of thorium in the lunar central highlands measured from orbit by the Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer is subjected to a deconvolution analysis to yield improved spatial resolution and contrast. Use of two overlapping data fields for complete coverage also provides a demonstration of the technique's ability to model concentrations several degrees beyond the data track. Deconvolution reveals an association between Th concentration and the Kant Plateau, Descartes Mountain and Cayley plains surface formations. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains model with Th less than 1 part per million, which is typical of farside highlands but is infrequently seen over any other nearside highland portions of the Apollo 15 and 16 ground tracks. It is noted that, if the Cayley plains are the result of basin-forming impact ejecta, the distribution of Th concentration with longitude supports an origin from the Imbrium basin rather than the Nectaris or Orientale basins. Nectaris basin materials are found to have a Th concentration similar to that of the Descartes Mountains, evidence that the latter may have been emplaced as Nectaris basin impact deposits.

  14. Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary and paleovegetation history of the eastern Solimões Basin, central Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Silveira, Rosemery; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix

    2013-10-01

    Palynological and stratigraphical analyses were carried out on the outcrops of the Solimões River to present new information about freshwater paleoenvironments of a fluvial-deltaic and meandering river system, evaluate the vegetation changes in the upper Solimões and Içá Formations in the eastern Solimões Basin, and the role of the Purus Arc in the evolution of central Amazon during the upper Neogene. The upper Miocene to Pliocene Solimões Formation is related to a fluvial-deltaic system, with fine-grained sediments of the prodelta-lacustrine environment supplied by meandering distributaries and delta front environment. The lake and distributaries were surrounded by extensive deltaic and floodplains colonized by lowland freshwater forests under wet climate conditions, persisting until the Pliocene. The Içá Formation started to deposit unconformably on the Solimões Formation during the Pleistocene, following the development of extensive meandering channels surrounded by floodplains of an essentially fluvial system linked to development of the present eastward direction of the Amazon River until the Atlantic coast. These floodplains were colonized by few palm species and pteridophytes of lowland freshwater forests during the Pleistocene. Additionally, no algae and fungi were observed, which may be related to drier climate conditions and/or different morphological conditions than the upper Solimões Formation.

  15. Bio-optical characterization in an ultra-oligotrophic region: the North central Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheireddine, Malika; Jones, Burton

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, satellite-derived ocean color observations have been the only means of evaluating optical variability of the Red Sea. During a cruise in autumn 2014, we investigated the variability of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) in the North Central Red Sea (NCRS) with a particular focus on the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, and colored dissolved organic matter, CDOM, absorption. To our knowledge, these are some of the measurements of these properties in the Red Sea. The IOPs are derived from the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the light within the water column. Bio-optical relationships found for ultra-oligotrophic waters of the six stations sampled significantly depart from the mean standard relationships provided for the global ocean, showing the peculiar character of the Red Sea. These optical anomalies relate to the specific biological and environmental conditions occurring in the Red Sea ecosystem. Specifically, the surface specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships due to a high proportion of relatively large sized phytoplankton. Conversely, bbp values are much higher than the mean standard values for a given chlorophyll-a concentration, Chl a. This presumably results from the influence of highly refractive submicrometer particles of Saharan origin in the surface layer of the water column.

  16. Inflammatory bowel diseases and the general practitioner’s role in a region of Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Sossai, Paolo; Filippetti, Fabio; Muselmani, Ali Ahmad; Catalini, Giambattista

    2010-01-01

    Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a serious burden for both patients and health care providers because of the young age at which they occur and their chronic course. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess how general practitioners (GPs) in the area of Camerino-Matelica, Marche (Central Italy) manage their patients with IBD. Materials and methods: Before providing an educational course about IBD to GPs, we administered a simple questionnaire containing 10 multiple-choice questions, allowing for only one possible answer, to GPs in the target area. After the educational course we administered a satisfaction questionnaire and evaluated the hospitalization rates for IBD in the catchment area in the year following the course. Results: In our GP sample, 71.8% indicated that they needed better instruction regarding IBD to enable them to diagnose the conditions given the difficulties posed by nonspecific symptoms and the need to use invasive diagnostic methods such as colonoscopy. Early results after the educational course for GPs indicate a reduced rate of hospitalization for IBD but these data must be confirmed by future research. Conclusions: If specialists and GPs managed IBD patients more carefully, their patients would probably suffer from fewer relapses and would have a better quality of life, which would be likely to mean considerable cost savings for the public health care system and society in general. PMID:21694843

  17. Zooming in on the central regions of a radio-loud AGN -- 3C120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohfink, Anne; Miller, Jon; Nowak, Michael A.; Reynolds, Christopher; Mushotzky, Richard

    2012-07-01

    3C120 is a bright radio-loud AGN (RLAGN) in which a clear disk-jet connection has been established. We will present the best snapshot to date of the central engine structure in any RLAGN, taken with Suzaku in Febuary 2012. To place this deep Suzaku stare into the context of the disk-disruption/jet-ejection cycles displayed by this object, we also have a monitoring of the source in the UV/X-ray (Swift) and radio bands (UMRAO, VLBA) for half-year around the deep stare. The Swift monitoring provides important information on disk activity in both corona (XRT) and thermal disk emission (UVOT) during the Suzaku and radio campaigns. This places the Suzaku observation in context with the disk and jet (radio) cycles of activity and therefore provide us with the detailed knowledge of the continuum shape and variability. Utilizing this unprecedented knowledge of the continuum, we constrain the accretion disk parameters in this radio-loud AGN from the broad iron line and search for ultra-fast outflows in the iron K band. Taken as a whole, this campaign will give a detailed view of the physics of a RLAGN.

  18. Changes in Intense Rainfall Events over the Central United States in AOGCM-Driven Regional Climate Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, A. R.; Arritt, R. W.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We have evaluated trends in extreme precipitation frequency for the central United States (Groisman et al. 2012) using atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM) driven regional climate simulations. Nested regional climate model simulations were conducted using RegCM4.4 over the CORDEX-North America domain with 50 km grid spacing. Initial and lateral boundary conditions are taken from the HadGEM2-ES and GFDL-ESM2M AOGCMs (for RCP8.5 emissions scenario) to simulate present and future climate (1951-2098). For each run, RegCM4 uses three different convection schemes: Emanuel scheme, Grell scheme, and Mixed scheme which uses the Emanuel scheme over water and Grell over land.Current findings show the regional climate simulations are of the same magnitude of average frequency for heavy ( 25.4-76.2 mm/day), and extreme (154.9+ mm/day) precipitation events while very heavy events (76.2+ mm/day) were less frequent by an order of magnitude. For current and recent past climate (1951-2005), frequency of precipitation events is similar in both HadGEM2-ES and GFDL-ESM2M AOGCM-driven regional climate simulations with most variation due to the convection scheme being used. Initial results seem to exhibit similar trends in the increase of frequency for each precipitation event as is seen in observations. In accordance with Groisman et al. (2012), preliminary findings also show months during the cold season had more frequent heavy events in comparison to very heavy and extreme events while months during the warm season had more frequent very heavy and extreme events in comparison to heavy events. Further analysis will better determine the correlation and accuracy of these regional climate simulations.

  19. Quantification and regionalization of groundwater recharge in South-Central Kansas: Integrating field characterization, statistical analysis, and GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    A practical methodology for recharge characterization was developed based on several years of field-oriented research at 10 sites in the Great Bend Prairie of south-central Kansas. This methodology combines the soil-water budget on a storm-by-storm year-round basis with the resulting watertable rises. The estimated 1985-1992 average annual recharge was less than 50mm/year with a range from 15 mm/year (during the 1998 drought) to 178 mm/year (during the 1993 flood year). Most of this recharge occurs during the spring months. To regionalize these site-specific estimates, an additional methodology based on multiple (forward) regression analysis combined with classification and GIS overlay analyses was developed and implemented. The multiple regression analysis showed that the most influential variables were, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation, average maximum springtime soil-profile water storage, average shallowest springtime depth to watertable, and average springtime precipitation rate. Therefore, four GIS (ARC/INFO) data "layers" or coverages were constructed for the study region based on these four variables, and each such coverage was classified into the same number of data classes to avoid biasing the results. The normalized regression coefficients were employed to weigh the class rankings of each recharge-affecting variable. This approach resulted in recharge zonations that agreed well with the site recharge estimates. During the "Great Flood of 1993," when rainfall totals exceeded normal levels by -200% in the northern portion of the study region, the developed regionalization methodology was tested against such extreme conditions, and proved to be both practical, based on readily available or easily measurable data, and robust. It was concluded that the combination of multiple regression and GIS overlay analyses is a powerful and practical approach to regionalizing small samples of recharge estimates.

  20. Integration of geological, hydrochemical and geophysical methods for prospecting thermal water resources: The case of the Hmeïma region (Central–Western Tunisia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Inoubli; M. Gouasmia; M. Gasmi; A. Mhamdi; H. Ben Dhia

    2006-01-01

    The Hmeïma region (Central–Western Tunisia) is characterized by numerous Aptian anticlines associated with Triassic outcrops. These Aptian reefal limestones, characterized by intense fracturing and important karstification, constitute a regional thermal aquifer. The aim of this multidisciplinary study is to evaluate the hydrothermal potential of this aquifer.Geophysical prospecting based on the electrical method allowed the lateral evolution and the structure at

  1. Distribution of S-wave reflectors in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the source regions of large inland earthquakes in southwest and central Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Doi; K. Nishigami

    2008-01-01

    It is important to estimate detailed heterogeneous structures beneath active fault zones, which will give us clues to understand the generating processes of large inland earthquakes. We estimated detailed seismic reflection properties in the crust and uppermost mantle in the Chugoku region, southwest Japan, and also in the Hokuriku region, central Japan, where several large (M>6) crustal earthquakes occurred within

  2. Reduction of Risk in Exploration and Prospect Generation through a Multidisciplinary Basin-Analysis Program in the South-Central Mid-Continent Region

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Barker, C.; Fite, J.; George, S.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.; Jordan, J., Szpakiewicz, M.; Person, M.; Reeves, T.K.; Safley, E.; Swenson, J.B.; Volk, L.; and Erickson, R.

    1999-04-02

    This report will discuss a series of regional studies that were undertaken within the South-Central Mid-Continent region of the U.S. Coverage is also provided about a series of innovative techniques that were used for this assessment.

  3. Updated Emission Estimates of Ozone Precursors from Energy Consumption by Power Plants and Industrial Facilities in the Central and Eastern Regions of Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thi B. T. Pham; Kasemsan Manomaiphiboon; Chatchawan Vongmahadlek

    Effective regional ozone (O3) pollution management necessarily requires a representative emission database of key O3 precursors. This work presents new results from the ongoing development of such an emission database of power plants and industrial facilities in the central and eastern regions of Thailand. The development is based on recent energy and industrial activity data compiled or available from several

  4. Rational design of antigens to improve the serodiagnosis of tick-borne borreliosis in central regions of Russia.

    PubMed

    Baranova, Evgenia; Solov Ev, Pavel; Panfertsev, Evgeny; Baranova, Anastasia; Feduykina, Galina; Kolombet, Liubov; Morshed, Muhammad G; Biketov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease-LD) is caused by pathogenic Borrelia spirochetes that is transmitted through bite of Ixodes ticks to humans and animals. In the Russian Federation, borreliosis registered with an index of 6-7 per 100,000 people annually. In reality, LD morbidity in Russia is much higher because Russian strains develop less erythematous rashes compared to North American strains, thus missed by physicians in most of the early cases, and current serology tests have insufficient sensitivity as well. The aim of this work was to improve the sensitivity and specificity of serology tests for LD in Russia using rationale-designed Borrelia antigens. It was anticipated that sensitivity of LD sero-diagnosis will be higher if antigen for test-systems are derived from a strain that is circulated in a geographical region of test application. A large portion of the Russian population lives in the Central region. Thus, effort has been made to create a serological test using antigens from Moscow region, Tula and Ul'janovsk areas. In this study we included wild strains (ultrasonic-treated spirochetes B. garinii H19, B. afzelii P1, B. afzelii P1H13, B. burgdorferi s.s. 39/40, B. burgdorferi s.s. B31), recombinant (expressed in E.coli DbpA, Bgp, Bbk B. garinii, and B. afzelii) antigens and some of their combinations were produced and tested against LD patients and donors serum collected in hospitals of Central regions of Russia by ELISA and Western blotting. Considering sensitivity and specificity, DbpA B. afzelii and DbpA B. garinii recombinant antigens were selected among all probed antigens for regional serology test. As long as DbpA B. afzelii and DbpA B. garinii antigens interacted with LD patient's serum in a complementary mode, it is possible to combine epitopes DbpA B. afzelii and B. garinii in a single antigen for improving sensitivity. We created recombinant fusion protein DbpA B. afzelii/B using dbpA genes from Russian isolates of B. afzelii and B. garinii in E. coli. Fusion DbpA A + G protein was then used for formulation of fast immunochromatographic serodiagnosis test (LF) in a "deep-stick" format. The trials of LF-test were conducted separately at Institute of Rheumatology Russian Academy of Medical Science (using 325 sera) and at the Borreliosis Reference Center of Ministry of Health RF (using 120 reference sera). The average sensitivity and specificity of LF-test was 80.5 and 100 %, respectively. PMID:24619615

  5. A survey and a molecular dynamics study on the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiapu; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases which are serious neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals occur in various of species. Unlike many other neurodegenerative diseases affected by amyloid, prion diseases can be highly infectious. Prion diseases occur in many species. In humans, prion diseases include the fatal human neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and Kuru etc. In animals, prion diseases are related to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, the chronic wasting disease (CWD) found in deer and elk, and scrapie seen in sheep and goats, etc. More seriously, the fact that transmission of the prion diseases across the species barrier to other species such as humans has caused a major public health concern worldwide. For example, the BSE in Europe, the CWD in North America, and variant CJDs (vCJDs) in young people of UK. Fortunately, it is discovered that the hydrophobic region of prion proteins (PrP) controls the formation of diseased prions (PrP(Sc)), which provide some clues in control of such diseases. This article provides a detailed survey of recent studies with respect to the PrP hydrophobic region of human PrP(110-136) using molecular dynamics studies. PMID:25373387

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in the Central Region of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC1808

    E-print Network

    Sales, Dinalva A; Riffel, R; Winge, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    We present mid infrared (MIR) spectra of the Seyfert 2 (Sy 2) galaxy NGC 1808, obtained with the Gemini's Thermal-Region Camera Spectrograph (T-ReCS) at a spatial resolution of 26 pc. The high spatial resolution allowed us to detect bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions at 8.6micron and 11.3micron in the galaxy centre (26 pc) up to a radius of 70 pc from the nucleus. The spectra also present [Ne ii]12.8micron ionic lines, and H2 S(2)12.27micron molecular gas line. We found that the PAHs profiles are similar to Peeters's A class, with the line peak shifted towards the blue. The differences in the PAH line profiles also suggests that the molecules in the region located 26 pc NE of the nucleus are more in the neutral than in the neutral state, while at 26 pc SW of the nucleus, the molecules are mainly in ionised state. After removal of the underlying galaxy contribution, the nuclear spectrum can be represented by a Nenkova's clumpy torus model, indicating that the nucleus of NGC 1808 hosts a d...

  7. Regional trends in the oxygen isotopic compositions of granitoid plutons, central and southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Wesolowski, D.; Sans, J.R.; Thornton, C.P.; Ohmoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    Whole-rock oxygen isotope analyses of 125 samples from 87 plutons, together with average values from 20 additional plutons reported by Wenner (1981) and Casadevall and Rye (1980), representing nearly every major post-Grenville pluton of the crystalline Appalachians of Maryland-Alabama, are summarized. The high-/sup 18/O granitoids of the Blue Ridge, Ashland-Wedowee, and Inner Piedmont belts are indicative of source regions with a substantial metasedimentary component. The absence of high-/sup 18/O granitoids in the Slate Belt throughout its Precambrian-Hercynian intrusive history suggests an oceanic crust beneath this terrane, although meteoric water-rock interaction may have affected many of these plutons. The Charlotte and Raleigh belts contain plutons with /delta//sup 18/O/sub wr/ ranges intermediate between these two extremes. High-/sup 18/O Hercynian plutons of the Kiokee (Clouds Creek, Edgefield) and '' '' belts (terrane east of the Raleigh and north of the Eastern Slate Belt containing the Petersburg, Fallmouth and Gunpowder intrusives) suggest a significant metasedimentary component in the source regions of the youngest and eastern most of the Southern Appalachian intrusives.

  8. Surficial geology of the Safsaf region, south-central Egypt, derived from remote-sensing and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.A.; Breed, C.S.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    We used a decorrelation-stretched image of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Bands 1, 4, and 7 and field data to map and describe the main surficial units in the hyperarid Safsaf region in south-central Egypt. We show that the near-infrared bands on Landsat TM, which are sensitive to very subtle changes in mineralogy common to arid regions, significantly improve the geologist's capability to discriminate geologic units in desert regions. These data also provide the spatial and spectral information necessary to determine the migration patterns and provenance of eolian materials. The Safsaf area was the focus of our post flight field studies using Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data following the discovery of buried paleochannels in North Africa. Most of the channels discernible on SIR images are not expressed in TM data, but traces of a few channels are present in both the SIR and the TM data within the Wadi Safsaf area. Here we present a detailed digital examination of the SIR and the TM-band reflectance and reflectance-ratio data at three locations of the more obvious surface expressions of the buried channels. Our results indicate that the TM expressions of the channels are not purely topographic but are more compositional in nature. Two possibilities may account for the TM expressions of the buried channels: 1) concentrations of windblown, iron-rich materials that accumulated along subtle curvilinear topograpohic traps, or 2) curvilinear exposures of an iron-rich underlying unit of the flat sand sheet. ?? 1993.

  9. Glacial stratigraphy of the Bulkley River region: A depositional framework for the late Pleistocene in central British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, A.J.; Broster, B.E.; Levson, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    A depositional framework for late Pleistocene sediments in central British Columbia was developed from the composite stratigraphy of glacial sediments found in the Bulkley River region. Nonglacial deposits correlated to the Olympia Nonglacial Interval, are overlain in succession by sub-till, ice-advance sediments, Late Wisconsinan (Fraser Glaciation) till, and late-glacial sediments. Due to local erosion and depositional variability, some of the units are not continuous throughout the region and differ locally in their thickness and complexity. At the onset of the Fraser Glaciation, ice advance was marked by rising base levels in rivers, lake ponding, and ice marginal sub-aqueous deposition. Physiography and glacier dynamics influenced the position of drainage outlets, direction of water flow, and ponding. The region was completely ice covered during this glaciation and ice-flow directions were variable, being dominantly influenced by the migrating position of ice divides. Deglaciation was marked by the widespread deposition of fine-grained sediments in proglacial lakes and glaciofluvial sands and gravels at locations with unrestricted drainage.

  10. Sedimentary Processes Observed on Offshore of Zonguldak-Kozlu Region, Central Black SEA*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küçük, H. M.; Dondurur, D.; ?ifçi, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Black Sea has a narrow shelf and steepy continental slope at southern side. Recent studies show the active sedimentary processes sediment transportation from shelf to abyssal depths. Study area is located in the central Black Sea Turkish continental slope and is under compressional tectonic regime of Western Pontides. A total of 1950 km of high resolution multichannel seismic reflection, Chirp sub-bottom profiler and multibeam bathymetry data were collected offshore of Zonguldak from continental shelf to abyssal plain of Black Sea along the margin. We used 216 channel 1350 m long digital streamer and a 45+45 cubic inch Generator-Injector (GI) gun fired at every 25 m. Chirp sub-bottom profiler system has 9 transducers operating at 2,7-6,7 kHz frequency band with 3,5 kHz central frequency. Side mounted multibeam bathymetry system has 50 kHz transducers with 153 degrees max. swath width. Southern Black Sea has a very narrow shelf and a very steep continental slope. Both seismic and bathymetry data show that the shelf break in the study area is located at a water depth of about 100 m and continental slope deepens to 2200 m maximum water depths of the abyssal plain with a maximum slope of about 27 degrees. The acoustic data also show that there are significant erosional structures along the margin especially on the continental slope and rise offshore of Zonguldak. An unstable area in the NW consisting of relatively larger slides and buried debris lobes is named Amasra mass failure zone. Different type of sliding with varying sizes including sliding in the steep slope zones, smaller-scale slides on the canyon walls, and relatively larger slides exist in the Amasra mass failure zone. We suggest that the slides in the Amasra mass failure zone is possibly triggered by excess pore pressures in shallow sediments due to the submarine fluid flow possibly produced from gas hydrate dissociation. Warmer Mediterranean water transportation during the rapid transgression period after the last glacial maximum in the Black Sea together with the rapid sedimentation possibly resulted in a destabilization of gas hydrates, which caused excess pore pressures in shallow sediments followed by sediment failures. A conceptual model together with phase curves for the gas hydrate stability in the area is produced to explain the formation of larger slides in the Amasra mass failure zone by excess pore pressures due to local gas hydrate dissociation and fluid flow. Small-scale normal faults around these type of sedimentary structures are also observed and we suggest that these faults are also secondary factor promoting the failures providing the suitable pathways for fluid flow as well as the suitable weak surfaces for the sliding. Several small-scale debris lobes are observed on the apron side and abyssal plain of the study area. Seismic data also show slab-type sliding on the upper continental slope to the south, whereas block-type sliding is formed by rotational faults on the canyon walls. Both types of mass wasting occur in the area due to gravitational loading on the steep slope zones possibly triggered by local seismic activity. * This presentation was supported by the EUROCORES programme TOPO-EUROPE of the European Science Foundation

  11. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic growth increases the risk of AIDS transmission and violence. Highways connect secluded localities and may threaten local populations. This region has been undergoing rapid localized development booms, thus creating outposts of rapid and temporary migration, which may introduce health risks to remote areas. PMID:20553625

  12. Thermal equilibrium of pure electron plasmas across a central region of magnetic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Michael; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Measurements of the equilibria of plasmas created by emission from a biased filament located off the magnetic axis in the Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) [T. S. Pedersen, J. P. Kremer, R. G. Lefrancois et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 50, 372 (2006)] show that such plasmas have equilibrium properties consistent with the inner surfaces being in a state of cross-surface thermal equilibrium. Numerical solutions to the equilibrium equation were used to fit the experimental data and demonstrate consistency with cross-surface thermal equilibrium. Previous experiments in CNT showed that constant temperatures across magnetic surfaces are characteristic of CNT plasmas, implying thermal confinement times much less than particle confinement times. These results show that when emitting off axis there is a volume of inner surfaces where diffusion into that region is balanced by outward transport, producing a Boltzmann distribution of electrons. When combined with the low thermal energy confinement time this is a cross-surface thermal equilibrium.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the central region of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1808

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Riffel, R.; Winge, Cláudia

    2013-03-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1808, obtained with the Gemini's Thermal-Region Camera Spectrograph at a spatial resolution of ˜26 pc. The high spatial resolution allowed us to detect bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions at 8.6 and 11.3 ?m in the galaxy centre (˜26 pc) up to a radius of 70 pc from the nucleus. The spectra also present [Ne II]12.8 ?m ionic lines, and H2 S(2) 12.27 ?m molecular gas line. We found that the PAHs profiles are similar to Peeters's A class, with the line peak shifted towards the blue. The differences in the PAH line profiles also suggest that the molecules in the region located 26 pc north-east of the nucleus are more in the neutral than in the ionized state, while at 26 pc south-west of the nucleus, the molecules are mainly in ionized state. After removal of the underlying galaxy contribution, the nuclear spectrum can be represented by a Nenkova's CLUMPY torus model, indicating that the nucleus of NGC 1808 hosts a dusty toroidal structure with an angular cloud distribution of ? = 70°, observer's view angle i = 90° and an outer radius of R0 ˜ 0.55 pc. The derived column density along the line of sight is NH = 1.5 × 1024 cm2, which is sufficient to block the hard radiation from the active nucleus, and would explain the presence of PAH molecules near to the NGC 1808's active nucleus.

  14. Climate and glacier changes in Mt. Everest region in Central Southern Himalaya (Nepal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakuri, Sudeep; Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Guyennon, Nicolas; D'Agata, Carlo; Smiraglia, Claudio; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-04-01

    Mount Everest region influenced by monsoon-dominated climate system is characterized by dense distribution of debris-covered glaciers. Very low number of papers has addressed on the interdisciplinary linkage of hydro-meteorological process and the glacier dynamics in high elevation areas. Here we present the glacier changes from 1958 to 2011 and the meteorological observations from 1992 to 2011 with the aim of understanding coupled climate-glacier dynamics using satellite imagery, historical maps and insitu field measurements. We developed reconstructed single series for temperature and precipitation through the monthly quantile mapping and expectation maximization techniques from the insitu observations in different automatic weather stations located in the Mt. Everest region. Multi-temporal satellite products and topographic maps were used for glacier terminus, surface and snowline altitude (SLA) analysis from 1958 to 2011. We observed the continuous shrinkage of glaciers since 1958 to 2011 with accelerated rate in the recent years. The average terminus retreatment of analyzed 29 glaciers was about 372±37 m (7.0 m a-1) in 1958 to 2011 with retreat rate of 6.1±1.9 m a-1 in 1958-75 and nearly its double in 2008-11. The glacier surface area had loss of 14.3±5.9 % (0.27 % a-1) from 396.2 km2 to 339.5 km2 in 53 years with the loss by 0.12 %a-1 in 1958-75 to 0.70 % a-1 in recent years. The smaller glaciers with

  15. High Spatial Resolution KAO Far-Infrared Observations of the Central Regions of Infrared-Bright Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Beverly J. Smith; P. M. Harvey

    1996-05-06

    We present new high spatial resolution Kuiper Airborne Observatory 50 micron and/or 100 micron data for 11 infrared-bright galaxies. We also tabulate previously published KAO data for 11 other galaxies, along with the IRAS data for the bulges of M 31 and M 81. We find that L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) correlate with CO (1 - 0) intensity and tau(100). Galaxies with optical or near-infrared signatures of OB stars in their central regions have higher values of I(CO) and tau(100), as well as higher far-infrared surface brightnesses and L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) ratios. L(FIR)/L(H(alpha)) does not correlate strongly with CO and tau(100). These results support a scenario in which OB stars dominate dust heating in the more active galaxies and older stars are important in quiescent bulges.

  16. Monitoring of transient central nervous system postirradiation effects by /sup 133/Xe inhalation regional cerebral blood flow measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, P.D.; Reichman, O.H.; Palutsis, R.

    1987-12-01

    The early transient postirradiation effects in the central nervous system are well known; however, no specific means of objective follow-up have been devised. The xenon (/sup 133/Xe) inhalation technique for measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is easily reproducible. Serial rCBF measurements corresponding to the clinical presentation and course of the early postirradiation syndrome have not been previously reported. It is our belief that the global decline in rCBF identified in these patients represents a generalized metabolic derangement induced by whole brain irradiation rather than primary vascular changes. A distinction between tumor recurrence and the early transient postirradiation effects can be made utilizing this technique. It also provides a reproducible monitor of the clinical and metabolic impact of radiotherapy for brain tumors. A series of seven such patients is presented with appropriate case histories and graphic representations of the serial rCBF measurements.

  17. The northern and central Appalachian basin coal region -- The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal bed assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.; Wallack, R.; Freeman, P.; Tully, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal beds are two of six coal beds being assessed by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in the northern and central Appalachian basin coal region. The coal resource assessments were designed to provide up-to-date, concise data on the location, quantity, and quality of US coals for Federal agencies, the public, industry and academia. Assessment products are fully digital and include original and remaining resource estimates; maps depicting areal extent, mined areas, geologic structure contour, isopach, overburden thickness, ash yield, sulfur content, calorific value, and selected trace-element contents; and public domain geochemical and stratigraphic databases. The assessment methodology and a few results are presented.

  18. Prevalence of Rift Valley fever in domestic ruminants in the central and northern regions of Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Boussini, H; Lamien, C E; Nacoulma, O G; Kaboré, A; Poda, G; Viljoen, G

    2014-12-01

    The seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever was determined in cattle, sheep and goats in selected areas of northern and central Burkina Faso. A total of 520 serum samples were screened for anti-Rift Valley fever virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An average seroprevalence of 7.67% (range 5% to 20%) was found in ruminants in Seno and Soum provinces, and prevalences of 20% and 22.5% in cattle in Yatenga and Oubritenga provinces, respectively. The location, species and age of the animals were found to influence the seroprevalence. All the ELISA IgG-positive samples were tested for IgM in a competitive ELISA and were found negative, thus ruling out recent infections. The IgG-positive samples, including weak positives, were further tested in a serum neutralisation test for neutralising antibodies and 54.5% of these samples tested positive. The results show that the virus is in circulation in central and northern regions of Burkina Faso, suggesting the need for improved surveillance and control systems to prevent future outbreaks and the consequent economic impact of the disease in Burkina Faso livestock. PMID:25812213

  19. Factors associated with low birth weight among neonates born at Olkalou District Hospital, Central Region, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Muchemi, Onesmus Maina; Echoka, Elizabeth; Makokha, Anselimo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ninety-two percent of Low Birth Weight(LBW) infants are born in developing countries, 70% in Asia and 22% in Africa. WHO and UNICEF estimate LBW in Kenya as11% and 6%by 2009 Kenya Demographic Health Survey. The same survey estimated LBW to be 5.5% in Central Province, Kenya. Data in Olkalou hospital indicated that prevalence of LBW was high. However, factors giving rise to the problem remained unknown. Methods A cross-sectional analytic study was therefore conducted to estimate prevalence and distribution and determine the factors associated with LBW in the hospital. LBW was defined as birth of a live infant less than 2500g. We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire and review of health records. A total 327 women were randomly selected from 500mothers. Data was managed using Epi Info 3.3.2. Results The prevalence of LBW was 12.3% (n=40). The mean age of mothers was 25.6±6.2 years. Mean birth weight was 2928±533 grams. There were 51.1% (n=165) male neonates and 48.9% (n=158) females. The following factors were significantly associated with LBW:LBW delivery in a previous birth (OR=4.7, 95%C.I.=1.53-14.24), premature rapture of membranes (OR=2.95, 95%C.I.=1.14-7.62), premature births (OR=3.65, 95%C.I.=1.31-10.38), and female newborn (OR=2.32, 95%C.I.=1.15-4.70). On logistic regression only delivery of LBW baby in a previous birth (OR=5.07, 95%C.I.=1.59-16.21) and female infant (OR=3.37, 95%C.I.=1.14-10.00)were independently associated with LBW. Conclusion Prevalence of LBW in the hospital was higher than national estimates. Female infant and LBW baby in a previous birth are independent factors. Local prevention efforts are necessary to mitigate the problem. Population-based study is necessary to provide accurate estimates in the area.

  20. Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead to the rise of the artesian groundwater that flows into sandy horizons scarcely thickened, carrying out liquefaction and collapse phenomena. Thus, thanks to the numerous piezometric surveys, different areas have been identified in the plain: artesian wells areas with full water rise, areas with few artesian wells and areas with partial water lift. The analysis of geophysical data has allowed to draw deep profiles that show how along the axis of the plain the roof of carbonates has very changeable heights, due to a complex tectonic evolution. In correspondence to one of the most senior buried structural heights in the carbonate substratum of the plain, a karst cave was intercepted during a drilling on the vertical of a sinkhole opened in 1989, which could be interpreted as a paleospring. The right application of technologies for drilling and completion of the hole, however, has prevented against the recurrence of the phenomenon of collapse. This poster illustrates a matrix calculus implemented by the authors, by which you can come to an assessment of the distribution of Sinkhole hazard in the Pontina Plain. The matrix takes into account different parameters that are related to the breaking causes of the phenomenon. Each parameter is assigned a value (index) representing its variation. The area studied was divided into 150 m square cells, each cell is assigned the value of the Sinkhole hazard index, that is the sum of the various indices assigned to that cell. Such a methodology widely used in other scientific research must be improved by optimizing the values and weights that were assigned to each parameter and implementing the matrix by adding more parameters that influence the phenomenon. A discussion about the importance of these characterizing parameters is presented for further development of the methodology.

  1. NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one of the sources for nitrate in groundwater. The recharge of rainwater through the indiscriminately dumped animal wastes also adds to nitrate in groundwater. As the population of denitrifying microbes (Agrobacterium sp.) in the topsoil increased, the nitrate concentration in groundwater decreased. The wells in the investigated region have been demarcated into safe and unsafe wells for consumption of water with respect to nitrate. The quality of groundwater in this region must be improved by denitrifying the groundwater before using it for consumption. Reduced dependence on nitrogen-rich fertilizers can also lower the influx of nitrates to a large extent. As the dumping of animal waste is also a reason behind high nitrate in groundwater, it would be better to use them as a biofertilizer. Due to the detrimental biological effects of nitrate, treatment and prevention methods must be considered to protect groundwater aquifers from nitrate leaching. Moreover, it is also important to educate the local population about keeping their surroundings clean, alternate use of the animal waste (as fuel) and to follow hygienic sanitation practices.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF MEMBERS IN THE CENTRAL AND OUTER REGIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Serra, Ana Laura [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Torino (Italy); Diaferio, Antonaldo, E-mail: serra@ph.unito.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-05-10

    The caustic technique measures the mass of galaxy clusters in both their virial and infall regions and, as a byproduct, yields the list of cluster galaxy members. Here we use 100 galaxy clusters with mass M{sub 200} {>=} 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} extracted from a cosmological N-body simulation of a {Lambda}CDM universe to test the ability of the caustic technique to identify the cluster galaxy members. We identify the true three-dimensional members as the gravitationally bound galaxies. The caustic technique uses the caustic location in the redshift diagram to separate the cluster members from the interlopers. We apply the technique to mock catalogs containing 1000 galaxies in the field of view of 12 h {sup -1} Mpc on a side at the cluster location. On average, this sample size roughly corresponds to 180 real galaxy members within 3r{sub 200}, similar to recent redshift surveys of cluster regions. The caustic technique yields a completeness, the fraction of identified true members, f{sub c} = 0.95 {+-} 0.03, within 3r{sub 200}. The contamination, the fraction of interlopers in the observed catalog of members, increases from f{sub i}=0.020{sup +0.046}{sub -0.015} at r{sub 200} to f{sub i}=0.08{sup +0.11}{sub -0.05} at 3r{sub 200}. No other technique for the identification of the members of a galaxy cluster provides such large completeness and small contamination at these large radii. The caustic technique assumes spherical symmetry and the asphericity of the cluster is responsible for most of the spread of the completeness and the contamination. By applying the technique to an approximately spherical system obtained by stacking the individual clusters, the spreads decrease by at least a factor of two. We finally estimate the cluster mass within 3r{sub 200} after removing the interlopers: for individual clusters, the mass estimated with the virial theorem is unbiased and within 30% of the actual mass; this spread decreases to less than 10% for the spherically symmetric stacked cluster.

  3. Studying Regional Wave Source Time Functions Using the Empirical Green's Function Method: Application to Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Schaff, D. P.; Chen, Y.; Schult, F.

    2013-12-01

    Reliably estimated source time functions (STFs) from high-frequency regional waveforms, such as Lg, Pn and Pg, provide important input for seismic source studies, explosion detection and discrimination, and minimization of parameter trade-off in attenuation studies. We have searched for candidate pairs of larger and small earthquakes in and around China that share the same focal mechanism but significantly differ in magnitudes, so that the empirical Green's function (EGF) method can be applied to study the STFs of the larger events. We conducted about a million deconvolutions using waveforms from 925 earthquakes, and screened the deconvolved traces to exclude those that are from event pairs that involved different mechanisms. Only 2,700 traces passed this screening and could be further analyzed using the EGF method. We have developed a series of codes for speeding up the final EGF analysis by implementing automations and user-graphic interface procedures. The codes have been fully tested with a subset of screened data and we are currently applying them to all the screened data. We will present a large number of deconvolved STFs retrieved using various phases (Lg, Pn, Sn and Pg and coda) with information on any directivities, any possible dependence of pulse durations on the wave types, on scaling relations for the pulse durations and event sizes, and on the estimated source static stress drops.

  4. Reproductive biology of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadoon, M.K.; Kandeal, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii, in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia was investigated over a period of one year. Study of reproductive cycle of male and female C. c. gasperettii revealed that the breeding season is relatively short (April and May). Thereafter females laid eggs by mid of July and hatching probably had taken place by the end of September. No activity was observed during winter, this may indicate just a single clutch per year. Relative testis weight to body weight was drastically increased (X¯ = 0.88%) during the peak of reproductive activity (May) where maximal expansion of seminiferous tubules was also attained during April and May (X¯ = 209 ?m and 191 ?m, respectively). Likewise, the ovarian activity was the highest during May where ovarian parameters were greater in terms of relative ovarian weight to body weight and ova diameter being 0.46% and 2.29 mm, respectively. Fat body weight was increased drastically just before the peak of reproductive activity then started to decline during June. It could be concluded that the harsh desert conditions and similar environments certainly affect reproductive activity of Saudi Arabian reptiles including snakes. PMID:25972758

  5. Reproductive biology of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in the central region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Sadoon, M K; Kandeal, S A

    2015-05-01

    The reproductive biology of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii, in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia was investigated over a period of one year. Study of reproductive cycle of male and female C. c. gasperettii revealed that the breeding season is relatively short (April and May). Thereafter females laid eggs by mid of July and hatching probably had taken place by the end of September. No activity was observed during winter, this may indicate just a single clutch per year. Relative testis weight to body weight was drastically increased ([Formula: see text] = 0.88%) during the peak of reproductive activity (May) where maximal expansion of seminiferous tubules was also attained during April and May ([Formula: see text] = 209 ?m and 191 ?m, respectively). Likewise, the ovarian activity was the highest during May where ovarian parameters were greater in terms of relative ovarian weight to body weight and ova diameter being 0.46% and 2.29 mm, respectively. Fat body weight was increased drastically just before the peak of reproductive activity then started to decline during June. It could be concluded that the harsh desert conditions and similar environments certainly affect reproductive activity of Saudi Arabian reptiles including snakes. PMID:25972758

  6. Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Ernesto; Macías, Analía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Fernández, Analía; Canal, Ana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Cataldi, Angel; Caimi, Karina; Zumárraga, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011). By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism. PMID:24676658

  7. Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ernesto; Macías, Analía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Fernández, Analía; Canal, Ana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Cataldi, Angel; Caimi, Karina; Zumárraga, Martín

    2014-04-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011). By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism. PMID:24676658

  8. Las Vegas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of Las Vegas, NV was acquired on August, 2000 and covers an area 42 km (25 miles) wide and 30 km (18 miles) long. The image displays three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. McCarran International Airport to the south and Nellis Air Force Base to the NE are the two major airports visible. Golf courses appear as bright red areas of worms. The first settlement in Las Vegas (which is Spanish for The Meadows) was recorded back in the early 1850s when the Mormon church, headed by Brigham Young, sent a mission of 30 men to construct a fort and teach agriculture to the Indians. Las Vegas became a city in 1905 when the railroad announced this city was to be a major division point. Prior to legalized gambling in 1931, Las Vegas was developing as an agricultural area. Las Vegas' fame as a resort area became prominent after World War II. The image is located at 36.1 degrees north latitude and 115.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Efficient measurement of endogenous neurotransmitters in small localized regions of central nervous systems in vitro with HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xuesi M.; Feldman, Jack L.

    2007-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is widely used to determine neurotransmitter concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). Finding the optimal methods to sample from CNS tissue poses a challenge for neuroscientists. Here we describe a method that allows assay of neurotransmitters (or other chemicals) in small regions (down to 180 ?m in diameter) in in vitro preparations concurrently with electrophysiological recordings. The efficiency for measuring small amounts of chemicals is enhanced by a sample collecting pipette with filter paper at the tip that makes close contact with the target region in CNS tissue. With a wire plunger in the calibrated pipette controlled by a microsyringe pump, there is virtually no dead volume. Samples in a volume of 10 ?l (taken, e.g., at 2 ?L/min over 5 minutes) can be injected into a HPLC machine with microbore columns. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method by measuring acetylcholine (ACh) in the ventral horn and its surrounding areas of the spinal cord in en bloc brainstem-spinal cord preparations. In control conditions, endogenous ACh levels in these regions were detectable. Application of neostigmine (an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterases (AChEs)) increased ACh concentrations, and at the same time, induced tonic/seizure-like activity in efferent motor output recorded from cervical ventral nerve roots. Higher ACh concentrations in the ventral horn were differentiated from nearby regions: the lateral and midline aspects of the ventral spinal cord. In addition, ACh in the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) and the hypoglossal nucleus in medullary slice preparations can also be measured. Our results indicate that the method proposed in this study can be used to measure neurotransmitters in small and localized CNS regions. Correlation between changes in neurotransmitters in target regions and the neuronal activities can be revealed in vitro. Our data also suggest that there is endogenous ACh release in spinal ventral motor columns at 4th cervical (C4) level that regulates the respiratory-related motor activity. PMID:17092561

  10. Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: Seismic hazard and risk assessment for Himalayas, Lake Baikal, and Central China regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir; Parvez, Imtiyaz; Tao, Xiaxin

    2015-04-01

    The Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), that generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation, has evident implications since any estimate of seismic hazard depends on the size of the territory that is used for investigation, averaging, and extrapolation into the future. Therefore, the hazard may differ dramatically when scaled down to the proportion of the area of interest (e.g. territory occupied by a city) from the enveloping area of investigation. In fact, given the observed patterns of distributed seismic activity the results of multi-scale analysis embedded in USLE approach demonstrate that traditional estimations of seismic hazard and risks for cities and urban agglomerations are usually underestimated. Moreover, the USLE approach provides a significant improvement when compared to the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, e.g. the maps resulted from the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP). We apply the USLE approach to evaluating seismic hazard and risks to population of the three territories of different size representing a sub-continental and two different regional scales of analysis, i.e. the Himalayas and surroundings, Lake Baikal, and Central China regions.

  11. Mutation status and immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in patients from northwest and central region of Spain with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    González-Gascón Y Marín, I; Hernández, J A; Martín, A; Alcoceba, M; Sarasquete, M E; Rodríguez-Vicente, A; Heras, C; de Las Heras, N; Fisac, R; García de Coca, A; de la Fuente, I; Hernández-Sánchez, M; Recio, I; Galende, J; Martín-Núñez, G; Alonso, J M; Hernández-Rivas, J M; González, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and mutation status of the immunoglobulin heavy variable chain (IGHV) in a cohort of 224 patients from northwest and central region of Spain diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and to correlate it with cytogenetic abnormalities, overall survival (OS) and time to first treatment (TTFT). 125 patients had mutated IGHV, while 99 had unmutated IGHV. The most frequently used IGHV family was IGHV3, followed by IGHV1 and IGHV4. The regions IGHV3-30, IGHV1-69, IGHV3-23, and IGHV4-34 were the most commonly used. Only 3.1% of the patients belonged to the subfamily IGHV3-21 and we failed to demonstrate a worse clinical outcome in this subgroup. The IGHV4 family appeared more frequently with mutated pattern, similar to IGHV3-23 and IGHV3-74. By contrast, IGHV1-69 was expressed at a higher frequency in unmutated CLL patients. All the cases from IGHV3-11 and almost all from IGHV5-51 subfamily belonged to the group of unmutated CLL. PMID:24790994

  12. Analysis of 15 autosomal STR loci from Mar del Plata and Bahia Blanca (Central Region of Argentina).

    PubMed

    Parolin, María Laura; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Sambuco, Lorena Andrea; Jaureguiberry, Stella Maris; Iudica, Celia Estela

    2014-05-01

    Allele frequencies for the 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci included in the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler kit were estimated in a sample of unrelated individuals from Mar del Plata (MDQ; N?=?180) and Bahia Blanca (BB; N?=?85) (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Biological samples were obtained from voluntary donors and forensic cases. Both populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction, except for locus vWA in MDQ and D2S1338 in BB. FGA was the most informative locus, and the least discriminating locus was TPOX in both samples. The combined power of discrimination (PDc) and the combined probability of exclusion (PEc) were similar in MDQ and BB samples (0.999999998?central region compared with populations from other regions of Argentina with higher Amerindian composition. These results enlarge the Argentine databases of autosomal STR loci, revealed as an excellent tool for human identification tests and population genetic analysis. PMID:24257759

  13. Climate change in a region with altitude differences and with precipitation from various sources, South-Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, Mostafa; Raeisi, Ezatolah

    2015-04-01

    The study area, with an arid to semiarid climate, is located in South-Central Iran. The precipitation sources are from Mediterranean, Sudan, and Indian Ocean. The daily precipitation and temperature generated by the Canadian Global Coupled Model are transiently downscaled, from 2015 to 2095, at 15 stations using LARS-WG under scenarios B1, A1B, and A2. According to our simulations, the study area will warm 2.3, 3.1, and 3.5 °C and mean annual precipitation will decrease by 13, 24, and 26 % under scenarios B1, A1B, and A2, respectively. The western regions will experience greater precipitation reduction than eastern regions, due to effect of precipitation reduction in Mediterranean air mass in the future. The precipitation reduction varies among different stations due to differing precipitation depths. The duration of dry periods will increase, and precipitation depths of all wet, normal, and dry periods will decrease under three scenarios, but the reduction is higher in dry and normal periods.

  14. Occupational dermatoses caused by contact with metalworking fluids in the region of central slovakia from 2000 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Urban?ek, Slavomir; Kuklová-Bieliková, Marianna; Fetisovová, Želmira; Klimentová, Gabriela; Vil?ek, Rober

    2014-01-01

    Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are a common cause of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. MWFs being currently used are mostly water based, containing biocides, emulsifiers, and other additives. We performed a retrospective analysis of the etiology of the occupational dermatoses caused by metalworking fluids in three regions of Central Slovakia (population of approximately 2 million) between 2000 and 2012. The primary aim was the analysis of metalworking fluid-induced dermatoses, which involved determining the particular disease type (allergic or irritant), its regional distribution, and the specific chemical causing the disease. The secondary aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge and competence among dermatologists in performing patch testing for allergens contained in metalworking fluids using a study-specific questionnaire. Of the total number of 422 dermatoses during the analyzed period, 64 (41 in men and 23 in women) were caused by metalworking fluids. The implicated fluids were all aqueous, synthetic MWFs. 39 patients developed an allergic and 25 an irritant-induced contact dermatitis. 51 patients were tested using a special Trolab® metalworking battery (Almirall Hermal GmbH, Reinbek, Germany). The test identified a positive reaction to one of the following chemicals: methylchoroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), formaldehyde, 1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one, abietic acid, chloroxylenol, triclosan, amerchol L101, dichlorophene, propylenglycol, metylene (bis-methyl oxazolidine), monoethanolamine, and diethanolamine. The questionnaire showed that a large majority of Slovak dermatologists have no experiences with testing of MWFs. Metalworking fluids were found to be the most frequent cause of occupational contact dermatitis. They also are the second largest group of all occupational dermotoses. Their incidence corresponded with the presence of machine industry in the region. Several unresolved problems include detection of specific allergens and standardization of patch test performance among individual dermatologists. Low levels of experience in testing of MWFs revealed need to educate both dermatologists and residents. PMID:25230059

  15. Convective Distribution of Tropospheric Ozone and Tracers in the Central American ITCZ Region: Evidence from Observations During TC4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, Melody; Twohy, Cynthia; MCabe, David; Joiner, Joanna; Severance, Kurt; Atlas, Eliot; Blake, Donald; Bui, T. P.; Crounse, John; Dibb, Jack; Diskin, Glenn; Lawson, Paul; McGill, Matthew; Rogers, David; Sachse, Glen; Scheuer, Eric; Thompson, Anne M.; Trepte, Charles; Wennberg, Paul; Ziemke, Jerald

    2010-01-01

    During the Tropical Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment that occurred in July and August of 2007, extensive sampling of active convection in the ITCZ region near Central America was performed from multiple aircraft and satellite sensors. As part of a sampling strategy designed to study cloud processes, the NASA ER-2, WB-57 and DC-8 flew in stacked "racetrack patterns" in convective cells. On July 24, 2007, the ER-2 and DC-8 probed an actively developing storm and the DC-8 was hit by lightning. Case studies of this flight, and of convective outflow on August 5, 2007 reveal a significant anti-correlation between ozone and condensed cloud water content. With little variability in the boundary layer and a vertical gradient, low ozone in the upper troposphere indicates convective transport. Because of the large spatial and temporal variability in surface CO and other pollutants in this region, low ozone is a better convective indicator. Lower tropospheric tracers methyl hydrogen peroxide, total organic bromine and calcium substantiate the ozone results. OMI measurements of mean upper tropospheric ozone near convection show lower ozone in convective outflow. A mass balance estimation of the amount of convective turnover below the tropical tropopause transition layer (TTL) is 50%, with an altitude of maximum convective outflow located between 10 and 11 km, 4 km below the cirrus anvil tops. It appears that convective lofting in this region of the ITCZ is either a two-stage or a rapid mixing process, because undiluted boundary layer air is never sampled in the convective outflow.

  16. Future of water resources in the Aral Sea Region, Central Asia - Reality-checked climate model projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asokan, Shilpa M.; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    The future of water resources in a region invariably depends on its historic as well as present water use management policy. In order to understand the past hydro-climatic conditions and changes, one needs to analyze observation data and their implications for climate and hydrology, such as Temperature, Precipitation, Runoff and Evapotranspiration in the region. In addition to the changes in climate, human re-distribution of water through land- and water­use changes is found to significantly alter the water transfer from land to atmosphere through an increase or decrease in evapotranspiration. The Aral region in Central Asia, comprising the Aral Sea Drainage Basin and the Aral Sea, is an example case where the human induced changes in water-use have led to one of the worst environmental disasters of our time, the desiccation of the Aral Sea. Identification of the historical hydro-climatic changes that have happened in this region and their drivers is required before one can project future changes to water and its availability in the landscape. Knowledge of the future of water resources in the Aral region is needed for planning to meet increasing water and food demands of the growing population in conjunction with ecosystem sustainability. In order to project future scenarios of water on land, the Global Climate Model (GCM) ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) was analyzed for their performance against hydrologically important, basin-scale observational climate and hydrological datasets. We found that the ensemble mean of 22 GCMs over-estimated the observed temperature by about 1°C for the historic period of 1961-1990. For the future extreme climate scenario RCP8.5 the increase in temperature was projected to be about 5°C by 2070-2099, the accuracy of which is questionable from identified biases of GCMs and their ensemble results compared with observations for the period 1961-1990. In particular, the water balance components precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration simulated by the GCM ensemble for the 1961-1990 period yielded an increase in average annual water storage change of 7 mm/year, which for example greatly contradicts the known major drop in Aral Sea water level by 46 mm/year during the same period. Such inadequacies in climate model performance with regard to the system of water on land emphasizes a major need for better representation of that system in climate models. Key words: Climate, Hydrology, Hydro­climate, Aral Sea, Land water, CMIP5, Climate model performance

  17. First simultaneous measurements of ozone, CO, and NOy at a high-altitude regional representative site in the central Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, Tapaswini; Naja, Manish; Ojha, N.; Kumar, R.; Lal, S.; Venkataramani, S.; Kumar, A.; Sagar, R.; Chandola, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    Simultaneous in situ measurements of ozone, CO, and NOy have been made for the first time at a high altitude site Nainital (29.37°N, 79.45°E, 1958 m above mean sea level) in the central Himalayas during 2009-2011. CO and NOy levels discern slight enhancements during the daytime, unlike in ozone. The diurnal patterns are attributed mainly to the dynamical processes including vertical winds and the boundary layer evolution. Springtime higher levels of ozone (57.5 ± 12.6 ppbv), CO (215.2 ± 147 ppbv), and NOy (1918 ± 1769.3 parts per trillion by volume (pptv)) have been attributed mainly to regional pollution supplemented with northern Indian biomass burning. However, lower levels of ozone (34.4 ± 18.9 ppbv), CO (146.6 ± 71 ppbv), and NOy (1128.6 ± 1035 pptv) during summer monsoon are shown to be associated with the arrival of air mass originated from marine regions. Downward transport from higher altitudes is estimated to enhance surface ozone levels over Nainital by 6.1-18.8 ppbv. The classification based on air mass residence time, altitude variations along trajectory, and boundary layer shows higher levels of ozone (57 ± 14 ppbv), CO (206 ± 125 ppbv), and NOy (1856 ± 1596 pptv) in the continental air masses when compared with their respective values (28 ± 13 ppbv, 142 ± 47 ppbv, and 226 ± 165 pptv) in the regional background air masses. In general, positive interspecies correlations are observed which suggest the transport of air mass from common source regions (except during winter). Ozone-CO and ozone-NOy slope values are found to be lower in comparison to those at other global sites, which clearly indicates incomplete in situ photochemistry and greater role of transport processes in this region. The higher CO/NOy value also confirms minimal influence of fresh emissions at the site. Enhancements in ozone, CO, and NOy during high fire activity period are estimated to be 4-18%, 15-76%, and 35-51%, respectively. Despite higher CO and NOy concentrations at Nainital, ozone levels are nearly similar to those at other global high-altitude sites.

  18. Lower crustal deformation beneath the central Transverse Ranges, southern California: Results from the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godfrey, N.J.; Fuis, G.S.; Langenheim, V.; Okaya, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    We present a P wave velocity model derived from active source seismic data collected during the 1994 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment. Our model extends previously published upper crustal velocity models to mantle depths. Our model was developed by both ray tracing through a layered model and calculating travel times through a gridded model. It includes an 8-km-thick crustal root centered beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas fault, north of the highest topography in the San Gabriel Mountains. A simple mass balance calculation suggests that ???36 km of north-south shortening across the San Andreas fault in the central Transverse Ranges could have formed this root. If north-south compression began when the "Big Bend" in the San Andreas fault formed at ???5 Ma, 36 km of shortening implies a north-south contraction rate of ???7.1 mm/yr across the central Transverse Ranges. If, instead, north-south compression began when the Transverse Ranges formed at 3.4-3.9 Ma, 36 km of shortening implies a contraction rate of 9.2-10.6 mm/yr. North of the San Andreas fault, the Mojave Desert crust has a low-velocity (6.3 km/s) mid and lower crust and a 28-km-deep Moho. South of the San Andreas fault, beneath the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley basins, there is a fast (6.6-6.8 km/s), thick (10-12 km) lower crust with a 27-km-deep Moho. Farther south still, the lower crust of the Continental Borderland is fast (6.6-6.8 km/s) and thin (5 km) with a shallow (22 km deep) Moho.

  19. Crustal deformation in the south-central Andes backarc terranes as viewed from regional broad-band seismic waveform modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, Patricia; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Araujo, Mario; Triep, Enrique

    2005-11-01

    The convergence between the Nazca and South America tectonic plates generates a seismically active backarc region near 31°S. Earthquake locations define the subhorizontal subducted oceanic Nazca plate at depths of 90-120 km. Another seismic region is located within the continental upper plate with events at depths <35 km. This seismicity is related to the Precordillera and Sierras Pampeanas and is responsible for the large earthquakes that have caused major human and economic losses in Argentina. South of 33°S, the intense shallow continental seismicity is more restricted to the main cordillera over a region where the subducted Nazca plate starts to incline more steeply, and there is an active volcanic arc. We operated a portable broad-band seismic network as part of the Chile-Argentina Geophysical Experiment (CHARGE) from 2000 December to 2002 May. We have studied crustal earthquakes that occurred in the back arc and under the main cordillera in the south-central Andes (29°S-36°S) recorded by the CHARGE network. We obtained the focal mechanisms and source depths for 27 (3.5 < Mw < 5.3) crustal earthquakes using a moment tensor inversion method. Our results indicate mainly reverse focal mechanism solutions in the region during the CHARGE recording period. 88 per cent of the earthquakes are located north of 33°S and at middle-to-lower crustal depths. The region around San Juan, located in the western Sierras Pampeanas, over the flat-slab segment is dominated by reverse and thrust fault-plane solutions located at an average source depth of 20 km. One moderate-sized earthquake (event 02-117) is very likely related to the northern part of the Precordillera and the Sierras Pampeanas terrane boundary. Another event located near Mendoza at a greater depth (~26 km) (event 02-005) could also be associated with the same ancient suture. We found strike-slip focal mechanisms in the eastern Sierras Pampeanas and under the main cordillera with shallower focal depths of ~5-7 km. Overall, the western part of the entire region is more seismically active than the eastern part. We postulate that this is related to the presence of different pre-Andean geological terranes. We also find evidence for different average crustal models for those terranes. Better-fitting synthetic seismograms result using a higher P-wave velocity, a smaller average S-wave velocity and a thicker crust for seismic ray paths travelling through the crust of the western Sierras Pampeanas (Vp= 6.2-6.4 km s-1, Vp/Vs > 1.80, th = 45-55 km) than those of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Vp= 6.0-6.2 km s-1, Vp/Vs < 1.70, th = 27-35 km). In addition, we observed an apparent distribution of reverse crustal earthquakes along the suture that connects those terranes. Finally, we estimated average P and T axes over the CHARGE period. The entire region showed P- and T-axis orientations of 275° and 90°, plunging 6° and 84°, respectively.

  20. A preliminary assessment of earthquake ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and implications to the Las Vegas region

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G.; Green, R.K.; Sun, J.I. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Pezzopane, S.K. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Abrahamson, N.A. [Abrahamson (Norm A.), Piedmont, CA (United States); Quittmeyer, R.C. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    As part of early design studies for the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, the authors have performed a preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of ground shaking. A total of 88 Quaternary faults within 100 km of the site were considered in the hazard analysis. They were characterized in terms of their probability o being seismogenic, and their geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, recurrence model, and slip rate. Individual faults were characterized by maximum earthquakes that ranged from moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 5.1 to 7.6. Fault slip rates ranged from a very low 0.00001 mm/yr to as much as 4 mm/yr. An areal source zone representing background earthquakes up to M{sub w} 6 1/4 = 1/4 was also included in the analysis. Recurrence for these background events was based on the 1904--1994 historical record, which contains events up to M{sub w} 5.6. Based on this analysis, the peak horizontal rock accelerations are 0.16, 0.21, 0.28, and 0.50 g for return periods of 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 10,000 years, respectively. In general, the dominant contributor to the ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain are background earthquakes because of the low slip rates of the Basin and Range faults. A significant effect on the probabilistic ground motions is due to the inclusion of a new attenuation relation developed specifically for earthquakes in extensional tectonic regimes. This relation gives significantly lower peak accelerations than five other predominantly California-based relations used in the analysis, possibly due to the lower stress drops of extensional earthquakes compared to California events. Because Las Vegas is located within the same tectonic regime as Yucca Mountain, the seismic sources and path and site factors affecting the seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain also have implications to Las Vegas. These implications are discussed in this paper.

  1. Fine Epitope Mapping of the Central Immunodominant Region of Nucleoprotein from Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongliang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Jing; Deng, Fei; Duan, Xiaomei; Kou, Chun; Wu, Ting; Li, Yijie; Wang, Yongxing; Ma, Ji; Yang, Jianhua; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Fuchun; Zhang, Yujiang; Sun, Surong

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), a severe viral disease known to have occurred in over 30 countries and distinct regions, is caused by the tick-borne CCHF virus (CCHFV). Nucleocapsid protein (NP), which is encoded by the S gene, is the primary antigen detectable in infected cells. The goal of the present study was to map the minimal motifs of B-cell epitopes (BCEs) on NP. Five precise BCEs (E1, 247FDEAKK252; E2a, 254VEAL257; E2b, 258NGYLNKH264; E3, 267EVDKA271; and E4, 274DSMITN279) identified through the use of rabbit antiserum, and one BCE (E5, 258NGYL261) recognized using a mouse monoclonal antibody, were confirmed to be within the central region of NP and were partially represented among the predicted epitopes. Notably, the five BCEs identified using the rabbit sera were able to react with positive serum mixtures from five sheep which had been infected naturally with CCHFV. The multiple sequence alignment (MSA) revealed high conservation of the identified BCEs among ten CCHFV strains from different areas. Interestingly, the identified BCEs with only one residue variation can apparently be recognized by the positive sera of sheep naturally infected with CCHFV. Computer-generated three-dimensional structural models indicated that all the antigenic motifs are located on the surface of the NP stalk domain. This report represents the first identification and mapping of the minimal BCEs of CCHFV-NP along with an analysis of their primary and structural properties. Our identification of the minimal linear BCEs of CCHFV-NP may provide fundamental data for developing rapid diagnostic reagents and illuminating the pathogenic mechanism of CCHFV. PMID:25365026

  2. Variation and control of soil organic carbon and other nutrients in permafrost regions on central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Shengyun; Zhao, Qian; Sun, Zhizhong; Ren, Jiawen; Qin, Dahe

    2014-11-01

    The variation and control of soil organic carbon (SOC) and other nutrients in permafrost regions are critical for studying the carbon cycle and its potential feedbacks to climate change; however, they are poorly understood. Soil nutrients samples at depths of 0–10, 10–20, 20–30, and 30–40 cm, were sampled eight times in 2009 in alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow and alpine steppe in permafrost regions of the central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. SOC and total nitrogen (TN) in the alpine swamp meadow and meadow decreased with soil depth, whereas the highest SOC content in the alpine steppe was found at depths of 20–30 cm. The vertical profiles of total and available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were relatively uniform for all the three grassland types. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that soil moisture (SM) was the most important parameter for the vertical variation of SOC and other soil nutrients, and that belowground biomass (BGB) was the main source of SOC and TN. The spatial variations (including seasonal variation) of SOC and TN at plot scale were large. The relative deviation of SOC ranged from 7.18 to 41.50 in the alpine swamp meadow, from 2.88 to 35.91 in the alpine meadow, and from 9.33 to 68.38 in the alpine steppe. The spatial variations in the other soil nutrients varied among different grassland types. The most important factors for spatial variations (including seasonal variation) of SOC, TN, total P, available P, and both total and available K were: SM, SM and temperature, SM, air temperature, and SM and BGB, respectively. The large variation in the three grassland types implies that spatial variation at plot scale should be considered when estimating SOC storage and its dynamics.

  3. Chronic intermittent hypoxia increases blood pressure and expression of FosB/DeltaFosB in central autonomic regions.

    PubMed

    Knight, W David; Little, Joel T; Carreno, Flavia R; Toney, Glenn M; Mifflin, Steven W; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) models repetitive bouts of arterial hypoxemia that occur in humans suffering from obstructive sleep apnea. CIH has been linked to persistent activation of arterial chemoreceptors and the renin-angiotensin system, which have been linked to chronic elevations of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Because Fos and FosB are transcription factors involved in activator protein (AP)-1 driven central nervous system neuronal adaptations, this study determined if CIH causes increased Fos or FosB staining in brain regions that regulate SNA and autonomic function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented with telemetry transmitters for continuous recording of MAP and heart rate (HR). Rats were exposed to continuous normoxia (CON) or to CIH for 8 h/day for 7 days. CIH increased MAP by 7-10 mmHg without persistently affecting HR. A separate group of rats was killed 1 day after 7 days of CIH for immunohistochemistry. CIH did not increase Fos staining in any brain region examined. Staining for FosB/?FosB was increased in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (CON: 9 ± 1; CIH: 34 ± 3 cells/section), subfornical organ (CON: 7 ± 2; CIH: 31 ± 3), median preoptic nucleus (CON 15 ± 1; CIH: 38 ± 3), nucleus of the solitary tract (CON: 9 ± 2; CIH: 28 ± 4), A5 (CON: 3 ± 1; CIH: 10 ± 1), and rostral ventrolateral medulla (CON: 5 ± 1; CIH: 17 ± 2). In the paraventricular nucleus, FosB/?FosB staining was located mainly in the dorsal and medial parvocellular subnuclei. CIH did not increase FosB/?FosB staining in caudal ventrolateral medulla or supraoptic nucleus. These data indicate that CIH induces an increase in FosB/?FosB in autonomic nuclei and suggest that AP-1 transcriptional regulation may contribute to stable adaptive changes that support chronically elevated SNA. PMID:21543638

  4. Effect of amino acid variations in the central region of human serum amyloid A on the amyloidogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Takase, Hiroka; Tanaka, Masafumi; Miyagawa, Sachiko; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Mukai, Takahiro

    2014-01-31

    Human serum amyloid A (SAA) is a precursor protein of the amyloid fibrils that are responsible for AA amyloidosis. Of the four human SAA genotypes, SAA1 is most commonly associated with AA amyloidosis. Furthermore, SAA1 has three major isoforms (SAA1.1, 1.3, and 1.5) that differ by single amino acid variations at two sites in their 104-amino acid sequences. In the present study, we examined the effect of amino acid variations in human SAA1 isoforms on the amyloidogenic properties. All SAA1 isoforms adopted ?-helix structures at 4°C, but were unstructured at 37°C. Heparin-induced amyloid fibril formation of SAA1 was observed at 37°C, as evidenced by the increased thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and ?-sheet structure formation. Despite a comparable increase in ThT fluorescence, SAA1 molecules retained their ?-helix structures at 4°C. At both temperatures, no essential differences in ThT fluorescence and secondary structures were observed among the SAA1 isoforms. However, the fibril morphologies appeared to differ; SAA1.1 formed long and curly fibrils, whereas SAA1.3 formed thin and straight fibrils. The peptides corresponding to the central regions of the SAA1 isoforms containing amino acid variations showed distinct amyloidogenicities, reflecting their direct effects on amyloid fibril formation. These findings may provide novel insights into the influence of amino acid variations in human SAA on the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis. PMID:24440699

  5. Groundwater quality and management in arid and semi-arid regions: Case study, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Reda; Ripperdan, Robert; Wang, Tao; Encarnación, John

    2012-07-01

    This study presents a model budget for groundwater in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The stable isotopic composition and hydrochemistry of groundwater samples collected from different aquifers were determined to identify recharge sources and water quality. Stable isotopic values suggest that shallow alluvial and fracture zone aquifers are recharged from seasonal precipitation, while groundwater in deeper sedimentary sub-basins is paleowater that was recharged during periods of less arid regional climate. Hydrochemical analysis indicates elevated salinity in each aquifer type, which is attributed to leaching and dissolution of terrestrial salts and to mixing with marine water. Groundwater from sedimentary sub-basin aquifers can be treated and used for drinking and domestic purposes. Groundwater from shallow alluvial and fracture zone wells is suitable for animal husbandry and mineral ore dressing. A model water budget shows that approximately 4.8 × 109 m3 of recoverable groundwater is stored in sedimentary sub-basin aquifers, or approximately 550 years of water at present utilization rates.

  6. Chemical analysis and antioxidant activity of the essential oils of three Piperaceae species growing in the central region of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Elisa Jorge; Saucedo-Hernández, Yanelis; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Monteagudo, Urbano; Bravo, Luis; Medinilla, Mildred; de Armas, Yuriam; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The present study describes the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of the essential oils of three Piperaceae species collected in the central region of Cuba. The essential oils of Piper aduncum, P. auritum and P. umbellatum leaves, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of P. aduncum oil were piperitone (34%), camphor (17.1%), camphene (10.9%), 1,8-cineol (8.7%) and viridiflorol (7.4%), whereas that of P. auritum and P. umbellatum was safrole (71.8 and 26.4%, respectively). The antioxidant properties of the essential oils were also evaluated using several assays for radical scavenging ability (DPPH test and reducing power) and inhibition of lipid oxidation (ferric thiocyanate method and evaluation against Cucurbita seed oil by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and p-anisidine methods). P. auritum showed the strongest antioxidant activity among the Piper species investigated, but lower than those of butylated hydroxyanisol and propyl gallate. PMID:24273877

  7. Future snowfall in western and central Europe projected with a high-resolution regional climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vries, Hylke; Lenderink, Geert; Meijgaard, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Snowfall frequency and intensity are influenced strongly by climate change. Here we separate the basic frequency change resulting from a gradually warming climate, from the intensity changes, by focusing on snowfall on days where the mean temperature is below freezing (Hellmann days). Using an ensemble of simulations, obtained with the high-resolution regional climate model KNMI-RACMO2 driven by the EC-EARTH global climate model and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios, we show that in addition to the strong decrease in the number of Hellmann days, also a substantial reduction in the mean Hellmann-day snowfall can be expected over large parts of western and central Europe. Moreover, seasonal snowfall extremes display trends that are comparable or even larger. Projected intensity reductions are locally as large as -30% per degree warming, thus being in sharp contrast to mean winter precipitation, which increases in most future climate scenarios. Exceptions are the high Alps and parts of Scandinavia, which may see an increase of up to +10% per degree warming.

  8. Increasing the Supply of Quality, Accessible, Affordable Child Care: An Economic Development Strategy for the North Central Region. NCRCRD Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traill, Saskia; Brown, Brentt

    2005-01-01

    The child care industry has not been fully integrated into economic development activities despite its growing importance in the economy. This is, in large part, because child care is not usually thought of as an element of economic development. As a result, states in the North Central region are not maximizing the economic benefits from quality,…

  9. First survey for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infection in cattle from Central and Southern regions of Portugal using serological and DNA detection methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incidence of bovine babesiosis in Portugal is currently unknown. In this study, a first survey of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina infection in cattle was carried out using blood samples from 406 clinically healthy individuals from different districts from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and a...

  10. Food-hoarding behavior of gray squirrels and North American red squirrels in the central hardwoods region: implications for forest regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob R. Goheen; Robert K. Swihart

    2003-01-01

    The North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) has expanded its geographic range into the state of Indiana concurrently with a decline in populations of gray squirrels ( Sciurus carolinensis) throughout portions of the central hardwoods region of the United States that have been converted to intensive agriculture. Red squirrels construct larder hoards and function as seed predators throughout much of

  11. A long-term, high-resolution record of surface water iron concentrations in the upwelling-driven central California region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Elrod; K. S. Johnson; S. E. Fitzwater; J. N. Plant

    2008-01-01

    Seven years of observations of surface water iron concentrations in the Monterey Bay region of central California reveal a consistent annual cycle dominated by the injection of high concentrations of particulate iron each spring. A companion study of the water column near the upwelling center at the north end of the bay clearly indicates a sedimentary source for the iron.

  12. Assimilating new pastors into leadership positions in local congregations in the North Central Region of The Assemblies of God\\/ by Tracy R. Paino

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy R. Paino

    2006-01-01

    The problem this project addresses is the inadequate assimilation of graduating students in the pastoral programs in the North Central Region of the Assemblies of God (A\\/G) into pastoral leadership positions. In response to this problem, the project will review the historical context and attitudinal perceptions of pastoral preparation, credentialing, and placement in the Assemblies of God. The project will

  13. Partnership or Rivalry between the EU, China and India in Central Asia: The Normative Power of Regional Actors with Global Aspirations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilian Kavalski

    2007-01-01

    Abstract:?This analysis undertakes a preliminary conceptual assessment of the international agency of the EU, India and China in Central Asia. The contention is that the strategies advanced by Brussels, New Delhi and Beijing in the region reflect not only their desire to introduce a framework of predictability allowing them to make feasible calculations about future intentions, but also the increasing

  14. Teaching English Language Learner Students: Professional Standards in Elementary Education in Central Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 122

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen; Wang, Xin; Ryan, Susan; Cicchinelli, Louis F.

    2012-01-01

    This report on professional teaching standards in the Central Region examines what K-8 general education teachers are expected to know and be able to do in order to teach English language learner students. It reviews the standards for coverage of six topics that the research literature suggests are important for improving student achievement. Key…

  15. Regional extent of permafrost and boreal forest degradations in the central Yakutia by ALOS-PALSAR and AVNIR2 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Yoshihiro; Fedorov, Alexander; Abe, Konomi; Ise, Hajime; Masuzawa, Tadashi

    2013-04-01

    Wet climate with largely increased in precipitation during summer and snow accumulation during winter had continued 4 years since 2004 winter in eastern Siberia. Soil moisture in the active layer had been significantly increased corresponding with thawing of permafrost near the surface during following years. The perennially water-logged active layer furthermore exacerbated the boreal forest habitat, namely withered and dead forests widely extended in this region. In the present study, we have attempted to extract the region of degraded boreal forest based on the analysis of satellite data in the left and right banks of Lena River near Yakutsk, along with expansion of the water surface area in relation to permafrost degradation. We utilized ALOS-PALSAR and AVNIR2 images taken during 2006 through 2009. After geocoding and noise reduction of PALSAR images, classification of water surface area including water-logged ground was performed with supervised classification using the threshold of a microwave backscattering coefficient. Then, we compared the distribution of the water-logged area between multi-years. In addition, during the same period, supervised classification of grassland and boreal forest was conducted using AVNIR2 images. Then, both classifications were overlaid and the multi-years change in degraded boreal forest due to water-logged conditions was extracted as well. Boreal forest in the left bank of the Lena River distributes on river terrace where density of alas lakes is quite low due to consisting of sandy loam soil with underlying permafrost with less ground ice content. In this area, water surface area expanded in concaved terrain and along the valley year by year in conjunction with change from forest to grassland. On the other hand, forest in the right bank of the Lena River distributed in the region with very high density of alas lakes due to underlying ice rich permafrost. During the same period, alas lakes expanded and boreal forest on the periphery of lakes turned to water surface and grassland. Based on the field survey, humidified and deepen active layer in side slope of alas lakes increased topographical instability and finally eroded by largely increased water mass. In brief, the method combining ALOS satellite analyses has great possibility to detect permafrost and forest degradation caused by wet climate in the central Lena river basin.

  16. Integrated assessment of a new Waste-to-Energy facility in Central Greece in the context of regional perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Perkoulidis, G. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papageorgiou, A., E-mail: giou6@yahoo.g [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Karagiannidis, A. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kalogirou, S. [Waste to Energy Research and Technology Council (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The main aim of this study is the integrated assessment of a proposed Waste-to-Energy facility that could contribute in the Municipal Solid Waste Management system of the Region of Central Greece. In the context of this paper alternative transfer schemes for supplying the candidate facility were assessed considering local conditions and economical criteria. A mixed-integer linear programming model was applied for the determination of optimum locations of Transfer Stations for an efficient supplying chain between the waste producers and the Waste-to-Energy facility. Moreover different Regional Waste Management Scenarios were assessed against multiple criteria, via the Multi Criteria Decision Making method ELECTRE III. The chosen criteria were total cost, Biodegradable Municipal Waste diversion from landfill, energy recovery and Greenhouse Gas emissions and the analysis demonstrated that a Waste Management Scenario based on a Waste-to-Energy plant with an adjacent landfill for disposal of the residues would be the best performing option for the Region, depending however on the priorities of the decision makers. In addition the study demonstrated that efficient planning is necessary and the case of three sanitary landfills operating in parallel with the WtE plant in the study area should be avoided. Moreover alternative cases of energy recovery of the candidate Waste-to-Energy facility were evaluated against the requirements of the new European Commission Directive on waste in order for the facility to be recognized as recovery operation. The latter issue is of high significance and the decision makers in European Union countries should take it into account from now on, in order to plan and implement facilities that recover energy efficiently. Finally a sensitivity check was performed in order to evaluate the effects of increased recycling rate, on the calorific value of treated Municipal Solid Waste and the gate fee of the candidate plant and found that increased recycling efforts would not diminish the potential for incineration with energy recovery from waste and neither would have adverse impacts on the gate fee of the Waste-to-Energy plant. In general, the study highlighted the need for efficient planning in solid waste management, by taking into account multiple criteria and parameters and utilizing relevant tools and methodologies into this context.

  17. Integrated assessment of a new Waste-to-Energy facility in Central Greece in the context of regional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Perkoulidis, G; Papageorgiou, A; Karagiannidis, A; Kalogirou, S

    2010-07-01

    The main aim of this study is the integrated assessment of a proposed Waste-to-Energy facility that could contribute in the Municipal Solid Waste Management system of the Region of Central Greece. In the context of this paper alternative transfer schemes for supplying the candidate facility were assessed considering local conditions and economical criteria. A mixed-integer linear programming model was applied for the determination of optimum locations of Transfer Stations for an efficient supplying chain between the waste producers and the Waste-to-Energy facility. Moreover different Regional Waste Management Scenarios were assessed against multiple criteria, via the Multi Criteria Decision Making method ELECTRE III. The chosen criteria were total cost, Biodegradable Municipal Waste diversion from landfill, energy recovery and Greenhouse Gas emissions and the analysis demonstrated that a Waste Management Scenario based on a Waste-to-Energy plant with an adjacent landfill for disposal of the residues would be the best performing option for the Region, depending however on the priorities of the decision makers. In addition the study demonstrated that efficient planning is necessary and the case of three sanitary landfills operating in parallel with the WtE plant in the study area should be avoided. Moreover alternative cases of energy recovery of the candidate Waste-to-Energy facility were evaluated against the requirements of the new European Commission Directive on waste in order for the facility to be recognized as recovery operation. The latter issue is of high significance and the decision makers in European Union countries should take it into account from now on, in order to plan and implement facilities that recover energy efficiently. Finally a sensitivity check was performed in order to evaluate the effects of increased recycling rate, on the calorific value of treated Municipal Solid Waste and the gate fee of the candidate plant and found that increased recycling efforts would not diminish the potential for incineration with energy recovery from waste and neither would have adverse impacts on the gate fee of the Waste-to-Energy plant. In general, the study highlighted the need for efficient planning in solid waste management, by taking into account multiple criteria and parameters and utilizing relevant tools and methodologies into this context. PMID:20061131

  18. Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.

    2009-04-01

    Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region Despite India's tremendous progress on all fronts after independence in 1947, the fact remains that it is one of the poorest nation in the world in terms of per capita income and energy consumption which is considered to be the gauge of the economic situation of any country. In case of India, it is nearly one tenth of the developed nations. If economic condition of its people is to be raised, then country has to boost its agriculture production which is largely monsoon dependent and to exploit its conventional and unconventional energy sources at a very rapid growth rate. Although, worldwide, 70% of the water that is withdrawn for human use is used for agriculture, 22% for industry and 8% is used for domestic services. But in India which is a low income country, 82% is used for agriculture, 10% for industry and 8% for domestic services. Therefore, India needs new sources of water to reduce the risk of dependency on the monsoon for the Sustainable Development of the country. It is in this connection that the Ambikapur Basin in the Central India has been studied for sustainable water withdrawal. At present, the crops in the Ambikapur region are totally monsoon dependent. However, with the initiatives of the State Government, 25 boreholes in an area of about 25 square kilometers have been drilled up to a depth of 500m and completed in the Gondwana sandstone. The water quality and the discharge rates have been established to sustain the crops of the area which is the only livelihood of the local people , in case the monsoon fails. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer like Transmissivity (T) and the Coefficient of Storage (S) were determined following the graphic method of Jacob and Theis. The rate of discharge (Q) of the pumped well was estimated at 4.05 x 10 to the power 3 cubic meters per second and the values of other parameters like T at the well being 2.5 x 10 to the power 3 square meters per second and, T and S at the piezometric head being 1.56 x 10 to the power 2 square meters per second and 5.8 % respectively. The Interference Tests show that the reservoir is communicable. The measurements of bottom hole pressure indicate that it was always greater than the hydrostatic pressure, therefore, the wells will have a self flow. The residency period of the water in the reservoir comes out to be nearly 30 to 40 years. The reservoir characteristics indicate that the Ambikapur aquifer offers vast water resource worth exploiting the judicious management of which can reduce the dependency of crops on the monsoon and can help a fast sustainable development of the region. Key words : Gondwana sandstone, Aquifer, Transmissivity, Piezometric head, Interference test,

  19. Nestin mRNA expression correlates with the central nervous system progenitor cell state in many, but not all, regions of developing central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Dahlstrand; Michael Lardelli; Urban Lendahl

    1995-01-01

    Nestin is a recently discovered intermediate filament (IF) gene. Nestin expression has been extensively used as a marker for central nervous system (CNS) progenitor cells in different contexts, based on observations indicating a correlation between nestin expression and this cell type in vivo. To evaluate this correlation in more detail nestin mRNA expression in developing and adult mouse CNS was

  20. Technical Education and Vocational Training in Central Africa. Feasibility Survey of the Regional Development of Rapid Vocational Training: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization for Rehabilitation through Training, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This final report is the result of a survey requested by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and undertaken by the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT) of four countries (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and Gabon) and a conference on vocational training sponsored by the Economic and Customs…

  1. The impact of regional erosion-deposition patterns on the distribution of active normal faulting in the central Italian Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geurts, Anneleen H.; Cowie, Patience A.; Huismans, Ritske; Gawthorpe, Rob

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the interaction between surface processes and faulting in active continental rifts, this study attempts to constrain their individual contributions to landscape evolution in the central Italian Apennines and to quantify the strength of interaction. The availability of independent records of deformation, surface uplift and erosion-deposition make this area especially suitable to investigate interaction and feedbacks between active tectonic deformation and surface processes. General agreement exists that the area emerged above sea level during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and that a combination of regional up-doming and extensional deformation has generated its high topography (elevations up to 2900 m above sea level) and a well-developed array of active normal faults. The presence of lacustrine deposits in hanging wall basins indicates that rift-internal drainage networks have been disconnected from externally draining river networks (i.e. transport of sediment out of the mountain belt) for considerable time. These observations imply that on the long-term, erosional removal of mass from the system has preferentially taken place on the eastern and western flanks of the mountain range whereas, in interior areas, locally sourced sediment has mainly become trapped in the internally drained hanging wall basins. We investigate the effect that long-term erosional unloading of the mountain flanks could have had on topographic development in the interior part of the central Apennines and, in turn, how this may have been associated with variations in the distribution of active faulting and fault slip rates over the last 1-2 million years. We use observational data that come from basin sediments, palaeoshorelines, coastal notches, levelling data, modern-day topography (DEM) and flat erosional surfaces from interior parts of the rift to reconstruct 'palaeosurfaces'. Thus we estimate the total volume of sediment that has been removed from the mountain range flanks since the late Pliocene. These data provide constraints for a suite of numerical experiments using a 2D model for lithospheric deformation that includes frictional faulting, viscous flow and allows for buoyancy-driven uplift due to convective removal of mantle lithosphere. Simple surface process rules for erosion and transport are included in the model to investigate the feedback between mass redistribution at the surface, convective flow, faulting and topographic development. We will present both our initial modelling results and an overview of the observational constraints.

  2. Magmatic-Tectonic Interactions: Implications for Seismic Hazard Assessment in the Central Walker Lane and Long Valley Caldera Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, R.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Bormann, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimates of fault slip rates based on geodetic data rely on measurements that represent the long-term deformation of the crust. In the Central Walker Lane/Sierra Nevada transition, the Long Valley Caldera region has experienced multiple episodes of uplift and subsidence during the last four decades. The latest episode began in late 2011 and is detectable as a transient signal in the time series of GPS stations around the caldera. These transient signals become more apparent and reveal the extent of the impact on the ambient crustal deformation field of the Walker Lane when the velocity vectors are transformed to a Sierra-Nevada reference frame. Estimating contemporary slip-rates on faults for the purpose of seismic hazard assessment in the region around Long Valley requires detecting and subtracting the transient signals caused by the uplift and subsidence in the caldera. We estimate the geographic extent to which the ambient crustal deformation field is significantly perturbed by ongoing magmatic activity in Long Valley. We present a time variable 3D deformation field constrained by InSAR and GPS observations, and discuss the implications that tectonic-magmatic interaction have for estimates of present-day fault slip-rate. We model the time dependent deformation at Long Valley by analyzing InSAR time series from Envisat and ERS interferograms spanning a period of more than 19 years. We use an analytical volcano deformation source model derived from vertical (GPS) and line of site (InSAR) component of geodetic observations to estimate the horizontal component of the signals associated with magmatic activity beneath the caldera. Previous studies showed that the latest episode of uplift can be modeled with a Mogi source located at a depth of ~6 km with a volume change of 0.03 km3 beneath the resurgent dome. This model predicts a perturbation to the ambient crustal deformation field extending as far as 60 km from the center of the resurgent dome. Thus the area affected by Long Valley extends from north of Mono Lake southward to Owens Lake, and eastward to the Mina deflection of the Walker Lane, potentially influencing the estimated slip rates for a dozen or more major faults.

  3. Modeling a ryanodine receptor N-terminal domain connecting the central vestibule and the corner clamp region.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Zhong, Xiaowei; Chen, S R Wayne; Banavali, Nilesh; Liu, Zheng

    2013-01-11

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form a class of intracellular calcium release channels in various excitable tissues and cells such as muscles and neurons. They are the major cellular mediators of the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, an essential step in muscle excitation-contraction coupling. Several crystal structures of skeletal muscle RyR1 peptide fragments have been solved, but these cover less than 15% of the full-length RyR1 sequence. In this study, by combining modeling techniques with sub-nanometer resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) maps, we obtained pseudo-atomic models for RyR fragments consisting of residues 850-1,056 in rabbit RyR1 or residues 861-1,067 in mouse RyR2. These fragments are docked into a domain that connects the central vestibule and corner clamp region of RyR, resulting in a good match of the secondary structure elements in the cryo-EM map and the pseudo-atomic models, which is also consistent with our previous mappings of GFP insertions by cryo-EM and with FRET measurements involving RyR and FK506-binding protein (FKBP). A combined model of the RyR fragment and FKBP docked into the cryo-EM map suggests that the fragment is positioned adjacent to the FKBP-binding site. Its predicted binding interface with FKBP consists primarily of electrostatic contacts and contains several disease-associated mutations. A dynamic interaction between the fragment and an RyR phosphorylation domain, characterized by FRET experiments, also supports the structural predictions of the pseudo-atomic models. PMID:23204524

  4. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Wolf (Canis lupus) Breeding Areas in a Mountainous Region of Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Elena; Willis, Stephen G.; Passilongo, Daniela; Mattioli, Luca; Apollonio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy represent a relict west European population. They are classified as vulnerable by IUCN, though have increased in number and expanded their range in recent decades. Here we use 17 years of monitoring data (from 1993 to 2010) collected in a mountainous region of central Italy (Arezzo, Tuscany) in an ecological niche-based model (MaxEnt) to characterize breeding sites (i.e. the areas where pups were raised) within home ranges, as detected from play-back responses. From a suite of variables related to topography, habitat and human disturbance we found that elevation and distance to protected areas were most important in explaining the locality of wolf responses. Rendezvous sites (family play-back response sites) typically occurred between 800 and 1200 m a.s.l., inside protected areas, and were usually located along mountain chains distant from human settlements and roads. In these areas human disturbance is low and the densities of ungulates are typically high. Over recent years, rendezvous sites have occurred closer to urban areas as the wolf population has continued to expand, despite the consequent human disturbance. This suggests that undisturbed landscapes may be reaching their carrying capacity for wolves. This, in turn, may lead to the potential for increased human-wolf interactions in future. Applying our model, both within and beyond the species’ current range, we identify sites both within the current range and also further afield, that the species could occupy in future. Our work underlines the importance of the present protected areas network in facilitating the recolonisation by wolves. Our projections of suitability of sites for future establishment as the population continues to expand could inform planning to minimize future wolf-human conflicts. PMID:26035174

  5. The Comparison of Hydrologic Distributed Models Computed Using Different Digital Elevation Data. An Example in the Umbria Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, F.; Zizioli, D.; Taramelli, A.; Reichenbach, P.; Ardizzone, F.

    2007-12-01

    The demand for hydrologic prediction tools that utilize information on spatial variations in precipitation and land surface characteristics drive the development of spatially distributed hydrologic models. Several studies have found that spatially distributed hydrological models are sensitive to digital elevation models (DEMs) resolution and vertical accuracy. DEM is a crucial input in hydrologic models. Spatially distributed features, such as number of stream reaches, Strahler order, total length of the stream network and watershed area depend on DEM resolution and quality. This study evaluates the effect of three different DEMs on the spatial distribution of the number of stream reaches (Strahler order), of Horton's parameters variations, of the total length of the stream network and of the watershed area. These components are the main input for hydrologic modelling. Their structure (i.e. number of features) and spatial attributes (length and area) have considerable effect on modelling process and final output. The analysis is carried out in the Umbria region (central Italy) using three different DEMs derived from ASTER data, SRTM data, and a 25m resolution DEM derived from the interpolation of contour lines obtained from 1:25.000 scale topographic maps. The study analyzes the relationship between mean slope and mean elevation for computed watersheds and compares values of the derivatives for each pair of DEMs. Where blue lines derived from topographic maps are available, will be compared with the stream network computed automatically using different algorithms from the three DEMs. The aim of this part of the work is to illustrate how several methods- algorithms of channel extraction (D8, RHO8, LTD) are sensitive both to grid size and different morphological signature proper of each data set. The synthetic drainage networks are also classified in terms of stream ordering. The final overall results will help to translate the error in elevation data set into the error in hydrologic model input and in predictions of the output (i.e. discharge and time lag).

  6. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Wolf (Canis lupus) Breeding Areas in a Mountainous Region of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Elena; Willis, Stephen G; Passilongo, Daniela; Mattioli, Luca; Apollonio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy represent a relict west European population. They are classified as vulnerable by IUCN, though have increased in number and expanded their range in recent decades. Here we use 17 years of monitoring data (from 1993 to 2010) collected in a mountainous region of central Italy (Arezzo, Tuscany) in an ecological niche-based model (MaxEnt) to characterize breeding sites (i.e. the areas where pups were raised) within home ranges, as detected from play-back responses. From a suite of variables related to topography, habitat and human disturbance we found that elevation and distance to protected areas were most important in explaining the locality of wolf responses. Rendezvous sites (family play-back response sites) typically occurred between 800 and 1200 m a.s.l., inside protected areas, and were usually located along mountain chains distant from human settlements and roads. In these areas human disturbance is low and the densities of ungulates are typically high. Over recent years, rendezvous sites have occurred closer to urban areas as the wolf population has continued to expand, despite the consequent human disturbance. This suggests that undisturbed landscapes may be reaching their carrying capacity for wolves. This, in turn, may lead to the potential for increased human-wolf interactions in future. Applying our model, both within and beyond the species' current range, we identify sites both within the current range and also further afield, that the species could occupy in future. Our work underlines the importance of the present protected areas network in facilitating the recolonisation by wolves. Our projections of suitability of sites for future establishment as the population continues to expand could inform planning to minimize future wolf-human conflicts. PMID:26035174

  7. Infection risk factors associated with seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii in a population-based study in the Central Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abu, E K; Boampong, J N; Ayi, I; Ghartey-Kwansah, G; Afoakwah, R; Nsiah, P; Blay, E

    2015-07-01

    About 20-90% of the world's population has had contact with Toxoplasma gondii parasites. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in the Central Region, Ghana. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in three selected communities. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA. A serological criterion for seropositivity was a positive test result for any of the two anti-Toxoplasma IgG or IgM antibodies or a combination of both. In all, 390 participants of mean age 47·0 years consisting of 118 (30·3%) males and 272 (69·7%) females were tested. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 85% (333/390) where fishermen, farmers and fishmongers, respectively, had the highest seropositivity. IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 329 (84%) and 25 (6%), respectively, while both IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 21 (5%) of the participants. Respectively, 1% (4/390) and 79% (308/390) of participants tested positive for IgM-only and IgG-only antibodies. There was a significant relationship between Toxoplasma seropositivity and contact with soil, presence of a cat in the surrounding area, age, sources of drinking water, level of formal education, and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that the seashore may serve as a good ground for sporulation and survival of Toxoplasma oocysts. PMID:25373611

  8. Clinical characteristics of patients with atrial fibrillation at a tertiary care hospital in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bin Salih, Salih A.; Showlag, Mohammed S.; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed A.; Taha, Ahmad; Yousuf, Muhammad; Abdullah, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report on the clinical presentation, etiology, and laboratory features of acute and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied records of 720 patients with AF seen in outpatients and inpatients departments at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2008. Results: Documented acute and chronic AF was present in 157 (21.8%) and 563 (78.1%) patients, respectively. Palpitations, dizziness and syncope were the most frequent symptoms in acute AF, while dyspnea and palpitations were the most common symptoms in the chronic type. Acute respiratory problems and acute myocardial infarction were significantly more common in acute AF, while congestive heart failure and acute respiratory problems (chest infection, bronchial asthma, and pulmonary embolism) were significantly more common in chronic AF. The most common causes of both types of AF were diabetes mellitus (DM) in 68.8%, hypertension (HTN) in 59.3%, chronic lung diseases (bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease) in 31.8%, valvular heart disease in 23.6%, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) in 23.1%. In 9 (1.3%) patients, no cause was detected. The echocardiographic findings of left ventricular hypertrophy, valve lesions, and depressed left ventricular function were significantly more common in chronic AF (P<0.01). Conclusions Nowadays, DM, HTN, and IHD are becoming the most common predisposing factors for AF in the central region of Saudi Arabia and require prevention and control PMID:21897916

  9. Phylogeography of a widespread terrestrial vertebrate in a barely-studied Palearctic region: green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) indicate glacial refugia in Eastern Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Jun; Stöck, Matthias; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2008-11-01

    The phylogeography of western Palearctic species is relatively well studied, but data on Eastern Central Asia are scarce. We present one of the first data sets from a widespread terrestrial vertebrate (Bufo pewzowi) inhabiting Eastern Central Asian mountains and deserts to gain knowledge on its phylogeography in this region. We applied combined phylogenetic and demographic analyses to understand the evolutionary history using mitochondrial DNA D-loop variation of toads from 37 locations. Genetic structure of Bufo pewzowi is strongly affected by landscape: we found three haplotype groups in eastern Kazakhstan, Dzungaria and Tarim Basin, divided by the Tian Shan and Dzungarian Alatau ranges. A vicariant hypothesis may explain divergence among groups. The divergence time of the three major clades was estimated about 0.9 million years ago (confidence interval 0.5-1.4), and is discussed with respect to Quaternary uplifting and glaciation in the Tian Shan. Demographic analyses provided evidence for both historical bottlenecks and population expansions and suggested Pleistocene signatures. Glacial refugia were inferred in the Tarim Basin (around the Turpan depression), in southern Dzungaria (Urumqui region), at the northern foot of the Tian Shan (Gongnaisi) and perhaps at the Altai range (Terekti). Regional Post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal patterns are proposed. A taxonomic hypothesis is presented. This study provides a detailed history of how a widespread terrestrial vertebrate responded to geological change and Quaternary glacial events in Eastern Central Asia and may have significance for future phylogeographic research in this understudied region. PMID:18301990

  10. Sedimentary geochemistry depicts 2700 years of regional climate and land use change in the Rieti Basin, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, C.; Noble, P. J.; Mensing, S. A.; Tunno, I.; Sagnotti, L.; Florindo, F.; Cifnani, G.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Piovesan, G.

    2014-12-01

    A 14.4 m thick sedimentary sequence was recovered in multiple cores from Lago Lungo in the Rieti Basin, an intrapenninic extensional basin ~80 km north of Rome, Italy. This sequence provides a high-resolution record of environmental change related to climatic influence and anthropogenic landscape alteration. Pollen analyses, corroborated with historical records of land-use change, define the major shifts in forest composition and their historical context. An age model of the sequence was built using ties to regional cultigen datums and archaeomagnetic reference curves. Here we focus on sedimentologic and geochemical data (scanning XRF) from the Roman Period through the Little Ice Age (LIA). The base of the sequence (ca. 680 BCE- 1 CE) is marked by a steady increase in fine-grained detrital elements Ti, Rb, and K, and corresponding decrease in Ca, representing a transition from the unaltered system after the Romans constructed a channel that the basin. The Medieval Period (MP; 900-1350 CE) is lithologically distinct, composed of varicolored bands of alternating silt, clay, and calcareous concretions. Low counts of Ca, high detrital elements and frequent abrupt peaks in levels of the redox elements Fe and Mn indicate episodic clastic influx. Pollen data indicate that the greatest degree of deforestation and erosion occurred during the MP, supported by mean sedimentation rates of ca. 1cm/year, over twice the rate of the underlying interval. The Medieval climate was warmer and more stable, population increased, and elevations >1000 m were exploited for agriculture. The influence of the Velino River on the lake appears to increase during the MP through channel migration, increased flooding, or increased overland flow. The next transition (1350 CE) marks the start of the LIA and is coincident with the Black Plague. Historical records document a large earthquake in 1349 that severely struck Central Italy, with possible effects on the lake's depositional and hydrochemical regime. Clastic input abruptly ceases at the start of the LIA, and peaks in Sr, Ca, and S may be attributed to changes in lake inflow. Core analyses results, corroborated with historical documentation, provide new insights into the basin history and the underlying causes of environmental change.

  11. Mapping lake level changes using ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry data: a case study in arid regions of central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, JunLi; Fang, Hui; Yang, Liao

    2011-12-01

    Lakes in arid regions of Central Asia act as essential components of regional water cycles, providing sparse but valuable water resource for the fragile ecological environments and human lives. Lakes in Central Asia are sensitive to climate change and human activities, and great changes have been found since 1960s. Mapping and monitoring these inland lakes would improve our understanding of mechanism of lake dynamics and climatic impacts. ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry provides an efficient tool of continuously measuring lake levels in these poorly surveyed remote areas. An automated mapping scheme of lake level changes is developed based on GLAS altimetry products, and the spatial and temporal characteristics of 9 typical lakes in Central Asia are analyzed to validate the level accuracies. The results show that ICESat/GLAS has a good performance of lake level monitoring, whose patterns of level changes are the same as those of field observation, and the max differences between GLAS and field data is 3cm. Based on the results, it is obvious that alpine lakes are increasing greatly in lake levels during 2003-2009 due to climate change, while open lakes with dams and plain endorheic lakes decrease dramatically in water levels due to human activities, which reveals the overexploitation of water resource in Central Asia.

  12. EDP Renewables (Euronext: EDPR) es lder mundial en el sector de las energas renovables. Disea, desarrolla, gestiona y explota centrales que generan electricidad mediante el uso de

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    wind energy producer #12;5 Responsabilidad Social Corporativa ASOCIACIÓN CEPRI (ayuda a niños autistas) #12;6 Responsabilidad Social Corporativa CAMPAMENTO ESPIRAL #12;7 Responsabilidad Social Corporativa universitarios la realización de proyectos lo más cercanos posibles a la realidad empresarial. · Aproximar las

  13. Palaeomagnetic study of block rotations in the Niksar overlap region of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatar, Orhan; Piper, John D. A.; Park, R. Graham; Gürsoy, Halil

    1995-04-01

    This palaeomagnetic study investigates crustal deformation within, and adjacent to, the Niksar overlap area of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in central-east Turkey. The studied rock formations comprise: (1) red limestones of Late Cretaceous age (3 sites); (2) mafic lavas of Eocene age on the north side (13 sites) and south side (9 sites) of the NAFZ; and (3) volcanic rocks of Pliocene-Quaternary age from the Niksar pull-apart basin within the NAFZ (8 sites). Comparisons with reference palaeofield directions computed from apparent polar wander paths of the Eurasian and Afro-Arabian plates identify two scales of regional and local tectonic rotation: (1) A pre-tilting remanence in the Eocene volcanic rocks south of the NAFZ ( {D}/{I} = {144.1}/{-47.5°}, ?95 = 7.6°) is interpreted to reflect counterclockwise rotation by 30-40° from the reference palaeofields. Contemporaneous volcanic rocks from the north side of the NAFZ have the same reverse polarity recorded in pre-tilting magnetisations. The remanence is also rotated counterclockwise ( {D}/{I} = {152.4}/{-42.5°}, ?95 = 11.3°), but by about 8° less than the volcanics on the south side of the NAFZ. Hence similar amounts of rotation are observed on both sides of the NAFZ and are interpreted to reflect motions during the pre-Middle Miocene collisional history in this sector of the Pontides. No distributed clockwise rotations anticipated from subsequent dextral motion along the NAFZ intracontinental transform are observed. The slightly larger anticlockwise rotation found on the south side of the NAFZ probably records relative rotation of en-echelon wedges by continental escape during post-Middle Miocene strike slip along the transform. (2) Within the narrow zone of intense deformation along the NAFZ, Cretaceous limestones appear to be rotated clockwise by dextral strike-slip motion whilst Plio-Quaternary lavas within a fault-bounded block in the overlap region associated with the Niksar pull-apart basin, have magnetisations consistently directed 240-270°E. Magnetic inclinations are not diagnostic of polarity but both polarity solutions identify rapid clockwise rotation at rates in excess of 50°/m.y. A normal polarity solution is favoured and implies that a block (ca. 5 km across) has undergone a strike-slip displacement of around 12 km within the NAFZ during the last polarity chron. Cretaceous-Eocene palaeolatitudes are closer to those predicted from Eurasia than Afro-Arabia, but a study of older rocks is required to resolve affinities of this sector of the Anatolian block. Theoretical models of crustal deformation across intracontinental transforms obeying power-law behaviour and treating the lithosphere as a viscous medium predict that distributed clockwise rotations should be observed about as broad across the NAFZ. These rotations are not observed. Instead intense clockwise rotation is confined to a narrow zone close to the major fault break. The concentration of historic seismic activity here also implies that the bulk of the dextral motion between the Eurasian Plate and the Anatolian block is accommodated by slip along faults close and parallel to the main trace of the NAFZ.

  14. Hydrologic and geologic characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site relevant to the performance of a potential repository: Day 1, Las Vegas, Nevada to Pahrump, Nevada: Stop 6A. Keane Wonder Spring and regional groundwater flow in the Death Valley region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinkampf, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, located ~100 mi northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, has been designated by Congress as a site to be characterized for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This field trip will examine the regional geologic and hydrologic setting for Yucca Mountain, as well as specific results of the site characterization program, The first day focuses on the regional seeing with emphasis on current and paleo hydrology, which are both of critical concern for predicting future performance of a potential repository. Morning stops will be in southern Nevada and afternoon stops will be in Death Valley. The second day will be spent at Yucca Mountain. The filed trip will visit the underground testing sites in the "Exploratory Studies Facility" and the "Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Field Test" plus several surface-based testing sites. Much of the work at the site has concentrated on studies of the unsaturated zone, and element of the hydrologic system that historically has received little attention. Discussions during the second day will comprise selected topics of Yucca Mountain geology, mic hazard in the Yucca Mountain area. Evening discussions will address modeling of regional groundwater flow, the geology and hydrology of Yucca Mountain to the performance of a potential repository. Day 3 will examine the geologic framework and hydrology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Groundwater Basin and then will continue to Reno via Hawthorne, Nevada and the Walker Lake area.

  15. Granitic and magmatic bodies in the deep crust of the Son Narmada Region, Central India: constraints from seismic, gravity and magnetotelluric methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Naganjaneyulu

    2010-01-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data at 24 locations in the Son Narmada region, Central India, were collected across the Tapti North Fault and Son Narmada Fault along the Chinchpada-Godhra profile (220 km). MT impedance tensors were then estimated in the period range 0.001-1,000 s using robust processing codes. The N70°E geo-electric strike direction was obtained by multi-site, multi-frequency analysis. The data were

  16. Population data for D10S1248, D14S1434, and D22S1045 miniSTRs loci from the Marches region (Central Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerio Onofri; Ilenia Giacomini; Federica Alessandrini; Chiara Turchi; Loredana Buscemi; Adriano Tagliabracci

    2008-01-01

    The suitability of miniSTRs in degraded DNA typing has been well demonstrated. In order to collect allele frequencies of the “NC01” miniplex loci, a population study was performed. D10S1248, D14S1434, and D22S1045 loci were investigated in a sample of 157 unrelated healthy individuals living in the Marches region (Central Italy). Allele frequencies were collected and forensic parameters were calculated. The

  17. Sc and REE-bearing ixiolite and associated minerals from the Sosedka pegmatite vein in the Malkhan pegmatite field, central Transbaikal region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Badanina; V. V. Gordienko; A. Wiechowski; G. Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    Composition and localization of REE mineralization in miarolitic pegmatites and its role in the pegmatite formation were studied\\u000a at the Malkhan gem deposit (jewel-quality tourmaline, morganite, danburite, and hambergite) in the central Transbaikal region.\\u000a The chemical composition of Ti-, Ta-, Nb- and REE-bearing minerals, their relationships with rock-forming and accessory minerals\\u000a indicate that two geochemically specialized stages of pegmatite formation

  18. The Sant'Agata Feltria landslide (Marche Region, central Italy): a case of recurrent earthflow evolving from a deep-seated gravitational slope deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Bisci; Fausto Burattini; Francesco Dramis; Stefano Leoperdi; Fabrizio Pontoni; Franco Pontoni

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of a large-scale earthflow located in the northern sector of the Marche Region (central Italy). In this area, mass movements of different typology are particularly frequent since geological and geomorphological conditions often favour slope instability.Among these many mass movements, the one affecting the historical village of Sant'Agata Feltria has been chosen, also because its evolution

  19. [Infectivity-resistotype-genotype clustering of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in the Central Blacksea Region of Turkey].

    PubMed

    K?rca Y?lmaz, Sule; Acuner, Ibrahim Ca?atay; Strommenger, Birgit; Bek, Yüksel; Witte, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the prevalence of epidemic strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals and community requires special attention of infection control. The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenic phenotype (i.e. infectivity and resistotype) and genotypic characteristics (i.e. PFGE-pulsotyping, SLST-spa typing, MLST-sequence typing, eBURST-clonal complex detection algorithm) of clinical MRSA isolates in the Central Blacksea region of Turkey, in order to understand their short- and long-term epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics, and to investigate any probable presence of a significant clustering. This prospective study included consecutive but non-repetitive 48 MRSA isolates (of them 18 were colonized strains and 30 were causes of nosocomial infection) and seven methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA, all were isolated from nosocomial infection), collected between December 2006-February 2007 period from hospitalized patients. Identification of the isolates were performed by Vitek-2 automated system (BioMérieux, USA), and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution method and Vitek-2 automated system. The MRSA isolates found susceptible to erythromycin (n= 10) were further investigated for the presence of ermA gene by the PCR method. All the strains were typed by spa-typing and PFGE-pulsotyping methods. Among the isolates with different spa-types, representatives were selected (3 MRSA, 7 MSSA) and typed with MLST typing method. Among the isolates with different spa-types, representatives with different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were selected (n= 8), and SCCmec types were determined by the multiplex PCR method. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolates were digitized to get standardized antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Clustering of MRSA isolates in pattern groups on the basis of discriminatory characteristics, namely infectivity, phenotype and genotype were statistically analyzed with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. As a result, three different antimicrobial resistance phenotypes were found in MSSA isolates, whereas 13 were identified in MRSA isolates. In MSSA isolates, seven different PFGE-pulsotypes were detected, as compared to 14 pulsotypes in MRSA isolates. Among MRSA isolates, 10 sporadic strains with single PFGE-pulsotypes were detected. All MRSA isolates, with two exceptions (t459, t632), were of t030 spa-type; in the MLST analysis of the representatives of different spa-types (n= 3), a single type of MLST-clonal complex (CC8) and single MLST-sequence type (ST239) were identified. Each of the seven MSSA isolates yielded different spa-types, MLST-clonal complex types and MLST-sequence types (t777-ST5-CC5; t660-ST25-CC5; t153-ST34-CC30; t015-ST45-CC45; t267-ST97-CC97; t377-ST360-CC8; t084-ST15-C15). In the statistical analysis of 38 non-sporadic MRSA isolates, the isolates in Group-13 (n= 16; infectious, resistotype 14, pulsotype 4; antimicrobial resistance score= 24) displayed significant infectivity-phenotype-genotype clustering (p< 0.001). In 27 of the MRSA isolates, decreased susceptibility to teicoplanin (MIC= 4 µg/mL) was detected. Although, global MRSA isolates belonging to MLST-CC8, MLST-ST239, t030 spa-type were usually expected to be resistant to erythromycin, 10 such strains were erythromycin susceptible. However, ermA gene was found in six of these 10 strains, leading to a conclusion that the ermA gene of these isolates might be dysfunctional due to a point mutation or deletion. Selected representatives of MRSA isolates with different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (n= 8) were detected to be SCCmec type III. In conclusion, S.aureus isolates in the patient population of our hospital representing the Central Blacksea region showed statistically significant clustering in infectivity, antimicrobial resistance phenotype and clonal genotype (p< 0.001). The dominant MRSA clone was ST239 which was one of the five major pandemic MRSA clones. Nosocomial MSSA isolates displayed long-term clonal dive

  20. Gremios de manejo como indicadores de las condiciones del ambiente: un estudio de caso con aves y perturbaciones del hábitat en el Monte central, Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FERNANDO A MILESI; LUIS MARONE; JAVIER LOPEZ DE CASENAVE; VÍCTOR R CUETO; EDUARDO T MEZQUIDA

    Management guilds as indicators of environmental conditions: a case study with birds and habitat disturbances in the central Monte desert, Argentina: Different supra-specific groupings (e.g., guilds, functional groups) are used as management tools to obtain simple or economical indicators of the state of resources or \\

  1. Things Are Crook in the Bush: Report on a Needs Analysis Survey on a Selected Region, the Central Western Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabrook, J.

    The rural Australian recession resulting from lower commodity prices and poor weather conditions raised concerns about how people were coping in the bush. A survey was distributed to all grazing properties in 10 shires of central western Queensland. Of 1,050 surveys distributed, 223 were returned representing 284 families and 914 individuals.…

  2. Impact of Sustainable Agriculture on Secondary School Agricultural Education Teachers and Programs in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaje, Kehinde Aderemi Ajaiyeoba; Martin, Robert A.; Williams, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 298 of 600 secondary agriculture teachers in north central United States revealed limited impact of sustainable agriculture. Most teachers had neutral perceptions; a moderate number taught it, but not from a systems perspective. However, related agronomy topics were taught, providing a possible foundation for future inclusion of…

  3. Role of highly central residues of P-loop and it's flanking region in preserving the archetypal conformation of Walker A motif of diverse P-loop NTPases.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ekta; Atri, Neelam; Mishra, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    P-loop NTPases represent a large and highly diverse protein family that is involved in variety of cellular functions. Walker A motif forms a typical arched conformation, necessary to accommodate the phosphate moiety of the nucleoside tri (or di-) phosphate in Ploop NTPases. The feature that maintains the ancient architecture of P-loop is unidentified and uncharacterized. Here, using a well established global network parameter, closeness centrality, we identify that Walker A and its flanking regions (N- and C-terminal) have high density of globally connected residue positions. We find that closeness centrality of these residue positions are conserved across common structural core of diverse domains of P-loop NTPase fold. Our results suggest the potential role of globally connected residues in maintaining the local conformation of P-loop. PMID:23390340

  4. Drift in centrality of different brain regions in an anatomical neural network with Parkinson's disease: A view from complex network analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, X; Huang, B; Li, H; Jiang, H; Hu, X; Zhang, B

    2015-07-23

    Understanding the role of brain regions in anatomical neural networks with Parkinson's disease (PD) is essential for improving the clinical protocol or finding new targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Although numerous changes have been reported in local functional studies, few studies have reported on the anatomical network of the entire brain. Here, by developing a series of algorithms, this study provided a whole anatomical neural network of the macaque monkey. Then, the drifts in centrality from normal to PD networks were described in terms of complex network analysis and summarized with principal component analysis. Results revealed that the areas including the striatum, globus pallidus, amygdala, prefrontal lobe, thalamus, hippocampus, visual cortex, insula, etc., showed relatively notable drifts in their own patterns. The present study also demonstrated that the current targets of DBS shared a common feature: their centrality values being relatively low in the normal brain while intensely drifting with PD. PMID:25937399

  5. Geologic setting, depths of emplacement, and regional distribution of fluid inclusions in intrusions of the central Wasatch Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nine mid-Tertiary calc-alkaline stocks, a subvolcanic porphyry system, and coeval volcanic rocks are exposed in a 45-km-long east-trending belt across the central Wasatch Mountains, Utah. The intrusions vary systematically from west to east in texture, style of emplacement, extent of contact metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization. Pressure-depth estimates based on metamorphic mineral assemblages, stratigraphic reconstructions, and fluid inclusion data indicate a regular variation in paleodepths ranging from about 11 km on the west to less than 1 km on the east. These data indicate that the central Wasatch Mountains have been tilted down to the east about 20?? during the late Cenozoic. Fluid inclusion populations in igneous quartz also vary systematically with paleodepth. -from Author

  6. Simulating the effects of urbanization, afforestation and cropland abandonment on a regional carbon balance: a case study for Central Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruediger Schaldach; Joseph Alcamo

    2007-01-01

    The newly developed model system HILLS is used to simulate recent (1990–2000) and future (up to 2020) changes in land use\\u000a and carbon sequestration over Central Germany. HILLS is unique as that it integrates the spatially explicit land-use-change\\u000a model LUC-Hesse with the dynamic ecosystem model Century under a GIS platform. With this new tool, the concurrent effects\\u000a of urbanization, afforestation

  7. Geology and thermochronology of Tertiary Cordilleran-style metamorphic core complexes in the Saghand region of central Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Verdel; Brian P. Wernicke; Jahandar Ramezani; Jamshid Hassanzadeh; Paul R. Renne; Terry L. Spell

    2007-01-01

    An ~100-km-long north-south belt of meta- morphic core complexes is localized along the boundary between the Yazd and Tabas tectonic blocks of the central Iranian micro- continent, between the towns of Saghand and Posht-e-Badam. Amphibolite facies mylonitic gneisses are structurally overlain by east- tilted supracrustal rocks including thick (>1 km), steeply dipping, nonmarine silici- clastic and volcanic strata. Near the

  8. Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Jiroušek; Michal Hájek; Luca Bragazza

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m?2 year?1 in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we

  9. Down syndrome-critical region contains a gene homologous to Drosophila sim expressed during rat and human central nervous system development.

    PubMed Central

    Dahmane, N; Charron, G; Lopes, C; Yaspo, M L; Maunoury, C; Decorte, L; Sinet, P M; Bloch, B; Delabar, J M

    1995-01-01

    Many features of Down syndrome might result from the overdosage of only a few genes located in a critical region of chromosome 21. To search for these genes, cosmids mapping in this region were isolated and used for trapping exons. One of the trapped exons obtained has a sequence very similar to part of the Drosophila single-minded (sim) gene, a master regulator of the early development of the fly central nervous system midline. Mapping data indicated that this exonic sequence is only present in the Down syndrome-critical region in the human genome. Hybridization of this exonic sequence with human fetal kidney poly(A)+ RNA revealed two transcripts of 6 and 4.3 kb. In situ hybridization of a probe derived from this exon with human and rat fetuses showed that the corresponding gene is expressed during early fetal life in the central nervous system and in other tissues, including the facial, skull, palate, and vertebra primordia. The expression pattern of this gene suggests that it might be involved in the pathogenesis of some of the morphological features and brain anomalies observed in Down syndrome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7568099

  10. The motion of a foam lamella traversing an idealised bi-conical pore with a rounded central region

    E-print Network

    Cox, Simon

    was performed both with and without cross-flow between the two regions. With cross-flow, the foam flow rate front moved through the entire block. Without cross-flow, it was observed that flow rates were higher

  11. The Effects of Threonine Phosphorylation on the Stability and Dynamics of the Central Molecular Switch Region of 18.5-kDa Myelin Basic Protein

    PubMed Central

    De Avila, Miguel; Polverini, Eugenia; Harauz, George

    2013-01-01

    The classic isoforms of myelin basic protein (MBP) are essential for the formation and maintenance of myelin in the central nervous system of higher vertebrates. The protein is involved in all facets of the development, compaction, and stabilization of the multilamellar myelin sheath, and also interacts with cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. The predominant 18.5-kDa isoform of MBP is an intrinsically-disordered protein that is a candidate auto-antigen in the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. A highly-conserved central segment within classic MBP consists of a proline-rich region (murine 18.5-kDa sequence –T92-P93-R94-T95-P96-P97-P98-S99–) containing a putative SH3-ligand, adjacent to a region that forms an amphipathic ?-helix (P82-I90) upon interaction with membranes, or under membrane-mimetic conditions. The T92 and T95 residues within the proline-rich region can be post-translationally modified through phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Here, we have investigated the structure of the ?-helical and proline-rich regions in dilute aqueous buffer, and have evaluated the effects of phosphorylation at T92 and T95 on the stability and dynamics of the ?-helical region, by utilizing four 36-residue peptides (S72–S107) with differing phosphorylation status. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that both the ?-helical as well as the proline-rich regions are disordered in aqueous buffer, whereas they are both structured in a lipid environment (cf., Ahmed et al., Biochemistry 51, 7475-9487, 2012). Thermodynamic analysis of trifluoroethanol-titration curves monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that phosphorylation, especially at residue T92, impedes formation of the amphipathic ?-helix. This conclusion is supported by molecular dynamics simulations, which further illustrate that phosphorylation reduces the folding reversibility of the ?-helix upon temperature perturbation and affect the global structure of the peptides through altered electrostatic interactions. The results support the hypothesis that the central conserved segment of MBP constitutes a molecular switch in which the conformation and/or intermolecular interactions are mediated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation at T92 and T95. PMID:23861868

  12. Topographic status of the central Longmen Shan region''the role of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhikun; Zhang, Zhuqi; Dai, Fuchu; Yin, Jinhui; Zhang, Huiping

    2015-04-01

    Landscape evolution in active orogenic regions is inevitably affected by the repeated strong earthquakes triggered by the corresponding active faults. However, the lack of adequate methods for the documentation and monitoring of mountain-building processes has resulted in a shortage of quantitative estimates of orogenic and eroded volumes. A strong earthquake and its associated co-seismic landslides represent a sudden pulse in landscape evolution in tectonically active areas. The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake dramatically modified the topography of the Longmen Shan region. Based on topographic data before the earthquake and stereo pairs of post-earthquake remote sensing imagery, we derived pre- and post-earthquake DEMs (digital elevation models) of the three regions along the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt. By comparing the geomorphic features before and after the earthquake, we find that the Wenchuan earthquake smoothed the steep relief and caused a co-seismic uplift of the Longmen Shan region. The medium-relief regions increased; however, the high-relief regions decreased, indicating that the local relief is controlled by repeated strong earthquakes. The changed slope aspect indicates that the formation and modification of the east- and west-facing slopes are controlled by tectonic events in the Longmen Shan region, which might be associated with the regional stress field. However, the unchanged aspects of other slopes might be controlled by long-term erosion rather than tectonic events. The topographic changes, landslide volume and co-seismic uplift indicate that the greatest seismically induced denudation occurred in association with a thrust faulting mechanismand low-angle fault geometry. Our findings reveal that the local relief has been shaped by the localized, seismically induced high rate of denudation within the plateau margins, and that the formation of local relief is also related to tectonic events, especially the events that have occurred on low-angle faults. The Wenchuan earthquake and associated co-seismic landslide erosion is the most recent expression of the rapid deformation and erosion in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Here we quantify the Wenchuan earthquake induced erosion rate based on the differential DEM method. The results show that the average erosion rate is comparable with the rate of uplift in the Longmen Shan region. The erosion rate varies through time during the earthquake recurrence interval. Erosion associated with co-seismic landslides causes the biggest spike in erosion rate, erosion associated with rain or storm induced landslides are smaller spikes. This non-linear coupling between erosion, mean slope and local relief in the study area also reveals that the local relief growth of the middle Longmen Shan region may be already close to the upper limit.

  13. Reply to comment by Cinthia Labails and Walter R. Roest on `Breakup of Pangaea and plate kinematics of the central Atlantic and Atlas regions'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schettino, Antonio; Tassi, Luca; Turco, Eugenio

    2010-10-01

    In their comment, Labails and Roest have raised several points against the kinematic model of Schettino and Turco for the central Atlantic region, which requires the existence of an independent Moroccan Plate during the Oligocene and the early Miocene. We thank these authors for giving us the opportunity to clarify some controversial points, but disagree with most of their objections and show that they are based either on a different interpretation of existing data or a distortion of the facts presented by Schettino and Turco.

  14. Simulated Future Changes in Air Temperature and Precipitation Climatology in the Central Asia Cordex Region 8 BY Using RegCM 4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Türke?, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    In this study, projected future changes for the period of 2071-2100 in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology and variability over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (1971 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. Hadley Global Environment Model 2 (HadGEM2) of the Met Office Hadley Centre was downscaled for the Cordex Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by usingtwo different emission scenario datasets for three future periods. The regional model is capable of reproducing the observed climate with few exceptions, which are due to the meteorological and physical geographical complexities of the domain. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation amounts almost all part of the domain. The results of our study showed that surface air temperatures in the region will increase from 3° C up to more than 7° C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2070-2100 with respect to past period of 1970-2000. In the future, a decrease in the amount of precipitation is also predicted for the region. The projected warming and decrease in precipitation for the domain may strongly affect the ecological and socio-economic systems including agriculture, natural biomes, hydrology and water resources of this region, which is already a mostly arid and semi-arid environment. This work has been supported by Bogazici University BAP under project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  15. The tectonics of intraplate regions: Quantifying stress and surface deformation in the central and eastern U.S. and planetary analogs on Mercury and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Lisa Schleicher

    Occurring ~ 1 year apart, the magnitude 3.4 Germantown, Maryland, (16 July 2010) and magnitude 5.8 Mineral, Virginia, (23 August 2011) earthquakes rocked the U.S. national capital region, drawing renewed attention to the occurrence of seismicity within continental interiors. While the majority of earthquakes concentrate at tectonic plate boundaries, the processes that promote spatially diffuse zones of seismicity in intraplate regions are not well understood. The Mineral earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes to occur east of the Rocky Mountains in the past century and offers a rare opportunity to examine the role of stress transfer, long-distance triggering, and aftershock decay within an intraplate region. Stress transfer from the Mineral and Germantown earthquakes relieved stress on the majority of Cenozoic faults in the Mid-Atlantic region, moving these faults further away from future failure. The Everona fault and southern portion of the Mountain Run fault zone were the only locations (except in the aftershock region) that were loaded from the Mineral earthquake, although by only ~1 mbar. Accumulation of stress over time is required in order to significantly affect regional seismicity. There is no evidence of remote triggering due to the passage of seismic waves in any of the major seismic zones in the central and eastern U.S. However, the slow decay rate of aftershocks suggests seismicity in the epicentral region might continue for a decade or longer. Aftershocks triggered by stress imparted by the mainshock imply that Coulomb stress transfer plays an important role in earthquake triggering processes within intraplate regions. Processes in the aftershock zone likely have the greatest influence on seismic hazard. New imagery and altimetry data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft provide new insight into processes driving intraplate tectonic deformation. Mercurian wrinkle ridges are ~2.2 larger in mean relief than wrinkle ridges on the Moon, suggesting a larger component of global contraction on Mercury. Patterns of faulting on Mercury and the Moon, as well as in the central and eastern U.S., indicate that intraplate seismicity can concentrate in zones of pre-existing weakness and spatially migrate.

  16. LA EXPANSION DE LAS UNIVERSIDADES PRIVADAS EN ESPAÑA Y SU CONTRIBUCION A LA DIVERSIFICACION DE LA OFERTA DE ESTUDIOS EN EL AMBITO REGIONAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dolores MORENO HERRERO; José SÁNCHEZ CAMPILLO

    2010-01-01

    En esta investigación se analiza el proceso de expansión de las universidades privadas en España a lo largo de las dos últimas décadas. En primer lugar se describen los elementos esenciales que han hecho posible que en pocos años se haya pasado de cuatro a veintiséis instituciones privadas, en un contexto general de ausencia de presión demográfica que ha tenido

  17. Meso-Cenozoic building of the northern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Thermotectonic history of the Tuva region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Grave, Johan; De Pelsmaeker, Elien; Zhimulev, Fedor I.; Glorie, Stijn; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Van den haute, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Tuvinian and West-Sayan mountain ranges form part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB); more specifically, they align along the Altai-Sayan-Hangay zone. Its Precambrian-Paleozoic basement has been subjected to Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic reactivation. Two north-south transects across the mountain belts and intervening basins of Tuva were sampled for apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology in order to elucidate the thermal history of the Tuvinian basement in relation to the Mesozoic and Cenozoic reactivation of the CAOB. Most AFT ages are Late Cretaceous and range between 55 and 115 Ma. Mean lengths of confined fission tracks are relatively long with most values between 13 and 14 ?m. Thermal history modeling shows a rapid Late Jurassic-Cretaceous cooling for the sampled Tuvinian crystalline rocks, related to exhumation of the Paleozoic basement. This exhumation is possibly related to the building and subsequent orogenic collapse of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogen that formed between the Siberian and North China-Mongolian (Sino-Korean or Amurian) continental blocks during the Late Mesozoic. Far-field effects of this orogeny and its collapse, might have affected the Baikal, Altai and Sayan units of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, including the Tuvinian basement. Also, at the Mesozoic southern Eurasian margin, growth of the Asian continent continued and several collision-accretion events asserted distal tectonic influence into the CAOB. After a Paleogene period of stability, thermal history models for some samples hint at a renewed period of basement cooling during the Neogene. In support of this Neogene event, a single sample from the main West Sayan fault zone contains an apatite population with ~ 2 Ma reset AFT ages. This is interpreted in the framework of ongoing building of the modern Central Asian orogens and associated fault movements and exhumation of the basement, presumably related with the ongoing India-Eurasia convergence.

  18. Central atlantic regional ecological test site: A prototype regional environmental information system, volume 1. [Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (prinicipal investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT data showed the test region in 1972 to be 9% urban and built-up land, 38% agriculture, 50% forest, 3% nonforested wetlands, and less than 1% barren land, exclusive of water-covered areas. A comprehensive user evaluation revealed greatest demand for high-altitude aerial photography and the detailed maps and data products that can be derived from the metropolitan areas agencies, found relatively little use for LANDSAT imagery at 1:250,000 scale and corresponding manually interpreted land use maps.

  19. Arrangement of the central pseudoknot region of 16S rRNA in the 30S ribosomal subunit determined by site-directed 4-thiouridine crosslinking.

    PubMed Central

    Juzumiene, D I; Wollenzien, P

    2001-01-01

    The 16S rRNA central pseudoknot region in the 30S ribosomal subunit has been investigated by photocrosslinking from 4-thiouridine (s4U) located in the first 20 nt of the 16S rRNA. RNA fragments (nt 1-20) were made by in vitro transcription to incorporate s4U at every uridine position or were made by chemical synthesis to incorporate s4U into one of the uridine positions at +5, +14, +17, or +20. These were ligated to RNA containing nt 21-1542 of the 16S rRNA sequence and, after gel purification, the ligated RNA was reconstituted into 30S subunits. Long-range intramolecular crosslinks were produced by near-UV irradiation; these were separated by gel electrophoresis and analyzed by reverse transcription reactions. A number of crosslinks are made in each of the constructs, which must reflect the structural flexibility or conformational heterogeneity in this part of the 30S subunit. All of the constructs show crosslinking to the 559-562, 570-571, and 1080-1082 regions; however, other sites are crosslinked specifically from each s4U position. The most distinctive crosslinking sites are: 341-343 and 911-917 for s4U(+5); 903-904 (very strong), 1390-1397, and 1492 for s4U(+14); and 903-904 (moderate) for s4U(+17); in the 1070-1170 region in which there are different patterns for each s4U position. These results indicate that part of the central pseudoknot is in close contact with the decoding region, with helix 27 in the 885-912 interval and with part of domain III RNA. Crosslinking between s4U(+14) and 1395-1397 is consistent with base pairing at U14-A1398. PMID:11214183

  20. The central region of the Fornax cluster -- III. Dwarf galaxies, globular clusters, and cD halo - are there interrelations?

    E-print Network

    M. Hilker; L. Infante; T. Richtler

    1999-05-10

    In this paper we briefly review the properties of the dwarf galaxy population at the core of the Fornax cluster, as well as the properties of the extraordinary rich globular cluster system and the cD halo around the central galaxy NGC 1399. In turn, the question whether a scenario in which dwarf galaxies have been accreted and dissolved in the cluster center can explain the observed properties is addressed. The possibility of accretion of a certain number of dwarf galaxies, the stripping of their globular clusters and gas, and the formation of new globular clusters from stripped infalling gas are discussed. An increase in the specific frequency of the central globular cluster system is only possible, if the infalling gas from stripped dwarfs formed globulars very efficiently and/or accreted and stripped dwarf galaxies possessed a rich globular cluster system themselves. In conclusion, we argue that although the dwarf galaxy infall is a very attractive scenario to explain a number of properties in the system there are probably other physical mechanisms that also take place.

  1. Characterization of homeobox genes reveals sophisticated regionalization of the central nervous system in the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Focareta, Laura; Sesso, Salvatore; Cole, Alison G

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod mollusks possess a number of anatomical traits that often parallel vertebrates in morphological complexity, including a centralized nervous system with sophisticated cognitive functionality. Very little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying patterning of the cephalopod embryo to arrive at this anatomical structure. Homeodomain (HD) genes are transcription factors that regulate transcription of downstream genes through DNA binding, and as such are integral parts of gene regulatory networks controlling the specification and patterning of body parts across lineages. We have used a degenerate primer strategy to isolate homeobox genes active during late-organogenesis from the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. With this approach we have isolated fourteen HD gene fragments and examine the expression profiles of five of these genes during late stage (E24-28) embryonic development (Sof-Gbx, Sof-Hox3, Sof-Arx, Sof-Lhx3/4, Sof-Vsx). All five genes are expressed within the developing central nervous system in spatially restricted and largely non-overlapping domains. Our data provide a first glimpse into the diversity of HD genes in one of the largest, yet least studied, metazoan clades and illustrate how HD gene expression patterns reflect the functional partitioning of the cephalopod brain. PMID:25286399

  2. Topographic Map of the Ophir and Central Candor Chasmata Region of Mars MTM 500k -05/287E OMKT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2004-01-01

    This map, compiled photogrammetrically from Viking Orbiter stereo image pairs, is part of a series of topographic maps of areas of special scientific interest on Mars. The figure of Mars used for the computation of the map projection is an oblate spheroid (flattening of 1/176.875) with an equatorial radius of 3396.0 km and a polar radius of 3376.8 km. The datum (the 0-km contour line) for elevations is defined as the equipotential surface (gravitational plus rotational) whose average value at the equator is equal to the mean radius as determined by Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. The projection is part of a Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) system with 20? wide zones. For the area covered by this map sheet the central meridian is at 290? E. (70? W.). The scale factor at the central meridian of the zone containing this quadrangle is 0.9960 relative to a nominal scale of 1:500,000. Longitude increases to the east and latitude is planetocentric as allowed by IAU/IAG standards and in accordance with current NASA and USGS standards. A secondary grid (printed in red) has been added to the map as a reference to the west longitude/planetographic latitude system that is also allowed by IAU/IAG standards and has been used for previous Mars maps.

  3. Structure and regional significance of the Late Permian(?) Sierra Nevada-Death Valley thrust system, east-central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul

    2005-12-01

    An imbricate system of north-trending, east-directed thrust faults of late Early Permian to middle Early Triassic (most likely Late Permian) age forms a belt in east-central California extending from the Mount Morrison roof pendant in the eastern Sierra Nevada to Death Valley. Six major thrust faults typically with a spacing of 15-20 km, original dips probably of 25-35°, and stratigraphic throws of 2-5 km compose this structural belt, which we call the Sierra Nevada-Death Valley thrust system. These thrusts presumably merge into a décollement at depth, perhaps at the contact with crystalline basement, the position of which is unknown. We interpret the deformation that produced these thrusts to have been related to the initiation of convergent plate motion along a southeast-trending continental margin segment probably formed by Pennsylvanian transform truncation. This deformation apparently represents a period of tectonic transition to full-scale convergence and arc magmatism along the continental margin beginning in the Late Triassic in central California.

  4. Characterization of Homeobox Genes Reveals Sophisticated Regionalization of the Central Nervous System in the European Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Focareta, Laura; Sesso, Salvatore; Cole, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod mollusks possess a number of anatomical traits that often parallel vertebrates in morphological complexity, including a centralized nervous system with sophisticated cognitive functionality. Very little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying patterning of the cephalopod embryo to arrive at this anatomical structure. Homeodomain (HD) genes are transcription factors that regulate transcription of downstream genes through DNA binding, and as such are integral parts of gene regulatory networks controlling the specification and patterning of body parts across lineages. We have used a degenerate primer strategy to isolate homeobox genes active during late-organogenesis from the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. With this approach we have isolated fourteen HD gene fragments and examine the expression profiles of five of these genes during late stage (E24-28) embryonic development (Sof-Gbx, Sof-Hox3, Sof-Arx, Sof-Lhx3/4, Sof-Vsx). All five genes are expressed within the developing central nervous system in spatially restricted and largely non-overlapping domains. Our data provide a first glimpse into the diversity of HD genes in one of the largest, yet least studied, metazoan clades and illustrate how HD gene expression patterns reflect the functional partitioning of the cephalopod brain. PMID:25286399

  5. Assessing the Capability of a Regional-Scale Weather Model to Simulate Extreme Precipitation Patterns and Flooding in Central Texas

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    event over the San Antonio River basin. This particular storm was selected because it produced extremeAssessing the Capability of a Regional-Scale Weather Model to Simulate Extreme Precipitation forecasting based on model- predicted rainfall. Extreme precipitation and flooding events are a significant

  6. Deforestation in Central Africa: Estimates at regional, national and landscape levels by advanced processing of systematically-distributed Landsat extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Duveiller; P. Defourny; B. Desclée; P. Mayaux

    2008-01-01

    Accurate land cover change estimates are among the headline indicators set by the Convention on Biological Diversity to evaluate the progress toward its 2010 target concerning habitat conservation. Tropical deforestation is of prime interest since it threatens the terrestrial biomes hosting the highest levels of biodiversity. Local forest change dynamics, detected over very large extents, are necessary to derive regional

  7. The implications of central place theory for urban structure in a declining region: The North American experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. McPherson

    1981-01-01

    Social scientists- particularly regional scientists- have long been intrigued by patterns in the spatial and size distribution of concentrations of population (centres) and in the relationship over time between these centres, the markets they serve, and the transport system connecting them. In the 1930's, Christaller [8], [9] developed an analytic model emphasizing the relationship between centres and their surrounding market

  8. PRELIMINARY SOCIAL/CULTURAL/ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE CENTRAL GREAT PLAINS WITHIN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY REGION VII.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is a comprehensive environmental assessment of socioeconomic indicators in Region 7 designed to support analyses of the impact of population on the environment. The project encompasses the past 10 to 20 years of trends in demographic, economic and health data from ...

  9. Santa Barbara and California's Central Coast Region: Images and Encounters. A Pathways in Geography Resource Publication No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Jeanette Gardner, Ed.; Hardwick, Susan W., Ed.; Hobbs, Gail L., Ed.

    This annual meeting site guide is the fourth to be published by the National Council for Geographic Education as part of the "Pathways in Geography" series. The chapters illustrate some of the interactions between people and place that have helped shape the Santa Barbara (California) region over the centuries. The book includes an introduction by…

  10. Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria Rapalee; Louis T. Steyaert; Forrest G. Hall

    2001-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales.

  11. Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria Rapalee; Louis T. Steyaert; Forrest G. Hall

    2001-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes (Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997). They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface rtmoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales.

  12. Meso-Cenozoic building of the northern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: thermotectonic history of the Tuva region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Grave, Johan; De Pelsmaeker, Elien; Zhimulev, Fedor; Glorie, Stijn; Buslov, Mikhail; Van den haute, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Tuvinian and West-Sayan mountain ranges (West Sayan, Shapshal, Tannu Ola and Sengilen Range) form part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and more specifically they align along the Altai-Sayan-Hangai zone of the CAOB in South Siberia and Mongolia. Its Precambrian-Palaeozoic basement has been subjected to Meso-Cenozoic tectonic reactivation. Two North-South transects across the mountain belts and intervening Meso-Cenozoic basins of Tuva were sampled for apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology in order to elucidate the thermal history of the Tuvinian basement in relation to Meso-Cenozoic reactivation of the CAOB. Mainly Palaeozoic granitoid basement was targeted for sampling. Most AFT ages of these granitoids are Late Cretaceous and range between 55 and 115 Ma. Mean lengths of confined fission tracks are relatively long with most values between 13 and 14 µm. Thermal history modeling shows a rapid Late Jurassic - Cretaceous cooling for the sampled Tuvinian crystalline rocks, related to exhumation of the Palaeozoic basement. This exhumation is most likely related to the building and subsequent orogenic collapse of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogen that formed between the Siberian and North China - Mongolian (Sino-Korean or Amurian) continental blocks during the Late Mesozoic. Far-field effects of this orogeny and its collapse, affected the Baikal, Altai and Sayan units of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, including the Tuvinian basement. After a Palaeogene period of stability, thermal history models for some samples hint at a renewed period of basement cooling during the Neogene. In support of this Neogene event, a single sample from the main West Sayan fault zone contains an apatite population with ~2 Ma reset AFT ages. This is interpreted in the framework of ongoing building of the modern Central Asian orogens and associated fault movements and exhumation of the basement, presumably related with the ongoing India-Eurasia convergence. Sediments derived from the exhumed basement were deposited in large adjoining Meso-Cenozoic basins (e.g. sub-basins of the West Siberian Basin) and in smaller intramontane basins in the Altai-Sayan-Tuva area as well.

  13. Integration of geological, hydrochemical and geophysical methods for prospecting thermal water resources: The case of the Hmeïma region (Central Western Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoubli, N.; Gouasmia, M.; Gasmi, M.; Mhamdi, A.; Ben Dhia, H.

    2006-10-01

    The Hmeïma region (Central-Western Tunisia) is characterized by numerous Aptian anticlines associated with Triassic outcrops. These Aptian reefal limestones, characterized by intense fracturing and important karstification, constitute a regional thermal aquifer. The aim of this multidisciplinary study is to evaluate the hydrothermal potential of this aquifer. Geophysical prospecting based on the electrical method allowed the lateral evolution and the structure at depth of the reefal limestones to be followed. Furthermore, the dataset obtained permitted a fair understanding of the structural geology of the region. Hydrochemical characterization of the sampled water, with temperature ranging between 29 and 39.3 °C, shows that it is of Na-Cl type with enrichment in Ca and HCO 3. This water is undersaturated with respect to gypsum but oversaturated or close to equilibrium with respect to calcite. The synthetic approach integrating all data gave a clear picture of the water flow-path at depth. It is clear that the thermal groundwater in the region flows in the Aptian limestone and dissolves evaporitic Triassic deposits.

  14. Fighting rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia--experts call for a regional initiative for rabies elimination.

    PubMed

    Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranješ, N

    2014-05-01

    MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses. PMID:23782901

  15. Overview of the Mount Tai Experiment (MTX2006) in central East China in June 2006: studies of significant regional air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Y.; Akimoto, H.; Wang, Z.-F.; Pochanart, P.; Kawamura, K.; Liu, Y.; Li, J.; Komazaki, Y.; Irie, H.; Pan, X.-L.; Taketani, F.; Yamaji, K.; Tanimoto, H.; Inomata, S.; Kato, S.; Suthawaree, J.; Okuzawa, K.; Wang, G.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Fu, P. Q.; Wang, T.; Gao, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2013-08-01

    We conducted an intensive field campaign at the summit of Mt. Tai (36.26° N, 117.11° E, 1534 m above sea level), Shandong Province, located at the center of central East China, during the period 28 May to 30 June 2006, to study seasonal maxima of regional air pollution with respect to ozone (O3) and aerosols. The specific objectives, campaign design, and major findings are summarized. High concentrations of O3 and its precursors, and aerosols, were detected and studied in the context of annual variations. Most importantly, we identified that emissions from regional-scale open crop residue burning after the harvesting of winter wheat, together with photochemical aging, strongly increased the concentrations of O3, aerosols, and primary pollutants in this month of year. Studies of in situ photochemical activity, regional source attribution of O3, O3-aerosol interactions, validation of satellite observations of tropospheric NO2, behaviors of volatile organic compounds and organic/inorganic aerosol species, loss rates of black carbon (BC), and instrument inter-comparisons are also summarized. The observed BC levels must have a strong impact on the regional climate.

  16. Overview of the Mount Tai Experiment (MTX2006) in Central East China in June 2006: studies of significant regional air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Y.; Akimoto, H.; Wang, Z.-F.; Pochanart, P.; Kawamura, K.; Liu, Y.; Li, J.; Komazaki, Y.; Irie, H.; Pan, X.-L.; Taketani, F.; Yamaji, K.; Tanimoto, H.; Inomata, S.; Kato, S.; Suthawaree, J.; Okuzawa, K.; Wang, G.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Fu, P. Q.; Wang, T.; Gao, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted an intensive field campaign at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m a.s.l.), Shandong Province, located at the center of Central East China, during the period 28 May to 30 June 2006, to study seasonal maxima of regional air pollution with respect to ozone (O3) and aerosols. The specific objectives, campaign design, and major findings are summarized. High concentrations of O3 and its precursors, and aerosols, were detected and studied in the context of annual variations. Most importantly, we identified that emissions from regional-scale open crop residue burning after the harvesting of winter wheat, together with photochemical aging, strongly increased the concentrations of O3, aerosols, and primary species relevant to air quality in this month of the year. Studies of in-situ photochemical activity, regional source attribution of O3, O3-aerosol interactions, validation of satellite observations of tropospheric NO2, behaviors of volatile organic compounds, organic/inorganic aerosol species, loss rates of black carbon (BC), and instrument inter-comparisons are also summarized. The observed BC levels must have a strong impact on the regional climate.

  17. Cretaceous-Eocene compression in the central Southern Alps (N Italy) inferred from 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of pseudotachylytes along regional thrust faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta, Stefano; D'Adda, Paolo; Zanchi, Andrea; Barberini, Valentina; Villa, Igor M.

    2011-04-01

    The integration of structural analyses with 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of fault-related pseudotachylytes provides time constraints for the reconstruction of the Alpine evolution of the central portion of the South Alpine orogenic wedge. In the northern sector of the belt a Variscan basement is stacked southward on the Permian to Mesozoic cover along regional faults (Orobic and Porcile thrusts). Fault zones, slightly postdating a first folding event of Alpine age, experienced a complex evolution through the ductile and brittle deformation regime, showing greenschist facies mylonites overprinted by a penetrative cataclastic deformation. Generation of fault-related pseudotachylyte veins marks the onset of brittle conditions, lasting up to the youngest episodes of fault activity. 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the pseudotachylyte matrix of 9 samples give two separated age clusters: Late Cretaceous (80-68 Ma) and latest Palaeocene to Middle Eocene (55-43 Ma). These new data provide evidence that the pre-Adamello evolution of the central Southern Alps was characterised by the superposition of different tectonic events accompanying the exhumation of the deepest part of the belt through the brittle-ductile transition. The oldest pseudotachylyte ages demonstrate that south-verging regional thrusting in the central Southern Alps was already active during the Late Cretaceous, concurrently with the development of a synorogenic foredeep basin where the Upper Cretaceous Lombardian Flysch was deposited. Our reconstruction provides direct evidence for an important Cretaceous "EoAlpine" orogenic event which was nearly coeval to the HP metamorphism affecting the Austroalpine units of the eastern Alps. In our view, the Upper Cretaceous Southern Alps can be interpreted as the south-verging retrobelt, which formed during subduction phenomena active to the north in the Austroalpine realm.

  18. Palaeostress reconstructions and geodynamics of the Baikal region, Central Asia, Part I. Palaeozoic and Mesozoic pre-rift evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Delvaux; R. Moeys; G. Stapel; A. Melnikov; V. Ermikov

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the first palaeostress results obtained for the basement of the Baikal rift system, in southern Siberia (Russia). Large-scale structural analysis and palaeostress reconstructions show that the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic kinematic history, precursor of the Baikal Cenozoic rifting, is characterized by the succession of six regional palaeostress stages. Stress inversion of fault-slip data and earthquake focal mechanisms is performed using

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION OF FLUORIDE IN DRINKING WATER AT “LOS ALTOS DE JALISCO,” IN THE CENTRAL MEXICO REGION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Hurtado; Jorge Gardea-Torresdey

    2004-01-01

    Naturally occurring fluoride has been detected and quantified in drinking water in several cities of the “Los Altos de Jalisco” (LAJ) region. LAJ is located in the northeastern part of the state of Jalisco-Mexico, covering an area of 16,410 km with a population of 696,318 in 20 municipalities. Drinking water comes mainly from groundwater aquifers, located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic

  20. An integrated study of the reservoir performance in the Area Central Norte (ACN) region of the Tordillo Field (Argentina)

    E-print Network

    Tuvio, Raul

    1997-01-01

    . The basin occupies an area of approximately 27, 000 sq. miles (or approximately 70, 000 sq. kilometers). 2. 1. 1 Regional Geological Setting Deformation and subsidence in the San Jorge Basin began while South America was still part of the Gondwana... to the northwest. This early extensional event may have coincided with rifling in the Cuyo and Neuquen basins to the northwest and the Karroo 5 basin of southern Alrica, where these events heralded the breakup of Gondwana. 6 A Middle Jurassic episode...

  1. Mercury Cycling in an Urbanized Watershed: The Influence of Wind Distribution and Regional Subwatershed Geometry in Central Indiana, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carrie Lynne Hatcher; Gabriel Michael Filippelli

    2011-01-01

    The global cycle of mercury (Hg) is reasonably well-understood, as are some of the natural and anthropogenic sources of Hg\\u000a to the atmosphere. Less well understood are the regional and local characteristics of Hg deposition and subsequent watershed-scale\\u000a transport, important parameters for assessing human risk to various avenues of Hg exposure. This study employed a two-part\\u000a strategy for understanding coupled

  2. Human mucin gene MUC4: organization of its 5'-region and polymorphism of its central tandem repeat array.

    PubMed Central

    Nollet, S; Moniaux, N; Maury, J; Petitprez, D; Degand, P; Laine, A; Porchet, N; Aubert, J P

    1998-01-01

    In a previous study we isolated a partial cDNA with a tandem repeat of 48 bp, which allowed us to map a novel human mucin gene named MUC4 to chromosome 3q29. Here we report the organization and sequence of the 5'-region and its junction with the tandem repeat array of MUC4. Analysis of three overlapping genomic clones allowed us to obtain a partial restriction map of MUC4 and to locate the complete 48 bp tandem repeat domain on a PstI/EcoRI genomic fragment that exhibits a very large variation in number of tandem repeats (7-19 kb). cDNA clonal extension allowed us to obtain the entire 5' coding region of MUC4. Exon 1 consists of a 5' untranslated region and an 82 bp fragment encoding the signal peptide. This latter shows a high degree of similarity to the signal peptide of another apomucin, ASGP-1. Exon 2 is extremely large and contains a unique sequence that is followed by the whole tandem repeat domain. It encodes only one cysteine residue, making MUC4 different from mucin genes belonging to the 11p15.5 family. Moreover, an intron downstream from the tandem repeat array consists mainly of a 15 bp tandem repeat that exhibits a polymorphism in having a variable number of tandem repeats. PMID:9620877

  3. Characteristics of earthquake sequence in northern Himalayan region of South Central Tibet - Precursor search and location of potential area of future earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudyal, Harihar; Shanker, D.; Singh, H. N.

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports that three earthquake sequence occurred in 1996 ( mb 5.9), 1998 ( mb 5.8) and 2004-2005 ( mb 6.2, 6.3) were observed preceding the anomalous seismic activity. The nature of anomalous seismicity associated with these earthquakes have been investigated considering earthquakes with mb ? 4.1 (cut off magnitude for this region) in four seismic episodes (NAGM): normal/background (N); anomalous/swarm (A); precursory gap (G) and mainshock sequence (M), respectively. It is established here that the anomalous seismicity/swarm patterns follow episodes of relatively very low seismic activity and it is an important finding to visualize that an area might be preparing for the occurrence of a forthcoming mainshock. Such anomalous seismic patterns were observed prior to medium size mainshocks that occurred from 1963 to 2006 in South Central Tibet (SCT) region to the north of Central Himalaya. From these observations it may be inferred here that the patterns of anomalous seismicity/earthquake swarms may be considered as an important parameter (precursor) for the forecasting of long-range earthquake hazards in the SCT region. In consideration of spatial and the temporal clustering of swarm events that are prominent and confined in a vertical column of 10-45 km, enabled to locate potential area enclosed by 29.6-30.1°N and 87.8-88.1°E where future earthquake of magnitude 6.0 and above in the depth range 25 ± 15 km may be seated. In view of this multi-parameter short term precursory signals monitoring is suggested for the delineated preparatory area to make earthquake prediction/forecasting programs more meaningful.

  4. Fine particles (PM2.5) at a CAWNET background site in Central China: Chemical compositions, seasonal variations and regional pollution events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Hai-rong; Wang, Zu-wu; Lv, Xiao-pu; Zhu, Zhong-min; Zhang, Gan; Wang, Xin-ming

    2014-04-01

    Fine particle (PM2.5) samples were collected at Jinsha (JSH), a regional background China Atmosphere Watch Network (CAWNET) site in Central China from March 2012 to March 2013. The mass concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 were measured. The average PM2.5 mass concentration was 48.7 ± 26.9 ?g m-3, exceeding the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (35 ?g m-3), implying that PM2.5 is a pollutant of regional concern in Central China. The average concentrations of total WSIIs, OC and EC were 26.1 ± 18.8, 7.5 ± 3.5 and 0.7 ± 0.5 ?g m-3, accounting for 53.5%, 15.1% and 1.5% of the PM2.5 concentrations at JSH, respectively. Clear seasonal variations in PM2.5 and the levels of its main chemical species were observed in the following order: winter > autumn > spring > summer. Backward air trajectory analysis and potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis implied that the areas north and northeast of JSH contributed significantly to the levels of SO42-, NO3-, NH4+ and OC, while sandstorms originating from Mongolia and traveling across Northwest China may have contributed significantly to the levels of Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in PM2.5 at JSH. Two pollution events, related to regional biomass burning and haze, respectively, were recorded at JSH during the sampling campaign.

  5. The Central Starburst and Ionization Mechanism in the LINER/H II Region Transition Nucleus in NGC 4569

    E-print Network

    Jack R. Gabel; Frederick C. Bruhweiler

    2002-04-23

    We present a comprehensive study to determine if the LINER/H II region transition spectrum in NGC 4569 can be generated solely by photoionization by the nuclear starburst. A review of the multiwavelength data from the literature reveals no additional sources that contribute to the ionization. We find that the young starburst dominating the UV emission is distinct from the nuclear population of A supergiants identified in the optical spectrum by Keel (1996). Spectral synthesis analysis provides constraints on the physical nature of the starburst, revealing a 5-6 Myr, approximately instantaneous starburst with subsolar metallicity. These results are used to model the spectral energy distribution of the ionizing continuum. Luminosity constraints place limits on the steepness of the extinction curve for the young starburst. The Savage & Mathis (1979) curve satisfies all luminosity constraints and the derived reddening is similar to the emission line reddening. These results imply extreme conditions in the nuclear starburst, with ~5x10^4 O and B stars compacted in the inner 9" x 13" region of the nucleus. Using photoionization analysis and employing all observational constraints on the emission line gas, we find very specific conditions are required if the spectrum is generated solely by stellar photoionization. At least two spatially distinct components are required - a compact region with strong O III emission and an extended, low density component emitting most of the S II flux. A high density component is also needed to generate the O I flux. Additionally, a limited contribution from Wolf-Rayet stars to the ionizing SED is necessary, consistent with the results of Barth & Shields (2000). We present a physical interpretation for the multi-component emission line gas.

  6. Globular Cluster Photometry with the Hubble Space Telescope. VII. Color Gradients and Blue Stragglers in the Central Region of M30 from Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; Webster, Zodiac T.; Yanny, Brian; Schneider, Donald P.; Bahcall, John N.

    1998-10-01

    We present F555W (V), F439W (B), and F336W (U) photometry of 9507 stars in the central 2' of the dense, post-core-collapse cluster M30 (NGC 7099) derived from Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images. These data are used to study the mix of stellar populations in the central region of the cluster. Forty-eight blue straggler stars are identified; they are found to be strongly concentrated toward the cluster center. The specific frequency of blue stragglers, F_BSS = N(BSS)/N(V < V_HB + 2), is 0.25 +/- 0.05 in the inner region of M30 (r < 20"), significantly higher than the frequency found in other clusters: F_BSS = 0.05-0.15. The shape of M30's blue straggler luminosity function resembles the prediction of the collisional formation model, and is inconsistent with the binary merger model of Bailyn & Pinsonneault. An unusually blue star (B = 18.6, B-V = -0.97), possibly a cataclysmic variable based on its color, is found about 1.2" from the crowded cluster center; the photometric uncertainty for this star is large, however, because of the presence of a very close neighbor. Bright red giant stars (B < 16.6) appear to be depleted by a factor of 2-3 in the inner r < 10" relative to fainter giants, subgiants, and main-sequence turnoff stars (95% significance). We confirm that there is a radial gradient in the color of the overall cluster light, going from B-V ~ 0.82 at r ~ 1' to B-V ~ 0.45 in the central 10". The central depletion of the bright red giants is responsible for about half of the observed color gradient; the rest of the gradient is caused by the relative underabundance of faint red main-sequence stars near the cluster center (presumably a result of mass segregation). The luminosity function of M30's evolved stars does not match the luminosity function shape derived from standard stellar evolutionary models: the ratio of the number of bright giants to the number of turnoff stars in the cluster is 30% higher than predicted by the model (3.8 sigma effect), roughly independent of red giant brightness over the range M_V = -2 to +2. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Lick Observatory Bulletin No. 1377.

  7. Socioeconomic effects of DRAFT power marketing options of the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional economic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This report summarizes the methods and conclusions of an economic analysis of the distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with its new marketing plan. These alternatives are summarized in the agency`s Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), and this study directly supports the findings in the EIS. The study evaluates the potential economic impacts projected to occur across the northern and central California area currently serviced by Sierra Nevada`s customers. A standard input-output estimation approach was used to calculate impacts on regional output, labor income, and employment. The IMPLAN regional economic modeling system was used to develop regional models for the analysis. Individual regional models were developed for the overall area, the San Francisco Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area, the Sacramento Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area, the Redding Metropolitan Statistical Area, and the Bakersfield Metropolitan Statistical Area. The analysis relies on information about the effect of Sierra Nevada`s alternative actions on overall system power costs for the year 2005 developed by RW Beck and Associates (Beck-1996). This information is used as input to the 2005 benchmarked IMPLAN regional economic models. The resulting economic impact estimates are inextricably linked to this input information about changes in system power costs, and the estimates reported here are of similar relative magnitude to those estimates. The potential economic effects of Sierra Nevada`s actions are extremely small in relation to the size of the economies potentially affected, and, although they are calculable, they are not significant and often difficult to separate from random error present in the models.

  8. Prevalence of shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes at public access watershed sites in a California Central Coast agricultural region

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Michael B.; Quiñones, Beatriz; Oryang, David; Mandrell, Robert E.; Gorski, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Produce contaminated with enteric pathogens is a major source of foodborne illness in the United States. Lakes, streams, rivers, and ponds were sampled with Moore swabs bi-monthly for over 2 years at 30 locations in the vicinity of a leafy green growing region on the Central California Coast and screened for Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes to evaluate the prevalence and persistence of pathogen subtypes. The prevalence of STEC from 1386 samples was 11%; 110 samples (8%) contained E. coli O157:H7 with the highest prevalence occurring close to cattle operations. Non-O157 STEC isolates represented major clinical O-types and 57% contained both shiga toxin types 1 and 2 and intimin. Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis of STEC isolates indicated prevalent strains during the period of study. Notably, Salmonella was present at high levels throughout the sampling region with 65% prevalence in 1405 samples resulting in 996 isolates with slightly lower prevalence in late autumn. There were 2, 8, and 14 sites that were Salmonella-positive over 90, 80, and 70% of the time, respectively. The serotypes identified most often were 6,8:d:-, Typhimurium, and Give. Interestingly, analysis by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis indicated persistence and transport of pulsotypes in the region over several years. In this original study of L. monocytogenes in the region prevalence was 43% of 1405 samples resulting in 635 individual isolates. Over 85% of the isolates belonged to serotype 4b with serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 3a, 4d with 4e representing the rest, and there were 12 and 2 sites that were positive over 50 and 80% of the time, respectively. Although surface water is not directly used for irrigation in this region, transport to the produce can occur by other means. This environmental survey assesses initial contamination levels toward an understanding of transport leading to produce recalls or outbreaks. PMID:24624367

  9. Prevalence of shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes at public access watershed sites in a California Central Coast agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Michael B; Quiñones, Beatriz; Oryang, David; Mandrell, Robert E; Gorski, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Produce contaminated with enteric pathogens is a major source of foodborne illness in the United States. Lakes, streams, rivers, and ponds were sampled with Moore swabs bi-monthly for over 2 years at 30 locations in the vicinity of a leafy green growing region on the Central California Coast and screened for Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes to evaluate the prevalence and persistence of pathogen subtypes. The prevalence of STEC from 1386 samples was 11%; 110 samples (8%) contained E. coli O157:H7 with the highest prevalence occurring close to cattle operations. Non-O157 STEC isolates represented major clinical O-types and 57% contained both shiga toxin types 1 and 2 and intimin. Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis of STEC isolates indicated prevalent strains during the period of study. Notably, Salmonella was present at high levels throughout the sampling region with 65% prevalence in 1405 samples resulting in 996 isolates with slightly lower prevalence in late autumn. There were 2, 8, and 14 sites that were Salmonella-positive over 90, 80, and 70% of the time, respectively. The serotypes identified most often were 6,8:d:-, Typhimurium, and Give. Interestingly, analysis by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis indicated persistence and transport of pulsotypes in the region over several years. In this original study of L. monocytogenes in the region prevalence was 43% of 1405 samples resulting in 635 individual isolates. Over 85% of the isolates belonged to serotype 4b with serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 3a, 4d with 4e representing the rest, and there were 12 and 2 sites that were positive over 50 and 80% of the time, respectively. Although surface water is not directly used for irrigation in this region, transport to the produce can occur by other means. This environmental survey assesses initial contamination levels toward an understanding of transport leading to produce recalls or outbreaks. PMID:24624367

  10. Analysis of regional aquifers in the central Midwest of the United States in Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming :summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Helgesen, J.O.; Signor, D.C.; Leonard, R.B.; Imes, J.L.; Christenson, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Large quantities of ground water are available for use from three regional aquifer systems in the central Midwest of the United States. Parts of the lowermost aquifer contain nearly immobile brine and may be hydrologically suitable for material storage or waste disposal. Results of numerical modeling and geochemical analyses confirm general concepts of ground-water flow in the regional aquifer systems.

  11. Mesoscale modeling of Central American smoke transport to the United States: 2. Smoke radiative impact on regional surface energy budget and boundary layer evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Christopher, Sundar A.

    2006-07-01

    During 20 April to 21 May 2003, large amounts of smoke aerosols from Central American Biomass Burning (CABB) fires were transported to southeastern United States. Using a coupled aerosol, radiation, and meteorology model built upon the heritage of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) with new capabilities called the Assimilation and Radiation Online Modeling of Aerosols (AROMA), this paper, the second of a two-part series, investigates smoke radiative impact on the regional surface energy budget, temperature and relevant boundary layer processes. Comparisons with limited ground-based observations and MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) showed that model consistently simulated the smoke AOT and smoke radiative impacts on the 2 m air temperature (2mT) and downward shortwave irradiance (DSWI). Over 30 days the 24-hour mean smoke AOT was 0.18 (at 0.55 ?m) near the smoke source region (Yucatan Peninsula and southern Mexico), and 0.09 in downwind region (e.g., southern Texas), both showing a diurnal variation of 24%. Maximum AOT occurred during late afternoon and minimum during early morning in smoke source region. The smoke radiative effects were dominant mostly during the daytime and resulted in the decrease of DSWI, sensible heat and latent heat by 22.5 Wm-2, 6.2 Wm-2, and 6.2 Wm-2, respectively, near the source region, in contrast to 15.8 Wm-2, 4.7 Wm-2, and 7.9 Wm-2, respectively, in downwind regions. Both maximum and minimum 2mT were decreased, and the overall diurnal temperature range (DTR) was reduced by 0.31°C and 0.26°C in the smoke source and downwind regions, respectively. The smoke absorption of solar radiation increased the lapse rate by 0.1-0.5 K/day in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), thus warming the air over the ocean surface. However, over the land surface where the coupling between the lower PBL and the cooler land surface is strong, such warming only occurred in the upper PBL and is amendable to the diurnal variation of smoke emission. The simulation numerically verifies the smoke self-trapping feedback mechanism proposed by Robock (1988), where the increase of the atmospheric stability in the PBL caused by the smoke radiative effects further traps more smoke aerosols in the lower PBL. Such feedbacks, when coupled with favorable synoptic systems, may have important implications for air quality modeling and hydrological processes.

  12. Outdoor near-roadway, community and residential pollen, carbon dioxide and particulate matter measurements in the urban core of an agricultural region in central CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shendell, Derek G.; Therkorn, Jennifer H.; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Meng, Qingyu; Kelly, Sarah W.; Foster, Christine A.

    2012-04-01

    We can control asthma through proper clinical and environmental management and education. The U.S. population is growing, urbanizing and aging; seniors of low-to-middle income families are working and living longer. We conducted community-based participatory research in Visalia, Tulare County, California with a prospective, cross-sectional repeated measures design and quantitative and qualitative process; home environment and health-related outcomes data were collected. In this paper, we presented results of the air quality sampling-pollen, carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matter (PM) outdoors away from most major sources (agricultural fields, large pollinating trees, etc)-at a community central site close to a mobile line source and participant homes in the cooling season, July, 2009. Weather was hot and dry with light winds; diurnal variation ranged between 65-107 °F (18-42 °C) and 12-76% relative humidity at the study's central site. Co-located active (reference) and passive (PAAS) samplers were used for pollen; passive monitoring for CO2 (Telaire 7001) and active sampling for PM were conducted. Overall, we observed spatial variability in CO2, fine PM (PM2.5), and pollen counts. Weekday and study week average CO2 and PM2.5 concentrations were higher near study homes compared to central site sampling points, but peak measures and overnight/pre-dawn time period averages were elevated at the central site. Pollen counts were typically lower at homes-even if grass, trees, flowers or potted plants were present-compared to the central site closer to and generally downwind from commercial agricultural tree production. Data are new; the nine-county San Joaquin Valley has one pollen count station in the national network, and two of four government outdoor air monitoring stations in the county are in national parks. We suggest-given poor air quality in large part due to PM-adding routine pollen counts to regional/state agency air monitoring sites and more CO2 and PM monitoring.

  13. Region-wide glacier mass budgets and area changes for the Central Tien Shan between ~ 1975 and 1999 using Hexagon KH-9 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieczonka, Tino; Bolch, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    The meltwater released by the glaciers in the Central Tien Shan feeds in particular the Tarim River which is the main artery for the oases at the northern margin of the Taklamakan desert. The correct assessment of the contribution of the glaciers' meltwater to the total runoff is hampered by the lack of long-term measurements of glacier mass budgets. Digital terrain models (DTMs) for the different regions in the Central Tien Shan were generated based on ~ 1975 KH-9 Hexagon imagery and compared to the SRTM3 DTM acquired in February 2000. Moreover, glacier area changes for the period ~ 1975-2008 have been measured by means of multi-temporal optical satellite imagery. The geodetic mass budget estimates for a glacierized area of 5000 km2 revealed increasing mass loss east to west and from the inner to the outer ranges. Highest mass loss accompanied by the most pronounced glacier retreat was found for the Ak-Shirak massif with a region-wide mass balance of - 0.51 ± 0.36 m w.e. a- 1 and a rate of area change of - 0.27 ± 0.15% a- 1, whilst moderate mass loss was observed for the Inylchek (0.20 ± 0.44 m w.e. a- 1) and Tomur area (0.33 ± 0.30 m w.e. a- 1) despite partly debris cover. These latter regions also revealed the lowest glacier shrinkage within the entire Central Tien Shan. The total glacier mass loss of 0.35 ± 0.34 m w.e. a- 1 is, however, within the global average whilst the glacier area shrinkage is comparatively low. On average, the investigated glacierized area of ~ 6600 km2 shrank by 0.11 ± 0.15% a- 1 only. We could also identify several surge-type glaciers. The results are consistent with in-situ mass balance measurements for Karabatkak Glacier and previously published results of the Ak-Shirak range proving the suitability of declassified imagery for glacier change investigations. The contribution to the runoff of Aksu River, the largest tributary of the Tarim River, due to glacier imbalance has been determined at ~ 20% for the 1975-2000 period.

  14. The Holocene paleoenvironmental history of central European Russia reconstructed from pollen, plant macrofossil, and testate amoeba analyses of the Klukva peatland, Tula region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novenko, Elena Yu.; Tsyganov, Andrey N.; Volkova, Elena M.; Babeshko, Kirill V.; Lavrentiev, Nikita V.; Payne, Richard J.; Mazei, Yuri A.

    2015-05-01

    Holocene climatic variability and human impact on vegetation are reconstructed from a region in central European Russia, which lies at an important ecotone between broadleaf forest and steppe. For the first time in this region we adopt a multi-proxy approach that combines analysis of local mire conditions from plant macrofossil and testate amoeba analyses with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstruction. The proxies indicate a long-term warming trend from 9700 to 7500 cal yr BP, interrupted by a series of short-term cold events. From 7500 to 5000 cal yr BP the results imply a relatively stable climate, warmer and drier than present, spanning the Holocene Thermal Maximum. Since 5000 cal yr BP the data suggest a change to cooler climate, but with centennial-scale variability. This shift at around 5000 cal yr BP is supported by extensive evidence from other sites. In the early Holocene, the region was occupied mainly by pine and birch forests. Broad-leafed forests of oak, lime and elm expanded after 7800 cal yr BP and remained dominant until the last few centuries. During the historical period, vegetation changes have been driven mainly by human activities.

  15. Regional Tomographic Inversion of P-wave Travel Times in Central Chile and Argentina, between 30° and 36° south.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S.; Zandt, G.; Araujo, M.; Campos, J.; Charge Working Group,.

    2003-12-01

    We use regional P-wave travel times to model upper mantle structure beneath Chile and Argentina between 30° and 36° S. This area is of particular interest, because north of 33° S, the subducted Nazca plate descends normally to a depth of 100 km, but then flattens out, continuing along a subhorizontal path for some 400 km before resuming a normal subduction angle and descending into the mantle. South of 33° , the Nazca plate subducts with a constant dip. This difference in subduction style from the north to the south is correlated with changes in volcanism, seismicity, and orogenic structure. Data for this study comes from the CHARGE project, a 22 station broadband portable seismic deployment, and first arrival P-picks from the ISC catalog recorded at an additional 30 stations operated by INPRES and the Seismological Service of the Universidad de Chile. We use the tomographic inversion method of Zhao et al. [1994] to invert over 3100 P-wave picks from over 170 events recorded at 54 stations. This tomography method allows for the introduction of discrete discontinuities, such as the Moho and the top of the subducting slab, which allows for clearer vertical resolution because smearing across these boundaries is reduced. Preliminary results show evidence of low velocity zones possibly associated with the dehydration of the subducting oceanic plate. To the south where the Nazca plate descends at a dip of 30° , the low velocity zone appears to be confined to a narrow area above where the subducted plate reaches ~100 - 125 km depth and corresponds to the region beneath the active volcanic arc. To the north, the low velocity zone persists, extending east beneath the Sierras Pampeanas. This correlates well with the flat slab area, indicating that the Nazca plate may dewater continuously as it subducts east until it resumes a normal descent angle into the mantle. However, arc volcanism north of 33° S has been dormant for 8 Ma, suggesting that it is the cold thermal regime of the flat slab, rather than a lack of water, that is primarily responsible for shutting down the arc volcanism. Zhao, D., A. Hasegawa, and H. Kanamori, Deep structure of Japan subduction zone as derived from local, regional, and teleseismic events, Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 22313-22329, 1994.

  16. Integrated seismic, flexural and gravimetric modelling of the Coastal Cordillera Thrust Belt and the Guárico Basin, North-Central Region, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jácome, María I.; Rondón, Kenny; Schmitz, Michael; Izarra, Carlos; Viera, Ernesto

    2008-11-01

    We constructed two integrated geodynamic transects for the eastern and western areas of the Coastal Cordillera Thrust Belt and the Guárico Basin (North-Central region of Venezuela), based on information from depth-converted reflection seismic cross-sections, surface geology, Bouguer anomaly and deep refraction seismic profiling. These geodynamic transects were modelled in order to: (1) understand the geodynamic processes responsible for the formation of the Guárico Basin, (2) quantitatively determine the contribution of the Coastal Cordillera thrust sheet loading in the generation of the basin fill (i.e. the effective elastic thickness of the northern part of the South American lithosphere, the total shortening of the thrust belt and the maximum subsidence of the basin) and (3) characterize the crustal structure and Moho depth in North-Central Venezuela. We used flexural modelling to obtain important quantitative information related to the total Middle Eocene to Recent shortening of the Coastal Cordillera, the total subsidence observed in the Guárico Basin and the effective elastic thickness of the South American lithosphere in northern Venezuela. We conclude that the load of the Coastal Cordillera on the South American lithosphere is sufficient to generate the subsidence observed in the Guárico Basin. The total shortening and subsidence obtained in the western transect are 44 km and 5 km, whereas they are 10 km and 7 km, in the eastern transect, respectively. The effective elastic thickness of the South American lithosphere obtained from the modelling is 25 km. The seismically-constrained deep structure of North-Central Venezuela indicates that Moho reaches a maximum depth of 45 km under the Guayana Shield and shallows to the north, to 35 km beneath the Guárico Basin. According to the gravity models, Moho is deeper under the Coastal Cordillera Thrust Belt than expected from flexural modelling, pointing to the existence of a crustal root more than 35 km deep. The Moho gets shallower (30 km) towards the Caribbean Sea.

  17. Sc- and REE-bearing ixiolite and associated minerals from the Sosedka pegmatite vein in the Malkhan pegmatite field, central Transbaikal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badanina, E. V.; Gordienko, V. V.; Wiechowski, A.; Friedrich, G.

    2008-12-01

    Composition and localization of REE mineralization in miarolitic pegmatites and its role in the pegmatite formation were studied at the Malkhan gem deposit (jewel-quality tourmaline, morganite, danburite, and hambergite) in the central Transbaikal region. The chemical composition of Ti-, Ta-, Nb- and REE-bearing minerals, their relationships with rock-forming and accessory minerals indicate that two geochemically specialized stages of pegmatite formation are distinguished. The early stage gave rise to the crystallization of quartz-feldspar aggregates including K-feldspar block zone with Sc and REE mineralization. The rare-metal (Li, Cs, F, B, Be) albite-lepidolite-cleavelandite complex with pockets of gem mineralization was formed at the late stage.

  18. Genetic characterization of Kenai brown bears (Ursus arctos): Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region variation in brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, J.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Farley, S.

    2008-01-01

    We collected data from 20 biparentally inherited microsatellite loci, and nucleotide sequence from the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, to determine levels of genetic variation of the brown bears (Ursus arctos L., 1758) of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska. Nuclear genetic variation was similar to that observed in other Alaskan peninsular populations. We detected no significant inbreeding and found no evidence of population substructuring on the Kenai Peninsula. We observed a genetic signature of a bottleneck under the infinite alleles model (IAM), but not under the stepwise mutation model (SMM) or the two-phase model (TPM) of microsatellite mutation. Kenai brown bears have lower levels of mtDNA haplotypic diversity relative to most other brown bear populations in Alaska. ?? 2008 NRC.

  19. Flat versus normal subduction zones: a comparison based on 3-D regional traveltime tomography and petrological modelling of central Chile and western Argentina (29°-35°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marot, M.; Monfret, T.; Gerbault, M.; Nolet, G.; Ranalli, G.; Pardo, M.

    2014-12-01

    Our study compares the seismic properties between the flat and normal subduction regions in central Chile, to better understand the links between the slab geometry, surface deformation and the deeper structures. In comparison with previous studies, we show the most complete 3-D regional seismic tomography images for this region, in which we use (1) a larger seismic data set compiled from several short-term seismic catalogues, (2) a denser seismic array allowing a better resolution of the subduction zone from the trench to the backarc and into the upper ˜30 km of the slab and (3) a starting 1-D background velocity model specifically calculated for this region and refined over the years. We assess and discuss our tomography results using regional seismic attenuation models and estimating rock types on the basis of pressure and temperature conditions computed from thermomechanical models. Our results show significant seismic differences between the flat and normal subduction zones. As expected, the faster seismic velocities and increased seismicity within the flat slab and overriding lithosphere are generally consistent with a cooler thermal state. Our results are also consistent with dehydration of the mantle above the subducted Juan Fernandez Ridge at the eastern tip of the flat slab segment, indicating that the latter retains some fluids during subduction. However, fluids in the upper portion of the flat slab segment are not seismically detected, since we report instead fast slab seismic velocities which contradict the argument of its buoyancy being the cause of horizontal subduction. The forearc region, above the flat slab, exhibits high Vs and very low Vp/Vs ratios, uncorrelated with typical rock compositions, increased density or reduced temperature; this feature is possibly linked with the aftershock effects of the Mw7.1 1997 Punitaqui earthquake, the flat slab geometry and/or seismic anisotropy. At the surface, the seismic variations correlate with the geological terranes. The Andean crust is strongly reduced in seismic velocities along the La Ramada-Aconcagua deformation belt, suggesting structural damage. Slow seismic velocities along the Andean Moho match non-eclogitized hydrated rocks, consistent with a previous delamination event or a felsic composition, which in turn supports the extent of the Chilenia terrane at these depths. We confirm previous studies that suggest that the Cuyania terrane in the backarc region is mafic and contains an eclogitized lower crust below 50-km depth. We also hypothesize major Andean basement detachment faults (or shear zones) to extend towards the plate interface and canalize slab-derived fluids into the continental crust.

  20. Assessing climate change over the Marche Region (central Italy) from 1951 to 2050: toward an integrated strategy for climate impacts reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Russo, Aniello; Marincioni, Fausto; Appiotti, Federica

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates consequences and future impacts of climate change on the social and natural systems of the Marche Region (one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy). This Region, is located in central part of the peninsula and borders the Adriatic Sea on the East and the Apennine mountains on the West. The Region extends for about 60 km E-W, and has a NW-SE coastline of about 170 km, covering a total area of 9366 km2. Multimodel projections over the Marche Regions, on daily, monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation parameters, have been extracted from the outputs of a set of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) over Europe run by several research institutes participating to the EU ENSEMBLE project. These climate simulations refer to the boundary conditions of the IPCC A1B emission scenario, and have a horizontal resolution of 25km × 25km covering a time period from 1951 to 2050. Results detail a significant increase of daily, monthly and seasonal mean temperatures, especially in summer, with anomaly values reaching +3°C after the year 2025, referring to the model CliNo 1981-2010. Mountain areas show higher values of temperature anomalies than coastal ones of approximately 0.5 °C. Concurrently, a widespread decrease of seasonal precipitation appears to affect all seasons, except for autumn. Rainfall decrease and temperature increase could reduce the Region's aquifer recharge and overall availability of hydro resources. These alterations could affect human health, agricultural productivity, forest fires, coastal erosion, algal blooms and water quality. Ongoing analysis of extreme climatological indices (e.g. frequency of maximum daily temperature exceeding comfort thresholds) are expected to quantify such impacts. A first analysis, linking climate change to the hydrologic cycle, studied through the computation of the hydro-climatic intensity index (as defined by Giorgi et al., 2012), suggests for the Marche Region an increase of the intensity of both wet and dry extremes. Such changes could alter the Region's hydro-geologic processes leading to increased intensity and frequency of landslide and flood hazards. These trends, considering the geomorphologic, social and economic characteristics of the Marche Region, suggest severe physical impacts scenario over the mountains band with subsequent socio-economic effects on hilly and coastal areas. Greater dry conditions are expected all over the Region, causing soil degradation and reducing river solid transport. In turn, this will impact agriculture productivity and natural beach nourishment likely causing a decline in beach tourism. On the other hand increased flood frequency would impact the several urban and economic settlements located on floodplains. Once these scenarios will be better defined, the next step could be mapping the vulnerability conditions within the Marche Region, thus highlighting exposure and resilience of infrastructures and population. Better knowledge of climate hazards and risks would support decision makers and legislators to implement, in the short terms, policies for the long term reduction of climate impacts in the Marche Region.

  1. Seismic sequence stratigraphy and platform to basin reservoir structuring of Lower Cretaceous deposits in the Sidi Aïch-Majoura region (Central Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azaïez, Hajer; Bédir, Mourad; Tanfous, Dorra; Soussi, Mohamed

    2007-05-01

    In central Tunisia, Lower Cretaceous deposits represent carbonate and sandstone reservoir series that correspond to proven oil fields. The main problems for hydrocarbon exploration of these levels are their basin tectonic configuration and their sequence distribution in addition to the source rock availability. The Central Atlas of Tunisia is characterized by deep seated faults directed northeast-southwest, northwest-southeast and north-south. These faults limit inherited tectonic blocks and show intruded Triassic salt domes. Lower Cretaceous series outcropping in the region along the anticline flanks present platform deposits. The seismic interpretation has followed the Exxon methodologies in the 26th A.A.P.G. Memoir. The defined Lower Cretaceous seismic units were calibrated with petroleum well data and tied to stratigraphic sequences established by outcrop studies. This allows the subsurface identification of subsiding zones and thus sequence deposit distribution. Seismic mapping of these units boundary shows a structuring from a platform to basin blocks zones and helps to understand the hydrocarbon reservoir systems-tract and horizon distribution around these domains.

  2. Region-specific changes in the immunoreactivity of Atg9A in the central nervous system of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Chul

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a eukaryotic self-degradation system that plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Atg9 is the only transmembrane Atg protein required for autophagosome formation. Although the subcellular localization of the Atg9A has been examined, little is known about its precise cell and tissue distribution. In the present study, we used G93A mutation in superoxide dismutase 1 [SOD1(G93A)] mutant transgenic mice as an in vivo model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and performed immunohistochemical studies to investigate the changes of Atg9A immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of these mice. Atg9A-immunoreactivity was detected in the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, hippocampal formation, thalamus and cerebellum of symptomatic SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. By contrast, no Atg9A-immunoreactivity were observed in any brain and spinal cord region of wtSOD1, pre-symptomatic and early symptomatic mice, and the number and staining intensity of Atg9A-positive cells did not differ in SOD1(G93A) mice between 8 and 13 weeks of age. These results provide evidence that Atg9A-immunoreactivity were found in the central nervous system of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice after clinical symptoms, suggesting a possible role in the pathologic process of ALS. However, the mechanisms underlying the increased immunoreactivity for Atg9A and the functional implications require elucidation. PMID:24987546

  3. Late Pleistocene glaciation in the Central Andes: Temperature versus humidity control — A case study from the eastern Bolivian Andes (17°S) and regional synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kull, C.; Imhof, S.; Grosjean, M.; Zech, R.; Veit, H.

    2008-01-01

    A glacier-climate model was used to calculate climatic conditions in a test site on the east Andean slope around Cochabamba (17°S, Bolivia) for the time of the maximum Late Pleistocene glaciation. Results suggest a massive temperature reduction of about - 6.4 °C (+ 1.4/- 1.3 °C), combined with annual precipitation rates of about 1100 mm (+ 570 mm/- 280 mm). This implies no major change in annual precipitation compared with today. Summer precipitation was the source for the humidity in the past, as is the case today. This climate scenario argues for a maximum advance of the paleo-glaciers in the eastern cordillera during the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 20 ka BP), which is confirmed by exposure age dates. In a synthesized view over the central Andes, the results point to an increased summer precipitation-driven Late Glacial (15-10 ka BP) maximum advance in the western part of the Altiplano (18°S-23°S), a temperature-driven maximum advance during full glacial times (LGM) in the eastern cordillera, and a pre- and post-LGM (32 ka BP/14 ka BP) maximum advance around 30°S related to increased precipitation and reduced temperature on the western slope of the Andes. The results indicate the importance of understanding the seasonality and details of the mass balance-climate interaction in order to disentangle drivers for the observed regionally asynchronous past glaciations in the central Andes.

  4. Global time scale and regional stratigraphic reference scales of Central and West Europe, East Europe, Tethys, South China, and North America as used in the Devonian–Carboniferous–Permian Correlation Chart 2003 (DCP 2003)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Menning; A. S. Alekseev; B. I. Chuvashov; V. I. Davydov; F.-X. Devuyst; H. C. Forke; T. A. Grunt; L. Hance; P. H. Heckel; N. G. Izokh; Y.-G. Jin; P. J. Jones; G. V. Kotlyar; H. W. Kozur; T. I. Nemyrovska; J. W. Schneider; X.-D. Wang; K. Weddige; D. Weyer; D. M. Work

    2006-01-01

    The boundaries of the Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian stages of the Global Stratigraphic Reference Scale (abbreviated to Global Stratigraphic Scale—GSS) are described in relation to the biostratigraphic and\\/or lithostratigraphic units of the Regional Stratigraphic Reference Scales (abbreviated to Regional Stratigraphic Scales—RSS) of Central and West Europe, East Europe, Tethys, South China (eastern Tethys), and North America. In their type regions

  5. Soil cover patterns and SOC dynamics impacts on the soil processes, land management and ecosystem services in Central Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Chernikov, Vladimir; Yashin, Ivan; Geraskin, Mikhail; Morev, Dmitriy

    2014-05-01

    In the Central Region of Russia (CRR) the soil cover patterns usually play the very important role in the soil forming and degradation processes (SFP & SDP) potential and current rates, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and pools, greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and soluble SOC fluxes that we need take into attention for better assessment of the natural and especially man-changed ecosystems' services and for best land-use practices development. Central Region of Russia is the biggest one in RF according to its population and role in the economy. CRR is characterized by high spatial variability of soil cover due to as original landscape heterogeneity as complicated history of land-use practices during last 700 years. Our long-term researches include the wide zonal-provincial set of representative ecosystems and soil cover patterns with different types and history of land-use (forest, meadow-steppe and agricultural ones) from middle-taiga to steppe zones with different level of continentality. The carried out more than 30-years region- and local-scale researches of representative natural and rural landscapes in Tver', Yaroslavl', Kaluga, Moscow, Vladimir, Saransk (Mordovia), Kursk, Orel, Tambov, Voronezh and Saratov oblasts give us the interregional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different soil forming and degradation processes rates and soil organic carbon dynamics due to regionally specific soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and dominated microclimate conditions, land-use current practices and history. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of SFP and SDP develop¬ment, soil carbon dynamics and sequestration potential, ecosystem (agroecosystem) principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of SOC structure analysis, regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns detail mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models and DSS adapted to concrete region and agrolandscape conditions. The outcomes of statistical process modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification, CO2, CH4 and N2O emission, soluble SOC fluxes, acidification or alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of environmentally sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the most zonal soils and soil cover pattern essentially lost not only their unique natural features (humus horizons depth till 1 m and more in case of Chernozems, 2-6 % of SOC and favorable agrophysical features), but ecosystem services and ecological functions including terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance and the GHG fluxes control. Key-site monitoring results and regional generalized data showed 1-1.5% SOC lost during last 50 years period and active processes of CO2 emission and humus profile eluvial-illuvial redistribution too. A drop of Corg content below threshold "humus limiting content" values (for different soils they vary from 1 to 3-4% of SOC) considerably reduces effectiveness of used fertilizers and possibility of sustai¬nable agronomy here. Forest-steppe Chernozems are usually characterized by higher stability than steppe ones. The ratio between erosive and biological losses in humus supplies can be ten-tatively estimated as fifty-fifty with strong spatial variability due to slope and land-use parameters. These processes have essentially different sets of environmental consequences and ecosystem services that we need to understand in frame of environmental and agroecological problems development prediction.

  6. The geological and structural evolution of the Cerro Tuzgle Quaternary stratovolcano in the back-arc region of the Central Andes, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norini, G.; Cogliati, S.; Baez, W.; Arnosio, M.; Bustos, E.; Viramonte, J.; Groppelli, G.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our paper is to contribute to a better knowledge of the volcanism in the back-arc region of the Central Andes and its relationships with the basement geology, the stress field and the tectonic evolution, by studying in detail the stratigraphy and the structure of the Quaternary Cerro Tuzgle stratovolcano in the Puna Plateau. Field mapping and remote sensing analysis reveal the stratigraphic architecture, the geological evolution and the volcanotectonic interactions in the Cerro Tuzgle area. For the first time in a volcano of the Puna Plateau, synthemic units bounded by unconformity surfaces have been defined, unrevealing the temporal and spatial relationships between constructive and destructive phases of the volcano history. Our study indicates that after the emplacement of a small ignimbrite deposit and of few scattered lava domes, the central Cerro Tuzgle volcano built up throughout three distinct phases of edifice construction. The first of these constructive phases ended with a previously unreported destructive event, consisting of ? 0.5 km3, catastrophic sector collapse of the volcanic edifice, whose stratigraphic position and main characteristics have been identified. The study suggests that the regional stress regime and the topography of the substrata are the main non-magmatic factors controlling the constructive and destructive phases of the volcano, including the directions of magmatic intrusions, faulting and gravitational sector failure of the volcano. The integration of synthemic stratigraphy and volcanotectonic analysis in the study of volcanic edifices showed to be an effective methodological approach for the understanding of the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Puna Plateau.

  7. Tectonic Implications of Recent Campaign GPS Measurements Along the Central Region of the Lesser Antilles arc: Results from Dominica 2001-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blessing, B. C.; Turner, H. L.; Fitzgibbon, K.; Davidson, R.; Parra, J.; Jansma, P. E.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2004-12-01

    The volcanic island of Dominica is located in the central region of the Lesser Antilles arc, an obliquely convergent boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates. An initial GPS campaign was conducted in 2001 to expand our regional GPS field for the eastern Caribbean and to provide baseline geodetic data for examining volcanic unrest in Dominica. In 2001, nine sites were established, the majority near the southern volcanic region, where a recent shallow seismic swarm had occurred. A second GPS campaign was conducted in 2003, following another seismic swarm in the north. This campaign re-occupied the original nine sites and established three more. The density of GPS sites on the island was improved and all the existing sites were reoccupied in 2004. Today there are eighteen high precision GPS sites on the island. All GPS observations were made with dual-frequency, code-phase receivers and choke ring antenna. At least 2.5 days of continuous observations were obtained on each site for each epoch in 2001, 2003, and 2004. Daily site positions were calculated with an absolute point positioning strategy using GIPSY-OASIS-II and final precise orbit and clock corrections from JPL. The measured surface deformation field on Dominica potentially contains components of motion from both shallow volcanic sources as well as elastic strain accumulation from the plate interface. Because volcanic deformation may be cyclical and superimposed on the background tectonic deformation field, we have chosen to examine on the observations from the far eastern and southern sites on the island, located well away from the region of shallow seismicity and any potentially active volcanic system. Caribbean-fixed residual velocity magnitudes range from 2±2 to 8±2 mm/yr directed approximately west. Although these results must be regarded as preliminary, they are consistent with simple models of elastic strain accumulation along the plate interface.

  8. Sarcoma: concordance between initial diagnosis and centralized expert review in a population-based study within three European regions

    PubMed Central

    Ray-Coquard, I.; Montesco, M. C.; Coindre, J. M.; Dei Tos, A. P.; Lurkin, A.; Ranchère-Vince, D.; Vecchiato, A.; Decouvelaere, A. V.; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S.; Albert, S.; Cousin, P.; Cellier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Rossi, C. R.; Blay, J. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sarcomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors. Accurate determination of histological diagnosis and prognostic factors is critical for the delineation of treatment strategies. The contribution of second opinion (SO) to improve diagnostic accuracy has been suggested for sarcoma but has never been established in population-based studies. Methods Histological data of patients diagnosed with sarcoma in Rhone-Alpes (France), Veneto (Italy) and Aquitaine (France) over a 2-year period were collected. Initial diagnoses were systematically compared with SO from regional and national experts. Results Of 2016 selected patients, 1463 (73%) matched the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Full concordance between primary diagnosis and SO (the first pathologist and the expert reached identical conclusions) was observed in 824 (56%) cases, partial concordance (identical diagnosis of connective tumor but different grade or histological subtype) in 518 (35%) cases and complete discordance (benign versus malignant, different histological type or invalidation of the diagnosis of sarcoma) in 121 (8%) cases. The major discrepancies were related to histological grade (n = 274, 43%), histological type (n = 144, 24%), subtype (n = 18, 3%) and grade plus subtype or grade plus histological type (n = 178, 29%). Conclusion More than 40% of first histological diagnoses were modified at second reading, possibly resulting in different treatment decisions. PMID:22331640

  9. Hubble Space Telescope photometry of the central regions of Virgo Cluster elliptical galaxies. 1: Observations, discussion, and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Walter; Ford, Holland C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Bosch, Frank C. Van Den; Ferrarese, Laura

    1994-01-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope we have observed at 10 pc resolution the nuclei of a luminosity-limited sample of 14 E and E/SO galaxies in the Virgo Cluster with magnitudes B(sub T) = 9.4 to 13.4. In this paper we present the images, and discuss the results of the detailed analysis of the surface photometry given in two companion papers. We find that the nuclear and near-nuclear morphologies confirm and strengthen the previously recognized dichotomy of 'E' galaxies into 'true' and 'disky' subtypes. The latter, usually classified E4 or later, often show a bright nuclear disk of radius approximately 100 pc. Essentially all early-type galaxies with -18 greater than M(sub B) greater than -20 are disky. Most true E galaxies are classified E4 or earlier. Most galaxies of both types show dust in the nuclear regions, the most remarkable example being a compact dust disk in NGC 4261. Other than dust, no anomalies were detected in the centers of the three galaxies in our sample which show clear kinematic evidence for a decoupled component.

  10. Cosmogenic dating of rock avalanches constraining Quaternary stratigraphy and regional neotectonics in the Argentine Central Andes (32° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreiras, Stella M.; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Fauqué, Luis

    2015-03-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the chronostratigraphy of six rock avalanches clustered in the northern extreme of the Cordon del Plata range. These rock avalanches are stratigraphically related to Pleistocene glacial drifts and valley-fill deposits documenting the regional neotectonic activity. We used cosmogenic dating (TCN) to directly date block surfaces of rock-avalanche deposits, as well as optically stimulated luminescence dating (OSL) of paleo-lakes dammed by these rock avalanches. Our new direct dates (17 TCN and 4 OSL) determine the Middle-to-Late Pleistocene age of these collapses. These are in contrast to the previously established chronostratigraphy based on relative dating techniques, paleontological context, and tephrochronology. These new data help to redefine the geomorphological evolution of the Mendoza River valley. Especially, the new data indicate that the glacial stratigraphy earlier proposed must be reconsidered. We redefine this stratigraphy as far as possible with our data and discuss the data in relation with other recently published results. However, it becomes clear that the glacial history of the Mendoza valley has to be studied anew by using modern dating techniques. In addition, our data suggest that the Carrera Fault system bounding the valleys of the Cordillera del Plata has been active more recently than proposed earlier.

  11. Reconstructing the Late Cretaceous geodynamics of Neotethys by geochemical study of the mudstones in the Central Sakarya Region, NW Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ac?kal?n, Sanem; Ocakoglu, Faruk; Ömer Y?lmaz, Ä.°Smail

    2010-05-01

    In this study geochemical composition of the Late Campanian - Early Danian deep-marine mudstones were investigated to enlighten the provenance of the Central Sakarya Basin. Changes in the ratios of elements related with ultramafic/mafic (Ni, Cr, Ti, Rb) to felsic (Zr, Y, K2O) provenances were examined through the section. Furthermore some trace element based graphs were used to understand the tectonic setting. The 725 m thick ?smailler section is composed of mostly mudstones; only the Early Danian shows alternation of thin limestones with mudstones. To understand the characteristics of source rocks Rb/K2O, Ti/Zr, Ni/Zr, Ni/Y and Cr/Zr ratios (mafic/felsic ratios) were used and similarities of trends in all ratios were remarkable. According to the trends of graphs the section can be divided in to three parts: 0-254 m (latest Early Campanian - earliest Early Maastrichtian), 254 - 709 m (earliest Early Maastrichtian - Early Danian), and 709th m to the top (Early Danian). Mafic/felsic ratios increase over the first 254 m and thereafter remain nearly constant. After the K/T Boundary (709th m) a major decrease occurs. When the trends in all ratios are considered it can be suggested that in the first 254 m of the section, source area was firstly dominated by felsic rocks. Towards the top mafic/ultramafic sources become abundant and till the K/T Boundary changes in the provenance were not significant. Although in all graphs major shifts can be seen at K/T Boundary, these should be controlled by the impact rather than change in provenance. To understand the tectonic setting of the ?smailler Section, graphs of La vs Th, La/Th vs Hf and Th/Sc vs Zr/Sc were used. In these graphs each part of the section is investigated separately. In the La vs Th graph, 0-254 m of the section corresponds to a continental island arc while upper levels belong to an oceanic arc setting. La/Th vs Hf graph plots Late Campanian levels in to a felsic arc setting, however towards the top first a mixed arc and later an andesitic arc setting becomes significant. According to the Th/Sc vs Zr/Sc graph, contribution of upper continental crust is obvious for first 254 meters, but at the end of the Cretaceous contribution of mantle becomes more dominant. The chemical composition of the mudstones summarized above, suggest that the basin was fed from a continental island arc/continental crust (felsic source) in Late Campanian and from the beginning of the Late Maastrichtian, oceanic arc or most probably uplifted slices of oceanic crust (mafic source) became dominant source area due to the beginning of collision.

  12. A geophysical and field survey in central New Hampshire to search for the source region of the magnitude 6.5 earthquake of 1638

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Justin C.

    In 1638, an earthquake with an estimated MLg of 6.5 +/- 0.5 struck New England and adjacent southeastern Canada producing severe shaking in Boston, Massachusetts and Trois-Rivieres, Quebec. Previously published analyses of felt reports place the possible epicenter somewhere within a broad region including NY, NH, VT and ME. The possible source region had been further refined by the application of Omori's Law rate of aftershock decay combined with estimated rupture extent based on modern seismicity, which together suggest that a seismic event of MLg 6.5 +/- 0.5 could have occurred in central New Hampshire in 1638. In order to more clearly define the possible active fault for this earthquake and determine its seismotectonic framework within central New Hampshire, three geophysical methods were used to analyze recent, digitally recorded seismic data. The three methods are a relative location analysis, computation of focal mechanisms and computation of focal depths based on fundamental mode Rayleigh waves. The combined results of the analyses are consistent with a thrust fault trending NNW - SSE and possibly dipping eastward in this postulated 1638 epicentral zone. Modern earthquakes in the postulated source area of the 1638 earthquake occur at focal depths of ~3 to 10 km with many of the events occurring below 5 km, suggesting, that this is the depth range of the 1638 rupture. Depending on the depth of the pre-Silurian basement of the Central Maine Terrane, the source of the MLg 6.5 +/- 0.5 earthquake of 1638 may be a basement-involved thrust fault or a reactivated east-dipping thrust fault located between the nappes of the overlying Silurian-Devonian aged metasedimentary rocks. When the postulated fault plane is projected to the surface, portions of the Pemigewasset and Merrimack Rivers are found to flow within its surface expression, which suggests that the courses of these rivers may be fault controlled. A fourth research technique, a field survey, was undertaken to search for earthquake-induced liquefaction features along the Pemigewasset, Merrimack and Winnipesaukee Rivers as well as of the Suncook River Avulsion site. Several small strata-bound soft-sediment deformation structures were found during the survey. Although some of the features may be seismically induced, they may also have formed as the result of depositional processes and therefore cannot be attributed to the 1638 earthquake.

  13. Evaluation of moisture sources of the Central European summer flood of May/June 2013 based on an ensemble of regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Fanni D.; Ludwig, Patrick; Reyers, Mark; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2015-04-01

    In May/June 2013, heavy precipitation hit Central Europe, triggering damaging floods both on the Danube and on Elbe basins. In this study, we perform a detailed analysis of the synoptic development of the event based on an ensemble of regional climate model simulations performed with the COSMO-CLM. Simulations are performed with reanalysis data boundary conditions in multiple set-ups and horizontal resolutions of 0.375° and 0.125°. In particular, the aim is to identify potential moisture sources, and how they contributed to the event quantitatively. A control simulation with undisturbed (reanalysis) boundary conditions and sensitivity experiments with modified evaporation characteristics are performed to distinguish the role of moisture evaporated from marine and land areas. To keep the structure of the simulations close to reality as possible, spectral nudging is applied on the upper level atmospheric wind fields. For all simulations, the synoptic situations and cyclone tracks are evaluated against an independent reanalysis dataset, and simulated precipitation amounts are validated against E-OBS precipitation data. In general, the upper level atmospheric characteristics, which trigger the cyclones, are similar in the simulations compared to the reanalysis. Moreover, the time evolution of the precipitation event is well simulated. Nevertheless there are some differences in the spatial and temporal distribution of the precipitation. In both, the reanalysis and the control simulation, the cyclones relevant for this event were moving westward (retrograde movement), counterclockwise from the Mediterranean region over Eastern Europe towards the northern slopes of the Alps. The pre-existing moist soil over East and Central Europe and the circulation associated with the cyclones contributed to intense evapotranspiration, and thus the westward propagating cyclones brought a lot of moisture along their tracks towards Central Europe. The sensitivity studies performed with COSMO-CLM indicate that, while the main part of the moisture evaporated over land, other moisture sources like e.g. the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea were also important to the occurrence and intensity of this heavy precipitation event.

  14. Efectos de las variaciones en el tiempo de trabajo sobre la ocupación adolescente y juvenil en el sector industrial: un análisis regional

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ángel Luis Martin Roman; Alfonso Moral de Blas

    2002-01-01

    RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo es doble. En primer lugar, se pretende hacer una racionalización teórica de los efectos de las modificaciones del tiempo de trabajo sobre el empleo. En segundo lugar, se lleva a cabo un análisis empírico de estas ideas sobre la ocupación laboral de los grupos de menor edad: adolescentes y jóvenes. El motivo de analizar

  15. A low-angle normal fault in the Umbria region (Central Italy): a mechanical model for the related microseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Barchi, Massimiliano R.

    2002-11-01

    In the Northern Apennines, the upper crust is thinned by a set of east-dipping low-angle normal faults (LANFs): the easternmost and more recent of these LANFs is the Altotiberina Fault (ATF) located in Northern Umbria. The geometry of the ATF has been reconstructed matching surface geology with seismic reflection profiles and borehole data. The fault, whose average dip is ˜20°, borders the Upper Pliocene-Quaternary Tiber basin and has a displacement of about 8 km. The deeper portion of the ATF is located below the axial zone of the Northern Apennines where the strongest instrumental and historical seismicity is recorded; the microseismicity of the region ( M<3.0), located between 4 and 14 km in depth, shows a fairly good correlation with the trajectory of the ATF. We apply frictional reactivation theory, under vertical trajectories of ?1, to evaluate the boundary conditions for the brittle activity of the ATF. The fault can be reactivated for low values of differential stress ( ?1- ?3<28 MPa), relatively high values of tensile strength of the fault surrounding rocks ( T˜10 MPa), and tensile fluid overpressure Pf> ?3 (e.g. ?v>0.93). In the peculiar situation of the Northern Apennines, the deep emissions of large amounts of CO 2 documented in the area can be entrapped in their ascent by structural seals (e.g. ATF) favouring localised fluid overpressures. The impossibility of sustaining Pf> ?3 for wide fault portions, counteracted by hydraulic fracturing, increased permeability under low effective stress and load weakening behaviour for normal faulting, would prevent the nucleation of moderate ruptures along the fault. The short-lived attainment of Pf> ?3 along small fault portions can account for the microseismic activity located along the ATF, which occurs on rupture surfaces in the range of 10 -1-10 -3 km 2.

  16. Investigating Land-Use Effects on Hydrologic Processes and Water Quality in a Complex Karst Hydro-Region of the Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Bulliner, E. A.; Freeman, G. W.; Chinnasamy, P.; Hosmer, G. W.; Scollan, D. P.; Stokely, T. D.

    2009-12-01

    A century of watershed studies verify that hydrologic and water quality responses to land-use varies substantially physiographically. In the Oak dominated, Missouri Ozark Karst hydrogeologic region of the Central U.S., catchment studies are needed to validate current forest best management practices (BMPs). Similarly, studies are necessary that quantify urban degraded freshwater resources and disassembled riparian zone form and function. Given that continued human population growth over the next several decades will place unprecedented demands on forested and urban water resources, it is imperative to confront contemporary forested watershed issues that encompass the wildland - urban interface. Studies were initiated in the fall of 2008 to: a) validate current riparian forest BMPs, b) quantify peak flows and microclimate alteration due to urbanization, and c) quantify stream connectivity to adjacent riparian floodplains. Study catchments are located in the urbanizing Hinkson Creek Watershed (HCW, 231km2) and the Baskett Wildlife Research and Education Area (BREA, 8.9 km2), both watersheds centrally located in Missouri. Hydroclimate stations were installed at five locations along Hinkson Creek partitioning forest, cropland, and urban environments (nested-scale study design), and two opposing forested stream reaches of the BREA. Climate in central Missouri is generally classified as humid continental, with annual mean temperature and precipitation of approximately 12.6 °C and 1050 mm respectively. Study catchments land use spans old growth mixed deciduous forest to rural pastureland and the growing urbanized center of Columbia, Mo (population exceeding 101,000). Soils are highly variable prairie-forest transitional to loamy till with a well developed clay pan of thin cherty clay and silty to sandy clay. Preliminary analyses of BREA riparian data (summer 2009) indicate that average temperatures for E-W oriented stream reaches are 0.3 °C lower than the N-S reaches and 2.2 °C lower than climate reference sites, reflecting the effects of canopy layers, density, and landscape physiography. Average net shortwave radiation for N-S oriented reach was 3.2% higher than the E-W reach, while maximum net longwave radiation was 62.4% lower. These results may hold important implications for on-going surface energy balance computations assessing canopy influence on stream water temperature. Preliminary analyses of HCW flow data indicate that forested headwater systems better attenuate peak flows of small precipitation events (< 0.80 mm) relative to current urban capabilities. Precipitation events greater than 1.0 mm result in peak rainfall time to peak flow decreased by as much as 13% in urban settings accompanied by at least 4 cm higher stage and 5 to 10% greater flow volume. Average air temperature in urbanized Columbia can exceed the forested region by as much as 15%, and precipitation events can be 50% greater in magnitude. Results from these complimentary studies will produce necessary datasets to improve hydrologic process understanding and develop improved guidelines and management tools in complex hydrophysiographic regions of Missouri and the Central U.S.

  17. Understanding Earthquake Hazard & Disaster in Himalaya - A Perspective on Earthquake Forecast in Himalayan Region of South Central Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, D.; Paudyal, ,; Singh, H.

    2010-12-01

    It is not only the basic understanding of the phenomenon of earthquake, its resistance offered by the designed structure, but the understanding of the socio-economic factors, engineering properties of the indigenous materials, local skill and technology transfer models are also of vital importance. It is important that the engineering aspects of mitigation should be made a part of public policy documents. Earthquakes, therefore, are and were thought of as one of the worst enemies of mankind. Due to the very nature of release of energy, damage is evident which, however, will not culminate in a disaster unless it strikes a populated area. The word mitigation may be defined as the reduction in severity of something. The Earthquake disaster mitigation, therefore, implies that such measures may be taken which help reduce severity of damage caused by earthquake to life, property and environment. While “earthquake disaster mitigation” usually refers primarily to interventions to strengthen the built environment, and “earthquake protection” is now considered to include human, social and administrative aspects of reducing earthquake effects. It should, however, be noted that reduction of earthquake hazards through prediction is considered to be the one of the effective measures, and much effort is spent on prediction strategies. While earthquake prediction does not guarantee safety and even if predicted correctly the damage to life and property on such a large scale warrants the use of other aspects of mitigation. While earthquake prediction may be of some help, mitigation remains the main focus of attention of the civil society. Present study suggests that anomalous seismic activity/ earthquake swarm existed prior to the medium size earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. The mainshocks were preceded by the quiescence period which is an indication for the occurrence of future seismic activity. In all the cases, the identified episodes of anomalous seismic activity were characterized by an extremely high annual earthquake frequency as compared to the preceding normal and the following gap episodes, and is the characteristics of the events in such an episode is causally related with the magnitude and the time of occurrence of the forthcoming earthquake. It is observed here that for the shorter duration of the preparatory time period, there will be the smaller mainshock, and vice-versa. The Western Nepal and the adjoining Tibet region are potential for the future medium size earthquakes. Accordingly, it has been estimated here that an earthquake with M 6.5 ± 0.5 may occur at any time from now onwards till December 2011 in the Western Nepal within an area bounded by 29.3°-30.5° N and 81.2°-81.9° E, in the focal depth range 10 -30 km.

  18. Extending airborne electromagnetic surveys for regional active layer and permafrost mapping with remote sensing and ancillary data, Yukon Flats ecoregion, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Minsley, Burke J.; Ji, Lei; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Smith, Bruce D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Rose, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    Machine-learning regression tree models were used to extrapolate airborne electromagnetic resistivity data collected along flight lines in the Yukon Flats Ecoregion, central Alaska, for regional mapping of permafrost. This method of extrapolation (r?=?0.86) used subsurface resistivity, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) at-sensor reflectance, thermal, TM-derived spectral indices, digital elevation models and other relevant spatial data to estimate near-surface (0–2.6-m depth) resistivity at 30-m resolution. A piecewise regression model (r?=?0.82) and a presence/absence decision tree classification (accuracy of 87%) were used to estimate active-layer thickness (ALT) (< 101?cm) and the probability of near-surface (up to 123-cm depth) permafrost occurrence from field data, modelled near-surface (0–2.6?m) resistivity, and other relevant remote sensing and map data. At site scale, the predicted ALTs were similar to those previously observed for different vegetation types. At the landscape scale, the predicted ALTs tended to be thinner on higher-elevation loess deposits than on low-lying alluvial and sand sheet deposits of the Yukon Flats. The ALT and permafrost maps provide a baseline for future permafrost monitoring, serve as inputs for modelling hydrological and carbon cycles at local to regional scales, and offer insight into the ALT response to fire and thaw processes.

  19. Geochemistry and isotopic evolution of the central African Domes, Bangweulu and Irumide regions: Evidence for cryptic Archean sources and a Paleoproterozoic continental arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debruyne, David; Van Wilderode, Jorik; Balcaen, Lieve; Vanhaecke, Frank; Muchez, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    The interregional cratonic relations between the Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic basement units surrounding the Neoproterozoic Central African Copperbelt are still largely unresolved, although they are regarded as major potential metal sources. This study focuses on the Domes region basement at depth below the Copperbelt and its relationship to the neighboring Bangweulu Block and its destabilized margin, the Irumide Belt. We applied an integrated whole rock petrochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic approach to major lithological units to assess the proposed mid-Proterozoic arc setting for the Domes basement inliers along with their relationship to the neighboring areas. The available petrochemical and isotopic data for the Paleoproterozoic eastern Domes granitoids and magmatic units in the SW Bangweulu Block is consistent with a continental arc setting. Moreover, the mid-Paleoproterozoic Nd isotope ratios preclude an island arc because they are significantly less radiogenic than the depleted mantle. Predominantly Archean and Early Paleoproterozoic depleted mantle model ages in all terranes indicate limited juvenile input during Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic magmatic phases. Finally, broadly similar model ages in the Domes inliers and the Bangweulu-Irumide region suggest a relationship between these terranes.

  20. Epidemiological evaluation of concordance between initial diagnosis and central pathology review in a comprehensive and prospective series of sarcoma patients in the Rhone-Alpes region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors. Accurate initial histological diagnosis is essential for adequate management. We prospectively assessed the medical management of all patients diagnosed with sarcoma in a European region over a one-year period to identify the quantity of first diagnosis compared to central expert review (CER). Methods Histological data of all patients diagnosed with sarcoma in Rhone-Alpes between March 2005 and Feb 2006 were collected. Primary diagnoses were systematically compared with second opinion from regional and national experts. Results Of 448 patients included, 366 (82%) matched the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Of these, 199 (54%) had full concordance between primary diagnosis and second opinion (the first pathologist and the expert reached identical conclusions), 97 (27%) had partial concordance (identical diagnosis of conjonctive tumor but different grade or subtype), and 70 (19%) had complete discordance (different histological type or invalidation of the diagnosis of sarcoma). The major discrepancies were related to histological grade (n = 68, 19%), histological type (n = 39, 11%), subtype (n = 17, 5%), and grade plus subtype or grade plus histological type (n = 43, 12%). Conclusions Over 45% of first histological diagnoses were modified at second reading, possibly resulting in different treatment decisions. Systematic second expert opinion improves the quality of diagnosis and possibly the management of patients. PMID:20403160