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1

ORIC central region calculations  

SciTech Connect

The central region for the K = 100 Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, ORIC, will be modified to provide better orbit centering, focusing of orbits in the axial direction, and phase selection, in order to improve extraction efficiency, and reduce radioactive activation of cyclotron components. The central region is specifically designed for the acceleration of intense light ion beams such as 60 MeV protons and 15--100 MeV alphas. These beams will be used in the production of radioactive atoms in the Radioactive Ion Beam Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Bailey, J.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Lane, S.N.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Tatum, B.A.

1995-12-31

2

40 CFR 81.80 - Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. ...Quality Control Regions § 81.80 Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2010-07-01

3

40 CFR 81.80 - Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. ...Quality Control Regions § 81.80 Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2009-07-01

4

40 CFR 81.80 - Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. ...Quality Control Regions § 81.80 Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Las Vegas Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

5

Regional Adaptation Strategies in Central Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change presents a major challenge on international, national, and regional scale. It affects the scientific world as well as policymakers, representatives of economy, and the public. Consequently, the need for a dialogue between experts in climate change and the people affected is needed. However, structuring and communicating climate change information on the various scales is challenging and demands coordination. Within the Helmholtz community in Germany, four regional Helmholtz climate offices are founded. One of their major goals is to encourage the communication between science and public. Primarily, this is done by close cooperation to the Helmholtz research centers at which each climate office is hosted. Second, a continuous exchange is supported beyond the Helmholtz research centers towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. Each regional Helmholtz climate office represents regional aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting Helmholtz research institutes. In the Climate Office for central Germany, Land use changes are among the most important factors of climate change driven environmental changes which have to be managed by the society in the next years. Since 1991 UFZ scientists research the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. The Climate Office offers information about climate change effects on the environmental compartments, land use strategies as well as regional strategies of adaptation. The three federal states in Central Germany (Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia) handle adaptation to climate change very differently. The presentation focusses on alikeness and differences in the adaptation process.

Marx, Andreas

2013-04-01

6

Central Midlands Regional Substance Abuse Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents a comprehensive and systematic examination of drug and alcohol abuse in a four-county area of central South Carolina. Resources, objectives, and recommendations are discussed. Two surveys measure the scope of substance abuse. A house...

1974-01-01

7

Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education

Jones, Peter

2010-01-01

8

Incongruence in Destination Image: Central Asia Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Silk Road has a twenty-five century long history as a network of communication and trade routes from Asia to Europe. This study aims to investigate whether there are significant differences between pre- and post-travel images of Central Asia and whether the incongruence between pre- and post-travel image constructs influences tourists satisfaction with the trip and their behavioural intentions. The

Choong-Ki Lee; Soo Kang; Yvette Reisinger; Natalia Kim

2012-01-01

9

American Indians of West North Central Region by County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data on the American Indian population from the 1970 Census for counties in the West North Central region with 400 or more American Indians. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marit...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

10

American Indians of West South Central Region by County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data on the American Indian population from the 1970 Census for counties in the West South Central region with 400 or more American Indians. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marit...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

11

American Indians of East South Central Region by County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data on the American Indian population from the 1970 Census for counties in the East South Central region with 400 or more American Indians. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marit...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

12

Central Region: A Report Identifying and Addressing the Educational Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the deliberations of the Central Regional Advisory Committee (RAC), one of 10 RACs established under the Educational Technical Assistance Act of 2002 (20 U.S.C. sections 9601 et. seq.) to assess the educational needs of the region. The committee's report outlines the educational needs across the states of Colorado, Kansas,

US Department of Education, 2011

2011-01-01

13

40 CFR 81.271 - Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.271 Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2012-07-01

14

40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

15

40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

16

40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

17

40 CFR 81.264 - West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.264 West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

18

40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2012-07-01 false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.262 North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

19

40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2012-07-01 false East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

20

MOHO ORIENTATION BENEATH CENTRAL CALIFORNIA FROM REGIONAL EARTHQUAKE TRAVEL TIMES.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper examines relative Pn arrival times, recorded by the U. S. Geological Survey seismic network in central and northern California from an azimuthally distributed set of regional earthquakes. Improved estimates are presented of upper mantle velocities in the Coast Ranges, Great Valley, and Sierra Nevada foothills and estimates of the orientation of the Moho throughout this region. Finally, the azimuthal distribution of apparent velocities, corrected for dip and individual station travel time effects, is then studied for evidence of upper mantle velocity anisotropy and for indications of lower crustal structure in central California.

Oppenheimer, David, H.; Eaton, Jerry, P.

1984-01-01

21

Evolucin desigual de las causas de muerte en las regiones de Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine changing patterns in the main causes of mortality Brazilian regions between 1980 and 2000 taking into consideration the inequalities among territories and epidemiological transition.

Wilson Sabino; Enrique Regidor; ngel Otero

2007-01-01

22

Conflict in Central Africa: Clandestine Networks & Regional\\/Global Configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central Africa is currently characterised by conflict and disorder with concomitant social, political, and ecological dislocation. The war(s) in the Democratic Republic of Congo and its borderlands are a catastrophe in the heart of Africa. At the formal level, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) is ridden by tension and rivalries that profoundly call into question the 'official' region-building project.

Ian Taylor

2003-01-01

23

40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control...Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

24

40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control...Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

2012-07-01

25

40 CFR 81.260 - South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control...Quality Control Regions § 81.260 South Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Iowa Intrastate Air...

2013-07-01

26

40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control...Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Kansas Intrastate Air...

2013-07-01

27

40 CFR 81.105 - South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality...Quality Control Regions § 81.105 South Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Pennsylvania...

2013-07-01

28

40 CFR 81.189 - South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality...Quality Control Regions § 81.189 South Central Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Washington Intrastate...

2013-07-01

29

40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control...Quality Control Regions § 81.166 South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Coast Intrastate Air...

2013-07-01

30

40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control...Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...

2013-07-01

31

Variation of coda wave attenuation in the Alborz region and central Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 340 earthquakes recorded by the Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (IGUT) short period stations from 1996 to 2004 were analysed to estimate the S-coda attenuation in the Alborz region, the northern part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen in western Asia, and in central Iran, which is the foreland of this orogen. The coda quality factor, Qc, was estimated using the single backscattering model in frequency bands of 1-25 Hz. In this research, lateral and depth variation of Qc in the Alborz region and central Iran are studied. It is observed that in the Alborz region there is absence of significant lateral variation in Qc. The average frequency relation for this region is Qc = 79 +/- 2f1.07+/-0.08. Two anomalous high-attenuation areas in central Iran are recognized around the stations LAS and RAZ. The average frequency relation for central Iran excluding the values of these two stations is Qc = 94 +/- 2f0.97+/-0.12. To investigate the attenuation variation with depth, Qc value was calculated for 14 lapse times (25, 30, 35,... 90s) for two data sets having epicentral distance range R < 100 km (data set 1) and 100 < R < 200 km (data set 2) in each area. It is observed that Qc increases with depth. However, the rate of increase of Qc with depth is not uniform in our study area. Beneath central Iran the rate of increase of Qc is greater at depths less than 100 km compared to that at larger depths indicating the existence of a high attenuation anomalous structure under the lithosphere of central Iran. In addition, below ~180 km, the Qc value does not vary much with depth under both study areas, indicating the presence of a transparent mantle under them.

Rahimi, H.; Motaghi, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Hamzehloo, H.

2010-06-01

32

Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in Central Asia  

SciTech Connect

This morning I will describe a program that we refer to as STARS, for Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security, in Central Asia. It is a program that is based on cooperative, bilateral and multilateral, science and technology projects. It is our premise that such cooperative projects provide an opportunity for engagement while addressing real problems that could otherwise lead to destabilizing tensions in the region. The STARS program directly supports USCENTCOM's activities and objectives in environmental security. In fact, we think that STARS is a great vehicle for implementing and amplifying USCENTCOM's environmental security objectives and activities. We are very grateful and very pleased to have General DeLong's support in this matter. I am going to briefly describe the program. I want to stress again that it is a cooperative program. We would like to get input, suggestions, and feedback from the Central Asians here today so we can move forward together.

Rosenberg, N

2002-07-05

33

Microsurgical treatment for parasagittal meningioma in the central gyrus region  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of microsurgery treatment for parasagittal meningioma in the central gyrus region. A microsurgical technique was used to treat 26 patients with large parasagittal meningioma in the central gyrus region. The Rolandic and draining veins and the peritumoral normal brain tissue were retained, and the associated sagittal sinus was appropriately protected. A Simpson grade I, II or III resection was performed in 8 (30.8%), 12 (46.2%) and 6 (23.1%) patients, respectively, with no post-operative mortalities. Following treatment, 9 patients exhibited hemiparalysis. No tumor recurrence was found in 21 patients during the follow-up examination. The treatment protocol described in the current study included sufficient pre-operative imaging evaluations, a skilled microsurgical technique, improved protection of the Rolandic vein and treatment of the sagittal sinus, and was found to significantly increase the total tumor removal rate and decrease post-operative recurrence.

BI, NA; XU, RUI-XUE; LIU, RONG-YAO; WU, CHUN-MING; WANG, JIAN; CHEN, WEI-DONG; LIU, JUN; XU, YOU-SONG; WEI, ZHEN-QING; LI, TAO; ZHANG, JIAN; BAI, JING-YANG; DONG, BIN; FAN, SHU-JUN; XU, YING-HUI

2013-01-01

34

North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1985-08-01

35

Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C' Through the Central Appalachian Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.

Trippi, Michael H.; Crangle, Robert D., Jr.

2009-01-01

36

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region  

SciTech Connect

This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1981-03-01

37

40 CFR 81.82 - El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality...Regions § 81.82 El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate...

2009-07-01

38

40 CFR 81.82 - El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality...Regions § 81.82 El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate...

2010-07-01

39

Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented.

Not Available

1984-11-01

40

Active tectonics of the Qom region, Central Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 50-57E shortening across the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone is accommodated primarily in the Zagros and Alborz mountains of Iran, which bound the relatively aseismic Central Iranian block. Both the lack of seismicity and the minor variation in GPS velocities across Central Iran suggest this region plays a negligible role in accommodating Arabia-Eurasia shortening at the present day. We examine recent deformation in the Qom region, which lies 100 km south of Tehran within the Central Iran block. This region is notable for a number of large earthquakes over the last 30 years: 1980.12.18 (Mw 6.0), 1980.12.22 (Mw 5.7), and 2007.06.18 (Mw 5.4). Body-waveform modeling of these events indicates N-S shortening on a S-dipping thrust fault which projects to the surface along the Qom thrust. Evidence for longer-term uplift is indicated by the increased topography south of the fault, and the exposure of folded Miocene (U. Red Fmtn) and Late Oligocene (Qom Fmtn) deposits. River incision has resulted in numerous river terraces, and in one location an alluvial fan has been offset across the fault. Four samples were collected from the surface of this fan and their ages determined using OSL dating. The results indicate fan abandonment at ~30 kybp. A DEM of the fan was produced using kinematic GPS surveying data, from which 1.00.3 m vertical offset was measured. A minimum uplift rate of 0.02 mm/yr and a minimum shortening rate of 0.01 mm/yr are obtained. If the age of the lower (and youngest) terrace is 10 ky, as is typically seen in other locations throughout Iran, the likely range of uplift rates are 0.02-0.2 mm/yr and shortening rates 0.01-0.2 mm/yr. North of Qom city, U. Red Fmtn deposits have been folded into an asymmetric N-verging anticline known as the Alborz anticline. Seismic, well and surface data all indicate this structure has formed as a fault-bend fold above a decollement at 3 km depth which ramps to the surface along the northern limit of the fold. A balanced cross section indicates ~18% shortening (1.5 km) in a period bracketed by the Upper Red Fmtn (<18 Ma) and the Pliocene (>5.3 Ma), yielding shortening rates of 0.1-0.3 mm/yr. The right-lateral Kashan fault lies SE of the Qom region, and appears to be kinematically linked to the thrust faults around Qom, which probably represent thrust terminations. Historical earthquakes have occurred on the Kashan fault, and clear evidence for recent movement is seen in the Quaternary geomorphology. Reconstruction of the geology across the Kashan fault indicates ~45 km of total right-lateral motion, which suggests it has played a significant role in the accommodation of regional shortening. Late Cenozoic estimates of N-S shortening in the Qom region are 0.03-0.5 mm/yr. The difference in GPS velocities north and south of Qom indicates 1.11.9 mm/yr shortening across this region. This study suggests that Central Iran plays an important role in accommodating Arabia-Eurasia shortening over Quaternary to geological timescales. Efforts should be made to better constrain the seismic hazard posed by active faults to large populations in the Central Iran region.

Hollingsworth, J.; Fattahi, M.; Jackson, J. A.; Talebian, M.; Nazari, H.; Bahroudi, A.

2009-12-01

41

Central and regional hemodynamics in prolonged space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of measuring central and regional (head, forearm, calf) hemodynamics at rest and during provocative tests by the method of tetrapolar rheography in the course of Salyut-6-Soyuz and Salyut-7-Soyuz missions. The measurements were carried out during short-term (19 man-flights of 7 days in duration) and long-term (21 man-flights of 65-237 days in duration) manned missions. At rest, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) as well as heart rate (HR) decreased insignificantly (in short-term flights) or remained essentially unchanged (in long-term flights). In prolonged flights CO increased significantly in response to exercise tests due to an increase in HR and the lack of changes in SV. After exercise tests SV and CO decreased as compared to the preflight level. During lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tests HR and CO were slightly higher than preflight. Changes in regional hemodynamics included a distinct decrease of pulse blood filling (PBF) of the calf, a reduction of the tone of large vessels of the calf and small vessels of the forearm. Head examination (in the region of the internal carotid artery) showed a decrease of PBF of the left hemisphere (during flight months 2-8) and a distinct decline of the tone of small vessels, mainly, in the right hemisphere. During LBNP tests the tone of pre- and postcapillary vessels of the brain returned to normal while PBF of the right and left hemisphere vessels declined. It has been shown that regional circulation variations depend on the area examined and are induced by a rearrangement of total hemodynamics of the human body in microgravity. This paper reviews the data concerning changes in central and regional circulation of men in space flights of different duration.

Gazenko, O. G.; Shulzhenko, E. B.; Turchaninova, V. F.; Egorov, A. D.

42

40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.127 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.127 Central...

2013-07-01

43

40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.231 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central...

2013-07-01

44

40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.236 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.236 Central...

2013-07-01

45

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central...

2013-07-01

46

40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.155 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central...

2013-07-01

47

The population of galaxies in the central region of the Antlia Cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of the study of the galaxy population in the central region of the Antlia cluster. Our work is based on Washington photometric observations obtained with the MOSAIC camera of the 4-m Blanco telescope (CTIO), as well as on spectra taken with the IMACS camera at the Magellan I Baade 6.5-m telescope (Las Campanas Observatory). Our main result is that early-type dwarf galaxies that are confirmed or likely members of Antlia define a very narrow relation in the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD). Since in this diagram, the location of different types of galaxies is also tightly related to their membership status, we obtained as an additional result that the CMD can be used to identify background galaxies, which are a significant source of contamination.

Smith-Castelli, A. V.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.; Richtler, T.; Dirsch, B.; Infante, L.; Aruta, C.; Gmez, M.

48

Regional CODA magnitudes in central Asia and MB (LG) transportability.  

SciTech Connect

Local and near regional coda have been shown to provide accurate and precise estimates of source, path and site effects. Using empirical methods, we investigate tlic use of coda to determine moments and magnitudes using regional distance (to 2500 km) data from 21 stations in central Asia and China. We find source levels for bands between 33 s and 8 Hz from events recorded at Urumchi (WMQ) to be a factor of two more consistent for coda than for direct waves, for bands outside the microseism range. However, the anticipated path averaging of regional coda is insufficient io remove bias in all but the lowest frequency bands. We correct for path bias by spatially interpolating coda levels rclative to mb(PDE). For higher bands (1 Hz), the spatial correction patterns vary by an order of magnitude and are similar to patterns obtained using direct L,. For the lowest band (20-33 s) the maximum spatial variation shrinks to under a factor of 4 and changes sign, reflecting effects other than crustal Q. Thus, the low frequency coda could be useful for correcting for source effects in empirical or tomographic path studies, which is currently performed using mb. After rcmoving path bias from coda measurements, we find that amplitude measurement consistency between all 21 stations vanes considerably from pair to pair (a = 0.12 to 0.37), with low-Q surroundings and poor site conditions yielding the least stable measurements. CMT based moments (Mw) derived from 20-33 s WMQ coda are verified by comparing with moments derived from waveform fitting studies (a = 0.18). We continue investigations into the transportability of regional magnitudes using the m{sub b}(L{sub g}) scale devised by Nuttli. Previous work has shown that mb(L) is portable for earthquakes provided that L, attenuation is well calibrated for propagation paths. ln this study, our focus shifts to explosion sources, and the question of transportability of m{sub b}(L{sub g}) for different test sites. We revisit Nuttli's results, which were based on observations at far-regional and teleseismic distances, and depended critically upon accurate knowledge of the L, Qo. In this paper, measurements of m{sub b}(L{sub g}) are reported for stations within 1000 km, and as such, errors due to uncertainties in the path correction are smaller than was the case for Nuttli's measurements.

Phillips, W. S. (William Scott); Patton, Howard J.; Hartse, H. E. (Hans E.); Mayeda, K. M. (Kevin M.)

2001-01-01

49

Mechanisms of fluoride release in sediments of Argentina's central region.  

PubMed

We analyze the sources and mechanisms that control the release of fluoride from sediments collected from two types of aquatic reservoirs in the central region of Argentina: 1) mountainous rivers draining crystalline rocks from the Sierras Pampeanas ranges, and 2) shallow aquifers in loessic sediments. The assessment was performed on the basis of experimental work and the study of chemical and mineralogical characteristics of sediments in contact with F-rich waters of the studied region. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of sediments were analyzed by ICP/OES, DRX, and SEM-EDS. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the kinetics of fluoride release under variable pH and ionic composition of the solution. The enhanced release of fluoride at more acidic pH, the inhibition of release in Ca-rich solutions and the positive significant linear trends between Ca(2+) and fluoride concentrations suggest that the dissolution of a Ca/F-bearing phase (like fluorapatite) strongly controls the dynamics of fluoride in the early stages of water-sediment interaction, particularly under acidic conditions. Calculations revealed that the dissolution of an amount of FAp equivalent to that estimated in the studied sediments may widely account for the values measured in the leaching experiments at pH6, whatever the dominant cation in the solution. Under such conditions, dissolution of FAp (present as coatings onto glass surfaces or as detritic grains) is likely the major primary source of fluorine in the studied sediments. Contribution from biotite may be also considered as a source in fluvial sediments. When adequate surfaces are present the released anions may partially be scavenged from the solution by adsorption at acidic pH. Increasing alkalinity in the aquatic reservoirs may then release the adsorbed fluoride through desorption or through competition with other anionic species. Comparing both mechanisms, dissolution predominates at lower pH while desorption is the main contribution under alkaline conditions. PMID:23201645

Borgnino, L; Garcia, M G; Bia, G; Stupar, Y V; Le Coustumer, Ph; Depetris, P J

2012-11-28

50

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation

Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

2011-01-01

51

Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition  

SciTech Connect

The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

2011-03-01

52

Energy and development in Central America. Volume I: regional assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

1980-02-01

53

40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South...

2013-07-01

54

40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.262 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.262 North...

2013-07-01

55

40 CFR 81.194 - South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false South Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.194 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.194 South...

2013-07-01

56

40 CFR 81.196 - South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false South Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.196 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.196 South...

2013-07-01

57

40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.124 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North...

2013-07-01

58

New Great Game: A Phase Zero, Regional Engagement Strategy for Central Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph focuses on a region of geopolitical and strategic importance to the United States. The region of Central Asia comprises five countries; Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan. Historically, this area of the Asian c...

M. J. Swanson

2007-01-01

59

Central government responses to governance change in the English regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequence of recent devolution is that territories in the UK are now governed in different ways. Elected government has yet to be extended to the English regions but they, too, have experienced institutional change in the form of administrative decentralization. Regional governance should provide the opportunity for increased co-ordination of regional strategies but it is frustrated by lack of

Sarah Ayres; Graham Pearce

2004-01-01

60

Beam orbit simulation in the central region of the RIKEN AVF cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the modification design of the central region for h=2 mode of acceleration in the RIKEN AVF cyclotron. we made a small modification to the electrode shape in the central region for optimization of the beam transmission. The central region is equipped with an axial injection system. The spiral type inflector is used for axial injection. The electric field distribution in the inflector and in four acceleration gaps has been numerically calculated from an electric potential map produced by the program RELAX3D. The magnetic field is measured. The geometry of the central region has been tested with the computations of orbits carried out by means of the computer code CYCLONE. The optical properties of the spiral inflector and the central region are studied by using the program CASINO and CYCLONE, respectively. We have also made an effort to minimize the inflector fringe field effects using the RELAX3D program.

Toprek, D.; Goto, A.; Yano, Y.

1999-04-01

61

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource

R. Brode; R. Stoner; D. L. Elliott; W. R. Barchet; R. L. George

1980-01-01

62

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and its important to provide regional climate change\\u000a information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central\\u000a America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of temperature and precipitation

Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

2011-01-01

63

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region  

SciTech Connect

This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1980-01-01

64

Jaguar e ideologa en las sociedades del Perodo Formativo: Pacopampa un caso en los Andes centrales  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Peruvian Central Andean Range the material culture of societies of the Formative Period (1500 to 400 B.C.) include anthropomorphic jaguars in their iconography. Archaeological diggings in the Pacopampa site have unearthed the iconographic representation of anthropomorphic jaguars as recurrent elements in pottery with incisions. This character would be linked to the idea of the Jaguar God, that in

Daniel Morales Chocano

65

Supernova remnants in the central starburst region of M82  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global VLBI observations of the central kiloparsec of M82 at 1.6 GHz, attaining an angular resolution of 4 mas, were made on 3 Mar 2005. We present detailed images of four of the brightest, most compact supernova remnants as seen in these observations. These data are the fifth epoch of 1.6-GHz VLBI observations of M82, the first of which was

Danielle Fenech; T. W. B. Muxlow; R. J. Beswick; A. Pedlar; M. K. Argo; W. M. Trotman

2006-01-01

66

Regional analysis of changes in snow pack in mountainous basins in the central Danube region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate estimation of the volume of water stored in the snow pack and its rate of release is essential to predict the flow during the snowmelt period. In mountainous drainage basins water stored in the snow pack represents an important component of the water budget. Two modelling tools are compared. The first, HOLV snowmelt model is developed by the Hungarian National Hydrological Forecasting Service (VITUKI NHFS) for regional assessment of snow accumulation and ablation of the central Danube. The model originates from the early 80's and it is under continuous development, while its recent distributed version over a grid with 0.1 degree resolution is in use. The snowmelt model has a flexible structure; it is able to change its own structure in function of data availability. In case when only precipitation and air temperature data are available temperature index method is used. When also other data are accessible (cloudiness, dew point, wind speed) using of energy balance model is to be preferred. If there are suitable data available for calculation of the energy terms, the energy balance method can be applied. The second semi-distributed Hron model, developed at the Slovak University of Technology was applied to a smaller sub-basin to represent spatial distribution of snow cover by simulated snow water equivalent. The upper Hron river basin with an area of 1766 km2 is located in central Slovakia. The conceptual semi-distributed tool applied contains three basic storage components with 15 calibrated parameters, as the flow routing component the cascade of linear reservoirs is used as opposed to the original simple triangular routing function. The snow sub-model uses the temperature index (degree-day) method for snow accumulation and snowmelt calculations. Uncertainty of model parameters was reduced by multi-calibration on the mean daily discharges in the basin outlet and measured stations data of snow water equivalent. Changes in the model parameters during the investigated period also were analyses. The consistency of modelled spatial distribution of snow water equivalent also was checked by the Modis sow satellite data. The results showed a decrease in snow water equivalent and snow depth, and snow duration from the past to the present. The paper also deals with the analysis of changes in depths, duration and spatial distribution of snow cover. Daily snow cover depth observations and weekly snow water equivalent data were available at 6 climatic stations for the period 1961-2010 for the upper Hron while the last two decade sporadic observations and simulated snow depths and snow water equivalent for the entire central Danube region. It is concluded that simulated qualitative information on snow pack across the Alpine-Carpathian region can provide more information on appropriate values of melt parameters than quantitative data on snow water equivalent at a single station location. These simulations appear to provide an adequate representation of snow climatology.

Balint, Gabor; Juri?ekov, Katarina; Gauzer, Balazs; Hlav?ov, Kamila; Kohnov, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Zsidekov, Beata

2013-04-01

67

Oligopolistic Competition and Central Planning in Regional Systems of Hospitals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unregulated hospital networks are discussed, and the likely effect of regional regulation on the performance of hospital systems is investigated. Two major characteristics of the hospital industry are noted: (1) since patients must travel to a hospital fo...

R. J. Pont

1976-01-01

68

Tectonics of the Longmen Shan and Adjacent Regions, Central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Longmen Shan region includes, from west to east, the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau, the Sichuan Basin, and the eastern part of the eastern Sichuan fold-and-thrust belt. In the northeast, it merges with the Micang Shan, a part of the Qinling Mountains. The Longmen Shan region can be divided into two major tectonic elements: (1) an autochthon\\/parautochthon, which

B. C. Burchfiel; Chen Zhiliang; Liu Yupinc; L. H. Royden

1995-01-01

69

Phylogeography of Supralittoral Rocky Intertidal Ligia Isopods in the Pacific Region from Central California to Central Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Ligia isopods are widely distributed in the Pacific rocky intertidal shores from central California to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Yet, their biological characteristics restrict them to complete their life cycles in a very narrow range of the rocky intertidal supralittoral. Herein, we examine phylogeographic patterns of Ligia isopods from 122 localities between central California and central Mexico. We expect to find high levels of allopatric diversity. In addition, we expect the phylogeographic patterns to show signatures of past vicariant events that occurred in this geologically dynamic region. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced two mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA). We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We found many divergent clades that, in general, group according to geography. Some of the most striking features of the Ligia phylogeographic pattern include: (1) deep mid-peninsular phylogeographic breaks on the Pacific and Gulf sides of Baja peninsula; (2) within the Gulf lineages, the northern peninsula is most closely related to the northern mainland, while the southern peninsula is most closely related to the central-southern mainland; and, (3) the southernmost portion of the peninsula (Cape Region) is most closely related to the southernmost portion of mainland. Conclusions/Significance Our results shed light on the phylogenetic relationships of Ligia populations in the study area. This study probably represents the finest-scale phylogeographic examination for any organism to date in this region. Presence of highly divergent lineages suggests multiple Ligia species exist in this region. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Gulf of California and Baja peninsula are incongruent with a widely accepted vicariant scenario among phylogeographers, but consistent with aspects of alternative geological hypotheses and phylo- and biogeographic patterns of several other taxa. Our findings contribute to the ongoing debate regarding the geological origin of this important biogeographic region.

Hurtado, Luis A.; Mateos, Mariana; Santamaria, Carlos A.

2010-01-01

70

Geostatistical analysis of regional differences in stem taper form of Pinus densiflora in central Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study verified regional differences in the stem form of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (red pine) and identified the relationship between stem form and climatic factors in the central region of the Korean peninsula. Regional differences in stem form index at tree base (butt) and top stem section were found. Compared to the stem form in the eastern uplands,

Woo-Kyun Lee; Greg S. Biging; Yowhan Son; Woo-Hyuk Byun; Kyeong-Hak Lee; Yeong-Mo Son; Jeong-Ho Seo

2006-01-01

71

Regional Growth in Central Europe. Long-term Effects of Population and Traffic Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a simple growth model we explore the current and future growth effects of the regional population structure. Regional GDP growth in 227 regions within six countries in central Europe is explored as how they depend on the young and old dependency ratio. The young dependency ratio (YDR) is defined as ratio of the less than 20 years old and

Wolfgang Polasek; Helmut Berrer

2005-01-01

72

Regional effects of ENSO in Central/Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El Nio - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects on the European circulation features and on the regional climate of Hungary are evaluated in this paper. European climate is represented by atmospheric macrocirculation patterns (MCPs). Local climate characteristics are linked to ENSO phases through regionally averaged temperature values and precipitation amounts. Significant statistical relationship was found between the European circulation and the ENSO phases. Furthermore, considerable differences were detected in the empirical frequency distribution of monthly climate anomalies in Hungary during El Nio and La Nia episodes.

Bartholy, J.; Pongrcz, R.

2006-01-01

73

Regional Mapping of Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central Puget Sound Region, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1980's we began development of a series of regional liquefaction susceptibility maps covering the urban areas of the central Puget Sound region, including the cities of Seattle and Tacoma. In producing these maps we used a standardized approach that utilizes 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping and analyses of geotechnical boring data and allows direct comparison of the liquefaction susceptibility assessments depicted on each map. The geologic units in a study area were grouped based on their geological and engineering characteristics, and a suite of geotechnical borings was compiled for each geologic grouping. A standard engineering analysis was used to calculate factors-of-safety from standard penetration test N-values, sample descriptions, grain-size analyses, and ground-water depths obtained from the compiled geotechnical borings. Liquefaction factors-of-safety were calculated for two magnitude 7.3 earthquake scenarios, one having a 0.15 g peak ground acceleration (PGA), and the other a 0.30 g PGA. The choice of earthquake scenarios is consistent with an intraplate earthquake similar to the 1949 Olympia and 2001 Nisqually events in the Puget Sound region. Using these factor-of-safety calculations we determined the aggregated total thicknesses of liquefiable material for each boring in a geologic grouping, and normalized these data by expressing the aggregated thicknesses as a percentage of the total penetrated thickness. A series of histograms, one for each earthquake scenario, were used to present the distribution of aggregate liquefiable thicknesses and to assign a liquefaction susceptibility to each geologic grouping. We have calibrated our analyses of liquefaction susceptibility using the liquefaction response observed during the Nisqually earthquake. We developed histograms for each geologic grouping using measured PGA's from this event and the geotechnical boring datasets compiled in the production of the previously published liquefaction susceptibility maps. This calibration allows us to make assessments of other potential earthquakes, and was recently used in our evaluation of liquefaction effects for a Seattle fault scenario.

Palmer, S. P.; Perkins, W. J.

2005-12-01

74

Groundwater modeling of the Calera Aquifer region in Central Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Calera Aquifer is the main source of water for irrigated agriculture, industrial, and drinking water purposes in the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 80% of the total groundwater extracted from the Calera Aquifer. In recent years, ...

75

Crust-mantle mechanical structure in the Central Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermo-rheological analysis is performed to elucidate the mechanical behaviour of the lithosphere in the Mediterranean domain. The thermal field of the lithosphere is calculated by means of a finite element 3D thermal model. The decrease in radiogenic heat production with depth is taken into account, together with the compositional layering of the lithosphere. The predicted thermal field is analysed in terms of the temperatures and depth of the thermal lithosphere base. Based on the predicted thermal field, a rheological analysis is conducted, accounting for both the brittle and ductile behaviour of each lithospheric layer. The effects of the choice of wet and dry rheology are also investigated. Our rheological analysis reveals a strongly heterogeneous lithosphere strength pattern in the Central Mediterranean, characterised by strong lateral strength gradients and the occurrence of non-competent crustal layers of significant thickness in the eastern portion of the study area.

Splendore, Raffaele; Marotta, Anna Maria

2013-09-01

76

Annual Report, Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry and Its Regional Research Stations, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers the research activities of the Central Tobacco Research Institute and its regional research stations for the year 1980. The report lists research in the following fields: agronomy, soil sciences, plant breeding and genetics, agricultural...

1980-01-01

77

Implementation of a Regional Healthcare Information Organization in South Central Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Graduate Management Project is to delineate the strategic plan necessary to successfully implement the South Central Texas Regional Healthcare Information Organization (RHIO) under the auspices of the Greater San Antonio Hospital Counc...

M. R. Barry

2007-01-01

78

Revision of Axinellidae (Porifera: Demospongiae) of the Central West Atlantic Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-one species of the family Axinellidae (sensu Levi) reside in the central West Atlantic region, from the Carolinas to the southern Caribbean. They are distributed in seven genera, and five are new species: Axinella pomponiae, A. meandroides, Pseudax...

B. Alvarez R. W. M. van Soest K. Ruetzler

1998-01-01

79

Geochemistry, chronology and stratigraphy of Neogene tuffs of the Central Andean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuff layers are vital stratigraphic tools that allow correlations to be made between widely dispersed exposures. Despite their widespread occurrence in the central Andes, tuffs from both natural exposures and sedimentary cores extracted from the region's extensive salars (salt pans) are relatively unstudied. Here we lay the foundation for a tephrostratigraphic framework in the central Andes (1428S) by chemically and

Christa Placzek; Jay Quade; Jason A. Rech; P. J. Patchett; Carlos Prez de Arce

2009-01-01

80

The Shapley Supercluster. I. Spectroscopic Observations in the Central Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new analysis of the kinematics of the Shapley supercluster based on radial velocities for 1087 galaxies in the clusters A3558 (Shapley 8), A3528 (Klemola 21), A3532 (Klemola 22), A3530, A3556 (SC 1321-314), A3559 (CE 1327-292), A3560, A3562, SC 1329-314 and in the intercluster region of the core of the supercluster, of which 367 are new measurements. We

H. Quintana; A. Ramirez; Jorge Melnick; Somak Raychaudhury; Eric Slezak

1995-01-01

81

Fueling Population Growth in Las Vegas: How Large-scale Groundwater Withdrawal Could Burn Regional Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from the September 2007 issue of BioScience provides information about urban development and the impacts on groundwater and biodiversity. Policy strategies are also discussed. Explosive growth in Las Vegas, Nevada, has stimulated demand for additional water supplies. To meet these needs, local officials hope to obtain rights to about 200,000 acre-feet (246.70 million cubic meters [m3]) per year from a regional groundwater aquifer extending from Salt Lake City, Utah, to Death Valley, California. Officials from satellite communities are pursuing rights to an additional 870,487 acre-feet (1.07 billion m3) per year. If granted, these new permits would trigger declines in groundwater across at least 78 basins covering nearly 130,000 square kilometers. Water-rights decisions have historically interpreted economic development as a more compelling public interest than maintenance of natural systems. If economic development continues to drive allocation decisions, consequent declines in the water table, spring discharge, wetland area, and streamflow will adversely affect 20 federally listed species, 137 other water-dependent endemic species, and thousands of rural domestic and agricultural water users in the region. Reducing consumption and implementing cost-effective technologies, such as recovery of urban runoff and shallow saline groundwater, indirect reuse of potable water, and desalinization, offer ways to meet metropolitan and ecological needs within the limits of the resource.

JAMES E. DEACON, AUSTIN E. WILLIAMS, CINDY DEACON WILLIAMS, JACK E. WILLIAMS (;)

2007-09-01

82

A seasonal perspective on regional air quality in Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV) suffers from serious ozone air pollution problems due to its unique trough-like geography and diverse emission sources. Control strategies for ozone precursors---nitrogen oxides (NOX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)---need to be determined to bring SJV ozone levels into compliance with increasingly stringent health-based air quality standards. Current practice is to develop control strategies by simulating several 3 or 4-day ozone episodes with the "worst case" weather conditions. There are concerns about models being tuned to perform well by adjusting input data and parameters for specific emission and meteorological conditions, and thus control strategy analyses are not fully credible in simulating ozone responses to emission reductions. More importantly, due to diverse meteorology in central California, it is not known whether control strategies developed from the worst-case episodes are effective for different meteorology and emissions. This research seeks a more comprehensive evaluation of air quality model performance and characterization of ozone variability for the SJV through application of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to central California for an entire summer season. Past evaluations of CMAQ have been focused on the eastern United States, with applications usually conducted for high-ozone episodes that last for a few days or weeks. This research provides a suite of benchmarked model inputs that describe variations in both time and space for central California for an entire summer season. A variety of evaluation methods and diagnostic tools have been applied first to refine model inputs and then to evaluate model performance. Gridded meteorological and emission inputs are developed to reflect variability occurring on diurnal, weekly, and seasonal time scales. Driven by these inputs, the model has stable performance for the entire modeling period without the need for ad hoc adjustment of input parameters. An analysis approach is developed and described to delineate SJV ozone sensitivity regimes (NOx vs VOC) in space and time, and to quantify the relative importance of emission contributions to ozone from local versus upwind air basins. This approach involves application of current sensitivity analysis tools within CMAQ. Cluster analysis techniques are used to identify various types of SJV ozone clusters for summer 2000 based upon the magnitude and spatial extent of daily 8 h ozone maxima. These ozone clusters are found to be associated with distinct meteorological conditions characterized by different temperature fields and flow patterns, which implies differences in ozone production, accumulation, and transport. SJV ozone clusters, their relationship to ozone patterns in upwind areas (i.e., Sacramento Valley and San Francisco Bay area), and the associated meteorological conditions, are compared with those derived from a historical observational data set. The ozone patterns and the associated 2 meteorology seen in previous observations are reflected in my simulation results, providing an indication that the model is able to capture ozone patterns for the right reasons. The worst-case ozone episode is not representative of other high-ozone days in summer 2000, when both ozone production and transport are different. The structured data analysis framework with cluster analysis and principal component analysis provides an effective tool to extract information associated with various types of ozone behavior captured in the summer season across different weather conditions. The ozone clusters derived here can serve as a basis for further diagnostic analyses, such as application of sensitivity analysis tools to characterize variability in ozone responses to changes in precursor emissions and intra- versus inter-basin transport of pollutants under different meteorological regimes. Such results are needed to achieve a more comprehensive and effective control strategy design for ozone in the SJV.

Jin, Ling

83

The impact of China's rise on Asian regional order: China's emerging role in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's economic, military and political rise has a lasting impact on the structure of Asian regional order. From a merely geo-politic perspective, China characterizes the gravitation centre of Asia. But regions are politically constructed. China is actively involved in the politics of various regions and sub-regions, e.g. East Asia, South Asia, or Central Asia. Although the debate dealing with China's

Nadine Godehardt

84

Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.

1997-01-01

85

The Shapley Supercluster. I. Spectroscopic Observations in the Central Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new analysis of the kinematics of the Shapley supercluster based on radial velocities for 1087 galaxies in the clusters A3558 (Shapley 8), A3528 (Klemola 21), A3532 (Klemola 22), A3530, A3556 (SC 1321-314), A3559 (CE 1327-292), A3560, A3562, SC 1329-314 and in the intercluster region of the core of the supercluster, of which 367 are new measurements. We also present accurate positions from APM and MAMA scans of the ESO/SERC Southern Sky Survey photographic plates. We obtain new velocity dispersions and estimate the masses of the member clusters, evaluating dynamical models of the supercluster. The supercluster is found to be significantly flattened. We find that for {OMEGA}_0_ = 0.3, H_0_= 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^, the gravitational pull of the supercluster may account for up to 25% of the peculiar velocity of the Local Group required to explain the dipole anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, in which case the mass of the supercluster would be dominated by intercluster dark matter. This fractional contribution would be considerably higher for combinations of significantly lower values of {OMEGA}_0_ and higher values of H_0_.

Quintana, H.; Ramirez, A.; Melnick, Jorge; Raychaudhury, Somak; Slezak, Eric

1995-08-01

86

Techniques for assessing the wind energy resource in the East Central region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of regional wind energy resource atlases has been prepared as part of the Wind Characteristics Program Element of the Federal Wind Energy Program. This report describes the methods specifically used to produce the wind energy resource atlas of the East Central region. In preparing the assessment, screening procedures were developed to identify stations with the most useful data

R. Brode; R. Stoner

1980-01-01

87

A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension

North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

2009-01-01

88

New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina. II: The Central Region and the Lower Ninth Ward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure of the New Orleans regional flood protection systems, and the resultant catastrophic flooding of much of New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina, represents the most costly failure of an engineered system in U.S. history. This paper presents an overview of the principal events that unfolded in the central portion of the New Orleans metropolitan region during this hurricane, and

R. B. Seed; R. G. Bea; A. Athanasopoulos-Zekkos; G. P. Boutwell; J. D. Bray; C. Cheung; D. Cobos-Roa; L. Ehrensing; L. F. Harder Jr.; J. M. Pestana; M. F. Riemer; J. D. Rogers

2008-01-01

89

Trends and discontinuities in regional rainfall of West and Central Africa: 1951-1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standardized regional mean annual rainfall series are analysed over the period 1951-1989 from a data set of 891 rainfall stations which covers 23 countries of West and Central Africa. Missing values are estimated by using regionalized indexes computed on the basis of a morpho-climatic delimitation of 44 homogeneous climatic units. Searches for statistical discontinuities in rainfall series show no discontinuity

GIL MAHE; GEOFFROY WOTLING

2001-01-01

90

Paleoseismological analysis in Tehran region (Central Alborz, Iran)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Tehran, Taleghan and Mosha faults are three major active faults menacing the 15 millions peoples leaving in Tehran metropolis and its suburbs areas. These three faults located at the southern piedmont of Central Alborz and have been described as the sources of several large historical earthquakes in the past. To assess the seismic hazard associated with these faults, we carried paleoseismological studies. The North Tehran fault: Our study shows that the fault extends up to 110 km and corresponds to a reverse fault associated with a left-lateral component within its north-western part. This fault zone is also characterized by secondary active fold-and-thrust structures affecting the alluvial deposits within Tehran itself (e.g. Milad Tower foreberg). Between Tehran and Karaj, where the fault trend changes from NE-SW (eastwards) to NW-SE (westwards), we found a ~ 3 m fault scarp affecting the Pleistocene-Holocene deposits. Trenching across the scarp showed a N 115 E trending 30 N dipping reverse fault. We found evidences for 8 events (Mw > 6.5) during the past ~30000 years yielding a [3200- 4100 yrs] mean return period. The shortening rate across the fault is ~ 0.25 mm/yr during the Late Pleistocene - Holocene. The Taleghan fault: So far described as a south-dipping reverse fault, our study shows that the Taleghan fault is not a reverse fault but a left-lateral strike-slip fault with a normal component. Its strike, dip and rake within its eastern part are 105, 60 and -20/40, respectively. Our paleoseismological analysis shows that 2 (maybe 3) events with magnitudes Mw ? 7 occurred during the past ~ 3500 years. The recurrence interval for earthquakes is comprised between ~1200 and ~1800 years and the horizontal slip rate is ~ 1.5 mm/yr. The Mosha fault: As for the Taleghan fault, we found many evidences at different scales, of left-lateral strike slip movements associated with a small normal component showing that the Mosha active fault is mainly a left-lateral strike-slip fault, and not a revere fault as previously described Our paleoseismological investigations allowed us to determine a minimum slip rate of 2.2 0.5 mm/yr along the eastern part of the Mosha fault. Along this segment, our analyses within several trenches brought evidences for several seismic ground ruptures having occurred during the past ~10000 years - including probably one among the two historical earthquakes having occurred in 1665 AD and 1830 AD. Combining stratigraphical and kinematics evidences allowed us to conclude that these ruptures were caused by seismic events with Magnitude Mw >7. Using radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dates, we estimated the return periods for these large events to be comprised between 1200 and 1600 years.

Ritz, J. F.; Nazari, H.; Solaymani, S.; Salamati, R.; Rizza, M.; Ghorashi, M.; Abbassi, M. R.; Balescu, S.; Michelot, J. L.; Massault, M.; Mahan, S.

2008-12-01

91

REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

92

Climate change scenarios of precipitation extremes in Central Europe from ENSEMBLES regional climate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines future scenarios of precipitation extremes over Central Europe in an ensemble of 12 regional climate model\\u000a (RCM) simulations with the 25-km resolution, carried out within the European project ENSEMBLES. We apply the region-of-influence\\u000a method as a pooling scheme when estimating distributions of extremes, which consists in incorporating data from a region\\u000a (set of gridboxes) when fitting an

Jan Kysel; Ladislav Gal; Romana Beranov; Eva Plavcov

2011-01-01

93

Stock allocation among a central warehouse and identical regional warehouses in a particular push inventory control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-echeleon inventory system with one central warehouse and n regional warehouses is considered. Customer demand is satisfied from the regional warehouses. A push type control system is used, implying that the allocation of stock is coordinated by the central unit. Given an initial system stock, a fixed planning horizon and two shipping possibilities from the central warehouse until the

HENRIK JNSSON; EDWARD A. SILVER

1987-01-01

94

Central Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk Management Committee chairman, and other committee members focused on information secu- rity for the Greater St. Louis Area Council. An inde- pendent audit firm was called in to conduct an ex - ternal and internal computer network vulnerability assessment. The firm attempted to access privileged information and ran industry-standard diagnos- tic scans of the network. As a second project,

Chuck Drury

95

Lower Palaeozoic sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Kerman region, East-Central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kerman-Tabas region of East-Central Iran contains the thickest and most complete sequence of Early Palaeozoic (Cambrian to Silurian) rocks in Iran and the Middle East, but the stratigraphy is complex.\\u000aDetailed reassessment of stratigraphic relationships between the Early Palaeozoic strata, together with new sedimentological, petrological and palaeontological data, indicate that the Kerman-Tabas region was tectonically active during this period,

Mir Alireza Hamedi

1995-01-01

96

THE EXTENT OF MINE DRAINAGE INTO STREAMS OF THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are contaminating streams throughout the United States with acidic and metal contaminated waters and sediments. The extent of mining impacts on streams of the coal bearing region of the Central Appalachians and the metal bearing...

97

Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

98

Analysis and simulation of land-use change in the central Arizona - Phoenix region, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how urbanization has transformed the desert landscape in the central Arizona - Phoenix region of the United States, we conducted a series of spatial analyses of the land-use pattern from 1912-1995. The results of the spatial analysis show that the extent of urban area has increased exponentially for the past 83 years, and this urban expansion is correlated

G. Darrel Jenerette; Jianguo Wu

2001-01-01

99

Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5

H. E. Hartse; S. R. Taylor; W. S. Phillips; G. E. Randall

1996-01-01

100

An Input-Output Model of the North Central Region of Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective was to estimate the structural interrelationships of the North Central Texas Economy in 1967. This region is a thirty-one county area with a 1970 population of 3,064,560. Economic interdependencies were estimated by Input-Output anal...

W. E. Mullendore A. L. Ekholm P. M. Hayashi

1972-01-01

101

Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the

Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

2011-01-01

102

Changes in Regional and Central Hemodynamics during Seven-Day Water Immersion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Regional and central hemodynamics were assessed at bi- and tetrapolar rheography and tachooscillography during 7 day dry immersion and 8 day head-down tilt. Blood redistribution evident from enhanced pulse filling of the brain, lungs, and arms was the mos...

K. K. Yarullin L. G. Simonov S. A. Vtoryy

1988-01-01

103

Observations of the central region of Fornax A at 4.9 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central region of Fornax A, a 30-arcmin radio double, contains two radio components at 4.9 GHz; a compact component no more than about 1 arcsec (no more than about 80 pc) containing 25 + or - 3 mJy and a more extended component about 20 arcsec (about 1500 pc) in size containing 65 + or - 10 mJy. Both

B. J. Geldzahler; E. B. Fomalont

1978-01-01

104

Exemplary Geography Benchmarks among the Seven States in the Central Region  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study identifies a core set of geography standards and benchmarks that have been identified as exemplary and are used by a significant number of educators in the Central Region served by McREL (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming). Specifically, the study provides a list of the knowledge and skills

Kendall, John S.; Ryan, Susan; Snyder, Chris

2005-01-01

105

Exemplary History Benchmarks Among the Seven States in the Central Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication provides a list of history standards and benchmarks embodying content that is highly valued nationally and in the Central Region states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming). It is intended to assist curriculum directors, social studies coordinators, and others who seek to identify

Kendall, John S.; Rode, Lisa; Snyder, Chris

2004-01-01

106

Access to Supplemental Educational Services in the Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Central Region states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) lag behind the nation in the rate of participation in supplemental educational services that schools failing to make adequate progress for three consecutive years must offer to eligible students under the No Child Left Behind Act. This study

Barley, Zoe; Wegner, Sandra K.

2007-01-01

107

A Grassroots Collaborative Approach to Professional Development. The South Central Ohio Regional Training Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The South Central Ohio Regional Training Center (SCRTC) is one of the Centers established in response to a directive from the Ohio State Department of Education to: (1) provide teacher-centered professional development experiences that build on the values of collegiality; (2) strengthen teacher leadership in educational improvement and change; (3)

Sherman-Day, Marti; And Others

108

A Survey of Teacher Supply and Demand Data Collection Systems in NASDTEC Central Region States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Central Region States of the National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC) were surveyed in 1980 regarding their systems for collecting information and their information needs on teacher supply and demand. The 13 states involved were Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,

Roth, Robert A.

109

Airborne aerosols over central Africa during the Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO) conducted over central Africa in November 1996, 24 airborne aerosol samples were obtained and further analyzed for black and organic carbon (BC and OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), soluble ions, elemental composition, and morphology. Particles were collected in the different atmospheric layers either

Stphane Ruellan; Hlne Cachier; Annie Gaudichet; Pierre Masclet; Jean-Pierre Lacaux

1999-01-01

110

The State of Economic and Social Development in the North Central Region of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emphasizing patterns of rural economic and social activity in the North Central Region (NCR) of the U.S., this report utilizes U.S. census data to survey and analyze: population distribution; business patterns; agricultural activity; local and county government expenditures; and income distribution. Among the major findings reported are: slightly

Rogers, Keith D.; And Others

111

Residual Weeds of Processing Sweet Corn in the North Central Region  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of weed community structure in vegetable crops of the North Central Region (NCR) is poor. To characterize weed composition of species persisting in sweet corn to harvest, hereafter called residual weeds, 175 sweet corn fields were surveyed in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2005 to...

112

A COMPREHENSIVE ECHINACEA GERMPLASM COLLECTION LOCATED AT THE NORTH CENTRAL REGIONAL PLANT INTRODUCTION STATION, AMES, IOWA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Echinacea is becoming a well-established, high-value crop, both as an ornamental and a dietary supplement. A comprehensive collection of Echinacea germplasm is conserved by the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa and is available via seed distribution f...

113

Electromagnetic interference from transmission lines located in central region of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by transmission lines operating in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia. These lines have operating voltages of 132, 230 and 380 kV and are located in a hot, dry arid desert land where precipitaton is very low. Measurements of typical EMI characteristics such as frequency spectrum, lateral profile and statistical variation are

A. A. Al-Arainy; N. H. Malik; L. N. Abdul-Aal

1988-01-01

114

Electromagnetic interference from transmission lines located in central region of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by transmission lines operating in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia. These lines have operating voltages of 132, 230 and 380 kV and are located in a hot, dry arid desert land where precipitation is very low. Measurements of typical EMI characteristics such as frequency spectrum, lateral profile and statistical variation are

A. A. Al-Arainy; N. H. Malik; L. N. Abdul-Aal

1989-01-01

115

Annotated Bibliography: Literature (Fiction & Non-Fiction) for Children about Central, South American and Caribbean Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliography was compiled to help solve the problem of finding a variety of books about Central and South America and the Caribbean Region for Hispanic sixth graders. The bibliography includes both nonfiction books appropriate for use in a social studies research component and fiction books appropriate for a reading program. One video is

Doolas, Jena

116

Studies of the Centaurus cluster. I. A catalogue of galaxies in the central region of the Centaurus cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central region of the Centaurus cluster was surveyed on a film copy of a high-resolution photographic plate taken with the 100-inch du Pont Las Campanas telescope. From visual inspection of the film, a large number of cluster galaxy candidates were identified down to a limiting magnitude of 21.5 in B. Between cluster members and background objects were distinguished by applying morphological criteria established in previous studies of the Virgo and Fornax clusters. Following the morphological classification of each member, the images of all 296 cluster galaxies on a SRC deep-blue sky survey plate were digitized, processed and analysed with programs written in the image processing package MIDAS. Aperture photometry yielded growth curves and total instrumental magnitudes of the galaxies. The magnitudes were calibrated with independent photometric data and subsequently transformed into standard B-magnitudes. We further established a set of structure parameters for each cluster galaxy: effective surface brightness, effective radius, central exponential surface brightness, and scale length. For the ellipticals we additionally determined the shape parameters of the light profiles. The catalogue (CCC) is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Jerjen, H.; Dressler, A.

1997-07-01

117

Atmospheric Transport of Arid Aerosol from Desert Regions of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of atmospheric transport of arid aerosol from Central Asia was held within the ISTC project 3715. Particular attention was paid to the removal of aerosol from the Aral Sea region and its further transport, because aerosol and pollutants emission from Central Asia affect the airspace of the entire Asian continent. At the same time measurements of aerosols in the atmosphere of Central Asia are holding in a small number of stations, and currently available data are insufficient to define the initial conditions and/or verification of models of long-range transport. To identify sources of pollution transported from Central Asia, in Kyrgyzstan measurement and sampling of air were organized: at the station on the northern slope of the Kirgiz Range, 30 km south of Bishkek, at an altitude of 1700 m above sea level (Bishkek Site, 42,683N; 74,694E ), and on permanent alpine Teploklyuchenka lidar station in the Central Tien Shan at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level (Lidar Site, 42,467N; 78,533E). The chemical analysis of collected aerosol and soils samples was carried out. Measurements of aerosol at these stations have been merged with the simulation of the trajectories of air masses in the study region and with the satellite (the Terra and Aqua satellites) observations of aerosol optical thickness in this region. Satellite data for the region 43-47 N, and 58-62 E (Aral Sea) from April 2008 to September 2009 were analyzed. The moments were selected, when the value of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was greatest (more than 0.5), and the transport from the Aral Sea region to the observation sites took place. For each of these days, the forward trajectories, which started at 6 points within the region, were calculated using the HYSPLIT model. The days, on which the trajectories reached the BISHKEK and LIDAR sites, were determined from the data obtained. Calculations on the basis of the RAMS model were performed for these days. These calculations were performed using a grid of 160*120*30 points. The obtained meteorological fields were used in the HYPACT model; the source of Lagrangian particles was located over the Aral Sea region. As the result for 2008 11 days were detected when aerosol from the Aral Sea was actively transported to the observation sites. Comparative chemical analysis of aerosol samples at the stations of observation and soil samples from the Aral Sea region would confirm the presence of emissions and regional transport. It should be noted that the main source of aerosol in Central Asia is Taklamakan desert. Average value and AOT variability over it several times higher than corresponding AOT values over the rest of the region. The greatest variability aerosol over Taklamakan observed from late March to mid-May. For example, on April 22, 2008 average of the AOT in cell 5 x 5 over the western part of Taklamakan - value reached 3,171. AOT virtually throughout the region positively correlated with AOT over Taklamakan desert. The most noticeable effect makes an aerosol of Taklamakan found in the south-east Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan in the east and north of the Tibetan highlands. The impact of the Aral Sea area is restricted significantly less. In doing so, AOT in the central part of the region reveals a weak negative correlation with the AOT over the Aral Sea.

Chen, Boris; Solomon, Paul; Sitnov, Sergei; Grechko, Evgeny; Maximenkov, Leonid; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

2010-05-01

118

Deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos from peripheral and central regions of the rat lung  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated the pulmonary deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos in the context of their previously developed model of asbestos in the rat. Adult male rats were exposed for 3 hr to an aerosol of chrysotile asbestos. Subgroups were sacrificed up to 29 days postexposure and the lungs of the animals fixed. Peripheral and central regions of the left lung were resected, digested, and analyzed for fiber content by scanning electron microscopy. Pulmonary deposition did not differ between peripheral and central regions. There was no evidence of translocation of fibers from central to peripheral regions. The average diameter of retained fibers decreased over time, consistent with longitudinal splitting. The average length of retained fibers increased over time, consistent with longitudinal splitting. The average length of retained fibers increased over time, consistent with slower clearance of longer fibers. A novel counting scheme to ensure accurate fiber number measurements, allowing the calculation of clearance rates for fibers 0.5 {ge} 16 {mu}m in length. Fibers of length {ge}16 {mu}m were cleared slowly, if at all. These findings could have important implications for the pathogenesis of asbestos-related pleural disease. Many fibers are deposited in the peripheral region, and the longest ({ge}16 {mu}m) will persist there for extended periods.

Coin, P.G. (National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States) Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States) Durham Veterans Administration Medical Centers, NC (United States)); Roggli, V.L. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States) Durham Veterans Administration Medical Centers, NC (United States)); Brody, A.R. (National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1992-06-01

119

Las Alpujarras region (South East Spain) HLA genes study: evidence of a probable success of 17th century repopulation from North Spain.  

PubMed

Conquest of Granada Muslim Kingdom (1492 AD) finished with Muslim occupation; they were mostly North African Berbers who had reached Iberia by 711 AD. A politics of Iberian Christianization followed after this date: Jewish were expelled in 1492 and Moriscos (Spaniards practicing Muslim religion or speaking Arab) were expelled from all Spanish territory on 1609 AD. Las Alpujarras is a southern Spain mountainous secluded region, which underwent a repopulation from North Spain and a specific Muslim (Moriscos)-Christian war took place according to historical records. Both Las Alpujarras repopulation by northern Iberians and Moriscos expulsion success have been debated and are regarded as non-clarified episodes. In this study, we have addressed the question whether the repopulation succeeded by determining HLA genes of present day Las Alpujarras inhabitants and compared with those of other Mediterranean populations HLA frequencies and genealogies. HLA frequencies show ambiguous results because of extant HLA similar gene frequencies there exist in North Africa and Spain. This is reflected by the finding of North and South western Mediterraneans close relatedness of HLA dendrograms and correspondence analyses. However, the genealogical study of extended HLA haplotypes particularly Alpujarran high frequency of HLA-A29-B44-DRB1*0701-DQA1*02-DQB1*02 (not found in Algerians but frequent in North and Central Spain) and Alpujarran low frequency extended haplotype HLA-A3-B7-DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 (frequent in North Europe) reveals that a significant HLA gene flow from North Spain is observed in present day Alpujarrans: both haplotypes are characteristic of North Spain and North Europe, respectively. This may indicate that enforced Alpujarran repopulation from North Spain may have been a success, which was started by Spanish King Philip II in 1571 AD. PMID:21633894

Longs, Javier; Martnez-Laso, Jorge; Rey, Diego; Areces, Cristina; Casado, Eduardo Gmez; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Luna, Francisco; de Salamanca, Mercedes Enriquez; Moral, Pedro; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

2011-06-03

120

Sequence and secondary structure of the central domain of Drosophila 26S rRNA: A universal model for the central domain of the large rRNA containing the region in which the central break may happen  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryAn 890-bp sequence from the central region ofDrosophila melanogaster 26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) has been determined and used in an extensive comparative analysis of the central domain of the large\\u000a subunit ribosomal RNA (lrRNA) from prokaryotes, organelles, and eukaryotes. An alignment of these different sequences has\\u000a allowed us to precisely map the regions of the central domain that have highly

Guy de Lanversin; Bernard Jacq

1989-01-01

121

Regional Options for Addressing the Water, Energy and Food Nexus in Central Asia and the Aral Sea Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the water, energy and food nexus in Central Asia as an avenue to seek regional solutions to common challenges. A benefit-sharing scheme was in place between the countries in the Central Asia in the Soviet Union era, but since independence unilateral action has been the norm. It is concluded that a regional integrative approach would be beneficial

Jakob Granit; Anders Jgerskog; Andreas Lindstrm; Gunilla Bjrklund; Andrew Bullock; Rebecca Lfgren; George de Gooijer; Stuart Pettigrew

2012-01-01

122

Regional structural controls of gold mineralisation, Bendigo and Castlemaine goldfields, Central Victoria, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bendigo and Castlemaine goldfields are classic examples of structurally controlled orogenic gold deposits in the Bendigo\\u000a Zone of central Victoria, SE Australia. Detailed mapping and biostratigraphic interpretation has led to a better understanding\\u000a of the regional structural controls of this type of gold-quartz mineralisation. Mineralised quartz veins are hosted by the\\u000a Castlemaine Group, an Early-to-Middle Ordovician turbidite succession at

Clive E. Willman

2007-01-01

123

The Central Radio Gap and the equatorial emission region in SS433  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radio jet X-ray binary SS433 was observed at four epochs by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) technique at different frequencies. The innermost region of the source on milli-arcsecond scales (1 mas ~ 5 AU) is resolved into an eastern and a western core-jet component, well separated by a central radio gap (25-30 AU projected size), where the binary stellar

Z. Paragi; I. Fejes; R. C. Vermeulen; R. T. Schilizzi; R. E. Spencer; A. M. Stirling

2001-01-01

124

Irrigation expansion and dynamics of desertification in the Circum-Aral region of Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to examine the causes and dynamics of desertification in one of the world's worst disaster areas, the Aral Sea region. During the 1960s, a large-scale irrigation campaign aimed at achieving independence in cotton production was launched in Soviet Central Asia. From 1960, ever-increasing water withdrawal from the two inflowing riversthe Amudarya and Syrdaryahas resulted

Tatyana A Saiko; Igor S Zonn

2000-01-01

125

CO Images of the Central Regions of 20 Nearby Spiral Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a CO(J=1-0) aperture-synthesis survey of the central regions of 20 nearby spiral galaxies. The sample is selected on the basis of inclination, single-dish CO flux, and lack of significant dynamical perturbation. No selection is made on the basis of their nuclear activity, starburst, or infrared luminosity. The observations have been made using the Nobeyama and Owens Valley millimeter

Kazushi Sakamoto; Sachiko K. Okumura; Sumio Ishizuki; N. Z. Scoville

1999-01-01

126

Proterozoic maficultramafic intrusions in the Arunta Region, central Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proterozoic maficultramafic intrusions of the Arunta Region record a protracted period of magmatism during the evolution of this geologically complex and tectonically long-lived terrane in central Australia. New UPb zircon geochronology data highlight the episodic emplacement of the maficultramafic systems. Five major events of dominantly tholeiitic mafic magmatism have been recognised at ?1810Ma, ?1780Ma, ?1690Ma, and ?1635Ma, and a much

Dean M. Hoatson; Shen-su Sun; Jonathan C. Claou-Long

2005-01-01

127

Gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region, Qinling Mountains, central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gold-rich Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region in eastern Shaanxi and western Henan provinces, central China, lies about 30-50 km inland of the southern margin of the North China craton. More than 100 gold deposits and occurrences are concentrated in the Xiaoqinling (west), Xiaoshan (middle), and Xiong'ershan (east) areas. Late Archean gneiss of the Taihua Group, and Middle Proterozoic metavolcanic rocks of the

Jingwen Mao; Richard J. Goldfarb; Zhengwei Zhang; Wenyi Xu; Yumin Qiu; Jun Deng

2002-01-01

128

Local and regional variations in Central American arc lavas controlled by variations in subducted sediment input  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sedimentary section (at DSDP Site 495) on the subducting Cocos Plate has large stratigraphic changes in incompatible\\u000a elements and element ratios, the result of early carbonate deposition followed by late hemipelagic deposition. Lavas from\\u000a Central America define both local and regional geochemical trends that reflect the strong influence of the two Cocos Plate\\u000a sediment units. Element ratios with large

Lina C. Patino; Michael J. Carr; Mark D. Feigenson

2000-01-01

129

The Unconserved Groucho Central Region Is Essential for Viability and Modulates Target Gene Specificity  

PubMed Central

Groucho (Gro) is a Drosophila corepressor required by numerous DNA-binding repressors, many of which are distributed in gradients and provide positional information during development. Gro contains well-conserved domains at its N- and C-termini, and a poorly conserved central region that includes the GP, CcN, and SP domains. All lethal point mutations in gro map to the conserved regions, leading to speculation that the unconserved central domains are dispensable. However, our sequence analysis suggests that the central domains are disordered leading us to suspect that the lack of lethal mutations in this region reflects a lack of order rather than an absence of essential functions. In support of this conclusion, genomic rescue experiments with Gro deletion variants demonstrate that the GP and CcN domains are required for viability. Misexpression assays using these same deletion variants show that the SP domain prevents unrestrained and promiscuous repression by Gro, while the GP and CcN domains are indispensable for repression. Deletion of the GP domain leads to loss of nuclear import, while deletion of the CcN domain leads to complete loss of repression. Changes in Gro activity levels reset the threshold concentrations at which graded repressors silence target gene expression. We conclude that co-regulators such as Gro are not simply permissive components of the repression machinery, but cooperate with graded DNA-binding factors in setting borders of gene expression. We suspect that disorder in the Gro central domains may provide the flexibility that allows this region to mediate multiple interactions required for repression.

Turki-Judeh, Wiam; Courey, Albert J.

2012-01-01

130

Environmental Behaviour of Metolachlor and Diuron in a Tropical Soil in the Central Region of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental behaviour of metolachlor and diuron was studied in the Central-western region of Brazil, by means of a field\\u000a study where six experimental plots were installed. The soil was classified as a Latosol, and the soil horizons were characterized.\\u000a Sorption of metolachlor and diuron was evaluated in laboratory batch experiments. Metolachlor and diuron were applied to the\\u000a experimental plots

Eliana F. G. C. Dores; Cludio A. Spadotto; Oscarlina L. S. Weber; Leandro Carbo; Antonio B. Vecchiato; Alicio A. Pinto

2009-01-01

131

Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5-50N, 90-105W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO

Anne M. Thompson; Kenneth E. Pickering; Russell R. Dickerson; William G. Ellis; Daniel J. Jacob; John R. Scala; Wei-Kuo Tao; Donna P. McNamara; Joanne Simpson

1994-01-01

132

Occurrence of radon in the central region groundwater of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon levels were measured in eight water supply municipalities of the Central Region of Saudi Arabia. Samples were collected from 77 wells and 6 treatment plants supplying drinking water to over 500?000 inhabitants. The well water radon level was in the range of 0.89 35.44Bq\\/l with an overall weighted geometric mean value of 8.80Bq\\/l. Most of the raw water radon

Abdulrahman I. Alabdulaaly

1999-01-01

133

Peripheral and central sensitization in remote spinal cord regions contribute to central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Central neuropathic pain (CNP) developing after spinal cord injury (SCI) is described by the region affected: above-level, at-level and below-level pain occurs in dermatomes rostral, at/near, or below the SCI level, respectively. People with SCI and rodent models of SCI develop above-level pain characterized by mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Mechanisms underlying this pain are unknown and the goals of this study were to elucidate components contributing to the generation of above-level CNP. Following a thoracic (T10) contusion, forelimb nociceptors had enhanced spontaneous activity and were sensitized to mechanical and thermal stimulation of the forepaws 35 days post-injury. Cervical dorsal horn neurons showed enhanced responses to non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimulation as well as thermal stimulation of receptive fields. Immunostaining dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells and cord segments with activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3, a marker for neuronal injury) ruled out neuronal damage as a cause for above-level sensitization since few C8 DRG cells expressed AFT3 and cervical cord segments had few to no ATF3-labeled cells. Finally, activated microglia and astrocytes were present in thoracic and cervical cord at 35 days post-SCI, indicating a rostral spread of glial activation from the injury site. Based on these data, we conclude that peripheral and central sensitization as well as reactive glia in the uninjured cervical cord contribute to CNP. We hypothesize that reactive glia in the cervical cord release pro-inflammatory substances which drive chronic CNP. Thus a complex cascade of events spanning many cord segments underlies above-level CNP.

Carlton, Susan M.; Du, Junhui; Tan, Huai Yu; Nesic, Olivera; Hargett, Gregory L.; Bopp, Anne C.; Yamani, Ammar; Lin, Qing; Willis, William D.; Hulsebosch, Claire E.

2009-01-01

134

Regional Hydrological Response to Climate Change in Mexico and Central America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future changes in precipitation amount and variability are among the most important and serious projected consequences of climate change. Central America (CAM) shows most of its climate variability in precipitation. Thus, the large hydrological response to global warming can have negative consequences on agricultural activities and the ecosystem dynamics in the region. Indeed, Central America is considered to be a climate change hot-spot in the tropics mainly due to a future decrease in precipitation and an increase in precipitation variability as projected by the IPCC models. These coarse resolution general circulation models (GCMs) do not provide climate information at spatial scales appropriate for impacts assessment. A regional climate model PRECIS was used in this study to carry out two experiments: (i) the baseline (present-day) run and (ii) the SRES A2 run, both performed at 25 km horizontal resolution. The low-level circulation in the region around Central America is controlled by the low pressure area in the Pacific (the ITCZ) and the high pressure area (North Atlantic Subtropical High, NASH) in the Atlantic. Changes in the position and magnitude of the ITCZ low and the NASH govern the low-level circulation in the region. The spatial pattern of precipitation over CAM landmass is further modified by the complex topography and the land surface properties. A large reduction in precipitation is projected during the wet season (May-Oct) for eastern Mexico (30% decrease) and the Yucatan Peninsula (40% decrease) under the A2 scenario. A small decrease in precipitation during the wet season is projected for the Caribbean slopes of southern Central America. In general, a decrease in precipitation in these regions is associated with an increase in sea level pressure that indicates extended/intensified NASH in the future scenario. Regions on the Pacific side of the CAM cordillera show up to 20-25% decrease in precipitation in the wet season which is associated with the southward displacement of the ITCZ in the SRES A2 simulation. Changes in precipitation are closely linked to changes in the atmospheric and soil moisture. The orographic clouds are an important source of moisture to the windward slopes of Central America in the dry season (Nov-Apr). An increase in temperature and a reduction in precipitation is projected for most of Central America in this season. In addition, an increase in the cloud base heights in DJF is also projected for the Pacific slopes and high elevation Caribbean slopes of Costa Rica as a result of increasing temperatures. The height of orographic cloud formation is also affected by the land surface properties. The region has experienced alarming deforestation in the recent decades. It has been demonstrated that orographic cloud formation is sensitive to the land use change and deforestation in Costa Rican lowland. With the help of a regional model, this study will attempt to shed some light on the combined effect of the land-use change and an increase in greenhouse concentrations (under the A2 scenario) on the regional hydrological changes in Central America.

Karmalkar, A. V.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.

2009-12-01

135

Breakup of Pangaea and plate kinematics of the central Atlantic and Atlas regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new central Pangaea fit (type A) is proposed for the late Ladinian (230 Ma), together with a plate motions model for the subsequent phases of rifting, continental breakup and initial spreading in the central Atlantic. This model is based on: (1) a reinterpretation of the process of formation of the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly along the eastern margin of North America and the corresponding magnetic anomalies at the conjugate margins of northwest Africa and the Moroccan Meseta; (2) an analysis of major rifting events in the central Atlantic, Atlas and central Mediterranean and (3) a crustal balancing of the stretched margins of North America, Moroccan Meseta and northwest Africa. The process of fragmentation of central Pangaea can be described by three major phases spanning the time interval from the late Ladinian (230 Ma) to the Tithonian (147.7 Ma). During the first phase, from the late Ladinian (230 Ma) to the latest Rhaetian (200 Ma), rifting proceeded along the eastern margin of North America, the northwest African margin and the High, Saharan and Tunisian Atlas, determining the formation of a separate Moroccan microplate at the interface between Gondwana and Laurasia. During the second phase, from the latest Rhaetian (200 Ma) to the late Pliensbachian (185 Ma), oceanic crust started forming between the East Coast and Blake Spur magnetic anomalies, whereas the Morrocan Meseta simply continued to rift away from North America. During this time interval, the Atlas rift reached its maximum extent. Finally, the third phase, encompassing the time interval from the late Pliensbachian (185 Ma) to chron M21 (147.7 Ma), was triggered by the northward jump of the main plate boundary connecting the central Atlantic with the Tethys area. Therefore, as soon as rifting in the Atlas zone ceased, plate motion started along complex fault systems between Morocco and Iberia, whereas a rift/drift transition occurred in the northern segment of the central Atlantic, between Morocco and the conjugate margin of Nova Scotia. The inversion of the Atlas rift and the subsequent formation of the Atlas mountain belt occurred during the Oligocene-early Miocene time interval. In the central Atlantic, this event was associated with higher spreading rates of the ridge segments north of the Atlantis FZ. An estimate of 170 km of dextral offset of Morocco relative to northwest Africa, in the central Atlantic, is required by an analysis of marine magnetic anomalies. Five plate tectonic reconstructions and a computer animation are proposed to illustrate the late Triassic and Jurassic process of breakup of Pangaea in the central Atlantic and Atlas regions.

Schettino, Antonio; Turco, Eugenio

2009-08-01

136

Capitulo 18. Apoidea: Las Abejas. In: I. Gauld & P. Hanson, Hymenoptera de la Region Neotropical  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter provides a comprehensive characterization of the bees of the Neotropics, the region from southern Mexico to the southern tip of South America. The bees of this region are very diverse. There are over 3680 species known with many additional species yet to be discovered. The biology, es...

137

Streamflow Trend in Three Watersheds of a Mediterranean Mountain Region in Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Region of Valparaiso, Chile is one of the many semiarid mountainous regions of the world that will be impacted by water availability for future development. Located in a transition zone between arid and more humid conditions in Central Chile, this area is sensitive to desertification. Under a Mediterranean climate, hydrological processes in Valparaiso watersheds are highly variable seasonally. Seasonal variability of streamflow and precipitation are the main characteristics of the hydrological processes of the region. The presence of Los Andes modified somewhat this variability, which at present time ensures a continuous flow of water for irrigation, domestic and industrial uses because dry summers are offset by snowmelt. In our work, statistical analysis of three separate watersheds in Valparaiso was undertaken to understand precipitation trends in the last sixty years by comparing discharge values in transects from arid to more humid conditions. Although similarities at a regional scale are present, statistically significant differences in discharge associated with hypsometric parameters were found. Slight differences in the local scale climate, extension of glaciers, historical presence of productive activities and geomorphological variables could explain this response but not allow final conclusions about trends observed from the decade of 1950s to the present. But, these differences allow the identification of spatial patterns associated with the varying geomorphology of the watersheds. Thus, we developed a watershed classification scheme based on aerial photography and ground checking to improve future modeling of hydrological response in similar watersheds in Central Chile.

Chamorro Lopez, A. O.; Giardino, J. R.; Vitek, J. D.; High Alpine; Arctic Research Program

2011-12-01

138

Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

2002-10-09

139

The Central California Regional Obesity Prevention Program: changing nutrition and physical activity environments in California's heartland.  

PubMed

The goals of the Central California Regional Obesity Prevention Program (CCROPP) are to promote safe places for physical activity, increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and support community and youth engagement in local and regional efforts to change nutrition and physical activity environments for obesity prevention. CCROPP has created a community-driven policy and environmental change model for obesity prevention with local and regional elements in low-income, disadvantaged ethnic and rural communities in a climate of poor resources and inadequate infrastructure. Evaluation data collected from 2005-2009 demonstrate that CCROPP has made progress in changing nutrition and physical activity environments by mobilizing community members, engaging and influencing policymakers, and forming organizational partnerships. PMID:20864732

Schwarte, Liz; Samuels, Sarah E; Capitman, John; Ruwe, Mathilda; Boyle, Maria; Flores, George

2010-09-23

140

Spatially Resolved Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of the Central Region of M82  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high spatial resolution (~35 pc) 5-38 ?m spectra of the central region of M82, taken with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. From these spectra we determined the fluxes and equivalent widths (EWs) of key diagnostic features, such as the [Ne II] 12.8 ?m, [Ne III] 15.5 ?m, and H2 S(1) 17.03 ?m lines, and the broad mid-IR polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features in six representative regions and analyzed the spatial distribution of these lines and their ratios across the central region. We find a good correlation of the dust extinction with the CO 1-0 emission. The PAH emission follows closely the ionization structure along the galactic disk. The observed variations of the diagnostic PAH ratios across M82 can be explained by extinction effects, within systematic uncertainties. The 16-18 ?m PAH complex is very prominent, and its EW is enhanced outward from the galactic plane. We interpret this as a consequence of the variation of the UV radiation field. The EWs of the 11.3 ?m PAH feature and the H2 S(1) line correlate closely, and we conclude that shocks in the outflow regions have no measurable influence on the H2 emission. The [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratio is on average low, at ~0.18, and shows little variations across the plane, indicating that the dominant stellar population is evolved (5-6 Myr) and well distributed. There is a slight increase of the ratio with distance from the galactic plane of M82, which we attribute to a decrease in gas density. Our observations indicate that the star formation rate has decreased significantly in the last 5 Myr. The quantities of dust and molecular gas in the central area of the galaxy argue against starvation and for negative feedback processes, observable through the strong extraplanar outflows.

Beiro, P.; Brandl, B. R.; Appleton, P. N.; Groves, B.; Armus, L.; Frster Schreiber, N. M.; Smith, J. D.; Charmandaris, V.; Houck, J. R.

2008-03-01

141

Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.  

SciTech Connect

Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region-specific differences in the ecological functions performed by macroinvertebrates in forested depressional wetlands.

Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

2005-02-12

142

Photometry and Stellar Structure Analysis of the Central Regions of the M33 galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UK InfraRed Telescope/UFTI instrument was used to analyse stars in the central region (square kpc) of the M33 galaxy over 3 nights in August 2005 with observations in K-band. Photometry was obtained for all stars by fitting appropriate PSF models, using DAOPHOT package (Stetson 1987). Around 18500 stars were detected. A master image was produced by applying an appropriate shift to each image and combining all 30 images. The final catalogue was obtained by assigning unique ID numbers to all stars and calibrating instrumental magnitudes. Comparing the UFTI and the UIST catalogues (Javadi et al. 2011) shows that a larger number of stars were detected with the UFTI, reaching a K-band limiting magnitude of 18.5 mag. Cross correlation methods were employed to cross match our catalogue with a previous monitoring survey in the near-infrared, the UIST catalogue. As a result, we assigned J magnitude and J-K color index to those stars which were found in both catalogues. Using these stars, a color-magnitude diagram was produced which shows populations of RGB, AGB and Carbon stars. Isochrones from Marigo et al. (2008) for solar metallicity and a distance modulus of 24.9 magnitude were used to identify different populations in the central region of the M33 galaxy. We will merge the UFTI catalogue with the UIST and the WFCAM, to get better coverage of stars in the central square kiloparsec.

Nikzat, Fatemeh; Javadi, Atefeh; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Khosroshahi, Habib

2013-03-01

143

Characterisation of the seismological pattern in a slowly deforming intraplate region: Central and western France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed the seismicity of central and western France, using historical data, a compilation of all recorded earthquakes from 1962 to 2002 (4574 events, relocated), and all published focal mechanisms (119 focal solutions). The aim is to understand what are the causes of earthquakes and stress accumulation in a slowly deforming intraplate region. The distribution of earthquakes and focal mechanisms is first correlated with recognized faults, geological structures and tomographic images. Then, in order to better understand the distribution of hypocenters and seek deeper crustal sources for stress accumulation, Euler solutions are computed from the available Bouguer anomaly data. The analysis of the obtained pattern for heat flow values, provides a better understanding of the concentration of seismicity in some particular zones. Two different behaviors of this slowly deforming intraplate region are evidenced. One is linked to the presence of a hot spot under the Massif Central, the other to reactivation of the Hercynian structural heritage. Our results highlight that several possible sources for earthquake clustering can be invoked in central western France.

Mazabraud, Yves; Bthoux, Nicole; Deroussi, Sbastien

2005-11-01

144

Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework, and we use it to analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides in an area in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. As shown on a landslide inventory map produced by the Italian National Research Council, the area has been affected in the past by shallow landslides, many of which have transformed into debris flows. Input data for the TRIGRS model include time-varying rainfall, topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water table depth, and material strength and hydraulic properties. Because of a paucity of input data, we focus on parametric analyses to calibrate and test the model and show the effect of variation in material properties and initial water table conditions on the distribution of simulated instability in the study area in response to realistic rainfall. Comparing the results with the shallow landslide inventory map, we find more than 80% agreement between predicted shallow landslide susceptibility and the inventory, despite the paucity of input data.

Salciarini, D.; Godt, J. W.; Savage, W. Z.; Conversini, P.; Baum, R. L.; Michael, J. A.

2006-01-01

145

Landscape conservation genetics of Dipteryx alata ("baru" tree: Fabaceae) from Cerrado region of central Brazil.  

PubMed

In this paper random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to evaluate the degree of among-population differentiation and associated spatial patterns of genetic divergence for Dipteryx alata Vogel populations from Cerrado region of central Brazil, furnishing support for future programs of conservation of this species. We analyzed patterns of genetic and spatial population structure using 45 RAPD loci scored for 309 trees, sampled from five different regions with two populations each. Genetic structure analysis suggested that panmixia null hypothesis can be rejected, with significant among-population components of 15%. Hierarchical partition by Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) shows that 5% of genetic variation is within regions, whereas 10% of variation is among regions, and these results were confirmed by a Bayesian analyses on HICKORY. The Mantel correlogram revealed that this divergence is spatially structured, so that local populations situated at short geographic distances could not be considered independent units for conservation and management. However, genetic discontinuities among populations were found in the northwest and southeast parts of the study area, corresponding to regions of recent socio-economic expansion and high population density, respectively. Taking both geographic distances and genetic discontinuities into account it is possible to establish a group of population to be conserved, covering most of D. alata geographic distribution and congruent with previously established priority areas for conservation in the Cerrado region. PMID:17333479

Soares, Thannya Nascimento; Chaves, Lzaro Jos; de Campos Telles, Mariana Pires; Diniz-Filho, Jos Alexandre Felizola; Resende, Lucileide Vilela

2007-02-27

146

Amino Acids That Centrally Influence Blood Pressure and Regional Blood Flow in Conscious Rats  

PubMed Central

Functional roles of amino acids have increasingly become the focus of research. This paper summarizes amino acids that influence cardiovascular system via the brain of conscious rats. This paper firstly describes why amino acids are selected and outlines how the brain regulates blood pressure and regional blood flow. This section includes a concise history of amino acid neurotransmitters in cardiovascular research and summarizes brain areas where chemical stimulations produce blood pressure changes mainly in anesthetized animals. This is followed by comments about findings regarding several newly examined amino acids with intracisternal stimulation in conscious rats that produce changes in blood pressure. The same pressor or depressor response to central amino acid stimulations can be produced by distinct mechanisms at central and peripheral levels, which will be briefly explained. Thereafter, cardiovascular actions of some of amino acids at the mechanism level will be discussed based upon findings of pharmacological and regional blood flow measurements. Several examined amino acids in addition to the established neurotransmitter amino acids appear to differentially activate brain structures to produce changes in blood pressure and regional blood flows. They may have physiological roles in the healthy brain, but pathological roles in the brain with cerebral vascular diseases such as stroke where the blood-brain barrier is broken.

Takemoto, Yumi

2012-01-01

147

SALTRA: a regional program for workers' health and sustainable development in Central America.  

PubMed

In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model. PMID:21905390

Wesseling, Catharina; Aragn, Aurora; Elgstrand, Kaj; Flores, Reinaldo; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo

148

Regional structural controls of gold mineralisation, Bendigo and Castlemaine goldfields, Central Victoria, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bendigo and Castlemaine goldfields are classic examples of structurally controlled orogenic gold deposits in the Bendigo Zone of central Victoria, SE Australia. Detailed mapping and biostratigraphic interpretation has led to a better understanding of the regional structural controls of this type of gold-quartz mineralisation. Mineralised quartz veins are hosted by the Castlemaine Group, an Early-to-Middle Ordovician turbidite succession at least 3,000 m thick. Gold deposits are controlled by low-displacement faults that are clustered into several belts (the goldfields) indicating a regional structural control. The timing of mineralisation overlapped with that of the major period of deformation including folding, cleavage development and regional faulting. The Bendigo and Castlemaine goldfields are located in an area termed the Whitelaw thrust sheet bounded by two unmineralised, high-displacement, regional-scale faults. Mapping has revealed an interrelationship between the regional-scale faults, regional structural style and goldfield location. The goldfields lie immediately west of the boundary between the upper and lower portions of the thrust sheet and are characterised by symmetric folds with sub-horizontal to synclinal enveloping surfaces, relatively low co-axial strains and moderate cleavage development. The non-gold-bearing areas immediately east of each goldfield correspond with the lower part of the Whitelaw thrust sheet and are characterised by higher non-coaxial strains, stronger cleavage and folds with wide west-dipping limbs giving rise to easterly vergent sections and steeply west-dipping enveloping surfaces. That mineralisation was an integral part of the thin-skinned style of deformation in the central Bendigo Zone is indicated by timing relationships and the interrelationship between local-scale mineralised structures and regional-scale features such as large-displacement unmineralised faults, regional variations in fold style and overall thrust sheet geometry. The work supports previous models that suggest mineralised fluids were focussed along a linked system of deep-seated faults. The primary conduits may have been major regional-scale intrazone faults, which are inferred to sole into detachments near the base of the Castlemaine Group. It is proposed that these structures linked with minor intrazone faults and then with networks of low-displacement mineralised faults that were strongly controlled by folds. The location of minor intrazone faults was probably controlled by internal thrust sheet geometry. The distribution of gold deposits and of gold production suggests that maximum fluid flow was concentrated along the eastern margins of networks of low-displacement faults.

Willman, Clive E.

2007-06-01

149

Mapping the Central Region of the PPN CRL 618 at Subarcsecond Resolution at 350 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at ~0.''3-0.''5 resolutions. Two components are seen in the 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in a 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base; and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC3N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain millimeter-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC3N and HCN and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in CH2CHCN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within ~630 AU (0.''7) of the central star. A simple radiative transfer model is used to derive the kinematics, physical conditions, and the chemical abundances in the dense core. The dense core is expanding and accelerating, with the velocity increasing roughly linearly from ~3 km s-1 in the innermost part to ~16 km s-1 at 630 AU. The mass-loss rate in the dense core is extremely high with a value of ~1.15 10-3 M ? yr-1. The dense core has a mass of ~0.47 M ? and a dynamical age of ~400 yr. It could result from a recent enhanced heavy mass-loss episode that ends the asymptotic giant branch phase. The isotopic ratios of 12C/13C and 14N/15N are 9 4 and 150 50, respectively, both lower than the solar values.

Lee, Chin-Fei; Yang, Chun-Hui; Sahai, Raghvendra; Snchez Contreras, Carmen

2013-06-01

150

Regional Groundwater Flow in Quaternary Aquifers in the Kanto Plain, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kanto Plain located in the Pacific side of central Japan is the largest groundwater basin in Japan. Tokyo metropolitan district is situated in this plain, and approximately 30 % of the whole population of Japan lives here. Urbanization and various human activities have affected groundwater environment in each part of the plain; e.g. land subsidence, decline of piezometric head and pollution. It is necessary to make clear the present groundwater environment and the process of environmental changes to maintain and manage groundwater environment. In this study, groundwater samples were taken in Quaternary aquifers (shallower than GL-400m) and analyzed major dissolved ions and delta-18O, D to clarify the present regional groundwater flow system. Also, long term data of piezometric head in various aquifers observed by the local administrations were collected. From the three dimensional distribution of groundwater quality and delta-18O, D, groundwater with relatively high Cl- concentration (up to about 200mg/l) and low isotopic ratios was found in the aquifer that was situated between 200m and 400m depth of the central part. This groundwater area was distributed in the direction of northwest-southeast, and boundary of it was clear. Considering the hydrogeological setting and isotopic ratios of precipitation, the groundwater was considered to have been supplied to this area by regional groundwater flow. On the other hand, the southwestern boundary was well corresponded to the location of Ayasegawa fault system that deformed Quaternary sediments approximately 100m at the depth GL-200m. In addition, piezometric head in each aquifer differed bordering on the fault. These differences strongly suggested the fault system divides the regional groundwater flow system, that is, the fault system acts as barrier to groundwater flow from southwestern part to central part of the plain. Also, this barrier was fully functioning in the period when the groundwater was pumped in large quantities.

Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.; Sakura, Y.

2006-12-01

151

Telemagmatic metamorphism superimposed on regional metamorphism: Evidence from coals in central China  

SciTech Connect

Coal (Lower Permian No. 1) in north-central Henan province, central China, exhibits a zoned rank distribution. The rank varies between high-volatile bituminous and anthracite. Highest rank coal occurs in a northwest-southeast trending zone that cuts across the center of the study area. Coal rank decreases from this central zone towards both the northeast and southwest. Core data indicate that the anthracite is currently overlain by over 4,600 m of sedimentary cover, which represents more or less continuous sedimentation during the Permian and Triassic. In the lower rank area to the southwest, erosion has removed all but approximately 1,000 m of strata. The rank distribution in this area has been attributed to regional metamorphism by previous workers as the higher coal rank coincides with the thicker strata. However, this study reveals that anthracite in the area has a much higher vitrinite reflectance, between 3--6% (Ro max, in oil), with some locations exhibiting reflectances greater than 6%. Petrographically, the anthracite is characterized by well developed pores (5--10 [mu]m in diameter) and mosaic structure. It is suggested that the higher heat flow is due to the presence of deep-seated plutons. It is proposed that coal metamorphism in this area involved three stages: (1) Pre-orogenic (early Permian-late Triassic). Regional metamorphism produced coals of subbituminous to high-volatile bituminous rank; (2) Orogenic (early Jurassic-late Cretaceous). Telemagmatic metamorphism resulted in zones of higher rank coal (medium volatile through anthracite rank); (3) Post-orogenic (Tertiary-Quaternary). Shallow burial depth due to the tectonic uplift followed by erosion had a negligible effect on coal rank. It is suggested, therefore, that coalification in this area is the result of regional metamorphism overprinted by telemagmatic metamorphism.

Tang, Y. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1993-02-01

152

Crustal structure of the Pannonian-Carpathian region, Central Europe, from ambient noise tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pannonian Basin of Central Europe is a major extensional basin surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. During the evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, extension of the crust and lithosphere created several inter-related basins of which the Pannonian basin is the largest. Imaging the seismic velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle may help us understand the structure and geodynamic evolution of this part of central Europe. Here, we use ambient noise tomography to investigate the crust and uppermost mantle structure in the region. We have collected and processed continuous data from 56 temporary stations deployed in the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) for 16 months (2005-2007) and 41 permanent broadband stations; this dataset enables the most well-resolved images of the S-wave structure of the region yet obtained. We computed the cross-correlation between vertical component seismograms from pairs of stations and stacked the correlated waveforms over 1-2 years to estimate the Rayleigh wave Greens function. Frequency-time analysis is used to measure the group velocity dispersion curves, which are then inverted for the group velocity maps. Our 4-10 s group velocity maps exhibit low velocity anomalies which clearly defined the major sediment depo-centers in the Carpathian region. A broad low velocity anomaly in the center of the 5 s group velocity map can be associated with the Pannonian Basin, whereas an anomaly in the southeastern region is related to the Moesian platform. Further east, the Vienna Basin can also be seen on our maps. A fast anomaly in the central region can be associated with the Mid-Hungarian line. At periods from 18 to 24 seconds, group velocities become increasingly sensitive to crustal thickness. The maps also reveal low-velocity anomalies associated with the Carpathians. The low velocity anomalies are probably caused by deeper crustal roots beneath the mountain ranges which occur due to isostatic compensation. CBP working group: G. Houseman, G. Stuart, Y. Ren, B. Dando, P. Lorinczi, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, UK; E. Hegedus, A. Kovcs, I. Trk, I. Lszl, R. Csabafi, Etvs Lornd Geophysical Institute, Budapest, Hungary; E. Breckl, H. Hausmann, W. Loderer, T-U Wien, Vienna, Austria; S. Radovanovic, V. Kovacevic, D. Valcic, S. Petrovic-Cacic, G. Krunic, Seismological Survey of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; A. Brisbourne, D. Hawthorn, A. Horleston, V. Lane, SEIS-UK, Leicester University, UK.

Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Carpathian Basins Project Working Group

2010-12-01

153

Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD

North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

2011-01-01

154

Ion source and low energy injection line for a central region model cyclotron.  

PubMed

At CIAE, a 100 MeV H(-) cyclotron (CYCIAE-100) is under design and construction. A central region model (CRM) cyclotron was built for various experimental verifications for the CYCIAE-100 project and for research and development of high current injection to accelerate milliampere H(-) beam. The H(-) multicusp source built in 2003 has been improved recently to make the source operation more stable. A new injection line for axial low energy high current injection has been designed and constructed for the CRM cyclotron. PMID:18315258

Zhang, Tianjue; Li, Zhenguo; Lu, Yinlong; Wei, Sumin; Cai, Hongru; Ge, Tao; Wu, Longcheng; Pan, Gaofeng; Yao, Hongjuan; Kuo, T; Yuan, D

2008-02-01

155

Ion source and low energy injection line for a central region model cyclotron  

SciTech Connect

At CIAE, a 100 MeV H{sup -} cyclotron (CYCIAE-100) is under design and construction. A central region model (CRM) cyclotron was built for various experimental verifications for the CYCIAE-100 project and for research and development of high current injection to accelerate milliampere H{sup -} beam. The H{sup -} multicusp source built in 2003 has been improved recently to make the source operation more stable. A new injection line for axial low energy high current injection has been designed and constructed for the CRM cyclotron.

Zhang Tianjue; Li Zhenguo; Lu Yinlong; Wei Sumin; Cai Hongru; Ge Tao; Wu Longcheng; Pan Gaofeng; Yao Hongjuan; Kuo, T.; Yuan, D. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2008-02-15

156

Ion source and low energy injection line for a central region model cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At CIAE, a 100 MeV H- cyclotron (CYCIAE-100) is under design and construction. A central region model (CRM) cyclotron was built for various experimental verifications for the CYCIAE-100 project and for research and development of high current injection to accelerate milliampere H- beam. The H- multicusp source built in 2003 has been improved recently to make the source operation more stable. A new injection line for axial low energy high current injection has been designed and constructed for the CRM cyclotron.

Zhang, Tianjue; Li, Zhenguo; Lu, Yinlong; Wei, Sumin; Cai, Hongru; Ge, Tao; Wu, Longcheng; Pan, Gaofeng; Yao, Hongjuan; Kuo, T.; Yuan, D.

2008-02-01

157

Second phase of the European Project CERGOP-2/Environment (Central Europe Regional Geodynamics Project)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper includes concise information on the status of the international geodynamic project CERGOP (Central Europe Regional Geodynamics Project). The achievements of the realisation of the first phase of the Project are summarised. The enlarged objectives, the programme and scope of work of the second phase of the Project are shortly described. List of workpackages covering particular fields of activities within the Project is given. Project is supported financially by the European Commission. Project CERGOP was an impulse for the establishment of the CEGRN Consortium of institutes involved in realisation of the Project. The Consortium will also be a seedbed of new European projects and initiatives.

Sledzinski, Janusz

158

On the heat balance terms in the central region of the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of the heat balance terms based on the monthly mean meteorological variables have been made in the central region of the Red Sea between 21N and 22N latitudes. The evaporative flux of 165 W m -2 (208 cm y -1) is close to the accepted annual evaporation of 210 cm. The sensible heat flux and the net long-wave radiation terms are -3 and 57 W m -2, respectively. The observed solar radiation at land stations around the area of study averages about 220 W m -2, indicating that the heat lost from the sea surface is balanced by the heat gain.

Ahmad, F.; Sultan, S. A. R.

1987-10-01

159

Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada  

SciTech Connect

We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

2009-04-01

160

Numerical study of local\\/regional atmospheric changes caused by a large solar central receiver power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional numerical atmospheric mesoscale model with a vertical cross section is applied to study the potential local\\/regional atmospheric effects of the installation of a 100 MWe solar thermal central receiver power plant in California. The plant comprises heliostats (mirrors) covering a portion of ground surface and reflecting sunlight onto a central receiving tower. The model is able to simulate

C. M. Bhumralkar; A. J. Slemmons; K. C. Nitz

1981-01-01

161

Regional distribution and geometry of salt diapirs and supra-Zechstein Group faults in the western and central North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional mapping of major faults above the Zechstein Group salt in the western and central parts of the North Sea basin has shown that there exist at least three discrete salt tectonic zones. On the platform west of the Central Graben there is Zone 1, an area of extensional faulting above the salt, roughly parallel to the margin of the

Daniel J. Bishop

1996-01-01

162

Uunderstanding the benefits of regional integration to trade : the application of a gravity model to the case of Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper identifies the impact of physical barriers to trade within Central America through the use of an augmented and partially constrained Gravity Model of Trade. Adjusting the Euclidian distance factor for Central America by real average transport times, the model quantifies the impact of poor connectivity and border frictions on the region's internal trade as well as its trade

Darwin Marcelo Gordillo; Aiga Stokenberga; Jordan Schwartz

2010-01-01

163

Hydrothermal alteration and REE-Th mineralization at the Rodeo de Los Molles deposit, Las Chacras batholith, central Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

REE (rare-earth-element) and Th mineralization at the Rodeo de Los Molles deposit occurs within an elliptical body of hydrothermally altered rocks (fenite) located in a biotite monzogranite of the Las Chacras batholith. Ore assemblages are found as isolated patches of intergrown britholite, allanite, apatite, bastnaesite, fluorite, sphene, quartz, and aegirine-augite, as well as nodules of uranothorite and late-stage veins of

Raul Lira; Edward M. Ripley

1992-01-01

164

Methodologies for selecting industries for regions and communities: A critical evaluation of the Las Vegas target industry analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates recent research conducted by a contractor for the state of Nevada. The research was designed to identify industries for which the Las Vegas area might provide competitive locations for new and expansion investment; it made use of target industry analysis (TIA) to identify specific industries that might be part of the future economy of the region and thus provide a baseline for assessing the impact of the Yucca Mountain repository project. This report briefly describes three TIA approaches - the conventional simple screening approach, simultaneous approach, and an alternative hybrid approach - and analytical hierarchy modeling, which is another industry selection methodology. It evaluates the data, methodology, and findings of the state of Nevada study, and it also discusses additional measures of locational advantage and economic development that were not considered in the study. The report then examines how industries search for new locations and reviews methodologies that assess the predictability of industries choosing particular locations. The report concludes that, although the state of Nevada study provides a general impression of industries likely to locate in the Las Vegas area, the relatively simplistic TIA approach it uses and the additional refinements still needed to make TIA an accurate predictor of future economic structure cast some doubt on the validity of the research findings.

Allison, T.

1992-03-01

165

Clustering Regional Ozone Concentrations to Reveal Meteorological Regimes Influencing Air Quality in California's Central Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California's central valley suffers from serious ozone air pollution problems due to its unique geography as well as diverse emission sources from both local and upwind areas. The primary flows in the region are produced by the thermal contrast between the ocean and land, and between the valley and surrounding mountains. On typical summer days, westerly winds are funneled into the valley through gaps in the coastal range, along with the Bay area pollutants. During the day, the flow is directed up the Sierra Nevada Mountain slope, while at night it reverses and recirculates the local pollutants. Meteorological factors are important in governing the spatial distribution and variation of air pollutants in this region. Such knowledge is mainly obtained in previous studies using multi-year historical observations at limited measurement sites. There are concerns about spatial representativeness of these measurement locations, and confounding effects from changes in anthropogenic emissions over the analysis period. While modeling studies can control and minimize these limitations, the short simulation period usually makes temporally representative patterns difficult to discern. Our study simulates ozone formation in central California for the entire summer of 2000, with wide meteorological and air quality variations seen in both space and time, and thus provides a good opportunity to examine meteorological regimes that lead to different ozone production, transport, and accumulation in the Central valley. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis, we determined distinctive meteorological regimes that are associated with different ozone spatial patterns in the Central Valley. In general, average ozone levels in the valley increase with temperature, while their spatial distribution depend on flow regimes, in particular, the strength of sea breezes and upslope flows. The regional meteorological effects are shown to explain the different ozone patterns in the valley, their dynamic relationship with each other, and their relationship to those in the upwind air basins. Our results can serve as a basis to study variability in ozone responses to emission controls and inter-basin pollutant transport under and across different temperature and flow regimes.

Jin, L.; Brown, N. J.; Harley, R. A.

2008-12-01

166

Study of the Seismic Cycle of large Earthquakes in central Peru: Lima Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since historical times, the Peruvian subduction zone has been source of large and destructive earthquakes. The more damaging one occurred on May 30 1970 offshore Perus northern city of Chimbote with a death toll of 70,000 people and several hundred US million dollars in property damage. More recently, three contiguous plate interface segments in southern Peru completed their seismic cycle generating the 1996 Nazca (Mw 7.1), the 2001 Atico-Arequipa (Mw 8.4) and the 2007 Pisco (Mw 7.9) earthquakes. GPS measurements obtained between 1994-2001 by IGP-CIW an University of Miami-RSMAS on the central Andes of Peru and Bolivia were used to estimate their coseismic displacements and late stage of interseismic strain accumulation. However, we focus our interest in central Peru-Lima region, which with its about 9000,000 inhabitants is located over a locked plate interface that has not broken with magnitude Mw 8 earthquakes since May 1940, September 1966 and October 1974. We use a network of 11 GPS monuments to estimate the interseismic velocity field, infer spatial variations of interplate coupling and its relation with the background seismicity of the region.

Norabuena, E. O.; Quiroz, W.; Dixon, T. H.

2009-12-01

167

Central West Antarctica among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is clear evidence that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is contributing to sea-level rise. In contrast, West Antarctic temperature changes in recent decades remain uncertain. West Antarctica has probably warmed since the 1950s, but there is disagreement regarding the magnitude, seasonality and spatial extent of this warming. This is primarily because long-term near-surface temperature observations are restricted to Byrd Station in central West Antarctica, a data set with substantial gaps. Here, we present a complete temperature record for Byrd Station, in which observations have been corrected, and gaps have been filled using global reanalysis data and spatial interpolation. The record reveals a linear increase in annual temperature between 1958 and 2010 by 2.4+/-1.2C, establishing central West Antarctica as one of the fastest-warming regions globally. We confirm previous reports of West Antarctic warming, in annual average and in austral spring and winter, but find substantially larger temperature increases. In contrast to previous studies, we report statistically significant warming during austral summer, particularly in December-January, the peak of the melting season. A continued rise in summer temperatures could lead to more frequent and extensive episodes of surface melting of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. These results argue for a robust long-term meteorological observation network in the region.

Bromwich, David H.; Nicolas, Julien P.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Keller, Linda M.; Weidner, George A.; Wilson, Aaron B.

2013-02-01

168

Inorganic constituents of urban air pollution in the Lazio region (Central Italy).  

PubMed

A field study was carried out at six locations in the Lazio region (Central Italy) aimed at characterising atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from the point of view of the chemical composition and grain size distribution of the particles, the mixing properties of the atmosphere, the frequency and relevance of natural events. The combination of four different analytical techniques (ion chromatography, X-ray fluorescence and ICP for inorganic components, thermo-optical analysis for carbon compounds) yielded sound results in terms of characterisation of the air masses. During the first three months of the study (October-December 2004), many pollution events of natural (sea-salt or desert dust episodes) or anthropogenic nature were identified and characterised. More than 90% of the collected mass was identified by chemical analysis. The central role played by the mixing properties of the lower atmosphere when pollution events occurred was highlighted. The results show a major impact of primary anthropogenic pollutants on traffic stations and a homogeneous distribution of secondary pollutants over the regional area. An evaluation of the sources of PM and an identification of possible reliable tracers were obtained using a chemical fractionation procedure. PMID:16897503

Perrino, C; Canepari, S; Cardarelli, E; Catrambone, M; Sargolini, T

2006-08-01

169

Inorganic constituents of urban air pollution in the Lazio region (Central Italy).  

PubMed

A field study was carried out at six locations in the Lazio region (Central Italy) aimed at characterising atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from the point of view of the chemical composition and grain size distribution of the particles, the mixing properties of the atmosphere, the frequency and relevance of natural events. The combination of four different analytical techniques (ion chromatography, X-ray fluorescence and ICP for inorganic components, thermo-optical analysis for carbon compounds) yielded sound results in terms of characterisation of the air masses. During the first three months of the study (October-December 2004), many pollution events of natural (sea-salt or desert dust episodes) or anthropogenic nature were identified and characterised. More than 90% of the collected mass was identified by chemical analysis. The central role played by the mixing properties of the lower atmosphere when pollution events occurred was highlighted. The results show a major impact of primary anthropogenic pollutants on traffic stations and a homogeneous distribution of secondary pollutants over the regional area. An evaluation of the sources of PM and an identification of possible reliable tracers were obtained using a chemical fractionation procedure. PMID:17503208

Perrino, C; Canepari, S; Cardarelli, E; Catrambone, M; Sargolini, T

2007-05-15

170

Count on the Growth Pole Strategy for Regional Economic Growth? SpreadBackwash Effects in Greater Central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ke S. and Feser E. Count on the growth-pole strategy for regional economic growth? Spreadbackwash effects in Greater Central China. Regional Studies. This paper investigates spreadbackwash effects associated with non-agricultural gross domestic product and employment growth across 922 cities and counties in Central China between 2000 and 2005. Simultaneous equation estimates find mixed spreadbackwash effects from prefecture and higher-level cities

Shanzi Ke; Edward Feser

2010-01-01

171

Matching from H(-) multicusp source to central region of a 100 MeV compact cyclotron for high current injection.  

PubMed

The way of matching the beam from an external ion source to the central region of the cyclotron CYCIAE-100 is presented in this article. The transverse acceptances of the central region were calculated, which provided the matching ellipse parameter requirements to the injection transport optics design. The optics of the injection line was simulated using TRANSOPTR, which allowed space charge effect calculation, and neutralization was taken into account. PMID:18315261

Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, Tianjue; Lu, Yinlong; Jia, Xianlu; Guan, Fengping; Lin, Yuzheng

2008-02-01

172

Matching from H- multicusp source to central region of a 100 MeV compact cyclotron for high current injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The way of matching the beam from an external ion source to the central region of the cyclotron CYCIAE-100 is presented in this article. The transverse acceptances of the central region were calculated, which provided the matching ellipse parameter requirements to the injection transport optics design. The optics of the injection line was simulated using TRANSOPTR, which allowed space charge effect calculation, and neutralization was taken into account.

Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, Tianjue; Lu, Yinlong; Jia, Xianlu; Guan, Fengping; Lin, Yuzheng

2008-02-01

173

Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved\\u000a to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations\\u000a of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975,

Jie Bai; Xi Chen; Junli Li; Liao Yang; Hui Fang

2011-01-01

174

Sensitivity of superconducting gravimeters in central Europe on variations in regional river and drainage basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As underpinned by various studies in the last years, temporal changes of the Earth's gravity field contain a wealth of information on mass redistribution processes in the Earth's system particularly associated with variations in continental water storage. By combining satellite and terrestrial observations with superconducting gravimeters (SG) a maximum of information can be gained due to the different temporal and spatial sampling. Esp. the cluster of superconducting gravimeters in central Europe is well suited for studies related to spatial and temporal changes in continental water storage. Due to the distribution of SG sites different sensitivities of the instruments are to be expected on changes in the various river and drainage basins which could, if sufficiently pronounced, be deployed to pinpoint areas in which main discrepancies between modelled and actual water storage changes occur and would thus allow us to fine-tune hydrological models. Based on the WaterGap Global Hydrological Model (WGHM), this sensitivity of the SG observations is investigated. One compartment of the WGHM is surface water, thus comprising rivers, flooding areas, and major reservoirs. This contribution is given for the total cell of 0.5 0.5 and not localized, e.g. in a riverbed, therefore the question arises to which extent localization or non-localization of this compartment affects the estimate if the respective surface waters are in the vicinity of 50 km around the SG stations. It can be shown, however, that the lateral distribution of the surface water masses plays only a negligible role for the central European stations meaning distributed surface water masses are an acceptable simplification when estimating hydrological effects. It emerges that variations in water storage in regions outside central Europe produce comparable effects on gravity at all sites and the impact of basins within central Europe is clearly distinguishable among the SG stations.

Kroner, C.; Weise, A.

2011-10-01

175

Dissolved iron distributions in the central region of the Gulf of California, Mxico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report dissolved iron (Fe d) concentrations measured in the upper 600 m in the central region of the Gulf of California (GC) under spring conditions. Our results showed the complex nature of Fe cycling within the GC. In the northern region of the study area, surface waters were relatively enriched, with Fe d concentrations >5.0 nM, which can be partially explained by an atmospheric source. These concentrations are 12 times higher than those found in the adjacent Pacific Ocean. In contrast, Fe d depth profiles in the southern region did not show any Fe d surface enrichment (concentrations <1.5 nM) because of particle scavenging and higher stratification of the water-column. The most southern station in our area of study was the most stratified and showed an excess Fe d and PO 4 with respect to NO 3, conditions favorable for nitrogen fixation. This station also showed the least negative surface value of N* of all stations. However, despite the adequate levels of Fe d and PO 4 at that location, the surface temperature (22.6 C) was probably not high enough for diazotrophs to develop. A slight increase in Fe d levels in intermediate waters at the southern region was associated with the oxygen minimum zone. Finally, our results suggest that remineralization of organic matter is probably the major source of Fe d in subsurface waters of the GC.

Segovia-Zavala, J. A.; Lares, M. L.; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, F.; Tovar-Snchez, A.; Saudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

2010-01-01

176

Asymmetrical regional changes in energy metabolism of the central nervous system during walking.  

PubMed

Cats were injected with 2-deoxy- [14C]glucose (2-DG) while walking on a moving treadmill (experimental group), or sitting down on a stationary one (controls). After a 45-min equilibration period they were anesthetized, and their central nervous system (CNS) was removed rapidly and frozen. The tissue blocks were sectioned serially, and X-ray film exposed to the sections was used for quantitative densitometric analysis by Sokoloff's method. The utilization of glucose in a CNS region (LCMRg) was regarded as a measure of that region's energy metabolic activity and--indirectly--of its functional status. The walking cats exhibited significantly higher LCMRg in many but not all places of the neuraxis, compared to the control group. Also, LCMRg was symmetrical (side to side) in the control group but significantly asymmetrical in certain regions of the CNS in the experimental group. In all but one of these cats the LCMRg was greater in the right side of the gray matter of the cervical spinal cord and in the left visual and motor cortices and caudate nucleus. The finding that the motor cortex and other supraspinal regions become more active during walking suggests they may contribute to the control of locomotion and/or processing of related sensory data. The side to side asymmetry in the spinal cord and hemispheres during walking may be related to the phenomenon of lateral dominance. PMID:3801884

Schwartzman, R J; Eidelberg, E; Alexander, G M

1986-11-19

177

Three-dimensional P-wave Velocity Structure of the Bear Valley Region of Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure of the Bear Valley region of central California is determined by applying a circular ray-tracing technique to 1735 P-wave arrivals from 108 locally recorded earthquakes. Comparison of the results obtained from one-dimensional and laterally varying starting models shows that many of the features in the structure determined are fairly insensitive to the choice of the starting model. Velocities associated with the Gabilan granites southwest of the San Andreas Fault are slightly higher than those in the Franciscan formation to the northeast, and these two features are separated in the southern part of the region by a narrow fault zone with very low velocities. In the southeastern part of the region, where the Gabilan granites do not abut the San Andreas Fault, the low velocities of the fault zone cross over to the southwestern side of the fault. They also appear to extend to depths of at least 15km, thus locally reversing the contrast across the San Andreas Fault that prevails farther to the northwest. In the northwestern part of the region, the low velocities of the fault zone split and follow the surface traces of the San Andreas and Calaveras Faults, but do not appear to extend to depths much deeper than about 6km. There also appears to be a well-defined contrast in structure in the middle of the Santa Clara Valley, suggesting the existence of a fault in the basement of the valley that may be a southern extension of the Sargent Fault into this region. Relocated hypocenters beneath the San Andreas Fault cluster in a zone that dips about 80 southwest and intersects the surface trace of the fault in the southern part of region.

Lin, C.-H.; Roecker, S. W.

178

Bias in the centroid moment tensor for central Asian earthquakes: Evidence from regional surface wave data  

SciTech Connect

Surface waves recorded on the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) station Urumqi (WMQ) are analyzed for 26 centroid moment tensor (CMT) earthquakes located within an epicentral distance of 1300 km. Applying a simple grid search method for source parameter retrieval, I obtain revised estimates of the focal depth, fault strike, and seismic moment (M{sub 0}) from amplitude spectra of Love and Rayleigh waves and compare these estimates with the CMT best double-couple solutions. The comparisons show that residuals are unbiased for focal depth and fault strike, where population spreads are {plus_minus}13 km and {plus_minus}17{degree}, respectively. On the other hand, M{sub 0} estimates are found to be biased, with CMT M{sub 0} larger than regional estimates by an average of 0.27{plus_minus}0.04 log units. The results for focal depth and strike are consistent with previous global and regional studies comparing independent estimates with CMT results. Recent full-waveform modeling studies for central Asian earthquakes support the findings of bias in M{sub 0} estimates. I suggest that causes for M{sub 0} bias may be related to great thicknesses of continental crust in Hindu Kush and Tien Shan regions and to data censoring practices at small magnitudes. M{sub 0}:m{sub b} scaling relationships for central Asian earthquakes show better agreement with western U.S. scaling when M{sub 0} estimates determined in this study are used. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

Patton, H.J. [Geophysics Group, Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

1998-11-01

179

Substantial primary production in the land-remote region of the central and northern Scotia Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scotia Sea area has high productivity relative to the Southern Ocean as a whole, but this displays strong latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Elucidating the extent of these from a single cruise is problematic, given the high variability of bloom timing and location in this region. Therefore, this study used data from transects across the central Scotia Sea in spring, summer and autumn of 2006, 2008 and 2009, combined with satellite data, to obtain a larger-scale appreciation of the latitudinal contrasts in phytoplankton standing stock and primary production across the region. Concentrations of nitrate, phosphate and particularly silicic acid increased towards the south of the transect with the latter showing a step change at the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF). Changes in seasonal nutrient concentrations indicated increasing phytoplankton uptake north of ?57S that peaked at ?53S in the Georgia Basin. Based on seasonal depletions of nitrate relative to phosphate, the highest relative nitrate uptake occurred northwest of South Georgia on the periphery of the Georgia Basin, indicating efficient nitrate use here due to iron-replete conditions. An integrative approach to examine these gradients was with the use of 10-year satellite climatology data. These showed that the lowest mean chlorophyll a (chl-a) values were in the central/northern Scotia Sea, but these were still substantial values, 67% of values within the Georgia Basin bloom. Cruise data on chl-a and on microplankton biomass from cell counts support this finding of substantial biomass in the central Scotia Sea; since these averaged half of values in the iron-fertilised bloom of the Georgia Basin downstream of South Georgia. Given that our transect was nearly 1000 km long and in parts was land remote with low iron concentrations, the relatively high production in the central and northern Scotia Sea is surprising. Iron levels may be maintained here by efficient recycling and irregular injections, possibly for example from dust deposition or shelf-derived inputs from the south. The moderate chl-a concentration across the mid-Scotia Sea and southwest of South Georgia reflect periodic, non-ice-associated blooms that occur in some years and not others. These may provide a connection between the large populations of krill inhabiting the northern and southern fringes of the Scotia Sea.

Whitehouse, M. J.; Atkinson, A.; Korb, R. E.; Venables, H. J.; Pond, D. W.; Gordon, M.

2012-01-01

180

Monitoring variations of inland lakes in the arid region of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inland lakes are the major surface water resource in the arid regions of Central Asia. Therefore, the surface area changes in inland lakes have been a sensitive indicator of climate changes and human activities, and have often been the focus of ecological and environmental research. This study aimed to monitor the changes in surface area of nine major lakes over a 32-year period. The water body was extracted from MSS images from the mid-1970s, TM images from the early 1990s, ETM + images in the late 1990s, and TM images in 2007. The results indicated that the total surface area of these nine lakes had decreased over time to 50.38% of the area, from 91402.06 km2 in 1975 to 46049.23 km2 in 2007. As the surface area of lakes in the western part of Central Asia was larger than that in the eastern part, the shrinking trend of lake area was more significant in the west than in the east. There was a varied reduction of closed lakes in flat regions. The most substantial decrease was in the surface area of closed lakes in flat regions. Most significantly, the area of the Aral Sea was reduced by 75.7% from its original area in 1975. The area of alpine lakes remained relatively stable; the change in surface area was less than 0.7% during the period 1975-2007. The area change in opened lakes with outlets was notably different from the other two types. The area of Zaysan had increased sharply by 5.85%, and that of Bosten had decreased by 9.1%. Sasykkol had hardly any changes in this period. Due to global climate warming, vapor transfer to the south via westerly winds had been blocked, resulting in a decrease of much-needed precipitation in the western parts of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan between 1970 and 2000. The decrease in precipitation and the increase in water consumption for agricultural irrigation resulted in the decrease of river runoff. Consequently, the area of inland lakes in Central Asia shrank over the past 32 years.

Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

2012-06-01

181

A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

La Sala, A. M., Jr.; Doty, G. C.; Pearson, F. J., Jr.

1973-01-01

182

Earthquake relocation in the Central Alborz region of Iran using a non-linear probabilistic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we calculate accurate absolute locations for nearly 3,000 shallow earthquakes (?20 km depth) that occurred from 1996 to 2010 in the Central Alborz region of northern Iran using a non-linear probabilistic relocation algorithm on a local scale. We aim to produce a consistent dataset with a realistic assessment of location errors using probabilistic hypocenter probability density functions. Our results indicate significant improvement in hypocenter locations and far less scattering than in the routine earthquake catalog. According to our results, 816 earthquakes have horizontal uncertainties in the 0.5-3.0 km range, and 981 earthquakes are relocated with focal-depth errors less than 3.0 km, even with a suboptimal network geometry. Earthquake relocated are tightly clustered in the eastern Tehran region and are mainly associated with active faults in the study area (the Mosha and Garmsar faults). Strong historical earthquakes have occurred along the Mosha and Garmsar faults, and the relocated earthquakes along these faults show clear north-dipping structures and align along east-west lineations, consistent with the predominant trend of faults within the study region. After event relocation, all seismicity lies in the upper 20 km of the crust, and no deep seismicity (>20 km depth) has been observed. In many circumstances, the seismicity at depth does not correlate with surface faulting, suggesting that the faulting at depth does not directly offset overlying sediments.

Maleki, Vahid; Shomali, Z. Hossein; Hatami, Mohammad Reza; Pakzad, Mehrdad; Lomax, Anthony

2013-04-01

183

Carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere and precipitation of the Nam Co region, central Tibet.  

PubMed

A continuous air and precipitation sampling for carbonaceous particles was conducted in a field observatory beside Nam Co, Central Tibetan Plateau during July of 2006 through January of 2007. Organic carbon (OC) was the dominant composition of the carbonaceous particles both in the atmosphere (1660 ng/m3) and precipitation (476 ng/g) in this area, while the average elemental carbon (BC) concentrations in the atmosphere and precipitation were only 82 ng/m3 and 8 ng/g, respectively. Very high OC/BC ratio suggested local secondary organic carbon could be a dominant contribution to OC over the Nam Co region, while BC could be mainly originated from Southern Asia, as indicated by trajectory analysis and aerosol optical depth. Comparison between the BC concentrations measured in Lhasa, those at "Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P)" site on the southern slope of the Himalayas, and Nam Co suggested BC in the Nam Co region reflected a background with weak anthropogenic disturbances and the emissions from Lhasa might have little impact on the atmospheric environment here, while the pollutants from the Indo-Gangetic Basin of Southern Asia could be transported to the Nam Co region by both the summer monsoon and the westerly. PMID:21235163

Ming, Jing; Xiao, Cunde; Sun, Junying; Kang, Shichang; Bonasoni, Paolo

2010-01-01

184

Regional tectonic synthesis of central foldbelt and Indus plain of Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

A regional tectonic synthesis based on detailed interpretation of 32 Landsat images, review of literature and maps, and integration of a regional stratigraphic analysis reveals a great deal about the development and distribution of deformational features in Pakistan and indicates a number of oil and gas exploration opportunities that may have been overlooked. It appears that the original shape of the Indian and Eurasian plates and their convergence vector through time controlled the overall pattern of deformation resulting from their collision. The details of plate convergence history, distribution of previously existing structural features, distribution of lithologic units, and their mechanical properties profoundly influence the morphology and architecture of the ranges comprising the Central foldbelt and the effects of the collision in the Indus Plain. In particular, the distribution of low-viscosity units that act as detachment zones (e.g., the Infracambrian evaporite sequence, Cretaceous and Eocene shales and evaporites) control the location of folded thrust belts, thrust duplexes, and passive-roof complexes. Taken together, the tectonic synthesis and regional stratigraphic analysis indicate a wide variety of untested exploration opportunities. These opportunities range from the obvious testing of undrilled structures within productive foldbelts such as the Potwar Plateau and Sulaiman Range to the pursuit of distal folds and the more obscure extension of foldbelts beneath the alluvial cover of the Indus Plain and delta.

Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Dolan, P.

1989-03-01

185

Regional offshore geology of central and western Solomon Islands and Bougainville, Papua New Guinea  

SciTech Connect

The central and western Solomon Islands and the Bougainville regions are parts of a complex island-arc system that includes an intra-arc basin and remnants of both forearc and back-arc depositional wedges. These features formed in response to episodic Cenozoic tectonism along the convergent boundary between the Pacific and Australia-India plates. Presumed early Tertiary southwest-directed subduction of the Pacific plate and associated arc magmatism were curtailed by impingement of the leading edge of the Ontong Java Plateau. Aprons of back-arc and forearc sediment were derived from highstanding parts of the arc during the late Oligocene and early Miocene. Late Tertiary arc-polarity reversal and northeastward-directed subduction of the Woodlark spreading system caused a renewal of island-arc magmatism that completed the construction of the Central Solomons Trough as an enclosed intra-arc basin. Interpretations of multichannel profiles from 1982 and 1984 CCOP/SOPAC Tripartite Cruises of the research vessel R/V S.P. Lee indicate that the Central Solomons Trough is a composite intra-arc basin containing as much as 5.5 km of late Oligocene(.) and younger sedimentary rocks. As many as five lenticular seismic-stratigraphic units can be identified on the basis of unconformities and abrupt velocity changes. Late Miocene and younger folds and faults deform the northeast and southwest flanks of the basin. Profiles across the Kilinailau Trench show Ontong Java Plateau rocks covered by 2-4 km of trench sediment. The inner trench wall consists of folded, upfaulted, and rotated blocks of trench and forearc strata. The deep-water basin northwest of Bougainville is a southeastward extension of the New Ireland forearc basin, the southern margin of which is formed by a subsided part of the early Cenozoic arc. There, Oligocene(.) and younger basin strata, as much as 7 km thick, are deformed by pre-Pliocene faults and folds.

Vedder, J.G.; Colwell, J.B.; Bruns, T.R.; Cooper, A.K.

1986-07-01

186

Present-Day Kinematics of the Central Mediterranean Plate Boundary Region from Large GPS Network Analysis Using the Ambizap Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large, recent increase of continuous GPS (CGPS) stations in the Central Mediterranean plate boundary zone offers the opportunity to study in detail the present-day kinematics of this actively deforming region. CGPS data from scientific and commercial networks in the Italian region is now available from more than 350 stations, including more than 130 from the RING network deployed by

E. D'Anastasio; N. D'Agostino; A. Avallone; G. Blewitt

2008-01-01

187

Assessing the Capability of a Regional-Scale Weather Model to Simulate Extreme Precipitation Patterns and Flooding in Central Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regional-scale weather model is used to determine the potential for flood forecasting based on model- predicted rainfall. Extreme precipitation and flooding events are a significant concern in central Texas, due to both the high occurrence and severity of flooding in the area. However, many current regional prediction models do not provide sufficient accuracy at the watershed scale necessary for

Marla R. Knebl Lowrey; Zong-Liang Yang

2008-01-01

188

The injection efficiency measurement and analysis for central region model cyclotron.  

PubMed

At the China Institute of Atomic Energy, a central region model cyclotron has been constructed, which is dedicated for various experimental verifications to study beam properties. The design features of the ion source and injection line have already been described in other papers. We shall report here the results of the initial beam tests. A wire scanner is employed in the injection line to measure beam transverse sizes and these data can be used to fit the phase plane parameters after the ion source. Based on the beam tests results, the ion source built in 2003 has been improved recently. The improvement is mainly due to the repair of the multicusp field. From the ion source to the exit of the inflector, a transmission efficiency of 93% has been obtained for a continuous and low current input beam. It is also described here the experimental arrangement and the results. PMID:20192449

Yao, Hongjuan; Li, Zhenguo; Ge, Tao; Wu, Longcheng; Guan, Fengping; Lv, Yinlong; Wang, Zhenhui; Liu, Gengshou; Zhang, Tianjue; Cai, Hongru

2010-02-01

189

The injection efficiency measurement and analysis for central region model cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the China Institute of Atomic Energy, a central region model cyclotron has been constructed, which is dedicated for various experimental verifications to study beam properties. The design features of the ion source and injection line have already been described in other papers. We shall report here the results of the initial beam tests. A wire scanner is employed in the injection line to measure beam transverse sizes and these data can be used to fit the phase plane parameters after the ion source. Based on the beam tests results, the ion source built in 2003 has been improved recently. The improvement is mainly due to the repair of the multicusp field. From the ion source to the exit of the inflector, a transmission efficiency of 93% has been obtained for a continuous and low current input beam. It is also described here the experimental arrangement and the results.

Yao, Hongjuan; Li, Zhenguo; Ge, Tao; Wu, Longcheng; Guan, Fengping; Lv, Yinlong; Wang, Zhenhui; Liu, Gengshou; Zhang, Tianjue; Cai, Hongru

2010-02-01

190

The injection efficiency measurement and analysis for central region model cyclotron  

SciTech Connect

At the China Institute of Atomic Energy, a central region model cyclotron has been constructed, which is dedicated for various experimental verifications to study beam properties. The design features of the ion source and injection line have already been described in other papers. We shall report here the results of the initial beam tests. A wire scanner is employed in the injection line to measure beam transverse sizes and these data can be used to fit the phase plane parameters after the ion source. Based on the beam tests results, the ion source built in 2003 has been improved recently. The improvement is mainly due to the repair of the multicusp field. From the ion source to the exit of the inflector, a transmission efficiency of 93% has been obtained for a continuous and low current input beam. It is also described here the experimental arrangement and the results.

Yao Hongjuan; Li Zhenguo; Ge Tao; Wu Longcheng; Guan Fengping; Lv Yinlong; Wang Zhenhui; Liu Gengshou; Zhang Tianjue; Cai Hongru [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

2010-02-15

191

Federally owned coal and Federal lands in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed five coals beds or coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions for the National Coal Resource Assessment: the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay coal zone, the Pond Creek coal zone, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. The assessment produced stratigraphic and geochemical databases and digital coal maps, or models, which characterized the coal beds and coal zones. Using the assessment models, the USGS estimated original and remaining (unmined) resources for these coal beds or zones. The Appalachian Basin assessment was conducted in collaboration with the State geological surveys of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Kentucky, and Virginia. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Susan J. Tewalt

2002-02-01

192

The Three-dimensional Structure of a Massive Gas Disk in the Galactic Central Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using high-resolution, three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, we investigate the structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the central 100 pc region in galaxies, taking into account the self-gravity of the gas, radiative cooling from 10 to 108 K, and energy feedback from supernovae. Similar to the previous two-dimensional results produced by Wada and Norman, we find that a gravitationally and thermally unstable ISM evolves, in a self-stabilizing manner, into a quasi-stable thin disk, which is characterized by a network of cold (T<100 K) dense clumps and filaments, and a hot (T>106 K) diffuse medium. Supernova explosions blow the diffuse gases from the disk, and as a result, a quasi-steady diffuse halo, which is not uniform but has a plumelike structure, is formed. The density probability distribution function in a quasi-steady state is well fitted by a lognormal function over about 7 orders of magnitude.

Wada, Keiichi

2001-09-01

193

Regional Expression of MTG Genes in the Developing Mouse Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Myeloid translocation gene (MTG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that are highly conserved across species. We studied the expression of three members of this gene family, MTGR1, MTG8, and MTG16 in developing mouse central nervous system by in situ hybridization. All of these genes are detected as early as embryonic day 11.5. Because these genes are known to be induced by proneural genes during neurogenesis, we analyzed the expression of MTG genes in relation to two proneural genes, Neurog2 (also known as Ngn2 or Neurogenin 2) and Ascl1 (also known as Mash1). While MTGR1 are generally expressed in regions that also express Neurog2, MTG8 and MTG16 expression is associated more tightly with that of Ascl1-expressing neural progenitor cells. These results suggest the possibility that expression of MTG genes is differentially controlled by specific proneural genes during neurogenesis.

Alishahi, Amin; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Nakagawa, Yasushi

2009-01-01

194

Regional expression of MTG genes in the developing mouse central nervous system.  

PubMed

Myeloid translocation gene (MTG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that are highly conserved across species. We studied the expression of three members of this gene family, MTGR1, MTG8, and MTG16 in developing mouse central nervous system by in situ hybridization. All of these genes are detected as early as embryonic day 11.5. Because these genes are known to be induced by proneural genes during neurogenesis, we analyzed the expression of MTG genes in relation to two proneural genes, Neurog2 (also known as Ngn2 or Neurogenin 2) and Ascl1 (also known as Mash1). While MTGR1 are generally expressed in regions that also express Neurog2, MTG8 and MTG16 expression is associated more tightly with that of Ascl1-expressing neural progenitor cells. These results suggest the possibility that expression of MTG genes is differentially controlled by specific proneural genes during neurogenesis. PMID:19618476

Alishahi, Amin; Koyano-Nakagawa, Naoko; Nakagawa, Yasushi

2009-08-01

195

Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" in two distinct intervals (15,90013,800 and 12,7009700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Nia-like conditions).

Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

2008-01-01

196

Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China  

SciTech Connect

In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5 nuclear explosions at station AAK in Kyrgyzstan. The explosions are from the Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and Lop Nor, China. The earthquakes are mostly from northwest China. They have also evaluated a single suspected chemical explosion. Event magnitudes (m{sub b}) range between 2.5 and 6.5 and maximum event-station distance is about 1,700 km. Using these measurements the authors formed phase, spectral, cross-spectral, short-period/long-period, and long-period ratios to test many possible event discriminants. All ratios were corrected for distance effects before forming ratio-versus-magnitude discrimination plots. The authors found that all five classes of these discriminants are useful for separating earthquakes from explosions in central Asia, provided the right combinations of frequency bands and phases are selected. Results are described.

Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Randall, G.E.

1996-09-01

197

The CQU Regional Seismic Network and applications to underground mining in Central Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Queensland University (CQU) Regional Seismic Network is made up of an array of six short-period seismometer and two strong motion accelerometer stations. The array has an aperture of about 50 km. CQU is able to resolve epicentral co-ordinates to about 2 kilometres, with a sample rate of 100 per second, and an absolute time accuracy of 100 milliseconds. This resolution is achieved by using triaxial seismometers which allow better secondary phase identification of shear, converted and depth phases. The network covers an area of above average seismic risk in continental Australia. The area has been affected in 1918 by one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded along the eastern seaboard of Australia. The network also monitors a large number of blasts carried out by the coal mines and hard rock, quarries in the region, and these are being used in a long-term study to determine the structure of the Crust and Upper Mantle in Central Queensland. Techniques for monitoring rockbursts and longwall caving in mines are similar, to those used for monitoring local earthquakes. CQU has successfully used a single triaxial seismometer to record seismic events produced by the strata failure and roof falls of a longwall coal mine. The case history presented shows that the initial fall under massive roof conditions appears to be predicted by a simple trend plot of microseismic event magnitude and longwall production rate. Extension of this technique to a closely spaced array of both surface and in-seam triaxial seismometers is required for a more detailed appraisal to be undertaken. Adequate resolution of event location requires a higher, sample rate (up to 1000 Hz) and more accurate timing (about 1 millisecond) than for earthquake monitoring. An appropriate stratigraphic model is also required, as is the case for earthquake location.

McKavanagh, Byron; Boreham, Bruce; McCue, Kevin; Gibson, Gary; Hafner, Jennifer; Klenowski, George

1995-10-01

198

Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).  

PubMed

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

Gonzlez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simn, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpci

2012-11-09

199

Regional water cycle change during the PETM from new records in central Utah and CCSM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic and lithological data from stratigraphic sections in central Utah provide new insight into the evolution of climate in this region during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, a ~200 kyr pulse of carbon buildup in Earth's atmosphere and global warming. Within the pedogenically modified floodplain clastic rocks of the North Horn Fm., this event is marked by an abrupt negative carbon isotope excursion and a notable positive shift in oxygen isotope ratios of paleosol carbonate nodules. The magnitude of the changes in central Utah carbonate ?13C and ?18O are relatively small and large, respectively, in comparison with equivalent records from the Bighorn Basin (WY) some 500 km to the NNE. These patterns are evaluated in the context of simulations of early Paleogene warm climates made using the NCAR CCSM1.4 fully coupled climate model. They are found to be consistent with the model's predicted N-S gradient in hydroclimatological response to greenhouse forcing, which would have driven a decrease in plant photosynthetic 13C fractionation due to changes in water availability and an increase in evaporative enrichment of soil water ?18O relative to changes at the Wyoming site. The termination of the PETM in the Utah section, as defined by carbonate ?13C values, is marked by several meters of braided channel sandstones, perhaps signifying the renewed penetration of moisture into the region and enhanced erosion on a partially de-vegitated landscape. While coupled climate model simulations appear to be consistent with the spatial gradients in PETM hydroclimatology documented by the proxy data, our comparison highlights the need for transient climate model simulations of deep-time paleoclimate events to further investigate model performance relative to records of the temporal component of climate change.

Bowen, G. J.; Huber, M.; Bowen, B. B.

2007-12-01

200

Separating C Stars from Dust in the Central Region of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1241  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1241 presents a 1.5 kpc large circumnuclear ring (CNR) of star formation embracing a small bar plus leading arms. Those structures are Pa? emitters but barely seen in H?. It also presents stellar trailing arms inside the CNR. Gemini and HST imagery allow the construction of high-resolution (V-H) and (J-Ks) color maps, as well as a (J-Ks) versus K color-magnitude diagram of this complex region. The CNR is heavily obscured in V, but a fairly transparent window appears in the direction of the nucleus. Nonetheless, the nucleus presents a (J-Ks) color that is redder than the CNR. The CNR is composed of extremely young H II regions still enshrouded in their dust cocoons. However, the nuclear (J-Ks) color cannot be explained in this manner. Therefore, we propose the contribution of C stars as the most feasible mechanism for explaining the colors. If the nuclear stellar population is comparable to that of the Large Magellanic Cloud bar, 500 C stars and 25,000 asymptotic giant branch O-rich stars inside 50 pc may reproduce the observed colors. C stars release enriched material to the nuclear environment, probably fueling the central engine of this Seyfert 2 galaxy during the lifetime of stars with masses in the range 2 Msolarcentral potential might also explain the systematically observed increased strength of the optical CN bands in Seyfert 2 galaxies and is consistent with the significant contribution of intermediate age stars to the optical continuum of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei.

Dottori, Horacio; Daz, Rubn J.; Carranza, Gustavo; Lpari, Sebastin; Santos, Joo, Jr.

2005-08-01

201

Prevalence and distribution of children with congenital heart diseases in the central Anatolian region, Turkey.  

PubMed

Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most frequent malformation at birth. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of congenital heart disease, their different types, and the detection rate among children in the central Anatolian region in Turkey. The study was conducted during an eight-year period (March 1995-December 2002). The prevalence of CHD in a large tertiary care hospital in the central Anatolian region in Turkey was studied. The diagnosis of a structural defect was based on echocardiographic study. The following age groups were considered: neonates, infants and toddlers, preschool children, schoolchildren, and adolescents. In the study period, 1,693 children were found to have CHD; 1253 patients were neonates and infants. Total prevalence of CHD over the study period was 7.77 per 1000 live-born. The prevalence increased from 6.35 to 9.65 per 1000 live births between 1995 and 2002 (p < 0.05). The average age at diagnosis was 2.2 +/- 3.64 years (1 day to 18 years, median 5 months). There were 863 (51%) boys and 830 (49%) girls, with a male/female ratio of 1:1. Isolated ventricular septal defect (32.6%) was the most frequent acyanotic anomaly, and tetralogy of Fallot (5.8%) was the most frequent cyanotic anomaly. The commonest non-cardiac anomalies with CHD were musculoskeletal anomalies. Down syndrome was determined in 83 patients (78.3%) from all syndromic CHD cases. Congenital heart disease is a very significant health problem. It requires urgent measures in terms of organization of early diagnosis and proper management. The prevalence rate is comparable to that of similar developed countries. Increasing incidence of CHD might be attributed to more diagnoses with new technologic development or it may indicate a real increase in the defects. PMID:17172068

Ba?pinar, Osman; Karaaslan, Sevim; Oran, Blent; Baysal, Tamer; Elmaci, A Midhat; Yorulmaz, Alaaddin

202

Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)  

PubMed Central

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a contact zone between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

Gonzalez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simon, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpcio

2012-01-01

203

Community Velocity Model for the New Madrid Region, Central U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1811-1812, a series of three major earthquakes struck the Central United States in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Having magnitudes near 7.5 and being located within the relatively stable interior of the North American Continent, these events produced widespread strong shaking. If these events were to occur today, there would be substantial devastation to people, buildings and transportation and communication infrastructure. To better understand this threat and in preparation for the upcoming bicentennial, the US Geological Survey is planning to produce and support sophisticated numerical simulations of earthquake rupture and seismic wave propagation due to a repeat of these events. To kick off this effort, the USGS began the development and construction of a community seismic velocity model for use in these numerical simulations. We have collected existing research regarding the p- and s-wave velocities, impedance contrasts and densities of the lithosphere in the New Madrid region and synthesized these results into a single model that can be used in earthquake simulations. We have identified areas of missing or incomplete information for further study. The region covers an area of approximately 600,000 km2 from Little Rock, Arkansas across to Nashville Tennessee, up to St Louis, Missouri. The model has currently been gridded at 3 km lateral resolution and from 5-m resolution near the surface to 10-km resolution at 100 km depth. Less but still substantial uncertainty exists for the Mississippi Embayment where a majority of the research has been done. Newer regional models such as those by van der Lee and others and Liang and Langston have improved regional resolution beyond a 1-dimensional model, but for ground motion simulations, greater resolution outside the Embayment is desired.

Boyd, O. S.

2008-12-01

204

The Butana Region of Central Sudan: Sahara Craton or Arabian-Nubian Shield?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Butana region lies 250 km south east of Khartoum and is one of the few exposures of Proterozoic basement in Central Sudan. The area is characterized by a flat surface and isolated basement exposures. Various authors have allocated the region to part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield or to part of the reworked Sahara Craton. Although the area is indeed located in the rough region of this transition, little information exists on the details of the basement geology in Butana. Field work indicates that the geology of the study area is similar to the other parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The area consists of low-grade metavolcanic rocks (arc assemblage), pre- and syn-tectonic granitic intrusions. In particular the presence of serpentinites, ophiolitic metagabbro and high-grade metamorphic rocks may identify it as part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The main metamorphic foliation trend in the low-grade rocks is northeast-southwest with steep foliation plains and sub-horizontal lineation. In the high-grade rocks, at least three deformation phases were observed in the field. D1 associates with northeast-southwest foliation planes and D2 associates with high temperature folding mechanism which gave the high-grade rocks domal pattern. While D3 is a faulting phase with brittle features. The peak metamorphism most probably occurred after the D2 as indicated by the migmatic features. Geochronological work is in progress in order to identify uniquely if the region should be allocated to the Arabian-Nubian Shield or the Sahara Craton.

Abu-Alam, T.; Stwe, K.

2012-04-01

205

Crop phenology feedback on climate over central US in a regional climate model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moisture and CO2 fluxes over cropland represent local climate forcing and an important component of atmospheric energy and CO2 budgets. Since observed fluxes, especially for CO2, are rarely available over extensive areas the fluxes are mainly estimated by climate models. The carbon sequestration and water consumption by crops are only crudely represented in the models. For example, most climate models use climatological or static crop growth and development that do not change from year to year, indistinguishable between flood and drought years. To improve the moisture and CO2 fluxes (i.e., photosynthesis) from crops we coupled crop models (CERES for corn and CropGro for soybean) with the regional model (MM5) along with the land surface model (LSM). This crop-climate coupled model with interactive crop phenology can simulate interannual variations in CO2 and water fluxes from the surface. The coupled model was used to simulate CO2 and moisture fluxes in the past couple of growing seasons in the central U.S. Results were compared with available CO2 flux observations at some AmeriFlux sites. It is found that the coupled model gives more realistic seasonal accumulation of CO2 fluxes and that the dynamic crop development in the coupled model has a strong feedback on regional precipitation. The typical climate models using static crop phenology significantly overestimate CO2 fluxes during early growing season because of positive biases in specifying leaf area index.

Pan, Z.; Takle, E.; Xue, L.; Segal, M.

2004-12-01

206

Functional Importance of Covalent Homodimer of Reelin Protein Linked via Its Central Region*  

PubMed Central

Reelin is a 3461-residue secreted glycoprotein that plays a critical role in brain development through its action on target neurons. Although it is known that functional reelin protein exists as multimer formed by interchain disulfide bond(s) as well as through non-covalent interactions, the chemical nature of the multimer assembly has been elusive. In the present study, we identified, among 122 cysteines present in full-length reelin, the single critical cysteine residue (Cys2101) responsible for the covalent multimerization. C2101A mutant reelin failed to assemble into disulfide-bonded multimers, whereas it still exhibited non-covalently associated high molecular weight oligomeric states in solution. Detailed analysis of tryptic fragments produced from the purified reelin proteins revealed that the minimum unit of the multimer is a homodimeric reelin linked via Cys2101 present in the central region and that this cysteine does not connect to the N-terminal region of reelin, which had been postulated as the primary oligomerization domain. A surface plasmon resonance binding assay confirmed that C2101A mutant reelin retained binding capability toward two neuronal receptors apolipoprotein E receptor 2 and very low density lipoprotein receptor. However, it failed to show signaling activity in the assay using the cultured neurons. These results indicate that an intact higher order architecture of reelin multimer maintained by both Cys2101-mediated homodimerization and other non-covalent association present elsewhere in the reelin primary structure are essential for exerting its full biological activity.

Yasui, Norihisa; Kitago, Yu; Beppu, Ayako; Kohno, Takao; Morishita, Shunsuke; Gomi, Hiroki; Nagae, Masamichi; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Takagi, Junichi

2011-01-01

207

VLA H53? Observations of the Central Region of the Super Star Cluster Galaxy NGC 5253  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations in the H53? line and radio continuum at 43 GHz carried out with the VLA in the D configuration (2" angular resolution) toward the starburst galaxy NGC 5253. VLA archival data have been reprocessed to produce a uniform set of 2, 1.3, and 0.7 cm high angular (0.2''0.1'') radio continuum images. The radio recombination line (RRL) H53?, a previously reported measurement of the H92? RRL flux density, and the reprocessed high angular resolution radio continuum flux densities have been modeled using a collection of H II regions. Based on the models, the ionized gas in the nuclear source has an electron density of ~6104 cm-3 and a volume filling factor of 0.05. A Lyman continuum photon production rate of 21052 s-1 is necessary to sustain the ionization in the nuclear region. The number of required O7 stars in the central 1.5 pc of the supernebula is ~2000. The H53? velocity gradient (10 km s-1 arcsec-1) implies a dynamical mass of ~3105 Msolar this mass suggests that the supernebula is confined by gravity.

Rodrguez-Rico, C. A.; Goss, W. M.; Turner, J. L.; Gmez, Y.

2007-11-01

208

Health in the central and eastern countries of the WHO European Region: an overview.  

PubMed

The enormous social, political and economic changes that began in the CCEE/NIS in the late 1980s included the revelation and public discussion of a widening health gap between these countries and the other Member States of the European Region. The continuing economic problems and their effects on health increase the urgency of the need for assistance from the international community. Diverging trends in life expectancy became evident in the mid-1970s, and the gap continued to widen in the 1980s for all major causes of death, particularly cardiovascular diseases. The situation is worse in the NIS than in the CCEE, and worst in the central Asian countries. In 1990, the worst infant mortality rate in these countries was eight times the best rate elsewhere in the Region. Non-mortality data, while patchy, confirm the indications given by mortality data. There is no single reason for the health gap, but contributory factors include the increasing prevalence of major risk factors in lifestyles and the environment, and the low efficiency and effectiveness of health care systems. The current situation and short-term prospects are mixed, but the negative trends in mortality and morbidity patterns are likely to continue for some time. While the worst health problems of the transition period in the CCEE/NIS could largely have been avoided, there is no doubt that economizing on health today will exact large costs tomorrow. PMID:8017072

Nanda, A; Nossikov, A; Prokhorskas, R; Shabanah, M H

1993-01-01

209

An essential RNA element resides in a central region of hepatitis E virus ORF2.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (genus Hepevirus, family Hepeviridae) is one of the most important causes of acute hepatitis in adults, particularly among pregnant women, throughout Asia and Africa where mortality rates can be 20-30?%. Hepatitis E virus has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome that contains three translated ORFs. The two 3' ORFs are translated from a subgenomic RNA. Functional RNA elements have been identified in and adjacent to the genomic 5' and 3' UTRs and in and around the intergenic region. Here we describe an additional RNA element that is located in a central region of ORF2. The RNA element is predicted to fold into two highly conserved stem-loop structures, ISL1 and ISL2. Mutations that disrupt the predicted structures, without altering the encoded amino acid sequence, result in a drastic reduction in capsid protein synthesis. This indicates that the RNA element plays an important role in one of the early steps of virus replication. The structures were further investigated using a replicon that expresses Gaussia luciferase in place of the capsid protein. Single mutations in ISL2 severely reduced luciferase expression, but a pair of compensatory mutations that were predicted to restore the ISL2 structure, restored luciferase expression to near-WT levels, thus lending experimental support to the predicted structure. Nonetheless the precise role of the ISL1+ISL2 element remains unknown. PMID:23515023

Emerson, Suzanne U; Nguyen, Hanh T; Torian, Udana; Mather, Karly; Firth, Andrew E

2013-03-20

210

Aeromagnetic and Gravity Data Reveal Crustal Structure and Tectonic History of the Central Transantarctic Mountains Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near complete coverage of the East Antarctic shield by ice hampers geological study of the crustal architecture important for understanding global tectonic and climate history. Limited exposures in the central Transantarctic Mountains, however, show that Archean and Proterozoic rocks of the shield as well as Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic sedimentary successions were deformed during oblique convergence associated with Gondwana amalgamation. Subsequently, the area was overprinted by Jurassic magmatism and Cenozoic uplift. To extend the known geology of the region to ice-covered areas, we conducted a draped aeromagnetic survey flown by helicopters over the Transantarctic Mountains and by fixed-wing aircraft over the adjacent polar plateau. We flew >32,000 line km covering an area of nearly 60,000 km2 at an average altitude of 600 m (average line spacing 2.5 km over most areas and 1.25 km over basement rocks exposed in the Miller and Geologists ranges). Additional lines flown to true north, south and west extended preliminary coverage and tied with existing surveys. Broad, moderate amplitude magnetic highs and lows over the ice-covered plateau resemble those inferred for Precambrian shield provinces to the north, suggesting a similar origin. Additionally, seismic tomographic models and a ground-based gravity profile show that the region is underlain by thick, cold lithosphere. Exposed high-grade metamorphic rocks, representing lower crust exhumed from 25-30 km depth during the Ross orogeny, show variable magnetic anomalies, with pronounced central highs and a linear, SE-trending corrugated fabric that correlates with ductile shear structures and regional folds. The magnetic highs correlate with retrogressed mafic eclogites in exposed layered gneiss and are in line with trends of high-amplitude magnetic highs and lows over the adjacent polar plateau. The parallelism of these anomaly trends with those farther to the west suggests that rock types exposed in the surveyed ranges extend beneath the polar plateau. Outboard lower Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks show uniformly quiet magnetic character, whereas Jurassic Ferrar sills and inferred dike swarms yield magnetic highs. Distinctive magnetic lows are associated with exposed Ross-age granitic plutons and indicate several large bodies hidden beneath the ice. A prominent thrust system exposed north of Nimrod Glacier, which places Neoproterozoic-Cambrian platform rocks upon Cambrian-Ordovician molasse deposits, can be traced magnetically several 10's of km to the south, including places previously mapped erroneously as an unconformity boundary.

Goodge, J.; Finn, C.; Damaske, D.; Abraham, J.; Moeller, H.; Anderson, E.; Roland, N.; Goldmann, F.; Braddock, P.; Rieser, M.

2004-12-01

211

Geochemical analyses of crustal fluids in forearc regions in central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of this study is to contribute to better understanding of fluid processes occurring in subduction zones with a comprehensive framework involving slab-derived fluids to near-surface fluids such as seawater, meteoric water and hot spring waters. While several studies estimated the contribution of slab-derived fluids to island-arc magmatism (e.g., Nakamura et al., 2008), in non-volcanic or forearc regions, their involvements have been hardly found. One exception, however, could be the so-called 'Arima-type brine', highly carbonated, non-volcanogenic hot springs with extremely high salinity, welling up in southwest Japan. Our previous analytical research on these hot springs identified and characterized the concentrated 'source' brine in a robust multi-elemental/isotopic space, and so far, supports the idea that NaCl-CO2-rich aqueous fluids, which are possibly slab-derived fluids originated from subducting oceanic crusts, might have uprisen from a deep part of the forearc region and might supply solutes, gases and water itself to the brine. Combined with numerically estimated chemical and isotopic characteristics of slab-derived fluids, the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70873 of the observed source brine is close to the predicted value of the Philippine Sea slab-derived fluid, i.e., 0.709492, and distinct from that of the Pacific slab-derived fluid, i.e., 0.704762 (calculated values are taken from Nakamura et al., 2008). Furthermore, our numerical model to calculate hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of dehydrated fluids also suggests that their isotopic ratios become close to observationally estimated values of the Arima-type brine at about 50 km depth, which coincides with the depth of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the studied area. Now we extend our research area through central Japan, where two different slabs have been subducting. Along the Median Tectonic Line, which divides the adjacent forearc region in two, there are several non-volcanogenic hot springs, some of which are thought to be the Arima-type brine. Therefore one could expect detection of two different slab-derived fluids. Our aim is to observe special variations in chemical and isotopic nature of non-volcanogenic hot springs, especially in Sr, Pb and Nd isotopes and concentrations of REEs, and to discuss the possible involvement of two different slab-derived fluids in central Japan.

Kusuda, C.; Iwamori, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, M.; Takahashi, H. A.; Ohwada, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Tanimizu, M.; Nagaishi, K.

2010-12-01

212

A SEARCH FOR RR LYRAE VARIABLES IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF M54  

SciTech Connect

We have analyzed archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations of the central region of the globular cluster M54. The 12 irregularly timed observations (6 F555W, 6 F814W) were reduced using the HSTphot stellar photometry package. Our statistical analysis of the HSTphot photometry yielded 50 variable stars that are likely RR Lyrae candidates. These candidates were missed by previous ground-based searches for RR Lyraes due to the extreme crowding in the core of M54. We performed two checks on our sample of RR Lyrae candidates to determine how different they were from the other variable candidates. The first test was a numerical analysis comparing the ratio of variable candidates to the total number of stars within the blue horizontal branch, the RR Lyrae region, and the red giant branch. We found ratios of 0.61%, 13%, and 1.1% in these regions, respectively. Our next test was a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, which allowed us to find out how different our 50 RR Lyrae candidates were from the 50 brightest other variable candidates. According to the K-S test, there is only a 0.0004% probability that these two populations are similar, indicating that our RR Lyrae candidates do indeed exhibit some real fluctuation in their brightness. We sampled the light curves of confirmed RR Lyrae light curves to simulate the HST observing conditions and found that a signature of variability in 2911 out of the 4000 (72%) generated 'stars'. We estimate that there maybe as many as 19 more RR Lyrae candidates that were undetected in the WFPC2 field of view. The presence of additional RR Lyraes has implications into the current Oosterhoff classification for the cluster.

Montiel, Edward J. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mighell, Kenneth J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2010-11-15

213

THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE NEARBY SEYFERT 2 GALAXY NGC 4945: A PAIR OF SPIRALS  

SciTech Connect

NGC 4945 is a Seyfert 2 galaxy at a distance of 3.82 Mpc. Its relative proximity has permitted a detailed Submillimeter Array study of the circumnuclear molecular gas in a galaxy exhibiting an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Based on an analysis of the high-resolution velocity field of the central region (20'' x 20'', 1'' = 19 pc), we demonstrate that the S-shaped structure of the isovelocity contours is well reproduced by the numerical results of a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation. In particular, the velocity structure is represented by the bending produced by a shock along the spiral density waves, which are excited at the outer-inner Lindblad resonance (OILR) by a fast rotating bar. The simulated density map reveals a pair of tightly wound spirals in the center which pass through most of the ring-like (claimed to be a circumnuclear starburst ring by other authors) high-intensity region in the observations as well as intersect several Pa{alpha} emission line knots located outside the ring-like region. The calculated mass inflow rate at a scale of 50 pc is about three times the inferred mass accretion rate of the AGNs of NGC 4945. We find that self-gravity of the gas is important and should be included in our model for NGC 4945. The model is compared with the gas orbit model discussed in Lim et al., and it is shown that the hydrodynamic model provides a better match to the observed position-velocity diagram and, hence, provides a more reliable prediction of the OILR position.

Lin, Lien-Hsuan; Taam, Ronald E.; Lim, J. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yen, David C. C. [Department of Mathematics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei 24205, Taiwan (China); Muller, S. [Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden)

2011-04-10

214

Flat vs. Normal subduction, Central Chile: insights from regional seismic tomography and rock type modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Chilean subduction zone (27-35S) is host to a multitude of unexplained phenomena, all likely linked to one another. Here, the 35 Ma oceanic Nazca plate is subducting beneath South America with a well developed, highly seismic flat slab, very well correlated with the subducting Juan Fernandez seamount Ridge (JFR) track, and also with the absence of volcanism at the surface. The upper plate, currently under compression, is composed of a series of accreted terranes of various origins and ages. Although no general consensus on the formation of this flat slab has been yet achieved, there may have been influence of overthickened oceanic crust, delayed eclogitization and consequent fluid retain within the slab, and slab suction due to the high convergence rate with the thick Rio de Plata craton. Therefore, the main questions we address are: Does the slab dehydrate along the flat subducting segment? If so, how hydrated is the slab, at what depth does slab dehydration occur, where are the fluids transported to, and where are they stored? Is magmatism still active beneath the now inactive arc? Are accreted terranes and suture zones important attributes of this subduction zone? Do they possess their own mantle entities? To answer these questions, we analyzed recorded local seismicity and performed regional 3D seismic tomography for Vp and Vs. Combining seismic tomography with 2D instantaneous thermo-mechanical modeling for the regions of flat and normal subduction, we predict rock compositions for these two regions based on published mineral and rock elastic properties. Here, we present a comparison between the normal subduction zone to the south, reflecting typical and expected features, and the flat slab region to the north, exhibiting heterogeneities. Our results agree with other studies for a dry and cold continental mantle above the flat slab. We distinguish the Cuyania terrane with overthickened crust and/or abnormal mantle beneath it. We notice that the inactive volcanic arc crust carries an ongoing thermal signature of past magmatism with high fluid content. The downdip extent of the interface zone has seismic properties indicative of fluid saturation. The aftershock region of the Punitaqui slab earthquake (z=70 km, Mw 7.1) as well as the mantle wedge corner above the flat slab are two areas of anomalous seismic properties (particularly pronounced directly above the Punitaqui earthquake), which are unexplained by normal rock compositions or temperature variations. In addition, we observe a double seismic zone (DSZ) along the JFR track and the occurrence of a reactivated fault plane at intermediate-depth following a mainshock event.

Marot, Marianne; Monfret, Tony; Gerbault, Muriel; Nolet, Guust; Ranalli, Giorgio; Pardo, Mario

2013-04-01

215

Numerical study of local\\/regional atmospheric changes caused by a large solar central receiver power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional, vertical cross section, numerical atmospheric mososcale model has been applied to study the potential local\\/regional atmospheric effects of the installation of a 100 MW\\/sub e\\/ solar thermal central receiver power plant at Barstow, California. Such a plant consists of heliostats (mirrors) which cover a portion of ground surface and reflect sunlight onto a central receiving tower. The model

Chandrakant M. Bhumralkar; Arthur J. Slemmons; Kenneth C. Nitz

1981-01-01

216

Crustal shaping of high frequency ground motion in the Washington-Oregon, northern and central California regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large data sets of vertical and horizontal seismograms from the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network, Northern California Seismic Network, and Berkeley Digital Seismic Network were used to study the high frequency (0.25-16 Hz) ground motion characteristics in Washington-Oregon, northern, and central California. I have split the data set of central California into eastern and western parts to investigate regional variations of

Ali Fatehi

2006-01-01

217

Numerical modeling of neotectonic movements and state of stresses in the central Seismic Gap region, Garhwal Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents finite element modeling (FEM) to simulate the present-day stress field and crustal deformation using NE-SW\\u000a structural section in the central Seismic Gap region of the Garhwal Himalaya. Our study deals with the effect of geometrical\\u000a characteristics and rock layer parameters on the upper crust. Modeling results show that two types of tectonic regimes developed\\u000a in the central

Ganesh Raj Joshi; Daigoro Hayashi

2008-01-01

218

Geologic framework of a transect of the central Brooks Range: regional relations and an alternative to the Endicott Mountains allochthon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper evaluates the geologic framework and tectonic development of the central Brooks Range based on a transect through the range and Arctic foothills. A geologic cross section constructed through the transect is confirmed by comparing the retrodeformed section with the regional distribution of lithofacies in the central Brooks Range. Stratigraphic relations in the retrodeformed section are further explained by comparing them to similar stratigraphic relations in the Ikpikpuk-Umiat basin under the Arctic coastal plain. -from Authors

Kelley, J. S.; Brosge, W. P.

1995-01-01

219

Magnetic fabric in the Malanjkhand Granite (Central India)Implications for regional tectonics and Proterozoic Suturing of the Indian shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, field, microstructural and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data are presented from the ?2.48Ga Malanjkhand Granite and adjacent gneiss with an aim to evaluate the time relationship between fabric development in the granite and regional tectonics. The Central Indian Suture (CIS) that demarcates the southern margin of the NESW to ENEWSW trending Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ),

Sukhen Majumder; Manish A. Mamtani

2009-01-01

220

Immunocytochemical localization of basic protein in major dense line regions of central and peripheral myelin  

PubMed Central

To localize basic protein (BP) in the lamellar structure of central and peripheral myelin, we perfused newborn and 7-11-day rat pups with a phosphate-buffered fixative that contained 4% paraformaldehyde and 0.05 or 0.2% glutaraldehyde. Teased, longitudinally split or "brush" preparations of optic and trigeminal nerves were made by gently teasing apart groups of myelinated fibers with fine forceps or needles. Some of these preparations were immunostained without pretreatment in phosphate- buffered antiserum to BP according to the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Others were pretreated in ethanol before immunostaining. Then, all of them were dehydrated, embedded in Epon, and sectioned for electron microscopic study. In optic and trigeminal nerves that were not pretreated, myelin, glial cells, and their organelles were well preserved. BP immunostaining was present on cytoplasmic faces of oligodendroglial and Schwann cell membranes that formed mesaxons and loose myelin spirals. In compact central and peripheral myelin, reaction product was located in major dense line regions, and the myelin periodicity was the same as that observed in unstained control myelin that had been treated with preimmune serum. In ethanol- pretreated tissue, the myelin periodicity was reduced but dense line staining still was present. Our immunocytochemical demonstration of dense line localization of BP in both CNS and PNS myelin that was not disrupted or pretreated with solvents is important because of conflicting evidence in earlier immunostaining studies. Our results also support biochemical and histochemical evidence suggesting that BP exists in vivo as a membrane protein interacting with lipids on the cytoplasmic side of the bilayer in the spirally wrapped compact myelin membrane.

1982-01-01

221

Sea Level Variability in the Central Region of the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of three bottom pressure/temperature/conductivity (PTC) instruments was deployed along the Saudi Arabian coast of the eastern Red Sea since 2008. These locations, represent the central region of the Red Sea; Al-Lieth (100km south of Jeddah), Thuwal (KAUST) and Arriyas (100km north of Rabigh). Surface sea level/height was calculated from the bottom pressure measurements using the hydrostatic equation. The data analysis displayed the sea level variability into three different scales: 1) On daily time scales: the data showed the most energetic component of sea level variability was the diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominated by the M2, N2, K1 and O1 tidal constituents. 2) On weekly time scales (~10 days): the sea level variability was wind driven with setup and set down up to 40 cm due to the local wind stress. 3) On yearly time scales: the sea level varied approximately 50 cm and was highest in winter (January-February) and lowest in summer (July-August). Barometric pressure also had an annual cycle of approximately 10mb and was highest in January, thus attenuating the amplitude of the annual sea level variability. The data analysis postulate that the only mechanism behind the higher sea level in the central Red Sea during winter months was due to a response to the convergent in the large-scale Red Sea wind stress associated with the Indian Monsoon, which is consisting of NNW winds in the northern part of the Red Sea and SSE winds in the southern part. The amplitude of the principal tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability was coherent at the three sites, but the direction of phase propagation could not be resolved with confidence.

Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Limeburner, Richard; Farrar, J. Thomas; Beardsley, Robert

2013-04-01

222

40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Meridian; then south and east along the boundary of the Las Cruces Land Grant to the southwest corner of partial sec. 22, T. 5 N., R. 32 W.; then northeast along the Las Cruces Land Grant boundary; then east along the north boundaries...

2010-07-01

223

Modeling Moho topography with different seismic methods: application to Alpine-Central Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distinct change in chemistry and petrophysical parameters across the crust-mantle boundary expresses itself as a specific feature in all tomographic images obtained by seismic methods. While active and passive refraction seismology image the Moho as the famous first-order discontinuity with near-vertical reflection seismology we see it as a narrow band of reflectivity or simply as the lower limit of the reflective lower crust. In receiver function (RF) seismology Moho signals are generally the most pronounced converted phases and in local earthquake tomography (LET) the Moho expresses itself by characteristic velocities and a strong velocity gradient. Each of these seismic methods has its intrinsic strengths and limitations that prevent continuous and unbiased mapping of Moho topography by any specific seismic method. The specifically designed combination of quality information from controlled source seismology (CSS), RF, and LET, however, allows to compensate limitations in one seismic method by the strength of another method. The quality of each tomographic information about the Moho not only depends on the seismic method but also on the specific observation and the processing it was derived from. For each seismic method we derive Moho data quality classes and corresponding uncertainty estimates and apply these principles to the available seismic information on the Moho in the Alpine-Central Mediterranean region. We validate our approach by comparing highest quality Moho elements from different seismic methods co-existing in several dozen localities. In all these cases, the derived Moho depths coincide within their individual estimated uncertainty limits. In total we use more than 1000 data points with uncertainty estimates from CSS, RF, and LET to calculate a new Moho map of the Alpine-Central Mediterranean region. The interpolation between data points follows the principle of simplicity: searching for the smoothest three Moho interfaces -representing the three plates Europe, Adria, Corsica-Sardinia-Tyrrhenia- that fit all Moho data points within their individual uncertainty estimates. Compared to previous studies, our new Moho map clearly shows major tectonic structures like suture zones and the high-velocity Ivrea body, and thus allows for a more accurate definition of plate boundaries at Moho level. We attribute this to the larger number of available high-quality Moho data consistently derived from different seismic methods.

Kissling, Edi; Spada, Matteo; Husen, Stephan; Wagner, Michael

2013-04-01

224

Cluster and nebular properties of the central star-forming region of NGC 1140  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new high spatial resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging of NGC 1140 and high spectral resolution Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph spectroscopy of its central star-forming region. The central region contains several clusters, the two brightest of which are clusters 1 and 6 from Hunter, O'Connell & Gallagher, located within star-forming knots A and B, respectively. A nebular analysis indicates that the knots have a Large Magellanic Cloud-like metallicity of 12 + logO/H = 8.29 +/-0.09. According to continuum-subtracted H? ACS imaging, cluster 1 dominates the nebular emission of the brighter knot A. Conversely, negligible nebular emission in knot B originates from cluster 6. Evolutionary synthesis modelling implies an age of 5 +/-1 Myr for cluster 1, from which a photometric mass of (1.1 +/-0.3) 106Msolar is obtained. For this age and photometric mass, the modelling predicts the presence of ~5900 late O stars within cluster 1. Wolf-Rayet (WR) features are observed in knot A, suggesting 550 late-type nitrogen-rich (WNL) and 200 early-type carbon-rich (WCE) stars. Therefore, N(WR)/N(O) ~ 0.1, assuming that all the WR stars are located within cluster 1. The velocity dispersions of the clusters were measured from constituent red supergiants as ? ~ 23 +/-1kms-1 for cluster 1 and ? ~ 26 +/-1kms-1 for cluster 6. Combining ? with half-light radii of 8 +/- 2 and 6.0 +/-0.2 pc measured from the F625W ACS image implies virial masses of (10 +/-3) 106 and (9.1 +/-0.8) 106Msolar for clusters 1 and 6, respectively. The most likely reason for the difference between the dynamical and photometric masses of cluster 1 is that the velocity dispersion of knot A is not due solely to cluster 1, as assumed, but has an additional component associated with cluster 2. E-mail: s.moll@sheffield.ac.uk Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under programme ESO 71.B-0058(A), and on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Moll, S. L.; Mengel, S.; de Grijs, R.; Smith, L. J.; Crowther, P. A.

2007-12-01

225

Helium Isotope Compositions in Springs From the Three Sisters Region, Central Oregon, USA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Three Sisters region has recently come under increased scrutiny after the discovery by Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR) of a broad area of uplift centered approximately 5 km west of the South Sister volcanic edifice (Wicks et al., 2001). The bulge, which at its center reaches a maximum of 10 cm, formed between 1998-2000. The exact cause for the uplift is unknown, but observations from other volcanoes and results from numerical modeling imply that the most likely cause is the movement of magma up to mid-crustal ( ~6.5 km depth) levels (Wicks et al., 2001). The area of uplift coincides with an area where spring chemistry shows anomalously high levels of chloride and carbon emissions (Ingebritsen et al., 1994). These features pre-date the bulge by at least a decade and can also be indicative of a magmatic source. It is unclear if the bulge and the geochemical anomalies are directly related, but both point to the presence of magma below the Three Sisters area. Within the scope of a monitoring project that has recently been initiated to study the development of the bulge and any accompanying changes in the fluid/gas chemistry of springs in the Three Sisters area, 10 gas samples were collected for noble gas analysis in July 2001. Two of these samples were taken from cold bubbling springs located close to the center of the bulge and the remaining 8 were obtained from well documented geothermal springs within the general area of Central Oregon. Helium isotope ratios (reported as Rc/Ra where Rc = air corrected 3He/4Hesample and Ra = 3He/4Heair) for these 8 samples range from 2.8 to 5.1 Ra which is in agreement with existing data reported in a study carried out by Unocal in the early 1980's of geothermal springs in this area. The data show a relationship with distance to the bulge/South Sister volcano: all samples within a radius of ~30 km have helium isotope ratios in the range of 4.5 to 5.1 Ra, while samples that fall outside this radius have distinctly lower helium isotope ratios (<4 Ra). The two samples from the center of the uplift area have helium isotope ratios that are significantly higher (7.4 and 8.6 Ra) than the data for the other springs. This clearly demonstrates the presence of a mantle derived magma at some depth below the bulge and the occurrence of permeable pathways to the surface for gas of magmatic origin. At this time, due to a lack of literature noble gas data for the exact area of the bulge, it cannot be determined if the occurrence of these high ratios, which are a common feature in other Cascade Range volcanoes, coincided with the formation of the bulge or if they predate the uplift. This remains a subject for further study. References: Wicks, C. Jr., Dzurisin, D, Ingebritsen, S. E., Thatcher, W., Lu, Z., and Iversen, J. (2001) Magmatic activity beneath the quiescent Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, abstract AGU Fall meeting, this volume. Ingebritsen, S. E., Mariner, R. H., and Sherrod, D. R. (1994) Hydrothermal systems of the Cascade Range, North-Central Oregon. USGS Professional paper 1044-L 88p. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge Unocal for granting permission to use helium isotope data collected by them during a regional study in the early 1980's.

Van Soest, M. C.; Kennedy, B. M.; Evans, W. C.; Mariner, R. H.

2001-12-01

226

Sedimentary environments of the Central Region of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sediments and calcareous organisms on the outer reefal shelf of the Central Region of the Great Barrier Reef were collected and observed by SCUBA diving and research vessel techniques (including underwater television) to understand the production and processes of deposition of the sediment. The carbonate grains are mainly sand and gravel size and solely of skeletal origin. Over the whole area the major CaCO3 producers, in order of decreasing importance are: benthic foraminiferans (chiefly Operculina, Amphistegina, Marginopora, Alveolinella and Cycloclypeus), the calcareous green alga Halimeda, molluscs and corals. Coral abundance is high only close to reefs and submerged rocky substrates. Benthic foraminiferal sands dominate the inter-reef areas i.e. the bulk of the shelf, and Halimeda gravels form an outer shelf band between 60 and 100 m depths. Seven distinct facies are recognised after quantitative analyses of the sediments. These are: A. Shelf edge slope (>120 m depth); B. Shelf edge (with rocky outcrops); C. Outer shelf with high Halimeda (>40%); D. Inter-reef I; E. Inter-reef II ( 100 m depth but >2% pelagics); F. Lee-ward reef talus wedge (<2 km from sea level reefs); G. Lagoonal.

Scoffin, Terence P.; Tudhope, Alexander W.

1985-09-01

227

Geometric analysis of phase bunching in the central region of cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimum condition for realizing phase bunching in the central region of a cyclotron was quantitatively clarified by a simplified geometric trajectory analysis of charged particles from the first to the second acceleration gap. The phase bunching performance was evaluated for a general case of a cyclotron. The phase difference of incident particles at the second acceleration gap depends on the combination of four parameters: the acceleration harmonic number h, the span angle ?D of the dee electrode, the span angle ?F from the first to the second acceleration gap, the ratio RV of the peak acceleration voltage between the cyclotron and ion source. Optimum values of ?F for phase bunching were limited by the relationship between h and ?D, which is 90/h+?D/2??F?180/h+?D/2, and sin ?F>0. The phase difference with respect to the reference particle at the second acceleration gap is minimized for voltage-ratios between two and four for an initial phase difference within 40 RF degrees. Although the slope of the first acceleration gap contributes to the RF phase at which the particles reach the second acceleration gap, phase bunching was not affected. An orbit simulation of the AVF cyclotron at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency verifies the evaluation based on geometric analysis.

Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kurashima, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo; Kamiya, Tomihiro

2013-07-01

228

Regional Trends in Streamflow in Central Texas: Reconciling the Effects of Degradation and Woody Plant Encroachment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent and density of woodlands and shrublands have expanded greatly on drylands across the globe--a phenomena described as woody plant encroachment. Rangelands in Texas for example have been largely converted from grasslands and savannas to woodlands in the last 150 years. In Central Texas--a landscape with a predominantly karst geology--Ashe juniper and oak have come to dominate much of the landscape. These changes were set in motion by the severe overgrazing that occurred at the turn of the last century. The vegetation has transitioned from healthy savanna to degraded grasslands and now finally to woodlands. The hydrological consequences of this conversion have been evaluated from the plot to the small catchment scale using a variety of techniques. The general consensus from this body of work is that recharge and streamflow are around 50 mm lower when woody cover predominates. One would expect then that long terms trends in streamflow would reflect a declining trend as woody plant coverage has progressively increased in the last century. Surprisingly, however, we find no declining trends in regional streamflow during the period of record (around 80-100 years) and in fact there are indications that the baseflow component of streamflow has increased slightly during this time. We propose that these counterintuitive results (increasing streamflow with conversion from degraded grasslands to woodland) are the result of a general improvement in rangeland condition that has occurred in the last 50 years or so.

Wilcox, B. P.; Huang, Y.; Perotto, H.

2007-12-01

229

Urban contamination with zoonotic parasites in the central region of Argentina.  

PubMed

Adult worms develop in dogs and their eggs are shed in the feces. Non-embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis become infectious after about 2-6 weeks in the soil and the likelihood of their transmission to humans is through ingestion. In 2004 studies were carried out in the areas of urban recreation in the central region of Argentina. A total of 393 dog excrement samples were collected in eight different cities: 59.3 per cent were positive for parasites. These areas of urban recreation are contaminated with zoonotic parasites in the cities of Paran (19 of 24 areas), Santa Fe (20 of 26), and Santo Tom (14 of 18). Eggs of T. canis were present in 101 of 393 (25.7%) of the excrement samples, and eggs could be found in 53 of the 68 (77.9%) areas of urban recreation studied in these cities. This contamination is greater in areas of lower socio-economic conditions. The object of this paper is to discuss markers of parasitic contamination with the aim of triggering the necessary control measures. PMID:18977705

Martn, Ubaldo O; Demonte, Miguel A

2008-01-01

230

Scaling laws in the central region of confined turbulent thermal convection.  

PubMed

In confined turbulent thermal convection, the velocity is separated into two parts: one that is correlated with some function of the temperature fluctuations, and thus associated with the plume velocity, and the other part, the background velocity, which is uncorrelated with any function of the temperature fluctuations. As a result, one should focus on the plume velocity, and not the whole velocity, and the temperature when studying the scaling behavior. In this paper, a phenomenological theory for the scaling behavior in the central region of confined turbulent thermal convection is presented. The spatial (temporal) plume velocity structure functions are found to have the same scaling behavior as the spatial (temporal) temperature structure functions. For tau> or = taub, where the buoyant scale taub is determined in terms of measurable quantities, the scaling exponents of the temporal temperature structure functions and hence those of the temporal plume velocity structure functions are obtained. These results are checked against experimental measurements, and good agreement is found. PMID:17677159

Ching, Emily S C

2007-05-01

231

Natural radionuclides measurements and total dose indicative evaluation in drinking waters of an Italian central region.  

PubMed

A study of radioactivity content in drinking waters collected in some areas of geological interest in an Italian central region was performed to check the compliance with recent European regulations. Gross alpha and beta activities, 226Ra, 238U, 234U, 210Po and 3H concentrations were measured. Gross alpha and beta, 226Ra and 3H activities were determined using an ultra-low-level scintillation counter, 238U, 234U and 210Po by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical separation. Recommended WHO guideline activity concentrations for drinking water were exceeded in 6 cases for gross alpha activity and were not exceeded in any case for gross beta activity. Tritium concentration was always lower than MDA (6.75 Bq L(-1)); the concentrations (mBq L(-1)) of 226Ra, 238U, 234U and 210Po ranged from <1.80 to 23.00, from 1.20 to 140.00, from 1.60 to 120.00 and from 0.25 to 5.90, respectively. Due to the importance of the water in human diet, the doses were calculated for children and adults using the dose coefficient factors reported by EC Directive 96/29 EURATOM and annual water intake; all samples furnished a dose lower the reference level for drinking water (0.1 mSv y(-1)). PMID:17849305

Borio, Rita; Rongoni, Alba; Saetta, Daniela; Desideri, Donatella; Meli, Maria Assunta; Feduzi, Laura

2007-09-01

232

Electromagnetic interference from transmission lines located in central region of Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by transmission lines operating in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia. These lines have operating voltages of 132, 230 and 380 kV and are located in a hot, dry arid desert land where precipitation is very low. Measurements of typical EMI characteristics such as frequency spectrum, lateral profile and statistical variation are performed for each type of line and results are analyzed. It is found that general noise characteristic of these lines are similar to those reported in the literature for other lines which are located in relatively wet environment. The results further show that if operating gradients are low, the increase of EMI due to rain is lower than 20 dB value usually observed. The presence of sand and dust storms does not increase EMI level in any appreciable manner. The fair weather EMI level of these lines can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by using the CIGRE formula. Results are also presented for power line carrier related EMI.

Al-Arainy, A.A.; Malik, N.H.; Abdul-Aal, L.N.

1989-01-01

233

Electromagnetic interference from transmission lines located in central region of Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by transmission lines operating in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia. These lines have operating voltages of 132, 230 and 380 kV and are located in a hot, dry arid desert land where precipitaton is very low. Measurements of typical EMI characteristics such as frequency spectrum, lateral profile and statistical variation are performed for each type of line and results are analyzed. It is found that general noise characteristic of these lines are similar to those reported in the literature for other lines which are located in relatively wet environment. The results further show that if operating gradients are low, the increase of EMI due to rain is lower than 20 dB value usually observed. The presence of sand and dust storms does not increase EMI level in any appreciable manner. The fair weather EMI level of these lines can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by using the CIGRE formula. Results are also presented for power line carrier related EMI.

Al-Arainy, A.A.; Malik, N.H.; Abdul-Aal, L.N.

1988-01-01

234

Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.  

PubMed

Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

2012-11-21

235

Regional CO2 fluxes inferred from mixing ratio measurements: estimates from flask air samples in central Kansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated regional fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) using mixing ratios measured in a tallgrass prairie in central Kansas, USA over 3 yr (2002-2004). Glass flasks were used to collect whole air samples in the midafternoon for determining CO2 mixing ratios and their carbon isotopic composition. Regional CO2 fluxes were calculated assuming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) approaches an equilibrium state

CHUN-TA L AI; J. S CHAUER; C LENTON OWENSBY; JAY M. H AM

2006-01-01

236

Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background In the years 20032005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.). In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation), Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises), while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules). Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread knowledge of means of conserving foodstuffs, they also led to the use of products easily available within each home. The values of E.I. (ethnobotanicity index) for the upper Molise region are considered amongst the highest in Italian areas. Nevertheless, like the values for other areas of Italy, they are lower than those of many Spanish areas, perhaps (and not only) because of the more rapid cultural erosion experienced in Italy.

Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucchese, Fernando; Medori, Simone

2008-01-01

237

Echinococcus granulosus infection in humans and livestock in the Coquimbo region, north-central Chile.  

PubMed

Cyst echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important zoonosis in Chile, where studies have focussed mainly in moist southern regions. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in livestock and humans in the semiarid Coquimbo region in north-central Chile. A review of all surgical cases of CE in humans reported in the Elqui, Limar and Choapa provinces in Coquimbo region for the period comprising 1995-2006 was obtained. In addition, a retrospective study of CE covering condemnation records from slaughterhouses of these provinces from the same period was carried out. The surgical incidence of CE in humans ranged between 2.3 and 8.5 cases per 10(5) people, with more cases reported in provinces with a higher percentage of rural inhabitants (Limar and Choapa). A total of 174,034 cattle, 22,208 goats, 35,404 sheep, 25,355 swine and 9391 equines were examined during the period. Higher prevalence of CE was detected in cattle (24%), followed by swine (14%), sheep (11%), goats (6%), and equines (9%). More cases of CE in livestock were also found in provinces with higher rural population. The overall trend of the prevalence of CE for each livestock species across years was a significant downward one, except for swine in Elqui and sheep and swine in Choapa. Cattle showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui, in kidney in Limar and in lungs in Choapa. Swine showed similar prevalence by organs in all provinces. Sheep showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui and Limar and lower prevalence in Choapa. Goats presented higher prevalence of CE in kidney in all provinces, and equines had higher prevalence of CE in liver in the provinces where animals were slaughtered. Further studied are needed to assess whether these differences are due to different strains affecting these species or due to ecological factors. When analyzing the CE prevalence of each species within each province, a negative correlation between prevalence of CE in goats and rainfall in the Limar province was found. This could be attributed to changes in management practices and/or ecological factors. This study shows that surveillance of CE at slaughterhouses combined with the analyses of incidence in humans can be used to detect areas with a higher risk of infection. Improvements in record-keeping of infected animals at slaughterhouses are proposed in order to trace back farms where infection was most likely acquired. PMID:20071084

Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Cleaveland, Sarah; Cunningham, Andrew A; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Craig, Philip S

2009-12-21

238

Active oblique extension in the central Apennines (Italy): evidence from the Fucino region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fucino Basin is a flat Quaternary depression within the central Apennines. It is surrounded by active normal faults with small oblique-slip components. Surface faulting was observed along the east side of the basin during the Ms=7.0 Avezzano earthquake of 1915. In order to understand the kinematics of recent strain better and to assess the seismic hazard of this region, we carried out a detailed geomorphic and structural study of the faults around the basin. Fault scarp heights were accurately measured with total station profiles, and vertical slip rates were estimated assuming slope offsets to post-date the end of periglacial abrasion (14+/-4 kyr BP). To the north, the most prominent fault, the Magnola fault, appears to have an average postglacial throw rate of 0.7+/-0.3 mm yr-1 and, together with the Velino fault, to be capable of generating earthquakes of maximum magnitudes of 6.9-7.3 with recurrence intervals of 1000-3000 yr. East of the basin, the Serrone, Parasano and Ventrino faults form a right-stepping horsetail of the Giovenco fault. Current vertical slip rates on the three former faults appear to be between 0.5 and 1.4, 0.5 and 1.0, and 0.3 and 1.1 mm yr-1, respectively. Infrequent maximum-magnitude earthquakes on them may also exceed 7, particularly in the case of coupled rupture, with loosely constrained recurrence intervals (up to several thousand years). The right-lateral slip components implied by the most recent slickensides and by geomorphic offsets on the NW-SE-trending normal faults of the area suggest that the blocks they bound rotate counterclockwise, consistent with oblique left slip on the NNW-SSE-trending Giovenco and Ovindoli faults to the east. Sinistral shear parallel to the latter faults, the maximum relief across the Magnola fault, and the postglacial slope offsets measured suggest that the extension rate across the central Apennines might be of the order of 6+/-3 mm yr-1 in a N20 deg+/-10 degE direction, more northerly than hitherto inferred.

Piccardi, Luigi; Gaudemer, Yves; Tapponnier, Paul; Boccaletti, Mario

1999-11-01

239

An Inter-Regional Comparison of Ozone Sensitivity to Reductions in Emissions in Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of ozone precursors NOx and VOC have declined significantly in central California over the past 60 years due to rigorous emission control programs, with 40 to 50 percent reductions achieved from 1990 to 2010 alone. Three major air basins, however, are still designated as nonattainment areas for the federal 8-hour ozone standard: the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), Sacramento area and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Historically, ozone response to reductions in emissions varied from region to region. While the maximum hourly ozone concentrations have declined significantly in all three air basins, the locations of maximum ozone shifted. Some exceedance areas came into compliance with the standard while new areas started exceeding the standard. Some areas did not significantly respond to reductions in emissions. To meet the current ozone standard, additional emission reductions are needed. Further emission reductions above and beyond the goal of meeting the current standard will be needed if the EPA lowers the current standard. In an effort to help planners and decision makers, we have been conducting a modeling study to better understand how ozone may respond to future emission reductions in the region. In this initial phase of the study, we used the WRF-CMAQ modeling system to simulate ozone for July 12-28, 2006, a representative high ozone period for all three air basins. With the selected high grid resolution and optimum model setup, the model performance for the base case simulation was exceptionally good. Statistical agreement with observations was better than most previously applied models in the region. We performed a number of sensitivity simulations by reducing anthropogenic VOC or NOx emissions separately or together 10-60 percent at 10 percent intervals uniformly across the board and prepared EKMA diagrams at observation stations. We found that a 60 percent reduction in VOC and NOx emissions reduced the maximum ozone by 20-30 percent in the modeling domain. The largest reduction was in the SJV and the smallest reduction was in the SFBA. Ozone in the three air basins responded differently to separate reductions in VOC and NOx emissions. In the SFBA, reducing VOC emissions reduced ozone concentrations. However, reducing NOx emissions reduced ozone concentrations during some days of the episode and increased them on other days. The SFBA seems to be a NOx rich air basin under certain meteorological conditions. In the Sacramento area, ozone was insensitive to reductions in VOC emissions, possibly due to the abundance of biogenic VOC emissions, especially in the afternoon hours. Reducing NOx emissions reduced ozone concentrations in this air basin. In the SJV, ozone was sensitive to reductions in either VOC or NOx emissions. For the same percentage emission reductions, reducing NOx emissions would lead to higher reductions in ozone compared to VOC reductions in this air basin. Based upon these results, continuing to reduce anthropogenic emissions of both VOC and NOx would benefit the region. In general, ozone is more responsive to emission reductions after 40 percent reductions are achieved in all three air basins.

Soong, S.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Jia, Y.; Beaver, S.; Matsuoka, J.; Cordova, J.

2011-12-01

240

Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored maps provide a regional summary of the new mapping at a scale of 1:200,000, a scale that is sufficient to show the general distribution and relationships of the map units but not to distinguish the more detailed elements that are present in the database. The report is the product of cooperative work by the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, William Lettis and & Associates, Inc. (WLA), and the California Geological Survey. An earlier version was submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey by WLA as a final report for a NEHRP grant (Witter and others, 2005). The mapping has been carried out by WLA geologists under contract to the NEHRP Earthquake Program (Grant 99-HQ-GR-0095) and by the California Geological Survey.

Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

2006-01-01

241

Wind Energy Statistics for Large Arrays of Wind Turbines (New England and Central U.S. Regions).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance characteristics have been simulated for large dispersed arrays of 500 kW - 1500 wind turbines producing power and feeding it directly into the utility distribution grid in the New England - Middle Atlantic and the Central U.S. regions. Des...

C. G. Justus

1976-01-01

242

A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7%) of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

Prediger, Karoline deCampos; Pereira, Renata da Silva; Winckler Neto, Carlos Hugo Del Priore; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Fadel-Picheth, Cyntia Maria Telles; Vizzotto, Bruno Stefanello

2012-01-01

243

Transcriptomic Profiling of Central Nervous System Regions in Three Species of Honey Bee during Dance Communication Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWe conducted a large-scale transcriptomic profiling of selected regions of the central nervous system (CNS) across three species of honey bees, in foragers that were performing dance behavior to communicate to their nestmates the location, direction and profitability of an attractive floral resource. We used microarrays to measure gene expression in bees from Apis mellifera, dorsata and florea, species that

Moushumi Sen Sarma; Sandra L. Rodriguez-Zas; Feng Hong; Sheng Zhong; Gene E. Robinson; Walter S. Leal

2009-01-01

244

Teaching English Language Learner Students: Professional Standards in Elementary Education in Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 122  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report on professional teaching standards in the Central Region examines what K-8 general education teachers are expected to know and be able to do in order to teach English language learner students. It reviews the standards for coverage of six topics that the research literature suggests are important for improving student achievement. Key

Apthorp, Helen; Wang, Xin; Ryan, Susan; Cicchinelli, Louis F.

2012-01-01

245

Have the Career Attitudes Changed to Protean Ones? Evidence from Managers in One Company in China Central Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to determine the extent to which career attitudes of managers in one company in China central regions is conform with the protean career attitudes. Questionnaire assessing protean career attitudes is used to explore the career profiles, such as success criteria, psychology contract, career self-responsibility, self directed career management, value-driven predisposition. We produce six career profiles based on

Xiehong Fu; Ning Wu

2011-01-01

246

Central Virginia Community College and Virginia's Region 2000: A Quality First Partnership for a Community of Excellence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the principles of quality and productivity improvement, Central Virginia Community College's (CVCC's) Quality First initiative is designed to provide continuous quality training to existing business, government, and educational institutions and enhance regional development activities to attract new business and jobs. Since its inception

Wheelan, Belle; And Others

247

Occurrence of aflatoxin B1, citrinin and ochratoxin A in rice in five provinces of the central region of Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible coexistence of three mycotoxins in rice, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA), was investigated. The samples of rice were collected in large markets in five provinces of the central region of Vietnam. These toxins were extracted, purified and finally quantified by HPLC with fluorimetry detection. Contamination of AFB1 was found to be the most,

Minh Tri Nguyen; Mariana Tozlovanu; Thi Luyen Tran; Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz

2007-01-01

248

The range of regional climate change projections in central Europe: How to deal with the spread of climate model results?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional climate change projections for central Europe in the 21st century show a large spread of simulated temperature and precipitation trends due to natural variability and modelling uncertainties. The questions are how to extract robust climate change signals and how to transfer the range of possible temperature and precipitation trends to climate change impact studies and adaptation strategies? Within

D. Rechid; D. Jacob; R. Podzun

2010-01-01

249

An Investigation of Provision of Quality Basic Education in Ghana A Case Study of Selected Schools in the Central Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated teaching and learning in six private and public (rural and urban) basic schools in two districts in the Central Region of Ghana. Six headteachers and 26 teachers whose classes or lessons were observed participated in the study. Simple random sampling technique was used to draw 144 pupils from primary 3, 4, 6 and junior secondary school form

Joseph GharteyAmpiah; Ernest Kofi Davis

250

Evaluation of the Coral UTI Screen system for rapid automated screening of significant bacteriuria in a regional centralized laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the Coral UTI screen system (Coral Biotechnology, San Diego, CA) compared to urinalysis\\/urine culture was done to assess its performance for rapidly screening a high volume of urine samples for significant bacteriuria in a regional central microbiology laboratory. A total of 1094 urine samples from ambulatory patients were evaluated. 670 (61.2%) urine samples were negative or positive

Heather Semeniuk; Janice Noonan; Harjinder Gill; Deirdre Church

2002-01-01

251

On the representation of regional characteristics by hydrographic measurements at central stations in four deep basins of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the eddy resolving data sets of salinity, temperature, and oxygen content aquired in the framework of the German-Russian project MESODYN (MESOscale DYNamics) in the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, the Stolpe Furrow, and the Eastern Gotland Basin during summer and winter stratification situations are utilized to examine to which extent the observations at the central monitoring stations within these basins are representative for the spatial mean state of the corresponding region with respect to comparative monitoring purposes of the whole Baltic Sea. The investigation covers profiles of salinity, potential temperature, oxygen content, potential density, and squared buoyancy or Brunt-Visl frequency. Moreover, some parameters of the halocline, namely its depth, thickness, and upper and lower boundaries, and the first baroclinic Rossby radii are subject to the investigation. The profiles match best for the squared buoyancy or Brunt-Visl frequency. The profiles of salinity match best in the Eastern Gotland Basin and worst in the Arkona Basin both for summer and winter stratification situations. The overall agreement for the halocline parameters is good. The baroclinic Rossby radii match their spatial mean values well, if the depth range considered for their calculation is restricted to the mean depth in each region at the bottom side. In doing so they also match the spatial mean values of the first baroclinic Rossby radii calculated considering the whole depth range at each station. Overall, the regional characteristics of the investigated quantities and parameters are represented well by the hydrographic measurements at the central stations in the four regions in spite of some significant differences between the spatial mean states and the observations at the central stations. In particular, the observations at the central stations seem to be usefull for comparisons between these regions. However, the observed differences may affect regional investigations covering just a single region.

Reissmann, J. H.

2006-07-01

252

Natural vectors of dirofilariasis in rural and urban areas of the Tuscan region, central Italy.  

PubMed

Entomological investigations by means of dog- and human-baited traps were carried out in summers 2000-2002 in urban and rural areas of the Tuscan region in central Italy. The aim of the study was to define the mosquito species involved in the transmission of Dirofilaria nematodes and to assess the risk that their presence might represent for animal and human health. Nocturnal fieldwork on host-seeking activity and feeding preferences was followed by microscopic identification of the mosquito species attracted and by molecular identification of Dirofilaria parasites in mosquitoes. In total, 3,611 mosquito females belonging to 12 species, largely represented by Culex pipiens L. and Aedes caspius (Pallas), were caught. Some females of each species collected fed on the dogs, indicating their possible role as an intermediate host, but filarial DNA was found only in Cx. pipiens, Anopheles maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), and Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi). In rural environments, the DNA evidence indicated the presence of infective larvae of Dirofilaria immitis, whereas in urban areas, infective larvae of Dirofilaria repens were present. The role of Cx. pipiens as a vector for heartworm disease and subcutaneous infections in natural and artificial environments was confirmed, whereas Ae. caspius seemed refractory to the infection. The different role of the collected species is discussed. The vector competence of An. maculipennis and Cq. richiardii needs further investigation, because the importance of these species poorly represented, and the role of species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse), characterized by a dominant diurnal activity pattern, has to be evaluated. PMID:16739418

Cancrini, G; Magi, M; Gabrielli, S; Arispici, M; Tolari, F; Dell'Omodarme, M; Prati, M C

2006-05-01

253

An X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Central Regions of NGC 4593  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed analysis of XMM-Newton EPIC-pn data for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593. We discuss the X-ray spectral properties of this source, as well as its variations with time. The 0.5-10 keV spectrum shows significant complexity beyond a simple power-law form, with clear evidence existing for a ``soft excess,'' as well as absorption by highly ionized plasma (a warm absorber) within the central engine of this active galactic nucleus. We show that the soft excess is best described as originating from thermal Comptonization by plasma that is appreciably cooler than the primary X-ray-emitting plasma; we find that the form of the soft excess cannot be reproduced adequately by reflection from an ionized accretion disk. The only measurable deviation from the power-law continuum in the hard spectrum comes from the presence of cold and ionized fluorescent iron K? emission lines at 6.4 and 6.97 keV, respectively. While constraints on the ionized iron line are weak, the cold line is found to be narrow at CCD resolution with a flux that does not track the temporal changes in the underlying continuum, implying an origin in the outer radii of the accretion disk or the putative molecular torus of Seyfert unification schemes. The X-ray continuum itself varies on all accessible timescales. We detect a ~230 s time lag between soft and hard EPIC-pn bands that, if interpreted as scattering timescales within a Comptonizing disk corona, can be used to constrain the physical size of the primary X-ray source to a characteristic length scale of ~2rg. Taken together, the small implied coronal size and the large implied iron-line emitting region indicate a departure from the current picture of a ``typical'' AGN geometry.

Brenneman, Laura W.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Wilms, Jrn; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth

2007-09-01

254

Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg) speciation - reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), elemental Hg (Hg), and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5), were determined from June to November 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1) a 1114 megawatt (MW) coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2) a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3) a smaller (465 MW) coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of RGM, Hg and Hg-PM2.5, were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3) measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.41 ppbv; measured at 50 km site). The finding that RGM, Hg, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1) the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2) the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3) RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

Kolker, A.; Olson, M. L.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Tate, M. T.; Engle, M. A.

2010-01-01

255

[Surgical services in a central regional hospital in for ballistic wounds during the armed conflicts].  

PubMed

There was effectuated an analyze of delivery of health care to 1294 patients with ballistic wounds, admitted to Gudermess central regional hospital of Chechen Republic during the armed conflict on Northern Caucasus in 1994-2002. Age of wounded was between 12 and 67 years old, among them men - 1088 (84.1%), women - 206 (15.9%) and children - 291 (22.5%). Native population - 945 persons (73%), military servicemen from different departments - 349 persons (27%). In accord with character of destructive factor all wounds were divided in following way: ballistic wounds - 419 cases (32.4%), fragment wounds - 466 cases (36%), explosive wounds - 409 cases (31.6%). 392 persons (30.3%) had isolated wounds, 340 persons (26.3%) had multiple wounds, 513 persons (39.6%) had conjoined wounds, 49 persons (3.8%) had combined (term-mechanic) wounds. In accord with localization all wounds were divided in following way: head - 93 cases (7.2%), neck - 19 cases (1.5%), sternum - 117 cases (9%), stomach - 110 (8.5%), bowl - 89 cases (6.9%), axis - 21 cases (1.6%), upper limbs - 352 (27.2%), lower limbs - 493 cases (38.1%). 1074 were operated, term from admission to operation was: for emergency operation - 2.1+/-0.3 h, for delayed operations - 12+/-0.5 h. 220 patients were not operated, 6 of them died in 30-45 minutes after admission (cause - damages, not compatible with life). 214 were not pertained for first surgical aid. Postoperation complications were 8.2%, mortality - 2.6%, postoperation lethality - 1.93%, average term of stay in hospital - 24.3+/-0.3 days. PMID:19827666

Iakhikhazhiev, S K

2009-07-01

256

Soil loss tolerance in the central chernozemic region of the European part of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To calculate the soil loss tolerance for chernozems of the central chernozemic region, a linear modification of Skidmore's equation was used. The soil loss tolerance values were obtained with due account for the soil type, the degree of erodibility, and the crop rotation pattern. The maximum possible value (10 t/ha per year) was obtained for a typical noneroded chernozem in all the crop rotations. Close values were obtained for noneroded leached and typical chernozems (9.6-9.9 t/ha per year depending on the crop rotation pattern). The soil loss tolerance for the noneroded podzolized chernozem was somewhat lower: 9.1 t/ha per year in the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation and 6.3 t/ha/year in the grain-intertilled crop rotation. With an increase in the degree of the soil erosion, the soil loss tolerance decreased in all the variants of the experiment with an especially abrupt decrease in the grain-intertilled crop rotation (from 9.9-10.0 to 0.3-2.0 t/ha per year in the, respectively, noneroded and slightly eroded ordinary and typical chernozems). In the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation, these differences were much smaller: in the slightly eroded typical chernozem the soil loss tolerance was estimated at 9.7 t/ha per year, while, in the slightly eroded typical chernozem, at 8.1 t/ha per year. The moderately eroded chernozems without the addition of manure could only be used in the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation; the soil loss tolerance was estimated at 9.0 t/ha per year for the typical chernozem and 4.3 t/ha per year for the ordinary chernozem.

Kuznetsov, M. S.; Abdulkhanova, D. R.

2013-07-01

257

Utility of regional Chinese seismograms for source and path studies in central Asia  

SciTech Connect

Regional surface waves recorded at the Urumchi station located about 700 km north of the Tibetan Plateau in the Sinkiang Province are used to study East Kazakh explosions and wave propagation in central Asia. The data consist of broadband (flat to displacement between 0.1 and 10 Hz), photographic records from an SK Kirnos galvanometric system. Simultaneous inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities for the path from East Kazakh through the Dzhungarian Basin yields a crustal model dominated by the presence of very low velocities and a strong positive velocity gradient above 15 km depth. Velocities below 15 km depth are not significantly different from other continental structures underlain by Paleozoic or Precambrian basement. This model is consistent with geologic evidence indicating that most of the path is characterized by the presence of up to 10 km of sediments overlying a Paleozoic basement. Source studies were made on seven East Kazakh explosions detonated in the time period between June 1980 and April 1981. These studies involved estimation of seismic moments using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. The largest explosion studied occurred on 9/14/80 and had an m/sub b/ of 6.2 and a seismic moment of 2.7 x 10/sup 23/ dyn-cm. The observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves are richer in high frequencies than predicted by explosion source models with tectonic release. This could be caused by a path effect involving seismic wave focusing by the large sedimentary basin between East Kazakh and the Urumchi station, although source medium effects cannot be ruled out. 30 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Patton, H.J.; Taylor, S.R.; Harris, D.B.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

1984-04-01

258

Relict rock glaciers in alpine catchments: A regional study in Central Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine catchments represent an important freshwater source in many regions. Catchments in the subalpine to nival altitudinal levels are generally characterised by higher precipitation, lower evapotranspiration and consequently higher discharge rates compared to lower elevated areas of the montane and foothill levels of the same region. Particularly in crystalline mountain regions in the mid- to high latitudes glacial and periglacial sediments cover larger areas and form important aquifers in alpine catchments. Typical periglacial landforms in mountain areas are rock glaciers. Relict rock glaciers consist of sediment accumulations without permafrost at present. This rock glacier type has a strong influence on water storage capacities and discharge behaviour of the catchments. The hydraulic properties of rock glaciers have a positive impact on flood-risk reduction and the riparian ecology below rock glacier springs during dry periods. Furthermore, the exceptional high discharge rates at springs at the front of relict rock glaciers compared to nearby non-rock glacier springs are also of economic interest. Knowledge about morphometric characteristics of rock glacier catchments helps to increase the understanding of the groundwater system and discharge dynamics of rock glaciers. In this context the main objectives of our study are (a) to assess and quantitatively describe rock glacier catchments at a regional scale by analysing different morphometric parameters of the catchments and (b) to combine the rock glacier catchment properties with water balance data. In doing so, at first an inventory of 295 rock glacier catchments was established for the 2440 km large study area (Niedere Tauern Range, Styria) in Central Austria ranging from 590 to 2862 m a.s.l.. In a second step, the inventory data were combined with area-wide precipitation, discharge and evapotranspiration data. Results reveal that 108 km or 4.4% of the entire study area belongs to rock glacier catchments. This proportion increases to 8.6% for areas above 1500 m a.s.l. and even to 23% for areas above 2000 m a.s.l.. Results for a 626 km large subunit (Seckauer Tauern Range) reveal that even 15.6% of the area above 1500 m a.s.l. and more 42% above 2000 m a.s.l. are influenced by relict rock glaciers as aquifers. A total water volume of 4240 Mio m is precipitated annually (mean value for the normal period 1971-2000) in the entire study area. 22% of this water is evapotranspirated and the remaining water is the discharge of the catchments. Despite the fact that 8.6% of the entire Niedere Tauern Range above 1500 m a.s.l. belong to rock glacier catchments, about 9.5% of the total discharge and 9.2% of the total precipitation originates in the rock glacier catchments. In contrast, only 7.9% of all precipitated water is evapotranspirated in these catchments. In the subunit Seckauer Tauern Range the same figures for rock glacier catchments are substantially higher and more pronounced in their differences with 15.6% for area, 16.8% for precipitation, 14.5% for evapotranspiration and even 17.3% for discharge. These figures exemplarily show that rock glaciers and their catchments are highly relevant in the alpine water cycle of the study area.

Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Pauritsch, Marcus; Winkler, Gerfried

2013-04-01

259

Detailed hypocentral distribution and activity of small repeating earthquakes at the Kanto region, central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Kanto region, central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the Pacific plate (PAC) are subducting, where numerous small repeating earthquakes were found based on analysis of waveform similarity of seismograms recorded by Kanto-Tokai network (1979-2003) (Kimura et al., 2003; 2006) and a portion of Hi-net data (2003-) of National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) (Kimura et al., 2007). Highly similarity of seismograms shows that repeating earthquakes at Kanto can be regarded as repetition of rupture at the same fault and can be regarded as an indicator of relative plate motion, the same as at other regions (Nadeau et al., 1995; Igarashi et al., 2003; Matsubara et al., 2005). To understand detailed configuration and interaction of plates, we studied detailed hypocentral distribution and activity of repeating earthquakes. We determined high-precision relative hypocenter distribution by Double-Difference method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000) with waveform correlation for seismic clusters of the PHS and PAC and obtained detailed hypocentral distribution near the plate boundary. Most M3-class repeating earthquakes are located within 40 m and 140 m, at largest, for the PHS and the PAC, respectively. Larger distances for the PAC would be caused by location of the target region at the edge of the seismographic network. Considering fault size of used events, they are likely to occur at the same location. Hereafter, we will explain about results from two distinct seismic clusters. At the southwestern Ibaraki, north of Kanto, significant linearly distributing seismic clusters are observed and repeating earthquakes also occur. Repeating earthquakes are distributed along a plane and its dip angle is almost the same with a dip angle of low-angle nodal plane of focal mechanism of repeating earthquakes. Dip angles of seismic plane are 36 and 26 for northern and southern part of the cluster, respectively. Widths of the seismic cluster are 3 km and 6 km for northern and southern part, respectively. The changing locations of dip angle and width are almost the same. At the other cluster, significant temporal change of activity is observed. Off the Boso Peninsula, southeastern Kanto, activations of repeating earthquakes synchronizing with the Boso slow slip events (SSEs), which repeat with time interval of 5-7 years, were observed. Recurrence time averaged for each sequence of M3- class repeating earthquakes off the Boso Peninsula is 1.5 - 19.4 years with total average of 9.2 years. These events have close relation with SSEs. At offshore region, no repeating earthquakes occurred after the previous SSE on 2002. However, numerous repeating earthquakes occurred synchronizing with the 2007 SSE. Since repeating earthquakes at Kanto can be regarded as an indicator of plate motion, this result indicates that plate interface is locked between SSEs and interplate slip is accelerated synchronizing with the Boso SSE, causing repeating earthquakes.

Kimura, H.; Takeda, T.; Yukutake, Y.; Obara, K.; Kasahara, K.

2008-12-01

260

Energy and development in Central America. Volume I: Regional assessment. Final report October 1979-February 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

1980-02-01

261

Thermoluminescence dating of the orkutsay loess section in Tashkent region, Uzbekistan, Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronology of loess in Central Asia was investigated by means of thermoluminescence dating (TL) in the 1970s, when age estimates ranging from 20 ka to over 800 ka were taken as providing an absolute chronology. This has caused major misinterpretation of Central Asian loess stratigraphy and palaeoclimatic reconstruction. We present a new TL study of a loess section at

L. P. Zhou; A. E. Dodonov; N. J. Shackleton

1995-01-01

262

Tin Occurrences Associated with the Ohio Creek Pluton, Chulitna Region, South-Central Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1984 and 1985 the Bureau of Mines mapped and sampled reported tin occurrences associated with the Ohio Creek pluton, in the central Alaska Range, south-central Alaska. The pluton is a composite intrusion with a core of moderately coarse-grained biotite...

D. Dahlin J. D. Warner

1989-01-01

263

Breakup of Pangaea and plate kinematics of the central Atlantic and Atlas regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new central Pangaea fit (type A) is proposed for the late Ladinian (230 Ma), together with a plate motions model for the subsequent phases of rifting, continental breakup and initial spreading in the central Atlantic. This model is based on: (1) a reinterpretation of the process of formation of the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly along the eastern margin of

Antonio Schettino; Eugenio Turco

2009-01-01

264

August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Bohemian Region is located in a shape of a ring surrounding the capitol of Prague. Its total territorial area is 11.014 sq.km and population of 1 130.000 inhabitants. According to EU nomenclature of regional statistical units, the Central Bohemian Region is classified as an independent NUTS II. Bohemia's biggest rivers, Vltava and Labe form the region's backbone dividing it along a north-south line, besides that there are Sazava and Berounka, the two big headwaters of Vltava, which flow through the region and there also are some cascade man made lakes and 2 important big dams - Orlik and Slapy on the Vltava River in the area of the region. Overflowing of these rivers and their feeders including cracking of high-water dams during the floods in August 2002 caused total or partial destruction or damage of more than 200 towns and villages and total losses to the extend of 450 mil. EUR. The worst impact was on damaged or destroyed human dwellings, social infrastructure (schools, kindergartens, humanitarian facilities) and technical infrastructure (roads, waterworks, power distribution). Also businesses were considerably damaged including transport terminals in the area of river ports. Flowage of Spolana Neratovice chemical works caused critical environmental havoc. Regional crisis staff with regional Governor in the lead worked continuously during the floods and a regional integrated rescue system was subordinated to it. Due to the huge extent of the floods the crisis staff coordinated its work with central bodies of state including the Government and single "power" resorts (army, interior, transport). Immediately after floods a regional - controlled management was set up including an executive body for regional revitalisation which is connected to state coordinating resort - Ministry for Local Development, EU sources and humanitarian aid. In addition to a program of regional revitalisation additional preventive flood control programs are being developed including fields of: urban planning revision, river flow measures, revision of operation mode of dams, modification of waterworks' conception in areas liable to flooding and finally a program of power sources prevention during emergency situation (this program had been started before the floods). Regional establishment puts emphasis on preparation of preventive projects and management mentioned. An international co-operation of regions affected by floods and possibly building of joint teams for prevention measures proposal would be very effective and useful.

Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

2003-04-01

265

Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework,

Diana Salciarini; Jonathan W. Godt; William Z. Savage; Pietro Conversini; Rex L. Baum; John A. Michael

2006-01-01

266

Regional data refine local predictions: modeling the distribution of plant species abundance on a portion of the central plains.  

PubMed

Species distribution models are frequently used to predict species occurrences in novel conditions, yet few studies have examined the consequences of extrapolating locally collected data to regional landscapes. Similarly, the process of using regional data to inform local prediction for species distribution models has not been adequately evaluated. Using boosted regression trees, we examined errors associated with extrapolating models developed with locally collected abundance data to regional-scale spatial extents and associated with using regional data for predictions at a local extent for a native and non-native plant species across the northeastern central plains of Colorado. Our objectives were to compare model results and accuracy between those developed locally and extrapolated regionally, those developed regionally and extrapolated locally, and to evaluate extending species distribution modeling from predicting the probability of presence to predicting abundance. We developed models to predict the spatial distribution of plant species abundance using topographic, remotely sensed, land cover and soil taxonomic predictor variables. We compared model predicted mean and range abundance values to observed values between local and regional. We also evaluated model prediction performance based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. We show that: (1) extrapolating local models to regional extents may restrict predictions, (2) regional data can help refine and improve local predictions, and (3) boosted regression trees can be useful to model and predict plant species abundance. Regional sampling designed in concert with large sampling frameworks such as the National Ecological Observatory Network may improve our ability to monitor changes in local species abundance. PMID:21912866

Young, Nicholas E; Stohlgren, Thomas J; Evangelista, Paul H; Kumar, Sunil; Graham, Jim; Newman, Greg

2011-09-13

267

On the representation of regional characteristics by hydrographic measurements at central stations in four deep basins of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the eddy resolving data sets of salinity, temperature, and oxygen content aquired in the framework of the German-Russian project MESODYN (MESOscale DYNamics) in the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, the Stolpe Furrow, and the Eastern Gotland Basin during summer and winter stratification situations are utilized to examine to which extent the observations at the central monitoring stations within these basins are representative for the spatial mean state of the corresponding region. The investiation covers profiles of salinity, potential temperature, oxygen content, potential density, and squared buoyancy or Brunt-Visl frequency. Moreover, some parameters of the halocline, namely its depth, thickness, and upper and lower boundaries, and the first baroclinic Rossby radii are subject to the investigation. The profiles match best for the squared buoyancy or Brunt-Visl frequency. The profiles of salinity match best in the Eastern Gotland Basin and worst in the Arkona Basin both for summer and winter stratification situations. The overall agreement for the halocline parameters is good. The baroclinic Rossby radii match their spatial mean values well, if the depth range considered for their calculation is restricted to the mean depth in each region at the bottom side. In doing so they also match the spatial mean values of the first baroclinic Rossby radii calculated considering the whole depth range at each station. Overall, the regional characteristics of the investigated quantities and parameters are represented well by the hydrographic measurements at the central stations in the four regions in spite of some significant differences between the spatial mean states and the ovservations at the central stations. In particular, the observations at the central stations seem to be usefull for comparisons between these regions.

Reissmann, J. H.

2005-07-01

268

Pulpwood Production in the North-Central Region by County, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pulpwood constitutes more than half the industrial timber products harvested annually in the Lake States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) and is an important product in the Central States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri). Current detailed infor...

J. E. Blyth W. B. Smith

1988-01-01

269

Central American Refugees: Regional Conditions and Prospects and Potential Impact on the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Civil strife and deteriorating economic conditions in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala have caused hundreds of thousands of refugees to seek asylum and assistance in other Central American countries, Mexico and the United States. While international ...

1984-01-01

270

Regional Specialization. The Middle Americas: Mexico, Panama, Central America and the Caribbean Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Historically the United States (US) paid attention to the neighborhood to its south only in a crisis or when convenient. Generally viewed as lagging in efforts to develop stable governments and self-sustaining economies, Mexico, Central America to include...

M. H. Owen K. A. Inman

1997-01-01

271

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests. Updated June 5, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States recognized the independence of the former Central Asian republics, supported their admission into Western organizations, and elicited Turkish support to counter Iranian influence in the reg...

J. Nichol

2006-01-01

272

Particulate Air Pollution and Morbidity in the California Central Valley: A High Particulate Pollution Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between particulate air pollution and morbidity among the Kaiser Permanente (KP) membership who reside in the Central Valley (CV) of California. Daily augmented particulate matter (PM) monitoring ...

S. K. Van Den Eeden C. P. Quesenberry J. Shan F. Lurmann

2002-01-01

273

Past earthquake history and seismic hazard in Fucino region, Central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the reappraised 36Cl exposure dating protocol developed by Schlagenhauf et al. (Schlagenhauf et al., Using in-situ Chlorine-36 cosmonuclide to recover past earthquake histories on limestone normal fault scarps: A reappraisal of methodology and interpretations; Submitted to Geophys. J. Int., 2009; see also Benedetti et al., this meeting), we have recovered the Holocene earthquake history (in last 14 ka) of three important active normal faults (Magnola, Velino, Trasacco) in the Fucino region (Central Italy), site of a Mw 7 devastating earthquake in 1915, and a few km south of LAquila where the April 2009 earthquake occurred. Magnola (L: 13 km) and Velino (L: 12 km) are parts of a 45 km-long NNW-striking fault system (Western Fucino north or WFN), while Trasacco (L: 30 km) is part of another yet adjacent fault system. We have analyzed the 36Cl content of 400 exhumed scarp samples collected at 6 sites along the faults, 4 on Magnola, one on Velino, and one on Trasacco. The modeling of the 36Cl profiles yield similar earthquake ages at the 5 sites along Magnola and Velino, suggesting that the two faults broke concurrently in the past, about 13.7, 10.7, 9.2, 8.5, 7.4, 4.8, 3.8, 3.3, and 1.1 ka ago (average uncertainties of 0.5-1 ka). Their rupturing occurred in phases apparently cycling at three different time scales: 1) The Magnola-Velino system primarily broke in discrete phases of paroxysmal activity (11-7.5 ka, then 5-3.5 ka), each lasting 2-4 ka, separated by 3 kyrs-long quiescence phases. The paroxysmal phases led to the breakage of the entire WFN system. 2) During each paroxysmal phase, 3-4 large rupture episodes occurred at 0.5-1 ka intervals, each producing at most 1.5-3 m of vertical slip on the faults. 3) Each of those rupture episodes seems to have been an earthquake sequence, made of several large earthquakes repeating at short time intervals (a few 10-100 yrs) and breaking in cascade the entire WFN fault system. If each earthquake broke a single major fault within the WFN system, the maximum magnitudes estimated for those earthquakes are 6.5-6.9. In the Fucino plain, the adjacent Trasacco fault shows a similar behavior, as it primarily broke during two 2-3 kyrs-long periods of paroxysmal activity, at 14.5-12 and 8.5-6.5 ka, which thus do not coincide in time with those recognized on the Magnola-Velino system. Assuming that the faults reload at a constant rate (mean slip rate estimated from our measurements), our data suggest that the faults have entered a paroxysmal phase when they had reached a certain threshold of cumulative strain. Though the Magnola-Velino fault system has not broken since long (about 1 ka), the cumulative strain it has accommodated since then is still below the threshold discussed above. By contrast, though part of the Trasacco fault has broken less than a century ago (1915), the fault is approaching the cumulative strain threshold from which it may enter in a paroxysmal phase. Though those results need further refinements, they suggest that seismic hazard in the Fucino region is high.

Schlagenhauf, A.; Manighetti, I.; Benedetti, L. C.; Gaudemer, Y.; Pou, K.

2009-12-01

274

Europe and Central Asia region Middle East and North Africa region population projects : 1992-93 edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population projections for all countries are prepared annually by the Bank's Population and Human Resources Department. They are published first in summary form in the Bank's World Development Report and later in greater detail as technical notes or working papers and, in alternate years, as a book. Separate papers cover the six Bank regions: (1) Africa (sub-Saharan); (2) Latin America

My T. Vu; Eduard Bos; Ann Levin

1992-01-01

275

[Monitoring of the levels of metals in the bottom sediments of rivers in the central area of the Orenburg Region].  

PubMed

Among the pollutants of the biosphere, heavy metals present the greatest hazard since they show a high stability and toxicity and are able to migrate in the water ecosystems and to accumulate in the bottom sediments and hydrocoles, by impairing the stability of hydrobiocenoses. Chemical monitoring of the level of bottom sediments of rivers was made in the Central district of the Orenburg Region. Samples were taken at 11 stations of the Central district of the region and 5 stations in a district of Orenburg. The analysis of the findings indicated that the content of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium in the bottom sediment samples was not greater than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) at any station and that of nickel did not exceed MPC by 1.3-2.6 times. PMID:20143493

Solovykh, G N; Golinskaia, L V; Shustova, N V

276

CRA-1 Uncovers a Double-Strand Break-Dependent Pathway Promoting the Assembly of Central Region Proteins on Chromosome Axes During C. elegans Meiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synaptonemal complex (SC), a tripartite proteinaceous structure that forms between homologous chromosomes during meiosis, is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation. Here we identify CRA-1, a novel and conserved protein that is required for the assembly of the central region of the SC during C. elegans meiosis. In the absence of CRA-1, central region components fail to extensively localize onto

Sarit Smolikov; Kristina Schild-Prfert; Mnica P. Colaicovo

2008-01-01

277

Seasonal locomotion and home-range characteristics of European hares ( Lepus europaeus ) in an arable region in central Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied seasonal use of space by 38 radio-tracked European hares in an arable region in central Germany over 5years. Mean distance between successive daytime and nighttime fixes of a hare amounted to 226m, and an average distance of 172m was recorded for successive daytime fixes. The hares shifted the centres of their home ranges from one 2-month period to

Ferdinand Rhe; Ulf Hohmann

2004-01-01

278

Climatic Variability in the Kuparuk Region, North-Central Alaska: Optimizing Spatial and Temporal Interpolation in a Sparse Observation Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Received 8 March 2002; accepted in revised form 16 August 2002 ) ABSTRACT. Air temperature fields are required as input to spatial models in ecology, geocryology, and biogeochemistry. Air temperature data from a sparse, irregular meteorological network in the Kuparuk region of north-central Alaska were interpolate d spatially and temporally to provide a 13-year (1987-1999) series of thawing degree-day fields

N. I. SHIKLOMANOV; F. E. NELSON

2003-01-01

279

Realization of a phase bunching effect for minimization of beam phase width in a central region of an AVF cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phase bunching effect has been achieved for the first time using a rising slope of the dee voltage waveform produced at the first acceleration gap between the RF shielding cover of the inflector and the puller in the new central region of the JAEA AVF cyclotron. The feasibility of the phase bunching effect in the central region for a two-dee system with a span angle of 86 in three acceleration harmonic modes was assessed by a simple geometrical analysis of particle trajectories and a three-dimensional beam orbit simulation using the calculated electric field and a measured magnetic field. The simulation indicated that the initial beam phase width of 40 RF degrees is compressed to 11 RF degrees (about 28% of the initial phase width) in the second harmonic mode. A phase width of 1.5 RF degrees FWHM for a 260 MeV 20Ne7+ beam accelerated in the second harmonic mode was observed when using a 4 mm phase slit gap. The phase width reduction was considerably enhanced by the bunching effect, compared with the beam phase width of 7.3 RF degrees FWHM in the same harmonic mode for a 10 MeV H+ beam accelerated in the original central region. The ratio of the beam current for the 1.5 RF degrees FWHM phase width with 4 mm phase slit gap restriction to the full beam current without the phase slit was drastically improved to 80%, while the beam current was less than 1% of the full beam when narrowing the phase slit gap to obtain the 7.3 RF degrees FWHM phase width in the original central region.

Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kurashima, Satoshi; Okumura, Susumu; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Nara, Takayuki; Ishibori, Ikuo; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Yokota, Watalu; Nakamura, Yoshiteru; Arakawa, Kazuo; Kamiya, Tomihiro

2011-04-01

280

mtDNA analysis in Portuguese populations (Central Portugal and Azores Islands): polymorphic sites in control region sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The polymorphism of the two hypervariable segments (HVI and HVII) of the control region of mtDNA was analyzed in a population of 81 unrelated individuals from Central Portugal and 48 from the Azores Islands, using a fluorescent-based electrophoresis sequencing method. Methods: Sequences have been obtained with ABI PRISM0 Big Dye Terminator and dRhodamine Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Reaction Kits,

M. Carvalho; C. Mendes; H. Antunes; M. J. Anjos; L. Andrade; V. Lopes; D. N. Vieira; M. C. Vide

2003-01-01

281

Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited states is found to indicate least effects by the collisions to ensure the LIF method.

Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Takiyama, Ken [Hiroshima University (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

282

Late Miocene continental birds from the Cerro Azul Formation in the Pampean region (central-southern Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cenizo, M.M., Tambussi, C.P. & Montalvo, C.I., iFirst Article. Late Miocene continental birds from the Cerro Azul Formation in the Pampean region (central-southern Argentina). Alcheringa, 122. ISSN 0311-5518.The oldest known birds from the Cerro Azul Formation are described, including the oldest records for the genera Eudromia and Nothura (Tinamidae), Milvago (Falconidae), Pterocnemia (Rheidae) and an undetermined Tyrannidae. The first remains

Marcos Martn Cenizo; Claudia Patricia Tambussi; Claudia Ins Montalvo

2012-01-01

283

Assessment of groundwater quality and contamination problems ascribed to an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa region, Central Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of groundwater quality and its environmental implications in the region of the abandoned Cunha Baixa uranium\\u000a mine (Central Portugal) was carried out from 1995 to 2004. Shallow groundwater is the major water supply source for irrigation\\u000a in the neighbourhood of Cunha Baixa village. Water samples from the mine site as well as from private wells were collected\\u000a in

O. Neves; M. J. Matias

2008-01-01

284

The 3/2 Magnetic Island and Its Effect on the Central Tokamak Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the hybrid discharge scenario in DIII-D, the central plasma evolves into a quasi-steady state without sawtooth. The central safety factor (q) is pegged close to 1 and correlates with the development of a rotating 3/2 magnetic island [1]. The causal relationship between the 3/2 island and the non-sawtoothing of the discharge is investigated. Equilibria modeling the discharge with different central q are analyzed using the PEST-III stability code. The 3/2 island is found to develop a 2/2 side-band with increasing amplitude as the central q approaches 1. This near resonant Alfven wave propagates with enhanced phase speed relative to the background plasma. With sufficient phase speed, the 2/2 side-band could drive currents which impedes the further decrease in q to trigger the sawtooth. The central 2/2 side-band does not lead to appreciable enhanced trapping of the plasma; but does modify the trajectory of the trapped particles and lead to additional transport. 0.5em [1] P.A. Politzer, et al., 32nd EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics, Tarragona, Spain (2005).

Chu, M. S.; Brennan, D. P.

2005-10-01

285

Dynamic, inter-subunit interactions between the N-terminal and central mutation regions of cardiac ryanodine receptor  

PubMed Central

Naturally occurring mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) have been linked to certain types of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Two mutation hotspots that lie in the N-terminal and central regions of RyR2 are predicted to interact with one another and to form an important channel regulator switch. To monitor the conformational dynamics involving these regions, we generated a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair. A yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) was inserted into RyR2 after residue Ser437 in the N-terminal region, and a cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was inserted after residue Ser2367 in the central region, to form a dual YFP- and CFP-labeled RyR2 (RyR2S437-YFP/S2367-CFP). We transfected HEK293 cells with RyR2S437-YFP/S2367-CFP cDNAs, and then examined them by using confocal microscopy and by measuring the FRET signal in live cells. The FRET signals are influenced by modulators of RyR2, by domain peptides that mimic the effects of disease causing RyR2 mutations, and by various drugs. Importantly, FRET signals were also readily detected in cells co-transfected with single CFP (RyR2S437-YFP) and single YFP (RyR2S2367-CFP) labeled RyR2, indicating that the interaction between the N-terminal and central mutation regions is an inter-subunit interaction. Our studies demonstrate that FRET analyses of this CFP- and YFP-labeled RyR2 can be used not only for investigating the conformational dynamics associated with RyR2 channel gating, but potentially, also for identifying drugs that are capable of stabilizing the conformations of RyR2.

Liu, Zheng; Wang, Ruiwu; Tian, Xixi; Zhong, Xiaowei; Gangopadhyay, Jaya; Cole, Richard; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Chen, S. R. Wayne; Wagenknecht, Terence

2010-01-01

286

Variation in stochastic demography between and within central and peripheral regions in a widespread short-lived herb.  

PubMed

Analyzing intraspecific variation in population dynamics in relation to environmental factors is crucial to understand the current and future distributions of plant species. Across ranges, peripheral populations are often expected to show lower and more temporally variable vital rates than central populations, although it remains unclear how much any differences in vital rates actually contribute to differences in population growth rates. Moreover, few demographic studies accounting for environmental stochasticity have been carried out both at continental and regional scales. In this study we calculated stochastic growth rates in five central and six northern peripheral populations of the widespread shortlived herb Plantago coronopus along the Atlantic Coast in Europe. To evaluate at two spatial scales how mean values and variability of vital rates (i.e., fecundity, recruitment, survival, growth, and shrinkage) contributed to the differences in stochastic growth rates, we performed Stochastic Life Table Response Experiment (SLTRE) analyses between and within central and peripheral regions. Additionally, we searched for correlations between vital rate contributions and local environmental conditions. Lower mean values and greater variability for some vital rates in peripheral than in central populations had an overall negative but nonsignificant effect on the stochastic growth rates in the periphery. Different life cycle components accounted for differences in population growth depending on spatial scale, although recruitment was the vital rate with the highest influence both between and within regions. Interestingly, the same pattern of differentiation among populations was found within central and peripheral areas: in both regions, one group of populations displayed positive contributions of growth and shrinkage and negative contributions of recruitment and survival; the opposite pattern was found in the remaining populations. These differences in vital rate contributions among populations within regions were correlated with precipitation regime, whereas at the continental scale, differences in contribution patterns were related to temperature. Altogether, our results show how populations of P. coronopus exhibit life cycle differences that may enable the species to persist in locations with widely varying environmental conditions. This demographic flexibility may help to explain the success of widespread plants across large and heterogeneous ranges. PMID:23923501

Villellas, Jess; Morris, William F; Garca, Mara B

2013-06-01

287

Regional climate model simulation of precipitation in central Asia: Mean and interannual variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how well the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) regional climate model (RegCM2) simulates the mean and interannual variability of precipitation in a semiarid region to more fully establish the strengths and weaknesses of the model as a tool for studying regional scale climate processes. We compare precipitation observations with RegCM2 output from a 5.5 year long simulation

Eric E. Small; Filippo Giorgi; Lisa Cirbus Sloan

1999-01-01

288

Regional geology of nuclear Central America and petroleum prospects of Belize  

SciTech Connect

The subsurface stratigraphy and structural evolution of nuclear Central American are reviewed in the light of new data from Belize. The northern Belize Corozal basin is the southern continuation of the Yucatan platform of Mexico and the eastern extension of the Peten basin of Mexico and Guatemala. The southern Belize basin is contiguous with the Chapayal basin of Guatemala.

Rao, P.R.; Nair, K.M.; Ramanathan, R.

1989-03-01

289

Characterisation of feeding systems of goat farmers in the central region of Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static diagnosis data for 165 goat farmers in three parishes (St Elizabeth, Manchester and Clarendon) in central Jamaica were analysed in order to characterise the feeding systems. Categorical data analysis was used to fit Y by X where Y (dependent variables) were main feed type, forage type, forage delivery method and supplement type, and X (independent variables) were parish, educational

F. H. Asiedu; A. L. Fearon; J. M. Seaton

290

The Esquipulas Process: A Central American Paradigm for Resolving Regional Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

After several unsuccessful but instructive peace initiatives in the early 1980s, the presidents of the five Central American states took their fate into their own hands at an historic meeting in Esquipulas, Guatemala. In August 1987, they signed the Esquipulas II Accord. Although that document did not declare a cease-fire and end decades of fighting, it did lay the foundation

Johanna Oliver

291

Placing the environment in migration: environment, economy, and power in Ghana's Central Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of environmental change as a driver of migration, a central concern of areas of inquiry ranging from the Human Dimensions of Global Change research to population geography and development studies. Although much of the literature on the role of the environment in migration reflects a general awareness that environmental factors are but one of a

Edward R Carr

2005-01-01

292

Conflict and Political Realignment in Post-Soviet Caucasus Region and Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the territory of the Cau- casus and Central Asian, on which eight new states were created, have been the scene of political instability and numerous hostilities. The causes of these conflicts are diverse: from ethnic and political divisions, to the incompatible economic and strategic interests to the ambivalent consequences of the process

IVAN IVEKOVI

293

Regional geology of nuclear Central America and petroleum prospects of Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subsurface stratigraphy and structural evolution of nuclear Central American are reviewed in the light of new data from Belize. The northern Belize Corozal basin is the southern continuation of the Yucatan platform of Mexico and the eastern extension of the Peten basin of Mexico and Guatemala. The southern Belize basin is contiguous with the Chapayal basin of Guatemala.

P. R. Rao; K. M. Nair; R. Ramanathan

1989-01-01

294

Regional Variation in Epiphytic Macrolichen Communities in Northern and Central California Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied epiphytic macrolichen communities in northern and central California to 1) describe how gradients in community composition relate to climate, topography, and stand structure and 2) define subregions of relatively homogeneous lichen communities and environ- mental conditions. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to characterize landscape-level trends in lichen community composition from 211 plots. We found two gradients in lichen

Sarah Jovan; Bruce McCune

2004-01-01

295

DELINEATION OF HOMOGENEOUS FLOOD REGIONS IN CENTRAL INDIA USING SINGLE AND COMPLETE LINKAGE METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of single and complete linkage were used for clustering the flood sites of central India, using attributes such as maximum rainfall in design duration, average ?-index, catchment area, basin slope, length of main stream, and mean annual peak flood data, which have been considered to be responsible for flood generation. Based on clear-cut clusters on the dendrogram. Complete linkage

BHAGABAT P. PARIDA

296

Sonoanatomy relevant for ultrasound-guided central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach in the lumbar region  

PubMed Central

Objectives The use of ultrasound to guide peripheral nerve blocks is now a well-established technique in regional anaesthesia. However, despite reports of ultrasound guided epidural access via the paramedian approach, there are limited data on the use of ultrasound for central neuraxial blocks, which may be due to a poor understanding of spinal sonoanatomy. The aim of this study was to define the sonoanatomy of the lumbar spine relevant for central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach. Methods The sonoanatomy of the lumbar spine relevant for central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach was defined using a water-based spine phantom, young volunteers and anatomical slices rendered from the Visible Human Project data set. Results The water-based spine phantom was a simple model to study the sonoanatomy of the osseous elements of the lumbar spine. Each osseous element of the lumbar spine, in the spine phantom, produced a signature pattern on the paramedian sagittal scans, which was comparable to its sonographic appearance in vivo. In the volunteers, despite the narrow acoustic window, the ultrasound visibility of the neuraxial structures at the L3/L4 and L4/L5 lumbar intervertebral spaces was good, and we were able to delineate the sonoanatomy relevant for ultrasound-guided central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach. Conclusion Using a simple water-based spine phantom, volunteer scans and anatomical slices from the Visible Human Project (cadaver) we have described the sonoanatomy relevant for ultrasound-guided central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach in the lumbar region.

Karmakar, M K; Li, X; Kwok, W H; Ho, A M-H; Ngan Kee, W D

2012-01-01

297

Central African Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: building and strengthening regional workforce capacity in public health.  

PubMed

The Central African Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (CAFELTP) is a 2-year public health leadership capacity building training program. It was established in October 2010 to enhance capacity for applied epidemiology and public health laboratory services in three countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of the program is to develop a trained public health workforce to assure that acute public health events are detected, investigated, and responded to quickly and effectively. The program consists of 25% didactic and 75% practical training (field based activities). Although the program is still in its infancy, the residents have already responded to six outbreak investigations in the region, evaluated 18 public health surveillance systems and public health programs, and completed 18 management projects. Through these various activities, information is shared to understand similarities and differences in the region leading to new and innovative approaches in public health. The program provides opportunities for regional and international networking in field epidemiology and laboratory activities, and is particularly beneficial for countries that may not have the immediate resources to host an individual country program. Several of the trainees from the first cohort already hold leadership positions within the ministries of health and national laboratories, and will return to their assignments better equipped to face the public health challenges in the region. They bring with them knowledge, practical training, and experiences gained through the program to shape the future of the public health landscape in their countries. PMID:22359692

Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Namsenmo, Abel; Illunga, Benoit Kebella; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Kuaban, Christopher; Mbopi-Kou, Francois-Xavier; Gabsa, Wilfred; Mulumba, Leopold; Bangamingo, Jean Pierre; Ngulefac, John; Dahlke, Melissa; Mukanga, David; Nsubuga, Peter

2011-12-14

298

Qualitative Assessment of Selected Regional Training Institutions in West and Central Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of existing African institutions could be developed for use by A.I.D. in third-country training efforts according to this qualitative assessment of the regional training capabilities of 61 regional and national training institutions in West and ...

C. Wise R. Dieterich

1981-01-01

299

The Dilemma of Water Management Regionalization in Mexico under Centralized Resource Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico's evolving water management framework is predicated on: (1) integration of water resources planning and management; (2) decentralization from federal to regional (river basin) levels; and (3) privatization of service provision. This paper focuses on Mexico's recurring federal-regional tensions, highlighting the historical case of the Yaqui River, and analyzing the current decentralization impasse. Although important advances have been made with

CHRISTOPHER A. SCOTT; JEFF M. BANISTER

2008-01-01

300

Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and

Andr Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts

2003-01-01

301

Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin region of south-central Ontario  

SciTech Connect

Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species in the same area in 1972-74. Algonquin Region is a forested area of 43,000 km{sup 2} on the Precambrian shield, and has no major industrial or agricultural development. Except for DDT, which was used in the 1950's and 1960's to control biting insects around tourist establishments, there has been little use of OCIs or PCBs in this area. Their occurrence in the Algonquin Region is most likely due to atmospheric transport.

Steeves, T.; Strickland, M. (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Parry Sound, Ontario (Canada)); Frank, R.; Rasper, J. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)); Douglas, C.W.

1991-03-01

302

Regional-scale CO 2 fluxes over central Sweden by a boundary layer budget method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of CO2 flux and mixing ratio were made on a 100m tower in an area of mixed pine and spruce forest near Uppsala in central Sweden. Free-flight radiosondes were used to measure the height of the convective boundary layer (CBL) over four days in summer 1997. Mass budget equations were applied to calculate fluxes of CO2. The method exploits

P. E. Levy; A. Grelle; A. Lindroth; M. Mlder; P. G. Jarvis; B. Kruijt; J. B. Moncrieff

1999-01-01

303

Regional expression of P2Y 4 receptors in the rat central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

P2Y receptors are G protein-coupled receptors composed of eight known subunits (P2Y1, 2, 4, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14), which are involved in different functions in neural tissue. The present study investigates the expression pattern of P2Y4 receptors in the rat central nervous system (CNS) using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The specificity of\\u000a the immunostaining has been verified by

Xianmin Song; Wei Guo; Qiang Yu; Xiaofeng Liu; Zhenghua Xiang; Cheng He; Geoffrey Burnstock

304

Improved Phase Characterization of Far-Regional Body Wave Arrivals in Central Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At far-regional and near-teleseismic distances the early body-wave coda contains information that is potentially useful to monitoring seismologists. However, waveforms from this distance range are typically under- utilized because of propagation complexit...

A. Ferris A. Stroujkova D. Reiter

2008-01-01

305

The extended gatekeeper: central government and the implementation of EC regional policy in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates the merits of multi-level governance as an explanatory model of EU decision-making. Regional policy implementation is a particularly good case study for evaluating multi-level governance for two reasons. First, because regional policy, along with other EC structural policies, is considered to be at 'the leading edge of multi-level governance'. And, second, because 'Multi-level governance is prominent in

Ian Bache

1999-01-01

306

Effects of fire on regional evapotranspiration in the central Canadian boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in fire regimes are driving the carbon balance of much of the North American boreal forest, but few studies have examined fire-driven changes in evapotranspiration (ET) at a regional scale. This study used a version of the Biome-BGC process model with dynamic and competing vegetation types, and explicit spatial representation of a large (106 km2) region, to simulate the

Benjamin Bond-Lamberty; Scott D. Peckham; Stith T. Gower; BRENT E. EWERS

2009-01-01

307

Currently active regions of decelerating-accelerating seismic strain in central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerating preshock seismic strain in a broad (critical) region and decelerating preshock seismic strain in a narrower (seismogenic) region constitute a model for intermediate-term prediction of strong main shocks. An effort is made in the present work for a forward test of the Decelerating-Accelerating Seismic Strain (D-AS) model by identifying such patterns and estimating the corresponding, probably ensuing, strong main

B. C. Papazachos; E. M. Scordilis; D. G. Panagiotopoulos; C. B. Papazachos; G. F. Karakaisis

2007-01-01

308

High star formation activity in the central region of a distant cluster at z = 1.46  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an unbiased deep [OII] emission survey of a cluster XMMXCS J2215.9-1738 at z = 1.46, the most distant cluster to date with a detection of extended X-ray emission. With wide-field optical and near-infrared cameras (Suprime-Cam and MOIRCS, respectively) on Subaru telescope, we performed deep imaging with a narrow-band filter NB912 (?c = 9139 , ?? = 134 ) as well as broad-band filters (B,z',J and Ks). From the photometric catalogues, we have identified 44 [OII] emitters in the cluster central region of 6 6 arcmin2 down to a dust-free star formation rate (SFR) of 2.6Msolaryr-1 (3?). Interestingly, it is found that there are many [OII] emitters even in the central high-density region. In fact, the fraction of [OII] emitters to the cluster members as well as their SFRs and equivalent widths stay almost constant with decreasing cluster-centric distance up to the cluster core. Unlike clusters at lower redshifts (z <~ 1) where star formation activity is mostly quenched in their central regions, this higher redshift XMMXCS J2215.9-1738 cluster shows its high star formation activity even at its centre, suggesting that we are beginning to enter the formation epoch of some galaxies in the cluster core eventually. Moreover, we find a deficit of galaxies on the red sequence at magnitudes fainter than ~M* + 0.5 on the colour-magnitude diagram. This break magnitude is brighter than that of lower redshift clusters, and it is likely that we are seeing the formation phase of more massive red galaxies in the cluster core at z ~ 1. These results may indicate inside-out and down-sizing propagation of star formation activity in the course of cluster evolution.

Hayashi, Masao; Kodama, Tadayuki; Koyama, Yusei; Tanaka, Ichi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Sadanori

2010-03-01

309

Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (Business as Usual, Falling Behind and Closing the Gap) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and discuss the impact of climate change on future development of the region.

Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

2010-12-01

310

Variations of the tree line and glaciers in the Central and Eastern Altai regions in the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the tree line position and glacier activity in the Central and Eastern Altai regions in the Holocene were reconstructed on the basis of analysis of sixty radiocarbon and eighteen dendrochronological dates. The tree line was higher than now in the Early and Middle Holocene, and the climate was warmer and, likely, more humid. Glaciers advanced in the forests 300, 1400, and 3000-6000 years ago. In the last millennium the forest decline at the upper tree limit occurred in 1206-1256, 1445-1501, and 1642-1736.

Nazarov, A. N.; Solomina, O. N.; Myglan, V. S.

2012-06-01

311

TPM3 and TPM4 gene products segregate to the postsynaptic region of central nervous system synapses  

PubMed Central

Synaptic function in the central nervous system (CNS) is highly dependent on a dynamic actin cytoskeleton in both the pre- and the postsynaptic compartment. Remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton is controlled by tropomyosins, a family of actin-associated proteins which define distinct actin filament populations. Here we show that TPM3 and TPM4 gene products localize to the postsynaptic region in mouse hippocampal neurons. Furthermore our data confirm previous findings of isoform segregation to the pre- and postsynaptic compartments at CNS synapses. These data provide fundamental insights in the formation of functionally distinct actin filament populations at the pre- and post-synapse.

Guven, Kim; Gunning, Peter; Fath, Thomas

2011-01-01

312

Numerical modeling of the three-layered hydrothermal system in the Kuju volcanic region, central Kyushu, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical modeling of hydrothermal systems beneath active volcanoes has been conducted. Their purposes were, however, confined to interpret individual geothermal systems. We constructed a numerical model of the Kuju volcanic region, central Kyushu, Japan using 3-D finite-difference code HYDROTHERM ver.2.2 (Hayba and Ingebritsen, 1994). The central part of Kuju volcano is categorized as an active magmatic hydrothermal system. Otake-Hatchobaru geothermal area, where two geothermal power plants are in operation, is known as a typical liquid dominated hydrothermal system. These two types of geothermal systems are closely located in the region. Moreover, subsurface horizontal temperature distributions in the Kuju volcanic region consist of a three-layered structure. A horizontal temperature anomaly at a depth of -2000m separates into two anomalies at depths of about 0m. Five anomalies appear in the horizontal temperature distribution of 80m depth. Geothermal systems or such characteristics of the thermal structure should be related to the influence of the magma chamber in the region. Existence of molten magma was suggested from seismic observations (Yoshikawa et al., 2005). Therefore, we presumed that the geothermal systems in Otake- Hatchobaru geothermal area and in the central part of Kuju volcano can be explained by a common magma chamber. We determined the calculation time as 40000 based on the age of the latest large pyroclastic flow deposit (Kamata, 1997). The temperature of the magma chamber in the model was maintained at a constant value during the calculation. Parameter studies of crustal permeabilities were conducted to reproduce temperature profiles obtained by logging at shallow depths (NEDO, 1987). The calculated results show that temperature anomalies in the basement rock seemed to be directly affected by the magma chamber. The results also indicate that molten materials have been continuously supplied from the bottom of the magma chamber of Kuju volcano since the last emplacement. High permeability area was assigned in the model as a conduit based on Ehara (1992) in the central part of Kuju volcano. The conduit discharges 100 MW of heat from the surface. It corresponds to the observed heat discharge rate (Ehara et al., 1981).

Araragi, K.; Ehara, S.; Fujimitsu, Y.

2008-12-01

313

A preliminary assessment of earthquake ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and implications to the Las Vegas region  

SciTech Connect

As part of early design studies for the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, the authors have performed a preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of ground shaking. A total of 88 Quaternary faults within 100 km of the site were considered in the hazard analysis. They were characterized in terms of their probability o being seismogenic, and their geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, recurrence model, and slip rate. Individual faults were characterized by maximum earthquakes that ranged from moment magnitude (M{sub w}) 5.1 to 7.6. Fault slip rates ranged from a very low 0.00001 mm/yr to as much as 4 mm/yr. An areal source zone representing background earthquakes up to M{sub w} 6 1/4 = 1/4 was also included in the analysis. Recurrence for these background events was based on the 1904--1994 historical record, which contains events up to M{sub w} 5.6. Based on this analysis, the peak horizontal rock accelerations are 0.16, 0.21, 0.28, and 0.50 g for return periods of 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 10,000 years, respectively. In general, the dominant contributor to the ground shaking hazard at Yucca Mountain are background earthquakes because of the low slip rates of the Basin and Range faults. A significant effect on the probabilistic ground motions is due to the inclusion of a new attenuation relation developed specifically for earthquakes in extensional tectonic regimes. This relation gives significantly lower peak accelerations than five other predominantly California-based relations used in the analysis, possibly due to the lower stress drops of extensional earthquakes compared to California events. Because Las Vegas is located within the same tectonic regime as Yucca Mountain, the seismic sources and path and site factors affecting the seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain also have implications to Las Vegas. These implications are discussed in this paper.

Wong, I.G.; Green, R.K.; Sun, J.I. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Pezzopane, S.K. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Abrahamson, N.A. [Abrahamson (Norm A.), Piedmont, CA (United States); Quittmeyer, R.C. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1996-12-31

314

Modeling groundwater levels on the Calera Aquifer Region in Central Mexico using ModFLow.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A conceptual model for the Calera Aquifer has been created to represent the aquifer system beneath the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The CAR area was uniformly partitioned into a 500 X 500 m grid generating a high resolution model that represented the natural boundar...

315

NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking

K. Brindha; R. Rajesh; R. Murugan; L. Elango

2009-01-01

316

LATE CRETACEOUS MAGMATISM OF THE CHELOPECH REGION, CENTRAL SREDNOGORIE MAGMATIC ZONE, BULGARIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Cretaceous magmatism in Chelopech region is characterised by andesitic, latitic to trachydacitic lava flows (probably products of a chemically zoned magmatic chamber), subvolcanic bodies and altered dykes with latite chemistry. The Sr isotope (0.7049 to 0.7054) signature suggests derivation from melts generated in a mantle source modified by the addition of crustal material from the subducted slab.

S. STOYKOV; Y. YANEV; R. MORITZ; D. FONTIGNIE

317

Simulating Climate Change in Central America Using PRECIS Regional Modeling System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highland tropical forests are rich in endemic species and crucial in maintaining freshwater resources in many regions. Much of their remarkable biodiversity is due to the steep climate gradients found on tropical mountains. These gradients are significantly altered due to warming, affecting many species living on the mountain slopes. Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest shows biological changes associated with changes

A. V. Karmalkar; R. S. Bradley; H. F. Diaz

2006-01-01

318

Regional Geochemical Trends in Young Basalts Along the Central Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional neotectonics and volcanism along the margins of the Anatolian microplate (Turkey) are broadly well-constrained. The African and Arabian plates currently push Anatolia against the relatively stable Eurasian plate and as a result, Anatolia has had a west-southwest movement for the last 12 Ma in what is called `escape tectonics'. The tectonic environments and their associated volcanism include slab

M. Pickard; T. Furman; B. B. Hanan; B. Kurkcuoglu; K. Sayit

2009-01-01

319

GIS-based landslide hazard assessment at regional scale in Sicily (Central Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence, type and abundance of landslides in an area depend on the characteristics of the triggers and on the predisposing conditions. Natural conditions that control these factors include the local and regional morphological and lithological setting, the presence and abundance of geological discontinuities including bedding planes, faults, joints, and cleavage systems, the type and depth of the soil, the

Fabrizio Nigro; Antonino Pisciotta; Marcella Perricone; Pietro Renda; Rocco Favara

2010-01-01

320

Frugivory by Small Vertebrates Within a Deforested, Dry Tropical Region of Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small vertebrates were inventoried within three habitat types in a degraded dry forest region of Panama. Animals were classified as frugivorous if they were observed foraging on fruit or if fecal samples contained mostly or exclusively seeds. Overall, we found that eight bat species and 21 bird species consumed fruit. The greatest numbers of birds were observed within live fences

Heather P. Griscom; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko; Mark S. Ashton

2006-01-01

321

Ecological characterization of the central and northern California coastal region. Volume III, Part 2. Community composition lists  

SciTech Connect

An extensive listing of species for each habitat type is offered in this volume. Many thousands of plant and animal species are found within the central and northern California coastal region. Preparation of a useful list of species required identifying and recognizing the most common or characteristic species of the region. In addition to the common or characteristic plants and animals the list also included commercial, recreational, and rare, threatened, endangered, and fully protected species. An annotated species data entry form was prepared for each species chosen. Entries on the form included scientific and common names, taxonomic division, intermediate group name, distribution by watershed or basin, legal status, habitat, feeding habits, trophic level, abundance, habitat use, and literature references.

Not Available

1981-10-01

322

Effectiveness of traditional climatic responses in the central Texas region in maintaining thermal comfort  

SciTech Connect

Traditional building responses to the Central Texas climate are compared and evaluated in a parametric study. Building parameters of size, shape, orientation, capacitance and resistance values of materials, ceiling height, porch chading devices, and ventilation strategies are simulated using the DEROB computer code. Unassisted thermal comfort parameters of air temperature and mean radiant surface temperature are tabulated by hour into temperature bins to allow comparison of the relative effect of each response. Results indicate that high capacitance materials are more effective in maintaining thermal comfort in winter, and high resistance materials are more effective in summer. Building elongation improves summer performance, but reduces winter performance. Increased ceiling height provides marginal improvement in both winter and summer performance of traditional structures. The presence of a porch shading device improves summer performance slightly, but degrades winter performance by a similar degree. Ventilation strategies also show an improvement in summer building performance.

Bentley, D. (Trinity Univ., San Antonio, TX); Chabannes, G.

1982-01-01

323

There's no place like home: crown-of-thorns outbreaks in the central pacific are regionally derived and independent events.  

PubMed

One of the most significant biological disturbances on a tropical coral reef is a population outbreak of the fecund, corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci. Although the factors that trigger an initial outbreak may vary, successive outbreaks within and across regions are assumed to spread via the planktonic larvae released from a primary outbreak. This secondary outbreak hypothesis is predominantly based on the high dispersal potential of A. planci and the assertion that outbreak populations (a rogue subset of the larger population) are genetically more similar to each other than they are to low-density non-outbreak populations. Here we use molecular techniques to evaluate the spatial scale at which A. planci outbreaks can propagate via larval dispersal in the central Pacific Ocean by inferring the location and severity of gene flow restrictions from the analysis of mtDNA control region sequence (656 specimens, 17 non-outbreak and six outbreak locations, six archipelagos, and three regions). Substantial regional, archipelagic, and subarchipelagic-scale genetic structuring of A. planci populations indicate that larvae rarely realize their dispersal potential and outbreaks in the central Pacific do not spread across the expanses of open ocean. On a finer scale, genetic partitioning was detected within two of three islands with multiple sampling sites. The finest spatial structure was detected at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, between the lagoon and forereef habitats (<10 km). Despite using a genetic marker capable of revealing subtle partitioning, we found no evidence that outbreaks were a rogue genetic subset of a greater population. Overall, outbreaks that occur at similar times across population partitions are genetically independent and likely due to nutrient inputs and similar climatic and ecological conditions that conspire to fuel plankton blooms. PMID:22363570

Timmers, Molly A; Bird, Christopher E; Skillings, Derek J; Smouse, Peter E; Toonen, Robert J

2012-02-17

324

Intraplate earthquakes, regional stress and fault mechanics in the Central and Eastern U.S. and Southeastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing 75 high quality individual earthquake focal plane mechanisms and 10 formal stress inversions we investigate the consistency of regional stress orientations in the central and eastern United States and southeastern Canada, the variation of relative stress magnitudes across the region and the compatibility of slip on optimally-oriented nodal planes with frictional faulting theory. To map faulting styles and relative stress magnitudes across the region of study, we utilize the high quality focal plane mechanisms to calculate the A? parameter (following Angelier, 1979; Simpson, 1997) that ranges from 0 (uniform horizontal extension with SV > > SHmax = Shmin) to 1.5 (strike-slip faulting with SHmax > SV > Shmin) to 3 (uniform horizontal compression with SHmax = Shmin > SV). We find that horizontal stresses become increasingly more compressive with respect to the vertical stress from the south-central United States (characterized predominantly by strike-slip focal mechanisms) toward the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada (predominantly thrust mechanisms). In a manner similar to the study by M.L. Zoback (1992a), which used a much smaller data set, we utilize the Mohr-Coulomb criterion to calculate the difference in orientation between the theoretically-optimal orientation of a fault plane (for various coefficients of friction, ?) and the focal mechanism nodal planes assuming that pore pressure in the brittle crust is hydrostatic. For the 75 focal plane mechanisms utilized in our study, the preferred (better fitting) nodal planes deviate on average only 7 in strike and dip from the theoretically-optimal planes for ? = 0.6. As such minor differences could represent small variations in the stress field (or uncertainties in the focal plane mechanisms), we conclude that nearly all earthquakes in the study region slip in a manner compatible with shear failure on pre-existing faults in the local stress field.

Hurd, Owen; Zoback, Mark D.

2012-12-01

325

There's No Place Like Home: Crown-of-Thorns Outbreaks in the Central Pacific Are Regionally Derived and Independent Events  

PubMed Central

One of the most significant biological disturbances on a tropical coral reef is a population outbreak of the fecund, corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci. Although the factors that trigger an initial outbreak may vary, successive outbreaks within and across regions are assumed to spread via the planktonic larvae released from a primary outbreak. This secondary outbreak hypothesis is predominantly based on the high dispersal potential of A. planci and the assertion that outbreak populations (a rogue subset of the larger population) are genetically more similar to each other than they are to low-density non-outbreak populations. Here we use molecular techniques to evaluate the spatial scale at which A. planci outbreaks can propagate via larval dispersal in the central Pacific Ocean by inferring the location and severity of gene flow restrictions from the analysis of mtDNA control region sequence (656 specimens, 17 non-outbreak and six outbreak locations, six archipelagos, and three regions). Substantial regional, archipelagic, and subarchipelagic-scale genetic structuring of A. planci populations indicate that larvae rarely realize their dispersal potential and outbreaks in the central Pacific do not spread across the expanses of open ocean. On a finer scale, genetic partitioning was detected within two of three islands with multiple sampling sites. The finest spatial structure was detected at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, between the lagoon and forereef habitats (<10 km). Despite using a genetic marker capable of revealing subtle partitioning, we found no evidence that outbreaks were a rogue genetic subset of a greater population. Overall, outbreaks that occur at similar times across population partitions are genetically independent and likely due to nutrient inputs and similar climatic and ecological conditions that conspire to fuel plankton blooms.

Timmers, Molly A.; Bird, Christopher E.; Skillings, Derek J.; Smouse, Peter E.; Toonen, Robert J.

2012-01-01

326

Phosphorus speciation in the sediment and mass balance for the central region of the Great Barrier Reef continental shelf (Australia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid phase P speciation has been determined in sediments from a transect across the central section of the continental shelf and slope of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon. This region is characterized by a gradient of riverine aluminosilicate clay and silt nearshore, seawards of which biogenic carbonate sediment predominates. Phosphorus speciation results show large variations along this transect. Organic P and authigenic (apatite) P are the major chemical forms of phosphorus in the central GBR continental shelf sediments. Post-depositional reorganization of P was also observed, converting organic P and iron bound P (Fe-P) to authigenic (apatite) P. Phosphorus burial rate was estimated from measurements of total P concentration and excess 210Pb sediment mass accumulation rates. Burial efficiency varies significantly over the shelf. Inshore areas showed significant P remobilization from sediments to the water column (up to 50%). The mid and the outer shelf showed little evidence for remobilization (except for coral reef platform sediments), with more of the sediment P being in the less reactive authigenic apatite phases. An appreciable fraction of this non-labile authigenic apatite phase was identified as fish bone. P sources and sinks over the central part of the GBR shelf were quantified using a mass balance approach. This showed that Coral Sea shelf edge upwelling events are essential to satisfy the large P nutrient demand of the whole GBR lagoon. P inputs due to upwelling events were greater than those contributed by local rivers over an average year.

Monbet, Ph.; Brunskill, G. J.; Zagorskis, I.; Pfitzner, J.

2007-06-01

327

To Feed Ourselves. A Proceedings of the First Eastern, Central and Southern Africa Regional Maize Workshop Held at Lusaka, Zambia, March 10-17, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proceedings from a March 1985 workshop on maize research and production in the eastern, central, and southern Africa regions are presented. Eighteen country reports are provided by scientists from Angola, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mal...

1985-01-01

328

Overall Program Design for Comprehensive Regional Planning, Project Programming and Review, and Technical Assistance to Localities, in North Central New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report outlines the future establishment of regional planning, project programming and review, and technical assistance to localities on a continuing basis for North Central New Mexico. Specifically, the study proposes a five-year program for initiati...

1971-01-01

329

Holocene seasonality changes in the central Mediterranean region reconstructed from the pollen sequences of Lake Accesa (Italy) and Tenaghi Philippon (Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents pollen-based climate reconstructions of Holocene temperature and precipitation seasonality for two high-resolution pollen sequences from the central (Lake Accesa, central Italy) and eastern Mediterranean (Tenaghi Philippon, Greece) regions. The quantitative climate reconstruction uses multiple methods to provide an improved assessment of the uncertainties involved in palaeoclimate reconstructions. The multimethod approach comprises Partial Least Squares regression, Weighted Average

Odile Peyron; Simon Goring; Isabelle Dormoy; Ulrich Kotthoff; Jrg Pross; Jacques-Louis de Beaulieu; Ruth Drescher-Schneider; Boris Vannire; Michel Magny

2011-01-01

330

Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both

M. O. Andreae; R. W. Talbot; T. W. Andreae; R. C. Harriss

1988-01-01

331

Seasonal pattern of regional carbon balance in the central Rocky Mountains from surface and airborne measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-elevation forests represent a large fraction of potential carbon uptake in North America, but this uptake is not well constrained by observations. Additionally, forests in the Rocky Mountains have recently been severely damaged by drought, fire, and insect outbreaks, which have been quantified at local scales but not assessed in terms of carbon uptake at regional scales. The Airborne Carbon in the Mountains Experiment was carried out in 2007 partly to assess carbon uptake in western U.S. mountain ecosystems. The magnitude and seasonal change of carbon uptake were quantified by (1) paired upwind-downwind airborne CO2 observations applied in a boundary layer budget, (2) a spatially explicit ecosystem model constrained using remote sensing and flux tower observations, and (3) a downscaled global tracer transport inversion. Top-down approaches had mean carbon uptake equivalent to flux tower observations at a subalpine forest, while the ecosystem model showed less. The techniques disagreed on temporal evolution. Regional carbon uptake was greatest in the early summer immediately following snowmelt and tended to lessen as the region experienced dry summer conditions. This reduction was more pronounced in the airborne budget and inversion than in flux tower or upscaling, possibly related to lower snow water availability in forests sampled by the aircraft, which were lower in elevation than the tower site. Changes in vegetative greenness associated with insect outbreaks were detected using satellite reflectance observations, but impacts on regional carbon cycling were unclear, highlighting the need to better quantify this emerging disturbance effect on montane forest carbon cycling.

Desai, Ankur R.; Moore, David J. P.; Ahue, William K. M.; Wilkes, Phillip T. V.; de Wekker, Stephan F. J.; Brooks, Bjorn G.; Campos, Teresa L.; Stephens, Britton B.; Monson, Russell K.; Burns, Sean P.; Quaife, Tristan; Aulenbach, Steven M.; Schimel, David S.

2011-12-01

332

Numerical study of local/regional atmospheric changes caused by a large solar central receiver power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional numerical atmospheric mesoscale model with a vertical cross section is applied to study the potential local/regional atmospheric effects of the installation of a 100 MWe solar thermal central receiver power plant in California. The plant comprises heliostats (mirrors) covering a portion of ground surface and reflecting sunlight onto a central receiving tower. The model is able to simulate the changes in surface characteristics associated with the installation of heliostats and other power plant ancillaries and can also simulate the effects of waste heat from cooling towers. The model equations are integrated to simulate typical summer and atypical summer. The results for typical summer conditions at the site and in the surrounding region demonstrate that the power plant has the potential to increase local humidity and wind circulation but cannot induce the formation of clouds or rain. The results for atypical summer conditions show that the solar power plant is potentially able to increase the wind circulation and form clouds and rain. It is noted, however, that the life cycle of such formations is only 2-3 h.

Bhumralkar, C. M.; Slemmons, A. J.; Nitz, K. C.

1981-06-01

333

Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it`s new marketing plan.

Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

1996-11-01

334

Eruptive history of the Dieng mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions  

SciTech Connect

The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location. 6 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Miller, C.D.; Sukhyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

1983-01-01

335

40 CFR 81.82 - El Paso-Las Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Cruces-Alamogordo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico-Texas) is revised to consist of the territorial area encompassed...outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Texas: Brewster County, Culberson County, El Paso County,...

2012-07-01

336

Matching from H{sup -} multicusp source to central region of a 100 MeV compact cyclotron for high current injection  

SciTech Connect

The way of matching the beam from an external ion source to the central region of the cyclotron CYCIAE-100 is presented in this article. The transverse acceptances of the central region were calculated, which provided the matching ellipse parameter requirements to the injection transport optics design. The optics of the injection line was simulated using TRANSOPTR, which allowed space charge effect calculation, and neutralization was taken into account.

Yao Hongjuan; Zhang Tianjue; Lu Yinlong; Jia Xianlu; Guan Fengping; Lin Yuzheng [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2008-02-15

337

Canadian groundwater inventory: Regional hydrogeological characterization of the south-central part of the maritimes basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Maritimes Groundwater Initiative (MGWI) is a large, integrated, regional hydrogeological study focusing on a representative area of the Maritimes Basin in eastern Canada. The study area covers a land surface of 10 500 km2, of which 9 400 km2 are underlain by sedimentary rocks. This sedimentary bedrock is composed of a sequence of discontinuous strata of highly variable hydraulic properties, and is generally overlain by a thin layer of glacial till(mostly 4-8 m thick, but can reach 20 m). Depending on the area, 46 to 100% of the population relieson groundwater for water supply, either from municipal wells or from private residential wells. The main objectives of this project were to improve the general understanding of groundwater-flow dynamics and to provide baseline information and tools for a regional groundwater-resource assessment. This bulletin presents the current state of understanding of this hydrogeological system, along with the methodology used to characterize and analyze its distinct behaviour at three different scales. This regional bedrock aquifer system contains confined and unconfined zones, and each of its lenticular permeable strata extends only a few kilometres. Preferential groundwater recharge occurs where sandy till is present. The mean annual recharge rate to the bedrock is estimated to range between 130 and 165 mm/a. Several geological formations of this basin provide good aquifers, with hydraulic conductivity in the range 5x10-6 to 10-4m/s. Based on results of numerical flow modelling, faults were interpreted to have a key role in the regional flow. Pumping-test results revealed that the fractured aquifers can locally be very heterogeneous and anisotropic, but behave similarly to porous media. Work performed at the local scale indicated that most water-producing fractures seem to be subhorizontal and generally oriented in a northeasterly direction, in agreement with regional structures and pumping-test results. Almost all residential wells are shallow (about 20 m) open holes that are cased only through the surficial sediments.

Rivard, C.; Michaud, Y.; Deblonde, C.; Boisvert, V.; Carrier, C.; Morin, R. H.; Calvert, T.; Vigneault, H.; Conohan, D.; Castonguay, S.; Lefebvre, R.; Rivera, A.; Parent, M.

2008-01-01

338

Fighting Rabies in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia - Experts Call for a Regional Initiative for Rabies Elimination.  

PubMed

MEEREB is an informal network of rabies experts from the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, seeking to eliminate rabies from the region. They met for the second time to review the current rabies situation, both globally and in their respective countries, highlighting current rabies control problems and potential solutions. Success stories in Latin America, in Western Europe, in some Asian countries, as well as in Croatia and Serbia prove that elimination of human rabies is achievable in the MEEREB region. It requires political willingness and cooperation of all stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and of Agriculture; adequate management of animal bites through post-exposure prophylaxis; pre-exposure prophylaxis for populations at high risk of rabies exposure, animal vaccination and humane control of stray dog populations. MEEREB members called for a regional initiative for rabies elimination in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. They are confident that the elimination of human rabies of canine origin can be achieved in the region through adopting a One Health approach, and that campaigns for rabies elimination will have significant benefit for public health, including strengthening the structure for control of other zoonoses. PMID:23782901

Aikimbayev, A; Briggs, D; Coltan, G; Dodet, B; Farahtaj, F; Imnadze, P; Korejwo, J; Moiseieva, A; Tordo, N; Usluer, G; Vodopija, R; Vranje, N

2013-06-19

339

Central interstate low-level radioactive waste compact region site exclusionary screening study. Phase I. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 assigns to the states the responsibility for disposal of the low-level radioactive waste generated within their boundaries. It also provides for regional compacts among states to address their needs on a broader basis and permits restriction of the use of regional disposal facilities after January 1, 1986, to generators of low-level waste within the region. Each state, either individually or as a member of a compact, must therefore consider the establishment of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility within its borders. The states of Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Nebraska, and Oklahoma adopted the Central Interstate Low-Level Waste Compact (CILLWC) and legislation was submitted to Congress for consent in June of 1983 legislation is being reintroduced in the 99th Congress. In August of 1984, the CILLWC selected and contracted Dames and Moore to conduct a Phase I-Site Suitability Screening Study for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the five-state region. This report presents the results of the Phase I Screening Study. Dames and Moore reported to the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the CILLWC which provided guidance and comment on work progress and direction.

Not Available

1985-06-01

340

Will there be more dry spells in the future? Results from regional climate models for Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is not expected that a shortage of water supply due to climate change will be a problem in Central Europe during the next decades, there is concern about adverse effects on ecological stability and navigability of rivers and cooling of power plants due to extended dry spells. The 4th IPCC report summarizes the effects on precipitation for Europe based on global climate models (GCMs) simulations as follows: In northern Europe the climate will get moister - especially during winter - and the Mediterranean region will become much drier during this century than it is today. Central Europe lies in the transition region between the two regimes and simulations with current GCMs do not give a consistent picture of the precipitation characteristics during the 21st century. On the other hand, results of regional climate models (RCMs) suggest that there is a large small-scale variability of precipitation changes with increases and decreases just a few tens of kilometers apart. In this study we will use a set of high-resolution RCM simulations - based on different GCM realizations and emission scenarios - to obtain estimates of the upcoming changes in the occurrence of droughts in Central Europe. The simulation results are taken from the COSMO-CLM with a horizontal resolution of 18 km and 7 km and the REMO model with 10 km resolution. All RCM simulations obtain their boundary values from ECHAM5 simulations. The evaluation and reference period is 1971-2000 and the main scenario period is 2011-2040 to account for the time frame of planning purposes. In addition, there will be an outlook towards the changes expected towards the end of the 21st century. We will first discuss the evaluation of the simulations against observation data with respect to their ability to represent the frequency distribution of dry episodes especially during summer when the impact of dry spells will be largest. A reasonable agreement was found for episodes with return periods up to about 10 years. The RCM climate projections indicate a decrease in summer precipitation and an increase in the number of dry days, especially in some river valleys. Finally, the consistency of the regional change patterns will be discussed by considering an ensemble of simulation results consisting of different models, realizations and scenarios.

Feldmann, H.; Schdler, G.; Panitz, H. J.

2009-04-01

341

Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region  

PubMed Central

Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiab-Santarm highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Par state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajs rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic growth increases the risk of AIDS transmission and violence. Highways connect secluded localities and may threaten local populations. This region has been undergoing rapid localized development booms, thus creating outposts of rapid and temporary migration, which may introduce health risks to remote areas.

2010-01-01

342

Geology and hydrocarbon habitat of the Amu-Darya region (central Asia)  

SciTech Connect

The Amu-Darya region, shared by the Soviet Republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tadzhikistan, is the second-largest gas province of the USSSR after western Siberia both production and reserves. Its more than 180 gas, gas-condensate, and minor oil fields include 6 giants with reserves of over 3 tcf, such as the Sovietabad field of eastern Turkmenistan, which in 1989 produced nearly 1 tcf of gas and which had an initial recoverable reserve of 38 tcf of gas. oil in addition to gas is produced mainly in the eastern Uzbekian and Tadzhikian parts. The region represents a large depression covering the southeastern portion of the epi-Hercynian Turan platform to the north of the Alpine-Himalayan fold belts of northeastern Iran and northern Afghanistan. Continental, paralic, lagoonal, and shallow-marine environments characterized Mesozoic-Tertiary platform sedimentation, with maximum sediment thicknesses of about 10 km in the Alpine foredeeps at the southern platform margin. Large amounts of essentially gas-prone organic matter accumulated in the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic. Main hydrocarbon reservoirs are Callovian-Oxfordian shelf-platform and reefal carbonates under cover of thick Kimmeridgian-Tithonian salt, and shale-sealed Lower Cretaceous continental and near-shore deltaic sandstones. In the Tadzhik basin in the extreme east, oil is contained in Lower Tertiary fractured carbonates interbedded with bituminous shales. Synsedimentary differential movements and gently folding in the Miocene to Pliocene were the main trap mechanisms. The region has still a considerable undrilled future potential, particularly in its deeper southern parts.

Stoecklin, J.; Orassianou, T. (Petroconsultants S.A., Geneva (Switzerland))

1991-08-01

343

Effects of fire on regional evapotranspiration in the central Canadian boreal forest  

SciTech Connect

Changes in fire regimes are driving the carbon balance of much of the North American boreal forest, but few studies have examined fire-driven changes in evapotranspiration (ET) at a regional scale. This study used a version of the Biome-BGC process model with dynamic and competing vegetation types, and explicit spatial representation of a large (106 km2) region, to simulate the effects of wildfire on ET and its components from 1948 to 2005 by comparing the fire dynamics of the 1948-1967 period with those of 1968-2005. Simulated ET averaged, over the entire temporal and spatial modeling domain, 323 mm yr-1; simulation results indicated that changes in fire in recent decades decreased regional ET by 1.4% over the entire simulation, and by 3.9% in the last ten years (1996-2005). Conifers dominated the transpiration (EC) flux (120 mm yr-1) but decreased by 18% relative to deciduous broadleaf trees in the last part of the 20th century, when increased fire resulted in increased soil evaporation, lower canopy evaporation, lower EC and a younger and more deciduous forest. Well- and poorly-drained areas had similar rates of evaporation from the canopy and soil, but EC was twice as high in the well-drained areas. Mosses comprised a significant part of the evaporative flux to the atmosphere (22 mm yr-1). Modeled annual ET was correlated with net primary production, but not with temperature or precipitation; ET and its components were consistent with previous field and modeling studies. Wildfire is thus driving significant changes in hydrological processes, changes that may control the future carbon balance of the boreal forest.

Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Peckham, Scott D.; Gower, Stith T.; Ewers, Brent

2009-04-08

344

Zooming in on the central regions of a radio-loud AGN -- 3C120  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3C120 is a bright radio-loud AGN (RLAGN) in which a clear disk-jet connection has been established. We will present the best snapshot to date of the central engine structure in any RLAGN, taken with Suzaku in Febuary 2012. To place this deep Suzaku stare into the context of the disk-disruption/jet-ejection cycles displayed by this object, we also have a monitoring of the source in the UV/X-ray (Swift) and radio bands (UMRAO, VLBA) for half-year around the deep stare. The Swift monitoring provides important information on disk activity in both corona (XRT) and thermal disk emission (UVOT) during the Suzaku and radio campaigns. This places the Suzaku observation in context with the disk and jet (radio) cycles of activity and therefore provide us with the detailed knowledge of the continuum shape and variability. Utilizing this unprecedented knowledge of the continuum, we constrain the accretion disk parameters in this radio-loud AGN from the broad iron line and search for ultra-fast outflows in the iron K band. Taken as a whole, this campaign will give a detailed view of the physics of a RLAGN.

Lohfink, Anne; Miller, Jon; Nowak, Michael A.; Reynolds, Christopher; Mushotzky, Richard

2012-07-01

345

Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary and paleovegetation history of the eastern Solimes Basin, central Amazon region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palynological and stratigraphical analyses were carried out on the outcrops of the Solimes River to present new information about freshwater paleoenvironments of a fluvial-deltaic and meandering river system, evaluate the vegetation changes in the upper Solimes and I Formations in the eastern Solimes Basin, and the role of the Purus Arc in the evolution of central Amazon during the upper Neogene. The upper Miocene to Pliocene Solimes Formation is related to a fluvial-deltaic system, with fine-grained sediments of the prodelta-lacustrine environment supplied by meandering distributaries and delta front environment. The lake and distributaries were surrounded by extensive deltaic and floodplains colonized by lowland freshwater forests under wet climate conditions, persisting until the Pliocene. The I Formation started to deposit unconformably on the Solimes Formation during the Pleistocene, following the development of extensive meandering channels surrounded by floodplains of an essentially fluvial system linked to development of the present eastward direction of the Amazon River until the Atlantic coast. These floodplains were colonized by few palm species and pteridophytes of lowland freshwater forests during the Pleistocene. Additionally, no algae and fungi were observed, which may be related to drier climate conditions and/or different morphological conditions than the upper Solimes Formation.

Nogueira, Afonso Csar Rodrigues; Silveira, Rosemery; Guimares, Jos Tasso Felix

2013-10-01

346

Seismic interpretation and thrust tectonics of the Amadeus Basin, central Australia, along the BMR regional seismic line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the northern margin of the Amadeus Basin the monoclinal upturn (the MacDonnell Homocline) is interpreted to be the result of rotation and limited back-thrusting of the sedimentary sequence in front of a southerly-directed, imbricate basement thrust-wedge. This thrust complex is linked at depth to the crust-cutting Redbank Thrust Zone. In the northern part of the basin immediately to the south, regional seismic reflection profiling across the Missionary Plain shows a sub-horizontal, north-dipping, parautochthonous sedimentary sequence between about 8.5 km and 12.0 km thick. This sedimentary sequence shows upturning only at the northern and southern extremities, and represents an unusual, relatively undeformed region between converging thrust systems. In this intervening region, the crust appears to have been tilted downwards and northwards in response to the upthrusting to the north. Still farther to the south, the vertical uplift of the southern hanging wall of the Gardiner Thrust is about 6 km. Seismic reflection profiling in the region immediately south of the Gardiner Thrust indicates repetition of the sedimentary sequence. At the far end of the profile, in the Kernot Range, an imbricate thrust system fans ahead of a ramp-flat thrust pair. This thrust system (the Kernot Range Thrust System) occurs immediately north of an aeromagnetic domain boundary which marks the southern limit of a central ridge region characterized by thin Palaeozoic sedimentary cover and shallow depths to magnetic basement. A planar seismic event, imaged to a depth of at least 18 km, may correspond to the same boundary and is interpreted as a pre-basin Proterozoic thrust. Overall, the structure in the shallow sedimentary section in the central-southern region of the Amadeus Basin indicates that north-directed thrusting during the Dovonian-Carboniferous Alice Springs Orogeny was thin-skinned. During this orogeny an earlier thrust system, formed during the Petermann Ranges Orogeny and precursor orogenies in the Late Proterozoic, was reactivated with Proterozoic salt deposits localising the decollement zone. The Alice Springs Orogeny also reactivated a major mid Proterozoic province boundary in the basement to the north of the basin, resulting in major thrust movement at the northern basin margin.

Shaw, Russell D.; Korsch, Russell J.; Wright, C.; Goleby, B. R.

347

Central nervous system neurons migrate on astroglial fibers from heterotypic brain regions in vitro.  

PubMed Central

In different regions of the developing mammalian brain, neurons follow the processes of radial glial cells over very different trajectories to reach their destinations in specific neuronal layers. To investigate whether the movement of neurons along glial fibers is specified by glia in a given region or whether glia provide a permissive substrate for migration in different brain regions, we purified neurons and astroglial cells from developing cerebellum and hippocampus and analyzed neuronal migration on heterotypic glial fibers with time-lapse, video-enhanced differential interference microscopy in vitro. Granule neurons purified from early postnatal rat cerebellum migrated on astroglial processes of glia purified from late embryonic or early postnatal rat hippocampus with a cytology, neuron-glial relationship, and dynamics of movement that were indistinguishable from those of mouse granule cells migrating on cerebellar astroglial processes in vitro [Edmondson, J. C. & Hatten, M. E. (1987) J. Neurosci. 7, 1928-1934]. In the reciprocal combination, hippocampal neurons migrated on cerebellar glial processes in a manner that was also remarkably similar to migration along homotypic, hippocampal glial fibers [Gasser, U. E. & Hatten, M. E. (1990) J. Neurosci. 10, 1276-1285]. In all cases, migrating neurons had a characteristic appearance, apposing their cell soma against the glial fiber and extending in the direction of migration a motile, leading process that enfolded the glial fiber with short filopodia and lamellipodia. As seen by video microscopy, neurons moved along homotypic and heterotypic glial processes by translocation of the soma and were not "pulled" forward by the leading process. As the neuron moved, the nucleus remained in the posterior portion of the cell and cytoplasmic vesicles moved forward from the soma into the leading process. The dynamics of the movement of neurons along heterotypic glial substrates, including the speed and periodicity of motion, was identical to that of neurons migrating along homotypic glial substrates. These experiments suggest that the mechanism of movement of neurons along glial fibers is conserved in these two brain regions during development. Images

Gasser, U E; Hatten, M E

1990-01-01

348

Central nervous system neurons migrate on astroglial fibers from heterotypic brain regions in vitro.  

PubMed

In different regions of the developing mammalian brain, neurons follow the processes of radial glial cells over very different trajectories to reach their destinations in specific neuronal layers. To investigate whether the movement of neurons along glial fibers is specified by glia in a given region or whether glia provide a permissive substrate for migration in different brain regions, we purified neurons and astroglial cells from developing cerebellum and hippocampus and analyzed neuronal migration on heterotypic glial fibers with time-lapse, video-enhanced differential interference microscopy in vitro. Granule neurons purified from early postnatal rat cerebellum migrated on astroglial processes of glia purified from late embryonic or early postnatal rat hippocampus with a cytology, neuron-glial relationship, and dynamics of movement that were indistinguishable from those of mouse granule cells migrating on cerebellar astroglial processes in vitro [Edmondson, J. C. & Hatten, M. E. (1987) J. Neurosci. 7, 1928-1934]. In the reciprocal combination, hippocampal neurons migrated on cerebellar glial processes in a manner that was also remarkably similar to migration along homotypic, hippocampal glial fibers [Gasser, U. E. & Hatten, M. E. (1990) J. Neurosci. 10, 1276-1285]. In all cases, migrating neurons had a characteristic appearance, apposing their cell soma against the glial fiber and extending in the direction of migration a motile, leading process that enfolded the glial fiber with short filopodia and lamellipodia. As seen by video microscopy, neurons moved along homotypic and heterotypic glial processes by translocation of the soma and were not "pulled" forward by the leading process. As the neuron moved, the nucleus remained in the posterior portion of the cell and cytoplasmic vesicles moved forward from the soma into the leading process. The dynamics of the movement of neurons along heterotypic glial substrates, including the speed and periodicity of motion, was identical to that of neurons migrating along homotypic glial substrates. These experiments suggest that the mechanism of movement of neurons along glial fibers is conserved in these two brain regions during development. PMID:2352935

Gasser, U E; Hatten, M E

1990-06-01

349

Notes on Cordyceps species Collected from the Central Region of Nepal  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out to explore the Cordyceps species and other entomopathogenic fungal flora around Kathmandu Valley and a few high altitude locations of Nepal. In this paper, we report eight Cordyceps species as new to Nepal: C. gracilis, C. ishikariensis, C. liangshanensis, C. martialis, C. militaris, C. pruinosa, C. sphecocephala and C. tricentri. We also mention a few allied genera such as Beauveria, Hirsutella and Paecilomyces from Nepal. Further collections from different ecological regions of Nepal will show the richness of entomopathogenic fungal floral diversity of Nepal.

Shrestha, Bhushan

2005-01-01

350

Population decline in the central region of Russian Federation (1990-2010).  

PubMed

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 the mortality reached 1.807.400 people in 1992, with the birthrate falling to 1.587.600 people. The process of depopulation began. Nearly 2 million people died annually in Russia according to the official data of the Russian Federal State Statistics Service in 1993-2010. A special and a very serious problem is a middle-aged men mortality that is 7-8 times higher, than in the developed countries. From 1992 to 2010 in Russia died 40.812.000 people, born - 26.568.000. Total decline amounted to 13.344.000 people. The present study considers some social-economic and ecological processes which promoted the growth of negative indicators in population dynamics. We compared the mortality and decline of the population in different regions of Russia and showed that there is a correlation between alcohol mortality and decrease of population. A confessional factor is very important also. The mortality rate is far below the average for the country in those territories of Russia, where the population is predominantly Muslim. The demographic transition in Russia is characterized not only by a drop in fertility, as in the other developed countries, but also by increase in mortality. The mortality is a real indicator of the socio-economic and demographic situation for this or that region of Russia and it should be used by the authorities of different levels in the development of the area. PMID:23390798

Grigulevich, Nadezda I

2012-12-01

351

Biotin is endogenously expressed in select regions of the rat central nervous system.  

PubMed

The vitamin biotin is an endogenous molecule that acts as an important cofactor for several carboxylases in the citric acid cycle. Disorders of biotin metabolism produce neurological symptoms that range from ataxia to sensory loss, suggesting the presence of biotin in specific functional systems of the CNS. Although biotin has been described in some cells of nonmammalian nervous systems, the distribution of biotin in mammalian CNS is virtually unknown. We report the presence of biotin in select regions of rat CNS, as revealed with a monoclonal antibody directed against biotin and with avidin- and streptavidin-conjugated labels. Detectable levels of biotin were primarily found caudal to the diencephalon, with greatest expression in the cerebellar motor system and several brainstem auditory nuclei. Biotin was found as a somatic label in cerebellar Purkinje cells, in cell bodies and proximal dendrites of cerebellar deep nuclear neurons, and in red nuclear neurons. Biotin was detected in cells of the spiral ganglion, somata and proximal dendrites of cells in the cochlear nuclei, superior olivary nuclei, medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, and nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. Biotin was further found in pontine nuclei and fiber tracts, the substantia nigra pars reticulata, lateral mammillary nucleus, and a small number of hippocampal interneurons. Biotin was detected in glial cells of major tract systems throughout the brain but was most prominent in tracts of the hindbrain. Biotin is thus expressed in select regions of rat CNS with a distribution that correlates to the known clinical sequelae associated with biotin deficiencies. PMID:15067720

McKay, Bruce E; Molineux, Michael L; Turner, Ray W

2004-05-17

352

Characteristics of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Observed in the Central Region of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity waves observations were carried out at Palmas (10.16o S, 48.26o W) Brazil, between September 2007 and December 2008, using an all-sky airglow imager to measure the OH emis-sion. The gravity waves were divided in two groups following they morphology as band and ripples type waves. The main characteristics of the band type waves are: horizontal wavelength between 10-35 km; observed period raging from 5 to 25 minutes; observed phase speed between 5-60 m/s. Preferential propagation directions of the bands are northward and southward, show-ing a clear anisotropy. For the ripples the main wave parameters are: horizontal wavelength ranging between 5 and 15 km; observed period mainly distributed between 5 and 15 minutes and horizontal phase velocity from 5 to 30 m/s. The ripples showed the same anisotropy as in the preferential propagation direction as the band type waves. The gravity wave characteristics observed at Palmas were compared with other observations carried out in Brazil, showing simi-lar features. In order to explain the seasonal variation of the wave propagation direction, maps of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (ORL) were used to locate regions with intense deep con-vection (OLR < 220 W.m-2 ) in the lower atmosphere. During summer and autumn the wave sources regions are well correlated with deep convection areas located at west and northwest of Palmas.

Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Messias Almeida, Lazaro; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Valentin Bageston, Jos; Pillat, Valdir G.; Lima, Washington L. C.

353

Near-Infrared Molecular Hydrogen Emission from the Central Regions of Galaxies: Regulated Physical Conditions in the Interstellar Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central regions of many interacting and early-type spiral galaxies are actively forming stars. This process affects the physical and chemical properties of the local interstellar medium, as well as the evolution of the galaxies. We observed near-infrared H2 emission lines: v=1-0 S(1), 3-2 S(3), 1-0 S(0), and 2-1 S(1) from the central ~1 kpc regions of the archetypical starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 and the less dramatic but still vigorously star-forming galaxies NGC 6946 and IC 342. Like the far-infrared continuum luminosity, the near-infrared H2 emission luminosity can directly trace the amount of star formation activity because the H2 emission lines arise from the interaction between hot and young stars and nearby neutral clouds. The observed H2 line ratios show that both thermal excitation and nonthermal excitation are responsible for the emission lines but that the great majority of the near-infrared H2 line emission in these galaxies arises from energy states excited by ultraviolet fluorescence. The derived physical conditions, e.g., far-ultraviolet radiation field and gas density, from [C II] and [O I] lines and far-infrared continuum observations when used as inputs to photodissociation models also explain the luminosity of the observed H2 1-0 S(1) line. The ratio of the H2 1-0 S(1) line to far-IR continuum luminosity is remarkably constant over a broad range of galaxy luminosities: LH2/LFIR~=10-5, in normal late-type galaxies (including the Galactic center), in nearby starburst galaxies, and in luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs: LFIR>1011 Lsolar). Examining this constant ratio in the context of photodissociation region models, we conclude that it implies that the strength of the incident UV field on typical molecular clouds follows the gas density at the cloud surface.

Pak, Soojong; Jaffe, D. T.; Stacey, G. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Klumpe, Eric W.; Keller, Luke D.

2004-07-01

354

A conserved central region of yeast Ada2 regulates the histone acetyltransferase activity of Gcn5 and interacts with phospholipids.  

PubMed

The SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase) complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains more than 20 components that acetylate and deubiquitylate nucleosomal histones. Its acetyltransferase, Gcn5, preferentially acetylates histones H3 and H2B and is regulated through interactions with Ada2 and Ngg1/Ada3. Sequence alignments of Ada2 homologs indicate a conserved approximately 120-amino-acid-residue central region. To examine the function of this region, we constructed ada2 alleles with mutations of clustered conserved residues. One of these alleles, ada2-RLR (R211S, L212A, and R215A), resulted in an approximately threefold reduction in transcriptional activation of the PHO5 gene and growth changes that parallel deletion of ada2. Microarray analyses further revealed that ada2-RLR alters expression of a subset of those genes affected by deletion of ada2. Indicative of Ada2-RLR affecting Gcn5 function, Ada2-RLR resulted in a decrease in Gcn5-mediated histone acetylation in vitro to a level approximately 40% that with wild-type Ada2. In addition, in vivo acetylation of K16 of histone H2B was almost totally eliminated at Ada2-regulated promoters in the ada2-RLR strain, while acetylation of K9 and K18 of histone H3 was reduced to approximately 40% of wild-type levels. We also show that the central region of Ada2 interacts with phospholipids. Since phosphatidylserine binding paralleled Ada2 function, we suggest that lipid binding may play a role in the function or regulation of the SAGA complex. PMID:18950642

Hoke, Stephen M T; Genereaux, Julie; Liang, Gaoyang; Brandl, Christopher J

2008-10-11

355

[Chagas disease in the central region of Honduras: knowledge, beliefs, and practices].  

PubMed

From November to December 1991 and in March 1993 a survey was conducted in 17 rural communities located in Central Honduras. The communities belonged to two areas where Chagas' disease is endemic. In one of them, disease control activities had been conducted. A total of 849 adults, one in each of an equal number of households, was interviewed. The objective of the survey was to investigate and compare in both locations knowledge about Chagas' disease and its routes of transmission, measures aimed at avoiding the presence of triatomines within households, beliefs surrounding the vector and its control, and the population's sources of information about the disease. A 23-item questionnaire was tested and precoded. Almost 100% of the subjects who were surveyed were able to identify the vector and to describe its habits, but only 30.1% knew that Triatoma is the vector for the disease and only about 6% associated it with a chronic heart condition. Around 47.9% of survey subjects indicated that eliminating triatomines from households is a personal responsibility, although 78% identified as the control measure the institutional application of insecticides. Personal contact between a health worker and community members was the chief source of information for those who mentioned having heard of Chagas' disease (41.0%). These results suggest that health education should be included as a component in the planification of control programs. The role played by triatomines in disease transmission should be emphasized, as well as the importance of carrying out household improvements, with community participation, as an effective and sustainable measure. To achieve greater impact, this component should be developed through interpersonal communication channels. PMID:9567649

Avila Montes, G; Martnez Hernndez, M; Ponce, C; Ponce, E; Soto Hernndez, R

1998-03-01

356

Crustal structure of east central Oregon: relation between Newberry Volcano and regional crustal structure  

SciTech Connect

A 180-km-long seismic refraction transect from the eastern High Cascades, across Newberry Volcano, to the eastern High Lava Plains is used to investigate the subvolcanic crustal and upper mantle velocity structure there. Near-surface volcanic flows and sedimentary debris (1.6--4.7 km/s), ranging from 3 to 5 km in thickness, overlie subvolcanic Basin and Range structures. East and west of Newberry Volcano, the subvolcanic basement (5.6 km/s) has been downwarped, producing 5-km-deep basins. The midcrust (8- to 28-km depth) is characterized by velocities ranging from 6.1 to 6.5 km/s and varies laterally in thicknesses. The lowercrust is characterized by an unusually high velocity (about 7.4 km/s), and its geometry mirrors the subvolcanic basement geometry. The Moho is located at a depth of 37 km and represents a transition to an upper mantle velocity of 8.1 km/s. The shallow subsurface (1.2 km) beneath Newberry Volcano is characterized by high-velocity (5.6 km/s, versus 4.1 km/s for the surrounding area) intrusions and appears to be located on a basement high. Beneath the seismic fraction array at Newberry Volcano, an absence of low-velocity anomalies suggests that large silicic magma chambers do not exist in the upper crust, but apparent high attenuation of the seismic wave field may be consistent with either partial melts in small volumes, elevated crustal temperatures, and/or poor geophone-recording site coupling. The east central Oregon velocity structure is nearly identical to that of the northwestern Nevada Basin and Range and the Modoc Plateau of northeastern California, and variations in the deep crustal structure about Newberry Volcano are consistent with tectonism involving crustal underplating, melting, and extension.

Catchings, R.D.; Mooney, W.D.

1988-09-10

357

Regionality of Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Feedback in the Central United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture has been found to greatly impact the partitioning of energy fluxes at the surface-atmosphere interface and thus precipitation systems. Using the NCAR/Penn State mesoscale model MM5 with the NOAH land surface scheme, this study carried out four experiments to examine this impact along with soil moisture- precipitation feedbacks over different regions of varying climate regimes. The first and second experiments were performed by multiplying the initial soil moisture values by 0.5 and 1.5 (SMinitX0.5 and SMinitX1.5) for the 1-month simulation. The third and forth experiments were carried out by forcing the soil moisture to the saturation and wilting-point values (SatSM and WiltSM) throughout the month-long simulation. The SMinitX0.5 and SMinitX1.5 mimic circumstances with pre-existing abnormally dry or wet soil conditions, while SatSM and WiltSM represent situations where the soil surface was kept at extreme levels and not allowed to dry out or recharge for the month. The results show that on a sub-seasonal scale (a month) during summer, in the dry Great Plains region, soil moisture can have a significant effect on both local atmospheric processes, and downstream remote atmospheric structure and stability. In contrast in the relatively wet Midwest, soil moisture was found to have a much weaker influence. The differences in soil moisture effects are associated with varying responses of boundary-layer heights, convective stability, and the low-level jets. In the Great Plains where the boundary layer is deeper and convection is more surfaced-based, soil moisture tends to play a larger role, whereas in the Midwest where the boundary layer is generally shallower and convection is more elevated, soil moisture plays a smaller role. Among all four experiments, the SatSM simulation produced shallowest boundary layer and weakest low-level jets, and thus resulted in the least amount of rainfall for both regions, suggesting that soil moisture has a negative feedback on precipitation in this case. The results also show that the resultant rainfall sensitivity to soil moisture changes were larger than evapotranspiration, reflecting the nonlinear interactions among rainfall and evapotranspiration. In the Great Plains the rainfall change was five times that of evapotranspiration, meaning that the nonlinear atmospheric processes such as horizontal convergence can significantly augment resultant rainfall increase from increased evaporation.

Tentinger, B.; Pan, Z.

2006-12-01

358

Perinatal outcomes among immigrant mothers over two periods in a region of central Italy  

PubMed Central

Background The number of immigrants has increased in Italy in the last twenty years (7.2% of the Italian population), as have infants of foreign-born parents, but scanty evidence on perinatal outcomes is available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether infants of foreign-born mothers living in Italy have different odds of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to those of native-born mothers, and if such measures changed over two periods. Methods The source of this area-based study was the regional hospital discharge database that records perinatal information on all births in the Lazio region. We analysed 296,739 singleton births born between 1996-1998 and 2006-2008. The exposure variable was the mother's region of birth. We considered five outcomes of perinatal health. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the association between mother's region of birth and perinatal outcomes. Results Perinatal outcomes were worse among infants of immigrant compared to Italian mothers, especially for sub-Saharan and west Africans, with the following crude ORs (in 1996-1998 and 2006-2008 respectively): 1.80 (95%CI:1.44-2.28) and 1.95 (95%CI:1.72-2.21) for very preterm births, and 1.32 (95%CI:1.16-1.50) and 1.32 (95%CI:1.25-1.39) for preterm births; 1.18 (95%CI:0.99-1.40) and 1.17 (95%CI:1.03-1.34) for a low Apgar score; 1.22 (95%CI:1.15-1.31) and 1.24 (95%CI:1.17-1.32) for the presence of respiratory diseases; 1.47 (95%CI:1.30-1.66) and 1.45 (95%CI:1.34-1.57) for the need for special or intensive neonatal care/in-hospital deaths; and 1.03 (95%CI:0.93-1.15) and 1.07 (95%CI:1.00-1.15) for congenital malformations. Overall, time did not affect the odds of outcomes differently between immigrant and Italian mothers and most outcomes improved over time among all infants. None of the risk factors considered confounded the associations. Conclusion Our findings suggest that migrant status is a risk factor for adverse perinatal health. Moreover, they suggest that perinatal outcomes improved over time in some immigrant women. This could be due to a general improvement in immigrants' health in the past decade, or it may indicate successful application of policies that increase accessibility to mother-child health services during the periconception and prenatal periods for legal and illegal immigrant women in Italy.

2011-01-01

359

Thermal equilibrium of pure electron plasmas across a central region of magnetic surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the equilibria of plasmas created by emission from a biased filament located off the magnetic axis in the Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) [T. S. Pedersen, J. P. Kremer, R. G. Lefrancois et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 50, 372 (2006)] show that such plasmas have equilibrium properties consistent with the inner surfaces being in a state of cross-surface thermal equilibrium. Numerical solutions to the equilibrium equation were used to fit the experimental data and demonstrate consistency with cross-surface thermal equilibrium. Previous experiments in CNT showed that constant temperatures across magnetic surfaces are characteristic of CNT plasmas, implying thermal confinement times much less than particle confinement times. These results show that when emitting off axis there is a volume of inner surfaces where diffusion into that region is balanced by outward transport, producing a Boltzmann distribution of electrons. When combined with the low thermal energy confinement time this is a cross-surface thermal equilibrium.

Hahn, Michael; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2009-06-15

360

The Beijing genotype and drug resistant tuberculosis in the Aral Sea region of Central Asia  

PubMed Central

Background After the collapse of the Soviet Union, dramatically increasing rates of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) have been reported from several countries. This development has been mainly attributed to the widespread breakdown of TB control systems and declining socio-economic status. However, recent studies have raised concern that the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis might be contributing to the epidemic through its widespread presence and potentially enhanced ability to acquire resistance. Methods A total of 397 M. tuberculosis strains from a cross sectional survey performed in the Aral Sea region in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have been analysed by drug susceptibility testing, IS6110 fingerprinting, and spoligotyping. Results Fifteen isolates showed mixed banding patterns indicating simultaneous infection with 2 strains. Among the remaining 382 strains, 152 (40%) were grouped in 42 clusters with identical fingerprint and spoligotype patterns. Overall, 50% of all isolates were Beijing genotype, with 55% of these strains appearing in clusters compared to 25% of non-Beijing strains. The percentage of Beijing strains increased with increasing drug resistance among both new and previously treated patients; 38% of fully-susceptible isolates were Beijing genotype, while 75% of MDR-TB strains were of the Beijing type. Conclusion The Beijing genotype is a major cause of tuberculosis in this region, it is strongly associated with drug resistance, independent of previous tuberculosis treatment and may be strongly contributing to the transmission of MDR-TB. Further investigation around the consequences of Beijing genotype infection for both tuberculosis transmission and outcomes of standard short course chemotherapy are urgently needed.

Cox, Helen Suzanne; Kubica, Tanja; Doshetov, Daribay; Kebede, Yared; Rusch-Gerdess, Sabine; Niemann, Stefan

2005-01-01

361

Criteria for Selecting and Adjusting Ground-Motion Models for Specific Target Regions: Application to Central Europe and Rock Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vital component of any seismic hazard analysis is a model for predicting the expected distribution of ground motions at a site due to possible earthquake scenarios. The limited nature of the datasets from which such models are derived gives rise to epistemic uncertainty in both the median estimates and the associated aleatory variability of these predictive equations. In order to capture this epistemic uncertainty in a seismic hazard analysis, more than one ground-motion prediction equation must be used, and the tool that is currently employed to combine multiple models is the logic tree. Candidate ground-motion models for a logic tree should be selected in order to obtain the smallest possible suite of equations that can capture the expected range of possible ground motions in the target region. This is achieved by starting from a comprehensive list of available equations and then applying criteria for rejecting those considered inappropriate in terms of quality, derivation or applicability. Once the final list of candidate models is established, adjustments must be applied to achieve parameter compatibility. Additional adjustments can also be applied to remove the effect of systematic differences between host and target regions. These procedures are applied to select and adjust ground-motion models for the analysis of seismic hazard at rock sites in West Central Europe. This region is chosen for illustrative purposes particularly because it highlights the issue of using ground-motion models derived from small magnitude earthquakes in the analysis of hazard due to much larger events. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating ground-motion models from small to large magnitude earthquakes in low seismicity regions are discussed for the selected target region.

Cotton, Fabrice; Scherbaum, Frank; Bommer, Julian J.; Bungum, Hilmar

2006-04-01

362

Serological markers and risk factors related to hepatitis B virus in dentists in the Central West region of Brazil  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goinia, Gois. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goinia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence.

de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonca; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores

2008-01-01

363

Glacial stratigraphy of the Bulkley River region: A depositional framework for the late Pleistocene in central British Columbia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A depositional framework for late Pleistocene sediments in central British Columbia was developed from the composite stratigraphy of glacial sediments found in the Bulkley River region. Nonglacial deposits correlated to the Olympia Nonglacial Interval, are overlain in succession by sub-till, ice-advance sediments, Late Wisconsinan (Fraser Glaciation) till, and late-glacial sediments. Due to local erosion and depositional variability, some of the units are not continuous throughout the region and differ locally in their thickness and complexity. At the onset of the Fraser Glaciation, ice advance was marked by rising base levels in rivers, lake ponding, and ice marginal sub-aqueous deposition. Physiography and glacier dynamics influenced the position of drainage outlets, direction of water flow, and ponding. The region was completely ice covered during this glaciation and ice-flow directions were variable, being dominantly influenced by the migrating position of ice divides. Deglaciation was marked by the widespread deposition of fine-grained sediments in proglacial lakes and glaciofluvial sands and gravels at locations with unrestricted drainage.

Stumpf, A. J.; Broster, B. E.; Levson, V. M.

2004-01-01

364

How many mountains can we mine? Assessing the regional degradation of Central Appalachian rivers by surface coal mining.  

PubMed

Surface coal mining is the dominant form of land cover change in Central Appalachia, yet the extent to which surface coal mine runoff is polluting regional rivers is currently unknown. We mapped surface mining from 1976 to 2005 for a 19,581 km(2) area of southern West Virginia and linked these maps with water quality and biological data for 223 streams. The extent of surface mining within catchments is highly correlated with the ionic strength and sulfate concentrations of receiving streams. Generalized additive models were used to estimate the amount of watershed mining, stream ionic strength, or sulfate concentrations beyond which biological impairment (based on state biocriteria) is likely. We find this threshold is reached once surface coal mines occupy >5.4% of their contributing watershed area, ionic strength exceeds 308 ?S cm(-1), or sulfate concentrations exceed 50 mg L(-1). Significant losses of many intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa occur when as little as 2.2% of contributing catchments are mined. As of 2005, 5% of the land area of southern WV was converted to surface mines, 6% of regional streams were buried in valley fills, and 22% of the regional stream network length drained watersheds with >5.4% of their surface area converted to mines. PMID:22788537

Bernhardt, Emily S; Lutz, Brian D; King, Ryan S; Fay, John P; Carter, Catherine E; Helton, Ashley M; Campagna, David; Amos, John

2012-07-25

365

Genetic diversity in the block 2 region of the merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium falciparum in central India  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria continues to be a significant health problem in India. Several of the intended Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens are highly polymorphic. The genetic diversity of P. falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) has been extensively studied from various parts of the world. However, limited data are available from India. The aim of the present study was a molecular characterization of block 2 region of MSP-1 gene from the tribal-dominated, forested region of Madhya Pradesh. Methods DNA sequencing analysis was carried out in 71 field isolates collected between July 2005 to November 2005 and in 98 field isolates collected from July 2009 to December 2009. Alleles identified by DNA sequencing were aligned with the strain 3D7 and polymorphism analysis was done by using Edit Sequence tool (DNASTAR). Results The malaria positivity was 26% in 2005, which rose to 29% in 2009 and P. falciparum prevalence was also increased from 72% in 2005 to 81% in 2009. The overall allelic prevalence was higher in K1 (51%) followed by MAD20 (28%) and RO33 (21%) in 2005 while in 2009, RO33 was highest (40%) followed by K1 (36%) and MAD20 (24%). Conclusions The present study reports extensive genetic variations and dynamic evolution of block 2 region of MSP-1 in central India. Characterization of antigenic diversity in vaccine candidate antigens are valuable for future vaccine trials as well as understanding the population dynamics of P. falciparum parasites in this area.

2012-01-01

366

Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead to the rise of the artesian groundwater that flows into sandy horizons scarcely thickened, carrying out liquefaction and collapse phenomena. Thus, thanks to the numerous piezometric surveys, different areas have been identified in the plain: artesian wells areas with full water rise, areas with few artesian wells and areas with partial water lift. The analysis of geophysical data has allowed to draw deep profiles that show how along the axis of the plain the roof of carbonates has very changeable heights, due to a complex tectonic evolution. In correspondence to one of the most senior buried structural heights in the carbonate substratum of the plain, a karst cave was intercepted during a drilling on the vertical of a sinkhole opened in 1989, which could be interpreted as a paleospring. The right application of technologies for drilling and completion of the hole, however, has prevented against the recurrence of the phenomenon of collapse. This poster illustrates a matrix calculus implemented by the authors, by which you can come to an assessment of the distribution of Sinkhole hazard in the Pontina Plain. The matrix takes into account different parameters that are related to the breaking causes of the phenomenon. Each parameter is assigned a value (index) representing its variation. The area studied was divided into 150 m square cells, each cell is assigned the value of the Sinkhole hazard index, that is the sum of the various indices assigned to that cell. Such a methodology widely used in other scientific research must be improved by optimizing the values and weights that were assigned to each parameter and implementing the matrix by adding more parameters that influence the phenomenon. A discussion about the importance of these characterizing parameters is presented for further development of the methodology.

Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

2010-05-01

367

Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season  

SciTech Connect

We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both acids at ground level and their vertical distribution in the forest canopy point to the existence of vegetative sources as well as to production by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Dry deposition of the gaseous acids appears to be a major sink. The concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations of the corresponding species in the atmospheric aerosol. About 50--60%/sub 0/ of the aerosol (total) formate and acetate were in the size fraction below 1.0 ..mu..m diameter.

Andreae, M.O.; Talbot, R.W.; Andreae, T.W.; Harriss, R.C.

1988-02-20

368

Pre-Wisconsin glacial stratigraphy of the central plains region in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent investigations have documented the presence of several tills and interglacial paleosols that were not recognized in the simple Kansan-Aftonian-Nebraskan stratigraphic sequence. Also, the single 'Pearlette ash' recognized by early workers now is known to be three different Pearlette family ash beds of greatly contrasting ages. The complexity of the stratigraphy, as it is currently understood, and the miscorrelations of early work necessitate abandonment of the archaic terms Kansan, Aftonian, and Nebraskan in stratigraphic terminology. Continued use of those terms will only promote confusion of stratigraphic nomenclature and erroneous correlations of stratigraphic units. The limited chronometric control available within the early and middle Pleistocene stratigraphic sequence is provided directly by dating or by correlation of buried soils and volcanic ash beds and it is provided inferentially by interpretation of magnetic polarity data. These controls provide, at best, a general time framework to begin a new synthesis of the Quaternary history of the region. New methods of dating are needed to facilitate long-distance correlation of early and middle Pleistocene deposits. ?? 1986.

Hallberg, G. R.

1986-01-01

369

Reduction of Risk in Exploration and Prospect Generation through a Multidisciplinary Basin-Analysis Program in the South-Central Mid-Continent Region  

SciTech Connect

This report will discuss a series of regional studies that were undertaken within the South-Central Mid-Continent region of the U.S. Coverage is also provided about a series of innovative techniques that were used for this assessment.

Banerjee, S.; Barker, C.; Fite, J.; George, S.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.; Jordan, J., Szpakiewicz, M.; Person, M.; Reeves, T.K.; Safley, E.; Swenson, J.B.; Volk, L.; and Erickson, R.

1999-04-02

370

Measurements of volatile organic compounds in the middle of Central East China during Mount Tai Experiment 2006 (MTX2006): observation of regional background and impact of biomass burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was carried out at the summit of Mount Tai, located in the center of the Central East China (CEC) region, in June 2006 as part of the Mount Tai Experiment 2006 (MTX2006), which focused on the ozone and aerosol chemistry in the region. Temporal variations of simple VOCs between June 2 and June

J. Suthawaree; S. Kato; K. Okuzawa; Y. Kanaya; P. Pochanart; H. Akimoto; Z. Wang; Y. Kajii

2009-01-01

371

A Descriptive and Economic Analysis of Agricultural Teacher Education Programs in Land-Grant Universities of the North-Central Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a study which assessed the inputs and outputs of the agricultural programs of land-grant universities in the North-Central region. It was found that programs in this region are fairly homogeneous, particularly at the undergraduate level. (CT)|

Trede, Larry D.; Crawford, Harold R.

1981-01-01

372

Current Genetic Epidemiology of ?-Thalassemias and Structural Hemoglobin Variants in the Lazio Region (Central Italy) Following Recent Migration Movements  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to describe the changing pattern of mutational spectrum of ?-thalassemia (?-thal) in the Lazio region (Central Italy), as consequence of recent demographic variations. From 1994 until present, 256 immigrant subjects with hemoglobin disorders (including 191 heterozygotes and 65 homozygotes or compound heterozygotes) coming from 44 different foreign countries, have been molecularly characterized. 14 ?-globin gene mutations were identified and their frequencies reflect different ethnic origins: 8 of these mutations account for 76.97% of all molecular defects, while 6 of them are much rare, representing less than 2% of the total. These data differ, both in type and percentage, from the mutational spectrum detected in the native population in 1995. Since a few defects are prevalent in each country, a proper strategy for the identification of mutations in immigrant individuals relies on the prior knowledge of their frequency in native ethnic group.

Amato, Antonio; Cappabianca, Maria Pia; Colosimo, Alessia; Perri, Maria; Grisanti, Paola; Zaghis, Ivo; Ponzini, Donatella; Lerone, Maria

2010-01-01

373

The Vallenar Discontinuity and the Maipo Orocline: Regional significance of clockwise vertical-axis rotations in the central Chilean Andes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most prominent tectonic features of the Andes is the Central Andean Rotation Pattern (CARP), which is closely related to the Bolivian Orocline and characterized by paleomagnetically determined clockwise rotations in northern Chile and counterclockwise rotations in southern Peru (Arriagada et al., 2008). Along the Chilean margin, between 29S and 38S, three prominent curvatures are observed. The Vallenar Discontinuity near 29S corresponds to the southern limit of the Bolivian Orocline. North of 29S the major structural elements (Paleozoic basement highs and thrusts) are NNE oriented while from 29S down to 32S the structures are mainly NS. The central Chilean margin presents also significant bends near Santiago (33S, Maipo Orocline) and in the Arauco region (38S). Near Santiago, the Maipo bend coincides with the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge (JFR). During the last five years we have undertaken new paleomagnetic and structural studies along the forearc of northern and central Chile in order to understand the origin of the bends in the Chilean margin and the consequence of its indentation by the JFR. Clockwise rotations are, consistently large (30S- 45) north of the Vallenar discontinuity, but south of the Vallenar discontinuity, the segment between 29S to 32S was not subjected to significant clockwise rotation. South of 33S, significant clockwise deflections up to 39 of the declinations are again observed. Rotations occur both in Mesozoic rocks of the Coastal Cordillera and Tertiary rocks of the Main Cordillera. Whereas most of the CARP rotations, involving bending of the Bolivian Orocline and clockwise rotations north of the Vallenar Discontinuity, occurred essentially during the Paleogene, the paleomagnetic rotations obtained in Tertiary formations of central Chile constrain the maximum possible age for the occurrence of rotations of the Maipo Orocline to the Miocene. Neogene shortening in the foreland belt induced only slight orogenic curvature near the Vallenar Discontinuity. In the southern Central Andes, the along-strike variation in the magnitude of Neogene shortening may have been large enough to produce the Maipo Orocline. From 22 to 10Ma, the location of the subduction of the JFR moved rapidly southward from Arica (18S) to Santiago (33S) (Yanez et al., 2002). During the past 10 My, the JFR has been subducting continuously along the same part of the continental margin inducing flat slab and tectonic shortening. We will discuss the origins of the bends observed along the forearc of northern and central Chile and examine the role of the subduction of the JFR in bending the margin and inducing the observed clockwise rotations south of Santiago. Arriagada C., P. Roperch, C. Mpodozis, P. R. Cobbold (2008), Paleogene building of the Bolivian Orocline: Tectonic restoration of the central Andes in 2-D map view, Tectonics, 27, TC6014, doi:10.1029/2008TC002269. Yanez, G., J. Cembrano, M. Pardo, C. Ranero, D. Selles, (2002) The Challenger-Juan Fernandez-Maipo major tectonic transition of the Nazca-Andean subduction system at 33-34S: geodynamic evidence and implications, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 15, 23-38,doi: 10.1016/S0895-9811(02)00004-4.

Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.; Mpodozis, C.; Charrier, R.; Yanez, G.; Farias, M.

2009-05-01

374

Water resources of the Fort Union coal region, east-central Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The shallow ground-water system in the Fort Union coal region overlies the Upper Cretaceous Bearpaw Shale. It includes the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and the overlying Hell Creek Formation, Paleocene Fort Union Formation, and Pleistocene and Holocene glacial deposits, terrace deposits, and alluvium. Two general flow patterns are present in aquifers above the Hell Creek Formation and a third may occur in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer. Recharge to the shallow ground-water system from direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall is about 50 ,000 acre-ft/yr. Discharge from the system is to perennial streams (about 5,000 acre-ft/yr to the Redwater River), withdrawal by wells (about 2,000 acre-ft/yr for livestock use and 2,500 acre-ft/yr for domestic use), and 34 to 45 in./yr to evapotranspiration. Primary constituents in water above the Hell Creek Formation are sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate, and dissolved-solids concentrations are about 1,800 mg/L; water below a depth of about 200 feet contains more sodium and bicarbonate. Water in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer has an average dissolved-solids concentration of 1,180 mg/L. Flows in most streams have large seasonal variations, with the largest flows occurring in the spring as a result of snowmelt and rainfall. Dissolved-solids concentrations of streams generally are largest during low flow and smallest during high flow. Concentrations ranged from 160 to 6,960 mg/L in small streams and from 400 to 600 mg/L in the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. (USGS)

Slagle, S. E.

1983-01-01

375

Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms  

SciTech Connect

Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

1984-03-01

376

Regionalized equations for bankfull-discharge and channel characteristics of streams in New York state: hydrologic region 5 in central New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Equations that relate drainage area to bankfull discharge and channel dimensions (width, depth, and cross-sectional area) at gaged sites are needed to define bankfull discharge and channel dimensions at ungaged sites and to provide information for the design of stream-restoration projects. Such equations are most accurate if derived from streams within an area of uniform hydrologic, climatic, and physiographic conditions and applied only within that region. A study to develop equations to predict bankfull data for ungaged streams in New York established eight regions that coincided with previously defined hydrologic regions. This report presents drainage areas and bankfull characteristics (discharge and channel dimensions) for streams in central New York (Region 5) selected for this pilot study. Stream-survey data and discharge records from seven active (currently gaged) sites and nine inactive (discontinued gaged) sites were used in regression analyses to relate size of drainage area to bankfull discharge and bankfull channel width, depth, and cross-sectional area. The resulting equations are: bankfull discharge = 45.5*(drainage area)^0.840; bankfull channel width = 13.2*(drainage area)^0.459; bankfull channel depth = 0.802*(drainage area)^0.367; bankfull channel cross-sectional area = 10.6*(drainage area)^0.826. The high correlation coefficients (R2) for these four equations (0.94, 0.90, 0.91, 0.98, respectively) indicate that much of the variation in the variables is explained by the size of the drainage area. Recurrence intervals for the estimated bankfull discharge of each stream ranged from 1.11 to 6.00 years; the mean recurrence interval was 1.51 years. The 16 surveyed streams were classified by Rosgen stream type; most were mainly C-type reaches, with occasional B- and F-type reaches. The Region 5 equation was compared with equations developed for six other large areas in the Northeast. The major differences among results indicate a need to refine equations so they can be applied by water-resources managers to local planning and design efforts.

Westergard, Britt E.; Mulvihill, Christiane I.; Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.

2005-01-01

377

Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important; particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

Rapalee, G.; Steyaert, L. T.; Hall, F. G.

2001-01-01

378

GIS-based landslide hazard assessment at regional scale in Sicily (Central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence, type and abundance of landslides in an area depend on the characteristics of the triggers and on the predisposing conditions. Natural conditions that control these factors include the local and regional morphological and lithological setting, the presence and abundance of geological discontinuities including bedding planes, faults, joints, and cleavage systems, the type and depth of the soil, the extent and type of the vegetation cover, and the mechanical and hydrological properties of the rocks and soils. In order to evaluate the landslides susceptibility requires understanding of spatial distribution of all these factors that control slope instability. They depend on intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Intrinsic variables determining hazards include bedrock geology, topography, soil depth, soil type, slope gradient, slope aspect, slope curvature, elevation, engineering properties of the slope material, land use pattern and drainage patterns. Extrinsic variables include heavy rainfall, earthquakes and volcanic activities. Although the probability of landslide occurrence depends on both intrinsic and extrinsic variables, the latter possess a temporal distribution which is more difficult to handle in modelling practice. Therefore, for landslide hazard assessment, "landslide susceptibility mapping" is often conducted in which the extrinsic variables are not considered in determining the probability of landslide occurrence. The landslide susceptibility zoning methods mainly applied are: qualitative, statistical methodologies, and geotechnical/safety factor models. Qualitative approaches are based on the judgment of those conducting the susceptibility or hazard assessment; the statistical approach uses a predictive function or index derived from a combination of weighted factors; and the deterministic, models are based on the physical laws of conservation of mass, energy, and momentum. Regarding the statistical methodologies, the combination of factors that have led to landslides in the past are determined and quantitative predictions are made for areas currently free of landslides. In these methods the use of complex statistics requires the collection of large amounts of data to produce reliable results. Instead, deterministic landslide hazard maps normally provide the most detailed results, expressing the hazard in absolute values in the form of safety factors, or the probability of failure given a set of boundary conditions for groundwater levels and seismic acceleration. A methodology for landslide susceptibility mapping of the Sicily using a GIS technology is presented, based on a weighted approach. The degree of susceptibility was weighted considering the extrinsic variable of rainfall and the prevalence of the condition of geology, elevation, slope and land cover. Finally, an overlay analysis is carried out by evaluating the layers obtained according to their weight, and the landslide susceptibility map is produced. The study area was classified into five classes of relative landslide susceptibility, namely, very low, low, moderate, high and very high.

Nigro, Fabrizio; Pisciotta, Antonino; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

2010-05-01

379

Sntomas neurolgicos de las enfermedades reumticas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Una de las ms importantes pero la menos co- mn de las manifestaciones de enfermedad autoinmune la constituye la vasculitis, la cual mo- difica la historia de la enfermedad, dependiendo del rgano afectado. Esta revisin incluye las ms importantes manifestaciones y complicaciones de los sistemas nerviosos central y perifrico que se desarrollan por vasculitis en las enfermedades reumticas, ya

2007-01-01

380

Regional metamorphism in the Condrey Mountain Quadrangle, north-central Klamath Mountains, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A subcircular area of about 650 km 2 in northern California and southwestern Oregon is occupied by rocks of the greenschist metamorphic facies called the Condrey Mountain Schist. This greenschist terrane is bordered on the east and west by rocks belonging to the amphibolite metamorphic facies that structurally overlie and are thrust over the Condrey Mountain Schist. The amphibolite facies is succeeded upward by metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks belonging to the greenschist metamorphic facies. The Condrey Mountain Schist is composed predominantly of quartz-muscovite schist and lesser amounts of actinolite-chlorite schist formed by the metamorphism of graywacke and spilitic volcanic rocks that may have belonged to the Galice Formation of Late Jurassic age. Potassium-argon age determinations of 141?4 m.y. and 155?5 m.y. obtained on these metamorphic rocks seem to be incompatible with the Late Jurassic age usually assigned the Galice. The rocks that border the amphibolite facies are part of an extensive terrane of metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks belonging to the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt. The metavolcanic rocks include some unmetamorphosed spilite but are mostly of the greenschist metamorphic facies composed of oligoclase (An15-20) and actinolite with subordinate amounts of chlorite and clinozoisiteepidote. The interbedded sedimentary rocks are predominantly argillite and slaty argillite, less commonly siliceous argillite and chert, and a few lenticular beds of marble. On the south, high-angle faults and a tabular granitic pluton separate the greenschist metavolcanic terrane from the amphibolite facies rocks; on the east, nonfoliated amphibolite is succeeded upward, apparently conformably, by metasedimentary rocks belonging to the greenschist metavolcanic terrane. In the southern part of Condrey Mountain quadrangle, an outlier of a thrust plate composed of the Stuart Fork Formation overlies the metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. The Stuart Fork in this region is composed of siliceous phyllite and phyllitic quartzite and is believed to be the metamorphosed equivalent of rocks over which it is thrust. In the Yreka-Fort Jones area, potassium-argon determinations on mica from the blueschist facies in the Stuart Fork gave ages of approximately 220 m.y. (Late Triassic) for the age of metamorphism. Rocks of the amphibolite facies structurally overlie the Condrey Mountain Schist along a moderate to steeply dipping thrust fault. The amphibolite terrane is composed of amphibolite and metasedimentary rocks in approximately equal amounts accompanied by many bodies of serpentinite and a number of gabbro and dioritic plutons. Most of the amphibolite is foliated, but some is nonfoliated; the nonfoliated amphibolite has an amphibolite mineralogy and commonly a relict volcanic rock texture. The nonfoliated amphibolite occurs on the southern and eastern borders of the amphibolite terrane between the areas offoliated amphibolite and the overly ing metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Hornblende and plagioclase (An30-35) are the characteristic minerals, indicating that the rocks are of the almandine-amphibolite metamorphic facies. The metasedimentary rocks interbedded with the amphibolites include siliceous schist and phyllite, minor quartzite, and subordinate amounts of marble. Potassium-argon age dates obtained on hornblende from foliated amphibolite yield ages of 146?4 and 148? 4 m.y., suggesting a Late Jurassic metamorphic episode. Mafic and ultramafic rocks are widespread in the amphibolite terrane but are almost entirely absent from the area of greenschist facies metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. The ultramafic rocks, predominantly serpentinite, occur as a few large bodies and many small tabular concordant bodies interleaved with the foliated rocks. The ultramafic rocks include harzburgite and d1lIlite and their serpentinized equivalents. In the Condrey Mountain quadrangle, probably more t

Hotz, Preston Enslow

1979-01-01

381

Comparison of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations by wetland type and year in the lower river Dallven region, Central Sweden.  

PubMed

We studied adult mosquito assemblages in six wetlands, representing three types (wet meadow, alder swamp, and bog), in the lower part of the River Dallven in Central Sweden during three consecutive years (2000-2002) and evaluated the influence of wetland type and year. Mosquito abundance differed significantly between years but not between wetland types. Mosquito species richness showed no significant variation between years or wetland types. Cluster analysis based on percentage of similarity resulted in three clusters, with high similarity between all wetlands in 2000. Ordination analysis showed that mosquito assemblages were mainly correlated with wetland type and water level increase in the previous month. Hydrological conditions varied between the years and between the wetland types, and our collections also included a year (2000) with extreme flood situations. The floodwater mosquito species Ochlerotatus sticticus was the predominant species with a strong influence on the whole study due to its long-range dispersal ability. The entire region suffered from enormous numbers of Oc. sticticus in 2000. The data from this study provided the basis for the initiation of a mosquito control project in the region. PMID:18697318

Schfer, M L; Lundstrm, J O; Petersson, E

2008-06-01

382

Genetic structure of Barbus spp. populations in the Marches Region of central Italy and its relevance to conservation actions.  

PubMed

A genetic survey of Barbus spp. populations in the Marches Region (Adriatic River basins), central Italy, was carried out using mitochondrial and nuclear markers (partial D-loop, cyt b sequences and microsatellite loci) in order to ascertain their systematic position and to address their genetic structure which is key to conservation action planning. Analyses were conducted on sequences obtained from 91 individuals collected from eight sampling sites in five different rivers, from two specimens provided by the Ichthyological Centre of Rome and mitochondrial sequences of Barbus spp. retrieved from GenBank. Presumptive classification based on external morphological characters was not confirmed by genetic analysis, by means of which all specimens collected in the Marches Region were ascribed to Barbus plebejus. Genetic diversity values (h and ?) of sampling groups were all different from 0 except the one sample collected from the upper reaches of the River Tenna, above a hydroelectric dam. Population connectivity and colonization patterns of the studied area were inferred from an analysis of molecular variance distribution and evolutionary relationships among haplotypes. The results point to different levels of isolation among sampling groups due to ecological and anthropogenic factors and the effect of an artificial barrier on genetic variability and conservation status of the population. Finally, this study confirms the uncertainty associated with systematic classification of Barbus spp. based on morphological characters due to the phenotypic plasticity of the species. PMID:23464545

Livi, S; de Innocentiis, S; Longobardi, A; Cataudella, S; Tancioni, L; Rampacci, M; Marino, G

2013-02-06

383

Upper Jurassic Norphlet formation: new frontier for hydrocarbon prospecting in the central and eastern Gulf of Mexico regions  

SciTech Connect

Since the discovery of oil in 1967 from the Smackover Formation at Toxey field, Choctaw County, Alabama, and of condensate in 1968 from the Norphlet Formation at Flomaton field, Escambia County, Alabama, the Upper Jurassic has become the primary exploration target in southwestern Alabama. Norphlet petroleum traps in the region are principally combination traps involving favorable stratigraphy and salt anticlines (Copeland field), exensional fault traps associated with salt movement (Flomaton field), and faulted salt anticlines (Hatter's Pond and Lower Mobile Bay-Mary Ann fields). Reservoir rocks include marine, dune, and fluvial sandstone lithofacies. Sandstone porosity involves both primary intergranular and secondary dissolution and fracture. Smackover algal carbonate mudstone is probably the source for much of the Norphlet hydrocarbon, but downdip Norphlet marine shales may also be source rocks. The central and eastern Gulf of Mexico regions should continue to be excellent areas to explore for hydrocarbons in the years ahead. Successful Norphlet petroleum prospecting in the area has involved the identification of favorable sandstone lithofacies and structural hydrocarbon traps by using geologic and geophysical methods. Future Norphlet discoveries will require the delineation of stratigraphic and structural/stratigraphic combination hydrocarbon traps using seismic-stratigraphic techniques.

Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

1984-04-01

384

Upper Jurassic Norphlet formation: new frontier for hydrocarbon prospecting in the central and eastern Gulf of Mexico regions  

SciTech Connect

Since the discovery of oil in 1967 from the Smackover Formation at Toxey field, Choctaw County, Alabama, and of condensate in 1968 from the Norphlet Formation at Flomaton field, Escambia County, Alabama, the Upper Jurassic has become the primary exploration target in southwestern Alabama. Norphlet petroleum traps in the region are principally combination traps involving favorable stratigraphy and salt anticlines (Copeland field), extensional fault traps associated with salt movement (Flomaton field), and faulted salt anticlines (Hatter's Pond and Lower Mobile Bay-Mary Ann fields). Reservoir rocks include marine, dune, and fluvial sandstone lithofacies. Sandstone porosity involves both primary intergranular and secondary dissolution and fracture. Smackover algal carbonate mudstone is probably the source for much of the Norphlet hydrocarbon, but downdip Norphlet marine shales may also be source rocks. The central and eastern Gulf of Mexico regions should continue to be excellent areas to explore for hydrocarbons in the years ahead. Successful Norphlet petroleum prospecting in the area has involved the identification of favorable sandstone lithofacies and structural hydrocarbon traps by using geologic and geophysical methods. Future Norphlet discoveries will require the delineation of stratigraphic and structural/stratigraphic combination hydrocarbon traps using seismic-stratigraphic techniques.

Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

1984-04-01

385

Impact of climate Change on Groundwater Recharge in the Tiber River Basin (Central Italy) Using Regional Climate model Outputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the various components of hydrological processes in a watershed remains a challenging topic as the hydrological system is altered by many internal and external drivers. Changes in climate variables can affect the quantity and quality of various components of hydrological cycle. Among others, the local effects of climate change on groundwater resources were not fully studied in different part of the world as compared to the surface water. Moreover, understanding the potential impact of climate change on groundwater is more complex than surface water. The main objective of this study is to analyze the potential impact of climate change on Groundwater recharge in the Tiber River Basin using outputs from Regional Climate model. In this study, a physically-based watershed model called Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to estimate recharge characteristics and its response to climate change in Tiber River Basin (central Italy). The SWAT model was successfully calibrated and validated using observed weather and flow data for the period of 1963-1970 and 1971-1978 respectively. During calibration, the model was highly sensitivity to groundwater flow parameters. Dynamically downscaled rainfall and temperature datasets from ten Regional Climate Models (RCM) archived in 'Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining EuropeaN Climate change risks and Effects (PRUDENCE)' were used to force the model to assess the climate change impact on the study area. A quantile-mapping statistical correction procedure was applied to the RCM dataset to correct the inherent systematic biases. The climate change analysis indicated that by the end of 2080s the rainfall was found to decrease nearly up to 40% in dry period and there was an increase in temperature that could reach as high as 3 to 5 oC. By the end of 2080s the ground water recharge shows a decreasing trend as a response to changes in rainfall. However as the timing of both precipitation and recharge is critical for future groundwater development in the basin, further analysis through different climate models, downscaling approach and groundwater model needs to be taken into account. Key Words: Climate Chang; Hydrological cycle; Groundwater recharge; SWA;, RCM; PRUDENC; Tiber Basin; Central Italy

Muluneh, F. B.; Setegn, S. G.; Melesse, A. M.; Fiori, A.

2011-12-01

386

Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many of these toxic dumps are vulnerable to seismically induced landsliding, release of reservoir water and breaching of very large (up to several km3) landslide-dammed lakes within the deep mountain valleys typical of the fault zone. The May 2008 earthquake in neighboring Sichuan, in which some 30 landslide-dammed lakes were created, may be useful in refining hazard scenarios developed from the multi-pronged analysis employed in our study. This analysis involves compiling all relevant existing data, such as seismic archives held in paper format, within the project GIS. Spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by these compiled data, together with focal mechanism determinations where possible, are combined with data on the distribution and nature of geological units to provide estimates of peak ground acceleration and the likely incidence of seismically-triggered slope instability. This compilation also identifies data deficiencies to be targeted using a portable seismometer network, geophysical and geodetic surveys, InSAR and other remote sensing data; all combined with geotechnical and palaeoseismological fieldwork. Initial results from this approach confirm the ground-shaking potential of Talas-Fergana rupture events, suggest a long-term slip rate as high as 15 mm a-1, and the occurrence of the last ground-rupturing event some 4-500 years BP. The lack of significant activity since that event suggests the Talas-Fergana structure may comprise a seismic gap within the Tien-Shan, highlighting the importance of hazard scenarios in proposing mitigation measures against potentially catastrophic threats, such as extensive pollution of irrigated lands in the Fergana Valley downstream from Toktogul on which some 10 million people depend.

Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

2009-04-01

387

Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate in situ. In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in soils of windthrow mounds and holes: CO2 emission increases by 30-60 %; proteolytic activities - by 50-200 %, average humification rate exceeds 100-1000 g/m2year, and the rate of aggressive fulvic acid formation - 40-300 g/m2year. The average lessivage rate may reach 2-3 kg*cm/m2year and the rate of oxalate extractable Fe2O3, Al2O3migration is 0.6-1.3 kg*cm/ m2year. Eluvial horizons can go deep on 6-18 cm per 50-150 yeas - depending on depth of initial impacts and on morphogenetic profile of background soil. The carried out analysis of Chernozem regional-typological degradation processes has shown qualitative expansion of their set. The outcomes of statistical modeling show essential amplification of dehumification processes due to current violation of traditional balances of organic matter in agrolandscapes. A drop of humus content below threshold values (4.5-6.5 % for different Chernozems) considerably reduces farming effectiveness. Mean annual rate of humus decreasing and increasing varies from 0.1 up to 1.3 g/kg per year, acidification and alkalization - from 0.01 up to 0.13 dp per year, salinity - from 5 up to 18 mg/kg per year. Succession analysis of modern evolution of natural and man-changed soils essentially increases accuracy of quantitative assessments of dominant SFPs' rate and potential, their influence on landscape and soil cover quality and diversity. Their results allow developing the regional and landscape adapted versions of automated systems of land agroecological evaluation (RASLEV) and demand-driven land-use DSS (LODSSAL).

Vasenev, I.

2012-04-01

388

Convective distribution of tropospheric ozone and tracers in the Central American ITCZ region: Evidence from observations during TC4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Tropical Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment that occurred in July and August of 2007, extensive sampling of active convection in the ITCZ region near Central America was performed from multiple aircraft and satellite sensors. As part of a sampling strategy designed to study cloud processes, the NASA ER-2, WB-57 and DC-8 flew in stacked "racetrack patterns" in convective cells. On July 24, 2007, the ER-2 and DC-8 probed an actively developing storm and the DC-8 was hit by lightning. Case studies of this flight, and of convective outflow on August 5, 2007 reveal a significant anti-correlation between ozone and condensed cloud water content. With little variability in the boundary layer and a vertical gradient, low ozone in the upper troposphere indicates convective transport. Because of the large spatial and temporal variability in surface CO and other pollutants in this region, low ozone is a better convective indicator. Lower tropospheric tracers methyl hydrogen peroxide, total organic bromine and calcium substantiate the ozone results. OMI measurements of mean upper tropospheric ozone near convection show lower ozone in convective outflow. A mass balance estimation of the amount of convective turnover below the tropical tropopause transition layer (TTL) is 50%, with an altitude of maximum convective outflow located between 10 and 11 km, 4 km below the cirrus anvil tops. It appears that convective lofting in this region of the ITCZ is either a two-stage or a rapid mixing process, because undiluted boundary layer air is never sampled in the convective outflow.

Avery, Melody; Twohy, Cynthia; McCabe, David; Joiner, Joanna; Severance, Kurt; Atlas, Eliot; Blake, Donald; Bui, T. P.; Crounse, John; Dibb, Jack; Diskin, Glenn; Lawson, Paul; McGill, Matthew; Rogers, David; Sachse, Glen; Scheuer, Eric; Thompson, Anne M.; Trepte, Charles; Wennberg, Paul; Ziemke, Jerald

2010-05-01

389

Phylogeography of a widespread terrestrial vertebrate in a barely-studied Palearctic region: green toads ( Bufo viridis subgroup) indicate glacial refugia in Eastern Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogeography of western Palearctic species is relatively well studied, but data on Eastern Central Asia are scarce.\\u000a We present one of the first data sets from a widespread terrestrial vertebrate (Bufo\\u000a pewzowi) inhabiting Eastern Central Asian mountains and deserts to gain knowledge on its phylogeography in this region. We applied\\u000a combined phylogenetic and demographic analyses to understand the evolutionary

Yi-Jun Zhang; Matthias Stck; Peng Zhang; Xiu-Ling Wang; Hui Zhou; Liang-Hu Qu

2008-01-01

390

GOCE satellite derived gravity and gravity gradient corrected for topographic effect in the South Central Andes region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global gravity field models, derived from satellite measurements integrated with terrestrial observations, provide a model of the Earth's gravity field with high spatial resolution and accuracy. The Earth Gravity Model EGM08, a spherical harmonic expansion of the geopotential up to degree and order 2159, has been used to calculate two functionals of the geopotential: the gravity anomaly and the vertical gravity gradient applied to the South Central Andes area. The satellite-only field of the highest resolution has been developed with the observations of satellite GOCE, up to degree and order 250. The topographic effect, a fundamental quantity for the downward continuation and validation of satellite gravity gradiometry data, was calculated from a digital elevation model which was converted into a set of tesseroids. This data is used to calculate the anomalous potential and vertical gravity gradient. In the Southern Central Andes region the geological structures are very complex, but not well resolved. The processing and interpreting of the gravity anomaly and vertical gradients allow the comparison with geological maps and known tectonic structures. Using this as a basis, a few features can be clearly depicted as the contact between Pacific oceanic crust and the Andean fold and thrust belt, the seamount chains over the Oceanic Nazca Plate, and the Famatinian and Pampean Ranges. Moreover the contact between the Rio de la Plata craton and the Pampia Terrain is of great interest, since it represents a boundary that has not been clearly defined until now. Another great lineament, the Valle Fertil-Desaguadero mega-lineament, an expression of the contact between Cuyania and Pampia terranes, can also be clearly depicted. The authors attempt to demonstrate that the new gravity fields can be used for identifying geological features, and therefore serve as useful innovative tools in geophysical exploration.

lvarez, Orlando; Gimenez, Mario; Braitenberg, Carla; Folguera, Andres

2012-08-01

391

8-OH-DPAT, flesinoxan and guanfacine: systemic and regional haemodynamic effects of centrally acting antihypertensive agents in anaesthetized rabbits.  

PubMed Central

1. 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and flesinoxan, agents which show high affinity and selectivity for 5-HT1A receptors, were administered intravenously in doses of 0.003 to 0.1 and 0.01 to 0.3 mg kg-1 respectively to 5 rabbits each. Their effects were compared with those of the centrally acting agent and alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, guanfacine, 0.01-0.3 mg kg-1, administered to a group of 5 rabbits. Five further rabbits were used as controls and treated with the vehicle of the active agents. 2. Both flesinoxan and 8-OH-DPAT induced similar systemic and regional haemodynamic changes. Both lowered mean arterial pressure and heart rate. The principal blood pressure lowering mechanism was vasodilatation; cardiac output changed minimally despite the falls in heart rate and myocardial contractile force. 3. With guanfacine the maximal fall of blood pressure was comparable to that obtained with the 5-HT1A receptor ligands; however, in contrast to the latter, the dose-response curve was U-shaped, the highest dose eliciting a pressor effect with reversal of the vasodilatation. 4. Widespread peripheral vasodilatation was found with all the agents in the splanchnic circulation and also in the brain and skeletal muscle. A weak tendency towards vasodilatation was found in the kidneys where the dose-response curve was bell-shaped for guanfacine. 5. This spectrum of activity is different from that of peripheral vasodilators, such as calcium antagonists, potassium channel activating agents or hydralazine; it is, however, consistent with the putative mechanism of action of these compounds to reduce peripheral sympathetic tone by a central mechanism of action.

Hof, R. P.; Fozard, J. R.

1989-01-01

392

Spatially Resolved Kinematics of the Central Regions of M83: Hidden Mass Signatures and the Role of Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The barred grand-design spiral M83 (NGC 5236) is one of the most studied galaxies given its proximity, orientation, and particular complexity. Nonetheless, many aspects of the central regions remain controversial, conveying our limited understanding of the inner gas and stellar kinematics, and ultimately of the nucleus evolution. In this work, we present AO VLT-SINFONI data of its central ~235 140 pc with an unprecedented spatial resolution of ~0.2 arcsec, corresponding to ~4 pc. We have focused our study on the distribution and kinematics of the stars and the ionized and molecular gas by studying the Pa? and Br? emission in detail, the H2 1-0S(1) line at 2.122 ?m, and the [Fe II] line at 1.644 ?m, together with the CO absorption bands at 2.293 ?m and 2.323 ?m. Our results reveal a complex situation where the gas and stellar kinematics are totally unrelated. Supernova explosions play an important role in shaping the gas kinematics, dominated by shocks and inflows at scales of tens of parsecs that make them unsuitable to derive general dynamical properties. We propose that the location of the nucleus of M83 is unlikely to be related to the off-center "optical nucleus." The study of the stellar kinematics reveals that the optical nucleus is a gravitationally bound massive star cluster with M dyn = (1.1 0.4) 107 M ?, formed by a past starburst. The kinematic and photometric analysis of the cluster yield that the stellar content of the cluster is well described by an intermediate age population of log T(yr) = 8.0 0.4, with a mass of M sstarf ~= (7.8 2.4) 106 M ?.

Piqueras Lpez, J.; Davies, R.; Colina, L.; Orban de Xivry, G.

2012-06-01

393

Changes in Central European Soil Moisture Availability and Atmospheric Circulation Patterns between 1875 and 2005 - Regional Climate Change in Progress?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relationships between the soil moisture availability and the atmospheric circulation in Central Europe were analyzed for the period 1881-2005. The analysis was based on the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue of circulation types (CTs), and a series of weekly self-calibrated Palmer Z-index (scZ-index) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) values at seven stations where high-quality daily data has recently become available. The results show that the large-scale droughts during spring months (MAM) were associated with east (E), south (S), and south- east (SE) circulation types, whereas during summer (JJA) and the whole vegetation season, i.e., April-September (VEG), the Central Europe high pressure systems (HM) and east (E) circulation types were conducive to drought. Statistically significant drying trends were noted at a majority of the stations, especially during MAM and JJA, over the whole period for which the scPDSI and scZ-index series were available (1875-2005). Although almost no statistically significant tendencies were found prior to 1940, a significant tendency towards more intense drought was present at all sites after this year. The largest drying trend was noted during the VEG and AMJ seasons. The overall drying trend might be associated with shifts in the frequency of CTs, especially during AMJ. Although the aggregate frequency of occurrence of drought-conducive CTs (i.e. E, S and HM) remained stable at approximately 30% up to the 1940s, a steady increase to the present 55% frequency is observed afterwards. Higher frequencies of S and HM types drove the observed increase of drought-conducive CTs at the expense of N types that are associated with wet conditions. The long-term shifts in the frequency of circulation types conducive to drought explain more than 50% of the long-term variations of both scZ-index and PDSI values over the territory of the Czech Republic, and they are likely to affect whole central European region as well. Acknowledgement: This study was conducted with support of the 6th FP EU research project CECILIA (no GOCE 037005) and by the Research plan No. MSM6215648905 "Biological and technological aspects of sustainability of controlled ecosystems and their adaptability to climate change", which is financed by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. The weekly drought indicators were parameterized with the help of KONTAKT project no. ME 844.

Trnka, M.; Kysely, J.; Dubrovsky, M.; Mozny, M.; Hostynek, J.; Svoboda, M.; Hayes, M. J.; Zalud, Z.

2007-12-01

394

Atmospheric circulation in regional climate models over Central Europe: links to surface air temperature and the influence of driving data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine simulation of atmospheric circulation and links between circulation and daily surface air temperatures in current climate models over Central Europe. Large-scale atmospheric circulation is represented by circulation indices (flow direction, strength and vorticity) derived from mean sea level pressure. We explore control simulations of five 25-km resolution RCMs from the ENSEMBLES project, driven by the ERA-40 re-analysis and the ECHAM5 GCM, and runs of one RCM (RCA) driven by different GCMs. The driving GCMs are investigated as well. The models' performance is compared against the dataset gridded from a high-density stations network (temperature) and the ERA-40 re-analysis (pressure). The aims of the study are (i) to identify errors in simulated distributions of circulation indices in individual seasons, (ii) to identify errors in simulated temperatures under particular circulation indices in winter and summer, and (iii) to compare performance of individual RCMs with respect to the driving data. We find that most of the RCMs qualitatively reflect observed distributions of the airflow indices; however, each produces distributions significantly different from the observations. General biases include overestimation of the frequency of strong cyclonic vorticity and of strong flow days. HIRHAM driven by ECHAM5 and RCA driven by BCM are the RCMs with the most distorted atmospheric circulation. Our results show that some circulation biases obviously propagate from the driving data. For example, ECHAM5 and all simulations driven by ECHAM5 underestimate frequency of easterly flow. However, except for HIRHAM, all RCMs driven by ECHAM5 improve on the driving GCM in simulating atmospheric circulation. A set of RCA simulations with different driving data demonstrates that the influence on circulation characteristics in the nested RCM differs between GCMs. We find relatively strong relationships between circulation indices and surface air temperatures in the observed data for Central Europe. The RCMs qualitatively reproduce these relationships, which differ by season and are usually stronger for daily maxima than minima. Our results suggest that the RCM formulation appears to be more important than the driving data in representing the links to surface temperature. Differences of the circulation-to-temperature links among the RCA simulations are smaller and the links tend to be more realistic compared to the driving GCMs. Plavcov E., Kysel J., 2012: Atmospheric circulation in regional climate models over Central Europe: links to surface air temperature and the influence of driving data. Climate Dynamics [10.1007/s00382-011-1278-8.

Plavcov, E.; Kysel, J.

2012-04-01

395

Mapping Viral DNA Specificity to the Central Region of Integrase by Using Functional Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1/Visna Virus Chimeric Proteins  

PubMed Central

We previously described the construction and analysis of the first set of functional chimeric lentivirus integrases, involving exchange of the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and visna virus integrase (IN) proteins. Based on those results, additional HIV-1/visna virus chimeric integrases were designed and purified. Each of the chimeric enzymes was functional in at least one oligonucleotide-based IN assay. Of a total of 12 chimeric IN proteins, 3 exhibit specific viral DNA processing, 9 catalyze insertion of viral DNA ends, 12 can reverse that reaction, and 11 are active for nonspecific alcoholysis. Functional data obtained with the processing assay indicate that the central region of the protein is responsible for viral DNA specificity. Target site selection for nonspecific alcoholysis again mapped to the central domain of IN, confirming our previous data indicating that this region can position nonviral DNA for nucleophilic attack. However, the chimeric proteins created patterns of viral DNA insertion distinct from that of either wild-type IN, suggesting that interactions between regions of IN influence target site selection for viral DNA integration. The results support a new model for the functional organization of IN in which viral DNA initially binds nonspecifically to the C-terminal portion of IN but the catalytic central region of the enzyme has a prominent role both in specific recognition of viral DNA ends and in positioning the host DNA for viral DNA integration.

Katzman, Michael; Sudol, Malgorzata

1998-01-01

396

EMS-physicians' self reported airway management training and expertise; a descriptive study from the Central Region of Denmark  

PubMed Central

Background Prehospital advanced airway management, including prehospital endotracheal intubation is challenging and recent papers have addressed the need for proper training, skill maintenance and quality control for emergency medical service personnel. The aim of this study was to provide data regarding airway management-training and expertise from the regional physician-staffed emergency medical service (EMS). Methods The EMS in this part of The Central Region of Denmark is a two tiered system. The second tier comprises physician staffed Mobile Emergency Care Units. The medical directors of the programs supplied system data. A questionnaire addressing airway management experience, training and knowledge was sent to the EMS-physicians. Results There are no specific guidelines, standard operating procedures or standardised program for obtaining and maintaining skills regarding prehospital advanced airway management in the schemes covered by this study. 53/67 physicians responded; 98,1% were specialists in anesthesiology, with an average of 17,6 years of experience in anesthesiology, and 7,2 years experience as EMS-physicians. 84,9% reported having attended life support course(s), 64,2% an advanced airway management course. 24,5% fulfilled the curriculum suggested for Danish EMS physicians. 47,2% had encountered a difficult or impossible PHETI, most commonly in a patient in cardiac arrest or a trauma patient. Only 20,8% of the physicians were completely familiar with what back-up devices were available for airway management. Conclusions In this, the first Danish study of prehospital advanced airway management, we found a high degree of experience, education and training among the EMS-physicians, but their equipment awareness was limited. Check-outs, guidelines, standard operating procedures and other quality control measures may be needed.

2011-01-01

397

Technical Education and Vocational Training in Central Africa. Feasibility Survey of the Regional Development of Rapid Vocational Training: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report is the result of a survey requested by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and undertaken by the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT) of four countries (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and Gabon) and a conference on vocational training sponsored by the Economic and Customs

Organization for Rehabilitation through Training, Geneva (Switzerland).

398

Assessment of groundwater quality and contamination problems ascribed to an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa region, Central Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of groundwater quality and its environmental implications in the region of the abandoned Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal) was carried out from 1995 to 2004. Shallow groundwater is the major water supply source for irrigation in the neighbourhood of Cunha Baixa village. Water samples from the mine site as well as from private wells were collected in order to identify the mining impact on water composition, the extent of contamination and the seasonal and temporal groundwater quality variations. Some of the sampled private wells contain waters having low pH (<4.5 5) and high values of EC, TDS, SO4, F, Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, Ni, U, Zn and 226Ra. The wells located through the ESE WSE groundwater flow path (1 km down gradient of the mining site) display the most contaminated water. In the summer season, the levels of SO4, Al, Mn, and U were 50 120 times higher than those registered for uncontaminated waters and exceeded the quality limits for irrigation purposes, presenting soil degradation risks. Nevertheless, this study indicates that groundwater contamination suffered a small decrease from 1999 to 2004. The bioaccumulation of toxic metals such as Al, Mn, and U within the food chain may cause a serious health hazard to the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants.

Neves, O.; Matias, M. J.

2008-02-01

399

Molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in cattle from central region of Syria.  

PubMed

A total of 207 bovine blood samples were collected from clinically healthy cattle bred in central region of Syria and examined by Giemsa-stained blood smears, nested PCR, ELISA, and IFAT to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. All samples were negative to Babesia spp. by microscopic examination of blood smears. On the other hand, the overall prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 9.18% and 15.46% by nPCR, 15.46% and 18.84% by ELISA, and 18.36% and 21.74% by IFAT, respectively. Mixed infections were detected in a total of 5 samples (2.4%) by nPCR, 16 (7.73%) by ELISA and 27 (13.04%) by IFAT. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the two infections were observed on the basis of age and location. These data provide valuable information regarding the occurrence and epidemiology of B. bovis and B. bigemina infections in Syrian cattle, which can be employed in developing rational strategies for disease control and management. PMID:22265803

Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Alhasan, Hend; Huyen, Nguyen Xuan; Sabagh, Amin; Awier, Karam; Cao, Shinuo; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Aboge, Gabriel; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Kalb-Allouz, Abdul Karim; Tabbaa, Darem; Igarashi, Ikuo; Xuan, Xuenan

2012-01-05

400

Ecological characterization of the central and northern Califorina coastal region. Volume IV. Watersheds and basins. Chapters 17-29  

SciTech Connect

Central and northern coastal California is such a large and diverse region that it is subdivided into smaller units for ease in presenting site-specific information. A separate chapter was prepared for each of 22 watersheds and five offshore basins, and each contains site-specific information. Chapters on the watersheds contain information on terrestrial, freshwater, and estuarine physical-chemical processes and features, biological resources, and socio-economic activities. Chapters about the basins contain information on intertidal, pelagic and subtidal benthic physical-chemical processes and features, biological resources, and socio-economic activities. Watershed chapters contain descriptions of geology, soils, climate, tsuanami hazard, hydrology, water quality, and other topics. The biological resources section of each watershed description contains information on selected species and areas of ecological concern. Preserves, reserves, refuges, conservation areas, sites of known scientific and educational value, anadromous fish spawning areas, wild and scenic rivers, important nesting sites, and waterfowl and shorebird concentrating locations are described and mapped as areas of ecological concern. Socio-economic descriptions include land use, economics, population, environmental issues and other topics, both existing data and trends. The basin chapters contain similar kinds of information but with a greater emphasis on substrate distribution maps.

Not Available

1981-10-01

401

Groundwater quality and management in arid and semi-arid regions: Case study, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a model budget for groundwater in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The stable isotopic composition and hydrochemistry of groundwater samples collected from different aquifers were determined to identify recharge sources and water quality. Stable isotopic values suggest that shallow alluvial and fracture zone aquifers are recharged from seasonal precipitation, while groundwater in deeper sedimentary sub-basins is paleowater that was recharged during periods of less arid regional climate. Hydrochemical analysis indicates elevated salinity in each aquifer type, which is attributed to leaching and dissolution of terrestrial salts and to mixing with marine water. Groundwater from sedimentary sub-basin aquifers can be treated and used for drinking and domestic purposes. Groundwater from shallow alluvial and fracture zone wells is suitable for animal husbandry and mineral ore dressing. A model water budget shows that approximately 4.8 109 m3 of recoverable groundwater is stored in sedimentary sub-basin aquifers, or approximately 550 years of water at present utilization rates.

Amer, Reda; Ripperdan, Robert; Wang, Tao; Encarnacin, John

2012-07-01

402

Crystal structure of the central region of bovine fibrinogen (E5 fragment) at 1.4-? resolution  

PubMed Central

The high-resolution crystal structure of the N-terminal central region of bovine fibrinogen (a 35-kDa E5 fragment) reveals a remarkable dimeric design. The two halves of the molecule bond together at the center in an extensive molecular handshake by using both disulfide linkages and noncovalent contacts. On one face of the fragment, the A? and B? chains from the two monomers form a funnel-shaped domain with an unusual hydrophobic cavity; here, on each of the two outer sides there appears to be a binding site for thrombin. On the opposite face, the N-terminal ? chains fold into a separate domain. Despite the chemical identity of the two halves of fibrinogen, an unusual pair of adjacent disulfide bonds locally constrain the two ? chains to adopt different conformations. The striking asymmetry of this domain may promote the known supercoiling of the protofibrils in fibrin. This information on the detailed topology of the E5 fragment permits the construction of a more detailed model than previously possible for the critical trimolecular junction of the protofibril in fibrin.

Madrazo, Joel; Brown, Jerry H.; Litvinovich, Sergei; Dominguez, Roberto; Yakovlev, Sergei; Medved, Leonid; Cohen, Carolyn

2001-01-01

403

Capital and the state in regional economic development: the case of the coal industry in central Appalachia  

SciTech Connect

This study examines theories of development policy to assess their relevance for the problems of persistently poor regions within advanced capitalist societies. The central premises of three sets of theories are explored using a multi-method approach that combines quantitative analysis of the impact of growth in the coal industry in rural Kentucky between 1960 and 1980, and qualitative analysis of the perspectives of coal industry executives on development in the coal fields. Theories are categorized into neoclassical, redistributionist and critical paradigms because this typology clarifies the differences in the role of capital and the state in development strategies. Results of analyses of economic and social change in rural Kentucky challenge neoclassical development theory. Greater economic growth in coal counties did not bring greater social progress. The analysis supports the redistributionist and critical theorists' thesis that widespread distribution of economic benefits is important to development. Counties with better distribution of income and work had better conditions in 1980, and coal counties have the greatest economic inequality. Comments of coal industry executives confirm the critical theorists' argument that capital resists State policies to redistribute economic surplus for investment in development.

Duncan, C.L.

1985-01-01

404

Carbon Emission from Forest Fires on Scots Pine Logging Sites in the Angara Region of Central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire and large-scale forest harvesting are the two major disturbances in the Russian boreal forests. Non-recovered logged sites total about a million hectares in Siberia. Logged sites are characterized by high