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1

The Las Matras tonalitic–trondhjemitic pluton, central Argentina: Grenvillian-age constraints, geochemical characteristics, and regional implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The N–S trending belt with Grenvillian-age rocks developed in central western Argentina represents the basement of an allochthonous terrane derived from Laurentia during the Early Paleozoic. The Las Matras pluton (36°46?S, 67°07?W) is located at the southern extension of this belt in the Las Matras Block. It consists of a low-Al tonalitic to trondhjemitic facies characteristic of an arc magmatism.

A.M. Sato; H. Tickyj; E. J. Llambiasa; K. Sato

2000-01-01

2

Regional Education Profile: Central America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles of the educational systems in the seven Central American countries are presented, along with an introductory essay by Rene Greenwald, "Higher Education in Central America: Trends and Developments: 1985-86." Country profiles are provided for Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. For each country, an…

Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

3

Modern earthquake monitoring in central Balkan region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central part of the Balkan Peninsula has the key position in the most seismically hazardous region in Europe. The seismological network of Bulgaria, situated in the central part of the Balkan region, consists of 21 analog telemetry seismic stations, including two local networks and the operative centre situated in Sofia. One more local network with 3 digital stations will

E. A. Botev; R. P. Glavcheva

2003-01-01

4

Central America: A Regional Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson is a series of activities and multi-media presentations designed to enable students to understand the historic and geographic roots of some of the problems that Central American nations have faced. Geography, history, writing, and storytelling are used as ways of understanding a multicultural world. Creative thinking and participation…

Mowry, George; Lacy, Ann

5

South Central Michigan Regional Health Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive health plan is presented for the five-county, south central Michigan area, incorporating health services, facilities, and manpower factors, as well as mental health and environmental considerations. A general statement of the regional coun...

1975-01-01

6

Virtual regionalism, regional structures and regime security in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failures of regionalism and regional structures for cooperation between the five CIS Central Asian states are well studied. However, explanations so far do not convincingly account for the apparent enthusiasm of these states for the macro-regional frameworks of the Eurasian Economic Community, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. This article argues that, as with previous

Roy Allison

2008-01-01

7

Regional Adaptation Strategies in Central Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change presents a major challenge on international, national, and regional scale. It affects the scientific world as well as policymakers, representatives of economy, and the public. Consequently, the need for a dialogue between experts in climate change and the people affected is needed. However, structuring and communicating climate change information on the various scales is challenging and demands coordination. Within the Helmholtz community in Germany, four regional Helmholtz climate offices are founded. One of their major goals is to encourage the communication between science and public. Primarily, this is done by close cooperation to the Helmholtz research centers at which each climate office is hosted. Second, a continuous exchange is supported beyond the Helmholtz research centers towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. Each regional Helmholtz climate office represents regional aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting Helmholtz research institutes. In the Climate Office for central Germany, Land use changes are among the most important factors of climate change driven environmental changes which have to be managed by the society in the next years. Since 1991 UFZ scientists research the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. The Climate Office offers information about climate change effects on the environmental compartments, land use strategies as well as regional strategies of adaptation. The three federal states in Central Germany (Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia) handle adaptation to climate change very differently. The presentation focusses on alikeness and differences in the adaptation process.

Marx, Andreas

2013-04-01

8

Central region of SKKUCY-9 compact cyclotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a 9 MeV compact cyclotron for the production of radioisotopes for medical applications has been recently completed. The machine accelerates negative hydrogen ions generated from an internal PIG (Penning Ion Gauge) ion source following spiral orbits. Some of the structures designed for early beam acceleration, including a pair of center poles providing ions a circular direction, the head of the ion source, and the electrodes, are located in the center of the cyclotron. In this paper we discuss and evaluate the design of the central region that pulls the ions from the chimney of the ion source and directs them into the equilibrium orbit. The magnetic field produced by the center poles was analyzed using the magnetic solver in OPERA-3D TOSCA, and the phase error and ion equilibrium orbit, which is dependent on the kinetic energy within the designed field, were calculated using CYCLONE v8.4. The electric field produced in the acceleration gap was designed using an electrostatic solver. Then, the single beam trajectory was calculated by our own Cyclotron Beam Dynamics (CBD) code. The early orbits, vertical oscillation, acceptable RF phase and the energy gain during the early turns was evaluated. Final goal was to design the central region by the iterative optimization process and verify it with 1 MeV beam experiment.

Jung, S. Y.; Kim, H. W.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Park, J. K.; Chai, J. S.; Kim, S. H.

2014-04-01

9

Mineralizacion uranifera en la region central de Cuba. (Uranium mineralization in the central region of Cuba).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present work shows different geological and geophysical index for uranium mineralization found at Loma Alta iron ore deposit, located in the central region of Cuba. In this deposit was carried out pull work of iron ore. The tunnels were radiometricall...

M. G. Valdez J. Olivera P. Fernandez

1995-01-01

10

Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

Jones, Peter

2010-01-01

11

American Indians of West South Central Region by County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data on the American Indian population from the 1970 Census for counties in the West South Central region with 400 or more American Indians. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marit...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

12

American Indians of East South Central Region by County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data on the American Indian population from the 1970 Census for counties in the East South Central region with 400 or more American Indians. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marit...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

13

Central Region: A Report Identifying and Addressing the Educational Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the deliberations of the Central Regional Advisory Committee (RAC), one of 10 RACs established under the Educational Technical Assistance Act of 2002 (20 U.S.C. sections 9601 et. seq.) to assess the educational needs of the region. The committee's report outlines the educational needs across the states of Colorado, Kansas,…

US Department of Education, 2011

2011-01-01

14

Chemistry of precipitation in the Central Finger Lakes Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of precipitation chemistry are important to construct a quantitative nutrient balance (input and output flux) for ecosystems, such as Cayuga Lake and Seneca Lake, in the Central Finger Lakes Region. This paper gives the precipitation chemistry of the region during 1970-71. A subsequent report will give quantitative information on the input and output of nutrients and other chemicals by

Likens

1972-01-01

15

Active tectonics of the Qom region, Central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 50-57°E shortening across the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone is accommodated primarily in the Zagros and Alborz mountains of Iran, which bound the relatively aseismic Central Iranian block. Both the lack of seismicity and the minor variation in GPS velocities across Central Iran suggest this region plays a negligible role in accommodating Arabia-Eurasia shortening at the present day. We examine recent

J. Hollingsworth; M. Fattahi; J. A. Jackson; M. Talebian; H. Nazari; A. Bahroudi

2009-01-01

16

40 CFR 81.271 - Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.271 Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

17

40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.95 Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

18

40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

19

MOHO ORIENTATION BENEATH CENTRAL CALIFORNIA FROM REGIONAL EARTHQUAKE TRAVEL TIMES.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper examines relative Pn arrival times, recorded by the U. S. Geological Survey seismic network in central and northern California from an azimuthally distributed set of regional earthquakes. Improved estimates are presented of upper mantle velocities in the Coast Ranges, Great Valley, and Sierra Nevada foothills and estimates of the orientation of the Moho throughout this region. Finally, the azimuthal distribution of apparent velocities, corrected for dip and individual station travel time effects, is then studied for evidence of upper mantle velocity anisotropy and for indications of lower crustal structure in central California.

Oppenheimer, David, H.; Eaton, Jerry, P.

1984-01-01

20

Bouguer Gravity Anomalies and Regional Crustal Structure in Central Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomalies for central Mexico, between 18° and 21° N and 96° and 106° W, is used to document the regional crustal structure beneath the active magmatic arc, the continental margin, and the high-elevation provinces north of the arc. A variogram analysis was performed first to investigate the statistical properties of the gravity anomaly map and

Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi; Jesus Hernan Flores-Ruiz

1996-01-01

21

Determinants of deforestation in Nepal's Central Development Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of deforestation in the Central Development Region (CDR) of Nepal is diverse in space and time, with rapid deforestation still occurring in areas outside the national parks and wildlife reserves. This paper identifies the spatial driving forces (SDFs) of deforestation in the CDR for 1975–2000 using satellite data of 1975 (MSS), 1990 (TM), and 2000 (ETM+) along with

Keshav Bhattarai; Dennis Conway; Mahmoud Yousef

2009-01-01

22

40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate...

2009-07-01

23

40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality...Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate...

2010-07-01

24

Microsurgical treatment for parasagittal meningioma in the central gyrus region  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of microsurgery treatment for parasagittal meningioma in the central gyrus region. A microsurgical technique was used to treat 26 patients with large parasagittal meningioma in the central gyrus region. The Rolandic and draining veins and the peritumoral normal brain tissue were retained, and the associated sagittal sinus was appropriately protected. A Simpson grade I, II or III resection was performed in 8 (30.8%), 12 (46.2%) and 6 (23.1%) patients, respectively, with no post-operative mortalities. Following treatment, 9 patients exhibited hemiparalysis. No tumor recurrence was found in 21 patients during the follow-up examination. The treatment protocol described in the current study included sufficient pre-operative imaging evaluations, a skilled microsurgical technique, improved protection of the Rolandic vein and treatment of the sagittal sinus, and was found to significantly increase the total tumor removal rate and decrease post-operative recurrence.

BI, NA; XU, RUI-XUE; LIU, RONG-YAO; WU, CHUN-MING; WANG, JIAN; CHEN, WEI-DONG; LIU, JUN; XU, YOU-SONG; WEI, ZHEN-QING; LI, TAO; ZHANG, JIAN; BAI, JING-YANG; DONG, BIN; FAN, SHU-JUN; XU, YING-HUI

2013-01-01

25

Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in Central Asia  

SciTech Connect

This morning I will describe a program that we refer to as STARS, for Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security, in Central Asia. It is a program that is based on cooperative, bilateral and multilateral, science and technology projects. It is our premise that such cooperative projects provide an opportunity for engagement while addressing real problems that could otherwise lead to destabilizing tensions in the region. The STARS program directly supports USCENTCOM's activities and objectives in environmental security. In fact, we think that STARS is a great vehicle for implementing and amplifying USCENTCOM's environmental security objectives and activities. We are very grateful and very pleased to have General DeLong's support in this matter. I am going to briefly describe the program. I want to stress again that it is a cooperative program. We would like to get input, suggestions, and feedback from the Central Asians here today so we can move forward together.

Rosenberg, N

2002-07-05

26

Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C' Through the Central Appalachian Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.

Trippi, Michael H.; Crangle, Robert D., Jr.

2009-01-01

27

North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

Not Available

1985-08-01

28

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region  

SciTech Connect

This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1981-03-01

29

Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented.

Not Available

1984-11-01

30

Active tectonics of the Qom region, Central Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 50-57°E shortening across the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone is accommodated primarily in the Zagros and Alborz mountains of Iran, which bound the relatively aseismic Central Iranian block. Both the lack of seismicity and the minor variation in GPS velocities across Central Iran suggest this region plays a negligible role in accommodating Arabia-Eurasia shortening at the present day. We examine recent deformation in the Qom region, which lies 100 km south of Tehran within the Central Iran block. This region is notable for a number of large earthquakes over the last 30 years: 1980.12.18 (Mw 6.0), 1980.12.22 (Mw 5.7), and 2007.06.18 (Mw 5.4). Body-waveform modeling of these events indicates N-S shortening on a S-dipping thrust fault which projects to the surface along the Qom thrust. Evidence for longer-term uplift is indicated by the increased topography south of the fault, and the exposure of folded Miocene (U. Red Fmtn) and Late Oligocene (Qom Fmtn) deposits. River incision has resulted in numerous river terraces, and in one location an alluvial fan has been offset across the fault. Four samples were collected from the surface of this fan and their ages determined using OSL dating. The results indicate fan abandonment at ~30 kybp. A DEM of the fan was produced using kinematic GPS surveying data, from which 1.0±0.3 m vertical offset was measured. A minimum uplift rate of 0.02 mm/yr and a minimum shortening rate of 0.01 mm/yr are obtained. If the age of the lower (and youngest) terrace is 10 ky, as is typically seen in other locations throughout Iran, the likely range of uplift rates are 0.02-0.2 mm/yr and shortening rates 0.01-0.2 mm/yr. North of Qom city, U. Red Fmtn deposits have been folded into an asymmetric N-verging anticline known as the Alborz anticline. Seismic, well and surface data all indicate this structure has formed as a fault-bend fold above a decollement at 3 km depth which ramps to the surface along the northern limit of the fold. A balanced cross section indicates ~18% shortening (1.5 km) in a period bracketed by the Upper Red Fmtn (<18 Ma) and the Pliocene (>5.3 Ma), yielding shortening rates of 0.1-0.3 mm/yr. The right-lateral Kashan fault lies SE of the Qom region, and appears to be kinematically linked to the thrust faults around Qom, which probably represent thrust terminations. Historical earthquakes have occurred on the Kashan fault, and clear evidence for recent movement is seen in the Quaternary geomorphology. Reconstruction of the geology across the Kashan fault indicates ~45 km of total right-lateral motion, which suggests it has played a significant role in the accommodation of regional shortening. Late Cenozoic estimates of N-S shortening in the Qom region are 0.03-0.5 mm/yr. The difference in GPS velocities north and south of Qom indicates 1.1±1.9 mm/yr shortening across this region. This study suggests that Central Iran plays an important role in accommodating Arabia-Eurasia shortening over Quaternary to geological timescales. Efforts should be made to better constrain the seismic hazard posed by active faults to large populations in the Central Iran region.

Hollingsworth, J.; Fattahi, M.; Jackson, J. A.; Talebian, M.; Nazari, H.; Bahroudi, A.

2009-12-01

31

Central and regional hemodynamics in prolonged space flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of measuring central and regional (head, forearm, calf) hemodynamics at rest and during provocative tests by the method of tetrapolar rheography in the course of Salyut-6-Soyuz and Salyut-7-Soyuz missions. The measurements were carried out during short-term (19 man-flights of 7 days in duration) and long-term (21 man-flights of 65-237 days in duration) manned missions. At rest, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) as well as heart rate (HR) decreased insignificantly (in short-term flights) or remained essentially unchanged (in long-term flights). In prolonged flights CO increased significantly in response to exercise tests due to an increase in HR and the lack of changes in SV. After exercise tests SV and CO decreased as compared to the preflight level. During lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tests HR and CO were slightly higher than preflight. Changes in regional hemodynamics included a distinct decrease of pulse blood filling (PBF) of the calf, a reduction of the tone of large vessels of the calf and small vessels of the forearm. Head examination (in the region of the internal carotid artery) showed a decrease of PBF of the left hemisphere (during flight months 2-8) and a distinct decline of the tone of small vessels, mainly, in the right hemisphere. During LBNP tests the tone of pre- and postcapillary vessels of the brain returned to normal while PBF of the right and left hemisphere vessels declined. It has been shown that regional circulation variations depend on the area examined and are induced by a rearrangement of total hemodynamics of the human body in microgravity. This paper reviews the data concerning changes in central and regional circulation of men in space flights of different duration.

Gazenko, O. G.; Shulzhenko, E. B.; Turchaninova, V. F.; Egorov, A. D.

32

Regional Mapping of Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central Puget Sound Region, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1980's we began development of a series of regional liquefaction susceptibility maps covering the urban areas of the central Puget Sound region, including the cities of Seattle and Tacoma. In producing these maps we used a standardized approach that utilizes 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping and analyses of geotechnical boring data and allows direct comparison of the liquefaction susceptibility

S. P. Palmer; W. J. Perkins

2005-01-01

33

Heat waves over Central Europe in regional climate model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional climate models (RCMs) have become a powerful tool for exploring impacts of global climate change on a regional scale. The aim of the study is to evaluate the capability of RCMs to reproduce characteristics of major heat waves over Central Europe in their simulations of the recent climate (1961-2000), with a focus on the most severe and longest Central European heat wave that occurred in 1994. We analyzed 7 RCM simulations with a high resolution (0.22°) from the ENSEMBLES project, driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis. In observed data (the E-OBS 9.0 dataset), heat waves were defined on the basis of deviations of daily maximum temperature (Tmax) from the 95% quantile of summer Tmax distribution in grid points over Central Europe. The same methodology was applied in the RCM simulations; we used corresponding 95% quantiles (calculated for each RCM and grid point) in order to remove the bias of modelled Tmax. While climatological characteristics of heat waves are reproduced reasonably well in the RCM ensemble, we found major deficiencies in simulating heat waves in individual years. For example, METNOHIRHAM simulated very severe heat waves in 1996, when no heat wave was observed. Focusing on the major 1994 heat wave, considerable differences in simulated temperature patterns were found among the RCMs. The differences in the temperature patterns were clearly linked to the simulated amount of precipitation during this event. The 1994 heat wave was almost absent in all RCMs that did not capture the observed precipitation deficit, while it was by far most pronounced in KNMI-RACMO that simulated virtually no precipitation over Central Europe during the 15-day period of the heat wave. By contrast to precipitation, values of evaporative fraction in the RCMs were not linked to severity of the simulated 1994 heat wave. This suggests a possible major contribution of other factors such as cloud cover and associated downward shortwave radiation. Therefore, a more detailed analysis of individual components of the energy budget over Central Europe during and before the 1994 heat wave was performed.

Lhotka, Ond?ej; Kyselý, Jan

2014-05-01

34

40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.155 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central...

2013-07-01

35

Economic and Security Regionalism among Patrimonial Authoritarian Regimes: The Case of Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘new regionalism’ has spread to Central Asia; yet there has been little success in implementing most regional initiatives there. Security regionalism has had greater success than economic regionalism, even though economic initiatives would bring great benefits to the economy and population. I propose a connection between patrimonialism and regionalism. Central Asia's patrimonial leaders are driven by survival and personal

Kathleen Collins

2009-01-01

36

Development assistance for health in central and eastern European Region.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify development assistance for health to countries of central and eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE-CIS). METHODS: We used the International Development Statistics database of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the database on development assistance for health compiled for the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health to quantify health development assistance to the region, compared to global and overall development assistance. We based our analysis on standard health indicators, including child mortality, life expectancy at birth and health expenditures. FINDINGS: Although total development assistance per capita to CEE-CIS was higher than that for most other regions of the world, development assistance for health was very low compared to other countries with similar levels of child mortality, life expectancy at birth and national expenditures on health. CONCLUSION: The allocation of development assistance for health on a global scale seems to be related far more to child mortality rather than adult mortality. Countries of CEE-CIS have a high burden of adult morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases, which does not appear to attract proportionate development assistance. Levels of development assistance for health should be determined in consideration of the region's particular burden of disease.

Suhrcke, Marc; Rechel, Bernd; Michaud, Catherine

2005-01-01

37

Placing Central European climate archives into a regional tephrochronological framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of Lateglacial and Early Holocene lacustrine records from Central and Southern Europe have been shown to contain both visible and micro-tephra deposits, which can be correlated to volcanic eruptions from multiple volcanic sources. Detailed environmental proxy records, which outline local and regional responses to the abrupt climatic changes of the Last Glacial to Interglacial transition (LGIT), are thus constrained within a regional tephrochronological framework. Amongst other volcanic markers, the Laacher See Tephra, erupted from the Eifel region of Germany at 12,880 ±120 varve yrs BP (Brauer et al., 1999), and the Vedde Ash, erupted from Iceland between 12,225 and 11,832 cal. yrs BP (Blockley et al., 2007), are found within some of the same lake cores (e.g., Blockley et al., 2008). These key horizons, which bracket the onset of the Younger Dryas Interstadial, provide precise and absolutely dated tie points around which a detailed picture of the timing of local and regional environmental transitions can be constructed. The presence of the Vedde Ash in the Swiss lake sites allows a direct linkage to the Greenland Ice Core chronology (Mortensen et al., 2005) and highlights the potential for key tephra deposits to be found and correlated across wide geographical areas. This paper summarises the results of tephrochronological investigations into a suite of Central European records, which includes: Soppensee and Rotsee, in Central Switzerland; Rotmeer, in Southern Germany; and Lavarone, in Northern Italy. Chemical analysis of each tephra deposit has been carried out and the sources of the eruption events have been identified. Where appropriate, tephra ages have been transferred from high-precision annually-resolved chronologies and integrated with Bayesian-based radiocarbon age models for the sites. The environmental archives of the LGIT at each site are then compared on a common timescale, and further comparisons are made with other published European tephra-bearing records. References: Blockley, S.P.E., Bronk Ramsey, C. and Pyle, D.M. 2008. Improved age modelling and high-precision age estimates of late Quaternary tephras, for accurate palaeoclimate reconstruction. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 177(1), pp. 251-262. Blockley, S.P.E., Lane, C.S., Lotter, A.F. and Pollard, A.M. 2007. Evidence for the presence of the Vedde Ash in Central Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26(25-28), pp. 3030-3036. Brauer, A., Endres, C., Negendank, J.F.W., 1999a. Lateglacial calendar year chronology based on annually laminated sediments from Lake Meerfelder Maar, Germany. Quaternary International 61, 17-25. Mortensen, A.K., Bigler, M., Grönvold, K., Steffensen, J.P. and Johnsen, S.J. 2005. Volcanic ash layers from the last glacial termination in the NGRIP ice core. Journal of Quaternary Science, 20(3), pp. 209-219.

Lane, C. S.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lotter, A. F.; Filippi, M. L.; Pollard, A. M.

2009-04-01

38

Probing the Central Regions of Nearby Compact Elliptical Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

K-band spectroscopic observations recorded with NIFS+ALTAIR on Gemini North are used to probe the central arcsecond of the compact elliptical galaxies NGC 4486B, NGC 5846A, and M32. The angular resolution of these data is ~0.1" FWHM; this corresponds to a spatial scale of 12 pc in NGC 5846A, which is the most distant galaxy in the sample. Indices that probe the strengths of various atomic and molecular features are measured. The central stellar contents of NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A are similar in the sense that they occupy the same regions of the (Ca I, 12CO), (Na I, 12CO), and ( 13CO, 12CO) diagrams. The NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A observations depart from the sequence defined by solar neighborhood giants in the (Na I, 12CO) diagram in a sense that is consistent with both galaxies having nonsolar chemical mixtures. For comparison, the M32 data are consistent with a chemical enrichment history like that in the Galactic disk; M32 could not have formed from the stripping of a larger elliptical galaxy. The behavior of the near-infrared line indices as a function of radius is also investigated. The stellar content in the central arcsecond of M32 appears to be well mixed. However, the radial behavior of the indices in NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A show complicated behavior, with the gradients that are present at large radii breaking down or reversing within a few tenths of an arcsec of the nucleus. Based on the age gradients predicted from visible wavelength spectra, coupled with the radial behavior of the and 12CO(2, 0) indices, it is suggested that the nuclear regions of NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A harbor intermediate-age populations. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF) on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council of Canada (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

Davidge, T. J.; Beck, Tracy L.; McGregor, Peter J.

2008-04-01

39

Central San Juan caldera cluster: regional volcanic framework  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eruption of at least 8800 km3 of dacitic-rhyolitic magma as 9 major ash-slow sheets (individually 150-5000 km3) was accompanied by recurrent caldera subsidence between 28.3 and about 26.5 Ma in the central San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Voluminous andesitic-decitic lavas and breccias were erupted from central volcanoes prior to the ash-flow eruptions, and similar lava eruptions continued within and adjacent to the calderas during the period of explosive volcanism, making the central San Juan caldera cluster an exceptional site for study of caldera-related volcanic processes. Exposed calderas vary in size from 10 to 75 km in maximum diameter, the largest calderas being associated with the most voluminous eruptions. After collapse of the giant La Garita caldera during eruption if the Fish Canyon Tuff at 17.6 Ma, seven additional explosive eruptions and calderas formed inside the La Garita depression within about 1 m.y. Because of the nested geometry, maximum loci of recurrently overlapping collapse events are inferred to have subsided as much as 10-17 km, far deeper than the roof of the composite subvolcanic batholith defined by gravity data, which represents solidified caldera-related magma bodies. Erosional dissection to depths of as much as 1.5 km, although insufficient to reach the subvolcanic batholith, has exposed diverse features of intracaldera ash-flow tuff and interleaved caldera-collapse landslide deposits that accumulated to multikilometer thickness within concurrently subsiding caldera structures. The calderas display a variety of postcollapse resurgent uplift structures, and caldera-forming events produced complex fault geometries that localized late mineralization, including the epithermal base- and precious-metal veins of the well-known Creede mining district. Most of the central San Juan calderas have been deeply eroded, and their identification is dependent on detailed geologic mapping. In contrast, the primary volcanic morphology of the symmetrically resurgent Creede caldera, the volcanic framework for Lake Creede, has been exceptionally preserved because of rapid infilling by moat sediments of the Creede Formation, which were preferentially eroded during the past few million years. The ash-flow tuffs and caldera of the central San Juan region have been widely recognized as exceptional sites for study of explosive volcanic processes, and the results reported here provide new insights into processes of pyroclastic eruption and emplacement, geometric interrelations between caldera subsidence and resurgence, the petrologic diversity of sequential ash-flow eruptions, recurrent eruption of intermediate-composition lavas after each caldera-forming event, associated regional fault development, volume relations between ash-flow eruptions and associated calderas, the emplacement of subvolcanic batholiths, and involvement of mantle-derived mafic phases in magma-generation processes.

Lipman, Peter W.

2000-01-01

40

Regional Air Quality in central México and emissions inventories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four air quality field campaigns, from 2009 to 2012, during March-April were carried out in several sites in urban, rural and semi-rural sites in Central México. One of the sites was in the Chalco Gap southeast of MCMA (2011), another in the state of Morelos (2011), other two in the state of Puebla (2009 and 2012). All these sites are South and East of the Mexico Basin. The main object of those campaigns was to document regional air quality, mainly in rural and periurban sites, including the photochemical age of regional polluted plumes as they were transported away from the main metropolitan areas within the region. In this paper, we focus on comparisons between observed CO/NOx, and CO/SO2 ratios with those from the National Emissions Inventory and form local inventories reported in state air quality management programs. Comparisons were made with data between 05:00 to 08:00 h to minimize effects photochemical activity and the fast evolution of MLH occurring between 08:00 and 09:00 due to high insolation. Comparisons among observed ratios show a fairly consistent ratio, whereas ratios from emissions inventory are widely variable and only in few sites compare reasonable well with observed ones, indicating the need for homologation of emissions inventories in the country. Also Ozone, CO, NOx and NOy observed time series are compared with WRF-Chem model results for the same campaign periods to evaluate its performance outside MCMA. In addition, observed surface wind speeds and early morning MLH obtained with a tethered balloon are also compared with modeled values to help understanding discrepancies in the trace gases comparisons.

Gerardo Ruiz-Suarez, Luis; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Agustín García-Reynoso, José; Santos García-Yee, José; Barrera-Huertas, Hugo; Alejandro Torres-Jaramillo, Jorge; Robles-Roldán, Miguel Angel; Gutierrez López, Wilfrido; García-Espinoza, Manuel; Castro-Romero, Telma

2014-05-01

41

Regional CODA magnitudes in central Asia and MB (LG) transportability.  

SciTech Connect

Local and near regional coda have been shown to provide accurate and precise estimates of source, path and site effects. Using empirical methods, we investigate tlic use of coda to determine moments and magnitudes using regional distance (to 2500 km) data from 21 stations in central Asia and China. We find source levels for bands between 33 s and 8 Hz from events recorded at Urumchi (WMQ) to be a factor of two more consistent for coda than for direct waves, for bands outside the microseism range. However, the anticipated path averaging of regional coda is insufficient io remove bias in all but the lowest frequency bands. We correct for path bias by spatially interpolating coda levels rclative to mb(PDE). For higher bands (1 Hz), the spatial correction patterns vary by an order of magnitude and are similar to patterns obtained using direct L,. For the lowest band (20-33 s) the maximum spatial variation shrinks to under a factor of 4 and changes sign, reflecting effects other than crustal Q. Thus, the low frequency coda could be useful for correcting for source effects in empirical or tomographic path studies, which is currently performed using mb. After rcmoving path bias from coda measurements, we find that amplitude measurement consistency between all 21 stations vanes considerably from pair to pair (a = 0.12 to 0.37), with low-Q surroundings and poor site conditions yielding the least stable measurements. CMT based moments (Mw) derived from 20-33 s WMQ coda are verified by comparing with moments derived from waveform fitting studies (a = 0.18). We continue investigations into the transportability of regional magnitudes using the m{sub b}(L{sub g}) scale devised by Nuttli. Previous work has shown that mb(L) is portable for earthquakes provided that L, attenuation is well calibrated for propagation paths. ln this study, our focus shifts to explosion sources, and the question of transportability of m{sub b}(L{sub g}) for different test sites. We revisit Nuttli's results, which were based on observations at far-regional and teleseismic distances, and depended critically upon accurate knowledge of the L, Qo. In this paper, measurements of m{sub b}(L{sub g}) are reported for stations within 1000 km, and as such, errors due to uncertainties in the path correction are smaller than was the case for Nuttli's measurements.

Phillips, W. S. (William Scott); Patton, Howard J.; Hartse, H. E. (Hans E.); Mayeda, K. M. (Kevin M.)

2001-01-01

42

[Refractive errors among schoolchildren in the central region of Togo].  

PubMed

Untreated refractive errors represent the main visual impairment in the world but also the easiest to avoid. The goal of this survey is to use clinical and epidemiological data to efficiently plan distribution of corrective glasses in a project supported by the Swiss Red Cross in the central region of Togo. To achieve this goal, 66 primary schools were identified randomly in the catchment area of the project. The teachers at these schools were previously trained to test visual acuity (VA). The schoolchildren referred by these teachers were examined by eye care professionals. The schoolchildren with ametropia (VA?7/10 in at least one eye) underwent cycloplegic autorefraction. Of a total of 19,252 registered schoolchildren, 13,039 underwent VA testing by the teachers (participation rate=68%). Among them, 366 cases of ametropia were identified (prevalence about 3%). The average age of the schoolchildren examined was 10.7±2.3years, with a sex ratio of 1.06. Autorefraction, which was performed for 37% of the schoolchildren with ametropia allowed them to be classified into three groups: hyperopia (4%), myopia (5%) and astigmatism of all types (91%). Regardless of the type of ametropia, the degree of severity was mild in 88%. The results of this survey have highlighted the importance of the teachers' contribution to eye care education in the struggle against refractive errors within the school environment, as well as helping to efficiently plan actions against ametropia. PMID:23932587

Nonon Saa, K B; Atobian, K; Banla, M; Rédah, T; Maneh, N; Walser, A

2013-11-01

43

Geomorphological evidence of recent tilting in the Central Amazonia Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphometric techniques applied to remote sensing data represent powerful tools as an aid for detecting terrain features produced by recent vertical crustal movements in a variety of landscapes. In this work, geomorphometric analysis of the Central Amazonia drainage network using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data was carried out to determine surface water loading and tectonic influence on the development of the Uatumã and Urubu river basins since the Miocene. The main objective was to detect geomorphological domains of lateral stream migration and channel sinuosity changes that could indicate recent vertical crustal movement. To achieve this, the Transverse Topographic Symmetry Factor and Sinuosity Index were applied to analyze the study area drainage network. Comparison of the geomorphological domains with structural field data and records of seismicity suggests that they are influenced by subsurface fault reactivation, which coincides in space with faults mapped in outcrops that have activated since the Miocene. This interpretation is corroborated by the spatial correspondence between these faults with domain boundaries and shapes, by river sinuosity change when crossing these boundaries, and by a high concentration of seismic activity along one of these limits. The crustal movement caused by hydrological loading can also influence such geomorphological features. Such is the case of lateral stream migrations of a domain in the opposite sense to the Amazon River flow. This may be a consequence of the more pronounced expression of hydrological loading in the Negro and Solimões river confluence region.

Ibanez, Delano Menecucci; Riccomini, Claudio; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon

2014-06-01

44

Collision of Anternae Central Regions Observed by Chandra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Chandra image shows the central regions of two colliding galaxies known collectively as the Antennae (NGC-4038/4039). The Chandra image reveals a large population of extremely bright x-ray sources in this area of intense star formation. These x-ray sources, which emit 10 to several hundred times more x-ray power than similar sources in our own galaxy, are believed to be either massive black holes, or black holes that are beaming their energy toward Earth. In this x-ray image, red represents the low energy band, green intermediate, and blue the highest observed energies. The white and yellow sources are those that emit significant amounts of both low and high energy x-rays. About 60 million light years from Earth in the constellation Corvus, the Antennae Galaxies got their nickname from the wispy anntennae-like streams of gas as seen by optical telescopes. These ongoing wisps are believed to have been produced approximately 100 million years ago by the collision between the gala

1999-01-01

45

Collision of Anternae Central Regions Observed by Chandra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Chandra image shows the central regions of two colliding galaxies known collectively as the Antennae (NGC-4038/4039). The dozens of bright pointy-like sources are neutron stars or black holes pulling gas off nearby stars. The bright fuzzy patches are multimillion degree gas superbubbles, thousands of light years in diameter that were produced by the accumulated power of thousands of supernovae. The remaining glow of x-ray emission could be due to many faint x-ray sources or to clouds of hot gas in the galaxies. About 60 million light years from Earth in the constellation Corvus, the Antennae Galaxies got their nickname from the wispy anntennae-like streams of gas as seen by optical telescopes. These ongoing wisps are believed to have been produced approximately 100 million years ago by the collision between the galaxies. Although it is rare for stars to hit each other during a galactic collision, clouds of dust and gas do collide. Compression of these clouds can lead to the rebirth of millions of stars, and a few million years later, to thousands of supernovae.

1999-01-01

46

78 FR 37537 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...technical conference on centralized capacity markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System Operators (RTOs/ISOs) (centralized capacity markets). The technical conference will take place on September 25, 2013 beginning at...

2013-06-21

47

40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 81.195 Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...delimited): In the State of Michigan: Allegan County, Arenac...County, Mecosta County, Midland County, Montcalm...

2010-07-01

48

40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... § 81.195 Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...delimited): In the State of Michigan: Allegan County, Arenac...County, Kent County, Lake County, Lapeer...

2011-07-01

49

40 CFR 81.195 - Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... § 81.195 Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Michigan Intrastate Air Quality...delimited): In the State of Michigan: Allegan County, Arenac...County, Kent County, Lake County, Lapeer...

2012-07-01

50

Heat sources for tertiary metamorphism and anatexis in the Annapurna-Manaslu region, central Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metamorphic evolution of the rocks near the Main Central Thrust in the Annapurna-Manaslu region of central Nepal is examined. In this region, all three types of metamorphic features can be observed: regional metamorphism, anatectic granitoids, and inverted metamorphic isograds. In this work, each phase of metamorphism is treated separately to estimate the heat sources required for each process. This

Philip England; Patrick Le Fort; Peter Molnar; Arnaud Pecher

1992-01-01

51

Long regional magnetotelluric profile crossing geotectonic structures of central Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction The magnetotelluric survey was made along a regional profile, which runs across Poland from south-west to north-east during 2005-2006 years. The profile crosses major geological structures of Central Poland, including the Variscan Externides and Variscan foredeep, the Transeuropean Suture Zone and the marginal zone of East European Craton. The main objectives of the project include identification of sub-Zechstein sedimentary structures and evaluation of resistivity distribution within the deep crust, especially at the contact of East European Precambrian Craton and Central Europe Paleozoic structures. The length of the profile is about 700 km; 161 deep magnetotelluric sounding sites were made with a medium spacing of about 4 km. Data acquisition and processing The recording of the components of natural electromagnetic field was made with a broad range of frequencies, varying from 0.0003 Hz up to 575 Hz with use of MT-1 system of Electromagnetic Instruments Incorporation. This frequency band allowed obtaining the information about geology ranging from a few dozen meters to approximately 100 km, depending on the vertical distribution of the resistivity inside geological medium. To reduce the electromagnetic noise, magnetic and electric remote reference was applied. A remote reference site was located at a distance of over 100 km of field sites. Processing of the recorded data included the estimation of the components of impedance tensor (Zxx, Zxy, Zyx and Zyy ), with use of robust type procedures. The components of the impedance tensor allowed in a subsequent step for calculation of field curves for two orientations of the measurement system (XY - described further as the TM mode and YX - TE mode) and additional parameters of the medium like skew, strike, pole diagrams etc. Recording of the vertical component of electromagnetic field (Hz) allowed calculation of tipper parameter T. Magnetotelluric soundings interpretation Geophysical interpretation of MT sounding data was made based on 1D and 2D inversion. The upper part of the geological section is built of relatively flat layers, hence a 1D interpretation model could be effectively applied. Starting models for 1D inversion were constructed based on results of electromagnetic well-logging and some well-documented seismic horizons. Initial models for 2D inversion were constructed with the use of results of 1D magnetotelluric sounding inversion and structural model of the upper part of cross-section based on seismic data interpretation. 2D inversion was performed in two steps with use of NLCG and SBI algorithms. At first step of inversion high-frequency range of data was used and constraints based on borehole data was applied. Inversion in second step was made with starting model constructed based on results of first one and with stabilizing resistivity distribution in upper part of cross-section. Of great interest is varied resistivity of the formation resting between the Zechstein evaporate complex, and the crystalline basement. Interpretation of results of magnetotelluric soundings provide a lot of new information. The main tectonic boundaries were distinguished and location of sediments of different lithology reflected in resistivity differentiation was defined. Some new deep tectonic elements were recognized at the zone of Fore-Sudetic Block and Fore-Sudetic Monocline. Substantial differentiation of resistivity of crystalline massif of the East European Craton basement was discovered. Zones of low resistivity are probably connected with development of metamorphic processes or reflects location of big faults. Geological cross- section based on resistivity distribution was constructed. Deep model of regional structures based on resistivity distribution was suggested as well. Acknowledgments. This paper was based on results of investigations carried out by the PBG Geophysical Exploration Company Ltd. financed by the Minister of Environment through National Found for Environment Protection and Water Resources. The authors used also results of statutory research

Stefaniuk, M.; Pokorski, J.; Wojdyla, M.

2009-04-01

52

Energy and development in Central America. Volume I: regional assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

1980-02-01

53

Determinants of deforestation in Nepal's Central Development Region.  

PubMed

The process of deforestation in the Central Development Region (CDR) of Nepal is diverse in space and time, with rapid deforestation still occurring in areas outside the national parks and wildlife reserves. This paper identifies the spatial driving forces (SDFs) of deforestation in the CDR for 1975-2000 using satellite data of 1975 (MSS), 1990 (TM), and 2000 (ETM+) along with socio-demographic and socioeconomic variables. Radiometrically calibrated satellite images are individually classified into seven distinct classes and merged together to cover the entire CDR. Classification accuracies are also assessed. Areas of land use and cover within the areas of each Village Development Committee (VDC) and municipality represented by GIS polygons are calculated from the classified images by overlaying vector files of 1845 polygons representing sections of VDCs and municipalities in 30-1199 m, 1200-2399 m, 2400-4999 m and >5000 m elevation levels. These elevation levels were estimated from the DEM compiled from 24 ASTER scenes taken on different dates. Only the first three elevation levels are used in the analysis because area >5000 m is under permanent snow cover where human related forestry activities are almost negligible. A transition matrix is generated for 1975-1990 using classified images of 1975 and 1990 and then this product is used to further develop another transition matrix for 1990-2000 with the classified ETM+ 2000 images as the final stage. The GIS polygon layer is overlaid on the transition matrices to calculate deforestation areas for 1975-1990 and 1990-2000. Biophysical and socioeconomic information collected from various sources is then brought into a GIS platform for statistical analyses. Six linear regression models are estimated using SAS; in effect, two models for each elevation range representing the 1975-1990 and 1990-2000 periods of change to identify SDF influences on deforestation. These regression analyses reveal that deforestation in the CDR is related to multiple factors, such as farming population, genders of various ages, migration, elevation, road, distance from road to forest, meandering and erosion of river, and most importantly the conversion of forestland into farmland. PMID:19822389

Bhattarai, Keshav; Conway, Dennis; Yousef, Mahmoud

2009-01-01

54

40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.124 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North...

2013-07-01

55

40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South...

2013-07-01

56

Coastal Hazard Mitigation and Resource Protection in the North Central Florida Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study identifies and delineates hurricane hazard and regionally-significant natural areas within the North Central Florida Region. Based in part on the amount of development pressure occurring within or adjacent to these areas and their intrinsic nat...

1986-01-01

57

Investigating the Central Regions of the HIFLUGCS Clusters with Chandra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a preliminary analysis of the Chandra follow up to the HIFLUGCS sample (Hudson et al, in prep). By plotting the central temperature profiles, normalized to the global cluster temperature, against the fraction of the virial radius, we find no evidence for a universal central temperature profile. Similarly by fitting the central temperature profile to a powerlaw, we find a continuous range of values for the slope. Interpreting a positive temperature gradient as an indication of a cooling core, we find that exactly half (32 of 64) of the clusters in the HIFLUGCS sample are classified as cooling core clusters. Additionally, we find a flattening of the central entropy, consistent with other observations and predictions from simulations [3]. Perhaps the most interesting feature is the bi-modal distribution in the plot of global temperature versus central entropy. The distributions can be easily divided at 40 keV cm2. Interpreting the clusters with a low central entropy as cooling core clusters, 27 of the clusters are classified as cooling core clusters with this method.

Hudson, D. S.; Reiprich, T. H.

58

Diseño de la cadena de suministro de los productos alimenticios que demanda la dirección de alimentación de la Universidad Central de Las Villas  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Dirección de Alimentación de la Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas es la encargada de elaborar y abastecer los alimentos que se consumen en las diferentes dependencias que se destinan para el consumo. Dicha dirección adolece de un desempeño adecuado debido, entre otros aspectos, a la falta de integración, coordinación y racionalidad en sus procesos por carecer de

Manley Torriente Jackson

2011-01-01

59

Empirical analysis on determinants of the county level economic growth in China's central region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The county level economies play an important role in China. In the central region of China, these economies account for a large share though their development is slow. To some extent, the difference between the central and eastern regions of China is mainly due to the disparity between the county level economies. Hence, growth in the county level economies is

Lin Shou-fu; Zhao Ding-tao

2009-01-01

60

Fault interaction along the Central Andean thrust front: The Las Peñas thrust, Cerro Salinas thrust and the Montecito Anticline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region in west-central Argentina between the thin-skinned Precordillera and the thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas structural domain is among the most active zones of thrust tectonics in the world. We quantify the rates of deformation on the east-vergent Las Peñas thrust (LPT), and the west-vergent Cerro Salinas thrust (CST). The Montecito anticline (MA) is located at their intersection. We mapped three key locations, collected stratigraphic logs from the MA, dated three ashes using U-Pb in zircon and dated 10 terraces using cosmogenic Be-10 depth profiles. Five terrace levels are present where the Rio Las Peñas crosses the LPT, up to 45 m above the modern river. Cosmogenic dating of the uppermost terrace (T1) yields and age of 123.8 +26.5/-12.3 ka. A reconstruction of this surface using a blind thrust rupture scenario indicates 73 +/- 7 m horizontal shortening and 34 +/- 3 m vertical displacement. Shortening across the structure is therefore 0.59 +0.10/-0.13 mm/yr with a vertical uplift rate of 0.27 +0.05/-0.06 mm/a. Previous work indicates higher rates to the south on the order of 2 mm/yr (Schmidt et al., 2011). Lower terraces give ages of 38.0 +11/-6.2 ka (T2) and 1.5 +5.0/-0.6 ka (T4). Three terrace levels are preserved near the center of the CST. The middle surface (T2) is folded across the axis of the structure and yields an age of 112.5 +33/-14.4 ka. Given 22.9 m surface uplift, this indicates a vertical uplift rate of 0.20 +0.05/-0.06 mm/yr, similar to the rate on the LPT. The upper terrace (T1) yields a younger age (97.1 +29.8/-12.4 ka); the T1 and T2 ages overlap within uncertainty, indicating rapid river incision at the time of their formation. An intercalated ash within the Neogene strata gives an age of 16.2 +/- 0.2. Previous work indicates long-term shortening rates of 0.8 mm/yr (Verges et al., 2007) and that the CST initiated after 8.5 Ma. The lowermost unit exposed in the MA is the Los Pozos Fm., with no indication of syn-depositional deformation. An intercalated ash from the top of this formation yields an age of 5.76 +/- 0.09 Ma. Internal unconformities are present within the overlying transitional unit and the Mogotes Fm., indicating deformation post-dates 5.8 Ma in the MA. An ash within the Mogotes Fm. is 1.52 +/- 0.06 Ma. Slip is modeled as 3.5 km reverse slip across an east-dipping dislocation with a 45 degree dip. This suggests horizontal shortening and vertical uplift of 0.42 mm/yr since the onset of deformation. Uplifted terraces near the center of the MA are 4.7 +0.8/-0.3 ka (T2) and 1.9 +3.4/-1.9 ka (T3), 6 and 4.6 m above the modern river, respectively. This suggests recent vertical uplift or incision rates of 1.3-2.4 mm/yr. These data suggest that deformation in the MA is comparable to that at the LPT and CST. Deformation in the MA could be accelerating, but alternatively, river incision could be accelerating due to climate change.

Schoenbohm, L. M.; Costa, C. H.; Brooks, B. A.; Bohon, W.; Gardini, C.; Cisneros, H.

2013-12-01

61

Seroepidemiological study of Toxoplasma infection in central and western regions in Nepal.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to ascertain the seroprevalence rate in different geographical areas in Central and Western Regions in Nepal. A total of 1,237 serum samples collected from Nuwakot (217), Kathmandu valley (402) and Chitawan (159) districts in Central Region, and Mustang (143), Surkhet (64) and Banke (252) districts in Western Region in Nepal were included in this study. Toxoplasma antibodies were detected by micro-latex agglutination (MLA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IgM-ELISA) methods. The seropositive rate in Central and Western Regions were found to be 48% and 49%, respectively; with an overall positive rate of 48 percent. Districtwise, the seropositive rate in Nuwakot, Kathmandu valley, Chitawan, Mustang, Surkhet and Banke districts were 38, 46, 64, 51, 67 and 44%, respectively. Interestingly, the relatively newly inhabited Surkhet district in Western Region and Chitawan district in Central Region showed significantly higher seropositive rate compared with those of two other districts in the respective Regions (p < 0.05). Ethnically, Tibeto-Burmans showed higher seropositive rates in Central Region (p > 0.05). In contrast, Indo-Aryans showed higher seropositive rate in Western Region (p > 0.05). Age related increase in seropositivity was observed only in Central Region. One percent of Toxoplasma antibody positive samples also showed Toxoplasma IgM antibody positivity. PMID:9185267

Rai, S K; Kubo, T; Yano, K; Shibata, H; Sumi, K; Matsuoka, A; Uga, S; Matsumura, T; Hirai, K; Upadhyay, M P; Basnet, S R; Shrestha, H G; Mahajan, R C

1996-09-01

62

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region  

SciTech Connect

This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1980-01-01

63

Regional Distribution of Natural Stream Nitrate in Central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 60 natural streams with forested catchments were surveyed for nitrate (NO3-) concentration in central Japan. Stream NO3- concentrations showed a clear zonal gradient with a range nearly as large as 100-fold, where their small seasonal variations (av. CV = 27%) justified respective statuses. Elevated NO3- concentrations (more than 70 µM) described a distribution of N saturation along a course

Muneoki Yoh; Eiichi Konohira; Kazuyuki Yagi

2001-01-01

64

The Central Regions of M31 in the 3-5 ?m Wavelength Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Images obtained with NIRI on the Gemini North telescope are used to investigate the photometric properties of the central regions of M31 in the 3-5 ?m wavelength range. The light distribution in the central arcsecond differs from what is seen in the near-infrared in the sense that the difference in peak brightness between P1 and P2 is larger in M' than in K' no obvious signature of P3 is detected in M'. These results can be explained if there is a source of emission that contributes ~20% of the peak M' light of P1, has an effective temperature of no more than a few hundred K, and is located between P1 and P2. Based on the red K-M' color of this source, it is suggested that the emission originates in a circumstellar dust shell surrounding a single bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. Tests of this hypothesis are described. A bright source that is ~8" from the center of the galaxy is also detected in M'. This object has red colors and an absolute brightness in M' that is similar to the most highly evolved AGB stars in the solar neighborhood; hence, it is likely to be a very evolved AGB star embedded in a circumstellar envelope. The K-band brightness of this star is close to the peak expected for AGB evolution, and an age of only a few hundred million years is estimated, which is comparable to that of the P3 star cluster. Finally, using high angular resolution near-infrared adaptive optics images as a guide, a sample of unblended AGB stars outside of the central few arcseconds is defined in L'. The (L', K-L') color-magnitude diagram of these sources shows a dominant AGB population with a peak L' brightness and a range of K-L' colors that are similar to those of the most luminous M giants in the Galactic bulge. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF) on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council of Canada (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

Davidge, T. J.; Jensen, Joseph B.; Olsen, K. A. G.

2006-08-01

65

Regional analysis of changes in snow pack in mountainous basins in the central Danube region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate estimation of the volume of water stored in the snow pack and its rate of release is essential to predict the flow during the snowmelt period. In mountainous drainage basins water stored in the snow pack represents an important component of the water budget. Two modelling tools are compared. The first, HOLV snowmelt model is developed by the Hungarian National Hydrological Forecasting Service (VITUKI NHFS) for regional assessment of snow accumulation and ablation of the central Danube. The model originates from the early 80's and it is under continuous development, while its recent distributed version over a grid with 0.1 degree resolution is in use. The snowmelt model has a flexible structure; it is able to change its own structure in function of data availability. In case when only precipitation and air temperature data are available temperature index method is used. When also other data are accessible (cloudiness, dew point, wind speed) using of energy balance model is to be preferred. If there are suitable data available for calculation of the energy terms, the energy balance method can be applied. The second semi-distributed Hron model, developed at the Slovak University of Technology was applied to a smaller sub-basin to represent spatial distribution of snow cover by simulated snow water equivalent. The upper Hron river basin with an area of 1766 km2 is located in central Slovakia. The conceptual semi-distributed tool applied contains three basic storage components with 15 calibrated parameters, as the flow routing component the cascade of linear reservoirs is used as opposed to the original simple triangular routing function. The snow sub-model uses the temperature index (degree-day) method for snow accumulation and snowmelt calculations. Uncertainty of model parameters was reduced by multi-calibration on the mean daily discharges in the basin outlet and measured stations data of snow water equivalent. Changes in the model parameters during the investigated period also were analyses. The consistency of modelled spatial distribution of snow water equivalent also was checked by the Modis sow satellite data. The results showed a decrease in snow water equivalent and snow depth, and snow duration from the past to the present. The paper also deals with the analysis of changes in depths, duration and spatial distribution of snow cover. Daily snow cover depth observations and weekly snow water equivalent data were available at 6 climatic stations for the period 1961-2010 for the upper Hron while the last two decade sporadic observations and simulated snow depths and snow water equivalent for the entire central Danube region. It is concluded that simulated qualitative information on snow pack across the Alpine-Carpathian region can provide more information on appropriate values of melt parameters than quantitative data on snow water equivalent at a single station location. These simulations appear to provide an adequate representation of snow climatology.

Balint, Gabor; Juri?eková, Katarina; Gauzer, Balazs; Hlav?ová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Zsideková, Beata

2013-04-01

66

Regional vegetation patterns at lake Son Kul reveal Holocene climatic variability in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiproxy study was conducted on Holocene sediments from the alpine lake Son Kul (3010 m a.s.l, 41°48?33N/75°07?38E) in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan). The combination of high-resolution pollen, palynofacies and magnetic susceptibility data allowed reconstruction of changes in sedimentary and vegetation dynamics regionally at Son Kul between 8350 and ca 2000 cal. BP. Using pollen data to quantify climatic parameters, a quantitative reconstruction of climatic conditions was performed using the "Modern Analogue Vegetation types" (MAV) method and a ranged index of seasonality. The most temperate (e.g. moister) climate conditions occurred between 8350 and 5000–4500 cal. BP when alpine meadow vegetation was enriched in plants requiring moister conditions and trees developed regionally. Conversely, more continental and arid conditions prevailed after 4500 cal. BP with the decline of arboreal vegetation (especially Juniperus) and the extension of an alpine steppe-meadow along with a regional decrease in Poaceae. This climate transition was associated with a change in seasonality as the continentality greatly intensified after 5000–4500 cal. BP. Our results are consistent with other records from the Tien Shan range and the Chinese Province Xinjiang showing that relatively wet conditions prevailed regionally before 5000 cal. BP, whereas reduced moisture conditions were established after that time. From a more global perspective, we highlight that regional rainfall in central Tien Shan and western Central Asia is likely to be predominantly controlled by the Eastern Mediterranean cyclonic system and North Atlantic climate, as based on the close correspondence between climatic archives from western Central Asia, the Levant, the Eastern Mediterranean and Caspian Sea regions. However, the effect of monsoonal dynamics on the regional climatic system in central Tien Shan still remains dubious, since recent modelling studies have shown that no dynamic link exists between humidity in Central Asia and the Indian Summer Monsoon. This study pinpoints the need to explore the effect of remote Eurasian atmospheric circulation patterns on past climate variability in Central Asia.

Mathis, Marie; Sorrel, Philippe; Klotz, Stefan; Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhänsli, Hedi

2014-04-01

67

Oligopolistic Competition and Central Planning in Regional Systems of Hospitals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unregulated hospital networks are discussed, and the likely effect of regional regulation on the performance of hospital systems is investigated. Two major characteristics of the hospital industry are noted: (1) since patients must travel to a hospital fo...

R. J. Pont

1976-01-01

68

Phylogeography of Supralittoral Rocky Intertidal Ligia Isopods in the Pacific Region from Central California to Central Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Ligia isopods are widely distributed in the Pacific rocky intertidal shores from central California to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Yet, their biological characteristics restrict them to complete their life cycles in a very narrow range of the rocky intertidal supralittoral. Herein, we examine phylogeographic patterns of Ligia isopods from 122 localities between central California and central Mexico. We expect to find high levels of allopatric diversity. In addition, we expect the phylogeographic patterns to show signatures of past vicariant events that occurred in this geologically dynamic region. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced two mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA). We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We found many divergent clades that, in general, group according to geography. Some of the most striking features of the Ligia phylogeographic pattern include: (1) deep mid-peninsular phylogeographic breaks on the Pacific and Gulf sides of Baja peninsula; (2) within the Gulf lineages, the northern peninsula is most closely related to the northern mainland, while the southern peninsula is most closely related to the central-southern mainland; and, (3) the southernmost portion of the peninsula (Cape Region) is most closely related to the southernmost portion of mainland. Conclusions/Significance Our results shed light on the phylogenetic relationships of Ligia populations in the study area. This study probably represents the finest-scale phylogeographic examination for any organism to date in this region. Presence of highly divergent lineages suggests multiple Ligia species exist in this region. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Gulf of California and Baja peninsula are incongruent with a widely accepted vicariant scenario among phylogeographers, but consistent with aspects of alternative geological hypotheses and phylo- and biogeographic patterns of several other taxa. Our findings contribute to the ongoing debate regarding the geological origin of this important biogeographic region.

Hurtado, Luis A.; Mateos, Mariana; Santamaria, Carlos A.

2010-01-01

69

Geospatial database for regional environmental assessment of central Colorado.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In conjunction with the future planning needs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed environmental assessment of the effects of historical mining on Forest Service lands in central Colorado. Stream sediment, macroinvertebrate, and various filtered and unfiltered water quality samples were collected during low-flow over a four-year period from 2004–2007. This report summarizes the sampling strategy, data collection, and analyses performed on these samples. The data are presented in Geographic Information System, Microsoft Excel, and comma-delimited formats. Reports on data interpretation are being prepared separately.

Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Klein, Terry L.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Adams, Monique G.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Todorov, Todor I.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McEachron, Luke; Anthony, Michael W.

2012-01-01

70

EFFECT OF THE HARDWOOD RESOURCE ON THE SAWMILL INDUSTRY IN THE CENTRAL AND APPALACHIAN REGIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central and Appalachian hardwood regions contain a diverse and valuable timber resource. The regions are important to the hardwood industry because they contain 68 percent of the eastern hardwood sawtimber. Furthermore, more than 70 percent of the hardwood lumber produced in the United States is manufactured at mills located in 16 of the states in the regions. This paper

William Luppold

71

High School Dropout and Graduation Rates in the Central Region. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 040  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents comprehensive and detailed information on grades 7-12 dropout rates and on high school graduation rates in the Central Region. Dropout and graduation rates are presented for the region as a whole and for each state in the region, by gender, race/ethnicity, locale, and grade. The rates provide a comprehensive reference for…

Randel, Bruce; Moore, Laurie; Blair, Pam

2008-01-01

72

Regional Art History: A Procedural Model for Research, Central Ohio 1945-1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper documents the creation of a procedural model for researching regional art history. It focuses on the region of Central Ohio and identifies art historical resources and a sampling of artists from 1945-1995. Topics discussed include: art history in Europe and in the United States; the problem of researching regional art history; review of…

Yates, Christopher A.

73

Regional Mapping of Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central Puget Sound Region, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1980's we began development of a series of regional liquefaction susceptibility maps covering the urban areas of the central Puget Sound region, including the cities of Seattle and Tacoma. In producing these maps we used a standardized approach that utilizes 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping and analyses of geotechnical boring data and allows direct comparison of the liquefaction susceptibility assessments depicted on each map. The geologic units in a study area were grouped based on their geological and engineering characteristics, and a suite of geotechnical borings was compiled for each geologic grouping. A standard engineering analysis was used to calculate factors-of-safety from standard penetration test N-values, sample descriptions, grain-size analyses, and ground-water depths obtained from the compiled geotechnical borings. Liquefaction factors-of-safety were calculated for two magnitude 7.3 earthquake scenarios, one having a 0.15 g peak ground acceleration (PGA), and the other a 0.30 g PGA. The choice of earthquake scenarios is consistent with an intraplate earthquake similar to the 1949 Olympia and 2001 Nisqually events in the Puget Sound region. Using these factor-of-safety calculations we determined the aggregated total thicknesses of liquefiable material for each boring in a geologic grouping, and normalized these data by expressing the aggregated thicknesses as a percentage of the total penetrated thickness. A series of histograms, one for each earthquake scenario, were used to present the distribution of aggregate liquefiable thicknesses and to assign a liquefaction susceptibility to each geologic grouping. We have calibrated our analyses of liquefaction susceptibility using the liquefaction response observed during the Nisqually earthquake. We developed histograms for each geologic grouping using measured PGA's from this event and the geotechnical boring datasets compiled in the production of the previously published liquefaction susceptibility maps. This calibration allows us to make assessments of other potential earthquakes, and was recently used in our evaluation of liquefaction effects for a Seattle fault scenario.

Palmer, S. P.; Perkins, W. J.

2005-12-01

74

Late Quaternary vegetation, Tongariro region, central North Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen profiles from sediments underlying the Kawakawa Tephra (20 000 yr BP) in the Tongariro region record 2 interstadials. The earlier interstadial, the Otamangakau, is considered to have reached its peak at c. 80 000 yr BP. Forest, similar to that of the present upper montane zone and consisting of abundant Libocedrus, Nothofagus, and podocarps, was dominant. Subalpme shrubland was

M. S. McGlone; W. W. Topping

1983-01-01

75

Appropriate De-central Wastewater Technologies for Low Income Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

For low income, rural and semi-urban region sanitation systems based on sewerage and centralised wastewater treatment plants are not appropriate due to the high costs for construction and maintenance. In addition, valuable nutrients are diluted and wasted to the environment resulting in unwanted pollution. Particularly in developing countries many farmers do not have access to mineral fertilisers with the negative

J. Behrendt; F. Meinzinger; D. R. Gajurel; M. Shalabi; C. Wendland

76

An investigation of seismicity for the Central Anatolia region, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the seismicity of Central Anatolia, within the area restricted to coordinates 30-35° longitude and 38-41° latitude, by determining the " a" and " b" parameters in a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relationship using data from earthquakes of moment magnitude (Mw) ? 4.0 that occurred between 1900 and 2010. Based on these parameters and a Poisson model, we aim to predict the probability of other earthquakes of different magnitudes and return periods (recurrence intervals). To achieve this, the study area is divided into six seismogenic zones, using spatial distributions of earthquakes greater than Mw ? 4.0 with active faults. For each seismogenic zone, the a and b parameters in the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relationship were calculated by the least squares method. The probability of occurrence and return periods of various magnitude earthquakes were calculated from these statistics using the Poisson method.

Özmen, Bülent; Bayrak, Erdem; Bayrak, Yusuf

2014-07-01

77

Implementation of a Regional Healthcare Information Organization in South Central Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Graduate Management Project is to delineate the strategic plan necessary to successfully implement the South Central Texas Regional Healthcare Information Organization (RHIO) under the auspices of the Greater San Antonio Hospital Counc...

M. R. Barry

2007-01-01

78

Annual Report, Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry and Its Regional Research Stations, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers the research activities of the Central Tobacco Research Institute and its regional research stations for the year 1980. The report lists research in the following fields: agronomy, soil sciences, plant breeding and genetics, agricultural...

1980-01-01

79

40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of...

2013-07-01

80

Revision of Axinellidae (Porifera: Demospongiae) of the Central West Atlantic Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-one species of the family Axinellidae (sensu Levi) reside in the central West Atlantic region, from the Carolinas to the southern Caribbean. They are distributed in seven genera, and five are new species: Axinella pomponiae, A. meandroides, Pseudax...

B. Alvarez R. W. M. van Soest K. Ruetzler

1998-01-01

81

Study on using high injection voltage and spiral inflector in the central region of VEC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study of using high injection voltage and spiral inflector in the present heavy ion central region of VEC is described. Conditions necessary for waist-to-waist transfer of the ion beam in the hole lens of main magnet have been obtained. The results of orbit studies of a variety of heavy ions indicate that a spiral inflector can be used in the central region.

Pandit, V. S.

2002-12-01

82

WFPC2 Images of the Central Regions of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present high-resolution R-band images of the central regions of 67 early-type galaxies obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This homogeneously selected sample roughly doubles the number of early-type galaxies that have now been imaged at HST resolution and complements similar data on the central regions of radio galaxies and

Armin Rest; Frank C. van den Bosch; Walter Jaffe; Hien Tran; Zlatan Tsvetanov; Holland C. Ford; James Davies; Joanna Schafer

2001-01-01

83

Nucleosome exclusion from the interspecies-conserved central AT-rich region of the Ars insulator.  

PubMed

The Ars insulator is a boundary element identified in the upstream region of the arylsulfatase (HpArs) gene in the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, and possesses the ability to both block enhancer-promoter communications and protect transgenes from silent chromatin. To understand the molecular mechanism of the Ars insulator, we investigated the correlation between chromatin structure, DNA structure and insulator activity. Nuclease digestion of nuclei isolated from sea urchin embryos revealed the presence of a nuclease-hypersensitive site within the Ars insulator. Analysis of micrococcal nuclease-sensitive sites in the Ars insulator, reconstituted with nucleosomes, showed the exclusion of nucleosomes from the central AT-rich region. Furthermore, the central AT-rich region in naked DNA was sensitive to nucleotide base modification by diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC). These observations suggest that non-B-DNA structures in the central AT-rich region may inhibit nucleosomal formation, which leads to nuclease hypersensitivity. Furthermore, comparison of nucleotide sequences between the HpArs gene and its ortholog in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus revealed that the central AT-rich region of the Ars insulator is conserved, and this conserved region showed significant enhancer blocking activity. These results suggest that the central AT-rich nucleosome-free region plays an important role in the function of the Ars insulator. PMID:21930654

Takagi, Haruna; Inai, Yuta; Watanabe, Shun-ichiro; Tatemoto, Sayuri; Yajima, Mamiko; Akasaka, Koji; Yamamoto, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naoaki

2012-01-01

84

From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

Emery, Mary

2008-01-01

85

The prospects for multilateral conflict prevention and regional cooperation in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central Asia re-emerged from the ruins of the USSR in 1991 as one of the new and challenging regions, especially when considering the potential of conflict prevention.1 When the unifying power of the Soviet Union disappeared there were no mechanisms to deal with regional and internal disputes and the creation of such mechanisms have been slow and discouraging in many

Niklas Swanström

2004-01-01

86

Trends and discontinuities in regional rainfall of West and Central Africa: 1951-1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standardized regional mean annual rainfall series are analysed over the period 1951-1989 from a data set of 891 rainfall stations which covers 23 countries of West and Central Africa. Missing values are estimated by using regionalized indexes computed on the basis of a morpho-climatic delimitation of 44 homogeneous climatic units. Searches for statistical discontinuities in rainfall series show no discontinuity

GIL MAHE; GEOFFROY WOTLING

2001-01-01

87

New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina. II: The Central Region and the Lower Ninth Ward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure of the New Orleans regional flood protection systems, and the resultant catastrophic flooding of much of New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina, represents the most costly failure of an engineered system in U.S. history. This paper presents an overview of the principal events that unfolded in the central portion of the New Orleans metropolitan region during this hurricane, and

R. B. Seed; R. G. Bea; A. Athanasopoulos-Zekkos; G. P. Boutwell; J. D. Bray; C. Cheung; D. Cobos-Roa; L. Ehrensing; L. F. Harder Jr.; J. M. Pestana; M. F. Riemer; J. D. Rogers

2008-01-01

88

A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

2009-01-01

89

Depositional environments and regional significance of Pennsylvanian Caddo Limestone, north-central Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Caddo limestone (Atokan-Desmoinesian) is a regionally extensive carbonate unit present throughout much of north-central Texas. Attaining a maximum thickness of over 600 ft, the Caddo is one of the more prolific oil-and-gas-producing formations of this region. Optimum carbonate deposition occurred within the Pennsylvanian epeiric seas in a north-south belt that approximates the bend flexure. Stratigraphic analysis, regional relationships, and

C. K. Jr

1990-01-01

90

The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies are necessary. Temporary seismic networks have been installed in several Central Asian cities (Bishkek and Karakol, Kyrgyzstan; Dushanbe, Tajikistan; Tashkent, Uzbekistan) within the framework of the Earthquake Model Central Asia (EMCA), a regional program of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The empirically estimated site effects have already helped to improve real-time risk scenarios for Bishkek and will be applied to other major cities. - A crucial requirement for disaster risk reduction involves the analysis of the vulnerability of existing building inventories. Whereas traditional approaches are very time- and cost-consuming, and even impossible given the high rate of urbanization in Central Asian capitals, our integrated approach is based on satellite remote sensing and ground-based omni-directional imaging, providing building inventories and thus structural vulnerability over large areas (EMCA, GEM-IDCT). All mentioned activities are carried out within the framework of cooperation between GFZ and regional national institutes, in particular the Central Asian Institute for Applied Geosciences. Altogether, this comprehensive and long-term risk analyses and research program will lead to a better understanding of the coupling of endogene and exogene processes and the identification of their impact on society.

Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

2012-12-01

91

Nuclear starburst-driven evolution of the central region in NGC 6764  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims:We study the CO and the radio continuum emission in an active galaxy to analyze the interplay between the central activity and the molecular gas. Methods: We present new high-resolution observations of the 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) emission lines, and 3.5 cm and 20 cm radio continuum emission in the central region of the LINER\\/starburst galaxy NGC 6764. Results: The galaxy

S. Leon; A. Eckart; S. Laine; J. K. Kotilainen; E. Schinnerer; S.-W. Lee; M. Krips; J. Reunanen; J. Scharwächter

2007-01-01

92

Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

93

Stock allocation among a central warehouse and identical regional warehouses in a particular push inventory control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-echeleon inventory system with one central warehouse and n regional warehouses is considered. Customer demand is satisfied from the regional warehouses. A push type control system is used, implying that the allocation of stock is coordinated by the central unit. Given an initial system stock, a fixed planning horizon and two shipping possibilities from the central warehouse until the

HENRIK JÖNSSON; EDWARD A. SILVER

1987-01-01

94

Rainfall Induced Natural Disaster in Central America, a challenge for Regional Risk Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall induced natural disasters rank first among all natural disasters in Central America. According to the records of the EM-DAT international database, 248 out of 486 disasters registered in Central America were disasters triggered by rainfall invents, in countries like Belize and Honduras, rainfall-induced natural disasters, mainly floods and landslides, account for more than 90% of the total number of casualties as well as the economic damage of all the disasters. Due to the natural conditions of the Central American Isthmus, precipitation events often struck more than one country at the time, for example Hurricane Mitch in 1998 affected the entire Central American region causing more than 18,000 casualties. In this context, the Central America countries have been working on joint programs and policies aiming transboundary cooperation and management of natural disasters, a clear example of this effort is CEPREDENAC which is the intergovernmental body with the mandate of promoting activities, projects and programs towards reduction of the risks to disasters in order to avoid loss of life and economic assets in the Central America, however, transnational management face several challenges that fall mostly in the political, economical and technical areas. In this paper we described and analyzed the rainfall induced natural disasters, their impacts and the inherent management challenges in the Central American context. Key words: Central America, Natural Disasters, Risk Management, International Cooperation

Estuardo Guinea Barrientos, Héctor; Swain, Ashok

2013-04-01

95

Height-Resolved E-region Plasma Flow in the Central Polar Cap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Height-resolved plasma flow is a significant driver for energy processes that occur in the Earth's polar E-region (~100-150 km). The central polar cap E-region has not been extensively explored regarding its role in high-latitude electrodynamics. The phased array incoherent scatter radar (ISR) at Resolute Bay, Canada (74°N, 94°W) offers the most comprehensive measurements for estimating the local current, electric field, conductivity, and neutral wind within the E region for extended periods within the central polar cap. These local, height-resolved measurements of E region electrodynamic parameters allow for the distribution of electromagnetic energy dissipation within the polar cap E region to be elucidated. Simulations by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics Global Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) suggest that the electrodynamics in the central polar cap will be significantly influenced by neutral winds owing to the dominant day-to-night pressure gradients that drive antisunward neutral winds over the polar cap. The IMF configuration will also be an important controlling factor on the polar cap E-region plasma flows and electrodynamics. In the summer of 2009, the Resolute Bay ISR became operational, enabling ion-neutral momentum coupling studies in the central polar cap region. This work explores the height-resolved E-region plasma flows using the Resolute Bay North ISR (RISR-N) for the first time. We also expand on the plasma flows by estimating height-resolved Joule heating rates. We evaluate our estimated height-resolved E-region plasma flows and electrodynamics with those calculated using TIE-GCM, and attempt to validate the model with these measurements.

Hsu, V. W.; Thayer, J. P.; Liu, X.; Heinselman, C. J.; Nicolls, M. J.

2012-12-01

96

Complex petroleum migration and accumulation in central region of southern Junggar basin, Northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central region of the southern Junggar basin (Northwest China) is a key exploration target in this petroliferous basin.\\u000a As there are four sets of potential source rocks (e.g., Permian, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Paleogene sequences), petroleum\\u000a migration and accumulation are likely complex. This study represents an attempt to understand this complexity in order to\\u000a provide fundamental information for future regional

Jian Cao; Xulong Wang; Dongtao Wei; Ping’an Sun; Wenxuan Hu; Dong Jia; Yingcheng Zhao

2010-01-01

97

Intraspecific Phylogeography of Red Squirrels ( Tamiasciurus hudsonicus ) in the Central Rocky Mountain Region of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used variation in a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine phylogeography of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, a boreal-adapted small mammal in the central Rocky Mountain region. AMOVA revealed that 65.66% of genetic diversity was attributable to variation within populations, 16.93% to variation among populations on different mountain ranges, and 17.41% to variation among populations within mountain ranges. Nested

Gregory M. Wilson; Ronald A. Den Bussche; Karen McBee; Lacrecia A. Johnson; Cheri A. Jones

2005-01-01

98

Lower Palaeozoic sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Kerman region, East-Central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kerman-Tabas region of East-Central Iran contains the thickest and most complete sequence of Early Palaeozoic (Cambrian to Silurian) rocks in Iran and the Middle East, but the stratigraphy is complex.\\u000aDetailed reassessment of stratigraphic relationships between the Early Palaeozoic strata, together with new sedimentological, petrological and palaeontological data, indicate that the Kerman-Tabas region was tectonically active during this period,

Mir Alireza Hamedi

1995-01-01

99

Early Holocene basinal sediments of the Dakhleh Oasis region, south central Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty samples of artifactual ostrich eggshell and hearth charcoal, firmly to loosely associated with basinal lacustrine, playa, and sand sheet sediments in the Dakhleh Oasis region of south-central Egypt, yield radiocarbon ages between ca. 8800 and ca. 4700 yr B.P. The sediments record variable sedimentary responses to an early Holocene pluvial interval in this virtually rainless region. Differences of hydrogeology and morphometry among and within basin types complicate paleoclimatic interpretation.

Brookes, Ian A.

1989-09-01

100

Information Diffusion in Two Marine Protected Area Networks in the Central Visayas Region, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to strengthen biological and social success of community-based marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Philippines, many organizations have begun instituting MPA networks. In the Central Visayas Region, Coastal Conservation and Education Foundation and Fisheries for Improved Sustainable Harvest are implementing socioecological networking initiatives. Educational programs, employing diverse methods such as cross visits and community MPA monitoring, are integral

Diana Pietri; Patrick Christie; Richard B. Pollnac; Roxie Diaz; Agnes Sabonsolin

2009-01-01

101

Analysis and simulation of land-use change in the central Arizona - Phoenix region, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how urbanization has transformed the desert landscape in the central Arizona - Phoenix region of the United States, we conducted a series of spatial analyses of the land-use pattern from 1912-1995. The results of the spatial analysis show that the extent of urban area has increased exponentially for the past 83 years, and this urban expansion is correlated

G. Darrel Jenerette; Jianguo Wu

2001-01-01

102

An investigation of transmission ratio distortion in the central region of the human MHC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) describes a significant departure from expected Mendelian inheritance ratios that is fundamental to both the biology of reproduction and statistical genetics. The relatively high fetal wastage in humans, with consequent selection of alleles in utero, makes it likely that TRD is prevalent in the human genome. The central region of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC)

N Hanchard; K Rockett; I Udalova; J Wilson; B Keating; O Koch; A Nijnik; M Diakite; M Herbert; D Kwiatkowski

2006-01-01

103

Orientations of central peaks in lunar craters - Implications for regional structural trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impact craters are dominant features on the lunar surface and all fresh craters with diameters greater than 35 km possess central peaks. Approximately half of these central peaks (54%) have either linear or arcuate geometry and display some preferential orientation. These orientations were measured for 200 lunar craters of Pre-Nectarian to Copernican age. A pervasive regional north-south trend is identified for central peak orientation, with secondary trends at + or - 20-30 deg from this axis. No evidence for regional east-west trends is found. These orientations are shown to persist in craters formed through the last 4 billion years of lunar history. A lack of coincidence between impact direction, as determined from ejecta asymmetries and peak orientation, argues for structural control by the target as a source of the linear peak morphology. This is supported by the regional and temporal persistence of preferred peak orientations. It is proposed that linear central peak orientations in lunar craters reflect a pervasive regional structural system which developed early in lunar history and has persisted through geologic time.

Hale, W.

1980-01-01

104

Correlating seismicity parameters and subsidence in the Tokai region, central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that transients in subsidence rate in the Tokai area of central Japan correlate with changes in the rate and size distribution of earthquakes. Three largely independent seismic catalogs cover this region: National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED), Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA), and Japan University Network Catalog (JUNEC). Comparing seismicity patterns between these three data

Stefan Wiemer; Akio Yoshida; Kohji Hosono; Shin-ichi Noguchi; Hiromi Takayama

2005-01-01

105

NEW ESTIMATES OF HARDWOOD LUMBER EXPORTS EROM THE CENTRAL HARDWOOD REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exports have become an increasingly imporrant part of the overall hardwood lumber market. However, recent fmdings indicate that much of the reported growth of hardwood lumber exports in the 1980's was based on inflated volume data. This paper presents new estimates of hardwood lumber exports to Asia and Europe with emphasis on the central hardwood region of the United States.

William Luppold; Edward Thomas

106

PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF THE CENTRAL GRASSLAND REGION OF THE UNITED STATES1,3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboveground net primary production of grasslands is strongly influenced by the amount and distribution of annual precipitation. Analysis of data collected at 9500 sites throughout the central United States confirmed the overwhelming importance of water availability as a control on production. The regional spatial pattern of production reflected the east-west gradient in annual precipitation. Lowest values of aboveground net primary

O. E. SALA; W. J. PARTON; L. A. JOYCE; W. K. LAUENROTH

1988-01-01

107

An Annotated Bibliography of Rural Development Research in the North Central Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to aid rural development planners, researchers, and extension personnel, this annotated bibliography presents items which represent: (1) the results of rural development research performed between 1967 and 1974 in the North Central Region by scientists affiliated with Agricultural Experiment Stations; and (2) additional references to work…

Rogers, David L., Ed.; And Others

108

Airborne aerosols over central Africa during the Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO) conducted over central Africa in November 1996, 24 airborne aerosol samples were obtained and further analyzed for black and organic carbon (BC and OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), soluble ions, elemental composition, and morphology. Particles were collected in the different atmospheric layers either

Stéphane Ruellan; Hélène Cachier; Annie Gaudichet; Pierre Masclet; Jean-Pierre Lacaux

1999-01-01

109

Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…

Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

2011-01-01

110

Surface mining and reclamation effects on flood response of watersheds in the central Appalachian Plateau region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable

J. R. Ferrari; T. R. Lookingbill; B. McCormick; P. A. Townsend; K. N. Eshleman

2009-01-01

111

Heavy Metal Pollution of Agricultural Soils in Central Regions of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to establish databases for the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils in the central regions of Korea, we have measured the HCl-extractable concentrations of six metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, and As) from a total of 260 surface soil samples collected during the spring seasons of 1994 and 1995. All of our measurements were made from

Ki-Hyun Kim; Se-Hyun Kim

1999-01-01

112

The State of Economic and Social Development in the North Central Region of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing patterns of rural economic and social activity in the North Central Region (NCR) of the U.S., this report utilizes U.S. census data to survey and analyze: population distribution; business patterns; agricultural activity; local and county government expenditures; and income distribution. Among the major findings reported are: slightly…

Rogers, Keith D.; And Others

113

A study of Quaternary structures in the Qom region, West Central Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Central Iran comprises numerous Quaternary faults. Having either strike-slip or thrust mechanisms, these faults are potentially active and therefore capable of creating destructive earthquakes. In this paper, we use satellite images as well as field trips to identify these active faults in the Qom region. The Qom and Indes faults are the main NW-trending faults along which a Quaternary

A. Babaahmadi; H. Safaei; A. Yassaghi; H. Vafa; A. Naeimi; S. Madanipour; M. Ahmadi

2010-01-01

114

Access to Supplemental Educational Services in the Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Central Region states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) lag behind the nation in the rate of participation in supplemental educational services that schools failing to make adequate progress for three consecutive years must offer to eligible students under the No Child Left Behind Act. This study…

Barley, Zoe; Wegner, Sandra K.

2007-01-01

115

A study of air flow patterns affecting pollutant concentrations in the Central Region of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a prognostic air quality model that includes actual emissions, air pollution regimes over the central region of Mexico are simulated. It is shown that due to the complex orography, vertical circular patterns develop over the metropolitan area of Mexico City. In this way reactive and non-reactive pollutants can travel near the surface, be transported vertically and land in an

Aron D. Jazcilevich; Agust??n R. Garc??a; L. Gerardo Ru??z-Suárez

2003-01-01

116

Interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies of the Konya Region, South Central Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some 100 km southwest of Tuz Lake in central Turkey there are strong gravity and magnetic anomalies oriented in a NW-SE direction. The surface geology does not suggest a cause for the anomalies although there are some small exposures of mafic and ultramafic rocks. The gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly fields are separated into regional and residual anomalies by graphical and

A. Ates; P. Kearey

2000-01-01

117

Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

118

Improving Regional Security in Central America: Military Engagement Options for Nicaragua.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nicaragua plays an essential role in the stability and security of the Central American sub region. The de-stabilizing influence of Sandinista policies in the 1980s gave way to the possibility of a cooperative security community in the 1990s. However, bor...

G. W. Mason

2002-01-01

119

Estimating the horizontal diffuse solar radiation over the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the present study is to develop new hybrid models to predict the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface over Turkey’s Central Anatolia Region (CAR), which covers the 12 provinces (Afyon, Ankara, Cankiri, Corum, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Kirsehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Nigde, Sivas and Yozgat), as an example. The models proposed by many investigators to

Haydar Aras; Ozgur Balli; Arif Hepbasli

2006-01-01

120

Relationship between rainfall and lightning over central Indian region in monsoon and premonsoon seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning activity and rainfall over the central Indian region (lat, 15.5° N to 25.5° N and lon, 75° E to 85° E) from the TRMM satellite have been analyzed. Ten years' data of monthly lightning and hourly averaged monthly rainfall from 1998 to 2007 have been used for analysis, which shows quite different relationships between lightning and rainfall in monsoon

D. M. Lal; S. D. Pawar

2009-01-01

121

Central region morphometry in a child brain; Age and gender differences.  

PubMed

Background: Data on central region morphometry of a child brain is important not only in terms of providing us with information about central region anatomy of the brain but also in terms of the help of this information for the plans to be applied in neurosurgery. Objective: In the present study, central region morphometry of a child brain in mid-sagittal MR images was analyzed in age and gender groups. Materials and Methods: Different points determined previously, commissura posterior0 (PC) and the distances between cerebral cortex point (VCS) vertical to commissura anterior- commissura posterior line, sulcus centralis (CS), sulcus marginalis (MS), and the angle (?) between CS-PC-MS were determined and measured together with difference of gender in three different age groups (aged 6-9, 10-13, and 14-17). Results: Central region measures of the brains of boys aged 6-17 are higher than girls except for MS-PC distance. While VCS-PC, CS-PC, and MS-PC measures display a significant difference in the girls aged 14-17 when compared to the other age groups of 6-9 and 10-13 (P < 0.05), angle ? is not significantly different in age and gender groups (P > 0.05). However, while VCS-PC, CS-PC and MS-PC distances show a significant increase in girls beginning from the age of 14, this increase is limited in boys. Conclusion: Morphometric differences observed in different age groups in boys and girls shall contribute our evaluation of the alterations in brain development in both of genders and shall be useful in preparation of surgical operation plans to be applied to the central region. PMID:24714016

Otag, I; Tetiker, H; Kosar, M I; Otag, A; Atalar, M; Cimen, M

2014-01-01

122

Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS): A prototype regional environmental information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Accomplishments have included: (1) completion of the research design for the USGS/CARETS demonstration project; (2) preparation of photomossics and land use maps at a scale of 1:100,000 for entire area; (3) demonstration of the feasibility of extracting several categories of land use information from ERTS-1 MSS data for a portion of the CARETS region; (4) demonstration of the feasibility of detecting some significant land use changes on ERTS-1 imagery; (5) demonstration of the feasibility of attaching environmental impact significance to the remote sensor-derived land use data; (6) delivery of land use information derived from high altitude aircraft data to the Maryland state planning agency for use in its statewide land use inventory; (7) demonstration of high interest by other use groups in the test region in products and services provided by investigation; and (8) determination of the viability of setting up a computerized geographic information system as part of the CARETS investigation, to facilitate handling of sensor-derived land use data in a variety of formats to suit user requirements.

Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

123

Central New York Library Resources Council CLRC Regional Digitization Plan. Final Report for the Preparing Central New York History for the Future LSTA Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal for digitization projects sponsored by the Central New York Library Resources Council (CLRC) is enhanced access for the people of the region to digital resources created from collections in Central New York's libraries, archives and museums. The CLRC Digitization Plan provides a framework for the support of digitization activities…

Sywetz, Betsy

124

Deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos from peripheral and central regions of the rat lung  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated the pulmonary deposition, clearance, and translocation of chrysotile asbestos in the context of their previously developed model of asbestos in the rat. Adult male rats were exposed for 3 hr to an aerosol of chrysotile asbestos. Subgroups were sacrificed up to 29 days postexposure and the lungs of the animals fixed. Peripheral and central regions of the left lung were resected, digested, and analyzed for fiber content by scanning electron microscopy. Pulmonary deposition did not differ between peripheral and central regions. There was no evidence of translocation of fibers from central to peripheral regions. The average diameter of retained fibers decreased over time, consistent with longitudinal splitting. The average length of retained fibers increased over time, consistent with longitudinal splitting. The average length of retained fibers increased over time, consistent with slower clearance of longer fibers. A novel counting scheme to ensure accurate fiber number measurements, allowing the calculation of clearance rates for fibers 0.5 {ge} 16 {mu}m in length. Fibers of length {ge}16 {mu}m were cleared slowly, if at all. These findings could have important implications for the pathogenesis of asbestos-related pleural disease. Many fibers are deposited in the peripheral region, and the longest ({ge}16 {mu}m) will persist there for extended periods.

Coin, P.G. (National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States) Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States) Durham Veterans Administration Medical Centers, NC (United States)); Roggli, V.L. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States) Durham Veterans Administration Medical Centers, NC (United States)); Brody, A.R. (National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1992-06-01

125

Application of a regional SVAT model for simulation of energy and water fluxes in mountainous area of Central Sulawesi (Indonesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional pattern of energy and water fluxes in an heterogeneous mountainous area of Central Sulawesi covered by tropical rain forests were quantified using a regional SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer) model \\

A. Oltchev; A. Ibrom; H. Kreilein; U. Falk; T. Grelle; G. Gravenhorst

2003-01-01

126

Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Sections Through the Central Appalachian Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses geophysical wireline well logs for a variety of purposes, including stratigraphic correlation (Hettinger, 2001, Ryder, 2002), petroleum reservoir analyses (Nelson and Bird, 2005), aquifer studies (Balch, 1988), and synthetic seismic profiles (Kulander and Ryder, 2005). Commonly, well logs are easier to visualize, manipulate, and interpret when available in a digital format. In recent geologic cross sections E-E' and D-D', constructed through the central Appalachian basin (Ryder, Swezey, and others, in press; Ryder, Crangle, and others, in press), gamma ray well log traces and lithologic logs were used to correlate key stratigraphic intervals (Fig. 1). The stratigraphy and structure of the cross sections are illustrated through the use of graphical software applications (e.g., Adobe Illustrator). The gamma ray traces were digitized in Neuralog (proprietary software) from paper well logs and converted to a Log ASCII Standard (LAS) format. Once converted, the LAS files were transformed to images through an LAS-reader application (e.g., GeoGraphix Prizm) and then overlain in positions adjacent to well locations, used for stratigraphic control, on each cross section. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert paper logs to a digital LAS format using a third-party software application, Neuralog. Included in this report are LAS files for sixteen wells used in geologic cross section E-E' (Table 1) and thirteen wells used in geologic cross section D-D' (Table 2).

Crangle, Robert D., Jr.

2007-01-01

127

Molecular gas and star formation in the central regions of Virgo spiral galaxies  

SciTech Connect

The central regions of eight normal spiral galaxies in the Virgo Cluster spanning a wide range of morphological types were observed in CO (J = 1-0) emission using the Owens Valley mm-wave interferometer. Broadband optical and H alpha CCD photometry was obtained using the Palomar 60-inch telescope. The H2 masses in the central five kiloparsecs of the spirals are large, typically several 10(exp 8) solar masses, far exceeding the atomic hydrogen masses. H2 densities in the cloud complexes are comparable to those of Galactic center complexes such as Sgr B2. Molecular gas comprises a substantial fraction of the dynamical mass of the central regions. The H2 masses may be overestimated in some spirals because of cloud heating. The main source of heating is probably dissipation of turbulence, which is probably greater at the centers of spirals based on CO line widths. Current central star formation rates are about a few solar masses per year. The star formation rate in the central regions of most of the spirals has been relatively constant over a Hubble time, although some galaxies are currently undergoing star formation bursts. Several mechanisms are suggested that could supply enough gas to maintain current star formation rates. The current rate of star formation is well correlated with the mean square molecular gas surface density computed from interferometer maps. Such a correlation is expected if cloud-cloud collisions or another stimulation mechanism acting between clouds is the principle means to produce high-mass stars where the concentration of clouds is greatest. The B luminosity is better correlated with the total gas mass surface density, which supports a stochastic or independent mode of forming intermediate-mass stars in the general cloud population.

Canzian, B.J.

1990-01-01

128

Climatic variability, fire, and vegetation modeling in the North American Central Grassland Region  

SciTech Connect

In developing an equilibrium vegetation model for assessing the sensitivity of natural vegetation to climatic change in the Central Grasslands, we encountered difficulties in establishing solely climatic determinants for grasslands. Under the normal climate, woody plant dominance was predicted for much of the region supporting open grassland at the time of European settlement. Climatic data for historic periods and a fire model were used to test whether grass dominance was promoted by (1) climatic periods distinct from the normal period, (2) by fire, or (3) by the interactive effect of both. Grass/woody ratios in test simulations exhibited spatio-temporal variation produced by complex interactions among PET, precipitation seasonality, competition for soil moisture, and fuel characteristics determining fire intensity. Results support concepts of plant community thresholds and multiple steady states in the Central Grassland region.

Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

1994-06-01

129

Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130  

SciTech Connect

Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk University, Seokjangdong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)] [Dongguk University, Seokjangdong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

130

Depths to density discontinuities beneath the Adamawa Plateau region, Central Africa, from spectral analyses of new and existing gravity data  

Microsoft Academic Search

New gravity data from the Adamawa Uplift region of Cameroon have been integrated with existing gravity data from central and western Africa to examine variations in crustal structure throughout the region. The new data reveal steep northeast-trending gradients in the Bouguer gravity anomalies that coincide with the Sanaga Fault Zone and the Foumban Shear Zone, both part of the Central

J. M. Nnange; V. Ngako; J. D. Fairhead; C. J. Ebinger

2000-01-01

131

Prevalence of trypanosome infections in dogs from Chagas disease endemic regions in Panama, Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of canine trypanosomosis was investigated in two Chagas disease endemic rural communities located in the central region of Panama. Serologic tests for Trypanosoma cruzi infection revealed a prevalence of 11.1%. Hemocultures coupled with PCR analysis demonstrated a Trypanosoma rangeli infection rate of 5.1%. An overall trypanosome infection index of 16.2% (16\\/99) was detected in this canine population. One

V. Pineda; A. Saldaña; I. Monfante; A. Santamaría; N. L. Gottdenker; M. J. Yabsley; G. Rapoport; J. E. Calzada

2011-01-01

132

Shear velocity variation within the D? region beneath the central Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale variability of shear velocity (Vs) structure in the D? region beneath the central Pacific is imaged using 442 broadband tangential component S waveforms recorded in western North America for 37 intermediate and deep focus Tonga-Fiji earthquakes. Double-array stacking of spatially binned subsets of data reveals lateral variations in the relative timing and amplitude of deep mantle discontinuity reflections on

Megan Avants; Thorne Lay; Sara A. Russell; Edward J. Garnero

2006-01-01

133

Regional gravity anomaly map and crustal model of the Central–Southern Apennines (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep structures of the Central–Southern Apennines are analysed on the basis of the regional component of gravity anomalies, obtained applying a stripping technique. This procedure allows the accurate removal of the gravimetric effect of the three-dimensional shallow (within the first 10km) geological bodies from the observed Bouguer anomaly. The resulting anomaly map differs quite significantly from the Bouguer anomaly

M. M. Tiberti; L. Orlando; D. Di Bucci; M. Bernabini; M. Parotto

2005-01-01

134

Irrigation expansion and dynamics of desertification in the Circum-Aral region of Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to examine the causes and dynamics of desertification in one of the world's worst disaster areas, the Aral Sea region. During the 1960s, a large-scale irrigation campaign aimed at achieving independence in cotton production was launched in Soviet Central Asia. From 1960, ever-increasing water withdrawal from the two inflowing rivers—the Amudarya and Syrdarya—has resulted

Tatyana A Saiko; Igor S Zonn

2000-01-01

135

Electric vehicles: assessment of potential for North Central Region farm operations  

SciTech Connect

Technical feasibilities of battery-powered electric vehicles for replacing conventional petroleum-powered vehicles were analyzed for the North Central Region. Forty-one farm operations were studied in detail to determine vehicle requirements as functions of tasks and then to estimate the percentages of these tasks which could be performed by specific sizes of electric vehicles. Approximately 50% of tractor petroleum consumption could be replaced with up to a 60 HP electrical tractor. 16 refs.

Resen, M.; Calkins, P.; Christianson, L.

1981-01-01

136

Soft X-ray images of the central region of the Perseus cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of 0.5-3.0 keV X-ray observations of the central region of the Perseus cluster carried out with the Imaging Proportional Counter and High Resolution Imager aboard the Einstein Observatory are reported. In addition to the very extended thermal cluster emission and a sharply peaked component at NGC 1275 previously known, the high resolution image reveals a point source coincident

G. Branduardi-Raymont; D. Fabricant; E. Feigelson; P. Gorenstein; J. Grindlay; A. Soltan; G. Zamorani

1981-01-01

137

Mechanism of formation of a dipole magnetic field in the central regions of active galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of the formation of large-scale magnetic fields of dipole configuration in the central regions (r ? 100 pc) of active galaxies is studied. It is assumed that these regions contain a rapidly rotating, highly ionized gas (? ? 5·10-15 sec, Ne ? 103 cm-3). Ionized matter escapes from the center of the region with a velocity of several hundred km/sec and is entrained by the rotation of the surrounding medium. Biermann's "battery" effect [L. Biermann, Z. Naturforsch., 5a, 65 (1950)] operates under such conditions, and circular electric currents are formed in the medium, which amplify the dipole magnetic fields. During the active phase of a galaxy, about 108 years, the magnetic field strength at the boundary of this region may reach 10-4 10-3 G.

Andreasyan, R. R.

1996-01-01

138

Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties and Zoogeographical Composition of the Family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey  

PubMed Central

The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Central Anatolian region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of Turkey. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for Turkey, with emphasis on the Central Anatolian region.

Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

2011-01-01

139

WFPC2 Images of the Central Regions of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high-resolution R-band images of the central regions of 67 early-type galaxies obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This homogeneously selected sample roughly doubles the number of early-type galaxies that have now been imaged at HST resolution and complements similar data on the central regions of radio galaxies and the bulges of spiral galaxies. Our sample strikingly confirms the complex morphologies of the central regions of early-type galaxies which have become apparent from previous studies with HST. In particular, we detect dust, either in the form of nuclear disks or with a filamentary distribution, in 43% of all galaxies, in good agreement with previous estimates. In addition, we find evidence for embedded stellar disks in a remarkably large fraction of 51%. In 14 of those galaxies the disklike structures are misaligned with the main galaxy, suggesting that they correspond to stellar bars in S0 galaxies. We analyze the luminosity profiles of the galaxies in our sample and classify galaxies according to their central cusp slope. To a large extent we confirm the results from previous HST surveys in that early-type galaxies reveal a clear dichotomy: the bright ellipticals (MB<~-20.5) are generally boxy and have luminosity profiles that break from steep outer power laws to shallow inner cusps (referred to as ``core'' galaxies). The fainter ellipticals, on the other hand, typically have disky isophotes and luminosity profiles that lack a clear break and have a steep central cusp (referred to as ``power-law'' galaxies). The advantages and shortcomings of classification schemes utilizing the extrapolated central cusp slope ? are discussed, and it is shown that ? might be an inadequate representation for galaxies whose luminosity profile slope changes smoothly with radius rather than resembling a broken power law. Thus, we introduce a new, alternative parameter and show how this affects the classification. In fact, we find evidence for an ``intermediate'' class of galaxies that cannot unambiguously be classified as either core or power-law galaxies and that have central cusp slopes and absolute magnitudes intermediate between those of core and power-law galaxies. It is unclear at present, however, whether these galaxies make up a physically distinct class or whether distance and/or resolution effects cause them to lose their distinct core or power-law characteristics.

Rest, Armin; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Jaffe, Walter; Tran, Hien; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Ford, Holland C.; Davies, James; Schafer, Joanna

2001-05-01

140

The emplacement of the granitic Las Tazas complex, northern Chile: the relationship between local and regional strain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coastal batholith of northern Chile grew under transtensional-extensional conditions that prevailed along the Andean margin during the Mesozoic. The batholith hosts the Atacama Fault Zone, a major arc-parallel fault system which was characterised by sinistral transtensional shearing during the Early Cretaceous. The Las Tazas complex is a composite granitoid intrusion that was emplaced syntectonically along the Atacama Fault Zone at ˜130 Ma. Syntectonic emplacement is indicated by a consistent kinematic history between the complex and its wall rocks, together with synchronous crystallisation and shearing ages. In contrast to regional patterns, the Las Tazas complex was emplaced during a local change from vertical east-side-down to dextral transcurrent displacement along the fault zone. During intrusion, strain was partitioned between non-coaxial simple shearing within country-rock mylonites and a flattening strain across the crystallising complex. This combination indicates that the pluton was emplaced under temporary transpressive conditions that were localised around the pluton, probably induced by magma emplacement. Such a difference between local and regional strain suggests that emplacement-related structures should only be related to regional strain-states with great care.

Wilson, Jeff; Grocott, John

1999-11-01

141

Geochemical and Isotopic Constraints on Deep Ground Waters in the Bluegrass Region of Central Kentucky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cambro-Ordovician Knox Group Aquifer is a regionally extensive paleokarst ground water system that underlies much of the Interior Low Plateau and neighboring Central Lowland province of the United States. The geology and hydrology of the aquifer in the Bluegrass region of central Kentucky are regionally controlled by the north-trending Cincinnati Arch, and are locally controlled by the Jessamine Dome, the northeast-trending Kentucky River Fault and West Hickman Fault systems, and a system of northwest-trending fractures. Previous hydrological investigations elucidated two distinct zones of water within the aquifer as it occurs throughout the Bluegrass. A zone of low conductivity waters straddles the axis of the Cincinnati Arch north of the Kentucky River, which cuts across the axis of the Arch in the southern portion of the Bluegrass. Low conductivity waters are thought to be related to leakage of the Kentucky River into the top of the aquifer, and to vertical leakage that occurs along fracture and fault systems. High conductivity waters occur along the eastern and western flanks of the Arch. The purpose of the present investigation is to utilize the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of Knox Group Aquifer waters to assess local and regional flow dynamics (recharge/discharge/velocity) and hydrogeochemical evolution of waters in a structurally complex setting. Preliminary results from deep wells (>260 meters) indicate a dynamic range in chloride (10 to 412 ppm), sulfate (13 to 143 ppm), and fluoride (undetectable to 6 ppm), suggesting significant geochemical evolution of ground waters over short horizontal flow paths. Alkalinity concentrations range from 260 to 290 mg/L CaCO3. Preliminary ? 18O results from wells in the central and southwest Bluegrass are similar to the annual average ? 18O of regional meteoric ( ˜-7.0‰ ).

Galvin, R. S.; Rowe, H.; Brown, D. T.; King, R. L.

2004-12-01

142

An investigation of transmission ratio distortion in the central region of the human MHC.  

PubMed

Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) describes a significant departure from expected Mendelian inheritance ratios that is fundamental to both the biology of reproduction and statistical genetics. The relatively high fetal wastage in humans, with consequent selection of alleles in utero, makes it likely that TRD is prevalent in the human genome. The central region of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a strong TRD candidate, as it houses a number of immune and regulatory genes that may be important in pregnancy outcome. We used a nonhaplotype-based method to select 13 tagging SNPs from three central MHC candidate regions, and analysed their transmission in 380 newborns and their parents (1138 individuals). A TRD of 54:46 was noted in favour of the common allele of a promoter SNP in the CLIC1 gene (P = 0.025), with a similar distortion using haplotypes across the same gene region (P = 0.016). We also found evidence that markers in the CLIC1 gene region may have been subject to recent selection (P < 0.001). The study illustrates the potential benefits of screening for TRD and highlights the difficulties encountered therein. PMID:16341054

Hanchard, N; Rockett, K; Udalova, I; Wilson, J; Keating, B; Koch, O; Nijnik, A; Diakite, M; Herbert, M; Kwiatkowski, D

2006-01-01

143

Early regional LGM (MIS 3) reflected in Central European Loess-Paleosol Sequences?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The age of the "Brandenburg Phase", representing the regional LGM in Northern Germany and Poland, has been under debate. Evidence was found recently by OSL dating that it occurred during late MIS 3. In a new loess profile in the famous quarry of Nußloch south of Heidelberg (Germany) an exceptionally thick (6 m) loess-paleosol sequence (LPS) starts with a boreal brown soil regionally known as "Lohne soil", which terminates the Middle Pleniglacial LPS, according to classical stratigraphies. This paleosol is overlain by loess beds interbedding with weakly developed tundra-gley soils of typically Upper Pleniglacial habitus. Mean OSL ages from quartz fine and middle grains range between ca. 29 ka and ca. 35 ka in this part of the section which is much thicker than in previously studied corresponding parts of the loess stratigraphy at the Nußloch site. Our surprising dating results are, however, supported by recently dated loess beds in the Central European corridor between the ice margin of the Brandenburg Phase and the Northern Alpine LGM terminal moraines. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions point to cold but rather humid climatic conditions favouring rapid ice advance. We, thus, hypothesize that the rapid advance of Scandinavian ice into northern Central Europe which may have occurred ca. 10 ka prior to the global LGM, is reflected in some well-preserved Central European loess sections covering the last glacial cycle.

Zoeller, Ludwig; Fuchs, Markus

2014-05-01

144

Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

2002-10-09

145

Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.  

SciTech Connect

Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region-specific differences in the ecological functions performed by macroinvertebrates in forested depressional wetlands.

Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

2005-02-12

146

Seismic characteristics and kinematic models of Makkah and central Red Sea regions, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Makkah and central Red Sea regions have been re-evaluated from recent earthquake data analysis. Epicenters of recent seismic activity are concentrated in three local seismic zones. These are: Ad Damm Fault (NE), Nu'man-Makkah-Fattim (NW) and Jiddah-Red Sea (NW) seismic zones. Moreover, an extended seismic zone along the central part of Red Sea is observed. Most of these epicenters are distributed along tectonic faults, as indicated from the subsurface structure analysis of the aeromagnetic anomaly map. Some epicenters of small magnitudes are inaccurately located The study indicates the existence of large active structural basin south of Makkah region which traverse Ad Damm fault zone with the Red Sea transform faults.Slip vector analyses were carried out for 50 available earthquake focal mechanisms around Makkah region. In Nu'man, Makkah and Fatima structural zones, the slip vectors generally trending NW and NNW. However, in the southern part at the Ad Dam structure zone the slip vector trending NE-SW. These may result from the current complicated drifting motion of Arabian plate away from African plate combined with the opening of the Red Sea Rift. Keywords: Red Sea, Makkah, Fault plane solutions, slip vectors.

Al-Saud, Mashael M.

2009-04-01

147

Monazite ages imply Miocene faulting at plate tectonic velocity in the Main Central Thrust region of the central Nepal Himalaya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Main Central Thrust (MCT) and closely allied faults of the Himalaya constitute one of the largest intracontinental thrust systems on Earth, and accommodated hundreds of kilometers of shortening during collision between India and Asia. Thus, the timing and rates of fault movement in the MCT region are fundamental to deciphering strain partitioning in the Indo-Asian collision, as well as the nature of major thrust movement during orogenesis. Past interpretations of the timing of peak metamorphism in MCT rocks and movement of the MCT have principally relied on monazite ages, but without characterization of monazite chemistry. These studies suggested movement on the MCT and affiliated thrusts at disparate times including: 20-22 Ma, ~8 Ma reactivation, or progressive in-sequence thrusting sometime between 20 and 8 Ma. In contrast to previous work, we have combined geochemical mapping of metamorphic monazite plusin situ Th-Pb isotopic dating to resolve different generations of monazite and their relationship to prograde and retrograde metamorphic reactions. The ages of retrograde monazite are particularly important because they provide a minimum limit for the timing of melting, and directly measure the timing of initial high-temperature cooling. To a first order, this cooling must result from thrust emplacement because there is little erosion above the restored position of these rocks, and because metamorphic pressures are uniformly 8-10 kbar for all thrust sheets. These ages demonstrate that, in the Langtang region, several faults were active sequentially at 21-16 Ma (Langtang Thrust, LT, structurally above the MCT), 16-10.5 Ma (MCT sensu stricto), and 10.5-8.9 Ma (Ramgarh Thrust, RT, structurally below the MCT). The metamorphic P-T conditions of each thrust sheet can be combined with thermal models of the Himalaya to infer displacement amounts. The ages of monazite growth then permit the duration and rate of thrusting to be estimated. Inferred displacement rates are 1.5±0.9 cm/yr (LT), 2.2±0.7 cm/yr (MCT), and 7±3 cm/yr (RT). The rates for the LT and MCT agree with modern GPS measurements across the Himalaya (~2 cm/yr), supporting the widely held assumption that the component of convergence taken up across the Himalaya has remained quasi-constant over the last 20 Myr. The displacement rate for the RT is surprising because it is indistinguishable from the total Indo-Asian convergence rate (~5 cm/yr). Rapid movement on the RT coincides with increased foreland and marine sedimentation rates, and points to a pivotal, if brief role in accommodating Indo-Asian convergence.

Kohn, M. J.; Wieland, M.; Parkinson, C. D.; Upreti, B. N.

2004-05-01

148

Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5 deg - 50 deg N, 90 deg - 105 deg W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month of June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO produced from oxidation of methane, isoprene, and anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Calculations of deep convective venting are based on the method pf Pickering et al.(1992a) which uses a satellite-derived deep convective cloud climatology along with transport statistics from convective cloud model simulations of observed prototype squall line events. This study uses analyses of convective episodes in 1985 and 1989 and CO measurements taken during several midwestern field campaigns. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer over this moderately polluted region provides a net (upward minus downward) flux of 18.1 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month to the free troposphere during early summer. Shallow cumulus and synoptic-scale weather systems together make a comparable contribution (total net flux 16.2 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month). Boundary layer venting of CO with other O3 precursors leads to efficient free troposheric O3 formation. We estimate that deep convective transport of CO and other precursors over the central United States in early summer leads to a gross production of 0.66 - 1.1 Gmol O3/d in good agreement with estimates of O3 production from boundary layer venting in a continental-scale model (Jacob et al., 1993a, b). On this respect the central U.S. region acts as s `chimney' for the country, and presumably this O3 contributes to high background levels of O3 in the eastern United States and O3 export to the North Atlantic.

Thompson, Anne M.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ellis, William G., Jr.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Mcnamara, Donna P.; Simpson, Joanne

1994-01-01

149

Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets  

SciTech Connect

The authors have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5{degrees}-50{degrees}N, 90{degrees}-105{degrees}W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month of June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO produced from oxidation of methane, isoprene, and anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Calculations of deep convective venting are based on the method of Pickering et al. which uses a satellite-derived deep convective cloud climatology along with transport statistics from convective cloud model simulations of observed prototype squall line events. This study uses analyses of convective episodes in 1985 and 1989 and CO measurements taken during several midwestern field campaigns. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer over this moderately polluted region provides a net (upward minus downward) flux of 18.1 x 10{sup 8} kg CO month{sup {minus}1} to the free troposphere during early summer, assuming the June statistics are typical. Shallow cumulus and synoptic-scale weather systems together make a comparable contribution (total net flux 16.2 x 10{sup 8} kg CO month{sup {minus}1}). Boundary layer venting of CO with other O{sub 3} precursors leads to efficient free tropospheric O{sub 3} formation. The authors estimate that deep convective transport of CO and other precursors over the central United States in early summer leads to a gross production of 0.66-1.1 Gmol O{sub 3} d{sup {minus}1} in good agreement with estimates of O{sub 3} production from boundary layer venting in a continental-scale model. In this respect the central US region acts as a {open_quotes}chimney{close_quotes} for the country. 44 refs.

Thompson, A.M.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Pickering, K.E.; Scala, J.R. [Universities Space Research Association, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [Universities Space Research Association, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Dickerson, R.R.; Ellis, W.G. Jr. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Jacob, D.J. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); McNamara, D.P. [Applied Research Corp., Landover, MD (United States)] [Applied Research Corp., Landover, MD (United States)

1994-09-20

150

CS J = 2 yields 1 emission toward the central region of M82  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M82 is an irregular (Type II) galaxy located at a distance of approximately 3.5 Mpc. Its unusual appearance and high luminosity, particularly in the infrared, has led many astronomers to classify it as a starburst galaxy. This interpretation is supported by the observation of a large number of radio continuum sources within the central arcminute of the galaxy. These sources are thought to be associated with supernova remnants. The starburst in the central region of the galaxy is believed to have been triggered by tidal interaction with either M81 or the HI cloud surrounding the M81 group. High angular resolution CO-12 J=1 to 0 maps by Nakai (1984) and Lo et al. (1987) indicate the existence of a 400 to 450 pc rotating ring of molecular material about the central region of M82. Red- and blue-shifted absorption components of the HI and OH lines measured by Weliachew et al. (1984) provided the first evidence for the presence of the ring. Many astronomers, each using a different angular resolution, have compared CO-12 J=1 to 0, J=2 to 1, and J=3 to 2 emission and concluded that a large fraction of the CO emission is optically thin. Additional observations suggest that the molecular material toward the center of M82 is clumpy and dense. Unlike the lower rotational transitions of CO, CS is excited only at relatively high densities, nH sub 2 greater than or equal to 104 cm(-3). It is in clouds with these densities that stars are expected to form. This makes CS an excellent probe of star formation regions. Researchers observed the CS J=2 to 1 transition (97.981 GHz) toward 52 positions in M82 using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 12 m telescope.

Walker, C. E.; Walker, C. K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Martin, R. N.

1990-07-01

151

CS J = 2 yields 1 emission toward the central region of M82  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

M82 is an irregular (Type II) galaxy located at a distance of approximately 3.5 Mpc. Its unusual appearance and high luminosity, particularly in the infrared, has led many astronomers to classify it as a starburst galaxy. This interpretation is supported by the observation of a large number of radio continuum sources within the central arcminute of the galaxy. These sources are thought to be associated with supernova remnants. The starburst in the central region of the galaxy is believed to have been triggered by tidal interaction with either M81 or the HI cloud surrounding the M81 group. High angular resolution CO-12 J=1 to 0 maps by Nakai (1984) and Lo et al. (1987) indicate the existence of a 400 to 450 pc rotating ring of molecular material about the central region of M82. Red- and blue-shifted absorption components of the HI and OH lines measured by Weliachew et al. (1984) provided the first evidence for the presence of the ring. Many astronomers, each using a different angular resolution, have compared CO-12 J=1 to 0, J=2 to 1, and J=3 to 2 emission and concluded that a large fraction of the CO emission is optically thin. Additional observations suggest that the molecular material toward the center of M82 is clumpy and dense. Unlike the lower rotational transitions of CO, CS is excited only at relatively high densities, n sub H sub 2 greater than or equal to 10(exp 4) cm(-3). It is in clouds with these densities that stars are expected to form. This makes CS an excellent probe of star formation regions. Researchers observed the CS J=2 to 1 transition (97.981 GHz) toward 52 positions in M82 using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 12 m telescope.

Walker, C. E.; Walker, C. K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Martin, R. N.

1990-01-01

152

Chromosomal instability in Streptomyces avermitilis: major deletion in the central region and stable circularized chromosome  

PubMed Central

Background The chromosome of Streptomyces has been shown to be unstable, frequently undergoing gross chromosomal rearrangements. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear, with previous studies focused on two chromosomal ends as targets for rearrangements. Here we investigated chromosomal instability of Streptomyces avermitilis, an important producer of avermectins, and characterized four gross chromosomal rearrangement events, including a major deletion in the central region. The present findings provide a valuable contribution to the mechanistic study of genetic instability in Streptomyces. Results Thirty randomly-selected "bald" mutants derived from the wild-type strain all contained gross chromosomal rearrangements of various types. One of the bald mutants, SA1-8, had the same linear chromosomal structure as the high avermectin-producing mutant 76-9. Chromosomes of both strains displayed at least three independent chromosomal rearrangements, including chromosomal arm replacement to form new 88-kb terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), and two major deletions. One of the deletions eliminated the 36-kb central region of the chromosome, but surprisingly did not affect viability of the cells. The other deletion (74-kb) was internal to the right chromosomal arm. The chromosome of another bald mutant, SA1-6, was circularized with deletions at both ends. No obvious homology was found in all fusion sequences. Generational stability analysis showed that the chromosomal structure of SA1-8 and SA1-6 was stable. Conclusions Various chromosomal rearrangements, including chromosomal arm replacement, interstitial deletions and chromosomal circularization, occurred in S. avermitilis by non-homologous recombination. The finding of an inner deletion involving in the central region of S. avermitilis chromosome suggests that the entire Streptomyces chromosome may be the target for rearrangements, which are not limited, as previously reported, to the two chromosomal ends.

2010-01-01

153

Regional Geochemical Trends in Young Basalts Along the Central Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional neotectonics and volcanism along the margins of the Anatolian microplate (Turkey) are broadly well-constrained. The African and Arabian plates currently push Anatolia against the relatively stable Eurasian plate and as a result, Anatolia has had a west-southwest movement for the last 12 Ma in what is called ‘escape tectonics’. The tectonic environments and their associated volcanism include slab rollback in Western Anatolia (post-Miocene alkaline basalts and basanites) and slab detachment in Eastern Anatolia (mid-Miocene calc-alkaline to Quaternary alkaline). However, the situation in Central Anatolia is less clear: extensional forces govern the neo-tectonic environment and Pliocene-Recent basalts through basaltic andesites and dacites form large stratovolcanoes in extensional basins as well as both small and large basalt fields. The geochemistry of these basalts requires contributions from a poorly-defined mantle source lithology that has been enriched by subduction processes. However, available plate reconstructions indicate that the leading edge of the subducted African plate did not reach Central Anatolia, suggesting that the subduction environment could be related to closure of the neo-Tethyan Ocean in Paleozoic time. Geochemical compositions of mafic lavas along the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ) provide new clarity on the question of the extent of lithospheric melting and the influence of the subducting slab. Moving southward along the CAFZ, incompatible trace element compositions of Central Anatolian basalts increase systematically in La/Nb concentrations and other incompatible trace element indicators trend from MORB and OIB signatures to more enriched values. Small negative Nb and no Ta anomalies are present in basalts from the northern CAFZ, and increase to larger negative Nb anomalies and Ta anomalies in the north. The incompatible trace element variations along the CAFZ point to an increase in lithospheric or slab involvement toward the leading edge of the African plate, i.e., to the south. Here we present new Pb and Hf isotopic data on recent (<15 Ma) mafic lavas along the CAFZ previously analyzed for major and trace elements. Isotopic ratios show greater source heterogeneity than suggested by the trace element data and show no apparent relationship with latitude. The Pb-Pb isotope ratios define a data field similar to modern oceanic sediment, intermediate in composition to Western Anatolia SCLM and the C component and enriched Central Atlantic MORB. In the 206Pb/204Pb-?Hf diagram the Central Anatolian lavas are consistent with mixing between a C-like component on the enriched end of the Central Atlantic MORB trend, and Western Anatolia-like SCLM. The isotopic data support a mixing model between oceanic mantle and subduction modified SCLM sources.

Pickard, M.; Furman, T.; Hanan, B. B.; Kurkcuoglu, B.; Sayit, K.

2009-12-01

154

[Breeding sites of horseflies (Tabanidae) in the southern and central regions of Tomsk Province].  

PubMed

Breeding places of 10 species of tabanids from southern and central regions of the Tomsk district were studied. They are connected with the Ob river, its tributaries Tom and Chulym, with the Baksa, Kirgizka, Chernaja and Ushaika rivers, flood-plain waterbodies, meadow lowlands, forest bogged up areas and with water bodies near animal breeding farms. The average density of larvae is 7.3 spec./m2. Most abundant were members of the genus Hybomitra (54.4%) and Tabanus (38.4%). The density of larvae depends on the time of their collection and their generic belonging. PMID:6493804

Fominykh, V G; Eremina, L G

1984-01-01

155

[Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle farms in Algeria's central northern region].  

PubMed

As there has been little research into the epidemiological status of bovine neosporosis in Algeria, the main aims of this study were to confirm the circulation of Neospora caninum in the country and to determine its seroprevalence in dairy cattle in five provinces of Algeria's central northern region by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence. A serological study of 186 dairy cattle declared brucellosis-free established an overall seroprevalence of 12.37%, confirming that N. caninum is circulating in dairy cattle and underlining the need to introduce systematic serological screening for neosporosis to limit its spread and prevent it from being perpetuated on Algerian farms. PMID:23520748

Achour, K; Ben-Mahdi, M-H; Akkou, M; Teniou, R

2012-12-01

156

Soft X-ray images of the central region of the Perseus cluster  

SciTech Connect

We report the results of 0.5--3.0 keV X-ray observations of the central region of the Perseus cluster carried out with the Imaging Proportional Counter and High Resolution Imager aboard the Einstein Observatory. In addition to the very extended thermal cluster emission and a sharply peaked component at NGC 1275 previously known, the high resolution image reveals a point source coincident with the optical nucleus of NGC 1275. The 0.5--3.0 keV luminosity of the compact source is approx.10/sup 44/ ergs s/sup -1/.

Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Fabricant, D.; Feigelson, E.; Gorenstein, P.; Grindlay, J.; Soltan, A.; Zamorani, G.

1981-08-15

157

Vortex flows with suspended separation regions and long-range untwisted central jets  

SciTech Connect

A study is made of possible physicoaerodynamic configurations of vortical flow with suspended separation regions and untwisted central jets. Such flows are encountered in power plants (heat exchangers, combustion chambers, and chemical reactors) and in nature (tornadoes). The basic configurations of several flows of this type are described, including the structure of a flow formed by coaxial cocurrent twisted jets, the flow in a conical swirl chamber with the formation of an untwisted long-range axial jet, the flow pattern in a gas turbine engine chamber, and some considerations regarding the aerodynamics of a tornado.

Abramovich, G.N.; Trofimov, R.S.

1988-05-01

158

Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

2011-01-01

159

Regional flood relations for unregulated lakes in west-central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Regional lake flood altitude in the Southwest Florida Water Management District for 2- to 500-year recurrence intervals was estimated by multiple linear-regression analysis. The average lake altitude was used as a reference above which flood volumes are related to lake geometry, watershed characteristics, and rainfall. Average altitude at surface-outflow lakes is related to the altitude of the lake surface shown on topographic maps, lake-outlet altitude, and annual rainfall. Average altitude at closed-basin lakes is related to the altitude of the lake surface shown on topographic maps. Flood volume above average altitude for surface-outflow lakes is related to lake geometry, watershed characteristics, and rainfall. The average standard error of estimate for regional relations of surface-outflow lakes ranges from 29 to 54 percent in the Central Lake District and from 50 to 58 percent in the Ocala Uplift District. The average standard error of estimate for regional relations of closed-basin lakes ranges from 22 to 40 percent. Regional relations for average altitude and flood volume above average altitude are used to weight station flood-altitude data. Tables comparing station, regional, and weighted lake flood altitudes are shown for 47 lakes used in the analysis. (USGS)

Lopez, M. A.; Hayes, R. D.

1984-01-01

160

Tracing impacts of local and regional emission sources on the aerosols over Central Himalayan region during GVAX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational site ARIES, Nainital (29.4°N, 79.5°E; 1950 m a.m.s.l) is ideally located to study the tropospheric background (TB) of various atmospheric components and their characteristics representing northern India. Observations at this site could provide useful information of the aerosol properties before, after and during the south-west monsoon. Higher levels of trace gases and aerosols surround this region during winter/spring period in space-borne observations. This period also coincides with the intensive crop residue burning season in the region. In view of this, extensive observation of aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters are made at the site under the Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment-Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (RAWEX-GVAX) from June 2011. This experiment thus pose an unique opportunity to study the impact of local and regional pollution and study the influence of long-range transport to the pristine region of Central Himalayas. Results from collocated in-situ measurement of aerosol physical properties [absorption coefficient (? ab), scattering coefficients (? s), back scatter ratio (Bfr), aerosol number concentration (Ncn), Cloud condensation nuclei count (Nccn), single scattering albedo (? ), angstrom exponent (? ), hygroscopic growth factor, f(RH)] with state of the art measurement techniques are presented here. Preliminary analyses of the measurements show that the site is mostly dominated by small size fraction of aerosol (mainly accumulation mode), whose number concentration varies from below 500 cm-3 to above 6000 cm-3 during the study period (upto November 2011). The '? ', '? ' and hygroscopic property of the aerosol observed in GVAX indicate a lesser possibility of impact from fossil fuel combustion as compared to that from biomass/firewood burning. Though daily variations show dominance of local impact, possibility of long-range transport however, cannot be ruled out. Anticipating possibility of both local and long-range transport impact, available satellite products over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of relevance to biomass burning (Carbon monoxide, Aerosol Optical Depth, Fire products, etc) have been exploited to relate to the observed aerosol physical properties during GVAX. The findings are expected to reveal the linkages between local and regional emission sources (biomass burning in particular) and atmospheric perturbations.

Sahai, Shivraj; Sagar, Ram; Pant, P.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Venkata Phanikumar, Devulapalli; Dumka, Umesh Chandra; Pant, Vimlesh; Singh, Narendra; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Naja, Manish; Satheesh, S. K.

2012-07-01

161

Projecting the vegetation response to climatic change in the North American Central Grasslands Region  

SciTech Connect

An interdisciplinary modeling effort is underway in which high-resolution climate change projections will drive the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System (MAPSS) to simulate vegetation change in the Central Grasslands Region. MAPSS calculates a complete site water balance and solves for the leaf area (LAI) of both woody and grass lifeforms in full competition for both light and water. Fire is a necessary constraint on simulated shrub LAI throughout much of the grasslands region, and incorporation of weather variability is critical for obtaining accurate tree/grass LAI ratios in the Prairie Peninsula. Initial estimates of the potential impact of climatic change include significant changes in both lifeform LAI and the distribution of subformation vegetation types, but the magnitude and even the direction of change varies with the climate scenario and with assumptions concerning wind speed and plant water-use efficiency.

Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. (Environmental Research Lab., Corvallis, OR (United States))

1993-06-01

162

Regional Climate Change Scenarios - Benefits of Modeling in High Resolution for Central and Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance and distribution. In EC FP6 Project CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment) we are studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in very high resolution of 10 km. Complex verification of ERA40 driven simulation of the RegCM will be presented against observational data for Czech Republic as well as in broader context of Central Europe with respect to ENSEMBLES climatology. Climate change signal will be shown based on runs driven by ICTP RegCM@25km driven by ECHAM5 in ENSEMBLES Project for time slices 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with respect to control period 1961-1990. Emphasis will be given to the benefits of high resolution performance at 10km grid. The climate change signal looks to be consistent with driving fields, however local details and behavior can appear. Output localization technique is used to enable to compare the model results to observational data or to get climate change scenarios to real areas of impact studies. Effects on distribution of variables are analyzed as well.

Halenka, T.; Miksovsky, J.; Belda, M.

2009-09-01

163

The Diversity of Coolia spp. (Dinophyceae Ostreopsidaceae) in the Central Great Barrier Reef Region  

PubMed Central

Background Dinoflagellates are important primary producers, crucial in marine food webs. Toxic strains, however, are the main causative agents of non-bacterial seafood poisoning, a major concern for public health worldwide. Despite their importance, taxonomic uncertainty within many genera of dinoflagellates is still high. The genus Coolia includes potentially harmful species and the diversity within the genus is just starting to become apparent. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, cultures were established from strains of Coolia spp. isolated from the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Cultures were identified based on thecal plate morphology and analyses of sequences (18S, ITS and 28S) from the nuclear rRNA operon. We report that the central GBR harbors a high diversity of Coolia species, including two species known to be capable of toxin production (C. tropicalis and C. malayensis), as well as the non-toxic C. canariensis. The strain of C. canariensis isolated from the GBR may in fact be a cryptic species, closely related but nevertheless phylogenetically distinct from the strain on which the holotype of C. canariensis was based. We also found evidence of the occurrence of a cryptic species morphologically very similar to both C. malayensis and C. monotis. The consequences of taxonomic confusion within the genus are discussed. Conclusion/Significance The central GBR region harbors a previously unreported high diversity of Coolia spp., including two species known to potentially produce toxins. The presence of a cryptic species of unknown toxicity highlights the importance of cryptic diversity within dinoflagellates.

Momigliano, Paolo; Sparrow, Leanne; Blair, David; Heimann, Kirsten

2013-01-01

164

Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the central star forming region in NGC 1140 (exp 1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present broadband images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope's Planetary Camera of the central supergiant H II region in the amorphous galaxy NGC 1140. These images allow observations to a resolution of about 13 pc at the galaxy, and they reveal that its central 1/2 kpc contains 6-7 blue, luminous, compact super star clusters, many of which would be comparable in luminosity to globular clusters at the same age. A blue arc-shaped structure near the center may be a grouping of less luminous, R136/NGC 2070-sized clusters or a sheet of OB stars. Additional somewhat less luminous and redder clusters are also found farther out from the center. If these clusters are older, they too could have had luminosities comparable to those of the central six clusters at a comparable age. Thus, we find that NGC 1140 is remarkable in the number of extreme clusters that it has formed recently in a relatively small area of the galaxy. Since NGC 1140 exhibits global characteristics that are consistent with a recent merger, these clusters are likely to be a product of that event. This galaxy adds to the number of cases where rapid star formation has evidently produced super star clusters.

Hunter, Deidre A.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Gallagher, John S. Iii

1994-01-01

165

Depositional environments and regional significance of Pennsylvanian Caddo Limestone, north-central Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Caddo limestone (Atokan-Desmoinesian) is a regionally extensive carbonate unit present throughout much of north-central Texas. Attaining a maximum thickness of over 600 ft, the Caddo is one of the more prolific oil-and-gas-producing formations of this region. Optimum carbonate deposition occurred within the Pennsylvanian epeiric seas in a north-south belt that approximates the bend flexure. Stratigraphic analysis, regional relationships, and a systematic wholecore study revealed three prominent elongated regions of carbonate development. The geometry and position of these regions, herein termed (from south to north) the Cross Plains, the Breckenridge, and the Graham buildups, delineate the depositional trends of the Concho platform. Originally, three separate formations (Eastland Lake, Caddo Pool, and Parks formations) defined these buildups. Elaborate stratigraphic subdivisions within the Caddo are not mappable with any degree of confidence beyond the type locality. By investigating the Caddo as a single stratigraphically related unit, important information concerning the stratigraphic relationships and depositional environments is now more precisely understood. Six major rock types are identified within the Caddo on a regional scale. These include (1) algal wackestones to packstones, (2) crinoidal grainstones, (3) oolitic grainstones, (4) fusulinid packstones to grainstones, (5) spiculitic mudstone to wackestone, and (6) black shale. Regional study indicates that the Caddo limestone exhibits two prominent phases of carbonate development. Initial carbonate deposition revealing no break in slope between the Concho platform and the subsiding Fort Worth basin, and wide, irregular facies tracts indicate ramp deposition. Subsequently, a carbonate platform with a characteristic narrow shelf margin developed.

Schwartz, C.K. Jr.

1990-02-01

166

On the use of global potential field models for regional interpretation of the West and Central African Rift System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use in regional interpretations of the Earth Gravity Model (EGM08) and Earth magnetic model (EMAG2) is evaluated by comparison to ground gravity and aeromagnetic data in the central sector of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS). The comparison includes upward continuation, spectral analysis and pseudogravity calculation and statistical evaluation. A correlation between EMAG2 (which contains roughly 25km

Albert Eyike; Stephanie C. Werner; Jörg Ebbing; E. Manguelle Dicoum

2010-01-01

167

CHARACTER AND REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF GREAT FALLS TECTONIC ZONE, EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO AND WEST-CENTRAL MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Falls tectonic zone, here named, is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can be traced from the Idaho batholith in the Cordilleran miogeocline, across thrust-belt structures and basement rocks of west-central and southwestern Montana, through cratonic rocks of central Montana, and into southwestern-most Saskatchewan, Canada. Geologic mapping in east-central Idaho and west-central Montana has outlined a continuous zone of high-angle faults and shear zones. Recurrent fault movement in this zone and strong structural control over igneous intrusion suggest a fundamental tectonic feature that has influenced the tectonic development of the Idaho-Montana area from a least middle Proterozoic time to the present. Refs.

O'Neill, J. Michael; Lopez, David, A.

1985-01-01

168

Regional Climate Change Scenarios in High Resolution for Central and Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance and distribution. Project EC FP6 CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment) is studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in very high resolution of 10 km. The impacts on agriculture, forestry, hydrology and air-quality are studied within the project, and precise information from regional climate simulations is necessary. In addition to basic verification based on ERA40 driven simulations the comparison of the RegCM results to the driving fields in scenarios runs by ECHAM5 GCM for time slices 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 are provided with respect to control period 1961-1990 analyzing the benefits of high resolution performance at 10km grid. The climate change signal looks to be consistent with driving fields, however local details and behavior can appear. Output localization technique is used to enable to compare the model results to observational data or to get climate change scenarios to real areas of impact studies. Effects on distribution of variables are analyzed as well.

Halenka, Tomas; Belda, Michal; Miksovsky, Jiri

2010-05-01

169

Regional Climate Change Modeling in High Resolution for Central and Eastern Europe in Project CECILIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project EC FP6 CECILIA - Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment is studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in high resolution. The impacts on agriculture, forestry, hydrology and air-quality are studied. Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance. Here the reliability of the RCMs in reproducing climate conditions and extremes for targeted regions is studied in the experiment with the perfect boundary condition driving in simulations for EC FP6 project CECILIA. The results of simulation performed with the RegCM in resolution of 10 km using reanalysis ERA 40 as driving fields are presented and compared with the emphasis on extreme temperature and precipitation characteristics, validation based on the climate databases as well as station observations from the Czech Republic. The preliminary results of simulations for climate change conditions driven by ECHAM5 GCM for time slices 2021- 2050 and 2071-2100 are presented as well with respect to control period 1961-1990.

Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Miksovsky, J.

2008-12-01

170

Benefits of High Resolution Regional Climate Change Modeling in Central and Eastern Europe - Project CECILIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project EC FP6 CECILIA - Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment is studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in high resolution for applications in agriculture, forestry, hydrology and air-quality. Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance. The reliability of the RCMs in reproducing climate conditions and extremes for targeted regions is studied in the experiments with the perfect boundary condition driving in simulations for EC FP6 project CECILIA. The results of simulation performed with the RegCM in resolution of 10 km using reanalysis ERA 40 as driving fields are presented and compared with the emphasis on extreme temperature and precipitation characteristics, validation based on the climate databases as well as station observations from the Czech Republic. Statistical analysis of the results and localization of the outputs to the station points is used for validation as well as applied on climate change simulations with driving boundary conditions from ECHAM5 GCM under A1B GHG scenario for time slices 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Bias correction technique provides necessary tool for final climate change scenario construction.

Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Miksovsky, J.

2009-12-01

171

Geochemical tracers for the groundwater and streams in central mountainous regions of Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gases have been considered as sensitive tracers for groundwater due to their unique geochemical characteristics. In this study, groundwater of the monitoring wells and river water were collected for geochemical analysis, including Radon concentration and Helium isotopes, from central mountainous regions of Taiwan to discuss their fluid sources. The results of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic values are -77.8~-36.5o and -10.7~-6.3o respectively, falling on the local meteoric water line of Taiwan. It revealed that groundwater source in studied area is mainly from the precipitation. The helium isotopic ratios of the samples range from 0.78 to 1.13 Ra. It implies that, in addition to the air-saturated water, there are additional sources for the groundwater in central mountainous regions of Taiwan. Interestingly the water sample from Liwu River was detected high 222Rn concentration, 7.66 kBq/m3, which is much higher than background values in normal river water. It suggests that local groundwater with high 222Rn concentration of 1.38~75.4 kBq/m3 may play important role for the Liwu River. Combined with other geochemical tracers, like 87Sr/86Sr and carbon isotopes of DIC, we will further discuss possible interaction between the groundwater and surface water with bed rocks.

Chuang, Jin-Lun; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chen, Ai-Ti; Fu, Ching-Chou; Lin, Shih-Jung; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Yunshuen

2014-05-01

172

A central region of Gli2 regulates its localization to the primary cilium and transcriptional activity.  

PubMed

Signaling through vertebrate Hedgehog (Hh) proteins depends on the primary cilium. In response to Hh signals, the transcriptional activator of the pathway, Gli2, accumulates at the ciliary tip, raising the possibility that ciliary localization is important for Gli2 activation. To test this hypothesis, we used the Floxin system to create knock-in Gli2 alleles in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to allow methodical testing of which domains and residues are essential for the ciliary localization of Gli2. The Gli2 zinc fingers, transcriptional activation domain, repressor domain, phosphorylation cluster and a Sufu binding motif were each dispensable for ciliary localization. Mutating residues that are required for Gli2 sumoylation and nuclear trafficking also did not abrogate ciliary localization. By contrast, several other domains restricted Gli2 nuclear localization, and a central region, distinct from previously characterized domains, was required for ciliary localization. In addition to an inability to localize to cilia, Gli2 lacking this central domain was unable to activate target genes. Thus, our systematic analysis in ESCs reveals that distinct regions of Gli2 regulate its nuclear and ciliary localization. The identification of a domain essential for both ciliary localization and transcriptional activity suggests that ciliary localization of Gli2 is required for its activation. PMID:24463817

Santos, Nicole; Reiter, Jeremy F

2014-04-01

173

Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER) Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ∼125 km, the stable isotopic record (?18O or ?D) of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that the different interpretations of the Dasuopu and Everest isotopic records may not be contradictive. The north-south and west-east seesaws of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitation are primarily responsible for precipitation falling at the ER site, which results in a negative correlation between the ER ?18O or ?D record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas, corresponding to the "amount effect". In addition to the ISM precipitation, non-summer monsoonal precipitation associated with winter westerlies also significantly contributes to precipitation falling at the Dasuopu site, which may cause a positive correlation between the Dasuopu stable isotopic record and temperature, in response to the "temperature effect". Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

Pang, H.; Hou, S.; Kaspari, S.; Mayewski, P. A.

2013-05-01

174

Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu (DSP) Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER) Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the DSP and the ER ice core drilling sites is only ~ 125 km, the stable isotopic record (?18O or ?D) of the DSP core is interpreted in previous studies as a temperature proxy, while the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that remarkable discrepancy in precipitation seasonality between the two sites may account for their disparate isotopic interpretations. At the ER core site, the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) precipitation is dominating due to topographic blocking of the moisture from westerlies by the high ridges of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), which results in a negative correlation between the ER ?18O or ?D record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas in response to the "amount effect". At the DSP core site, in comparison with the ISM precipitation, the wintertime precipitation associated with the westerlies is likely more important owing to its local favorable topographic conditions for interacting with the western disturbances. Therefore, the DSP stable isotopic record may be primarily controlled by the westerlies. Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

Pang, H.; Hou, S.; Kaspari, S.; Mayewski, P. A.

2014-02-01

175

A Dynamical N-body model for the central region of ? Centauri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are fundamental keys to understand the formation and evolution of their host galaxies. However, the formation and growth of SMBHs are not yet well understood. One of the proposed formation scenarios is the growth of SMBHs from seed intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, 102 to 105 M?) formed in star clusters. In this context, and also with respect to the low mass end of the M• - ? relation for galaxies, globular clusters are in a mass range that make them ideal systems to look for IMBHs. Among Galactic star clusters, the massive cluster ? Centauri is a special target due to its central high velocity dispersion and also its multiple stellar populations. Aims: We study the central structure and dynamics of the star cluster ? Centauri to examine whether an IMBH is necessary to explain the observed velocity dispersion and surface brightness profiles. Methods: We perform direct N-body simulations on GPU and GRAPE special purpose computers to follow the dynamical evolution of ? Centauri. The simulations are compared to the most recent data-sets in order to explain the present-day conditions of the cluster and to constrain the initial conditions leading to the observed profiles. Results: We find that starting from isotropic spherical multi-mass King models and within our canonical assumptions, a model with a central IMBH mass of 2% of the cluster stellar mass, i.e. a 5. × 104 M? IMBH, provides a satisfactory fit to both the observed shallow cusp in surface brightness and the continuous rise towards the center of the radial velocity dispersion profile. In our isotropic spherical models, the predicted proper motion dispersion for the best-fit model is the same as the radial velocity dispersion one. Conclusions: We conclude that with the presence of a central IMBH in our models, we reproduce consistently the rise in the radial velocity dispersion. Furthermore, we always end up with a shallow cusp in the projected surface brightness of our model clusters containing an IMBH. In addition, we find that the M/L ratio seems to be constant in the central region, and starts to rise slightly from the core radius outwards for all models independent of the presence of a black hole. Considering our initial parameter space, it is not possible to explain the observations without a central IMBH for ? Centauri. To further strengthen the presence of an IMBH as a unique explanation of the observed light and kinematics more detailed analysis such as investigating the contribution of primordial binaries and different anisotropy profiles should be studied.

Jalali, B.; Baumgardt, H.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Gebhardt, K.; Noyola, E.; Lützgendorf, N.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

2012-02-01

176

Intraseasonal variability of organized convective systems in the Central Andes: Relationship to Regional Dynamical Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Andes extend from the west coast of Colombia (10N) to the southern tip of Chile (53S). In southern Peru and Bolivia, the Central Andes is split into separate eastern and western cordilleras, with a high plateau (? 3000 m), the Altiplano, between them. Because 90% of the Earth's tropical mountain glaciers are located in the Central Andes, our study focuses on this region, defining its zonal extent as 7S-21S and the meridional extent as the terrain 1000 m and greater. Although intense convection occurs during the wet season in the Altiplano, it is not included in the lists of regions with frequent or the most intense convection. The scarcity of in-situ observations with sufficient density and temporal resolution to resolve individual storms or even mesoscale-organized cloud systems and documented biases in microwave-based rainfall products in poorly gauged mountainous regions have impeded the development of an extensive literature on convection and convective systems in this region. With the tropical glaciers receding at unprecedented rates, leaving seasonal precipitation as an increasingly important input to the water balance in alpine valley ecosystems and streams, understanding the nature and characteristics of the seasonal precipitation becomes increasingly important for the rural economies in this region. Previous work in analyzing precipitation in the Central Andes has emphasized interannual variability with respect to ENSO, this is the first study to focus on shorter scale variability with respect to organized convection. The present study took advantage of the University of Utah's Precipitation Features database compiled from 14 years of TRMM observations (1998-2012), supplemented by field observations of rainfall and streamflow, historical gauge data, and long-term WRF-simulations, to analyze the intraseasonal variability of precipitating systems and their relationship regional dynamical features such as the Bolivian High. Through time series and wavelet analysis, we found an important 8-10 day cycle related to but lagging convective surges in the Amazon basin and enhanced upper-level cyclonic flow around the Bolivian High. The majority of the organized convection in the region tended to be weak (< 5 mm/hr rain rates) and shallow (< 12 km). The timing of response (i.e., formation and distribution of organized convection) due to changes in moisture transport around the Bolivian High was similar in the wetter eastern and drier western cordilleras of the Central Andes. The response to upper level moisture transport was modulated by local soil moisture and elevation slope and aspect, with higher elevation, eastern facing peaks having a stronger response than western-facing and lower elevation areas. Streamflow data support the hypothesis that the majority of the light rainfall infiltrates the shallow sub-surface, rather than contributing to surface channel runoff, helping to sustain the high altitude peatlands in the Andean valleys.

Mohr, K. I.; Slayback, D. A.; Nicholls, S.; Yager, K.

2013-12-01

177

Central regions of LIRGs: rings, hidden starbursts, Supernovae and star clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study star formation (SF) in very active environments, in luminous IR galaxies, which are often interacting. A variety of phenomena are detected, such as central starbursts, circumnuclear SF, obscured SNe tracing the history of recent SF, massive super star clusters, and sites of strong off-nuclear SF. All of these can be ultimately used to define the sequence of triggering and propagation of star-formation and interplay with nuclear activity in the lives of gas rich galaxy interactions and mergers. In this paper we present analysis of high-spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy of central regions of two interacting LIRGs. We detect a nuclear 3.3 ?m PAH ring around the core of NGC 1614 with thermal-IR IFU observations. The ring's characteristics and relation to the strong star-forming ring detected in recombination lines are presented, as well as a scenario of an outward expanding starburst likely initiated with a (minor) companion detected within a tidal feature. We then present NIR IFU observations of IRAS 19115-2124, aka the Bird, which is an intriguing triple encounter. The third component is a minor one, but, nevertheless, is the source of 3/4 of the SFR of the whole system. Gas inflows and outflows are detected in their nuclei locations. Finally, we briefly report on our on-going NIR adaptive optics imaging survey of several dozen LIRGs. We have detected highly obscured core-collapse SNe in the central kpc, and discuss the statistics of "missing SNe" due to dust extinction. We are also determining the characteristics of hundreds of super star clusters in and around the core regions of LIRGs, as a function of host-galaxy properties.

Väisänen, Petri; Escala, Andres; Kankare, Erkki; Kotilainen, Jari; Mattila, Seppo; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Randriamanakoto, Zara; Reunanen, Juha; Ryder, Stuart; Zijlstra, Albert

2012-07-01

178

Physical properties of Meridiani Sinus-type units in the central equatorial region of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classification and mapping of surficial units in the central equatorial region of Mars (30 degrees N to 20 degrees S, 57 degrees E to 75 degrees W) using enhanced color images and Mars Consortium data identified four major color/albedo units in the dark, reddish-gray regions that form the classical dark albedo markings of Mars, including Meridiani Sinus. The darkest, least red (relatively 'blue') materials form splotches (some with dune forms) in craters, inter-crater depressions, and part of Valles Marineris. These form the 'Dark Blue' Meridiani unit. Abundant materials that have higher albedos and are somewhat redder than the 'Dark Blue' unit have uniquely high green/(violet + red) color ratios in Viking Orbiter images. These materials, named 'Green-blue' Meridiani surround and mix with 'Dark Blue' Meridiani patches and are abundant on crater rims and local elevations. Discontinuous, patchy deposits with still higher albedos and much redder colors have morphologies classified of the Type Ib bright depositional dust streaks and sheets that were classified by Thomas et al. These dust deposits, which appear to be optically thin and patchy and are darker and not as red as other Type Ib dust deposits on Mars, and their Meridiani substrates, were designated the 'Red' Meridiani unit. Distinctive deposits that form highly eroded mesas and escarpments in northern Meridiani Sinus were named 'Light Blue' Meridiani, since they are not as red as other materials with moderately high albedos. Large areas dominated by these units form Meridiani Province in the central equatorial region of Mars.

Strickland, Edwin L., III

1992-01-01

179

Spatial and Temporal Trends of Snowfall in Central New York - A Lake Effect Dominated Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central New York is located in one of the snowiest regions in the United States, with the city of Syracuse, New York the snowiest metropolis in the nation. Snowfall in the region generally begins in mid-November and lasts until late-March. Snow accumulation occurs from a multitude of conditions: frontal systems, mid-latitude cyclones, Nor'easters, and most notably lake-effect storms. Lake effect snowfall (LES) is a difficult parameter to forecast due to the isolated and highly variable nature of the storm. Consequently, studies have attempted to determine changes in snowfall for lake-effect dominated regions. Annual snowfall patterns are of particular concern as seasonal snowfall totals are vital for water resources, winter businesses, agriculture, government and state agencies, and much more. Through the use of snowfall, temperature, precipitation, and location data from the National Weather Service's Cooperative Observer Program (COOP), spatial and temporal changes in snowfall for Central New York were determined. In order to determine climatic changes in snowfall, statistical analyses were performed (i.e. least squares estimation, correlations, principal component analyses, etc.) and spatial maps analyzed. Once snowfall trends were determined, factors influencing the trends were examined. Long-term snowfall trends for CNY were positive for original stations (˜0.46 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1) and homogenously filtered stations (0.23 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1). However, snowfall trends for shorter time-increments within the long-term period were not consistent, as positive, negative, and neutral trends were calculated. Regional differences in snowfall trends were observed for CNY as typical lake-effect areas (northern counties, the Tug Hill Plateau and the Southern Hills) experienced larger snowfall trends than areas less dominated by LES. Typical lake-effect months (December - February) experienced the greatest snowfall trend in CNY compared to other winter months. The influence of teleconnections on seasonal snowfall in CNY was not pronounced; however, there was a slight significant (5%) correlation (< 0.35) with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. It was not clear if changes in air temperature or changes in precipitation were the cause of variations in snowfall trends. It was also inconclusive if the elevation or distance from Lake Ontario resulted in increased snowfall trends. Results from this study will aid in seasonal snowfall forecasts in CNY, which can be used to predict future snowfall. Even though the study area is regionally specific, the methods may be applied to other lake effect dominated areas to determine temporal and spatial variations in snowfall. This study will enhance climatologists and operational forecasters' awareness and understanding of snowfall, especially lake effect snowfall in CNY.

Hartnett, Justin Joseph

180

MAPPING THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE PPN CRL 618 AT SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION AT 350 GHz  

SciTech Connect

CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at {approx}0.''3-0.''5 resolutions. Two components are seen in the 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in a 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base; and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC{sub 3}N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain millimeter-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC{sub 3}N and HCN and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in CH{sub 2}CHCN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within {approx}630 AU (0.''7) of the central star. A simple radiative transfer model is used to derive the kinematics, physical conditions, and the chemical abundances in the dense core. The dense core is expanding and accelerating, with the velocity increasing roughly linearly from {approx}3 km s{sup -1} in the innermost part to {approx}16 km s{sup -1} at 630 AU. The mass-loss rate in the dense core is extremely high with a value of {approx}1.15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The dense core has a mass of {approx}0.47 M{sub Sun} and a dynamical age of {approx}400 yr. It could result from a recent enhanced heavy mass-loss episode that ends the asymptotic giant branch phase. The isotopic ratios of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N are 9 {+-} 4 and 150 {+-} 50, respectively, both lower than the solar values.

Lee, Chin-Fei; Yang, Chun-Hui [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sahai, Raghvendra [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sanchez Contreras, Carmen [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain)

2013-06-20

181

Interpretation of the Gravity and Magnetic Anomalies of the Cappadocia Region, Central Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cappadocia region, located in Central Turkey, is characterized by widespread lava flows and volcanoclastic deposits dating from Miocene to Quaternary. Gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies of the region appear to present similar high and low amplitude regions, although the aeromagnetic anomalies exhibit a rather complex pattern which is thought to be caused by remanent magnetization. The low-pass filtered aeromagnetic map shows a deep-seated magnetic anomaly which may be linked to the widespread volcanic activity at the surface. The pseudogravity transformation of the upward continued anomaly has been constructed. The pseudogravity anomaly demonstrates some form of clockwise rotation. This anomaly was modelled by means of a three-dimensional method. The top and bottom of the body are at 6.3km and 11km (including the flight height) from the ground surface, respectively. This deep body is ellipsoidal and extends along an E-W direction, which is in line with the regional stress direction deduced from GPS measurements. A new mobilistic dynamo-tectonic system appears to explain the body’s E-W elongation. The modelled body may be the source for the inferred geothermal energy of the region. Magnetic measurements were carried out on oriented rock samples collected from outcrops of ignimbrites and basalts, providing directions and intensities of remanent magnetization, susceptibilities and Koeningsberger (Q) ratios. Standard deviations of remanent directions of the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) display a wide scatter implying unreliability of the surface data. Reduction to pole (RTP) transformation of magnetic anomalies was successful with the induced magnetization angle despite the complex pattern of magnetic anomalies.

Büyüksaraç, A.; Jordanova, D.; Ate?, A.; Karloukovski, V.

2005-11-01

182

Downscaling GRACE satellite data for sub-region groundwater storage estimates in California's Central Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Valley aquifer (CVA) is a vital economic and environmental resource for California and the United States, and supplies water for one of the most agriculturally productive regions in the world. Recent estimates of groundwater (GW) availability in California have indicated declines in GW levels that may pose a threat to sustainable groundwater use in this region. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) can be used to estimate variations in total water storage (TWS) and are therefore used to estimate GW storage changes within the CVA. However, using GRACE data in the CVA is challenging due to the coarse spatial resolution and increased error. To compensate for this, we used a statistical downscaling approach applied to GRACE data at the sub-region level using GW storage estimates from the California Department of Water Resources' (DWR) C2VSim hydrological model. This method produced a spatially and temporally variable GW anomaly dataset for sub-region GW management and for analysis of GW changes influenced by spatial and temporal variability. An additional challenge for this region is the influence of natural climate variability, altering GW recharge and influencing pumping practices. Understanding the effects of climate variability on GW storage changes, may improve GRACE TWS and GW estimates during periods of increased rain or droughts. Thus, the GRACE TWS and GW storage estimates were compared to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) using singular spectral analysis (SSA). Results from SSA indicate that variations in GRACE TWS are moderately correlated to PDO (10-25 year cycle), although low correlations were observed when compared to ENSO (2-7 year cycle). The incorporation of these new methods for estimating variations in groundwater storage in highly productive aquifers may improve water management techniques in California.

Kuss, A. M.; Newcomer, M. E.; Hsu, W.; Bourai, A.; Puranam, A.; Landerer, F. W.; Schmidt, C.

2012-12-01

183

Earthquake relocation in the Central Alborz region of Iran using a non-linear probabilistic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we calculate accurate absolute locations for nearly 3,000 shallow earthquakes (?20 km depth) that occurred from 1996 to 2010 in the Central Alborz region of northern Iran using a non-linear probabilistic relocation algorithm on a local scale. We aim to produce a consistent dataset with a realistic assessment of location errors using probabilistic hypocenter probability density functions. Our results indicate significant improvement in hypocenter locations and far less scattering than in the routine earthquake catalog. According to our results, 816 earthquakes have horizontal uncertainties in the 0.5-3.0 km range, and 981 earthquakes are relocated with focal-depth errors less than 3.0 km, even with a suboptimal network geometry. Earthquake relocated are tightly clustered in the eastern Tehran region and are mainly associated with active faults in the study area (the Mosha and Garmsar faults). Strong historical earthquakes have occurred along the Mosha and Garmsar faults, and the relocated earthquakes along these faults show clear north-dipping structures and align along east-west lineations, consistent with the predominant trend of faults within the study region. After event relocation, all seismicity lies in the upper 20 km of the crust, and no deep seismicity (>20 km depth) has been observed. In many circumstances, the seismicity at depth does not correlate with surface faulting, suggesting that the faulting at depth does not directly offset overlying sediments.

Maleki, Vahid; Shomali, Z. Hossein; Hatami, Mohammad Reza; Pakzad, Mehrdad; Lomax, Anthony

2013-04-01

184

A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

La Sala, A. M., Jr.; Doty, G. C.; Pearson, F. J., Jr.

1973-01-01

185

Multiscale regression model to infer historical temperatures in a central Mediterranean sub-regional area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reconstruct sub-regional European climate over the past centuries, several efforts have been made using historical datasets. However, only scattered information at low spatial and temporal resolution have been produced to date for the Mediterranean area. This paper has exploited, for Southern and Central Italy (Mediterranean Sub-Regional Area), an unprecedented historical dataset as an attempt to model seasonal (winter and summer) air temperatures in pre-instrumental time (back to 1500). Combining information derived from proxy documentary data and large-scale simulation, a statistical methodology in the form of multiscale-temperature regression (MTR)-model was developed to adapt larger-scale estimations to the sub-regional temperature pattern. The modelled response lacks essentially of autocorrelations among the residuals (marginal or any significance in the Durbin-Watson statistic), and agrees well with the independent data from the validation sample (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient >0.60). The advantage of the approach is not merely increased accuracy in estimation. Rather, it relies on the ability to extract (and exploit) the right information to replicate coherent temperature series in historical times.

Diodato, N.; Bellocchi, G.; Bertolin, C.; Camuffo, D.

2010-12-01

186

Remote sensing of regional pyroclastic deposits on the north central portion of the lunar nearside  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-resolution 3.0-cm radar data for the Rima Bode regional pyroclastic deposit and a number of UV-visible reflectance spectra for regional pyroclastic deposits on the north-central portion of the lunar nearside are analyzed and compared to existing data. The data obtained indicate that small craters in this deposit excavated loose unwelded pyroclastic particles, suggesting that welded layers or lenses do not exist at depths within the deposit's core area. The 70-cm radar data indicate that the Roma Bode deposit is thinner than the pyroclastic unit on the Aristarchus Plateau. The surfaces of all these regional pyroclastic deposits are dominated by ilmenite-rich black spheres, and contamination by low-Ti, nonpyroclastic debris appears to be minimal. The fine-grained block-free uncontaminated Rima Bode would be ideal for lunar mining operations and for rapidly covering lunar base modules with an adequate thickness of shielding material for protection from meteorite impact and space radiation.

Hawke, B. R.; Campbell, B. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Peterson, C. A.; Coombs, C. R.

1991-01-01

187

Crustal deformation in the central California coast region inferred from Global Positioning System data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central California Coast Region (CCCR), defined here as the area from north of Point Piedras Blancas (36°N) south to Point Arguello (34.6°N) and west of the Rinconada and East Huasna faults, is a structurally complex region cut by several subparallel, late Quaternary faults. Despite relatively low rates of deformation inferred from geologic studies of the CCCR, the occurrence of the 2003 Mw 6.5 San Simeon earthquake southeast of Point Piedras Blancas highlights the need to better understand the ongoing patterns of deformation here as a means for assessing the seismic hazard. Geological and geophysical data from this region have been interpreted as evidence for ongoing transpression due to the clockwise rotation of the Transverse Ranges which would predict crustal contraction normal to the plate boundary. However an alternative interpretation concludes that the region instead experiences the active westward transfer of right-lateral strike-slip motion in a left-stepping fashion which would result in northwest-southeast contraction. Geodetic data can be used to elucidate how strain is currently partitioned between shear parallel to the San Andreas Fault (SAF) and contraction within the CCCR and to identify actively deforming structures. We use a newly compiled Global Positioning System (GPS) secular velocity field for the CCCR as well as GPS velocities for the greater southern California region from the SCEC Crustal Motion Map v.4 and the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory velocity solution to constrain block models of deformation. We solve for the rotation of fault-bounded blocks, fault slip rates, and internal strain within blocks. Results thus far indicate that the data do not require substantial slip on the Rinconada fault (for which the estimated slip rate is ~2 mm/yr) or on the Oceanic and West Huasna faults that bound the eastern edge of the CCCR in an alternative block configuration (for which the estimated slip rate is <1 mm/yr). The data also do not suggest that significant internal contractional strain is accumulating either normal to the plate boundary or parallel to the major regional strike slip faults. Ongoing work is focused on exploring different block geometries in an effort to better constrain internal block strain rates and slip rates on the Hosgri, Rinconada, and San Andreas faults as well as to assess the sensitivity of these rate estimates to model fault geometry and observations. These results will contribute to the development of a coherent regional tectonic model and help to characterize the potential seismic sources in the region.

Murray-Moraleda, J. R.; Thatcher, W. R.; Onishi, C. T.; Svarc, J. L.

2011-12-01

188

Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies  

EPA Science Inventory

The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008?July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

189

Ground Water in the Central Valley, California: A Summary Report. Regional Aquifer-System Analysis, Central Valley, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The agricultural productivity of the Central Valley depends on irrigation. Half of the 22 million acre-feet of irrigation water applied annually is ground water. Nearly all the fresh ground water is contained in the continental rocks and deposits younger ...

G. L. Bertoldi R. H. Johnston K. D. Evenson

1991-01-01

190

Wolf-Rayet stars in the central region of the Milky Way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to take mid-IR spectra of two Wolf-Rayet stars in the inner part of our Galaxy, within 30pc projected distance from the central Black Hole. Massive stars dominate the central galactic region by their mass-loss and ionizing radiation. A quantitative analysis of this stellar inventory is essential for understanding the energy, momentum and mass budget, for instance with respect to the feeding of the central black hole. Our group developed a highly advanced model code for the expanding atmospheres of WR stars. Recently we extended the spectrum synthesis to IR wavelengths. These models will be applied for the analysis of the Spitzer IRS data. The proposed mid-IR observations will provide a wide spectral range with many lines which are needed to determine the stellar parameters, such as stellar luminosity, effective temperature, mass-loss rate and chemical composition. Near-IR spectra of the program stars are available and will augment the analysis. The capability of our code to reproduce the observed mid-IR spectrum of a WN star has been demonstrated. The two targets we selected are sufficiently isolated, while the Galactic center cluster is too crowded for the size of Spitzer's spectrograph slit. As estimated from the K-band spectra, one of the stars (WR102ka) is of very late subtype (WN9), while the other star (WR102c) has the early subtype WN6. Hence they represent different stages in the evolutionary sequence of massive stars, the late-WN just having entered the Wolf-Rayet phase and the early WN being further evolved. We expect that the parameters of massive stars in the inner galaxy differ from the usual Galactic population. One reason is that higher metallicity should lead to stronger mass-loss, which affects the stellar evolution. The Spitzer IRS, with its high sensitivity, provides a unique opportunity to study representative members of the stellar population in the vicinity of the Galactic center.

Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Graefener, Goetz; Oskinova, Lidia; Zinnecker, Hans

2004-09-01

191

Regional offshore geology of central and western Solomon Islands and Bougainville, Papua New Guinea  

SciTech Connect

The central and western Solomon Islands and the Bougainville regions are parts of a complex island-arc system that includes an intra-arc basin and remnants of both forearc and back-arc depositional wedges. These features formed in response to episodic Cenozoic tectonism along the convergent boundary between the Pacific and Australia-India plates. Presumed early Tertiary southwest-directed subduction of the Pacific plate and associated arc magmatism were curtailed by impingement of the leading edge of the Ontong Java Plateau. Aprons of back-arc and forearc sediment were derived from highstanding parts of the arc during the late Oligocene and early Miocene. Late Tertiary arc-polarity reversal and northeastward-directed subduction of the Woodlark spreading system caused a renewal of island-arc magmatism that completed the construction of the Central Solomons Trough as an enclosed intra-arc basin. Interpretations of multichannel profiles from 1982 and 1984 CCOP/SOPAC Tripartite Cruises of the research vessel R/V S.P. Lee indicate that the Central Solomons Trough is a composite intra-arc basin containing as much as 5.5 km of late Oligocene(.) and younger sedimentary rocks. As many as five lenticular seismic-stratigraphic units can be identified on the basis of unconformities and abrupt velocity changes. Late Miocene and younger folds and faults deform the northeast and southwest flanks of the basin. Profiles across the Kilinailau Trench show Ontong Java Plateau rocks covered by 2-4 km of trench sediment. The inner trench wall consists of folded, upfaulted, and rotated blocks of trench and forearc strata. The deep-water basin northwest of Bougainville is a southeastward extension of the New Ireland forearc basin, the southern margin of which is formed by a subsided part of the early Cenozoic arc. There, Oligocene(.) and younger basin strata, as much as 7 km thick, are deformed by pre-Pliocene faults and folds.

Vedder, J.G.; Colwell, J.B.; Bruns, T.R.; Cooper, A.K.

1986-07-01

192

Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?-9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900-13,800 and 12,700-9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

2008-05-01

193

Peculiar radio structures in the central regions of galaxy cluster Abell 585  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we analyse the peculiar radio structure observed across the central region of the galaxy cluster Abell 585 (z = 0.12). In the low-resolution radio maps, this structure appears uniform and diffuse on angular scales of ˜3 arcmin, and is seemingly related to the distant (z = 2.5) radio quasar B3 0727+409 rather than to the cluster itself. However, after a careful investigation of the unpublished archival radio data with better angular resolution, we resolve the structure into two distinct arcmin-scale features, which resemble typical lobes of cluster radio galaxies with no obvious connection to the background quasar. We support this conclusion by examining the spectral and polarization properties of the features, demonstrating in addition that the analysed structure can hardly be associated with any sort of a radio mini-halo or relics of the cluster. Yet at the same time we are not able to identify host galaxies of the radio lobes in the available optical and infrared surveys. We consider some speculative explanations for our findings, including gravitational wave recoil kicks of supermassive black holes responsible for the lobes' formation in the process of merging massive ellipticals within the central parts of a rich cluster environment, but we do not reach any robust conclusions regarding the origin of the detected radio features.

Jamrozy, M.; Stawarz, ?.; Marchenko, V.; Ku?micz, A.; Ostrowski, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sikora, M.

2014-06-01

194

Regional seismic discrimination in central Asia with emphasis on western China  

SciTech Connect

In support of an anticipated Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the authors have started to evaluate regional seismic event discrimination capabilities for central Asia, emphasizing western China. The authors have measured noise and seismic phase amplitudes of over 250 earthquakes and 18 underground nuclear explosions recorded at the broadband, digital station WMQ in western China and over 100 earthquakes and 5 nuclear explosions at station AAK in Kyrgyzstan. The explosions are from the Kazakh Test Site (KTS) and Lop Nor, China. The earthquakes are mostly from northwest China. They have also evaluated a single suspected chemical explosion. Event magnitudes (m{sub b}) range between 2.5 and 6.5 and maximum event-station distance is about 1,700 km. Using these measurements the authors formed phase, spectral, cross-spectral, short-period/long-period, and long-period ratios to test many possible event discriminants. All ratios were corrected for distance effects before forming ratio-versus-magnitude discrimination plots. The authors found that all five classes of these discriminants are useful for separating earthquakes from explosions in central Asia, provided the right combinations of frequency bands and phases are selected. Results are described.

Hartse, H.E.; Taylor, S.R.; Phillips, W.S.; Randall, G.E.

1996-09-01

195

Investment in higher order central processing regions is not constrained by brain size in social insects.  

PubMed

The extent to which size constrains the evolution of brain organization and the genesis of complex behaviour is a central, unanswered question in evolutionary neuroscience. Advanced cognition has long been linked to the expansion of specific brain compartments, such as the neocortex in vertebrates and the mushroom bodies in insects. Scaling constraints that limit the size of these brain regions in small animals may therefore be particularly significant to behavioural evolution. Recent findings from studies of paper wasps suggest miniaturization constrains the size of central sensory processing brain centres (mushroom body calyces) in favour of peripheral, sensory input centres (antennal and optic lobes). We tested the generality of this hypothesis in diverse eusocial hymenopteran species (ants, bees and wasps) exhibiting striking variation in body size and thus brain size. Combining multiple neuroanatomical datasets from these three taxa, we found no universal size constraint on brain organization within or among species. In fact, small-bodied ants with miniscule brains had mushroom body calyces proportionally as large as or larger than those of wasps and bees with brains orders of magnitude larger. Our comparative analyses suggest that brain organization in ants is shaped more by natural selection imposed by visual demands than intrinsic design limitations. PMID:24741016

Muscedere, Mario L; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Moreau, Corrie S; Traniello, James F A

2014-06-01

196

A study of Quaternary structures in the Qom region, West Central Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

West Central Iran comprises numerous Quaternary faults. Having either strike-slip or thrust mechanisms, these faults are potentially active and therefore capable of creating destructive earthquakes. In this paper, we use satellite images as well as field trips to identify these active faults in the Qom region. The Qom and Indes faults are the main NW-trending faults along which a Quaternary restraining step-over zone has formed. Kamarkuh, Mohsen Abad, and Ferdows anticlines are potentially active structures that formed in this restraining step-over zone. There are some thrusts and anticlines, such as the Alborz anticline and Alborz fault, which are parallel to strike-slip faults such as the Qom fault, indicating deformation partitioning in the area. In addition to NW-trending structures, there is an important NE-trending fault known as the Qomrud fault that has deformed Quaternary deposits and affected Kushk-e-Nosrat fault, Alborz anticline, and Qomrud River. The results of this study imply that the major Quaternary faults of West Central Iran and their restraining step-over zones are potentially active.

Babaahmadi, A.; Safaei, H.; Yassaghi, A.; Vafa, H.; Naeimi, A.; Madanipour, S.; Ahmadi, M.

2010-12-01

197

Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed

The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ?ST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species' inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

Giantsis, Ioannis A; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P

2014-01-01

198

X-ray monitoring of Classical Novae in the central region of M 31  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent results of the first dedicated monitoring programme for supersoft X-ray source (SSS) states of classical novae (CNe) in the central region of the Andromeda galaxy ({M 31}), performed in high-cadence campaigns with {XMM-Newton } and Chandra. After the first three years we had detected 21 novae in X-rays (17 new), thereby discovering peculiar objects and increasing the number of known {M 31} novae with SSS state to 60. This is the largest sample known in any galaxy and we used it to carry out the first statistical analysis of novae in X-rays. We found several correlations between optical and SSS parameters, and carried out a simulation on the completeness of our monitoring as well as the first nova population study in X-rays. This shows that X-ray surveys of CNe populations are a powerful tool to address the open questions connected to these objects.

Henze, M.; Pietsch, W.; Haberl, F.; Hernanz, M.; Sala, G.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Della Valle, M.; Rau, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Burwitz, V.; Greiner, J.

199

Evaluation of commercial grated cheese in the central region of Brazil for microbiological quality and safety.  

PubMed

This study aims to further the scientific understanding of the microbial quality and safety of grated cheese. Samples of grated cheese product (n?=?20) were obtained from markets in the central region of Brazil and submitted to microbiological analysis using conventional and alternative (Petrifilm™ and RIDA(®) plates) methodologies. Based only on the criteria from the Brazilian Health Ministry, all samples were considered adequate for consumption. However, most samples presented foreign substances and high levels of contamination by other hygiene indicator microorganisms, indicating failures in processing and possible risks to consumers. Despite the hygienic quality of the samples, the obtained results showed good correlation indexes and similarities between the conventional and the alternative methodologies, indicating their viability for the quality control of grated cheese. PMID:21524197

de Lima, Thaís Cristina Dias; da Silva, Patrícia Helena Caldeira; de Souza, Stefânia Márcia; Nero, Luís Augusto; Ferreira, Márcia de Aguiar

2011-07-01

200

Signatures of Rossby wave modulations in aerosol optical depth over the central Himalayan region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-period modulations are shown in aerosol optical depth measured by the Microtops II Sun photometer over a high-altitude site the central Himalayan region (Nainital, 29.4° N, 79.5° E, 1958 m a.m.s.l.) for the first time. Fourier analysis of aerosol optical depth showed dominant 25-45 day oscillations observed in MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer data. Further, a Hovmiller diagram showed westward (northward) propagation at a different longitude (latitude), confirming that the modulations are associated with Rossby waves. It is also shown that the Rossby wave amplitude causes an additional warming of 4.16 ± 0.98 W m-2 over the observational site. Hence, the present study illustrates the importance of wave-induced aerosol dynamics and the corresponding radiative effects.

Phanikumar, D. V.; Niranjan Kumar, K.; Shukla, K. K.; Joshi, H.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Naja, M.; Reddy, K.

2014-02-01

201

Study of meteorological parameters over the central Himalayan region using balloon-borne sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper we accumulate the recent advances in atmospheric research by analyzing meteorological data. We have calculated meteorological parameters over the central Himalayan region at Nainital (longitude 79.45? E, latitude 29.35?N). It is a high altitude place (1951 meters) which is very useful for such type of measurement. We have done our work on meteorological parameters in GVAX (Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment) project. It was an American-Indo project which was use to capture pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of Atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley. The Balloon Borne Sounding System (BBSS) technique was also used for in-situ measurements of meteorological parameters.

Shrivastava, Rahul; Naja, Manish; Gwal, A. K.

2013-06-01

202

A study of air flow patterns affecting pollutant concentrations in the Central Region of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a prognostic air quality model that includes actual emissions, air pollution regimes over the central region of Mexico are simulated. It is shown that due to the complex orography, vertical circular patterns develop over the metropolitan area of Mexico City. In this way reactive and non-reactive pollutants can travel near the surface, be transported vertically and land in an area opposite to its initial route due to convective downward currents. This changes the surface pollutant concentrations on the landing area. Also, it is shown that air pollution is transported near the surface from the metropolitan area of Mexico City through Chalco in the South-east corner of the Mexico Valley, to the Valley of Cuautla affecting this area.

Jazcilevich, Aron D.; García, Agustín. R.; Ruíz-Suárez, L. Gerardo

203

The role of regional subsurface geochemistry in resource assessment in the central United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional subsurface geochemical studies are an integral part of the U.S. Geological Survey program for assessing the mineral resource potential of platform carbonates in the Central United States. Much of this area is flat to gently rolling agricultural land, outcrops are few, and the known favorable host rocks are at depths ranging from a few hundred meters to more than a kilometer. Thus, traditional surface geochemical techniques are of little use in this area for evaluating the potential for the occurrence of concealed or undiscovered mineral deposits. Geochemical studies of subsurface Cambrian strata in the Rolla 1 deg X 2 deg quadrangle. Missouri, completed in 1980, and current geochemical studies in the Springfield Joplin, and Harrison 1 deg X 2 deg quadrangles, which cover about 80,000 km2 in parts of Missouri, Kansas, and Arkansas, indicate that insoluble residues of carbonate rocks are a useful and informative geochemical sample medium in a carbonate environment.

Erickson, R. L.; Mosier, E. L.; Viets, J. G.; Erickson, M. S.

204

African American Funeral Programs from the East Central Georgia Regional Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the East Central Georgia Regional Library, the African American Funeral Programs collection consists of over 1,000 funeral programs dated from 1933 to 2008. Most of the programs are from churches in Augusta, Georgia, and the surrounding area, with a few outliers coming from New York and Florida. These materials are tremendously important historical resources, as most programs contain a photograph of the deceased, an obituary, and a list of surviving relatives. Visitors can browse the collection by name, year of death, city, or funeral site. Additionally, they may wish to use the advanced search feature on the homepage. First-time visitors may wish to click on the featured obituary on the "From the collection" graphic. It's a remarkable collection and one that is worth passing along to friends and colleagues.

2012-07-06

205

Assessing the Capability of a Regional-Scale Weather Model to Simulate Extreme Precipitation Patterns and Flooding in Central Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regional-scale weather model is used to determine the potential for flood forecasting based on model- predicted rainfall. Extreme precipitation and flooding events are a significant concern in central Texas, due to both the high occurrence and severity of flooding in the area. However, many current regional prediction models do not provide sufficient accuracy at the watershed scale necessary for

Marla R. Knebl Lowrey; Zong-Liang Yang

2008-01-01

206

Earthquake source parameters and stress distribution in the Adak Island region of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source parameters have been sytematically determined for all earthquakes with MW>=5 that occurred between 172°W and 179°W longitude in the Adak Island region of the central Aleutian Islands during 1977-March 1987. We relocate the events using a plate velocity model developed for the region and use two alternative methods of depth determination. The first method uses arrival times of direct

Göran Ekström; E. R. Engdahl

1989-01-01

207

Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)  

PubMed Central

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

Gonzalez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simon, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpcio

2012-01-01

208

Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).  

PubMed

A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

2012-01-01

209

Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ∼0.2) in CA vary seasonally with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ∼10 ?g m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2-90 ?g m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ∼0.1 ?g m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD, and PM2.5, PM10, BC, organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in the Kyrgyz Republic (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrate that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning and anthropogenic sources from Europe, South, East and CA, and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.

Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

2014-05-01

210

Warm gas in central regions of nearby galaxies. Extended mapping of CO(3-2) emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have mapped the CO(3-2) line emission from several nearby galaxies, using the Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope on Mt. Graham, Arizona. Unlike earlier observations, our investigation is not restricted to starburst galaxies, but includes twelve galaxies of various types and in different stages of star forming activity. Furthermore, we have not only observed the central positions of these objects, but have obtained maps of the extended CO(3-2) emission, with a typical map extent of 2 to 3 arcmin in each direction. Our observations show that this extended mapping is necessary to reveal spatial changes of the ISM properties within the galaxies. In this paper we present the data sets and some data analysis. We compare the galaxies in view of their morphology and excitation conditions, using line ratios, luminosities and other properties, like the extent of the CO(3-2) emission. The main results of this CO(3-2) survey are: 1. In none of the observed objects the emission is confined to the nucleus, as claimed in some earlier publications. CO(3-2) emission can be detected for some objects to the same extent as the CO(2-1) and the CO(1-0) lines. 2. The emission is more concentrated to the vicinity of star forming structures (nuclear regions and spiral arms) than the lower CO transitions for most of the observed objects. This is shown by decreasing (3-2)/(1-0) line intensity ratios from the very centres towards larger radii. The (deconvolved) sizes of the central emission peaks in the CO(3-2) line vary from about 300 pc up to 3 kpc. 3. The CO(3-2) luminosity is stronger in objects that contain a nuclear starburst or morphological peculiarities. The total power emitted in the CO(3-2) line from the central regions (i.e. excluding spiral arms/outer disk) is highest in the starburst galaxies NGC 2146, M 82, NGC 3628, and in the spiral galaxy M 51. When comparing the total power normalized to the size of the emission region, the starburst galaxies M 82 and NGC 253 show the highest values (about three times higher than most other objects), while NGC 278 and NGC 4631 show the lowest. 4. With the present spatial resolution, the line ratios R3,1 seem to be independent of Hubble type, color or luminosity. Most galaxies with enhanced central star formation (``starbursts'') show line ratios of the integrated intensities of R3,1 ~ 1.3 in the very centre and ~ 1.0 at a radius of about 1 kpc. Objects with a ring-like (or double-peak if seen edge-on) molecular gas distribution (NGC 253, M 82, and NGC 4631) show lower ratios. The two galaxies that have CO(3-2) emission distributed over their spiral arms (NGC 891 and M 51) show very low line ratios despite their high infrared luminosities. This result suggests that CO emission in these objects reflects a large amount of molecular gas, but not enhanced star forming activity. 5. Starburst galaxies show CO(3-2) emission also in their disks. The line intensities are higher than that of normal galaxies. This suggests that even if a starburst is a localized phenomenon, it is related to different properties of the molecular gas over the whole galaxy.

Dumke, M.; Nieten, Ch.; Thuma, G.; Wielebinski, R.; Walsh, W.

2001-07-01

211

Progress in regional cooperation for gravity field determination in Central America and the Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to account for topographic effects in precise gravity field and geoid calculations it is essential the use of terrestrial gravimetric surveys covering an area up to 600 km around every point of interest. Such distance can cross several countries for any specific calculation point within Central America or the Caribbean. If some academic or government institution in this region is to determine a gravimetric geoid model, as it is usually required to let any GNSS surveying to access the vertical datum, then it is required first to achieve a high resolution gravimetric model with extended coverage beyond the target area. This is the cause for a strategy of inter-institutional cooperation to create databases according to standards that benefit the quality of basic geographic information in every country. At two years of communication among technical representatives of 8 cadastral agencies it can be shown in this work a series of concrete partial results like a standard basic structure for gravimetric databases, gathering of updated coverage, technology sharing and the impulse of new surveying programs. Challenges like existing difference in national reference network, lack of equipment, and heterogeneous procedures continue to be tackled with the common vision to contribute to the national, regional and global determination of gravity field.

Avalos, D.; Figueroa, C.; Robles, V.; Meza, O.; Medrano, W.; Alvarez, A.; Ballesteros, C.; Taveras, L.

2013-05-01

212

Methane measurements in central New England: An assessment of regional transport from surrounding sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Harvard Forest research site located in central New England is influenced by numerous anthropogenic methane sources on a year-round basis. Methane is strongly correlated to other chemical species that have an anthropogenic component, including acetylene, propane, ethane, hexane, and additional short-lived nonmethane hydrocarbons. The correlation between methane and acetylene is due to the colocation of landfills and cities. The correlation between methane and other short-lived species implies that emissions from local and regional rather than distant sources are the primary cause of elevated events. Wind roses of chemical species are examined for annual and seasonal time periods with enhancements in anthropogenic species corresponding to the location of large cities and landfills. The southwest quadrant is subjected to the most severe pollution events and is impacted by outflow from nearby cities in that sector, including Northampton and Springfield, Massachusetts. Emissions from cities in other quadrants, including Boston and Worcester, Massachusetts, Providence, Rhode Island, and the close-by town of Petersham, Massachusetts, also affect the site, but to a lesser degree. Case studies are used to identify atmospheric conditions that lead to high concentrations of methane and other species. The co-occurrence of a persistent wind direction, light wind speed, and stable atmospheric conditions is the ideal scenario in which emissions from nearby cities and landfills are advected to the site. Emissions from local and regional, rather than distant sources, are the primary cause of elevated events.

Shipham, Mark C.; Crill, Patrick M.; Bartlett, Karen B.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Czepiel, Peter M.; Harriss, Robert C.; Blaha, Denise

1998-09-01

213

Epidemiological survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the west-central region of Guangdong Province, China.  

PubMed

The study was to understand the Angiostrongylus cantonensis infectious situation of rodent definitive host, snail intermediate host, and local residents in the west-central region of Guangdong Province in China. The snails Achatina fulica and Pomacea canaliculata collected from the survey place were digested with artificial gastric juice, and the third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis in the snails were examined under microscope. The heart and lung of rats captured from the survey place were taken to check the adult of A. cantonensis. The questionnaire surveys related to the infection of A. cantonensis were taken in local residents randomly selected, and the IgG antibody against A. cantonensis was tested in those residents with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 1,391 rats including eight kinds of rats, such as Rattus norvegicus, Rattus flavipectus, Bandicota indica, Rattus sladeni, Mus musculus, Rattus rattoides, Suncus Murinus, and Rattus confucianus, were examined and 132 of them were infected by A. cantonensis, with an average infection rate of 9.49% and a mean intensity of A. cantonensis in infected rats was 9.39. A total of 3,184 snails A. fulica and 3,723 snails P. canaliculata were detected. The average infection rates of them were 25.03% (797/3,184) and 6.50% (242/3,723), respectively. There were 180 positive samples of IgG antibody against A. cantonensis in 1,800 serum samples of the residents, with a positive rate of 10.00%. The west-central region of Guangdong Province is the natural focus of A. cantonensis. In comparison with the investigation results in other regions of China, the infection rate of rat definitive host is at the middle level; in the intermediate host, the infection rate of snail A. fulica is above the middle level, and the infection rate of snail Pomacea canaliculata is below the middle level. Some local residents had already been infected by A. cantonensis or at the risk of being infected. PMID:21301874

Chen, Daixiong; Zhang, Yun; Shen, Haoxian; Wei, Yongfang; Huang, Di; Tan, Qiming; Lan, Xianqi; Li, Qingli; Chen, Zecheng; Li, Zhengtu; Ou, Le; Suen, Huibing; Ding, Xue; Luo, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaomin; Zhan, Ximei

2011-08-01

214

Aeromagnetic and Gravity Data Reveal Crustal Structure and Tectonic History of the Central Transantarctic Mountains Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near complete coverage of the East Antarctic shield by ice hampers geological study of the crustal architecture important for understanding global tectonic and climate history. Limited exposures in the central Transantarctic Mountains, however, show that Archean and Proterozoic rocks of the shield as well as Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic sedimentary successions were deformed during oblique convergence associated with Gondwana amalgamation. Subsequently, the area was overprinted by Jurassic magmatism and Cenozoic uplift. To extend the known geology of the region to ice-covered areas, we conducted a draped aeromagnetic survey flown by helicopters over the Transantarctic Mountains and by fixed-wing aircraft over the adjacent polar plateau. We flew >32,000 line km covering an area of nearly 60,000 km2 at an average altitude of 600 m (average line spacing 2.5 km over most areas and 1.25 km over basement rocks exposed in the Miller and Geologists ranges). Additional lines flown to true north, south and west extended preliminary coverage and tied with existing surveys. Broad, moderate amplitude magnetic highs and lows over the ice-covered plateau resemble those inferred for Precambrian shield provinces to the north, suggesting a similar origin. Additionally, seismic tomographic models and a ground-based gravity profile show that the region is underlain by thick, cold lithosphere. Exposed high-grade metamorphic rocks, representing lower crust exhumed from ˜25-30 km depth during the Ross orogeny, show variable magnetic anomalies, with pronounced central highs and a linear, SE-trending corrugated fabric that correlates with ductile shear structures and regional folds. The magnetic highs correlate with retrogressed mafic eclogites in exposed layered gneiss and are in line with trends of high-amplitude magnetic highs and lows over the adjacent polar plateau. The parallelism of these anomaly trends with those farther to the west suggests that rock types exposed in the surveyed ranges extend beneath the polar plateau. Outboard lower Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks show uniformly quiet magnetic character, whereas Jurassic Ferrar sills and inferred dike swarms yield magnetic highs. Distinctive magnetic lows are associated with exposed Ross-age granitic plutons and indicate several large bodies hidden beneath the ice. A prominent thrust system exposed north of Nimrod Glacier, which places Neoproterozoic-Cambrian platform rocks upon Cambrian-Ordovician molasse deposits, can be traced magnetically several 10's of km to the south, including places previously mapped erroneously as an unconformity boundary.

Goodge, J.; Finn, C.; Damaske, D.; Abraham, J.; Moeller, H.; Anderson, E.; Roland, N.; Goldmann, F.; Braddock, P.; Rieser, M.

2004-12-01

215

Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring results and regional generalized data showed 1-1.5 % Corg lost during last 50 years period and active processes of CO2 emission and humus profile eluvial-illuvial redistribution too. Forest-steppe Chernozems are usually characterized by higher stability than steppe ones. The ratio between erosive and biological losses in humus supplies can be ten¬tatively estimated as fifty-fifty with strong spatial variability due to slope and land-use parameters. These processes have essentially different sets of environmental consequences and ecosystem services that we need to understand in frame of agroecological problems development prediction. A drop of Corg content below threshold "humus limiting content" values (3-4% of Corg) considerably reduces effectiveness of used fertilizers and possibility of sustainable agronomy here. This problem environmental and agroecological situation can be essentially improved by new federal law on environmentally friendly agriculture but it's draft is still in the process of deliberation. Quantitative analysis of principal ecosystem services, soil cover patterns and degradation processes in parameters of land qualities help us in developing different-scale projects for agricultural and urban land-use, taking into attention not only economical benefits but environmental functions too. The conceptions of ecosystem services and local land resource management are becoming more and more popular at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia due to innovation application of basic agroecology, ecological monitoring and soil science achievements.

Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

2013-04-01

216

Attenuation Tomography Based on Strong Motion Data: Case Study of Central Honshu Region, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional frequency dependent S-wave quality factor (Q?(f)) value for the central Honshu region of Japan has been determined in this paper using an algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data. The method of inversion for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients is proposed by H ashida and S himazaki (J Phys Earth. 32, 299-316, 1984) and has been used and modified by J oshi (Curr Sci. 90, 581-585, 2006; Nat Hazards. 43, 129-146, 2007) and J oshi et al. (J. Seismol. 14, 247-272, 2010). Twenty-one earthquakes digitally recorded on strong motion stations of Kik-net network have been used in this work. The magnitude of these earthquake ranges from 3.1 to 4.2 and depth ranging from 5 to 20 km, respectively. The borehole data having high signal to noise ratio and minimum site effect is used in the present work. The attenuation structure is determined by dividing the entire area into twenty-five three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness having different frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor. Shear wave quality factor values have been determined at frequencies of 2.5, 7.0 and 10 Hz from record in a rectangular grid defined by 35.4°N to 36.4°N and 137.2°E to 138.2°E. The obtained attenuation structure is compared with the available geological features in the region and comparison shows that the obtained structure is capable of resolving important tectonic features present in the area. The proposed attenuation structure is compared with the probabilistic seismic hazard map of the region and shows that it bears some remarkable similarity in the patterns seen in seismic hazard map.

Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Verma, O. P.

2013-12-01

217

Gastrointestinal nematodes in rotationally grazing ewes in the mountainous region of central Mexico.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of egg shedding (percentage of egg-positive faecal samples) and faecal egg counts (FEC) over 13 months in two different breeds of ewes, both pregnant and non-pregnant, in a mountainous region of central Mexico. Additionally, the effect of ivermectin and albendazole treatments on FEC reduction was recorded. The study also aimed to relate temperature and rainfall to FEC. The gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) third-stage larvae genera recovered from both faeces and grassland pastures in a temperate region were also assessed. Faecal samples were collected from ewes at monthly intervals for 13 months to investigate the FEC population of GIN larvae, their concentration and genera in grass samples collected from grazed and rested pastures. Egg-shedding frequency ranged from 0 to 92% and FEC from 0 to 12,000 eggs per g faeces (epg), with counts in Suffolk higher than in Dorset ewes. The identified genera were Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Nematodirus and Strongyloides. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the most common genera. The number of L3 was higher in grazing lands than in those at rest. The highest FEC were recorded in the dry season due to peripartum, but the highest L3 counts were recorded in the rainy season. The coexistence of species of different geographical distributions at this site may be because there is a confluence of Nearctic and Neotropical geographic regions; thus, despite the temperate climate, tropical species can be found. Additionally, this study suggests that increasing temperatures could favour the presence of different tropical GIN species together with typical temperate-zone GIN species. PMID:22380595

Acevedo-Ramírez, P M C; Quiroz-Romero, H; Cruz-Mendoza, I; Ulloa-Arvizu, R; Ibarra-Velarde, F

2013-03-01

218

Rate of diffuse carbon dioxide Earth degassing estimated from carbon balance of regional aquifers: The case of central Apennine, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central Italy is characterized by an anomalous flux of deeply derived CO2. In the western Tyrrhenian sector of central Italy, CO2 degassing occurs mainly from focused emissions (vents and strong diffuse degassing) and thermal springs, whereas in the eastern Apennine area, deep CO2 is dissolved in ``cold'' groundwaters of regional aquifers hosted by Mesozoic carbonate-evaporite formations. Influx of deep CO2

G. Chiodini; F. Frondini; C. Cardellini; F. Parello; L. Peruzzi

2000-01-01

219

Flat vs. Normal subduction, Central Chile: insights from regional seismic tomography and rock type modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Chilean subduction zone (27-35°S) is host to a multitude of unexplained phenomena, all likely linked to one another. Here, the 35 Ma oceanic Nazca plate is subducting beneath South America with a well developed, highly seismic flat slab, very well correlated with the subducting Juan Fernandez seamount Ridge (JFR) track, and also with the absence of volcanism at the surface. The upper plate, currently under compression, is composed of a series of accreted terranes of various origins and ages. Although no general consensus on the formation of this flat slab has been yet achieved, there may have been influence of overthickened oceanic crust, delayed eclogitization and consequent fluid retain within the slab, and slab suction due to the high convergence rate with the thick Rio de Plata craton. Therefore, the main questions we address are: Does the slab dehydrate along the flat subducting segment? If so, how hydrated is the slab, at what depth does slab dehydration occur, where are the fluids transported to, and where are they stored? Is magmatism still active beneath the now inactive arc? Are accreted terranes and suture zones important attributes of this subduction zone? Do they possess their own mantle entities? To answer these questions, we analyzed recorded local seismicity and performed regional 3D seismic tomography for Vp and Vs. Combining seismic tomography with 2D instantaneous thermo-mechanical modeling for the regions of flat and normal subduction, we predict rock compositions for these two regions based on published mineral and rock elastic properties. Here, we present a comparison between the normal subduction zone to the south, reflecting typical and expected features, and the flat slab region to the north, exhibiting heterogeneities. Our results agree with other studies for a dry and cold continental mantle above the flat slab. We distinguish the Cuyania terrane with overthickened crust and/or abnormal mantle beneath it. We notice that the inactive volcanic arc crust carries an ongoing thermal signature of past magmatism with high fluid content. The downdip extent of the interface zone has seismic properties indicative of fluid saturation. The aftershock region of the Punitaqui slab earthquake (z=70 km, Mw 7.1) as well as the mantle wedge corner above the flat slab are two areas of anomalous seismic properties (particularly pronounced directly above the Punitaqui earthquake), which are unexplained by normal rock compositions or temperature variations. In addition, we observe a double seismic zone (DSZ) along the JFR track and the occurrence of a reactivated fault plane at intermediate-depth following a mainshock event.

Marot, Marianne; Monfret, Tony; Gerbault, Muriel; Nolet, Guust; Ranalli, Giorgio; Pardo, Mario

2013-04-01

220

Molecular Epidemiology of Enterovirus 71 Infection in the Central Region of Taiwan from 2002 to 2012  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease can be classified into three genotypes and many subtypes. The objectives of this study were to conduct a molecular epidemiological study of EV71 in the central region of Taiwan from 2002–2012 and to test the hypothesis that whether the alternative appearance of different EV71 subtypes in Taiwan is due to transmission from neighboring countries or from re-emergence of pre-existing local strains. We selected 174 EV71 isolates and used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify their VP1 region for DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. We found that the major subtypes of EV71 in Taiwan were B4 for 2002 epidemic, C4 for 2004–2005 epidemic, B5 for 2008–2009 epidemic, C4 for 2010 epidemic and B5 for 2011–2012 epidemic. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the 2002 and 2008 epidemics were associated with EV71 from Malaysia and Singapore; while both 2010 and 2011–2012 epidemics originated from different regions of mainland China including Shanghai, Henan, Xiamen and Gong-Dong. Furthermore, minor strains have been identified in each epidemic and some of them were correlated with the subsequent outbreaks. Therefore, the EV71 infection in Taiwan may originate from pre-existing minor strains or from other regions in Asia including mainland China. In addition, 101 EV71 isolates were selected for the detection of new recombinant strains using the nucleotide sequences spanning the VP1-2A-2B region. No new recombinant strain was found. Analysis of clinical manifestations showed that patients infected with C4 had significantly higher rates of pharyngeal vesicles or ulcers than patients infected with B5. This is the first study demonstrating that different EV 71 genotypes may have different clinical manifestations and the association of EV71 infections between Taiwan and mainland China.

Lin, Yu-Ting; Huang, Szu-Wei; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Wang, John; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

2013-01-01

221

Sea Level Variability in the Central Region of the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of three bottom pressure/temperature/conductivity (PTC) instruments was deployed along the Saudi Arabian coast of the eastern Red Sea since 2008. These locations, represent the central region of the Red Sea; Al-Lieth (100km south of Jeddah), Thuwal (KAUST) and Arriyas (100km north of Rabigh). Surface sea level/height was calculated from the bottom pressure measurements using the hydrostatic equation. The data analysis displayed the sea level variability into three different scales: 1) On daily time scales: the data showed the most energetic component of sea level variability was the diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominated by the M2, N2, K1 and O1 tidal constituents. 2) On weekly time scales (~10 days): the sea level variability was wind driven with setup and set down up to 40 cm due to the local wind stress. 3) On yearly time scales: the sea level varied approximately 50 cm and was highest in winter (January-February) and lowest in summer (July-August). Barometric pressure also had an annual cycle of approximately 10mb and was highest in January, thus attenuating the amplitude of the annual sea level variability. The data analysis postulate that the only mechanism behind the higher sea level in the central Red Sea during winter months was due to a response to the convergent in the large-scale Red Sea wind stress associated with the Indian Monsoon, which is consisting of NNW winds in the northern part of the Red Sea and SSE winds in the southern part. The amplitude of the principal tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability was coherent at the three sites, but the direction of phase propagation could not be resolved with confidence.

Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Limeburner, Richard; Farrar, J. Thomas; Beardsley, Robert

2013-04-01

222

Central adiposity, regional fat distribution, and the risk of cholecystectomy in women  

PubMed Central

Purpose Whether central adiposity contributes independently of total adiposity to the risk for gall stones is inconclusive. We examined prospectively indicators of central adiposity in relation to the occurrence of gall stone disease. Methods We evaluated the relationship between abdominal circumference and waist to hip ratio and risk of cholecystectomy in a cohort of women who had no history of gall stone disease. As part of the Nurses' Health Study, the women reported on questionnaires their weights, heights, and waist and hip circumferences, and the occurrence of cholecystectomy. A total of 42?312 women, aged 39–66?years in 1986, who were free of prior gall stone disease, provided complete waist and hip circumference measurements in 1986. Results We documented 3197 cases of cholecystectomy during 514?283 person years of follow up. After adjusting simultaneously for regional (waist circumference or waist to hip ratio) and total adiposity (body mass index) measures as well as for other risk factors of gall stone disease, women with a height adjusted waist circumference of 36?inches or larger had a relative risk (RR) of 1.96 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53–2.51; p trend <0.0001) compared with women with a height adjusted waist circumference of less than 26?inches. Waist to hip ratio was directly associated with the risk, with an RR of 1.39 (95% CI 1.16–1.66; p trend <0.0001) for women with a waist to hip ratio of 0.86 or higher compared with women with a waist to hip ratio of less than 0.70. Conclusion Abdominal circumference and waist to hip ratio were associated with an increased risk of cholecystectomy, independently of body mass index in women.

Tsai, C-J; Leitzmann, M F; Willett, W C; Giovannucci, E L

2006-01-01

223

Nuclear starburst-driven evolution of the central region in NGC 6764  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims:We study the CO and the radio continuum emission in an active galaxy to analyze the interplay between the central activity and the molecular gas. Methods: We present new high-resolution observations of the 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) emission lines, and 3.5 cm and 20 cm radio continuum emission in the central region of the LINER/starburst galaxy NGC 6764. Results: The galaxy has an outflow morphology in radio continuum, spatially coincident with the CO and H? emission, and centered slightly off the radio continuum peak at the LINER nucleus. The total molecular gas mass in the center is about 7×108 M?, using a CO luminosity to total molecular gas conversion factor that is three times lower than the standard one. 12CO(1-0) emission is found near the boundaries of the radio continuum emission cone. The outflow has a projected expansion velocity of 25 km s-1 relative to the systemic velocity of NGC 6764. About 4× 106 M? of molecular gas is detected in the outflow. The approximate location (~1 kpc) of the dynamical inner Lindblad resonance has been derived from the rotation curve. The peak of the CO emission is slightly (< 200 pc) offset from the peak of the radio continuum. Conclusions: The molecular gas has most likely been ejected by the stellar winds from the recent starburst, but the CO line ratios show indication of an interaction with the AGN. The energy released by the nuclear starburst is sufficient to explain the observed outflow, even if the data cannot exclude the AGN from being the major energy source. Comparison of the outflow with hydrodynamical simulations suggests that the nuclear starburst is 3-7 Myr old and the bubble-like outflow is still confined and not freely expanding.

Leon, S.; Eckart, A.; Laine, S.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Schinnerer, E.; Lee, S.-W.; Krips, M.; Reunanen, J.; Scharwächter, J.

2007-10-01

224

A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured concentrations for O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, and CO at about 100 ground observation stations within the CCOS domain. Comparisons were made both for time series and for statistically aggregated metrics, to assess model performance over the whole modeling domain and for the individual air basins within the domain. The model tends to over-predict ozone levels along the coast where observed levels are generally low. Inland performance in the San Joaquin Valley is generally better. Model-measurement agreement for night-time ozone is improved by evaluating the sum of predicted O{sub 3} + NO{sub 2} against observations; this removes from the comparison the effect of any ozone titration that may occur. A variety of diagnostic simulations were conducted to investigate the causes for differences between predictions and observations. These included (1) enhanced deposition of O{sub 3} to the ocean, (2) reduced vertical mixing over the ocean, (3) attenuation of sunlight by coastal stratus, (4) the influence of surface albedo on photochemistry, and (5) the effects of observation nudging on wind fields. Use of advanced model probing tools such as process analysis and sensitivity analysis is demonstrated by diagnosing model sensitivity to boundary conditions and to weekday-weekend emission changes.

Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R.; Jin, Ling

2006-12-01

225

CENTRAL REGIONS OF BARRED GALAXIES: TWO-DIMENSIONAL NON-SELF-GRAVITATING HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The inner regions of barred galaxies contain substructures such as off-axis shocks, nuclear rings, and nuclear spirals. These substructures may affect star formation, and control the activity of a central black hole (BH) by determining the mass inflow rate. We investigate the formation and properties of such substructures using high-resolution, grid-based hydrodynamic simulations. The gaseous medium is assumed to be infinitesimally thin, isothermal, and non-self-gravitating. The stars and dark matter are represented by a static gravitational potential with four components: a stellar disk, a bulge, a central BH, and a bar. To investigate various galactic environments, we vary the gas sound speed, c{sub s} , as well as the mass of the central BH, M{sub BH}. Once the flow has reached a quasi-steady state, off-axis shocks tend to move closer to the bar major axis as c{sub s} increases. Nuclear rings shrink in size with increasing c{sub s} , but are independent of M{sub BH}, suggesting that the ring position is not determined by the Lindblad resonances. Rings in low-c{sub s} models are narrow since they are occupied largely by gas on x{sub 2}-orbits and well decoupled from nuclear spirals, while they become broad because of large thermal perturbations in high-c{sub s} models. Nuclear spirals persist only when either c{sub s} is small or M{sub BH} is large; they would otherwise be destroyed completely by the ring material on eccentric orbits. The shape and strength of nuclear spirals depend sensitively on c{sub s} and M{sub BH} such that they are leading if both c{sub s} and M{sub BH} are small, weak trailing if c{sub s} is small and M{sub BH} is large, and strong trailing if both c{sub s} and M{sub BH} are large. While the mass inflow rate toward the nucleus is quite small in low-c{sub s} models because of the presence of a narrow nuclear ring, it becomes larger than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when c{sub s} is large, providing a potential explanation of nuclear activity in Seyfert galaxies.

Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Yoon, Doosoo [FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Teuben, Peter J., E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2012-03-01

226

Origin and evolution of mountainous regions north of Tibet, Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The huge deformation field associated with the Indo-Eurasia collision provides an unrivalled opportunity to investigate the origin and evolution of anomalously high topography in an intraplate, continental interior setting. Mountainous regions north of Tibet and south of the Hangay Dome are hyper-arid with internally drained basins and very low erosion rates. Consequently, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Directly north of Tibet, the Beishan is an anomalous plateau region whose first-order topography cannot be explained by Tertiary-Quaternary faulting, although second-order topographic culminations within the plateau are due to Quaternary-Recent transpressional fault displacements. The Beishan appears to be a peripheral bulge due to significant underthrusting of the Tarim-Dunhuang Block beneath the northern margin of Tibet. North of the Beishan region, the Eastern Tien Shan and Gobi Altai are essentially a transpressional basin and range province whose origin is due to thrust and oblique-slip thrust reactivation of older basement structures and diffuse sinistral strike-slip faulting. The angular relationship between SHmax and older structural trends is the first-order control on the kinematics of Quaternary faulting in the region and the style of mountain building. Restraining bends, thrust blocks and diverse transpressional fault arrays generate a complex 3D orogenic architecture that differs significantly from a contractional fold and thrust belt. Late Cenozoic uplift of the Gobi Altai, eastern Tien Shan and Altai orogens is due to diffuse transpressional reactivation of a mechanically weak Paleozoic terrane collage sandwiched between more rigid Precambrian basement blocks, representing the ';soft' core of Central Asia. Southeast of Mongolia and northeast of Tibet, the Lang Shan, Yabrai Shan and Helan Shan mountainous regions comprise footwall block uplifts associated with Ordos Basin extension and the left-lateral strike-slip termination of the Altyn Tagh Fault system. The Lang Shan and Yabrai Shan display regionally peneplained footwall summit ridges elevated 0.5-1 km above their surroundings. Their active mountain fronts are defined by high frontal fault scarps that are cut by slot canyons with extremely low valley width/valley height ratios. In many places, the mountain fronts are defined by trapezoidal facets instead of triangular facets attesting to low erosion rates and relatively high uplift rates. Between Tibet and the Hangay Dome, anomalously high topography is best explained by upper crustal faulting as a distant response to NE-directed compressional stresses generated by the continued Indo-Eurasia collision 2000+ kms to the south. However, if the crust and lithospheric mantle are mechanically coupled as has been suggested by joint analysis of SKS splitting and surface deformation data in Tibet and elsewhere in Asia, then upper crustal flower structures and other transpressional ranges in the Beishan, easternmost Tien Shan and Gobi Altai must be balanced at depth by vertical thickening, crustal shortening and along-strike displacements. This may therefore contribute to more diffuse regional topographic uplift and lateral crustal ';extrusion' similar to the Tibetan region to the south.

Cunningham, D.; Zhang, J.

2013-12-01

227

Cluster and nebular properties of the central star-forming region of NGC 1140  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new high spatial resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging of NGC 1140 and high spectral resolution Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph spectroscopy of its central star-forming region. The central region contains several clusters, the two brightest of which are clusters 1 and 6 from Hunter, O'Connell & Gallagher, located within star-forming knots A and B, respectively. A nebular analysis indicates that the knots have a Large Magellanic Cloud-like metallicity of 12 + logO/H = 8.29 +/-0.09. According to continuum-subtracted H? ACS imaging, cluster 1 dominates the nebular emission of the brighter knot A. Conversely, negligible nebular emission in knot B originates from cluster 6. Evolutionary synthesis modelling implies an age of 5 +/-1 Myr for cluster 1, from which a photometric mass of (1.1 +/-0.3) × 106Msolar is obtained. For this age and photometric mass, the modelling predicts the presence of ~5900 late O stars within cluster 1. Wolf-Rayet (WR) features are observed in knot A, suggesting 550 late-type nitrogen-rich (WNL) and 200 early-type carbon-rich (WCE) stars. Therefore, N(WR)/N(O) ~ 0.1, assuming that all the WR stars are located within cluster 1. The velocity dispersions of the clusters were measured from constituent red supergiants as ? ~ 23 +/-1kms-1 for cluster 1 and ? ~ 26 +/-1kms-1 for cluster 6. Combining ? with half-light radii of 8 +/- 2 and 6.0 +/-0.2 pc measured from the F625W ACS image implies virial masses of (10 +/-3) × 106 and (9.1 +/-0.8) × 106Msolar for clusters 1 and 6, respectively. The most likely reason for the difference between the dynamical and photometric masses of cluster 1 is that the velocity dispersion of knot A is not due solely to cluster 1, as assumed, but has an additional component associated with cluster 2. E-mail: s.moll@sheffield.ac.uk Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under programme ESO 71.B-0058(A), and on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Moll, S. L.; Mengel, S.; de Grijs, R.; Smith, L. J.; Crowther, P. A.

2007-12-01

228

Analysis of particulate matter concentrations in mazovia region, central poland, based on 2007-2010 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement results of PM10 (particulate matter with diameters below 10 ?m) concentrations performed at four stations in central Poland (2007-2010) were analyzed in terms of levels and distributions of concentrations, the number of exceedances of the limit values and the causes of these exceedances. PM10 levels were similar at suburban and rural stations, except of one station located in the vicinity of a busy street. The median of PM10 concentration ranged from 26 ?g/m3 at suburban station to 44 ?g/m3 at Warsaw Kerb station. Seasonal variability analysis of PM10 concentration revealed an additional maximum beyond the usual autumn-winter one. This maximum occurred in April at all stations, and corresponded to seasonal wildfires activity and dust activation in Eastern Europe. Cluster analysis of back-trajectories revealed that PM10 concentrations depend on the direction of advection of the incoming air; the highest values are registered for air of regional and southern origins, while the lowest are for the airmasses coming from the north and northwest direction.

Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Jaros?awski, Janusz

2013-04-01

229

Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey  

PubMed Central

The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05?C 002 and 08?C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05?C 002 and 55?S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology.

Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

2013-01-01

230

Distinct sources for syntectonic Variscan granitoids: Insights from the Aguiar da Beira region, Central Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Variscan syntectonic granitoid plutons from the Aguiar da Beira region (central Portugal) were emplaced into metasediments of Late Proterozoic-Early Cambrian age during the last Variscan ductile tectonic event (D3), which is related to dextral and sinistral shearing. The older intrusion, with a U-Pb ID-TIMS zircon age of 321.8 ± 2.0 Ma, consists of porphyritic biotite granodiorite-granite with transitional I-S type geochemical signature, relatively low 87Sr/86Sr322 ratios (0.7070-0.7074), ?Nd322 values of - 3.9 to - 4.6 and whole-rock and zircon ?18O values of 10.6‰ and 8.0‰, respectively. By contrast, the younger intrusion is an S-type muscovite-biotite leucogranite, emplaced at 317.0 ± 1.1 Ma, showing more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr317 = 0.7104-0.7146, lower ?Nd317 values of - 7.7 to - 8.7 and higher ?18O-wr = 11.3‰ and ?18O-zr = 9.5‰. The combined isotopic and geochemical evidence supports a lower crustal origin for the biotite granodiorite-granite, involving the anatexis of lower crustal metaigneous protoliths, and possible hybridization with mantle-derived magmas. A shallower origin, at mid crustal levels, from pure crustal derivation, through moderate degrees of partial melting of Proterozoic-Cambrian metasediments is proposed instead for the muscovite-biotite leucogranite.

Costa, M. M.; Neiva, A. M. R.; Azevedo, M. R.; Corfu, F.

2014-05-01

231

A study of dirigibles for use in the Peruvian Selva Central Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for dirigibles as transports in the Selva Central region of Peru was evaluated by means of a mission and economic analysis. A total requirement to transport over 19 million tons (t) of agricultural produce, lumber, and meat was projected by the year 2004. A primary route involving zones for loading and delivering this cargo was identified. Although dirigibles are capable of short field operation, all existing airfields must be enlarged in width to allow for all conditions of wind and weather and to provide space for overnight mooring. A maintenance base and operations headquarters, complete with hangar and other service facilities would be required. The quantities of cargo to be carried establish requirements for fleets of dirigibles of various sizes and capacities. Cargo capacities of 5 to 100 tons were identified. Fleet sizes up to 106 dirigibles (in 20 t capacities) would be required. Dirigibles were assumed to be of the nonrigid type except in the 100 t category for which rigid characteristics were assumed. A method of determining dirigible costs was developed. The values derived were then applied to an economic analysis to determine initial investment and operating costs. It was found that larger dirigibles of approximately 20 t capacities or higher could offer significant cost benefits over airplanes, provided cruise speeds were higher than 100 km/hr.

Mayer, N. J.

1982-01-01

232

Natural radionuclides measurements and total dose indicative evaluation in drinking waters of an Italian central region.  

PubMed

A study of radioactivity content in drinking waters collected in some areas of geological interest in an Italian central region was performed to check the compliance with recent European regulations. Gross alpha and beta activities, 226Ra, 238U, 234U, 210Po and 3H concentrations were measured. Gross alpha and beta, 226Ra and 3H activities were determined using an ultra-low-level scintillation counter, 238U, 234U and 210Po by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical separation. Recommended WHO guideline activity concentrations for drinking water were exceeded in 6 cases for gross alpha activity and were not exceeded in any case for gross beta activity. Tritium concentration was always lower than MDA (6.75 Bq L(-1)); the concentrations (mBq L(-1)) of 226Ra, 238U, 234U and 210Po ranged from <1.80 to 23.00, from 1.20 to 140.00, from 1.60 to 120.00 and from 0.25 to 5.90, respectively. Due to the importance of the water in human diet, the doses were calculated for children and adults using the dose coefficient factors reported by EC Directive 96/29 EURATOM and annual water intake; all samples furnished a dose lower the reference level for drinking water (0.1 mSv y(-1)). PMID:17849305

Borio, Rita; Rongoni, Alba; Saetta, Daniela; Desideri, Donatella; Meli, Maria Assunta; Feduzi, Laura

2007-09-01

233

REGIONAL CLIMATE MODEL ALADIN-CLIMATE - A TOOL FOR REGIONALIZATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ESTIMATES IN CENTRAL EUROPE: FIRST RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional climate models (RCMs) are perhaps the most reliable tools for downscaling (or regionalization) of large-scale climate change signals, provided by global climate models (GCMs), to regional and local scales, necessary in climate change impact assessments. A project has been launched this year that aims at developing an RCM in the Czech Republic. It is intended to be used in

Radan Huth; Ladislav Metelka; Stanislava Kliegrová; Pavel Sedlák; Jan Kyselý; Richard Mládek; Jaroslava Kalvová

234

Echinococcus granulosus infection in humans and livestock in the Coquimbo region, north-central Chile.  

PubMed

Cyst echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important zoonosis in Chile, where studies have focussed mainly in moist southern regions. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in livestock and humans in the semiarid Coquimbo region in north-central Chile. A review of all surgical cases of CE in humans reported in the Elqui, Limarí and Choapa provinces in Coquimbo region for the period comprising 1995-2006 was obtained. In addition, a retrospective study of CE covering condemnation records from slaughterhouses of these provinces from the same period was carried out. The surgical incidence of CE in humans ranged between 2.3 and 8.5 cases per 10(5) people, with more cases reported in provinces with a higher percentage of rural inhabitants (Limarí and Choapa). A total of 174,034 cattle, 22,208 goats, 35,404 sheep, 25,355 swine and 9391 equines were examined during the period. Higher prevalence of CE was detected in cattle (24%), followed by swine (14%), sheep (11%), goats (6%), and equines (9%). More cases of CE in livestock were also found in provinces with higher rural population. The overall trend of the prevalence of CE for each livestock species across years was a significant downward one, except for swine in Elqui and sheep and swine in Choapa. Cattle showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui, in kidney in Limarí and in lungs in Choapa. Swine showed similar prevalence by organs in all provinces. Sheep showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui and Limarí and lower prevalence in Choapa. Goats presented higher prevalence of CE in kidney in all provinces, and equines had higher prevalence of CE in liver in the provinces where animals were slaughtered. Further studied are needed to assess whether these differences are due to different strains affecting these species or due to ecological factors. When analyzing the CE prevalence of each species within each province, a negative correlation between prevalence of CE in goats and rainfall in the Limarí province was found. This could be attributed to changes in management practices and/or ecological factors. This study shows that surveillance of CE at slaughterhouses combined with the analyses of incidence in humans can be used to detect areas with a higher risk of infection. Improvements in record-keeping of infected animals at slaughterhouses are proposed in order to trace back farms where infection was most likely acquired. PMID:20071084

Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Cleaveland, Sarah; Cunningham, Andrew A; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Craig, Philip S

2010-04-19

235

Calibration of strong motion models for Central America region and its use in seismic hazard assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a study aimed at choosing the more suitable strong-motion models for seismic hazard analysis in the Central America (CA) Region. After a careful revision of the state of the art, different models developed for subduction and volcanic crustal zones, in tectonic environment similar to those of CA, were selected. These models were calibrated with accelerograms recorded in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and El Salvador. The peak ground acceleration PGA and Spectral Acceleration SA (T) derived from the records were compared with the ones predicted by the models in similar conditions of magnitude, distance and soil. The type of magnitude (Ms, Mb, MW), distance (Rhyp, Rrup, etc) and ground motion parameter (maximum horizontal component, geometrical mean, etc ) was taken into account in the comparison with the real data. As results of the analysis, the models which present a best fit with the local data were identified. These models have been applied for carrying out seismic hazard analysis in the region, in the frame of the RESIS II project financed by the Norwegian Foreign Department and also by the Spanish project SISMOCAES. The methodology followed is based on the direct comparison between PGA and SA 5 % damped response values extracted from actual records with the corresponding acceleration values predicted by the selected ground-motion models for similar magnitude, distance and soil conditions. Residuals between observed and predicted values for PGA, and SA (1sec) are calculated and plotted as a function of distance and magnitude, analyzing their deviation from the mean value. Besides and most important, a statistical analysis of the normalized residuals was carry out using the criteria proposed by Scherbaum et al. (2004), which consists in categorizing ground motion models based in a likelihood parameter that reflects the goodness-of-fit of the median values as well as the shape of the underlying distribution of ground motion residuals. Considering the results of the both analysis the conclusions can be drawn in the following paragraphs. Analyses of residuals show that in some cases the best adjustments of PGA and SA values do not always favor the same equation. Consequently, the following equations that present reasonable adjustments for both parameters are finally selected: Schmidt (2010) and Zhao et al (2006) for shallow crustal sources; Schmidt (2010), Zhao et al (2006), Youngs et al. (1997) and Lin & Lee (2008) for subduction interface and Schmidt (2010), Youngs et al (1997), Zhao et al (2006) and Garcia et al (2005) for inslab subduction sources. Finally, to improve the development of proper models of attenuation of the region, it is recommended to the governmental and private institutions, to support the implementation of permanent strong ground motion networks in all Central America countries, especially in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama, including free field stations. In case of Costa Rica and El Salvador to strengthen the networks that already they operate.

Climent, A.; Benito, M. B.; Piedra, R.; Lindholm, C.; Gaspar-Escribano, J.

2013-05-01

236

Las Vegas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Las Vegas, NV was acquired on August, 2000 and covers an area 42 km (25 miles) wide and 30 km (18 miles) long. The image displays three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. McCarran International Airport to the south and Nellis Air Force Base to the NE are the two major airports visible. Golf courses appear as bright red areas of worms. The first settlement in Las Vegas (which is Spanish for The Meadows) was recorded back in the early 1850s when the Mormon church, headed by Brigham Young, sent a mission of 30 men to construct a fort and teach agriculture to the Indians. Las Vegas became a city in 1905 when the railroad announced this city was to be a major division point. Prior to legalized gambling in 1931, Las Vegas was developing as an agricultural area. Las Vegas' fame as a resort area became prominent after World War II. The image is located at 36.1 degrees north latitude and 115.1 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

237

Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the north-central Brooks Range by large-scale crustal shortening (>300 km) between the Valanginian and Albian (˜135 to ˜112 Ma). This orogenic event significantly postdates early stages of Brooks Range orogeny but predates later stages of orogeny documented by stratigraphic and apatite fission-track data. These relations reduce the magnitude of shortening inferred at the triangle zone at the Brooks Range mountain front. The outcrop data suggest that some of the strata preserved at a structurally low level north of the mountain front and visible in the seismic data of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) may consist of clastic sedimentary rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon.

Mull, Charles G.; Glenn, Richard K.; Adams, Karen E.

1997-01-01

238

Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited

Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Ken Takiyama; Kai Masuda; Hisayuki Toku; Takahiro Koyama; Kenji Taruya; Hirofumi Hashimoto; Yasushi Yamamoto; Masami Ohnishi; Hiroshi Horiike; Nobuyuki Inoue

2001-01-01

239

CFD model of ITER CICC. Part VI: Heat and mass transfer between cable region and central channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual-channel cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) are used in the superconducting magnets for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). As the CICC axial/transverse size ratio is typically ˜1000, 1D axial models are customarily used for the CICC, but they require constitutive relations for the transverse fluxes. A novel approach, based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), was recently proposed by these authors to understand the complex transverse thermal-hydraulic processes in an ITER CICC from first principles. Multidimensional (2D, 3D) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes models implemented in the commercial CFD code FLUENT were validated against compact heat exchanger and ITER-relevant experimental data, and applied to compute the friction factor and the heat transfer coefficient in fully turbulent spiral rib-roughened pipes, mimicking the central channel of an ITER CICC. That analysis is extended here to the problem of heat and mass transfer through the perforated spiral separating the central channel from the cable bundle region, by combining the previously developed central channel model with a porous medium model for the cable region. The resulting 2D model is used to analyze several key features of the transport processes occurring between the two regions including the relation between transverse mass transfer and transverse pressure drop, the influence of transverse mass transfer on axial pressure drop, and the heat transfer coefficient between central channel and annular cable bundle region.

Zanino, R.; Giors, S.; Richard, L. Savoldi

2010-03-01

240

Teaching English Language Learner Students: Professional Standards in Elementary Education in Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 122  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on professional teaching standards in the Central Region examines what K-8 general education teachers are expected to know and be able to do in order to teach English language learner students. It reviews the standards for coverage of six topics that the research literature suggests are important for improving student achievement. Key…

Apthorp, Helen; Wang, Xin; Ryan, Susan; Cicchinelli, Louis F.

2012-01-01

241

GRAIN YIELD STABILITY OF WINTER OAT (AVENA SATIVA L.) CULTIVARS IN THE CENTRAL ANATOLIAN REGION OF TURKEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to assess genotype environment interaction and determine stable oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars for grain yield in Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. Stability analysis (9) were to performed on results for grain yield of 5 oat cultivars (Chekota, Yesilkoy-1779, Yesilkoy-330, Faikbey-2004, Seydisehir-2004) from 24 trials (6 irrigated, 18 rain fed ) was conducted over

Mevlut AKCURA; Seyfi TANER; Yuksel KAYA; Emel OZER; Ramazan AYRANCI

242

Deformation in the hinge region of a chevron fold, Valley and Ridge Province, central Pennsylvania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hinge region of an asymmetrical chevron fold in sandstone, taken from the Tuscarora Formation of central Pennsylvania, U.S.A., was studied in detail in an attempt to account for the strain that produced the fold shape. The fold hinge consists of a medium-grained quartz arenite and was deformed predominantly by brittle fracturing and minor amounts of pressure solution and intracrystalline strain. These fractures include: (1) faults, either minor offsets or major limb thrusts, (2) solitary well-healed quartz veins and (3) fibrous quartz veins which are the result of repeated fracturing and healing of grains. The fractures formed during folding as they are observed to cross-cut the authigenic cement. Deformation lamellae and in a few cases, pressure solution, occurred contemporaneously with folding. The fibrous veins appear to have formed as a result of stretching of one limb: they cross-cut all other structures. Based upon the spatial relationships between the deformation features, we believe that a neutral surface was present during folding, separating zones of compression and extension along the inner and outer arcs, respectively. Using the strain data from the major faults, the fold can be restored back to an interlimb angle of 157°; however, the extension required for such an angle along the outer arc is much more than was actually measured. This disparity between observed and required deformation suggests that the rest of the folding strain may be attributed to minor faulting, isolated severe pressure solution and to slight grain movements; we were not able to recognize the latter. We propose that a single episode of deformation produced the chevron fold causing the brittle deformation after the sandstone had been lithified. This brittle deformation was accomplished by faulting together with the translation of individual sandstone blocks which do not contain significant internal deformation.

Narahara, David K.; Wiltschko, David V.

243

Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg) speciation ?????" reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), elemental Hg (Hg??), and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5), were determined from June to November 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1) a 1114 megawatt (MW) coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2) a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3) a smaller (465 MW) coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of RGM, Hg?? and Hg-PM 2.5, were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3) measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.41 ppbv; measured at 50 km site). The finding that RGM, Hg??, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1) the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2) the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3) RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg??. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

Kolker, A.; Olson, M. L.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Tate, M. T.; Engle, M. A.

2010-01-01

244

Utility of regional Chinese seismograms for source and path studies in central Asia  

SciTech Connect

Regional surface waves recorded at the Urumchi station located about 700 km north of the Tibetan Plateau in the Sinkiang Province are used to study East Kazakh explosions and wave propagation in central Asia. The data consist of broadband (flat to displacement between 0.1 and 10 Hz), photographic records from an SK Kirnos galvanometric system. Simultaneous inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities for the path from East Kazakh through the Dzhungarian Basin yields a crustal model dominated by the presence of very low velocities and a strong positive velocity gradient above 15 km depth. Velocities below 15 km depth are not significantly different from other continental structures underlain by Paleozoic or Precambrian basement. This model is consistent with geologic evidence indicating that most of the path is characterized by the presence of up to 10 km of sediments overlying a Paleozoic basement. Source studies were made on seven East Kazakh explosions detonated in the time period between June 1980 and April 1981. These studies involved estimation of seismic moments using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. The largest explosion studied occurred on 9/14/80 and had an m/sub b/ of 6.2 and a seismic moment of 2.7 x 10/sup 23/ dyn-cm. The observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves are richer in high frequencies than predicted by explosion source models with tectonic release. This could be caused by a path effect involving seismic wave focusing by the large sedimentary basin between East Kazakh and the Urumchi station, although source medium effects cannot be ruled out. 30 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Patton, H.J.; Taylor, S.R.; Harris, D.B.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

1984-04-01

245

Soil loss tolerance in the central chernozemic region of the European part of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To calculate the soil loss tolerance for chernozems of the central chernozemic region, a linear modification of Skidmore's equation was used. The soil loss tolerance values were obtained with due account for the soil type, the degree of erodibility, and the crop rotation pattern. The maximum possible value (10 t/ha per year) was obtained for a typical noneroded chernozem in all the crop rotations. Close values were obtained for noneroded leached and typical chernozems (9.6-9.9 t/ha per year depending on the crop rotation pattern). The soil loss tolerance for the noneroded podzolized chernozem was somewhat lower: 9.1 t/ha per year in the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation and 6.3 t/ha/year in the grain-intertilled crop rotation. With an increase in the degree of the soil erosion, the soil loss tolerance decreased in all the variants of the experiment with an especially abrupt decrease in the grain-intertilled crop rotation (from 9.9-10.0 to 0.3-2.0 t/ha per year in the, respectively, noneroded and slightly eroded ordinary and typical chernozems). In the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation, these differences were much smaller: in the slightly eroded typical chernozem the soil loss tolerance was estimated at 9.7 t/ha per year, while, in the slightly eroded typical chernozem, at 8.1 t/ha per year. The moderately eroded chernozems without the addition of manure could only be used in the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation; the soil loss tolerance was estimated at 9.0 t/ha per year for the typical chernozem and 4.3 t/ha per year for the ordinary chernozem.

Kuznetsov, M. S.; Abdulkhanova, D. R.

2013-07-01

246

Clinical Epidemiology and Phenotypic Characteristics of Crohn's Disease in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims: Despite the remarkable increase in the incidence of Crohn's disease among Saudis in recent years, data about Crohn's disease in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn's disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A data registry, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Information System (IBDIS), was used to register Crohn's disease patients who presented to the gastroenterology clinics in four tertiary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 2009 and February 2013. Patients’ characteristics, disease location, behavior, age at diagnosis according to the Montreal classification, course of the disease, and extraintestinal manifestation were recorded. Results: Among 497 patients with Crohn's disease, 59% were males with a mean age at diagnosis of 25 years [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 24-26, range 5-75 years]. The mean duration from the time of complaint to the day of the diagnosis was 11 months, and the mean duration of the disease from diagnosis to the day of entry to the registry was 40 months. Seventy-seven percent of our patients were aged 17-40 years at diagnosis, 16.8% were ?16 years of age, and 6.6% were >40 years of age. According to the Montreal classification of disease location, 48.8% of patients had ileocolonic involvement, 43.5% had limited disease to the terminal ileum or cecum, 7.7% had isolated colonic involvement, and 16% had an upper gastrointestinal involvement. Forty-two percent of our patients had a non-stricturing, non-penetrating behavior, while 32.8% had stricturing disease and 25.4% had penetrating disease. Conclusion: Crohn's disease is frequently encountered in Saudi Arabia. The majority of patients are young people with a predilection for males, while its behavior resembled that of western societies in terms of age of onset, location, and behavior.

Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M.; Alharbi, Othman R.; Azzam, Nahla A.; Almalki, Ahmed S.; Alswat, Khalid A.; Almadi, Majid A.

2014-01-01

247

RR Lyrae variables in the Small Magellanic Cloud - I. The central region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed the Fourier decomposition analysis of 11-yr V-band light curves of a carefully selected sample of 100 RR Lyrae variables, detected in the central regions of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), with the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, phases II and III. The sample consisted of 84 fundamental mode pulsators (RRab stars) and 16 first-overtone pulsators (RRc stars). The Fourier decomposition parameters were used to derive metal abundances and distance moduli for these RR Lyrae variables. The average metal abundance of the RRab stars on the new scale of Carretta et al. is found to be <[Fe/H]C09>=-1.62 ± 0.41 dex (std, with a standard error of 0.05 dex). The distance modulus of the SMC was found to be = 18.90 ± 0.18 (std) from the RRab population in a distance scale where the distance modulus of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is ?LMC= 18.52 ± 0.06 (std). The 1? line-of-sight depth for the RRab stars was found to be ?int= 4.13 ± 0.27 kpc, in good agreement with that estimated from red clump stars and eclipsing binaries. There is a clear indication that the metal-poorer and metal-richer objects in the sample may belong to different dynamical structures. The metal-rich stars have smaller scaleheight and could be part of a disc-like structure, while the more metal poor objects could be part of a much thicker structure, such as an inner halo or a bulge component.

Kapakos, E.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Soszy?ski, I.

2011-08-01

248

Analysis of Regionally Detected Icequakes Using the STEEP Network, South-Central AK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers produce seismic energy that is detectable from local to teleseismic distances. Glaciolgical processes including calving, surface crevassing, basal sliding and other, yet unresolved source processes are capable of producing recordable seismicity. Twenty-two broadband sensors deployed in south-central Alaska during the SainT Elias TEctonics and Erosion Project (STEEP) provide an excellent means to study glacier-generated seismicity at regional distances. These instruments surround over 7500 km2 of glacier area including the Bering Glacier, Bagley Icefield and the tidewater calving glaciers of Icy Bay (Yahtse, Guyot, Tyndal). Our analysis shows that icequakes nominally occur several times hourly, and can be separated from tectonic seismicity using their unique spectral characteristics and hypocenter locations. The events typically propagate over 50-75 km distances, but occasionally are recorded at stations over 150 km away from the energy source. Hypocenters for more than 1000 events were manually calculated through a 26-day interval during October 2006, and suggest that a majority of the icequakes are associated with calving at tidewater glaciers that terminate in Icy Bay. Events with similar time and frequency domain characteristics also occur at locations away from calving fronts, but less often, and their mechanical origin remains undetermined. Automated detections from a frequency domain event detector exhibit strong correlation with the handpicked time series, and extend our analysis to all available data collected during 2006. We present the time distribution of several categories of icequakes and compare these distributions to environmental variables such as precipitation, temperature and tides to explore potential forcing for observed variability in icequake occurrence.

O'Neel, S.; Leblanc, L.; Larsen, C.; Truffer, M.; Hansen, R.; Rupert, N.; Pavlis, G.; None, N.

2007-12-01

249

Geodiversity of the Umbria region (central Italy): a GIS-based quantitative index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measure of natural range related to geological bedrock, landforms and geomorphological processes is the necessary starting point to geodiversity evaluation. Geodiversity plays a strategic role in landscape management. Whereas geotourism and geosites are identified as a driving power for the scientific and economic promotion of an area, the geodiversity knowledge is required for a complete and accurate research. For example, high values of this abiotic parameter identify and support the foundation of geoparks. According to this perspective, the geodiversity is the unifying factor for these areas of interest. While a subjective and qualitative approach may be adequate for geosites definition, identification and cultural promotion, the geodiversity concept needs a different evaluation method. A quantitative procedure allows achieving an objective and repeatable process exportable in different geographic units. Geographical Information Systems and spatial analysis techniques are the base to quantitative evaluation involving topographic, geological and geomorphological data. Therefore, the assessment of a numerical index derived from the overlay of spatial parameters can be conveniently computed in GIS environment. In this study, a geodiversity index is proposed where geological, geomorphological and landcover factors deriving mainly from maps and field survey; topographic ones are employed from DEM and remote sensed data. Each abiotic parameter is modelled in a grid format; focal functions do provide neighbourhood analysis and computing variety statistics. A particular extent is dedicated to topographic information and terrain roughness, that are strictly related to efficiency of geomorphological processes and generally corresponding to the abiotic components variability. The study area is located in central Italy and is characterized by a well known natural heritage. Thirty-seven geosites are detected in the Umbria region, where seven regional and one natural parks are present. All the area shows a strong correlation between the geological setting and the relief energy associated to topography assessment. Three main outcrop complexes are present: a fluvial lacustrine, where the lowest slope values and plain area are widespread; a terrigenous one, with a medium slope value; and a calcareous complex corresponding to the mountain areas and the highest amplitude of relief. This partition matches different geomorphological processes and landforms, ensuring a widespread distribution of geodiversity. The final map is a digital data that localizes areas with, respectively, null or minimum, medium, and high geodiversity values. The highest class overlaps to geosites areas, to high values of amplitude of relief and where the geomorphological processes are more effective and various. This confirms the method accuracy. The results obtained represent an important advancement in geodiversity research and a significant instrument for economic development and conservation management.

Melelli, Laura; Pica, Alessia; Del Monte, Maurizio

2014-05-01

250

Water Quality and Evaluation of Pesticides in Lakes in the Ridge Citrus Region of Central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water chemistry, including major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and pesticide compounds, was compared between seven lakes surrounded by citrus agriculture and an undeveloped lake on the Lake Wales Ridge (herein referred to as the Ridge) in central Florida. The region has been recognized for its vulnerability to the leaching of agricultural chemicals into the subsurface due to factors including soils, climate, and land use. About 40 percent of Florida's citrus cultivation occurs in 'ridge citrus' areas characterized by sandy well drained soils, with the remainder in 'flatwoods citrus' characterized by high water tables and poorly drained soils. The lakes on the Ridge are typically flow-through lakes that exchange water with adjacent and underlying aquifer systems. This study is the first to evaluate the occurrence of pesticides in lakes on the Ridge, and also represents one of the first monitoring efforts nationally to focus on regional-scale assessment of current-use pesticides in small- to moderate-sized lakes (5 to 393 acres). The samples were collected between December 2003 and September 2005. The lakes in citrus areas contained elevated concentrations of major inorganic constituents (including alkalinity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate), total nitrogen, pH, and pesticides compared to the undeveloped lake. Nitrate (as N) and total nitrogen concentrations were typically elevated in the citrus lakes, with maximum values of 4.70 and 5.19 mg/L (milligrams per liter), respectively. Elevated concentrations of potassium, nitrate, and other inorganic constituents in the citrus lakes likely reflect inputs from the surficial ground-water system that originated predominantly from agricultural fertilizers, soil amendments, and inorganic pesticides. A total of 20 pesticide compounds were detected in the lakes, of which 12 compounds exceeded the standardized reporting level of 0.06 ug/L (microgram per liter). Those most frequently detected above the 0.06-ug/L level were aldicarb sulfoxide, diuron, simazine degradates hydroxysimazine and didealkylatrazine (DDA), bromacil, norflurazon, and demethyl norflurazon which occurred at detection rates ranging from 25 to 86 percent of samples, respectively. Typically, pesticide concentrations in the lake samples were less than 1 microgram per liter. The number of targeted pesticide compounds detected per lake in the citrus areas ranged from 9 to 14 compared to 3 compounds detected at trace levels in the undeveloped lake. Consistent detections of parents and degradates in quarterly samples indicated the presence of pesticide compounds in the lakes many months or years (for example, bromacil) after their application, signaling the persistence of some pesticide compounds in the lakes and/or ground-water systems. Pesticide degradate concentrations frequently exceeded parent concentrations in the lakes. This study was the first in the Ridge citrus region to analyze for glyphosate - widely used in citrus - and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), neither of which were detected, as well as a number of triazine degradates, including hydroxysimazine, which were detected. The lake pesticide concentrations did not exceed current Federal aquatic-life benchmarks, available for 10 of the 20 detected pesticide compounds. Limited occurrences of bromacil, diuron, or norflurazon concentrations were within about 10 to 90 percent of benchmark guidelines for acute effects on nonvascular aquatic plants in one or two of the lakes. The lake pesticide concentrations for several targeted pesticides were relatively high compared to corresponding national stream-water percentiles, which is consistent with this region's vulnerability for pesticide leaching into water resources. Several factors were evaluated to gain insight into the processes controlling pesticide transport and fate, and to assess their utility for estimating th

Choquette, Anne F.; Kroening, Sharon E.

2009-01-01

251

Thermoluminescence dating of the orkutsay loess section in Tashkent region, Uzbekistan, Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronology of loess in Central Asia was investigated by means of thermoluminescence dating (TL) in the 1970s, when age estimates ranging from 20 ka to over 800 ka were taken as providing an absolute chronology. This has caused major misinterpretation of Central Asian loess stratigraphy and palaeoclimatic reconstruction. We present a new TL study of a loess section at

L. P. Zhou; A. E. Dodonov; N. J. Shackleton

1995-01-01

252

Interlibrary Loan Evaluation and Study of the Central New York 3R's Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interlibrary loan patterns in the Central New York area are defined and discussed in this report prepared for the Central New York Reference and Resources Council by the Information Services Laboratory of Syracuse University Research Corporation. Statistics and background data are given providing a composite picture of special, academic and public…

Syracuse Univ. Research Corp., NY.

253

Energy and development in Central America. Volume I: Regional assessment. Final report October 1979-February 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

1980-02-01

254

Jet Production in the Central Rapidity Region in 1.8 TeV Proton and Antiproton Collisions  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis we study the jet production cross section in the central rapidity region in {bar p}p collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.8 TeV. The pseudo-rapidity {eta} is defined as {eta} {triple_bond} -ln(tan({theta}/2)), where {theta} is the angle between the directions of the jet momentum and the proton beam. We will call the region -0.7 < {eta} < 0.7 the 'central rapidity' region by definition. The goal of this thesis is to determine two kinds of differential cross sections for jet production: an inclusive jet Et distribution d{sigma}/dEt, and the distribution in invariant mass d{sigma}/dM{sub JJ} of two jet systems. These spectra serve to check the strong interaction theory, and thus to look for new phenomena, at the highest available energy. The strong interaction theory will be discussed.

Tsai, Yeong-Dong; /Chicago U.

1989-06-01

255

Sedimentation and provenance of the Antofagasta region of the southern Puna Plateau, central Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic and provenance studies of Cenozoic non-marine sedimentary basins in the Central Andean Puna Plateau provide insight into the regional development and dynamics. The southern plateau hosts several poorly exposed intramontane basins bounded by basement-involved ~N-S striking thrust faults; their origin is explained differently by contrasting geodynamic models. This study focuses on the Antofagasta region (NW Argentina). The top of the studied basin was over-thrust by basement rocks along a west-dipping thrust fault, which was likely active during exhumation of the Calalaste range to the west (25-29 Ma, Carrapa et al., 2005). We studied three sections SW of Antofagasta de la Sierra. S3 (552 m) is the lowest section and is composed of mud playa to sandflat sediments, with at least two paleosol horizons. Lower S2 (1,263 m) contains ~300 meters of proximal alluvial fan sediments. Upper S2 is composed of fluvial to shallow lacustrine sediments. The separation between the top of S2 and the bottom of S1 (1,062 m) is ~540 m. The lower ~600 m of S1 is composed of thick, distal alluvial fan and braided river sediments. In the upper S1, the depositional environment changes to fluvial-alluvial, with a paleosol developed at the top of S1. Imbricated pebbles suggest prevailing eastward paleoflow. Modal compositions of 18 sandstones plot in the mixed zone on a Qm-F-Lt plot, and the transitional continental and recycled orogenic zones on a Qt-F-L plot (Dickinson, 1985). Their compositions cluster and do not show any evolutionary trends, despite being sampled from a ~3000 m-thick sedimentary column. However, when combined with data from the Quinoas Formation (Late Eocene to Late Oligocene) and the Chacras Formation (Late Oligocene to Early Miocene), outcropped west of the study site (Carrapa et al., 2005), the Antofagasta samples mark the beginning of an evolving trend towards the dissected arc and transitional arc zones. We analyzed U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from eight samples. Four young grains from three samples near the top of S2 yield ages of 38-39.5 Ma. If these grains were derived from air-fall volcanics, they indicate a late Eocene depositional age for the studied strata, but otherwise they give a maximum age estimate. We tentatively favour the former interpretation. For all samples, detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra show significant late Cambrian to early Ordovician and Precambrian (~1000-1400 Ma, ~1700-1900 Ma) sources. The ~1000-1400 Ma cluster is well matched with ages from the Sierra de Maz, to the west. A minor Permian-Triassic source (~240-290 Ma) is also present which could reflect limited exposures of plutonic rocks west of the study site. Our work suggests that the ~3000 meter thick unit in the Antofagasta basin is time-equivalent of the Quinoas Formation and accumulated with a high sedimentation rate. The sediments were sourced primarily from the west, with little input from volcanics. The consistent western source regions and the rapid subsidence lead us to favour a foreland-type origin for the late Eocene Antofagasta Basin.

Zhou, Renjie; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Sobel, Edward R.; Carrapa, Barbara; Davis, Donald W.

2014-05-01

256

Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster Omega Centauri: Multimode Variability of SX Phoenecis Stars in the Central Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a view to applications of SX Phoenicis variables and RR Lyrae stars as tests of stellar models and as standard candles we study the globular cluster Omega Centauri. We use B, V, I data to give information on the physical properties of the stars and to search for low-amplitude oscillations of interest for asteroseismology. In May-June 1995 L.M. Freyhammer obtained about 1500 CCD frames mainly in the central part of Omega Cen, and in March 1996 he obtained about 250 CCD frames. Preliminary results on SX Phoenicis variables in the central region will be presented.

Freyhammer, L. M.; Andersen, M. I.; Petersen, J. O.

257

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests. Updated June 5, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States recognized the independence of the former Central Asian republics, supported their admission into Western organizations, and elicited Turkish support to counter Iranian influence in the reg...

J. Nichol

2006-01-01

258

78 FR 59924 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations, renewable portfolio standards, state resource planning policies, emerging technologies and fuels such as shale gas, price responsive demand and electric storage) and address their impacts on centralized capacity markets....

2013-09-30

259

78 FR 45521 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations, renewable portfolio standards, state resource planning policies, emerging technologies and fuels such as shale gas, price responsive demand and electric storage) and address their impacts on centralized capacity markets. 2:45...

2013-07-29

260

Particulate Air Pollution and Morbidity in the California Central Valley: A High Particulate Pollution Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between particulate air pollution and morbidity among the Kaiser Permanente (KP) membership who reside in the Central Valley (CV) of California. Daily augmented particulate matter (PM) monitoring ...

S. K. Van Den Eeden C. P. Quesenberry J. Shan F. Lurmann

2002-01-01

261

The influence of Tropical Pacific on hydrological pattern at the South America central region during two El Niño events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to see how wet and dry periods occurred over the central region of South America, could be associated to ENSO events with same sign. In this study we considered El Niño events occurred on 1972-1973 and on 1982-1983. South America central region during 1972-1973 was characterized by a drier climatic pattern in comparison to that occurred during 1982-1983. Precipitation, river outflow at South America region and sea surface temperature (SST) over Pacific and Indian oceans were used to identify linear correlation between ocean and continental regions. After verifying the linear relationship between these areas, filtered stream function at high tropospheric levels was used to identify the presence of possible wave trains patterns crossing the Pacific Ocean and influencing South America climatic pattern. During the 1972-1973 EN event, the SST positive anomaly observed to the west portion of Equatorial Pacific probably forced atmospheric fields and have extended its influence to the east portion of Pacific, reaching the data line. Actually, the SST anomaly area was placed very closed to the Nino3.4 region in this period. This surface pattern had been related to positive anomaly of stream function at tropospheric high level. From the positive anomalies of stream function over the central area of equatorial Pacific, a wave train pattern was observed crossing the south Pacific from west to east, and providing the appearance of negative stream function anomalies over the central area of South America. Negative stream function anomalies should be related to the strengthening of convergence or to divergence weakness at high levels. Them, we assume the strengthening of divergent movements at low atmospheric levels that could better explain drier pattern in the period of 1972-1973. On the other hand, the SST positive anomaly area observed on the 1982-1983 EN event was placed more to the east of the Pacific equatorial basin, closer to the Nino1.2 region. This displacement considered together to the SST negative anomalies observed on extratropical latitudes on both hemisphere over the second analyzed period probably lead to a wave train showing positive stream function anomalies at high atmospheric levels over the central part of South America. In relation to positive stream function anomalies at high atmospheric levels we could expect negative anomalies at low levels. This pattern can be related to wetter periods over the central part of South America during the period of 1982-1983. From these results, we assume that the positioning of forcing oceanic areas, even considering two El Niño events, is fundamental to analyze the repercussions of ENSO events around the globe, in particular over South America.

Batista Silva, Carlos; Siqueira Silva, Maria Elisa

2013-04-01

262

Gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region, Qinling mountains, central China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The gold-rich Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region in eastern Shaanxi and western Henan provinces, central China, lies about 30-50 km inland of the southern margin of the North China craton. More than 100 gold deposits and occurrences are concentrated in the Xiaoqinling (west), Xiaoshan (middle), and Xiong'ershan (east) areas. Late Archean gneiss of the Taihua Group, and Middle Proterozoic metavolcanic rocks of the Xiong'er Group are the main host rocks for the deposits. Mesozoic granitoids (ca. 178-104 Ma) are present in most gold districts, but deposits are typically hosted in the Precambrian basement rocks hundreds of meters to as far as 10 km from the intrusions and related hornfels zones. Deposits in the Xiaoqinling and Xiaoshan areas are best classified as orogenic gold deposits, with ores occurring in a number of distinct belts both in quartz veins and disseminated in altered metamorphic rocks. Alteration assemblages are dominated by quartz, sericite, pyrite, and carbonate minerals. The ore-forming fluids were low salinity, CO2-rich, and characterized by isotopically heavy ??18O. Four deposits (Dongchuang, Wenyu, Yangzhaiyu, and Dahu) in the Xiaoqinling area each contain resources of about 1 Moz Au. Some of the gold deposits in the Xiong'ershan area represent more shallowly emplaced tellurium-enriched orogenic systems, which include resources of approximately 1-1.5 Moz Au at Shanggong and Beiling (or Tantou). Others are epithermal deposits (e.g., Qiyugou and Dianfang) that are hosted in volcanic breccia pipes. Isotopic dates for all gold deposits, although often contradictory, generally cluster between 172-99 Ma and are coeval with emplacement of the post-kinematic granitoids. The gold deposits formed during a period of relaxation of far-field compressional stresses, clearly subsequent to the extensive Paleozoic-early Mesozoic accretion of are terranes and the Yangtze craton onto the southern margin of the North China craton. Hydrothermal and magmatic events occurred locally where extension-related Precambrian basement uplifting took place along the craton margin. Fluids for the orogenic gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling, Xiaoshan, and Xiong'ershan areas may have been released from evolving magmas or resulted from prograde metamorphic reactions within the uplift zones. Alternatively, for the epithermal gold deposits at shallower levels in the Xiong'ershan area, gold-transporting fluids were mainly exsolved from coeval magmas, although meteoric water was also involved in these hydrothermal systems.

Mao, J.; Goldfarb, R. J.; Zhang, Z.; Xu, W.; Qiu, Y.; Deng, J.

2002-01-01

263

Morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis miescheriana from pigs in the central region of China.  

PubMed

Sarcocystosis is an important food-borne parasitosis in humans and various animals. Sarcocystis miescheriana and Sarcocystis suihominis are pathogenic to pigs; S. suihominis is also distinctly pathogenic to humans. Intermediate and final hosts can harbor more than one Sarcocystis species, so the exact identification for Sarcocystis infection in various hosts is essential to control sarcocystosis in humans and important economic animals including pigs. In this study, four isolates of sarcocysts from slaughtered pigs (SmJY1-SmJY4) in the central region of China, in Henan province, were collected and examined by transmission electron microscopy and 18S rRNA sequence analysis to identify the Sarcocystis species in pigs in China. The results showed that cysts in the diaphragm muscles have a thick cyst wall with a number of palisade-like protrusions up to 4.38 ?m in length. Inside these protrusions, there were 13-16 fibrils per protrusion. Bradyzoites in cysts showed typical characteristics of Apicomplexa including a conoid, many micronemes, dense bodies, one big nucleus, and a number of amylopectin granules. These ultrastructural results suggest that characteristics of tissue cysts of the isolates SmJY1-SmJY4 were similar to those of S. miescheriana. The sequence similarities of SmJY1-SmJY4 with S. miescheriana were 99-99.5 %, and the sequence similarities of SmJY1-SmJY4 with S. suihominis were much lower. Results of the ultrastructural observation in combination with molecular characterization based on the 18S rRNA sequence represent the first demonstration of S. miescheriana in pigs in China. In addition, results of the histological examination showed that the cysts of S. miescheriana had two types of cyst wall, a palisade-like thick wall and another smoothly thin wall, and could cause obvious atrophy, degeneration, and necrosis of muscle fibers in the diaphragm of naturally infected pigs. These findings will provide an important reference for the examination of Sarcocystis species in the slaughter quarantine of live pigs and in the control of sarcocystosis in pigs. PMID:23224613

Yan, Wenchao; Qian, Weifeng; Li, Xiaojun; Wang, Tianqi; Ding, Ke; Huang, Tengfei

2013-03-01

264

Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction environment of groundwater. On the other hand, rate of samples exceeded the standards of nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen (10 mg/l) was about 15%, and maximum concentration was about 6 to 7 times the standard. Nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen were detected in shallow groundwater in most upland, with very intense pollution on the uplands in the northern part of the plain. Causes of the pollution were assumed as unsuitable treatments of livestock excrement, superfluous fertilization, leaking of living drainage and so on.

Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

2012-12-01

265

[A water-borne tularemia outbreak caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica in Central Anatolia region].  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated a waterborne tularemia outbreak occured in Kadiozu, a village of Cerkes county of Cankiri province (located in North-west part of central Anatolia, Turkey) between 18 November 2009-24 December 2009. Active surveillance was conducted to determine clinical characteristics and risk factors of cases after two patients from the same village had been diagnosed as oropharyngeal tularemia. All villagers were examined, and clinical specimens from cases and water samples which may be the source of outbreak in the field investigations were taken. Cases were in the form of oropharyngeal, glandular and pneumonic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cultures were conducted from lymph node aspirates, throat swabs taken from cases and samples from water sources of epidemic zone. All serum samples taken from the villagers were screened for F.tularensis antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT). Oropharyngeal tularemia was diagnosed in 11 patients, glandular form in 3 patients and pneumonic form in one patient according to clinical and laboratory results. Age of the patients ranged between 6-75 years old (mean age: 52.5 years) and thirty one of them (54.7%) were female. MAT titers ranged between 1/160 and 1/5120 in cases of tularemia. Causative agent was grown in the cultures of two patients (including a throat swab and a lymph node aspirate). F.tularensis DNA was shown by PCR in a throat swab and four lymph node aspirates. F.tularensis was also detected by PCR in the water sample obtained from one of the spring water commonly used by villagers. Only one of the lymph node samples obtained from two different patients, was positive by direct fluorescent antibody method. Causative agent was defined as F.tularensis subsp. holarctica by conventional and also molecular methods. Patients were treated with aminoglycoside (streptomycin, gentamicin, amikacin) or quinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) antibiotics. Treatment failure was observed in five patients, due to the delay in initiating treatment. Comparison of characteristics and risk factors for tularemia cases versus controls yielded age and contact with rodent excreta at home as potential risk factors (p= 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). The epidemic was controlled after cleaning the tank collecting spring water and chlorination of the water. Tularemia which is an emerging disease in Turkey is spreading to non-endemic regions and represent a significant threat for public health. PMID:21644066

Ulu K?l?ç, Ay?egül; K?l?ç, Selçuk; Sencan, Irfan; Ciçek ?entürk, Gönül; Gürbüz, Yunus; Tütüncü, Emin Ediz; Celebi, Bekir; K?c?man, Özlem; Ergönül, Önder

2011-04-01

266

Variables Affecting the Gingival Embrasure Space in Aesthetically Important Regions: Differences between Central and Lateral Papillae  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated different variables to determine their role in the appearance of the central and lateral upper jaw papillae. 292 interdental embrasures were examined. Personal variables were: age, smoke, and use of interproximal hygiene devices. The clinical characteristics were: tooth shape, periodontal biotype and papilla appearance. Radiographic measurements were: root to root distance at the cemento-enamel junction (horizontal distance), and bone crest to interdental contact point distance (vertical distance). The papilla recession increased with patient age. The horizontal distance of the central papilla was always greater (up to 1 mm) than that of the other papillae. The vertical distance of the central papilla was greater (up to 2 mm) than that of the other papillae for each class except for the normal one (Nordland & Tarnow classification). For vertical distances ?5 mm, papillae were almost always present; for distances up to 6 mm, the lateral papillae belonging to the normal class disappeared, while the central papilla remained in 11% of cases; central papillae of class 1 were present in larger proportions until a vertical distance of 8 mm. The present observational study shows that differences on clinical and radiographic determinants do exist between central and lateral papillae. This variance should be strictly taken in account for a harmonious and stable treatment outcome on this highly aesthetic area.

Montevecchi, Marco; Checchi, Vittorio; Piana, Laura; Checchi, Luigi

2011-01-01

267

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor expands hematopoietic stem cells within the central but not endosteal bone marrow region.  

PubMed

Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is clinically well established for the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Extensive data on the underlying mechanism of G-CSF induced mobilization is available; however, little is known regarding the functional effect of G-CSF on HSC within the bone marrow (BM). In this study we analyzed the proportion and number of murine HSC in the endosteal and central bone marrow regions after 4 days of G-CSF administration. We demonstrate that the number of HSC, defined as CD150(+)CD48(-)LSK cells (LSKSLAM cells), increased within the central BM region in response to G-CSF, but not within the endosteal BM region. In addition the level of CD150 and CD48 expression also increased on cells isolated from both regions. We further showed that G-CSF mobilized proportionally fewer LSKSLAM compared to LSK cells, mobilized LSKSLAM had colony forming potential and the presence of these cells can be used as a measure for mobilization efficiency. Together we provide evidence that HSC in the BM respond differently to G-CSF and this is dependent on their location. These findings will be valuable in developing new agents which specifically mobilize HSC from the endosteal BM region, which we have previously demonstrated to have significantly greater hematopoietic potential compared to their phenotypically identical counterparts located in other regions of the BM. PMID:22341722

Grassinger, Jochen; Williams, Brenda; Olsen, Gemma H; Haylock, David N; Nilsson, Susan K

2012-05-01

268

Determining Regional Carbon Emissions Under Variable Fire Regimes in Central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone is a region of global significance in terms of climate change impacts and carbon storage. Wildfires are the dominant disturbance regime here, currently burning 10 to 15 million ha annually depending upon burning conditions. Fires are projected to increase in both frequency and severity across Siberia under climate change. Changes in boreal fire regimes can be expected to lead to large changes in patterns of burn severity, with attendant effects on emissions per unit burned area and on postfire vegetation recovery. Developing accurate regional to continental estimates of carbon emissions from wildfires in Siberia requires data and models that will enable us to accurately quantify not only the areas that are burned annually, but the emissions per unit of burned area for fires of widely varying characteristics. Fire emissions are a function of the site specific fuel loading and structure, the burning conditions, and the amount of fuel consumed in a fire, all of which combine to determine the way a fire behaves and the amount of fuel that is burned. It is important in the accurate modeling of fire severity to be able to account for the heterogeneous nature of fire behavior. This is due to the constant changes in daily burning conditions, topography, and wildland fuel types. We have carried out a series of 20 experimental burns in Scots pine and larch forests of central Siberia under a variety of conditions to develop data and models that will allow us to integrate remote sensing data on active fire and burned areas with information on fuel condition and fire weather to estimate the impact of wildfires over large areas. Our research has shown that emissions from surface fires, which during normal fire years comprise roughly 80% of all fires, may range up to 3-fold as a function of the fuel type and the weather conditions preceding and during a fire. Emissions from crown fires may add another 7-15%, depending on the intensity of the fire and on crown structure. By correlating field data on fire behavior (e.g., rates of spread, energy release) and fuel consumption on these fires, we have developed models that relate these characteristics to elements of the Canadian Fire Behavior Prediction System or the Russian Moisture Index. We are now beginning to use these relationships to estimate the emissions from fires in pine and larch stands over large geographic areas of Siberia. They also have the potential to enable us to predict carbon emissions from active fires and from increased fires that might occur in the future under changing climate. Using emission factors derived from experimental fires, we can also project the emissions of various greenhouse gases and aerosols. Projecting future fire regimes and impacts of fire on carbon storage and atmospheric chemistry under a changing climate requires a baseline of recent fire activity that can be coupled with weather data and emission data to quantify past effects. This information can then be linked to outputs of climate models and projections of potential future vegetation change to predict future burned areas, fire severity and impacts on carbon storage and atmospheric chemistry.

Hao, W.; McRae, M. J.; Conard, S. G.; Ivanova, G. A.; Baker, S. P.; Sukhinin, A. I.

2007-12-01

269

Past earthquake history and seismic hazard in Fucino region, Central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 36Cl exposure dating (Schlagenhauf et al. 2009), we have recovered the Holocene earthquake history (in last ?14 ka) of three large active normal faults (Magnola, Velino, Trasacco) in the Fucino region, Central Italy (last large earthquake in 1915, 30 000 casualties), nearby L'Aquila (last large earthquake in April 2009, 300 casualties). Magnola (L ~13 km) and Velino (L ~12 km) are parts of a ~45 km-long NNW-striking fault system (‘western Fucino north' or WFN), while Trasacco (L ~30 km) is part of another yet adjacent fault system. We have analyzed the 36Cl content of 400 exhumed scarp samples collected at 6 sites along the faults, 4 on Magnola, one on Velino, and one on Trasacco. The Magnola and Velino faults broke concurrently in the past. Their rupturing occurred in phases apparently cycling at three different time scales: 1) The Magnola-Velino system primarily broke in discrete phases of paroxysmal activity (11-7.5 ka, then 5-3.5 ka), each lasting 2-4 ka, separated by ~3 kyrs-long quiescence phases. The paroxysmal phases actually led to the breakage of the entire WFN system. 2) During each paroxysmal phase, 3-4 large ‘rupture episodes' occurred at 0.5-1 ka intervals, each producing at most 1.5-3 m of vertical slip on the faults. In more detail, the last major rupture episodes to have broken the Magnola and Velino faults occurred ~13.7, 10.7, 9.2, 8.5, 7.4, 4.8, 3.8, 3.3, and 1.1 ka ago (uncertainties of 0.5-1 ka on average). 3) Each of those rupture episodes seems to have been an earthquake sequence, made of several large earthquakes repeating at short time intervals (a few 10-100 yrs) and breaking in cascade the entire WFN fault system. If each earthquake broke a single major fault within the WFN system, the magnitudes estimated for those earthquakes are ~6.5-6.9. The adjacent Trasacco fault shows a similar behavior, as it primarily broke during two 2-3 kyrs-long periods of paroxysmal activity, at 14.5-12 ka and 8.5-6.5 ka, which thus do not coincide in time with those recognized on the Magnola-Velino system. Assuming that the faults reload at a constant rate (mean slip rate estimated from our measurements), our data suggest that the faults have entered a paroxysmal phase when they had reached a certain threshold of cumulative strain. Though the Magnola-Velino fault system has not broken since long (?1.1 ka), the cumulative strain it has accommodated since then is still far below the threshold discussed above. By contrast, though part of the Trasacco fault has broken less than a century ago (1915), the fault is approaching the cumulative strain threshold from which it may enter in a paroxysmal phase. Though those results need further refinements, they suggest that seismic hazard in the Fucino region is high. References : Schlagenhauf A., Gaudemer Y., Benedetti L., Manighetti I., Palumbo L, Schimmelpfennig I., Finkel R., and Pou K. Using in-situ Chlorine-36 cosmonuclide to recover past earthquake histories on limestone normal fault scarps: A reappraisal of methodology and interpretations; in revision Geophys. J. Int., 2009

Schlagenhauf, Aloe; Manighetti, Isabelle; Benedetti, Lucilla; Gaudemer, Yves; Pou, Khemrak

2010-05-01

270

Past earthquake history and seismic hazard in Fucino region, Central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the reappraised 36Cl exposure dating protocol developed by Schlagenhauf et al. (Schlagenhauf et al., Using in-situ Chlorine-36 cosmonuclide to recover past earthquake histories on limestone normal fault scarps: A reappraisal of methodology and interpretations; Submitted to Geophys. J. Int., 2009; see also Benedetti et al., this meeting), we have recovered the Holocene earthquake history (in last 14 ka) of three important active normal faults (Magnola, Velino, Trasacco) in the Fucino region (Central Italy), site of a Mw 7 devastating earthquake in 1915, and a few km south of L’Aquila where the April 2009 earthquake occurred. Magnola (L: 13 km) and Velino (L: 12 km) are parts of a 45 km-long NNW-striking fault system (‘Western Fucino north’ or WFN), while Trasacco (L: 30 km) is part of another yet adjacent fault system. We have analyzed the 36Cl content of 400 exhumed scarp samples collected at 6 sites along the faults, 4 on Magnola, one on Velino, and one on Trasacco. The modeling of the 36Cl profiles yield similar earthquake ages at the 5 sites along Magnola and Velino, suggesting that the two faults broke concurrently in the past, about 13.7, 10.7, 9.2, 8.5, 7.4, 4.8, 3.8, 3.3, and 1.1 ka ago (average uncertainties of 0.5-1 ka). Their rupturing occurred in phases apparently cycling at three different time scales: 1) The Magnola-Velino system primarily broke in discrete phases of paroxysmal activity (11-7.5 ka, then 5-3.5 ka), each lasting 2-4 ka, separated by 3 kyrs-long quiescence phases. The paroxysmal phases led to the breakage of the entire WFN system. 2) During each paroxysmal phase, 3-4 large ‘rupture episodes’ occurred at 0.5-1 ka intervals, each producing at most 1.5-3 m of vertical slip on the faults. 3) Each of those rupture episodes seems to have been an earthquake sequence, made of several large earthquakes repeating at short time intervals (a few 10-100 yrs) and breaking in cascade the entire WFN fault system. If each earthquake broke a single major fault within the WFN system, the maximum magnitudes estimated for those earthquakes are 6.5-6.9. In the Fucino plain, the adjacent Trasacco fault shows a similar behavior, as it primarily broke during two 2-3 kyrs-long periods of paroxysmal activity, at 14.5-12 and 8.5-6.5 ka, which thus do not coincide in time with those recognized on the Magnola-Velino system. Assuming that the faults reload at a constant rate (mean slip rate estimated from our measurements), our data suggest that the faults have entered a paroxysmal phase when they had reached a certain threshold of cumulative strain. Though the Magnola-Velino fault system has not broken since long (about 1 ka), the cumulative strain it has accommodated since then is still below the threshold discussed above. By contrast, though part of the Trasacco fault has broken less than a century ago (1915), the fault is approaching the cumulative strain threshold from which it may enter in a paroxysmal phase. Though those results need further refinements, they suggest that seismic hazard in the Fucino region is high.

Schlagenhauf, A.; Manighetti, I.; Benedetti, L. C.; Gaudemer, Y.; Pou, K.

2009-12-01

271

The emplacement of the granitic Las Tazas complex, northern Chile: the relationship between local and regional strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coastal batholith of northern Chile grew under transtensional–extensional conditions that prevailed along the Andean margin during the Mesozoic. The batholith hosts the Atacama Fault Zone, a major arc-parallel fault system which was characterised by sinistral transtensional shearing during the Early Cretaceous. The Las Tazas complex is a composite granitoid intrusion that was emplaced syntectonically along the Atacama Fault Zone

Jeff Wilson; John Grocott

1999-01-01

272

Occult hepatitis B virus infection among injecting drug users in the Central-West Region of Brazil  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was investigated in 149 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Of these individuals, 19 were positive for HBV DNA, resulting in an occult HBV infection prevalence of 12.7% (19/149); six of these 19 individuals had anti-HBV core and/or anti-HBV surface antibodies and 13 were negative for HBV markers. All IDUs with occult hepatitis B reported sexual and/or parenteral risk behaviours. All HBV DNA-positive samples were successfully genotyped. Genotype D was the most common (17/19), followed by genotype A (2/19). These findings reveal a high prevalence of occult HBV infection and the predominance of genotype D among IDUs in Brazil's Central-West Region.

de Matos, Marcia Alves Dias; Ferreira, Renata Carneiro; Rodrigues, Fabiana Perez; Marinho, Tamiris Augusto; Lopes, Carmen Luci Rodrigues; Novais, Antonia Carlos Magalhaes; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Souto, Francisco Jose Dutra; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel

2013-01-01

273

[Monitoring of the levels of metals in the bottom sediments of rivers in the central area of the Orenburg Region].  

PubMed

Among the pollutants of the biosphere, heavy metals present the greatest hazard since they show a high stability and toxicity and are able to migrate in the water ecosystems and to accumulate in the bottom sediments and hydrocoles, by impairing the stability of hydrobiocenoses. Chemical monitoring of the level of bottom sediments of rivers was made in the Central district of the Orenburg Region. Samples were taken at 11 stations of the Central district of the region and 5 stations in a district of Orenburg. The analysis of the findings indicated that the content of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium in the bottom sediment samples was not greater than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) at any station and that of nickel did not exceed MPC by 1.3-2.6 times. PMID:20143493

Solovykh, G N; Golinskaia, L V; Shustova, N V

2009-01-01

274

X-ray monitoring of classical novae in the central region of M 31. II. Autumn and winter 2007\\/2008 and 2008\\/2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. Classical novae (CNe) represent the major class of supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) in the central region of the galaxy M 31. Aims: We performed a dedicated monitoring of the M 31 central region with XMM-Newton and Chandra between Nov. 2007 and Feb. 2008 and between Nov. 2008 and Feb. 2009, respectively, to find SSS counterparts of CNe, determine the

M. Henze; W. Pietsch; F. Haberl; M. Hernanz; G. Sala; D. Hatzidimitriou; M. Della Valle; A. Rau; D. H. Hartmann; V. Burwitz

2011-01-01

275

Groundwater quality, nitrate pollution and irrigation environmental management in the Neogene sediments of an agricultural region in central Thessaly (Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of groundwater quality, which has been noted in the recent years, is closely connected to the intensification\\u000a of agriculture, the unreasonable use of chemical fertilizers and the excess consumption of large volumes of irrigation water.\\u000a In the hilly region of central Thessaly in Greece, which suffers the consequences of intense agricultural use, a hydrogeological\\u000a study is carried out,

G. Stamatis; K. Parpodis; ?. Filintas; ?. Zagana

276

Rare earth element and clay minerals of paddy soils from the central region of the Mekong River, Laos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rare earth elements (REE) content, particle-size distribution, and clay mineralogical composition were analyzed for the paddy soils collected from the central region of the Mekong River, Laos, to study the origin and inherent potentiality of soils. REE as the chondrite-normalized curve of the plot of Ce\\/Eu against Eu\\/Sm were found to be useful for grouping soils according to their

K. Egashira; K. Fujii; S. Yamasaki; P. Virakornphanich

1997-01-01

277

Late Miocene continental birds from the Cerro Azul Formation in the Pampean region (central-southern Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cenizo, M.M., Tambussi, C.P. & Montalvo, C.I., iFirst Article. Late Miocene continental birds from the Cerro Azul Formation in the Pampean region (central-southern Argentina). Alcheringa, 1–22. ISSN 0311-5518.The oldest known birds from the Cerro Azul Formation are described, including the oldest records for the genera Eudromia and Nothura (Tinamidae), Milvago (Falconidae), Pterocnemia (Rheidae) and an undetermined Tyrannidae. The first remains

Marcos Martín Cenizo; Claudia Patricia Tambussi; Claudia Inés Montalvo

2012-01-01

278

Strongly Localized Potential Profile Measurements Through Stark Effects in the Central Core Region of an Inertial Electrostatic Fusion Device  

SciTech Connect

Strongly localized electric fields were measured in the central cathode helium plasma core region of an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) by the degree of polarization and by the longitudinal alignment methods. Both results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center in excellent agreement. The decay time of the excited states is found to indicate least effects by the collisions to ensure the LIF method.

Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto University (Japan); Takiyama, Ken [Hiroshima University (Japan); Masuda, Kai [Kyoto University (Japan); Toku, Hisayuki [Kyoto University (Japan); Koyama, Takahiro [Kyoto University (Japan); Taruya, Kenji [Kyoto University (Japan); Hashimoto, Hirofumi [Kyoto University (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Kyoto University (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Kansai University (Japan); Horiike, Hiroshi [Osaka University (Japan); Inoue, Nobuyuki [Kyoto University (Japan)

2001-05-15

279

RCM ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulation of 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 climate over the Central Europe region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional climate model ALADIN-Climate/CZ is employed within the frame of the EU FP6 project CECILIA to provide high-resolution information on future climate conditions over the region of Central Europe. The regional climate model is driven by GCM ARPEGE-Climate with the IPCC A1B emission scenario. Here we present the investigation of the scenario run results with emphasis on the region of the Czech Republic, Austria and Slovakia. The obtained results are compared to both 1961-1990 historic run outputs (forced by GCM ARPEGE-Climate) and the present time climatological observations from available datasets, including the set of station data provided by the project's partners. Corrected model outputs are in the end analyzed with regard to extreme events (air temperature and precipitation).

Stepanek, P.; Skalak, P.; Farda, A.

2009-04-01

280

Winter fog is decreasing in the fruit growing region of the Central Valley of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Valley of California is home to a variety of fruit and nut trees. These trees account for 95% of the U.S. production, but they need a sufficient amount of winter chill to achieve rest and quiescence for the next season's buds and flowers. In prior work, we reported that the accumulation of winter chill is declining in the Central Valley. We hypothesize that a reduction in winter fog is cooccurring and is contributing to the reduction in winter chill. We examined a 33 year record of satellite remote sensing to develop a fog climatology for the Central Valley. We find that the number of winter fog events, integrated spatially, decreased 46%, on average, over 32 winters, with much year to year variability. Less fog means warmer air and an increase in the energy balance on buds, which amplifies their warming, reducing their chill accumulation more.

Baldocchi, Dennis; Waller, Eric

2014-05-01

281

The Large-Scale Oscillations Influence Over the Interdecadal Climate Variability in Mexico's Central Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate in the highlands of Mexico displays high variability due to its complex terrain and elevation. The knowledge to elucidate the principal forcings of these variations can be useful for forecasting annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation over this area. Due to its complexity a small area in the highlands was delimited with defined physical boundaries, encompassing several states of Mexico. The study area was defined as Mexico's Central Region (MCR), which is located between 19.5 ° - 22.5 ° N and 98.5 ° - 104 ° W. Most of this area overlies the plateau of Anahuac, whose physical boundaries extend to the north from the "Sierras Transversales" (composed by the "Sierra de Zacatecas", the "Sierra de la "Breña" and the "Sierra de San Luis") to the "Eje Neovolcánico" to the south; east and west boundaries are confined by the "Sierra Madre Oriental" and the "Sierra Madre Occidental", respectively. Daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation series from a total of 112 weather stations were obtained from CLICOM and ERICIII databases. Several climatic indices with average periods of phase oscillations greater than five years, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDOI), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMOI), The Arctic Oscillation (AOI), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAOI), and Aleutian Low Pressure (ALPI) on a monthly basis for all series, except the ALPI series which is on annual rate, were also used in this study. Indices data were obtained from the web site http://www.cicimar.ipn.mx/oacis/Indices_Climaticos.php/. The common period of all series was 1961-2000. We applied Principal Component Analysis to precipitation and temperature series to identify the principal modes of variation of the series. The first mode explained more than 68% of the variance in the original series and corresponds to annual variations. Contour maps were useful to elucidate that temperature variations are highly correlated with the terrain elevation, and that the variation of precipitation results from a combined effect between altitude and distance from the seaboard. Correlations between climatic indices and standardized anomalies of temperature and precipitation series were computed. Correlation analysis was applied first with no time lag between the series, and then until the lag offsetting was equal to half the average of each oscillation period of the series. In all cases the climatic index preceded the temperature and precipitation series. Significant correlations were found through the calculations. The strongest correlations were found between the ALPI and temperature, and precipitation series; Correlation between climatic indices and the maximum temperature was stronger than correlation between climatic indices and the other variables. The NAOI displays low correlation with temperature and precipitation series, so we conclude that North Atlantic Oscillation does not influence significantly to the climate variability of MCR.

Jofre, R.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Tereshchenko, I.; Atmospheric Sciences Climatology Climate Variability

2013-05-01

282

HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations among Patients from the North, Central and South Regions of Angola  

PubMed Central

Background Angola presents a very complex HIV-1 epidemic characterized by the co-circulation of several HIV-1 group M subtypes, intersubtype recombinants and unclassified (U) variants. The viral diversity outside the major metropolitan regions (Luanda and Cabinda) and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (DRM) since the introduction of HAART in 2004, however, has been barely studied. Methods One hundred and one individuals from the Central (n?=?44), North (n?=?35), and South (n?=?22) regions of Angola were diagnosed as HIV-1 positive and had their blood collected between 2008 and 2010, at one of the National Referral Centers for HIV diagnosis, the Kifangondo Medical Center, located in the border between the Luanda and Bengo provinces. Angolan samples were genotyped based on phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses of the pol (PR/RT) gene and their drug resistance profile was analyzed. Results Among the 101 samples analyzed, 51% clustered within a pure group M subtype, 42% were classified as intersubtype recombinants, and 7% were denoted as U. We observed an important variation in the prevalence of different HIV-1 genetic variants among country regions, with high frequency of subtype F1 in the North (20%), intersubtype recombinants in the Central (42%), and subtype C in the South (45%). Statistically significant difference in HIV-1 clade distribution was only observed in subtype C prevalence between North vs South (p?=?0.0005) and Central vs South (p?=?0.0012) regions. DRM to NRTI and/or NNRTI were detected in 16.3% of patients analyzed. Conclusions These results demonstrate a heterogeneous distribution of HIV-1 genetic variants across different regions in Angola and also revealed an unexpected high frequency of DRM to RT inhibitors in patients that have reported no antiretroviral usage, which may decrease the efficiency of the standard first-line antiretroviral regimens currently used in the country.

Afonso, Joana Morais; Bello, Gonzalo; Guimaraes, Monick L.; Sojka, Marta; Morgado, Mariza G.

2012-01-01

283

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests. Updated August 10, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. policy toward the Central Asian states has aimed at facilitating their cooperation with U.S. and NATO stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and their efforts to combat terrorism, proliferation, and trafficking in arms, drugs, and persons. Other U.S. o...

J. Nichol

2010-01-01

284

Who’s Socialising Whom? Regional Organisations and Contested Norms in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) represent competing sets of international norms in Central Asia. The contestation between these sets of norms has not led to a complete polarisation between members of the two organisations, however. Instead, the OSCE has used a range of discursive tactics to reduce political contestation, downplaying

David Lewis

2012-01-01

285

Regional Variations in Educational Centralization: The Influences of Interest Groups and State Education Agencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines relationships between measures of educational interest group strength, the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) and the National Education Association (NEA); characteristics of state education agencies (SEA); and selected indicators of educational policy centralization. The more specific purpose of this study is the discovery…

Clark, Jill; Brunger, Melinda

286

Biogeography of subterranean decapods in North and Central America and the Caribbean region (Caridea, Astacidea, Brachyura)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant number of decapod crustaceans (81 troglobites and 58 other cavernicoles) has been described from various subterranean waters in North and Central America (United States south to Costa Rica) and from the islands in the western north Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea, posing puzzling questions concerning their evolution and biogeography. Of these troglobitic species, 36 are shrimps (1 procarid,

Horton H. Hobbs

1994-01-01

287

Regional geology of nuclear Central America and petroleum prospects of Belize  

SciTech Connect

The subsurface stratigraphy and structural evolution of nuclear Central American are reviewed in the light of new data from Belize. The northern Belize Corozal basin is the southern continuation of the Yucatan platform of Mexico and the eastern extension of the Peten basin of Mexico and Guatemala. The southern Belize basin is contiguous with the Chapayal basin of Guatemala.

Rao, P.R.; Nair, K.M.; Ramanathan, R.

1989-03-01

288

Centralized incineration treatment of infectious waste for regional hospitals in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan has a high population density. Recently, rapid advances of medical activities have caused an environmental problem in managing the wastes generated by hospitals or clinics. Government regulations, public concern and an increased commitment to a clean environment have also brought more attention to the handling problems of medical waste. A project to plan and manage the first centralized incineration

Yu-Min Chang

1995-01-01

289

Aeromagnetic and Gravity Data Reveal Crustal Structure and Tectonic History of the Central Transantarctic Mountains Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near complete coverage of the East Antarctic shield by ice hampers geological study of the crustal architecture important for understanding global tectonic and climate history. Limited exposures in the central Transantarctic Mountains, however, show that Archean and Proterozoic rocks of the shield as well as Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic sedimentary successions were deformed during oblique convergence associated with Gondwana amalgamation. Subsequently, the

J. Goodge; C. Finn; D. Damaske; J. Abraham; H. Moeller; E. Anderson; N. Roland; F. Goldmann; P. Braddock; M. Rieser

2004-01-01

290

Regional climate model simulation of precipitation in central Asia: Mean and interannual variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how well the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) regional climate model (RegCM2) simulates the mean and interannual variability of precipitation in a semiarid region to more fully establish the strengths and weaknesses of the model as a tool for studying regional scale climate processes. We compare precipitation observations with RegCM2 output from a 5.5 year long simulation

Eric E. Small; Filippo Giorgi; Lisa Cirbus Sloan

1999-01-01

291

A Multi-wavelength View of the Central Kiloparsec Region in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ~100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Pa?, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 ?m emission, as well as the Pa? line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Pa? map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r <~ 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Alberdi, Antxon; Colina, Luis; Efstathiou, Andreas; Hernández-García, Lorena; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Väisänen, Petri; Packham, Christopher C.; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Zijlstra, Albert A.

2014-05-01

292

Regional Climate Change Scenarios in High Resolution for Impact Assessment in Central and Eastern Europe - Project CECILIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance and distribution. Project EC FP6 CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment) is studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in very high resolution of 10 km. The impacts on agriculture, forestry, hydrology and air-quality are studied within the project, and precise information from regional climate simulations is necessary. Basic validation and verification of ERA40 driven simulations by RegCM and ALADIN-Climate used for simulations in targeted regions as well as discussion of the climate change signal in these regions for time slices 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 is provided with respect to control period 1961-1990. Some impact applications in the sectors mentioned above will be shown as well.

Halenka, T.

2009-09-01

293

Evolution of Surface Water Extent in the Boreal Regions of Central Siberia During the 1988 to 2003 Summers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic warming has accelerated since the 1980s, driving an array of complex and ecological changes in the boreal regions. A recent study concluded that climate warming on high latitude permafrost-controlled lakes and wetlands may well be the cause of their widespread disappearance. In this paper we analyse 15 years of passive microwave SSM/I data from 1988 until 2003, to estimate the timing of snowmelt and the evolution of surface water extent during the summer. We consider an area in Central Siberia that includes the Ob river basin and we divide it into 3 regions according to the type of permafrost (the region of continuous permafrost with average temperatures less then -7°C, the region of discontinuous permafrost with average temperatures between -7°C and -1°C, and the southern area with average ground temperatures higher than -1°C). Over the 15 years period analysed the surface water extent in July and August decreased in the continuous permafrost region while it increased in the discontinuous permafrost and in the southern regions. These trends are interpreted by comparison with trends in snowmelt timings as well as temperatures and precipitation in each permafrost region.

Mognard, N. M.; Grippa, M.; Biancamaria, S.; Letoan, T.

2005-12-01

294

Quantification of the impact of moisture source regions on the oxygen isotope composition of precipitation over Eagle Cave, central Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 5-day reconstruction of air mass history for the days with precipitation at Eagle Cave (central Spain), together with the determination of moisture uptake locations along back trajectories, is used to identify the moisture sources of precipitation for this site from 2009 to 2011. During this 3-year period, around 30% of precipitation at Eagle Cave originated from the moisture recycled within the Iberian Peninsula (IP), with the Proximal Atlantic being also a main source region of moisture, whereas the Mediterranean Sea and the Distal Atlantic have large variability during the studied period and other source regions are minor precipitation contributors. The comparison of monthly oxygen isotope composition of precipitation at Eagle Cave with the monthly percentage of precipitation originated in source regions shows a significant negative correlation for the IP region. Thus, the moisture recycling process in the IP region explains 12% of the variability of the monthly oxygen isotope composition of precipitation (p-value < 0.1). However, when temperature, amount of precipitation and all source regions are considered, 74% of the variability of the monthly oxygen isotope composition of precipitation is explained (p-value < 0.05). Therefore, although for Eagle Cave amount of precipitation and temperature are main contributors of the precipitation oxygen isotope variability (r2 = 0.54; p-value < 0.001), the moisture uptake distribution among source regions is a substantial control and should be considered when interpreting oxygen isotope speleothem records from this cave. This

Krklec, Kristina; Domínguez-Villar, David

2014-06-01

295

Regional status, epidemiology and impact of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Western and Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, Taenia solium cysticercosis in both pigs and man has been reported in Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal and Togo, and although official data are lacking, T. solium is anticipated to be present in most of the pig-raising regions of other West African countries as well. In some regions of Nigeria, the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and

André Zoli; Oliver Shey-Njila; Emmanuel Assana; Jean-Pierre Nguekam; Pierre Dorny; Jef Brandt; Stanny Geerts

2003-01-01

296

Natural infection of Anaplasma platys in dogs from Umbria region (Central Italy).  

PubMed

Anaplasma platys is a tick-borne pathogen causing the Infectious Canine Cyclic Thrombocytopenia. The pathogenesis of this disease is not yet well understood, due to the wide variety of clinico-pathological patterns described worldwide and to the high prevalence of co-infections with other vector-borne pathogens occurring in endemic areas. The present paper reports 3 cases of infection by A. platys occurring in dogs native to Central Italy, considered a non-endemic area to date. Infections were initially diagnosed based on clinical data and observation of morulae within platelets and then confirmed by biomolecular techniques. Moreover, two dogs showed an immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, as yet not described in literature in association with A. platys infection. The symptoms and the pathological findings observed will be discussed, as well as the importance to include this pathogen in the differential diagnosis of tick-borne diseases even in Central Italy. PMID:24715593

Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Morganti, Giulia; Mangili, Vittorio; Fruganti, Gabriele; Miglio, Arianna

2014-03-31

297

Warm gas in central regions of nearby galaxies. Extended mapping of CO(3-2) emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have mapped the CO(3-2) line emission from several nearby galaxies, using the Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope on Mt. Graham, Arizona. Unlike earlier observations, our investigation is not restricted to starburst galaxies, but includes twelve galaxies of various types and in different stages of star forming activity. Furthermore, we have not only observed the central positions of these objects, but have obtained maps

M. Dumke; Ch. Nieten; G. Thuma; R. Wielebinski; W. Walsh

2001-01-01

298

Metal concentration and X-ray cool spectral component in the central region of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spatially resolved energy spectra in the energy range 0.5-10 keV have been measured for the Centaurus cluster of galaxies with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). Within 10 min (200 kpc) from the cluster center, the helium-like iron K emission line exhibits a dramatic increase toward the center rising from an equivalent width approximately 500 eV to approximately 1500 eV corresponding to an abundance change from 0.3 to 1.0 solar. The presence of strong iron L lines indicates an additional cool component (kT approximately 1 keV) within 10 min from the center. The cool component requires absorption in excess of the galactic value and this excess absorption increases towards the central region of the cluster. In the surrounding region with radius greater than 10 min, the spectra are well described by a single temperature thermal model with kT approximately 4 keV and spatially uniform abundances at about 0.3-0.4 times solar. The detection of metal-rich hot and cool gas in the cluster center implies a complex nature of the central cluster gas which is likely to be related to the presence of the central cD galaxy NGC 4696.

Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ohashi, Takaya; Fabian, Andrew C.; Canizares, Claude R.; Ikebe, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Yamashita, Koujun

1994-01-01

299

Historical experience in the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis in the plain region of Eastern and Central China.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) (kala-azar) was most seriously prevalent in the plain regions of eight provinces/municipalities in the eastern and central parts of China. In the early 1950s, the number of counties/cities endemic for VL and the number of cases in the plain regions accounted for 60% and 80%, respectively, of the total numbers in the entire country. By implementing comprehensive control measures, including treatment of patients for eliminating the source of infection and spraying insecticide in endemic villages to kill sandflies, VL transmission has been brought under control in this region by the early 1960s, and no new infected cases have been found since 1983, achieving the goal of eliminating VL. PMID:24650707

Guan, Li-Ren; Wu, Zhong-Xing

2014-01-01

300

Historical experience in the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis in the plain region of Eastern and Central China  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) (kala-azar) was most seriously prevalent in the plain regions of eight provinces/municipalities in the eastern and central parts of China. In the early 1950s, the number of counties/cities endemic for VL and the number of cases in the plain regions accounted for 60% and 80%, respectively, of the total numbers in the entire country. By implementing comprehensive control measures, including treatment of patients for eliminating the source of infection and spraying insecticide in endemic villages to kill sandflies, VL transmission has been brought under control in this region by the early 1960s, and no new infected cases have been found since 1983, achieving the goal of eliminating VL.

2014-01-01

301

R-HydroNET: A Regional, Electronic, Hydrographic Data Network for South America, Central America, and the Caribbean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Hydrology Research Group at the University of New Hampshire provides this excellent resource on regional hydrometeorological data for South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. Available in English, Spanish, or Portuguese, the data are organized by geographic location. Two large data sets are available to the general public: Monthly Time Series and Climatological (site-specific resolution) Hydrometeorological Data Sets, and Monthly Temperature and Precipitation Data Sets (30-minute spatial scale resolution). Data may be downloaded by country/ region (.zip, .tar, ascii, or .ps formats). Given the general paucity of publicly available, baseline information for this important region, R-HydroNET is a solid template upon which future data may be added.

302

Advective heat transport associated with regional Earth degassing in central Apennine (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we show that the main springs of the central Apennine transport a total amount of heat of ˜2.2×109 J s-1. Most of this heat (57%) is the result of geothermal warming while the remaining 43% is due to gravitational potential energy dissipation. This result indicates that a large area of the central Apennines is very hot with heat flux values >300 mW m-2. These values are higher than those measured in the magmatic and famously geothermal provinces of Tuscany and Latium and about 1/3 of the total heat discharged at Yellowstone. This finding is surprising because the central Apennines have been thought to be a relatively cold area. Translated by CO2 rich fluids, this heat anomaly suggests the existence of a thermal source such as a large magmatic intrusion at depth. Recent tomographic images of the area support the presence of such an intrusion visible as a broad negative velocity anomaly in seismic waves. Our results indicate that the thermal regime of tectonically active areas of the Earth, where meteoric waters infiltrate and deeply circulate, should be revised on the basis of mass and energy balances of the groundwater systems.

Chiodini, G.; Cardellini, C.; Caliro, S.; Chiarabba, C.; Frondini, F.

2013-07-01

303

Improved Phase Characterization of Far-Regional Body Wave Arrivals in Central Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At far-regional and near-teleseismic distances the early body-wave coda contains information that is potentially useful to monitoring seismologists. However, waveforms from this distance range are typically under- utilized because of propagation complexit...

A. Ferris A. Stroujkova D. Reiter

2008-01-01

304

Household risk factors associated to infestation of Triatoma dimidiata, the Chagas disease vector in Central Region of Veracruz, Mexico.  

PubMed

Objective. To evaluate risk factors facilitating the colonization of dwellings by Triatoma dimidiata in the central region of the state of Veracruz. Materials and methods. We applied socioeconomic questionnaires and entomologic surveys in three localities (Chavarrillo, Soyacuautla and Arroyo Agrio) in central Veracruz involving 115 households. Results. We found that the main risk factors were the predominance of unplastered walls and particularly those made of light weight aggregate concrete blocks and wood. At Chavarrillo, houses usually have unplastered walls, whereas in Soyocuautla walls are commonly manufactured with wood. In Arroyo Agrio, the phenomenon was seasonal, and bugs were commonly found in the dry season, particularly in relatively new houses, less than 20 years old. Conclusions. These results help to improve the surveillance capacity for this vector and the control strategies to reduce the transmission of Chagas disease in the state of Veracruz and other sites where this species is present. PMID:25014428

Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Guevara, Roger; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio

2014-04-01

305

Regional climate change scenarios - benefits of modeling in high resolution for Central and Eastern Europe in Project CECILIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project EC FP6 CECILIA - Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment is studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in high resolution. The impacts on agriculture, forestry, hydrology and air-quality are studied. Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance. In addition to basic verification based on ERA40 driven simulations the comparison of the RegCM results to the driving fields in scenarios runs by ECHAM5 GCM for time slices 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 are provided with respect to control period 1961-1990 analyzing the benefits of high resolution performance at 10km grid.

Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Miksovsky, J.

2009-04-01

306

On the use of global potential field models for regional interpretation of the West and Central African Rift System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use in regional interpretations of the Earth Gravity Model (EGM08) and Earth magnetic model (EMAG2) is evaluated by comparison to ground gravity and aeromagnetic data in the central sector of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS). The comparison includes upward continuation, spectral analysis and pseudogravity calculation and statistical evaluation. A correlation between EMAG2 (which contains roughly 25 km resolution aeromagnetic data in the region) and near-surface aeromagnetic data over WCARS is only true for the very low wavelength part but a strong similarity between EGM08 and ground gravity data can be confirmed. Interpretation of the EGM08 data allows identifying and confirming the position of major structural trends, and provides new information on the crustal architecture. The lineaments limiting different grabens forming the Logone Birni basin and in the southern Chad basin are identified. The results presented here show the use of EGM08 data for regional interpretations over Cameroon and adjacent countries, which can overcome the absence and sparseness of data in developing countries and remote areas.

Eyike, Albert; Werner, Stephanie C.; Ebbing, Jörg; Dicoum, E. Manguelle

2010-09-01

307

Blood-brain barrier permeability in astrocyte-free regions of the central nervous system remyelinated by Schwann cells.  

PubMed

The patency of the blood-brain barrier was examined during the development and repair of focal demyelinating lesions induced in the dorsal columns of rats by the intraspinal injection of ethidium bromide, with or without concomitant irradiation. Blood-brain barrier integrity was determined by the intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase or by the immunofluorescent localization of endogenous albumin. Following repair, the central area of the lesions was remyelinated by Schwann cells and lacked astrocytes. In unirradiated lesions, demyelination was established at one week and the lesion was largely repaired by remyelination by 12 weeks. Horseradish peroxidase extravasation was absent at one day after injection, but was present at three days and throughout the period of repair. With one exception, all animals which exhibited regions of demyelination also exhibited horseradish peroxidase extravasation. No horseradish peroxidase was seen in lesions where all the demyelinated axons had been repaired by remyelination, and strong albumin immunofluorescence was also absent from such lesions. Albumin immunoreactivity was also absent from normal spinal cords, although it was prominent in normal sciatic nerves and dorsal roots. Irradiation of lesions resulted in a delay in the repair by remyelination, and repair of the blood-brain barrier was similarly delayed. Promotion of Schwann cell remyelination has been suggested as a potential therapy for central demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis; however, central regions remyelinated by Schwann cells lack astrocytes, cells which have been implicated in the induction and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier. Since blood-brain barrier opening may be an early step in the production of new lesions, a defective barrier could allow such remyelinated regions to act as foci for further lesion development. We conclude, however, that the remyelination of central demyelinating lesions by Schwann cells is accompanied by recovery of properties of an intact blood-brain barrier, despite the lack of astrocytes. The present findings support the idea that promotion of remyelination by Schwann cells may form an effective therapy for central demyelinating diseases. PMID:8931026

Felts, P A; Smith, K J

1996-11-01

308

Transneuronal tracing of central autonomic regions involved in cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats.  

PubMed

Stimulation of cardiac afferents (CA) increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. The goal of the current study is to determine the central autonomic nuclei involved in the regulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) which has been proved in previously functional studies. Neuroanatomical method and pseudorabies virus (PRV) transynaptic retrograde trace technique will be performed to investigate the relationship between kidney and heart and the temporal order of the most PRV-labeled neurons in the central nervous system. Recombinant PRV expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was injected into the left kidney of rats as a specific trans-synaptic retrograde tracer in neurons. After 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9days, brain, spinal cord and heart were collected for immunofluorescence staining. The temporal order of PRV labeled neurons was found in the ipsilateral intermediolateral nucleus (IML) of T8-T12 spinal segments on day 3; bilateral rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) on day 4; and left and right ventricular walls and ventricular septum of the heart on day 9. In rats with renal denervation, no PRV-infected neurons or cardiomyocytes were found after PRV injection. In conclusion, PRV trans-synaptic retrograde trace confirms that CA, NTS, PVN, RVLM, IML and renal nerves do exist to be involved in the regulation of CSAR and there is a close relationship between heart and kidney. CA is mainly located in the left ventricular wall, right ventricular wall and ventricular septum. PMID:24819915

Gao, Juan; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Hai-Jian; Liu, Tong-Yan; Ding, Lei; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Ye-Bo

2014-07-15

309

Shore zone land use and land cover: Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anderson's 1972 United States Geological Survey classification in modified form was applied to the barrier-island coastline within the CARETS region. High-altitude, color-infrared photography of December, 1972, and January, 1973, served as the primary data base in this study. The CARETS shore zone studied was divided into six distinct geographical regions; area percentages for each class in the modified Anderson classification are presented. Similarities and differences between regions are discussed within the framework of man's modification of these landscapes. The results of this study are presented as a series of 19 maps of land-use categories. Recommendations are made for a remote-sensing system for monitoring the CARETS shore zone within the context of the dynamics of the landscapes studied.

Dolan, R.; Hayden, B. P.; Vincent, C. L.

1974-01-01

310

Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and discuss the impact of climate change on future development of the region.

Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

2010-12-01

311

Enhancing a global satellite-based Landslide hazard Algorithm with regional applications in Central America and the Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A satellite-based landslide algorithm has been developed using land surface information and multi-satellite rainfall data to address landslide susceptibility dynamically. The evaluation of this global system indicates that principally three factors limit the algorithm's performance, including unsuitable weighting of several surface input parameters to the susceptibility map, under-estimation of rainfall accumulations, and incompleteness of the landslide inventories. To address these limitations and refine the methodology used to calculate the input variables for the algorithm this research considers the algorithm components at a regional scale focusing on Central America and the Caribbean. Drawing upon available landslide inventories and higher resolution surface products including Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEMs, land cover, and other parameters, this study identifies regional landslide susceptibility by employing several different techniques. Susceptibility maps are compiled for multiple test regions and compared using sensitivity analysis of the input surface parameters, indicating which factors are the primary drivers of successful susceptibility calculations. The rainfall triggering relationship is also considered at the regional scale, considering both in situ and satellite data to better resolve the range of potential rainfall threshold conditions. Additional variables such as soil moisture can be integrated into the susceptibility and rainfall variables to provide a more dynamic estimation of potential landsliding conditions. Regional landslide vulnerability data can then be extracted by incorporating socio-economic data including population density and transportation networks. The improved inputs can then be tested in a regional version of the landslide algorithm and validated for system performance. The results of the regional study indicate that resolution of the input parameters can significantly affect the susceptibility calculations and the rainfall relationship remains a difficult aspect of the algorithm to effectively categorize; however, approaching the algorithm at the regional scale improves algorithm performance and is a crucial component of the second version of this global system.

Kirschbaum, D. B.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Adler, R.; Hong, Y.; Teng, B.

2008-12-01

312

Pre-existing central nervous system lesions negate cytokine requirements for regional experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development  

PubMed Central

Summary In region?specific forms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), lesion initiation is regulated by T?cell?produced interferon?? (IFN??) resulting in spinal cord disease in the presence of IFN?? and cerebellar disease in the absence of IFN??. Although this role for IFN?? in regional disease initiation is well defined, little is known about the consequences of previous tissue inflammation on subsequent regional disease, information vital to the development of therapeutics in established disease states. This study addressed the hypothesis that previous establishment of regional EAE would determine subsequent tissue localization of new T?cell invasion and associated symptoms regardless of the presence or absence of IFN?? production. Serial transfer of optimal or suboptimal doses of encephalitogenic IFN???sufficient or ?deficient T?cell lines was used to examine the development of new clinical responses associated with the spinal cord and cerebellum at various times after EAE initiation. Previous inflammation within either cerebellum or spinal cord allowed subsequent T?cell driven inflammation within that tissue regardless of IFN?? presence. Further, T?cell IFN?? production after initial lesion formation exacerbated disease within the cerebellum, suggesting that IFN?? plays different roles at different stages of cerebellar disease. For the spinal cord, IFN???deficient cells (that are ordinarily cerebellum disease initiators) were capable of driving new spinal?cord?associated clinical symptoms more than 60 days after the initial acute EAE resolution. These data suggest that previous inflammation modulates the molecular requirements for new neuroinflammation development.

Li, Xin; Lees, Jason R.

2013-01-01

313

The Central Region of NGC4696: Manifestation of the Physics of Mergers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive, dominant ellipticals with attendant emission-line gas, dust and hot, heavy X-ray emitting coronae lie at the very centers of galaxy clusters. The physics of these complex, high pressure regions remains controversial: Are cooling flows responsible? Do mergers dominate, with massive accretion events triggering an array of phenomena? Is the AGN crucial? A major impetus to understanding the physics of

William Sparks

2000-01-01

314

Separation of Near Interface Regions From Central Bulk in a Ferroelectric Thin Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication and operation of a ferroelectric thin film capacitor may change the electric properties of the material layers next to the top and bottom electrodes through various processes, such as chemical reaction and diffusion. The existence of these near interface regions (NIRs) can have significant effect on the device performance and imposes a limit on the minimum thickness of

D. P. Chu; Z. G. Zhang; P. Migliorato; B. M. Mcgregor; K. Ohashi; K. Hasegawa; T. Shimoda

2002-01-01

315

Type Region of the Ione Formation (Eocene), Central California: Stratigraphy, Paleogeography, and Relation to Auriferous Gravels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The middle Eocene Ione Formation extends over 200 miles (320 km) along the western edge of the Sierra Nevada. Our study was concentrated in the type region, 30 miles (48 km) along strike. There a bedrock ridge forms the seaward western side of the Ione de...

E. R. Force S. Creely

2007-01-01

316

U.S. Navy Regional Climatic Study of the Central East Asian Coast and Associated Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This marine study covers the region off the Pacific Coast of Asia from the equator to 45 deg. N and from 105 deg. E to 140 deg. E, encompassing the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, East China Sea, Yellow Sea, and the southern portion of the Sea of Japan. ...

J. D. Elms

1989-01-01

317

Clumps & Cores in Massive Star-Forming Regions from Orion to the Central Molecular Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will present Bolocam, Herschel Hi-GAL, and ALMA results on selected massive star and star cluster-forming clumps. While the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) contains many dense and compact clumps sufficiently massive to form young massive clusters (YMCs) such as the Arches, it is unclear if the best studied example, G0.25+0.02 (a.k.a the "Brick") will actually do so. In the Galactic disk no "pre-stellar" clumps with sufficient mass to form a YMC have yet been found. Thus, in cluster formation, the equivalent of a "pre-stellar" core may be rare. All detected clumps sufficiently massive to form a YMC are already forming massive stars. In the Galactic disk, YMCs may be assembled by the merger of sub-clusters dragged-in by converging gas flows.

Bally, John

2014-07-01

318

Pulpwood production in the north-central region, 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin  

SciTech Connect

Pulp and particleboard mills using North Central States timber in 1993 reported their pulpwood receipts by species group and county of origin. The report presents the results of the survey, analyzes the data, compares results with those of 1992 or earlier years, and discusses trends in pulpwood production and use. The report includes all primary products made from reconstituted wood fiber. In addition to wood pulp, this includes particleboard and engineered lumber products made from chips, shavings, wafers, flakes, strands, and sawdust. This report presents the production by county of the raw fiber material delivered to mills. Thus, these data report only that a portion of the timber harvest used as raw material and do not necessarily reflect the volume of growing stock harvested.

Piva, R.J.

1995-04-18

319

Results of echocardiographic examinations in a regional hospital of central Sudan.  

PubMed

Sixty-seven patients were examined with a small portable echocardiograph in Wad Medani Teaching Hospital in central Sudan. The cardiac alterations detected in the referred patients, namely valvular disease and pericardial effusion, suggested a high prevalence of inflammatory heart disease in this area. Other findings were dilatative cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, mitral valve prolapse and a cardiac mass. Echocardiographic examination of patients with advanced hepatosplenic schistosomiasis revealed no evidence of cardiac alterations or abnormal right heart function. For echocardiography a general purpose ultrasound scanner, as defined by the World Health Organization, was used, additionally equipped with M mode facilities. It was concluded that echocardiography is applicable even in remote tropical areas and that its value, considering costs, therapeutic consequences and clinical benefit in developing countries, can be substantial. It was particularly helpful with pericardial disease. PMID:2278091

Richter, J; Dengler, A; Mohammed, E G; Ali, G M; Abdel-Rahim, I; Kaiser, C; Doehring-Schwerdtfeger, E

1990-01-01

320

Two-dimensional generalization of Gaussian rings and dynamics of the central regions of flat galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the idea of a single Gaussian elliptical ring on a circular two-dimensional ring or, in the limit, a continuous disc is generalized. Such a ring (hereafter, the R-ring) can consist of identical Keplerian elliptic orbits, of fixed a and e, uniformly portioned on the azimuth angle, or/and filled with orbits that precess around a central star or black hole. The special method of radially averaging the mass of moving bodies is developed. For this wide annulus, we compute the surface density, the two-dimensional and three-dimensional potentials, the mutual gravitational energy and the rotational energy. The surface density has two sharp peaks at the edges of the R-ring and a deep internal minimum. The Newtonian potential of the R-ring is carefully studied and the spatial equipotential surfaces are calculated. The force of attraction at the edges of the R-ring strives for infinity, and in cavity the circular orbits do not exist. The R-rings can be formed naturally in systems of bodies with a large central mass and play a dynamical role. The model is applied to the assessment of some properties of the clockwise disc in the centre of the Galaxy. For the relation of the rotational energy to the module of mutual gravitational energy, we found ? ? 0.29. The R-ring model offers an explanation for the existence of sharp local minima on rotation curves, which are observed in many flat galaxies. We discuss the physical sources of apsidal precession, and of the associated time-scales. We have found the relations of time-scales of apsidal precession from the supermassive black hole and the nuclear star cluster for orbits inside and outside the cluster. The apsidal precession rate of stars can largely be determined not to be a relativistic effect from the black hole and the Newtonian gravitational influence of the densest stellar cluster around the supermassive black hole.

Kondratyev, B. P.

2014-08-01

321

Risk degree evaluation on water and soil loss in central Hunan province of red soil hilly region, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By taking the red soil hilly region of Central Hunan Province in China as an example, this paper evaluated the risk degree of water and soil loss using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods. Firstly, the synthetic index system of water and soil loss risk degree (WSLRD) evaluation was established based on the current situation, natural and human factors. Secondly, the weights of fifteen indices were determined using AHP methods. Finally, a comprehensive evaluation model was used to evaluate the risk degree of water and soil loss at the research locations. The results showed that five cities (Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan, Loudi, and Yiyang) had a slight degree of risk, while Hengyang and Shaoyang had a middle degree of risk. The WSLRD in this region can provide scientific basis for developing effective plan of soil and water conversation, especially it is of importance to consider human activity factors when evaluating the risk.

Zhang, Yuenan; Li, Zhongwu; Chen, Zhiliang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Peng, Xiaochun; Yuan, Min; Huang, Jinquan

322

Assessment of regional change in nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Central Valley, California, USA, 1950s-2000s  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A regional assessment of multi-decadal changes in nitrate concentrations was done using historical data and a spatially stratified non-biased approach. Data were stratified into physiographic subregions on the basis of geomorphology and soils data to represent zones of historical recharge and discharge patterns in the basin. Data were also stratified by depth to represent a shallow zone generally representing domestic drinking-water supplies and a deep zone generally representing public drinking-water supplies. These stratifications were designed to characterize the regional extent of groundwater with common redox and age characteristics, two factors expected to influence changes in nitrate concentrations over time. Overall, increasing trends in nitrate concentrations and the proportion of nitrate concentrations above 5 mg/L were observed in the east fans subregion of the Central Valley. Whereas the west fans subregion has elevated nitrate concentrations, temporal trends were not detected, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of the water quality in this area and geologic sources of nitrate, combined with sparse and uneven data coverage. Generally low nitrate concentrations in the basin subregion are consistent with reduced geochemical conditions resulting from low permeability soils and higher organic content, reflecting the distal portions of alluvial fans and historical groundwater discharge areas. Very small increases in the shallow aquifer in the basin subregion may reflect downgradient movement of high nitrate groundwater from adjacent areas or overlying intensive agricultural inputs. Because of the general lack of regionally extensive long-term monitoring networks, the results from this study highlight the importance of placing studies of trends in water quality into regional context. Earlier work concluded that nitrate concentrations were steadily increasing over time in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, but clearly those trends do not apply to other physiographic subregions within the Central Valley, even where land use and climate are similar.

Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

2013-01-01

323

There's No Place Like Home: Crown-of-Thorns Outbreaks in the Central Pacific Are Regionally Derived and Independent Events  

PubMed Central

One of the most significant biological disturbances on a tropical coral reef is a population outbreak of the fecund, corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci. Although the factors that trigger an initial outbreak may vary, successive outbreaks within and across regions are assumed to spread via the planktonic larvae released from a primary outbreak. This secondary outbreak hypothesis is predominantly based on the high dispersal potential of A. planci and the assertion that outbreak populations (a rogue subset of the larger population) are genetically more similar to each other than they are to low-density non-outbreak populations. Here we use molecular techniques to evaluate the spatial scale at which A. planci outbreaks can propagate via larval dispersal in the central Pacific Ocean by inferring the location and severity of gene flow restrictions from the analysis of mtDNA control region sequence (656 specimens, 17 non-outbreak and six outbreak locations, six archipelagos, and three regions). Substantial regional, archipelagic, and subarchipelagic-scale genetic structuring of A. planci populations indicate that larvae rarely realize their dispersal potential and outbreaks in the central Pacific do not spread across the expanses of open ocean. On a finer scale, genetic partitioning was detected within two of three islands with multiple sampling sites. The finest spatial structure was detected at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, between the lagoon and forereef habitats (<10 km). Despite using a genetic marker capable of revealing subtle partitioning, we found no evidence that outbreaks were a rogue genetic subset of a greater population. Overall, outbreaks that occur at similar times across population partitions are genetically independent and likely due to nutrient inputs and similar climatic and ecological conditions that conspire to fuel plankton blooms.

Timmers, Molly A.; Bird, Christopher E.; Skillings, Derek J.; Smouse, Peter E.; Toonen, Robert J.

2012-01-01

324

Immunohistochemical distribution of the two isoforms of synaphin\\/complexin involved in neurotransmitter release: localization at the distinct central nervous system regions and synaptic types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular and subcellular localization of the two synaphin isoforms, proteins associated with the docking\\/fusion complex crucial to neurotransmitter release, was studied in the rat central nervous system by using light microscopic and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies specific to each isoform. Synaphin 1 (complexin II) was predominantly expressed in neurons of the central nervous system regions such as

M. Yamada; H. Saisu; T. Ishizuka; H. Takahashi; T. Abe

1999-01-01

325

To Feed Ourselves. A Proceedings of the First Eastern, Central and Southern Africa Regional Maize Workshop Held at Lusaka, Zambia, March 10-17, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proceedings from a March 1985 workshop on maize research and production in the eastern, central, and southern Africa regions are presented. Eighteen country reports are provided by scientists from Angola, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mal...

1985-01-01

326

Cigarette smoking behavior among male secondary school students in the Central region of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Qassim region, KSA during March 2003. Randomly selected was 14 out of 110 government male secondary schools. In the sample section, care

Saleh A. Al-Damegh; Mahmoud A. Saleh; Mohammed A. Al-Alfi

2004-01-01

327

Dog filariosis in the Lazio region (Central Italy): first report on the presence of Dirofilaria repens  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological investigations were carried out in the Lazio Region to assess the status of canine filariosis and to evaluate the actual risk for veterinary and medical public health. Methods Since August 2001 to June 2003, a total of 972 canine blood samples, collected in public kennels and from private owners animals of the 5 Provinces of the Region, were tested. The presence of filarial parasites was evaluated by microscopy and bio-molecular techniques; the species identification was performed by means of the same diagnostic tools. Results A total of 17/972 (1.75%; 95%CI 1.06%–2.85%) blood samples were parasitized by D. repens,13 out them drawn by dogs resident in the Province of Roma, and 4 in the other provinces. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to evaluate the association between filariosis and risk factors. The origin from coastal territories seems to be a significant risk factor to acquire the infection. Conclusion This is the first report of canine filariosis in the Lazio Region, where D. repens was before reported only in foxes. The risk of human zoonotic infection is stressed, and the absence of other filarial species is discussed

Scaramozzino, Paola; Gabrielli, Simona; Di Paolo, Michele; Sala, Marcello; Scholl, Francesco; Cancrini, Gabriella

2005-01-01

328

Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it`s new marketing plan.

Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

1996-11-01

329

Chronic intractable epilepsy associated with a tumor located in the central region: functional mapping data and postoperative outcome.  

PubMed

Out of 57 patients operated for intractable epilepsy of the central region, 8 harbored an indolent glioma (7 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, 1 ganglioglioma). Mapping of the sensorimotor area with depth electrodes implanted for stereoelectroencephalographic exploration demonstrated no or abnormal motor responses after low-frequency stimulation, and variable sensory responses to high-frequency stimulation, suggesting reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex representation around the tumor and absence of functional tissue within the neoplastic volume. After lesionectomy (3 cases) or corticectomy including the tumor (5 cases), 6 (75%) patients were seizure-free (class I of Engel) at the time to follow-up. No permanent motor or sensory deficit was observed in 6 cases. In 2, a mild facial (in 1) and arm (in 1) deficit persisted. It is concluded that the resection of intrinsic low-grade tumors associated with long-standing epilepsy and located in the central region can be associated with excellent seizure outcome and no or minimal postoperative deficit because of functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex. PMID:9711760

Devaux, B; Chassoux, F; Landré, E; Turak, B; Daumas-Duport, C; Chagot, D; Gagnepain, J P; Chodkiewicz, J P

1997-01-01

330

Chlorophyll enhancement in the central region of the Bay of Biscay as a result of internal tidal wave interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-sensor satellite approach based on ocean colour, sunglint and Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery is used to study the impact of interacting internal tidal (IT) waves on near-surface chlorophyll-a distribution, in the central Bay of Biscay. Satellite imagery was initially used to characterize the internal solitary wave (ISW) field in the study area, where the “local generation mechanism” was found to be associated with two distinct regions of enhanced barotropic tidal forcing. IT beams formed at the French shelf-break, and generated from critical bathymetry in the vicinities of one of these regions, were found to be consistent with “locally generated” ISWs. Representative case studies illustrate the existence of two different axes of IT propagation originating from the French shelf-break, which intersect close to 46°N, - 7°E, where strong IT interaction has been previously identified. Evidence of constructive interference between large IT waves is then presented and shown to be consistent with enhanced levels of chlorophyll-a concentration detected by means of ocean colour satellite sensors. Finally, the results obtained from satellite climatological mean chlorophyll-a concentration from late summer (i.e. September, when ITs and ISWs can meet ideal propagation conditions) suggest that elevated IT activity plays a significant role in phytoplankton vertical distribution, and therefore influences the late summer ecology in the central Bay of Biscay.

Muacho, S.; da Silva, J. C. B.; Brotas, V.; Oliveira, P. B.; Magalhaes, J. M.

2014-08-01

331

Early Pleistocene climate changes in the central Mediterranean region as inferred from integrated pollen and planktonic foraminiferal stable isotope analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation inherited from a Pliocene subtropical climate evolved through obliquity oscillations and global cooling leading to modern conditions. An integrated, highly time-resolved record of pollen and stable isotopes ( ?18O and ?13C of Globigerina bulloides) was obtained to understand vegetation responses to Early Pleistocene climate changes. Continental and marine responses are compared in the Central Mediterranean region with a particular consideration of environmental changes during anoxic events. Pollen data illustrate vegetation dynamics as follows: [1] development of mesothermic elements (warm and humid conditions); [2] expansion of mid- and high-altitude elements (cooler but still humid conditions); and [3] strengthening of steppe and herb elements (cooler and dry conditions). These successions correlate with precession. ?18O variations recorded by Globigerina bulloides define two cycles (MIS 43-40) related to obliquity. At northern low- to mid-latitudes, the pollen signal records temperature and wetness changes related to precession even during global climate changes induced by obliquity. This may result in unexpected increasing wetness during glacial periods, which has to be considered specific to the Central and Eastern Mediterranean region. Lastly, an analysis of anoxic events reveals that enhanced runoff is indicated by increasing frequency of the riparian trees Liquidambar and Zelkova.

Joannin, Sébastien; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Lécuyer, Christophe; Martineau, François

2007-03-01

332

Canadian groundwater inventory: Regional hydrogeological characterization of the south-central part of the maritimes basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Maritimes Groundwater Initiative (MGWI) is a large, integrated, regional hydrogeological study focusing on a representative area of the Maritimes Basin in eastern Canada. The study area covers a land surface of 10 500 km2, of which 9 400 km2 are underlain by sedimentary rocks. This sedimentary bedrock is composed of a sequence of discontinuous strata of highly variable hydraulic properties, and is generally overlain by a thin layer of glacial till(mostly 4-8 m thick, but can reach 20 m). Depending on the area, 46 to 100% of the population relieson groundwater for water supply, either from municipal wells or from private residential wells. The main objectives of this project were to improve the general understanding of groundwater-flow dynamics and to provide baseline information and tools for a regional groundwater-resource assessment. This bulletin presents the current state of understanding of this hydrogeological system, along with the methodology used to characterize and analyze its distinct behaviour at three different scales. This regional bedrock aquifer system contains confined and unconfined zones, and each of its lenticular permeable strata extends only a few kilometres. Preferential groundwater recharge occurs where sandy till is present. The mean annual recharge rate to the bedrock is estimated to range between 130 and 165 mm/a. Several geological formations of this basin provide good aquifers, with hydraulic conductivity in the range 5x10-6 to 10-4m/s. Based on results of numerical flow modelling, faults were interpreted to have a key role in the regional flow. Pumping-test results revealed that the fractured aquifers can locally be very heterogeneous and anisotropic, but behave similarly to porous media. Work performed at the local scale indicated that most water-producing fractures seem to be subhorizontal and generally oriented in a northeasterly direction, in agreement with regional structures and pumping-test results. Almost all residential wells are shallow (about 20 m) open holes that are cased only through the surficial sediments.

Rivard, C.; Michaud, Y.; Deblonde, C.; Boisvert, V.; Carrier, C.; Morin, R. H.; Calvert, T.; Vigneault, H.; Conohan, D.; Castonguay, S.; Lefebvre, R.; Rivera, A.; Parent, M.

2008-01-01

333

Complement selectively elicits glutamate release from nerve endings in different regions of mammal central nervous system.  

PubMed

Our study was aimed at investigating whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could, in addition to its well-documented post-synaptic activity, also pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in central nervous system (CNS). Complement (dilution 1 : 10 to 1 : 10000) elicited the release of preloaded [(3) H]-d-aspartate ([(3) H]d-ASP) and endogenous glutamate from mouse cortical synaptosomes in a dilution-dependent manner. It also evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse hippocampal, cerebellar, and spinal cord synaptosomes, as well as from rat and human cortical nerve endings, but left unaltered the release of GABA, [(3) H]noradrenaline or [(3) H]acetylcholine. Lowering external Na(+) (from 140 to 40 mM) or Ca(2+) (from 1.2 to 0.1 mM) ions prevented the 1 : 300 complement-evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse cortical synaptosomes. Complement-induced releasing effect was unaltered in synaptosomes entrapped with the Ca(2+) ions chelator 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N', tetra-acetic acid or with pertussis toxin. Nifedipine,/?-conotoxin GVIA/?-conotoxin MVIIC mixture as well as the vesicular ATPase blocker bafilomycin A1 were also inefficacious. The excitatory amino acid transporter blocker DL-threo-ß-benzyloxyaspartic acid, on the contrary, reduced the complement-evoked releasing effect in a concentration-dependent manner. We concluded that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings, where it was accounted for by carrier-mediated release. Our observations afford new insights into the molecular events accounting for immune and CNS crosstalk. We investigated whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). Our data provide evidence that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings, where it was accounted for by carrier-mediated release. Our observations add new insights to the knowledge of the molecular events accounting for immune and CNS crosstalk. EAAT = excitatory amino acid transporter. PMID:24387009

Merega, Elisa; Di Prisco, Silvia; Lanfranco, Massimiliano; Severi, Paolo; Pittaluga, Anna

2014-05-01

334

Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important, particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients.

Rapalee, Gloria; Steyaert, Louis T.; Hall, Forrest G.

2001-12-01

335

Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary and paleovegetation history of the eastern Solimões Basin, central Amazon region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palynological and stratigraphical analyses were carried out on the outcrops of the Solimões River to present new information about freshwater paleoenvironments of a fluvial-deltaic and meandering river system, evaluate the vegetation changes in the upper Solimões and Içá Formations in the eastern Solimões Basin, and the role of the Purus Arc in the evolution of central Amazon during the upper Neogene. The upper Miocene to Pliocene Solimões Formation is related to a fluvial-deltaic system, with fine-grained sediments of the prodelta-lacustrine environment supplied by meandering distributaries and delta front environment. The lake and distributaries were surrounded by extensive deltaic and floodplains colonized by lowland freshwater forests under wet climate conditions, persisting until the Pliocene. The Içá Formation started to deposit unconformably on the Solimões Formation during the Pleistocene, following the development of extensive meandering channels surrounded by floodplains of an essentially fluvial system linked to development of the present eastward direction of the Amazon River until the Atlantic coast. These floodplains were colonized by few palm species and pteridophytes of lowland freshwater forests during the Pleistocene. Additionally, no algae and fungi were observed, which may be related to drier climate conditions and/or different morphological conditions than the upper Solimões Formation.

Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Silveira, Rosemery; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix

2013-10-01

336

Concordance between macrophytes and macroinvertebrates in a Mediterranean river of central Apennine region.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to improve the knowledge about the concordance among macrophytes and macroinvertebrates to provide complementary information and facilitate the procedures for quality assessment of river ecosystems. Macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were collected in 11 sampling sites along a central Apennine calcareous river in October 2008 and June 2009. The concordance between the two biomonitoring groups was tested according to several environmental parameters. The comparison of data matrix similarities by Mantel test showed differences in the assemblage of macrophytes and macroinvertebrates along the river since correlation values were 0.04, p > 0.05 in October 2008 and 0.39, p > 0.05 in June 2009. The study revealed lack of concordance between the two groups, emphasizing that the information provided by macrophytes and macroinvertebrates does not overlap in terms of response to environmental parameters. Indeed, the two different biological groups resulted useful descriptors of different parameters. Together, they could represent a complementary tool to reflect the river environmental quality. PMID:24813005

Traversetti, Lorenzo; Scalici, Massimiliano; Ginepri, Valeria; Manfrin, Alessandro; Ceschin, Simona

2014-05-01

337

Regional controls of gas accumulation in Oriskany Sandstone, central Appalachian basin  

SciTech Connect

Available literature and production data were used to compile maps of stratigraphic relationships, structural configuration, and production trends of the Oriskany (Ridgeley) Sandstone, Lower Devonian (Deerpark Stage). Many of the Oriskany gas fields that occur in the western basin and northern portions of the Low Plateau and High Plateau provinces are stratigraphic traps associated with the Oriskany pinch-out. This pinch-out is a result of preand/or post-Oriskany unconformities, which are more pronounced along the basin margin. Pinch-out fields are characterized by intergranular porosity that probably developed soon after deposition on pre-Middle Devonian topographic highs. Entrapment generally results from an updip permeability barrier against the pinch-out. Oriskany fields that are not associated with the pinchout are in structural traps characterized by fracture porosity and entrapment along anticlinal highs or against faults. Fields of this type are more common in the central and eastern parts of the basin, especially in the High Plateau province and the Valley and Ridge. Oriskany production is generally absent from areas within the Low Plateau province that are not in proximity to the pinch-out. This unproductive trend coincides with an area of gentle structural deformation and the occurrence of Huntersville Chert directly above the Oriskany.

Diecchio, R.J.

1985-05-01

338

Zooming in on the central regions of a radio-loud AGN -- 3C120  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3C120 is a bright radio-loud AGN (RLAGN) in which a clear disk-jet connection has been established. We will present the best snapshot to date of the central engine structure in any RLAGN, taken with Suzaku in Febuary 2012. To place this deep Suzaku stare into the context of the disk-disruption/jet-ejection cycles displayed by this object, we also have a monitoring of the source in the UV/X-ray (Swift) and radio bands (UMRAO, VLBA) for half-year around the deep stare. The Swift monitoring provides important information on disk activity in both corona (XRT) and thermal disk emission (UVOT) during the Suzaku and radio campaigns. This places the Suzaku observation in context with the disk and jet (radio) cycles of activity and therefore provide us with the detailed knowledge of the continuum shape and variability. Utilizing this unprecedented knowledge of the continuum, we constrain the accretion disk parameters in this radio-loud AGN from the broad iron line and search for ultra-fast outflows in the iron K band. Taken as a whole, this campaign will give a detailed view of the physics of a RLAGN.

Lohfink, Anne; Miller, Jon; Nowak, Michael A.; Reynolds, Christopher; Mushotzky, Richard

2012-07-01

339

Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. V - Deconvolution of the central highlands region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of thorium in the lunar central highlands measured from orbit by the Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer is subjected to a deconvolution analysis to yield improved spatial resolution and contrast. Use of two overlapping data fields for complete coverage also provides a demonstration of the technique's ability to model concentrations several degrees beyond the data track. Deconvolution reveals an association between Th concentration and the Kant Plateau, Descartes Mountain and Cayley plains surface formations. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains model with Th less than 1 part per million, which is typical of farside highlands but is infrequently seen over any other nearside highland portions of the Apollo 15 and 16 ground tracks. It is noted that, if the Cayley plains are the result of basin-forming impact ejecta, the distribution of Th concentration with longitude supports an origin from the Imbrium basin rather than the Nectaris or Orientale basins. Nectaris basin materials are found to have a Th concentration similar to that of the Descartes Mountains, evidence that the latter may have been emplaced as Nectaris basin impact deposits.

Metzger, A. E.; Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Haines, E. L.

340

Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region  

PubMed Central

Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic growth increases the risk of AIDS transmission and violence. Highways connect secluded localities and may threaten local populations. This region has been undergoing rapid localized development booms, thus creating outposts of rapid and temporary migration, which may introduce health risks to remote areas.

2010-01-01

341

Geology and hydrocarbon habitat of the Amu-Darya region (central Asia)  

SciTech Connect

The Amu-Darya region, shared by the Soviet Republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tadzhikistan, is the second-largest gas province of the USSSR after western Siberia both production and reserves. Its more than 180 gas, gas-condensate, and minor oil fields include 6 giants with reserves of over 3 tcf, such as the Sovietabad field of eastern Turkmenistan, which in 1989 produced nearly 1 tcf of gas and which had an initial recoverable reserve of 38 tcf of gas. oil in addition to gas is produced mainly in the eastern Uzbekian and Tadzhikian parts. The region represents a large depression covering the southeastern portion of the epi-Hercynian Turan platform to the north of the Alpine-Himalayan fold belts of northeastern Iran and northern Afghanistan. Continental, paralic, lagoonal, and shallow-marine environments characterized Mesozoic-Tertiary platform sedimentation, with maximum sediment thicknesses of about 10 km in the Alpine foredeeps at the southern platform margin. Large amounts of essentially gas-prone organic matter accumulated in the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic. Main hydrocarbon reservoirs are Callovian-Oxfordian shelf-platform and reefal carbonates under cover of thick Kimmeridgian-Tithonian salt, and shale-sealed Lower Cretaceous continental and near-shore deltaic sandstones. In the Tadzhik basin in the extreme east, oil is contained in Lower Tertiary fractured carbonates interbedded with bituminous shales. Synsedimentary differential movements and gently folding in the Miocene to Pliocene were the main trap mechanisms. The region has still a considerable undrilled future potential, particularly in its deeper southern parts.

Stoecklin, J.; Orassianou, T. (Petroconsultants S.A., Geneva (Switzerland))

1991-08-01

342

Characteristics of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Observed in the Central Region of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity waves observations were carried out at Palmas (10.16o S, 48.26o W) Brazil, between September 2007 and December 2008, using an all-sky airglow imager to measure the OH emis-sion. The gravity waves were divided in two groups following they morphology as band and ripples type waves. The main characteristics of the band type waves are: horizontal wavelength between 10-35 km; observed period raging from 5 to 25 minutes; observed phase speed between 5-60 m/s. Preferential propagation directions of the bands are northward and southward, show-ing a clear anisotropy. For the ripples the main wave parameters are: horizontal wavelength ranging between 5 and 15 km; observed period mainly distributed between 5 and 15 minutes and horizontal phase velocity from 5 to 30 m/s. The ripples showed the same anisotropy as in the preferential propagation direction as the band type waves. The gravity wave characteristics observed at Palmas were compared with other observations carried out in Brazil, showing simi-lar features. In order to explain the seasonal variation of the wave propagation direction, maps of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (ORL) were used to locate regions with intense deep con-vection (OLR < 220 W.m-2 ) in the lower atmosphere. During summer and autumn the wave sources regions are well correlated with deep convection areas located at west and northwest of Palmas.

Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Messias Almeida, Lazaro; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Valentin Bageston, José; Pillat, Valdir G.; Lima, Washington L. C.

343

Regional trends in the oxygen isotopic compositions of granitoid plutons, central and southern Appalachians  

SciTech Connect

Whole-rock oxygen isotope analyses of 125 samples from 87 plutons, together with average values from 20 additional plutons reported by Wenner (1981) and Casadevall and Rye (1980), representing nearly every major post-Grenville pluton of the crystalline Appalachians of Maryland-Alabama, are summarized. The high-/sup 18/O granitoids of the Blue Ridge, Ashland-Wedowee, and Inner Piedmont belts are indicative of source regions with a substantial metasedimentary component. The absence of high-/sup 18/O granitoids in the Slate Belt throughout its Precambrian-Hercynian intrusive history suggests an oceanic crust beneath this terrane, although meteoric water-rock interaction may have affected many of these plutons. The Charlotte and Raleigh belts contain plutons with /delta//sup 18/O/sub wr/ ranges intermediate between these two extremes. High-/sup 18/O Hercynian plutons of the Kiokee (Clouds Creek, Edgefield) and '' '' belts (terrane east of the Raleigh and north of the Eastern Slate Belt containing the Petersburg, Fallmouth and Gunpowder intrusives) suggest a significant metasedimentary component in the source regions of the youngest and eastern most of the Southern Appalachian intrusives.

Wesolowski, D.; Sans, J.R.; Thornton, C.P.; Ohmoto, H.

1985-01-01

344

Central Virginia Regional Seismic Network: crustal velocity structure in central and southwestern Virginia. [To compute epicentral distance, surface velocity as function of azimuth, in FORTRAN for IBM 370  

SciTech Connect

(I) A crustal velocity model was derived by analysis of P-wave travel times for seven earthquakes which occurred within or near the Piedmont province of Virginia. In addition, upper crustal P- and S-wave velocities were determined by use of an 80-km reversed refraction profile. The P-wave velocity of the deep crust was determined by use of a network of three stations in central Virginia. The preferred crustal velocity structure model consists of two layers. The upper layer is 15 km thick, with P- and S-wave velocities of 6.09 and 3.53 km/s. The intermediate layer has P- and S-wave velocities of 6.5 and 3.79 km/s. Upper-mantle velocities appropriate for the region are 8.18 and 4.73 km/s for P and S waves. Crustal thickness varies from 39 km beneath the Blue Ridge Mountains to a minimum value of 31 km beneath the central Piedmont. (II) Two crustal models are presented for southwestern Virginia as possible interpretations of unreversed refraction profiles and earthquake-phase arrival data. The preferred crustal model has a 49 km thickness. The layer velocities (km/s) and thicknesses (km) are as follows: Vpl = h1 = 10, h2 = 39, and upper mantle Pn and Sn velocities of 8.18 and 4.79 km/s. The alternate model is Vp1 = 5.63, Vs1 = 3.44, Vp2 - 6.05, Vs2 = 3.52, Vp3 = 5.63, Vs3 = 3.84, h1 = 5.7, h2 = 9, h3 = 36, and upper mantle Pn and Sn velocities of 8.18 and 4.79 km/s. A velocity anisotropy (10%) was measured in the Valley and Ridge province by use of quarry blast data. The P-wave velocity was6.03 km/s parallel to structural trend and 5.45 km/s prependicular to it. 37 figures, 10 tables.

Bollinger, G.A.; Chapman, M.C.; Moore, T.P.

1980-01-01

345

Serendipitious Discovery of Variable Stars in WFPC2 Observations of the Central Region of the Globular Cluster M54  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the serendipitous discovery of variable stars in the central region of the globular cluster M54 (NGC 6715) in the nearby Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Our photometry is based on the analysis of archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations of central region of M54 in the F555W ( V) and the F814W ( I) filters. Although these observations were designed to fill two 90-minute orbits of the HST, the elapsed time between the first and last observations of this program was nearly 8 hours (>5 orbits). The extended time coverage of these observations provides an unforeseen opportunity for the first space-based detection of horizontal-branch variable stars in M54. The HSTphot photometric reduction package of Dolphin was used determine standard magnitudes of the resolved stars in each of the 12 short (<=350 s) exposures. Candidate variables were determined by computing a variety of statistical measures including a modified Welch-Stetson variability index. Most of our andidate variable stars are found on the PC1 images of the cluster center --- a region where no variables have been reported by previous ground-based studies of variables in M54. Only 8 of the short-period variables found by Layden and Sarjedini (2000) lie within the WFPC2 field-of-view of these observations; HSTphot recovered 7 of these 8 variables. We discuss the impact our newly discovered variables may have on the Oosterhoff classification of this bright massive globular cluster. Schlaufman's research was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation through Scientific Program Order No. 3 (AST-0243875) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

Schlaufman, K. C.; Mighell, K. J.

2003-12-01

346

Central nervous system birth defects in surgically treated infants in Sarajevo region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

PubMed

Congenital anomalies of the central nervous system (CNS) are common. The prevalence of these anomalies shows considerable geographical variation and female predominance. The aim of this work was to obtain the frequency of different CNS congenital anomalies types and their sex distribution among cases hospitalized in a Department of Neurosurgery, University of Sarajevo Clinics Center, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the period January 2001 to December 2004. Retrospective study was carried out on the basis of the clinical records. Standard methods of descriptive statistics were performed for the data analysis. A total of 103 cases were surgically treated in the period from 2001 through 2004. Out of that number 56 (54.4%) were female patients, while 47 (46.6%) were male patients. Seven different CNS birth defect types were found in this investigation. These were: spina bifida (42 cases or 40.78%), congenital hydrocephalus (35 cases or 33.98%), arachnoid cyst (15 cases or 14.56%), Dandy-Walker syndrome (5 cases or 4.85%), dermoid cyst (4 cases or 3.88%), one of Arnold-Chiari syndrome (0.98%) and one of encephalocele (0.98%). According to this investigation, CNS congenital birth defects were slightly higher in females (54.4%). The most frequent types were spina bifida (40.78%) both in females (22.33%) and in males (18.45%), hydrocephalus (33.98%) and arachnoid cyst (14.56%). The anomalies of the other organ systems, associated with CNS anomalies obtained in this investigation, were pes equinovarus, cheiloschisis, cardiomegaly and palatoschisis. They were found in six cases (5.82%), equal in both sexes. PMID:18039185

Alicelebi?, Selma; Arslanagi?, Alma; Mornjakovi?, Zakira

2007-11-01

347

Properties of synchrotron emission and magnetic fields in the central region of M31  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed the central area of M31 at ? ?20 and 6 cm with the C and D array of the VLA as well as with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. The Effelsberg maps were used to correct the VLA maps for missing spacings. The final angular resolution is 13 arcseconds corresponding to 43' ' and 208' ' along major and minor axis, respectively. The total radio continuum emission is well correlated with the filaments and spiral arm observed in H? by Ciardullo et al. (1988, AJ 95, 438). However, most of the emission is nonthermal. The spectrum of the total emission steepens considerably from the centre outwards. This is due to a decrease of the nonthermal spectral index, which varies from -0.31pm 0.04 in the ring at R = 0.0-0.2 kpc to -1.59pm 0.23 in the ring at R = 0.8-1.0 kpc. The equipartition magnetic field strength increases from 15pm 3 muG at R = 0.2-0.4 kpc to 19 pm 3, muG at R = 0.8-1.0 kpc. The polarized emission shows that the magnetic field is aligned with the filaments and the southern spiral arm. The highest degrees of polarization are found on the inner side of the spiral arm where the regular field is dominating. The rotation measures between ?20 cm and ?6 cm are in agreement with the 3-dimensional structure derived from H? by Ciardullo et al. We studied the depolarization as a function of beamwidth. The highest degrees of polarization do not occur at 13' ' resolution, but at 22' ' resolution (73 pc). This indicates that the polarized structures have typical sizes smaller than 73 pc.

Hoernes, P.; Beck, R.; Berkhuijsen, E. M.

348

Regionality of Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Feedback in the Central United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture has been found to greatly impact the partitioning of energy fluxes at the surface-atmosphere interface and thus precipitation systems. Using the NCAR/Penn State mesoscale model MM5 with the NOAH land surface scheme, this study carried out four experiments to examine this impact along with soil moisture- precipitation feedbacks over different regions of varying climate regimes. The first and second experiments were performed by multiplying the initial soil moisture values by 0.5 and 1.5 (SMinitX0.5 and SMinitX1.5) for the 1-month simulation. The third and forth experiments were carried out by forcing the soil moisture to the saturation and wilting-point values (SatSM and WiltSM) throughout the month-long simulation. The SMinitX0.5 and SMinitX1.5 mimic circumstances with pre-existing abnormally dry or wet soil conditions, while SatSM and WiltSM represent situations where the soil surface was kept at extreme levels and not allowed to dry out or recharge for the month. The results show that on a sub-seasonal scale (a month) during summer, in the dry Great Plains region, soil moisture can have a significant effect on both local atmospheric processes, and downstream remote atmospheric structure and stability. In contrast in the relatively wet Midwest, soil moisture was found to have a much weaker influence. The differences in soil moisture effects are associated with varying responses of boundary-layer heights, convective stability, and the low-level jets. In the Great Plains where the boundary layer is deeper and convection is more surfaced-based, soil moisture tends to play a larger role, whereas in the Midwest where the boundary layer is generally shallower and convection is more elevated, soil moisture plays a smaller role. Among all four experiments, the SatSM simulation produced shallowest boundary layer and weakest low-level jets, and thus resulted in the least amount of rainfall for both regions, suggesting that soil moisture has a negative feedback on precipitation in this case. The results also show that the resultant rainfall sensitivity to soil moisture changes were larger than evapotranspiration, reflecting the nonlinear interactions among rainfall and evapotranspiration. In the Great Plains the rainfall change was five times that of evapotranspiration, meaning that the nonlinear atmospheric processes such as horizontal convergence can significantly augment resultant rainfall increase from increased evaporation.

Tentinger, B.; Pan, Z.

2006-12-01

349

Thermal equilibrium of pure electron plasmas across a central region of magnetic surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the equilibria of plasmas created by emission from a biased filament located off the magnetic axis in the Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) [T. S. Pedersen, J. P. Kremer, R. G. Lefrancois et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 50, 372 (2006)] show that such plasmas have equilibrium properties consistent with the inner surfaces being in a state of cross-surface thermal equilibrium. Numerical solutions to the equilibrium equation were used to fit the experimental data and demonstrate consistency with cross-surface thermal equilibrium. Previous experiments in CNT showed that constant temperatures across magnetic surfaces are characteristic of CNT plasmas, implying thermal confinement times much less than particle confinement times. These results show that when emitting off axis there is a volume of inner surfaces where diffusion into that region is balanced by outward transport, producing a Boltzmann distribution of electrons. When combined with the low thermal energy confinement time this is a cross-surface thermal equilibrium.

Hahn, Michael; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2009-06-15

350

Perinatal outcomes among immigrant mothers over two periods in a region of central Italy  

PubMed Central

Background The number of immigrants has increased in Italy in the last twenty years (7.2% of the Italian population), as have infants of foreign-born parents, but scanty evidence on perinatal outcomes is available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether infants of foreign-born mothers living in Italy have different odds of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to those of native-born mothers, and if such measures changed over two periods. Methods The source of this area-based study was the regional hospital discharge database that records perinatal information on all births in the Lazio region. We analysed 296,739 singleton births born between 1996-1998 and 2006-2008. The exposure variable was the mother's region of birth. We considered five outcomes of perinatal health. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the association between mother's region of birth and perinatal outcomes. Results Perinatal outcomes were worse among infants of immigrant compared to Italian mothers, especially for sub-Saharan and west Africans, with the following crude ORs (in 1996-1998 and 2006-2008 respectively): 1.80 (95%CI:1.44-2.28) and 1.95 (95%CI:1.72-2.21) for very preterm births, and 1.32 (95%CI:1.16-1.50) and 1.32 (95%CI:1.25-1.39) for preterm births; 1.18 (95%CI:0.99-1.40) and 1.17 (95%CI:1.03-1.34) for a low Apgar score; 1.22 (95%CI:1.15-1.31) and 1.24 (95%CI:1.17-1.32) for the presence of respiratory diseases; 1.47 (95%CI:1.30-1.66) and 1.45 (95%CI:1.34-1.57) for the need for special or intensive neonatal care/in-hospital deaths; and 1.03 (95%CI:0.93-1.15) and 1.07 (95%CI:1.00-1.15) for congenital malformations. Overall, time did not affect the odds of outcomes differently between immigrant and Italian mothers and most outcomes improved over time among all infants. None of the risk factors considered confounded the associations. Conclusion Our findings suggest that migrant status is a risk factor for adverse perinatal health. Moreover, they suggest that perinatal outcomes improved over time in some immigrant women. This could be due to a general improvement in immigrants' health in the past decade, or it may indicate successful application of policies that increase accessibility to mother-child health services during the periconception and prenatal periods for legal and illegal immigrant women in Italy.

2011-01-01

351

Climate and glacier changes in Mt. Everest region in Central Southern Himalaya (Nepal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Everest region influenced by monsoon-dominated climate system is characterized by dense distribution of debris-covered glaciers. Very low number of papers has addressed on the interdisciplinary linkage of hydro-meteorological process and the glacier dynamics in high elevation areas. Here we present the glacier changes from 1958 to 2011 and the meteorological observations from 1992 to 2011 with the aim of understanding coupled climate-glacier dynamics using satellite imagery, historical maps and insitu field measurements. We developed reconstructed single series for temperature and precipitation through the monthly quantile mapping and expectation maximization techniques from the insitu observations in different automatic weather stations located in the Mt. Everest region. Multi-temporal satellite products and topographic maps were used for glacier terminus, surface and snowline altitude (SLA) analysis from 1958 to 2011. We observed the continuous shrinkage of glaciers since 1958 to 2011 with accelerated rate in the recent years. The average terminus retreatment of analyzed 29 glaciers was about 372±37 m (7.0 m a-1) in 1958 to 2011 with retreat rate of 6.1±1.9 m a-1 in 1958-75 and nearly its double in 2008-11. The glacier surface area had loss of 14.3±5.9 % (0.27 % a-1) from 396.2 km2 to 339.5 km2 in 53 years with the loss by 0.12 %a-1 in 1958-75 to 0.70 % a-1 in recent years. The smaller glaciers with

Thakuri, Sudeep; Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Guyennon, Nicolas; D'Agata, Carlo; Smiraglia, Claudio; Tartari, Gianni

2013-04-01

352

Micro-geographic distribution of Y-chromosomal variation in the central-western European region Brabant.  

PubMed

One of the future issues in the forensic application of the haploid Y-chromosome (Y-chr) is surveying the distribution of the Y-chr variation on a micro-geographical scale. Studies on such a scale require observing Y-chr variation on a high resolution, high sampling efforts and reliable genealogical data of all DNA-donors. In the current study we optimised this framework by surveying the micro-geographical distribution of the Y-chr variation in the central-western European region named Brabant. The Duchy of Brabant was a historical region in the Low Countries containing three contemporary Belgian provinces and one Dutch province (Noord-Brabant). 477 males from five a priori defined regions within Brabant were selected based on their genealogical ancestry (known pedigree at least before 1800). The Y-haplotypes were determined based on 37 Y-STR loci and the finest possible level of substructuring was defined according to the latest published Y-chr phylogenetic tree. In total, eight Y-haplogroups and 32 different subhaplogroups were observed, whereby 70% of all participants belonged to only four subhaplogroups: R1b1b2a1 (R-U106), R1b1b2a2* (R-P312*), R1b1b2a2g (R-U152) and I1* (I-M253*). Significant micro-geographical differentiation within Brabant was detected between the Dutch (Noord-Brabant) vs. the Flemish regions based on the differences in (sub)haplogroup frequencies but not based on Y-STR variation within the main subhaplogroups. A clear gradient was found with higher frequencies of R1b1b2 (R-M269) chromosomes in the northern vs. southern regions, mainly related to a trend in the frequency of R1b1b2a1 (R-U106). PMID:21036685

Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Jacobs, Manon; Coomans, Monique; Larno, Lucie; Decorte, Ronny

2011-03-01

353

Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead to the rise of the artesian groundwater that flows into sandy horizons scarcely thickened, carrying out liquefaction and collapse phenomena. Thus, thanks to the numerous piezometric surveys, different areas have been identified in the plain: artesian wells areas with full water rise, areas with few artesian wells and areas with partial water lift. The analysis of geophysical data has allowed to draw deep profiles that show how along the axis of the plain the roof of carbonates has very changeable heights, due to a complex tectonic evolution. In correspondence to one of the most senior buried structural heights in the carbonate substratum of the plain, a karst cave was intercepted during a drilling on the vertical of a sinkhole opened in 1989, which could be interpreted as a paleospring. The right application of technologies for drilling and completion of the hole, however, has prevented against the recurrence of the phenomenon of collapse. This poster illustrates a matrix calculus implemented by the authors, by which you can come to an assessment of the distribution of Sinkhole hazard in the Pontina Plain. The matrix takes into account different parameters that are related to the breaking causes of the phenomenon. Each parameter is assigned a value (index) representing its variation. The area studied was divided into 150 m square cells, each cell is assigned the value of the Sinkhole hazard index, that is the sum of the various indices assigned to that cell. Such a methodology widely used in other scientific research must be improved by optimizing the values and weights that were assigned to each parameter and implementing the matrix by adding more parameters that influence the phenomenon. A discussion about the importance of these characterizing parameters is presented for further development of the methodology.

Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

2010-05-01

354

NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one of the sources for nitrate in groundwater. The recharge of rainwater through the indiscriminately dumped animal wastes also adds to nitrate in groundwater. As the population of denitrifying microbes (Agrobacterium sp.) in the topsoil increased, the nitrate concentration in groundwater decreased. The wells in the investigated region have been demarcated into safe and unsafe wells for consumption of water with respect to nitrate. The quality of groundwater in this region must be improved by denitrifying the groundwater before using it for consumption. Reduced dependence on nitrogen-rich fertilizers can also lower the influx of nitrates to a large extent. As the dumping of animal waste is also a reason behind high nitrate in groundwater, it would be better to use them as a biofertilizer. Due to the detrimental biological effects of nitrate, treatment and prevention methods must be considered to protect groundwater aquifers from nitrate leaching. Moreover, it is also important to educate the local population about keeping their surroundings clean, alternate use of the animal waste (as fuel) and to follow hygienic sanitation practices.

Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

2009-12-01

355

Serological markers and risk factors related to hepatitis B virus in dentists in the Central West region of Brazil  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goiânia, Goiás. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goiânia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence.

de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonca; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores

2008-01-01

356

How many mountains can we mine? Assessing the regional degradation of Central Appalachian rivers by surface coal mining.  

PubMed

Surface coal mining is the dominant form of land cover change in Central Appalachia, yet the extent to which surface coal mine runoff is polluting regional rivers is currently unknown. We mapped surface mining from 1976 to 2005 for a 19,581 km(2) area of southern West Virginia and linked these maps with water quality and biological data for 223 streams. The extent of surface mining within catchments is highly correlated with the ionic strength and sulfate concentrations of receiving streams. Generalized additive models were used to estimate the amount of watershed mining, stream ionic strength, or sulfate concentrations beyond which biological impairment (based on state biocriteria) is likely. We find this threshold is reached once surface coal mines occupy >5.4% of their contributing watershed area, ionic strength exceeds 308 ?S cm(-1), or sulfate concentrations exceed 50 mg L(-1). Significant losses of many intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa occur when as little as 2.2% of contributing catchments are mined. As of 2005, 5% of the land area of southern WV was converted to surface mines, 6% of regional streams were buried in valley fills, and 22% of the regional stream network length drained watersheds with >5.4% of their surface area converted to mines. PMID:22788537

Bernhardt, Emily S; Lutz, Brian D; King, Ryan S; Fay, John P; Carter, Catherine E; Helton, Ashley M; Campagna, David; Amos, John

2012-08-01

357

Spatial dependence of the star formation history in the central regions of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the star formation history (SFH) and the age-metallicity relation (AMR) in three fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. They sample a region spanning from the centre of the galaxy to beyond one core radius, which allows studying galactocentric gradients. In all the cases, we found stars as old as 12 Gyr, together with intermediate-age and young stellar populations. The last star formation events, as young as 1 Gyr old, are mainly located in the central region, which may indicate that the gas reservoir in the outer parts of the galaxy would have been exhausted earlier than in the centre or removed by tidal interactions. The AMR is smoothly increasing in the three analysed regions and similar to each other, indicating that no significant metallicity gradient is apparent within and around the core radius of Fornax. No significant traces of global UV-reionization or local SNe feedback are appreciated in the early SFH of Fornax. Our study is based on VLT photometry as deep as I ˜ 24.5 and the IAC-STAR/IAC-POP/MINNIAC suite of codes for the determination of the SFH in resolved stellar populations.

del Pino, Andrés; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme; Carrera, Ricardo; Monelli, Matteo; Buonanno, Roberto; Marconi, Gianni

2013-08-01

358

A link between North Atlantic cooling and dry events in the core SW monsoon region in Lonar Lake, central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sediment core from Lonar Lake in central India covers the complete Holocene and was used to reconstruct the monsoon history of the core SW-monsoon region. We compare C/N ratios, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, grain size, as well as amino acid derived degradation proxies with climatically sensitive proxies of other records from South Asia and the North Atlantic region. The comparison reveals some more or less contemporaneous climate shifts. At Lonar Lake, a general long term climate transition from wet conditions during the early Holocene to drier conditions during the late Holocene, delineating the insolation curve, can be reconstructed. Several phases of shorter term climate alteration that superimpose the general climate trend correlate with cold phases in the North Atlantic region. The most pronounced climate deteriorations indicated by our data occurred between 6.2 - 5.2, 4.65 - 3.9, and 2.05 - 0.55 cal ka BP. The strong dry phase between 4.65 - 3.9 cal ka BP at Lonar Lake corroborates the hypothesis that severe climate deterioration contributed to the decline of the Indus Civilisation about 3.9 ka BP.

Menzel, Philip; Gaye, Birgit; Prasad, Sushma; Plessen, Birgit; Stebich, Martina; Anoop, Ambili; Riedel, Nils; Basavaiah, Nathani

2014-05-01

359

The basin structure imaged by teleseismic virtual-source profiling - a case study in Three Gorges region, central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) region is situated near the northern margin of the Yangtze platform and it is bounded at north by the Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt. As one of the oldest blocks in central China, the collision between the Yangtze platform and the Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt has resulted in a complex geologic history and a highly heterogeneous distribution of lithological units, with a combination of igneous intrusions and sedimentary basins in the TGR region. To study the crustal structure and the geodynamics beneath the TGR region a lot of studies have been conducted for many years using the geologic and the geophysical data. However, many details on the crustal structure and the geodynamic history of the TGR cannot be resolved well in part due to current limit in the distribution of seismologic stations in the TGR and surrounding regions. Aiming to study the detail of the crustal structure under the TGR, we deployed the dense seismic networks instrumented with the short-period seismometers in the TGR region during the four summers from 2008 to 2011. These networks were able to record the local micro-earthquakes as small as ML0.1 and many teleseismic events with the magnitudes over M5.5 and the distances less than 90 degrees. Due to the high local noises from the human activity and the water current in rivers, and the scatters from the shallow small-scale structures it's hard to estimate the reflection structures, especially for the shallow structures, using only the local earthquake records. For the consistent waveforms and the low-frequency energy of the teleseismic P-coda waves the virtual-source imaging method of using the short-period teleseismic records is suitable to image the upper-crust reflectors of the TGR region. The reflections of the crustal interfaces are generated by deconvolving the source wavelet from the teleseismic data. Here we demonstrate a case of using the teleseismic array data to image the upper crustal structure around the TGR region. The bottoms of two basins and the major reflectors of the upper curst are imaged directly for the first time. The surface locations and the cross sections of the imaged basins match well with the surface distribution of the geological units and the seismic velocity cross section inverted by the seismic tomography, respectively. The results of this study are important for the interpretation of the interactions between the big Three Gorges reservoir and the upper crustal structure, and the research on the geological/geodynamic evolution of the TGR region.

Zou, Z.; Zhou, H.

2012-12-01

360

IDENTIFICATION OF MEMBERS IN THE CENTRAL AND OUTER REGIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

The caustic technique measures the mass of galaxy clusters in both their virial and infall regions and, as a byproduct, yields the list of cluster galaxy members. Here we use 100 galaxy clusters with mass M{sub 200} {>=} 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} extracted from a cosmological N-body simulation of a {Lambda}CDM universe to test the ability of the caustic technique to identify the cluster galaxy members. We identify the true three-dimensional members as the gravitationally bound galaxies. The caustic technique uses the caustic location in the redshift diagram to separate the cluster members from the interlopers. We apply the technique to mock catalogs containing 1000 galaxies in the field of view of 12 h {sup -1} Mpc on a side at the cluster location. On average, this sample size roughly corresponds to 180 real galaxy members within 3r{sub 200}, similar to recent redshift surveys of cluster regions. The caustic technique yields a completeness, the fraction of identified true members, f{sub c} = 0.95 {+-} 0.03, within 3r{sub 200}. The contamination, the fraction of interlopers in the observed catalog of members, increases from f{sub i}=0.020{sup +0.046}{sub -0.015} at r{sub 200} to f{sub i}=0.08{sup +0.11}{sub -0.05} at 3r{sub 200}. No other technique for the identification of the members of a galaxy cluster provides such large completeness and small contamination at these large radii. The caustic technique assumes spherical symmetry and the asphericity of the cluster is responsible for most of the spread of the completeness and the contamination. By applying the technique to an approximately spherical system obtained by stacking the individual clusters, the spreads decrease by at least a factor of two. We finally estimate the cluster mass within 3r{sub 200} after removing the interlopers: for individual clusters, the mass estimated with the virial theorem is unbiased and within 30% of the actual mass; this spread decreases to less than 10% for the spherically symmetric stacked cluster.

Serra, Ana Laura [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Torino (Italy); Diaferio, Antonaldo, E-mail: serra@ph.unito.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

2013-05-10

361

Hydrogeological influences on petroleum accumulation in Red Earth region, North-Central Alberta, Canada  

SciTech Connect

In the Red Earth region of Alberta, economic light oil pools occur in mid-Devonian strata. Potentiometric surface maps for the reservoir formations show that these accumulations are concentrated in or near potentiometric depressions with minor lateral hydraulic gradients. Bitumen deposits in the lowermost Cretaceous at the sub-Cretaceous unconformity are also clearly associated with laterally and vertically converging fluid flow. A preliminary analysis of the distributions of temperature and total dissolved solids indicates that the oil field waters are significantly warmer and of higher salinity than adjacent nonpetroliferous waters. A genetic connection between the distribution patterns of these distinct phenomena is provided by the unifying framework of the hydraulic theory of petroleum migration. The theory postulates that in geologically mature sedimentary basins, gravity-induced cross-formational flow of fluids controls the transport and accumulation of petroleum. Hydrocarbons move along well-defined paths toward the discharge zones of converging flow systems. Accumulations occur en route against suitable permeability filters in hydraulic or hydrodynamic traps. Oil and gas pools that formed in energetically stagnant zones and along the discharge limbs of flow systems are therefore characterized by potentiometric minima, increasing hydraulic heads downward and minor lateral hydraulic gradients. Forced convective heat input and long residence times may create higher than background heat flow and high water salinity.

Barson, D.; Toth, J.

1988-01-01

362

Disease Mutations in the Ryanodine Receptor Central Region: Crystal Structures of a Phosphorylation Hot Spot Domain  

SciTech Connect

Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) are huge Ca{sup 2+} release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and form targets for phosphorylation and disease mutations. We present crystal structures of a domain in three RyR isoforms, containing the Ser2843 (RyR1) and Ser2808/Ser2814 (RyR2) phosphorylation sites. The RyR1 domain is the target for 11 disease mutations. Several of these are clustered near the phosphorylation sites, suggesting that phosphorylation and disease mutations may affect the same interface. The L2867G mutation causes a drastic thermal destabilization and aggregation at room temperature. Crystal structures for other disease mutants show that they affect surface properties and intradomain salt bridges. In vitro phosphorylation experiments show that up to five residues in one long loop of RyR2 can be phosphorylated by PKA or CaMKII. Docking into cryo-electron microscopy maps suggests a putative location in the clamp region, implying that mutations and phosphorylation may affect the allosteric motions within this area.

Yuchi, Zhiguang; Lau, Kelvin; Van Petegem, Filip (UBC) [UBC

2012-08-31

363

Formic and acetic acid over the central Amazon region, Brazil 1. Dry season  

SciTech Connect

We have determined the atmospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase, in aerosols, and in rain during the dry season (July--August 1985) in the Amazonia region of Brazil. At ground level the average concentrations of gas phase formic and acetic acid were 1.6 +- 0.6 and 2.2 +- 1.0 ppb, respectively. The diurnal behavior of both acids at ground level and their vertical distribution in the forest canopy point to the existence of vegetative sources as well as to production by chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Dry deposition of the gaseous acids appears to be a major sink. The concentrations of formic and acetic acid in the gas phase were about 2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations of the corresponding species in the atmospheric aerosol. About 50--60%/sub 0/ of the aerosol (total) formate and acetate were in the size fraction below 1.0 ..mu..m diameter.

Andreae, M.O.; Talbot, R.W.; Andreae, T.W.; Harriss, R.C.

1988-02-20

364

Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011). By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism. PMID:24676658

Shimizu, Ernesto; Macías, Analía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Fernández, Analía; Canal, Ana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Cataldi, Angel; Caimi, Karina; Zumárraga, Martín

2014-04-01

365

Functional MRI localisation of central nervous system regions associated with volitional inspiration in humans  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a means of studying neuronal circuits that control respiratory muscles in humans with better spatial and temporal resolution than in previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Whole brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) changes determined by fMRI were used to identify areas of neuronal activation associated with volitional inspiration in five healthy men. Four series of scans of each subject were acquired during voluntary breathing (active task) and mechanical ventilation (passive task). Ventilation and end-tidal PCO2 were similar between tasks. Scan data were re-aligned to correct for movement artefacts and cross-referenced breath by breath to respiratory data for selective averaging of inspiratory and expiratory images. Group analysis identified significant increases in the fMRI signal with volitional inspiration in the superior motor cortex, premotor cortex and supplementary motor area at loci similar to those detected in earlier studies that used PET. Additional regions activated by volitional inspiration included inferolateral sensorimotor cortex, prefrontal cortex and striatum (these foci were only revealed by PET under significant inspiratory load). This study represents the first synchronised breath-by-breath analysis of respiratory-related neuronal activity with whole brain imaging in humans. Temporal resolution is sufficient to distinguish individual breaths at a normal breathing frequency.

Evans, Karleyton C; Shea, Steven A; Saykin, Andrew J

1999-01-01

366

Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011). By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism.

Shimizu, Ernesto; Macias, Analia; Paolicchi, Fernando; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Fernandez, Analia; Canal, Ana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Cataldi, Angel; Caimi, Karina; Zumarraga, Martin

2014-01-01

367

The Vallenar Discontinuity and the Maipo Orocline: Regional significance of clockwise vertical-axis rotations in the central Chilean Andes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most prominent tectonic features of the Andes is the Central Andean Rotation Pattern (CARP), which is closely related to the Bolivian Orocline and characterized by paleomagnetically determined clockwise rotations in northern Chile and counterclockwise rotations in southern Peru (Arriagada et al., 2008). Along the Chilean margin, between 29°S and 38°S, three prominent curvatures are observed. The Vallenar Discontinuity near ˜29°S corresponds to the southern limit of the Bolivian Orocline. North of 29°S the major structural elements (Paleozoic basement highs and thrusts) are NNE oriented while from 29°S down to 32°S the structures are mainly NS. The central Chilean margin presents also significant bends near Santiago (˜33°S, Maipo Orocline) and in the Arauco region (˜38°S). Near Santiago, the Maipo bend coincides with the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge (JFR). During the last five years we have undertaken new paleomagnetic and structural studies along the forearc of northern and central Chile in order to understand the origin of the bends in the Chilean margin and the consequence of its indentation by the JFR. Clockwise rotations are, consistently large (30°S- 45°) north of the Vallenar discontinuity, but south of the Vallenar discontinuity, the segment between 29°S to 32°S was not subjected to significant clockwise rotation. South of ˜33°S, significant clockwise deflections up to 39° of the declinations are again observed. Rotations occur both in Mesozoic rocks of the Coastal Cordillera and Tertiary rocks of the Main Cordillera. Whereas most of the CARP rotations, involving bending of the Bolivian Orocline and clockwise rotations north of the Vallenar Discontinuity, occurred essentially during the Paleogene, the paleomagnetic rotations obtained in Tertiary formations of central Chile constrain the maximum possible age for the occurrence of rotations of the Maipo Orocline to the Miocene. Neogene shortening in the foreland belt induced only slight orogenic curvature near the Vallenar Discontinuity. In the southern Central Andes, the along-strike variation in the magnitude of Neogene shortening may have been large enough to produce the Maipo Orocline. From 22 to 10Ma, the location of the subduction of the JFR moved rapidly southward from Arica (18°S) to Santiago (33°S) (Yanez et al., 2002). During the past 10 My, the JFR has been subducting continuously along the same part of the continental margin inducing flat slab and tectonic shortening. We will discuss the origins of the bends observed along the forearc of northern and central Chile and examine the role of the subduction of the JFR in bending the margin and inducing the observed clockwise rotations south of Santiago. Arriagada C., P. Roperch, C. Mpodozis, P. R. Cobbold (2008), Paleogene building of the Bolivian Orocline: Tectonic restoration of the central Andes in 2-D map view, Tectonics, 27, TC6014, doi:10.1029/2008TC002269. Yanez, G., J. Cembrano, M. Pardo, C. Ranero, D. Selles, (2002) The Challenger-Juan Fernandez-Maipo major tectonic transition of the Nazca-Andean subduction system at 33-34°S: geodynamic evidence and implications, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 15, 23-38,doi: 10.1016/S0895-9811(02)00004-4.

Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.; Mpodozis, C.; Charrier, R.; Yanez, G.; Farias, M.

2009-05-01

368

Cosmic-ray nuclear event with an anomalously strong concentration of energy and particles in the central region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cosmic-ray induced nuclear event detected in the emulsion chamber is described. The event consists of 217 shower cores with Sigma Egamma = 1,275 TeV. In log scale, energy and particles are emitted most densely at the small lateral distance corresponding to 0.5 mm; 77% of the total energy and 61% of the total multiplicity are inside the radius of 0.65 cm. The shower cores in the central region show exponential-type energy distribution and non-isotropic azimuthal distribution. This event indicates a possibility that phenomena of large transverse momentum could produce a strong concentration of energy and particles in the very forward direction.

Amato, N. M.; Arata, N.; Maldonado, R. H. C.

1986-12-01

369

Contribution of the Central American and Caribbean obstetrics and gynecology societies to the prevention of unsafe abortion in the region.  

PubMed

Unsafe abortion is a very important public health issue in the Central America and Caribbean region, where the use of modern contraceptive methods remains low and the restrictive legal framework reduces access to safe abortion. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences is contributing toward resolving this problem by strengthening collaboration between medical societies, representatives of each country's Ministry of Health, and local and international agencies. In the 8 countries that decided to join this initiative in 2008, progress has been achieved in improving access to modern contraceptive methods, increasing the use of manual vacuum aspiration and misoprostol, and updating guidelines on postabortion care. PMID:24745695

de Gil, Marina Padilla

2014-07-01

370

Current Genetic Epidemiology of ?-Thalassemias and Structural Hemoglobin Variants in the Lazio Region (Central Italy) Following Recent Migration Movements  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to describe the changing pattern of mutational spectrum of ?-thalassemia (?-thal) in the Lazio region (Central Italy), as consequence of recent demographic variations. From 1994 until present, 256 immigrant subjects with hemoglobin disorders (including 191 heterozygotes and 65 homozygotes or compound heterozygotes) coming from 44 different foreign countries, have been molecularly characterized. 14 ?-globin gene mutations were identified and their frequencies reflect different ethnic origins: 8 of these mutations account for 76.97% of all molecular defects, while 6 of them are much rare, representing less than 2% of the total. These data differ, both in type and percentage, from the mutational spectrum detected in the native population in 1995. Since a few defects are prevalent in each country, a proper strategy for the identification of mutations in immigrant individuals relies on the prior knowledge of their frequency in native ethnic group.

Amato, Antonio; Cappabianca, Maria Pia; Colosimo, Alessia; Perri, Maria; Grisanti, Paola; Zaghis, Ivo; Ponzini, Donatella; Lerone, Maria

2010-01-01

371

Water resources of the Fort Union coal region, east-central Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The shallow ground-water system in the Fort Union coal region overlies the Upper Cretaceous Bearpaw Shale. It includes the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and the overlying Hell Creek Formation, Paleocene Fort Union Formation, and Pleistocene and Holocene glacial deposits, terrace deposits, and alluvium. Two general flow patterns are present in aquifers above the Hell Creek Formation and a third may occur in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer. Recharge to the shallow ground-water system from direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall is about 50 ,000 acre-ft/yr. Discharge from the system is to perennial streams (about 5,000 acre-ft/yr to the Redwater River), withdrawal by wells (about 2,000 acre-ft/yr for livestock use and 2,500 acre-ft/yr for domestic use), and 34 to 45 in./yr to evapotranspiration. Primary constituents in water above the Hell Creek Formation are sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate, and dissolved-solids concentrations are about 1,800 mg/L; water below a depth of about 200 feet contains more sodium and bicarbonate. Water in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer has an average dissolved-solids concentration of 1,180 mg/L. Flows in most streams have large seasonal variations, with the largest flows occurring in the spring as a result of snowmelt and rainfall. Dissolved-solids concentrations of streams generally are largest during low flow and smallest during high flow. Concentrations ranged from 160 to 6,960 mg/L in small streams and from 400 to 600 mg/L in the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. (USGS)

Slagle, S. E.

1983-01-01

372

Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms  

SciTech Connect

Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

1984-03-01

373

Real time measurements of strongly localized potential profile through Stark effects in the central core region of an inertial-electrostatic fusion device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real time measurements of the electric fields were made in the central cathode core region of an inertial-electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF) device by the laser-induced fluorescence method by use of Stark effects. Preliminary results show double well potential formation with a slight concave at the center and also the existence of energetic electrons in the localized region near potential peaks

Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; K. Takiyama; Y. Yamamoto; K. Masuda; H. Toku; T. Koyama; Kenji Taruya; H. Hashimoto; Masami Ohnishi; H. Horiike; N. Inoue

1999-01-01

374

Reduction of Risk in Exploration and Prospect Generation through a Multidisciplinary Basin-Analysis Program in the South-Central Mid-Continent Region  

SciTech Connect

This report will discuss a series of regional studies that were undertaken within the South-Central Mid-Continent region of the U.S. Coverage is also provided about a series of innovative techniques that were used for this assessment.

Banerjee, S.; Barker, C.; Fite, J.; George, S.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.; Jordan, J., Szpakiewicz, M.; Person, M.; Reeves, T.K.; Safley, E.; Swenson, J.B.; Volk, L.; and Erickson, R.

1999-04-02

375

Moisture changes over the last millennium in arid central Asia: a review, synthesis and comparison with monsoon region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a strong chance that 20th century warming will cause differences in precipitation distribution, hydrological cycle and effective moisture changes over the globe. Arid central Asia (ACA), a unique dry-land area whose atmospheric circulation is dominated today by the westerlies, is one of the specific regions that are likely to be strongly impacted by global warming. An understanding of past variations in effective moisture in such regions is an important prerequisite for the prediction of future hydrological change. Here we evaluate spatial and temporal patterns of effective moisture variations documented by different proxies from 17 records in ACA, and synthesize a decadal-resolution moisture curve for ACA over the past millennium, using 5 of the 17 records selected on the basis of reliable chronologies and robust proxies. The high- and low-resolution data all show that, over the past millennium, ACA has been characterized by a relatively dry Medieval Warm Period (MWP; the period from ˜1000 to 1350 AD), a wet Little Ice Age (LIA; from ˜1500 to 1850 AD) and increasing moisture during recent decades. As a whole, the LIA in the ACA was not only relatively humid but also had high precipitation. Over the past millennium, the multi-centennial moisture changes in ACA show a generally inverse relationship with the temperature changes in the Northern Hemisphere, China, and western central Asia. The effective moisture history in ACA also shows an out-of-phase relationship with that in monsoon Asia (especially during the LIA). We propose that the humid LIA in ACA, possibly extending to Mediterranean Sea and Western Europe, may have resulted from increased precipitation due to more frequent mid-latitude cyclone activities as a result of the strengthening and equator-ward shift of the westerly jet stream, and the predominantly negative North Atlantic Oscillation conditions, coupled with a decrease in evapotranspiration caused by the cooling at that time.

Chen, Fa-Hu; Chen, Jian-Hui; Holmes, Jonathan; Boomer, Ian; Austin, Patrick; Gates, John B.; Wang, Ning-Lian; Brooks, Stephen J.; Zhang, Jia-Wu

2010-04-01

376

The central core region of yeast ribosomal protein L11 is important for subunit joining and translational fidelity  

PubMed Central

Yeast ribosomal protein L11 is positioned at the intersubunit cleft of the large subunit central protuberance, forming an intersubunit bridge with the small subunit protein S18. Mutants were engineered in the central core region of L11 which interacts with Helix 84 of the 25S rRNA. Numerous mutants in this region conferred 60S subunit biogenesis defects. Specifically, many mutations of F96 and the A66D mutant promoted formation of halfmers as assayed by sucrose density ultracentrifugation. Halfmer formation was not due to deficiency in 60S subunit production, suggesting that the mutants affected subunit-joining. Chemical modification analyses indicated that the A66D mutant, but not the F96 mutants, promoted changes in 25S rRNA structure, suggesting at least two modalities for subunit joining defects. 25S rRNA structural changes were located both adjacent to A66D (in H84), and more distant (in H96-7). While none of the mutants significantly affected ribosome/tRNA binding constants, they did have strong effects on cellular growth at both high and low temperatures, in the presence of translational inhibitors, and promoted changes in translational fidelity. Two distinct mechanisms are proposed by which L11 mutants may affect subunit joining, and identification of the amino acids associated with each of these processes are presented. These findings may have implications for our understanding of multifaceted diseases such as Diamond–Blackfan anemia which have been linked in part with mutations in L11.

Rhodin, Michael H. J.; Rakauskaite, Rasa

2014-01-01

377

Sequence analysis for detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from the Central Region of Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background The potential of genetic testing to rapidly diagnose drug resistance has lead to the development of new diagnostic assays. However, prior to implementation in a given setting, the association of specific mutations with specific drug resistance phenotypes should be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate molecular markers in predicting drug resistance in the Central Region of Cameroon. Results From April 2010 and March 2011, 725 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were enrolled and all positive cultures were tested for drug susceptibility. A total of 63 drug resistant and 100 drug sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates were screened for genetic mutations in katG, inhA, ahpC, rpoB, rpsL, rrs, gidB and embCAB loci using DNA sequencing. Of the 44 isoniazid resistant (INHR) isolates (24 high level, 1 ?g/ml and 20 low level, 0.2 ?g/ml), 73% (32/44) carried the katG315 and/or the -15 inhA promoter mutations. Of the 24 high level INHR, 17 (70.8%) harbored katG315 mutation, 1 a point mutation (-15C???T) in the inhA promoter and 6 were (25.0%) wild types. Thus, for INHR high level detection, katG315 mutation had a specificity and a sensitivity of 100% and 70.8% respectively. Of the 20 low level INHR, 10 (50.0%) had a -15C???T mutation in the inhA promoter region, and 1 (2.2%) a -32G???A mutation in the ahpC promoter region. All of the 7 rifampicin resistant (RIFR) isolates carried mutations in the rpoB gene (at codons Ser531Leu (71.4%), His526Asp (14.3%), and Asp516Val (14.3%)). Of the 27 streptomycin resistant (SMR) isolates, 7 carried mutations at the rpsL and the gidB genes. 1 of the 2 ethambutol resistant (EMBR) isolates displayed a mutation in embB gene. Conclusion This study provided the first molecular investigation assessing the correlation of phenotypic to genotypic characteristics on MTB isolates from the Central Region of Cameroon using DNA sequencing. Mutations on rpoB, katG315 and -15 point mutations in inhA promoter loci could be used as markers for RIF and INH -resistance detection respectively.

2014-01-01

378

Source mechanisms of the 2000 earthquake swarm in the West Bohemia/Vogtland region (Central Europe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earthquake swarm of magnitudes up to ML = 3.2 occurred in the region of West Bohemia/Vogtland (border area between Czech Republic and Germany) in autumn 2000. This swarm consisted of nine episodic phases and lasted 4 months. We retrieved source mechanisms of 102 earthquakes with magnitudes between ML = 1.6 and 3.2 applying inversion of the peak amplitudes of direct P and SH waves, which were determined from ground motion seismograms. The investigated events cover the whole swarm activity in both time and space. We use data from permanent stations of seismic network WEBNET and from temporal stations, which were deployed in the epicentral area during the swarm; the number of stations varied from 7 to 18. The unconstrained moment tensor (MT) expression of the mechanism, which describes a general system of dipoles, that is both double-couple (DC) and non-DC sources, was applied. MTs of each earthquake were estimated by inversion of three different sets of data: P-wave amplitudes only, P- and SH-wave amplitudes and P-wave amplitudes along with the SH-wave amplitudes from a priori selected four `base' WEBNET stations, the respective MT solutions are nearly identical for each event investigated. The resultant mechanisms of all events are dominantly DCs with only insignificant non-DC components mostly not exceeding 10 per cent. We checked reliability of the MTs in jackknife trials eliminating some data; we simulated the mislocation of hypocentre or contaminated the P- and SH-wave amplitudes by accidental errors. These tests proved stable and well constrained MT solutions. The massive dominance of the DC in all investigated events implies that the 2000 swarm consisted of a large number of pure shears along a fault plane. The focal mechanisms indicate both oblique-normal and oblique-thrust faulting, however, the oblique-normal faulting prevails. The predominant strikes and dips of the oblique-normal events fit well the geometry of the main fault plane Nový Kostel (NK) and also match the strike, dip and rake of the largest ML = 4.6 earthquake of a strong swarm in 1985/86. On the contrary, the 2000 source mechanisms differ substantially from those of the 1997-swarm (which took place in two fault segments at the edge of the main NK fault plane) in both the faulting and the content of non-DC components. Further, we found that the scalar seismic moment M0 is related to the local magnitude ML used by WEBNET as M0 ? 101.12ML, which differs from the scaling law using moment magnitude Mw, that is M0 ? 101.5Mw.

Horálek, Josef; Šílený, Jan

2013-08-01

379

Assessment of land cover changes in Lake Olbolossat region of the Central Kenyan highlands using Landsat satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region around Lake Olbolossat located in the central Kenyan highlands has witnessed significant land-use changes, which are today believed to be major cause of the dwindling Lake volumes. Very few studies have been carried out in the region due to limited observed in-situ data important for monitoring purposes. It is thus urgent that contemporary cost effective techniques are explored to asses the space and time land cover changes with a view to provide information required for appropriate land and water resource management. In this preliminary study, the land cover changes around Lake Olbolossat region were investigated using remotely sensed data obtained from Landsat satellites. Two imageries for 1989 and 2010 when significant changes were witnessed in the area were selected for the study. The maximum-Likelihood function of the supervised classification technique was applied to classify and discern the changes. Five predominant land cover classes that included forest land, built-up area, water body, flood plain and farmland were selected for the study. From the results obtained, the area of the Lake (water body) was noted to have shrunk significantly by 68%. Farmlands in the region were noted to have increased by about 31% largely due to the favorable humid climatic conditions for commercial and subsistence agriculture. The study also revealed that built-up areas increased by about 33% consequent of the rise in the human population. The flood plain area was noted to have reduced by about 26% as most of the area were gradually been turned to farmland. The study also revealed intense deforestation in the upstream Aberdare forest, which was noted to have reduced in area by about 30% during the study period. In general, the study revealed significant land cover changes worth provoking the need for a better land-use planning system to avoid further decline and extinction of Lake Olbolossat. Keywords: Lake Olbolossat; Landsat satellite; Maximum-Likelihood; Supervised classification.

Muriithi, Zacharia; Olang, Luke

2013-04-01

380

Regional metamorphism in the Condrey Mountain Quadrangle, north-central Klamath Mountains, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A subcircular area of about 650 km 2 in northern California and southwestern Oregon is occupied by rocks of the greenschist metamorphic facies called the Condrey Mountain Schist. This greenschist terrane is bordered on the east and west by rocks belonging to the amphibolite metamorphic facies that structurally overlie and are thrust over the Condrey Mountain Schist. The amphibolite facies is succeeded upward by metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks belonging to the greenschist metamorphic facies. The Condrey Mountain Schist is composed predominantly of quartz-muscovite schist and lesser amounts of actinolite-chlorite schist formed by the metamorphism of graywacke and spilitic volcanic rocks that may have belonged to the Galice Formation of Late Jurassic age. Potassium-argon age determinations of 141?4 m.y. and 155?5 m.y. obtained on these metamorphic rocks seem to be incompatible with the Late Jurassic age usually assigned the Galice. The rocks that border the amphibolite facies are part of an extensive terrane of metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks belonging to the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt. The metavolcanic rocks include some unmetamorphosed spilite but are mostly of the greenschist metamorphic facies composed of oligoclase (An15-20) and actinolite with subordinate amounts of chlorite and clinozoisiteepidote. The interbedded sedimentary rocks are predominantly argillite and slaty argillite, less commonly siliceous argillite and chert, and a few lenticular beds of marble. On the south, high-angle faults and a tabular granitic pluton separate the greenschist metavolcanic terrane from the amphibolite facies rocks; on the east, nonfoliated amphibolite is succeeded upward, apparently conformably, by metasedimentary rocks belonging to the greenschist metavolcanic terrane. In the southern part of Condrey Mountain quadrangle, an outlier of a thrust plate composed of the Stuart Fork Formation overlies the metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. The Stuart Fork in this region is composed of siliceous phyllite and phyllitic quartzite and is believed to be the metamorphosed equivalent of rocks over which it is thrust. In the Yreka-Fort Jones area, potassium-argon determinations on mica from the blueschist facies in the Stuart Fork gave ages of approximately 220 m.y. (Late Triassic) for the age of metamorphism. Rocks of the amphibolite facies structurally overlie the Condrey Mountain Schist along a moderate to steeply dipping thrust fault. The amphibolite terrane is composed of amphibolite and metasedimentary rocks in approximately equal amounts accompanied by many bodies of serpentinite and a number of gabbro and dioritic plutons. Most of the amphibolite is foliated, but some is nonfoliated; the nonfoliated amphibolite has an amphibolite mineralogy and commonly a relict volcanic rock texture. The nonfoliated amphibolite occurs on the southern and eastern borders of the amphibolite terrane between the areas offoliated amphibolite and the overly ing metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Hornblende and plagioclase (An30-35) are the characteristic minerals, indicating that the rocks are of the almandine-amphibolite metamorphic facies. The metasedimentary rocks interbedded with the amphibolites include siliceous schist and phyllite, minor quartzite, and subordinate amounts of marble. Potassium-argon age dates obtained on hornblende from foliated amphibolite yield ages of 146?4 and 148? 4 m.y., suggesting a Late Jurassic metamorphic episode. Mafic and ultramafic rocks are widespread in the amphibolite terrane but are almost entirely absent from the area of greenschist facies metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. The ultramafic rocks, predominantly serpentinite, occur as a few large bodies and many small tabular concordant