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Sample records for laser balancing system

  1. Automatic balancing system with laser unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giers, A.

    1981-01-01

    A balancing plant for miniature rotor gyroscopes was developed, using a pulsed laser for material removal in order to perform the necessary measurements and balancing processes in one single operation. The plant, consisting of five units, is depicted and illustrated by graphs and photographs. The tests were intended to check the machine, to get experimental data, and to investigate the possibilities of this technology. As compared to conventional procedures, this automatic balancing process with laser compensation is rationalized, is faster, is cheaper, and provides a higher balancing quality. The test results confirm the system reliability as well as the process advantages.

  2. Laser balancing system for high material removal rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Georgalas, G.; Ortiz, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    A laser technique to remove material in excess of 10 mg/sec from a spinning rotor is described. This material removal rate is 20 times greater than previously reported for a surface speed of 30 m/sec. Material removal enhancement was achieved by steering a focused laser beam with moving optics to increase the time of laser energy interaction with a particular location on the circumferential surface of a spinning rotor. A neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) pulse laser was used in this work to evaluate material removal for carbon steel, 347 stainless steel, Inconal 718, and titanium 6-4. This technique is applicable to dynamic laser balancing.

  3. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  4. Nonlocal systems of balance laws in several space dimensions with applications to laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Rinaldo M.; Marcellini, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    For a class of systems of nonlinear and nonlocal balance laws in several space dimensions, we prove the local in time existence of solutions and their continuous dependence on the initial datum. The choice of this class is motivated by a new model devoted to the description of a metal plate being cut by a laser beam. Using realistic parameters, solutions to this model obtained through numerical integrations meet qualitative properties of real cuts. Moreover, the class of equations considered comprises a model describing the dynamics of solid particles along a conveyor belt.

  5. Experiments on multiplane balancing using a laser for material removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuth, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    The modifications of a flexible rotor system for two-plane laser balancing is described. Experimental testing of the laser material removal method for balancing through the first bending critical speed was demonstrated. The test rig, optical configuration, and a neodymium glass laser system were assembled and calibrated for static and rotating material removal rates. The laser control computer program was combined with the influence coefficient balancing process, resulting in a completely automated data acquisition, laser, and balancing system. The laser system rotor was balanced through the first bending critical speed using the laser material removal procedure to apply trial weights and correction weights without stopping the rotor.

  6. Laser balancing demonstration on a high-speed flexible rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuth, R. S.; Rio, R. A.; Fleming, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a flexible rotor system used for two-plane laser balancing and an experimental demonstration of the laser material removal method for balancing. A laboratory test rotor was modified to accept balancing corrections using a laser metal removal method while the rotor is at operating speed. The laser setup hardware required to balance the rotor using two correction planes is described. The test rig optical configuration and a neodymium glass laser were assembled and calibrated for material removal rates. Rotor amplitudes before and after balancing, trial and correction weights, rotor speed during operation of laser, and balancing time were documented. The rotor was balanced through the first bending critical speed using the laser material removal procedure to apply trial weights and correction weights without stopping the rotor.

  7. Active control of a balanced two-stage pendulum vibration isolation system and its application to laser interferometric gravity wave detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, P.J.; Robertson, N.A.; Cantley, C.A.; Hough, J. )

    1993-05-01

    The investigation of the servo control of the position of the bottom mass in a balanced two-stage pendulum vibration isolation system is reported. Experimental results for a simple prototype system and predictions based on a model presented in this paper are in good agreement. The application of such a system to a high-sensitivity laser interferometric gravity wave detector is discussed.

  8. Balance Evaluation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NeuroCom's Balance Master is a system to assess and then retrain patients with balance and mobility problems and is used in several medical centers. NeuroCom received assistance in research and funding from NASA, and incorporated technology from testing mechanisms for astronauts after shuttle flights. The EquiTest and Balance Master Systems are computerized posturography machines that measure patient responses to movement of a platform on which the subject is standing or sitting, then provide assessments of the patient's postural alignment and stability.

  9. Proposed method of rotary dynamic balancing by laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Laser method, where high energies of monochromatic light can be precisely collimated to perform welding and machining processes, is proposed for rotary dynamic balancing. The unbalance, as detected with the velocity pickup, would trigger the laser system which would emit high energy pulses directed at the heavy side of the component.

  10. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  11. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Alice T.

    1995-05-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  12. Research on six-degree-of-freedom calibration system for wind tunnel balances with a collimated laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhigang; He, Jin; Zuo, Baojun; Li, Runshun; Jia, Yuansheng; Gui, Bing; Qiu, Junwen; Dong, Milin

    2003-02-01

    A newly-developed six-degree-of-freedom calibration system for the wind tunnel balances is introduced. The frame of the system, the functions and the operating principle of different parts are presented in detail. The system is composed of four parts: the automatically loading subsystem, the automatically resetting subsystem, the data-acquisition subsystem and the measurement subsystem. The results of some cell experiments proved that the system can meet the needs of the present calibration task of the balance. Through further improvement, the system can be also used to calibrate other devices with multi degree-of-freedom and measure the minute shifts, such as the guide rail of machine tool and the assembling of large parts and so on.

  13. Active balance system and vibration balanced machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass.

  14. How Our Balance System Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... from your eyes, the inner ear, and the sensory systems of the body (such as the skin, muscles, ... function? How are vision, the inner ear, and sensory systems impacting functional balance? Some of the tests of ...

  15. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  16. Heterodyne laser spectroscopy system

    DOEpatents

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A heterodyne laser spectroscopy system utilizes laser heterodyne techniques for purposes of laser isotope separation spectroscopy, vapor diagnostics, processing of precise laser frequency offsets from a reference frequency, and provides spectral analysis of a laser beam.

  17. Heterodyne laser spectroscopy system

    DOEpatents

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A heterodyne laser spectroscopy system utilizes laser heterodyne techniques for purposes of laser isotope separation spectroscopy, vapor diagnostics, processing of precise laser frequency offsets from a reference frequency and the like, and provides spectral analysis of a laser beam.

  18. A Balanced Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the academy and the wider society. Such a scheme…

  19. Heterodyne laser diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A.; Johnson, Michael A.; Wyeth, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

  20. Hypersonic gasdynamic laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, K.M.; Maciulaitis, A.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a visible, or near to mid infra-red, hypersonic gas dynamic laser system. It comprises: a hypersonic vehicle for carrying the hypersonic gas dynamic laser system, and also providing high energy ram air for thermodynamic excitation and supply of the laser gas; a laser cavity defined within the hypersonic vehicle and having a laser cavity inlet for the laser cavity formed by an opening in the hypersonic vehicle, such that ram air directed through the laser cavity opening supports gas dynamic lasing operations at wavelengths less than 10.6{mu} meters in the laser cavity; and an optical train for collecting the laser radiation from the laser cavity and directing it as a substantially collimated laser beam to an output aperture defined by an opening in the hypersonic vehicle to allow the laser beam to be directed against a target.

  1. Laser satellite power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walbridge, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

  2. Balance Systems and the Variational Bicomplex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Serge

    2011-07-01

    In this work we show that the systems of balance equations (balance systems) of continuum thermodynamics occupy a natural place in the variational bicomplex formalism. We apply the vertical homotopy decomposition to get a local splitting (in a convenient domain) of a general balance system as the sum of a Lagrangian part and a complemental ''pure non-Lagrangian'' balance system. In the case when derivatives of the dynamical fields do not enter the constitutive relations of the balance system, the ''pure non-Lagrangian'' systems coincide with the systems introduced by S. Godunov [Soviet Math. Dokl. 2 (1961), 947-948] and, later, asserted as the canonical hyperbolic form of balance systems in [Müller I., Ruggeri T., Rational extended thermodynamics, 2nd ed., Springer Tracts in Natural Philosophy, Vol. 37, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998].

  3. Tests of laser metal removal for future flexible rotor balancing in engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessarzik, J. M.; Fleming, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes recent developments in the flexible rotor balancing technology area, with particular emphasis on methods for the addition and removal of correction weights. The currently existing multiplane-multispeed balancing procedure permits one-step balancing of final shaft-bearing assemblies simultaneously in a number of planes and at a number of speeds. Temporary addition of trial weights to the rotor, and the addition or subtraction of permanent corrections, are presently performed manually in the balancing process. The addition of a computer-controlled laser device to the balancing system shows promise of eliminating direct operator contact with the rotor in the balancing process, and thus could provide a considerable increase in the precision level at a critical step in the procedure.

  4. Laser material processing system

    DOEpatents

    Dantus, Marcos

    2015-04-28

    A laser material processing system and method are provided. A further aspect of the present invention employs a laser for micromachining. In another aspect of the present invention, the system uses a hollow waveguide. In another aspect of the present invention, a laser beam pulse is given broad bandwidth for workpiece modification.

  5. Laser cutting system

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  6. Infrared laser system

    DOEpatents

    Cantrell, Cyrus D.; Carbone, Robert J.; Cooper, Ralph

    1982-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

  7. Infrared laser system

    DOEpatents

    Cantrell, Cyrus D.; Carbone, Robert J.; Cooper, Ralph S.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

  8. Laser rocket system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. S.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The laser rocket systems investigated in this study were for orbital transportation using space-based, ground-based and airborne laser transmitters. The propulsion unit of these systems utilizes a continuous wave (CW) laser beam focused into a thrust chamber which initiates a plasma in the hydrogen propellant, thus heating the propellant and providing thrust through a suitably designed nozzle and expansion skirt. The specific impulse is limited only by the ability to adequately cool the thruster and the amount of laser energy entering the engine. The results of the study showed that, with advanced technology, laser rocket systems with either a space- or ground-based laser transmitter could reduce the national budget allocated to space transportation by 10 to 345 billion dollars over a 10-year life cycle when compared to advanced chemical propulsion systems (LO2-LH2) of equal capability. The variation in savings depends upon the projected mission model.

  9. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-14

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  10. Precision laser aiming system

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  11. Magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBSs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of wind tunnel testing are outlined, with attention given to the problems caused by mechanical support systems, such as support interference, dynamic-testing restrictions, and low productivity. The basic principles of magnetic suspension are highlighted, along with the history of magnetic suspension and balance systems. Roll control, size limitations, high angle of attack, reliability, position sensing, and calibration are discussed among the problems and limitations of the existing magnetic suspension and balance systems. Examples of the existing systems are presented, and design studies for future systems are outlined. Problems specific to large-scale magnetic suspension and balance systems, such as high model loads, requirements for high-power electromagnets, high-capacity power supplies, highly sophisticated control systems and position sensors, and high costs are assessed.

  12. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System Laser Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afzal, R. S.; Dallas, J. L.; Yu, A. W.; Mamakos, W. A.; Lukemire, A.; Schroeder, B.; Malak, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), scheduled to launch in 2001, is a laser altimeter and lidar for tile Earth Observing System's (EOS) ICESat mission. The laser transmitter requirements, design and qualification test results for this space- based remote sensing instrument are presented.

  13. Balanced bridge feedback control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In a system having a driver, a motor, and a mechanical plant, a multiloop feedback control apparatus for controlling the movement and/or positioning of a mechanical plant, the control apparatus has a first local bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of voltage and current at the output driver, and a second bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of force and velocity at the output of the motor. The control apparatus may further include an outer loop for feeding back a signal representing the angular velocity and/or position of the mechanical plant.

  14. NIF injection laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisoff, Peter J.; Bowers, Mark W.; Erbert, Gaylen V.; Browning, Donald F.; Jedlovec, Donald R.

    2004-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-power, 192-beam laser facility being built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The 192 laser beams that will converge on the target at the output of the NIF laser system originate from a low power fiber laser in the Master Oscillator Room (MOR). The MOR is responsible for generating the single pulse that seeds the entire NIF laser system. This single pulse is phase-modulated to add bandwidth, and then amplified and split into 48 separate beam lines all in single-mode polarizing fiber. Before leaving the MOR, each of the 48 output pulses are temporally sculpted into high contrast shapes using Arbitrary Waveform Generators (AWG). Each output pulse is then carried by optical fiber to the Preamplifier Module (PAM) where it is amplified to the multi-joule level using a diode-pumped regenerative amplifier and a multi-pass, flashlamp-pumped rod amplifier. Inside the PAM, the beam is spatially shaped to pre-compensate for the spatial gain profile in the main laser amplifiers. The output from the PAM is sampled by a diagnostic package called the Input Sensor Package (ISP) and then split into four beams in the Preamplifier Beam Transport System (PABTS). Each of these four beams is injected into one of NIF's 192 beam lines. The combination of the MOR, PAM, ISP and PABTS constitute the Injection Laser System (ILS) for NIF. This system has proven its flexibility of providing a wide variety of pulse shapes and energies during the first experiments utilizing four beam lines of NIF.

  15. Underwater laser detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Walid; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2015-02-01

    The conventional method used to detect an underwater target is by sending and receiving some form of acoustic energy. But the acoustic systems have limitations in the range resolution and accuracy; while, the potential benefits of a laserbased underwater target detection include high directionality, high response, and high range accuracy. Lasers operating in the blue-green region of the light spectrum(420 : 570nm)have a several applications in the area of detection and ranging of submersible targets due to minimum attenuation through water ( less than 0.1 m-1) and maximum laser reflection from estimated target (like mines or submarines) to provide a long range of detection. In this paper laser attenuation in water was measured experimentally by new simple method by using high resolution spectrometer. The laser echoes from different targets (metal, plastic, wood, and rubber) were detected using high resolution CCD camera; the position of detection camera was optimized to provide a high reflection laser from target and low backscattering noise from the water medium, digital image processing techniques were applied to detect and discriminate the echoes from the metal target and subtract the echoes from other objects. Extraction the image of target from the scattering noise is done by background subtraction and edge detection techniques. As a conclusion, we present a high response laser imaging system to detect and discriminate small size, like-mine underwater targets.

  16. Ultra-fast laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Dantus, Marcos; Lozovoy, Vadim V

    2014-01-21

    A laser system is provided which selectively excites Raman active vibrations in molecules. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and remote sensing.

  17. Laser angle measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pond, C. R.; Texeira, P. D.; Wilbert, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a laser angle measurement system is described. The instrument is a fringe counting interferometer that monitors the pitch attitude of a model in a wind tunnel. A laser source and detector are mounted above the mode. Interference fringes are generated by a small passive element on the model. The fringe count is accumulated and displayed by a processor in the wind tunnel control room. Optical and electrical schematics, system maintenance and operation procedures are included, and the results of a demonstration test are given.

  18. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Hudyma, Russell M.; Shafer, David R.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  19. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo® Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults’ body balance. PMID:26957722

  20. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance. PMID:26957722

  1. The Dynamic Balancer electrical safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Konkel, H.

    1997-12-01

    The Pantex Plant Dynamic Balancer is used to identify physical imbalance in some weapon systems. This study was conducted at the request of the US Department of Energy/Albuquerque Operations Office (USDOE/AL) Dynamic Balancer Project Team to identify the electrical conditions required for motor over-speed to occur and to discuss the functions of the various electrical protective features associated with the Dynamic Balancer (DB). As is shown through the development of a fault tree, numerous electrical and human failures are required for over-speed conditions to occur. As directed by the Project Team, no effort was made to develop detailed fault trees for all electrical systems, to quantify basic events in the fault tree, or to develop accident scenarios leading to or resulting from over-speed. The Pantex Building 12-60, Bay 2, facility electrical circuits and grounding are described, and potential hazards are discussed. DB motor over-speed is a safety concern, and therefore, the controls that limit this condition are described and discussed in detail. Other safety-significant electrical circuits are discussed as well. These safety systems also are described in the facility Basis for Interim Operation. A potential for a motor over-speed that is not sensed by the standard safety protective systems does exist. This fault pathway is discussed, and recommendations to mitigate its effect are made.

  2. Geodynamic laser ranging system laser transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallas, J. L.; Czechanski, J. P.; Coyle, D. B.; Zukowski, B. J.; Seery, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of the requirements and design options in the development of a spaceborne laser transmitter for NASA's Geodynamic Laser Ranging System. Three different oscillators are considered. The first is an injection-seeded ring oscillator yielding 1 mJ of energy within a 120-ps pulse. The second is a frequency-modulated mode-locked oscillator emitting 0.30 nJ in a 20-ps pulse. The third is a self-starting, additive pulse mode-locked laser. Detailed design considerations and preliminary results of these lasers are reported as well as the design of a unique multipass amplifier.

  3. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site, first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1), second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2), and third ARM Mobile Facility (AMF3) at Oliktok Point (OLI). A SEBS was also deployed with the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site, before it was decommissioned. Data from these sites, including the retired TWP, are available in the ARM Data Archive. The SEBS consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  4. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  5. Coherent laser vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastion, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  6. Laser interferometer micrometer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logue, S. H.

    1969-01-01

    Laser micrometer measures dimensions of precision gyro and gas bearing parts using the principle of measuring light phase changes rather than a direct fringe count. The system uses light beams to eliminate errors due to deformations and surface irregularities, and three interferometers.

  7. Laser autostereoscopic projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuchang; Huang, Junejei

    2013-09-01

    The current autostereoscopic projection system is accomplished by array projectors. It is easy to realize optically but has a drawback with size. Another type is to place the shutter on the screen. It saves the volume but reduces the efficiency depending on how many views are produced. The shutter in the lens aperture has the same efficiency problem, too. To overcome these problems, a full HD autostereoscopic projector based on the lens aperture switching type is proposed. It has RGB laser sources and can produce 16-views or even higher stereoscopic images. This system removes the shutter in the lens aperture by the opti-mechanism itself. The specific light on the lens aperture coming from the point on the DMD is reflected to different angles. The proper angle of light is generated in the object side by the relay and folding system. The UHP lamps or the LED rays are difficult to constrain in a relative small cone angle. For this reason, the laser is applied to the design. The very small etendue of the laser is good for this architecture. The rays are combined by dichroic filter from RGB laser sources then forming and expanding to the mirror. The mirror is synchronized with DMD by the DSP control system. The images of different views are generated by DMD and specific position of the mirror. By the double lenticular screen, the lens aperture is imaged to the observer's viewing zone and the 3D scene is created.

  8. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2001-01-01

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  9. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, H.N.; Hudyma, R.M.; Shafer, D.R.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1999-10-26

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate is disclosed. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  10. Laser measuring system accurately locates point coordinates on photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doede, J. H.; Lindenmeyer, C. W.; Vonderohe, R. H.

    1966-01-01

    Laser activated ultraprecision ranging apparatus interfaced with a computer determines point coordinates on a photograph. A helium-neon gas CW laser provides collimated light for a null balancing optical system. This system has no mechanical connection between the ranging apparatus and the photograph.

  11. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Ruch, Russell; Ludwig, Peter; Maurer, Tessa

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  12. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  13. Development of a multiplane multispeed balancing system for turbine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    A prototype high speed balancing system was developed for assembled gas turbine engine modules. The system permits fully assembled gas turbine modules to be operated and balanced at selected speeds up to full turbine speed. The balancing system is a complete stand-alone system providing all necesary lubrication and support hardware for full speed operation. A variable speed motor provides the drive power. A drive belt and gearbox provide rotational speeds up to 21,000 rpm inside a vacuum chamber. The heart of the system is a dedicated minicomputer with attendant data acquisition, storage and I/O devices. The computer is programmed to be completely interactive with the operator. The system was installed at CCAD and evaluated by testing 20 T55 power turbines and 20 T53 power turbines. Engine test results verified the performance of the high speed balanced turbines.

  14. Laser autoalignment system

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard, R.J.; Lloyd, W.B.; Logan, D.R.; Minarik, R.W.

    1981-08-11

    An autoalignment system is disclosed for a laser having a pair of reflector assemblies capable of providing six degrees of freedom of movement to the reflector element formed as part of each of the reflector assemblies. Each reflector assembly is made up of a reflector unit, a gimbal knuckle joint and a translator mechanism. The interconnection between the reflector unit and the gimbal knuckle joint provides for two degrees of freedom while the translator mechanism and its interconnection with the gimbal knuckle joint provides the additional four degrees of freedom. Cooling of the reflector elements is accomplished by way of a coolant system which is incorporated within the autoalignment system of the laser, while motivation of the autoalignment system is in the form of a plurality of drivers operably connected to the various elements of the reflector assembly. During utilization of the system in a vibrational environment, the autoalignment system maintains the correct relationship between the reflecting elements of the laser as well as providing sufficient cooling thereof.

  15. Excimer laser system Profile-500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atejev, V. V.; Bukreyev, V. S.; Vartapetov, Serge K.; Semenov, A. D.; Sugrobov, V. A.; Turin, V. S.; Fedorov, Sergei N.

    1999-07-01

    The description of ophthalmological excimer laser system 'PROFILE-500' for photorefractive and physiotherapeutic keratectomy is presented. Excimer Laser Systems 'PROFILE- 500' are optical system that use ArF excimer lasers to perform photorefractive keratectomy or LASIK; surgical procedures used to correct myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.

  16. Laser system preset unit

    DOEpatents

    Goodwin, William L.

    1977-01-01

    An electronic circuit is provided which may be used to preset a digital display unit of a Zeeman-effect layer interferometer system which derives distance measurements by comparing a reference signal to a Doppler signal generated at the output of the interferometer laser head. The circuit presets dimensional offsets in the interferometer digital display by electronically inducing a variation in either the Doppler signal or the reference signal, depending upon the direction of the offset, to achieve the desired display preset.

  17. System Risk Balancing Profiles: Software Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, John C.; Sigal, Burton C.; Gindorf, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The Software QA / V&V guide will be reviewed and updated based on feedback from NASA organizations and others with a vested interest in this area. Hardware, EEE Parts, Reliability, and Systems Safety are a sample of the future guides that will be developed. Cost Estimates, Lessons Learned, Probability of Failure and PACTS (Prevention, Avoidance, Control or Test) are needed to provide a more complete risk management strategy. This approach to risk management is designed to help balance the resources and program content for risk reduction for NASA's changing environment.

  18. Laser pointing determination for the geoscience laser altimeter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Pamela S.; Sirota, J. Marcos

    1998-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is a space-based lidar being developed to monitor changes in the mass balance of the Earth's polar ice sheets (Thomas et al. 1985). GLAS is part of NASA's Earth Observing System (Schutz 1995), and is being designed to launch into a 600 km circular polar orbit in the year 2001, for continuous operation over 3 to 5 years. The orbit's 94 degree inclination has been selected to allow good coverage and profile patterns over the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. The GLAS mission uses a small dedicated spacecraft provided by Ball Aerospace, which is required to have a very stable nadir and zenith pointing platform which points to within approximately 100 urad (20 arcseconds) of Nadir. Accurate knowledge of the laser beam's pointing angle (in the far field) is critical since pointing the laser beam away from nadir biases the altimetry measurements (Gardner 1992, Bufton et al. 1991). This error is a function of the distance of the laser centroid off nadir multiplied by the orbit altitude and the tangent of the slope angle of the terrain. Most of the ice sheet surface slopes are less than 1? resulting in pointing knowledge bias of only 7.6 cm with 7.3 urad accuracy, and overall single shot height accuracy of approximately 15 cm. However, over a 3 deg surface slope pointing knowledge to approximately 7.3 urad is the largest error source (23 cm) in achieving 26 cm height accuracy. The GLAS design incorporates a stellar reference system (SRS) to relate the laser beam pointing angle to the star field to an accuracy of 7.3 urad. The stellar reference system combines an attitude determination system (ADS) operating from 4 to 10 Hz coupled to a 40 Hz laser reference system (LRS) to perform this task.

  19. Magnetic suspension and balance system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.; Abdelsalam, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A compact design for a superconducting magnetic suspension and balance system is developed for a 8 ft. x 8 ft. transonic wind tunnel. The main features of the design are: a compact superconducting solenoid in the suspended airplane model; permanent magnet wings; one common liquid helium dewar for all superconducting coils; efficient new race track coils for roll torques; use of established 11 kA cryostable AC conductor; acceptable AC losses during 10 Hz control even with all steel structure; and a 560 liter/hour helium liquefier. Considerable design simplicity, reduced magnet weights, and reduced heat leak results from using one common dewar which eliminates most heavy steel structure between coils and the suspended model. Operational availability is thought to approach 100% for such magnet systems. The weight and cost of the magnet system is approximately one-third that of previous less compact designs.

  20. Laser multiplexing system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Steve A.; English, Jr., Ronald Edward; White, Ronald K.

    2001-01-01

    A plurality of copper lasers, as radiant power sources, emits a beam of power carrying radiation. A plurality of fiber injection assemblies receives power from the plurality of copper lasers and injects such power into a plurality of fibers for individually transmitting the received power to a plurality of power-receiving devices. The power-transmitting fibers of the system are so arranged that power is delivered therethrough to each of the power-receiving devices such that, even if a few of the radiant power sources and/or fibers fail, the power supply to any of the power receiving devices will not completely drop to zero but will drop by the same proportionate amount.

  1. Force balances in systems of cylindrical polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Brenner, S L; McQuarrie, D A

    1973-04-01

    A detailed analysis is made of the model system of two parallel cylindrical polyelectrolytes which contain ionizable groups on their surfaces and are immersed in an ionic bathing medium. The interaction between the cylinders is examined by considering the interplay between repulsive electrostatic forces and attractive forces of electrodynamic origin. The repulsive force arises from the screened coulomb interaction between the surface charge distributions on the cylinders and has been treated by developing a solution to the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The boundary condition at the cylinder surfaces is determined as a self-consistent functional of the potential, with the input consisting of the density of ionizable groups and their dissociation constants. It is suggested that a reasonably accurate representation for the form of the attractive force can be obtained by performing a pairwise summation of the individual interatomic forces. A quantitative estimate is obtained using a Hamaker constant chosen on the basis of rigorous calculations on simpler systems. It is found that a balance exists between these repulsive and attractive forces at separations in good agreement with those observed in arrays of tobacco mosaic virus and in the A band myosin lattice in striated muscle. The behavior of the balance point as a function of the pH and ionic strength of the bathing medium closely parallels that seen experimentally. PMID:4696760

  2. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  3. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1997-01-01

    A voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means.

  4. BALANCE

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  5. Compact laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Carr, R.B.

    1974-02-26

    A compact laser amplifier system is described in which a plurality of face-pumped annular disks, aligned along a common axis, independently radially amplify a stimulating light pulse. Partially reflective or lasing means, coaxially positioned at the center of each annualar disk, radially deflects a stimulating light directed down the common axis uniformly into each disk for amplification, such that the light is amplified by the disks in a parallel manner. Circumferential reflecting means coaxially disposed around each disk directs amplified light emission, either toward a common point or in a common direction. (Official Gazette)

  6. Laser interlock system

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Steven D; Mcintyre, Dustin L

    2015-01-13

    A method and device for providing a laser interlock having a first optical source, a first beam splitter, a second optical source, a detector, an interlock control system, and a means for producing dangerous optical energy. The first beam splitter is optically connected to the first optical source, the first detector and the second optical source. The detector is connected to the interlock control system. The interlock control system is connected to the means for producing dangerous optical energy and configured to terminate its optical energy production upon the detection of optical energy at the detector from the second optical source below a predetermined detector threshold. The second optical source produces an optical energy in response to optical energy from the first optical source. The optical energy from the second optical source has a different wavelength, polarization, modulation or combination thereof from the optical energy of the first optical source.

  7. Laser fusion target illumination system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C E

    1975-06-01

    Laser fusion experiments require the focusing of very intense pulsed laser beams onto very small fuel pellets. All reported experiments to date have used lenses to focus one or more laser beams onto the target. This paper describes a combined refractive/reflective illumination system that provides nearly uniform irradiance with nearly orthogonal incidence over the complete spherical target, with only two laser beams. This illumination system was used in the experiments that produced the first known symmetric target implosions. Furthermore, these experiments produced what we believe were the first thermonuclear neutrons generated by a laser-driven implosion. PMID:20154815

  8. Laser system for isotope separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirayama, Shimpey; Mikatsura, Takefumi; Ueda, Hiroaki; Konagai, Chikara

    1990-06-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is regarded as the most promising method to obtain srightly enriched economical nuclear fuel for a nuclear power plant. However, achieving a high power laser seems to be the bottle neck in its industrialization. In 1985, after successful development of high power lasers, the U.S. announced that AVLIS would be used for future methods of uranium enrichment. In Japan , Laser Atomic Separation Enrichment Research Associates of Japan (LASER-J), a joint Japanese utility companies research organization, was founded in April, 1987, to push a development program for laser uranium enrichment. Based on research results obtained from Japanese National Labs, and Universities , Laser-J is now constructing an AVLIS experimental facility at Tokai-mura. It is planned to have a 1-ton swu capacity per year in 1991. Previous to the experimental facility construction , Toshiba proceeded with the preliminary testing of an isotope separation system, under contract with Laser-J. Since the copper vapor laser (CVL) and the dye laser (DL) form a good combination , which can obtain high power tunable visible lights ,it is suitable to resonate uranium atoms. The laser system was built and was successfully operated in Toshiba for two years. The system consist of three copper vapor lasers , three dye lasers and appropriate o Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is regarded as the most promising method to obtain srightly enriched economical nuclear fuel for a nuclear power plant. However, achieving a high power laser seems to be the bottle neck in its industrialization. In 1985, after successful development of high power lasers, the U.S. announced that AVLIS would be used for future methods of uranium enrichment. In Japan , Laser Atomic Separation Enrichment Research Associates of Japan (LASER-J) , a joint Japanese utility companies research organization , was founded in April, 1987, to push a development program for laser uranium enrichment

  9. Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dantus, Marcos; Lozovoy, Vadim V.; Comstock, Matthew

    2009-10-27

    A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

  10. Magnetic suspension and balance system advanced study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.; Abdelsalam, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    An improved compact design for a superconducting magnetic suspension and balance system for an 8 ft. x 8 ft. transonic wind tunnel is developed. The original design of an MSBS in NASA Cr-3802 utilized 14 external superconductive coils and a superconductive solenoid in the airplane test model suspended in a wind tunnel. The improvements are in the following areas: test model solenoid options, dynamic force limits on the model, magnet cooling options, structure and cryogenic designs, power supply specifications, and cost and performance evaluations. The improvements are: MSBS cost reduction of 28%, weight; reduction of 43%, magnet system ampere-meter reduction of 38%, helium liquifier capacity reduction by 33%, magnet system stored energy reduction by 55%, AC loss to liquid helium reduced by 76%, system power supply reduced by 68%, test coil pole strength increased by 19%, wing magnetization increased by 40%, and control frequency limit increased by 200% from 10 Hz to 30 Hz. The improvements are due to: magnetic holmium coil forms in the test model, better rare earth permanent magnets in the wings, fiberglass-epoxy structure replacing stainless steel, better coil configuration, and new saddle roll coil design.

  11. iBalance-ABF: a smartphone-based audio-biofeedback balance system.

    PubMed

    Franco, C; Fleury, A; Gumery, P Y; Diot, B; Demongeot, J; Vuillerme, N

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an implementation of a Kalman filter, using inertial sensors of a smartphone, to estimate 3-D angulation of the trunk. The developed system monitors the trunk angular evolution during bipedal stance and helps the user to improve balance through a configurable and integrated auditory-biofeedback (ABF) loop. A proof-of-concept study was performed to assess the effectiveness of this so-called iBalance-ABF--smartphone-based audio-biofeedback system--in improving balance during bipedal standing. Results showed that young healthy individuals were able to efficiently use ABF on sagittal trunk tilt to improve their balance in the medial-lateral direction. These findings suggest that the iBalance-ABF system as a telerehabilitation system could represent a suitable solution for ambient assisted living technologies. PMID:23047859

  12. Second generation laser manufacturing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Rocca, Aldo V.

    1996-03-01

    Laser processing can show its full capacity in laser multiprocessing systems applications in which the laser is not hindered by the constraints imposed when the laser is inserted in conventional systems without reassessing the overall system design. In these cases the laser process performance up to now was kept at very low levels because conventional systems would not need or accept higher ones. Instead now said performance must be brought to the upper limits inasmuch as the lasers will be the pacesetter for the performance of the new systems freed from all the old design bondage. Hence the importance to get the maximum performance from each process singly and from their combinations. Better understanding and control of the fluidynamic effects becomes mandatory because of their paramount role on process energy efficiency and thus process productivity and more important yet quality, repeatability and transferability. At present one of the dedicated laser multiprocessing systems of greatest interest is the laser cut-weld of which several have made appearance on the market. Next to come are the 'augmented' laser multiprocessing obtained by combining the laser with conventional processes in a manner which takes advantages of unexpected synergies permitted by the laser. In this manner, the system is allowed to outperform, in all aspects from productivity to quality, the already much higher performance of dedicated all laser multi- processing system. One of the most important 'augmented' laser multiprocessing is the cut- bend-weld. It should be clear that these flexible multiprocessing machines tend to grow naturally in multistation cells and their aggregation in isles and complete manufacturing centers; i.e., the first viable realizations of computer integrated manufacturing.

  13. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, J.L.

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system is disclosed using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output. 10 figs.

  14. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L. [Pleasanton, CA

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output.

  15. The liver: conductor of systemic iron balance

    PubMed Central

    Meynard, Delphine; Babitt, Jodie L.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a micronutrient essential for almost all organisms: bacteria, plants, and animals. It is a metal that exists in multiple redox states, including the divalent ferrous (Fe2+) and the trivalent ferric (Fe3+) species. The multiple oxidation states of iron make it excellent for electron transfer, allowing iron to be selected during evolution as a cofactor for many proteins involved in central cellular processes including oxygen transport, mitochondrial respiration, and DNA synthesis. However, the redox cycling of ferrous and ferric iron in the presence of H2O2, which is physiologically present in the cells, also leads to the production of free radicals (Fenton reaction) that can attack and damage lipids, proteins, DNA, and other cellular components. To meet the physiological needs of the body, but to prevent cellular damage by iron, the amount of iron in the body must be tightly regulated. Here we review how the liver is the central conductor of systemic iron balance and show that this central role is related to the secretion of a peptide hormone hepcidin by hepatocytes. We then review how the liver receives and integrates the many signals that report the body’s iron needs to orchestrate hepcidin production and maintain systemic iron homeostasis. PMID:24200681

  16. Development of laser transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiawu; Zhang, Yulan; Yang, Jiandong; Zhang, Xinming

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses a light transfer system of therapeutic machine using carbon-dioxide laser. This system is based on imitating human being arm motion principle, consists of optical cardans mainly and can move in three-D space freely. Through it carbon-dioxide laser (which wavelength is 10.6 micrometer) is reflected, focused or diverged and transferred to the different therapeutic part of body to realize the purpose of cutting operation, gasification, cauterization and irradiation. This system includes an indicating system using He-Ne laser, by which carbon-dioxide laser can arrive therapeutic part accurately. This system possesses some advantages e.g. an accurate transfer, large moving range, small power consumption, high power density and easy operation. At present the occupancy in home market of this kind laser transfer system products is over 95%. Some products have been exported to other countries.

  17. Laser power conversion system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Orbit to orbit and orbit to ground laser power conversion systems and power transfer are discussed. A system overview is presented. Pilot program parameters are considered: SLPS assumptions are listed, a laser SPS overview is presented, specifications are listed, and SLPS coats are considered.

  18. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOEpatents

    Milner, Joseph R.

    1994-01-01

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

  19. Mass balance study of gravitational mass movements in proglacial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohn, Joachim; Vehling, Lucas; Moser, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the DFG joint research project PROSA (high resoluted measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing PROglacial Systems of the Alps), mass movements are investigated geotechnically and process rates will be determined. As result, the actual mass balance for gravitational mass movements will be investigated exemplarily in an alpine glacier foreland in this PROSA sub-project. Alpine glacier forelands are defined as the area between the edge of the glacier and the moraines of the latest maximum in 1850. Since then, the region has become ice free due to the retreat of the glaciers. Because of this recent development, the glacier foreland differs considerably from the surrounding landscape and exhibits a rapid morphodynamic development. Mass movements like landslides and rock falls contribute a remarkable portion to total sediment transport in this area. As study area the region between Gepatschferner and Gepatsch backwater was choosen. The study area encompasses 62,5 km², lies at altitudes between 1759 and 3539 m a.s.l. and around 30 % are covered by glacier. Basic prerequisite is the geotechnical inventory-taking including the production of a geotechnical map. All mass balance studies for gravitational mass movements will base on this data collection. Short term behaviour during extreme meteorological events will be investigated as well, as the long term behaviour of the alpine slopes. The results of repeated high-resolution airborne laser scanning will contribute to a complete area-wide detection of surface changes. Detailed periodical terrestrial laser scanning of steep rock walls and their scree cones, as well as of slopes with soft rock will complete the data set. Spot tests with nets collecting the rock fall material, constructed on elected scree cones, allow the control and verification of the collected data. Mass movements in hard rock apart from rock fall processes, like rock creep, rock sliding and sagging will be monitored

  20. Lubricating system for an engine balancing device

    SciTech Connect

    Candea, C.

    1987-07-07

    An internal combustion engine is described having an engine block with cylinder bores, pistons, connecting rods and a crankshaft with the pistons and associated connecting rods movable in the parallel cylinder bores of the engine block when the crankshaft rotates. It generates a periodic unbalance force with each half-rotation of the crankshaft. An improved balancing device generates an opposing force to effectively cancel the unbalance forces of the pistons and connecting rods, comprising: the balancing device including a housing enclosure located beneath the crankshaft and block. The housing has a hollow interior and a pair of apertures at either end. A pair of elongated balance shafts extend in parallelism through the hollow interior with adjacent end portions projecting through the apertures supporting the balance shafts for rotation in the housing; the housing is supported by the block and beneath the crankshaft and with the balance shafts in parallelism with the crankshaft axis. Means are attached to the housing forming an enclosure having an interior enclosing adjacent end portions of the balance shafts which project from an end of the housing; means lubricate the shaft mounting apertures and discharge oil from the interiors of the housing and the enclosure means; a vacuum breaks air bleed means in an upper portion of the enclosure for facilitating the discharge of oil from the enclosure interior.

  1. Development of Load Balancing Systems in a Parallel MRP System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukishima, Takahiro; Sato, Masahiro; Onari, Hisashi

    The application of parallel computing system to MRP (Material Requirements Planning) is essential to achieve a real-time demand forecasting for a whole Supply Chain which consists of Multiple enterprises near future. The MRP using loosely connected multi-computer system is examined here. New methods of synchronization, load balancing and data access are required to keep high parallel efficiency increasing PE’s(Processing Elements). In this paper load balancing and data access methods are proposed. The prototype system can keep 96% parallel efficiency for the MRP with 120, 000 items on the 6 PE’s structure and can be robust against unbalanced load. The processing speed increases in liner fashion.

  2. Reflex ring laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Mark A.

    1985-01-01

    A laser pulse is injected into an unstable ring resonator-amplifier structure. Inside this resonator the laser pulse is amplified, spatially filtered and magnified. The laser pulse is recirculated in the resonator, being amplified, filtered and magnified on each pass. The magnification is chosen so that the beam passes through the amplifier in concentric non-overlapping regions similar to a single pass MOPA. After a number of passes around the ring resonator the laser pulse is spatially large enough to exit the ring resonator system by passing around an output mirror.

  3. Multiple pass laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.; Jorna, Siebe; Moncur, N. Kent

    1977-01-01

    A laser amplification method for increasing the energy extraction efficiency from laser amplifiers while reducing the energy flux that passes through a flux limited system which includes apparatus for decomposing a linearly polarized light beam into multiple components, passing the components through an amplifier in delayed time sequence and recombining the amplified components into an in phase linearly polarized beam.

  4. Mass balance and exergy analysis of a fast pyrolysis system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass balance closure and exergetic efficiency is evaluated for a bench scale fast pyrolysis system. The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has developed this system for processing energy crops and agricultural residues for bio-oil (pyrolysis oil or pyrolysis liquids) production. Mass balance c...

  5. Laser Transmitter Design for the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afzal, R. S.; Yu, A. W.; Mamakos, W.; Lukemire, A.; Dallas, J. L.; Schroeder, B.; Green, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    NASA is embarking on a new era of laser remote sensing instruments from space. This paper focuses specifically on the laser technology involved in one of the present NASA missions. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) scheduled to launch in 2001 is a laser altimeter and lidar for the Earth Observing System's (EOS) ICESat mission. The laser transmitter for this space-based remote sensing instrument is discussed in the context of the mission requirements.

  6. Strain-gage balance calibration of a magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Tcheng, Ping

    A load calibration of the NASA 13-in magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) is described. The calibration procedure was originally intended to establish the empirical relationship between the coil currents and the external loads (forces and moments) applied to a magnetically suspended calibrator. However, it was discovered that the performance of a strain-gage balance is not affected when subjected to the magnetic environment of the MSBS. The use of strain-gage balances greatly reduces the effort required to perform a current-vs.-load calibration as external loads can be directly inferred from the balance outputs while a calibrator is suspended in MSBS. It is conceivable that in the future such a calibration could become unnecessary, since an even more important application for the use of a strain-gage balance in MSBS environment is the acquisition of precision aerodynamic force and moment data by telemetering the balance outputs from a suspended model/core/balance during wind tunnel tests.

  7. Strain-gage balance calibration of a magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Tcheng, Ping

    1987-01-01

    A load calibration of the NASA 13-in magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) is described. The calibration procedure was originally intended to establish the empirical relationship between the coil currents and the external loads (forces and moments) applied to a magnetically suspended calibrator. However, it was discovered that the performance of a strain-gage balance is not affected when subjected to the magnetic environment of the MSBS. The use of strain-gage balances greatly reduces the effort required to perform a current-vs.-load calibration as external loads can be directly inferred from the balance outputs while a calibrator is suspended in MSBS. It is conceivable that in the future such a calibration could become unnecessary, since an even more important application for the use of a strain-gage balance in MSBS environment is the acquisition of precision aerodynamic force and moment data by telemetering the balance outputs from a suspended model/core/balance during wind tunnel tests.

  8. Swept Frequency Laser Metrology System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Feng (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A swept frequency laser ranging system having sub-micron accuracy that employs multiple common-path heterodyne interferometers, one coupled to a calibrated delay-line for use as an absolute reference for the ranging system. An exemplary embodiment uses two laser heterodyne interferometers to create two laser beams at two different frequencies to measure distance and motions of target(s). Heterodyne fringes generated from reflections off a reference fiducial X(sub R) and measurement (or target) fiducial X(sub M) are reflected back and are then detected by photodiodes. The measured phase changes Delta phi(sub R) and Delta phi (sub m) resulting from the laser frequency swept gives target position. The reference delay-line is the only absolute reference needed in the metrology system and this provides an ultra-stable reference and simple/economical system.

  9. Broken detailed balance at mesoscopic scales in active biological systems.

    PubMed

    Battle, Christopher; Broedersz, Chase P; Fakhri, Nikta; Geyer, Veikko F; Howard, Jonathon; Schmidt, Christoph F; MacKintosh, Fred C

    2016-04-29

    Systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are not only characterized by time-independent macroscopic properties, but also satisfy the principle of detailed balance in the transitions between microscopic configurations. Living systems function out of equilibrium and are characterized by directed fluxes through chemical states, which violate detailed balance at the molecular scale. Here we introduce a method to probe for broken detailed balance and demonstrate how such nonequilibrium dynamics are manifest at the mesosopic scale. The periodic beating of an isolated flagellum from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits probability flux in the phase space of shapes. With a model, we show how the breaking of detailed balance can also be quantified in stationary, nonequilibrium stochastic systems in the absence of periodic motion. We further demonstrate such broken detailed balance in the nonperiodic fluctuations of primary cilia of epithelial cells. Our analysis provides a general tool to identify nonequilibrium dynamics in cells and tissues. PMID:27126047

  10. Laser beam alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Kasner, William H.; Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.

    1984-01-01

    A plurality of pivotal reflectors direct a high-power laser beam onto a workpiece, and a rotatable reflector is movable to a position wherein it intercepts the beam and deflects a major portion thereof away from its normal path, the remainder of the beam passing to the pivotal reflectors through an aperture in the rotating reflector. A plurality of targets are movable to positions intercepting the path of light traveling to the pivotal reflectors, and a preliminary adjustment of the latter is made by use of a low-power laser beam reflected from the rotating reflector, after which the same targets are used to make a final adjustment of the pivotal reflectors with the portion of the high-power laser beam passed through the rotating reflector.

  11. Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.

  12. Guidance system for laser targets

    DOEpatents

    Porter, Gary D.; Bogdanoff, Anatoly

    1978-01-01

    A system for guiding charged laser targets to a predetermined focal spot of a laser along generally arbitrary, and especially horizontal, directions which comprises a series of electrostatic sensors which provide inputs to a computer for real time calculation of position, velocity, and direction of the target along an initial injection trajectory, and a set of electrostatic deflection means, energized according to a calculated output of said computer, to change the target trajectory to intercept the focal spot of the laser which is triggered so as to illuminate the target of the focal spot.

  13. Laser system of extended range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehr, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    A pulsed laser system was developed for range measurements from the earth to retroreflecting satellites at distances up to that of the moon. The system has a transportable transmitter unit that can be moved from one location to another. This unit consists of a 0.2 m coude refractor and a high radiance, neodymium-glass, frequency doubled laser that operates in a single transverse mode. It can be used for lunar or distant satellite ranging at any observatory that has a telescope with an aperture diameter of about 1.5 m for the detection of the laser return pulses. This telescope is utilized in the same manner customarily employed for the observation of celestial objects. A special photometric package and the associated electronics are provided for laser ranging.

  14. Validation of a robotic balance system for investigations in the control of human standing balance.

    PubMed

    Luu, Billy L; Huryn, Thomas P; Van der Loos, H F Machiel; Croft, Elizabeth A; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that human body sway during standing approximates the mechanics of an inverted pendulum pivoted at the ankle joints. In this study, a robotic balance system incorporating a Stewart platform base was developed to provide a new technique to investigate the neural mechanisms involved in standing balance. The robotic system, programmed with the mechanics of an inverted pendulum, controlled the motion of the body in response to a change in applied ankle torque. The ability of the robotic system to replicate the load properties of standing was validated by comparing the load stiffness generated when subjects balanced their own body to the robot's mechanical load programmed with a low (concentrated-mass model) or high (distributed-mass model) inertia. The results show that static load stiffness was not significantly (p > 0.05) different for standing and the robotic system. Dynamic load stiffness for the robotic system increased with the frequency of sway, as predicted by the mechanics of an inverted pendulum, with the higher inertia being accurately matched to the load properties of the human body. This robotic balance system accurately replicated the physical model of standing and represents a useful tool to simulate the dynamics of a standing person. PMID:21511567

  15. Laser Pyro System Standardization and Man Rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews an X-38 laser pyro system standardization system designed for a new manned rated program. The plans to approve this laser initiation system and preliminary ideas for this system are also provided.

  16. Pressure transducer system is force-balanced, has digital output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Forced-balanced pressure transducer and associated circuitry controls pressure testing of space equipment systems under actual operating conditions. The transducer and circuitry automatically converts the sensed pressure to digital form.

  17. Spectrally balanced chromatic landing approach lighting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Red warning lights delineate the runway approach with additional blue lights juxtaposed with the red lights such that the red lights are chromatically balanced. The red/blue point light sources result in the phenomenon that the red lights appear in front of the blue lights with about one and one-half times the diameter of the blue. To a pilot observing these lights along a glide path, those red lights directly below appear to be nearer than the blue lights. For those lights farther away seen in perspective at oblique angles, the red lights appear to be in a position closer to the pilot and hence appear to be above the corresponding blue lights. This produces a very pronounced three dimensional effect referred to as chromostereopsis which provides valuable visual cues to enable the pilot to perceive his actual position above the ground and the actual distance to the runway.

  18. Automated retinal robotic laser system.

    PubMed

    Barrett, S F; Wright, C H; Jerath, M R; Lewis, R S; Dillard, B C; Rylander, H G; Welch, A J

    1995-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Texas and the USAF Academy have worked toward the development of a retinal robotic laser system. The overall goal of this ongoing project is to precisely place and control the depth of laser lesions for the treatment of various retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal tears. Separate low speed prototype subsystems have been developed to control lesion depth using lesion reflectance feedback parameters and lesion placement using retinal vessels as tracking landmarks. Both subsystems have been successfully demonstrated in vivo on pigmented rabbits using an argon continuous wave laser. Recent efforts have concentrated on combining the two subsystems into a single prototype capable of simultaneously controlling both lesion depth and placement. We have designated this combined system CALOSOS for Computer Aided Laser Optics System for Ophthalmic Surgery. Following the dual-use concept, this system is being adapted for clinical use as a retinal treatment system as well as a research tool for military laser-tissue interaction studies. PMID:7654990

  19. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.

    1994-11-15

    Practical limitations with underwater imaging systems area reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the blue-green portion of the visible spectrum (oceanic transmission window) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging. Range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence properties of laser radiation, respectively, to overcome the deleterious effects of common volume back scatter.

  20. A fiber optic PD sensor using a balanced Sagnac interferometer and an EDFA-based DOP tunable fiber ring laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lutang; Fang, Nian; Wu, Chunxu; Qin, Haijuan; Huang, Zhaoming

    2014-01-01

    A novel fiber-optic acoustic sensor using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-based fiber ring laser and a balanced Sagnac interferometer for acoustic sensing of the partial discharge (PD) in power transformers is proposed and demonstrated. As a technical background, an experimental investigation on how the variations of the fiber birefringence affect the sensor performances was carried out, and the results are discussed. The operation principles are described, and the relevant formulas are derived. The analytical results show that an EDFA-based fiber ring laser operating in chaotic mode can provide a degree of polarization (DOP) tunable light beam for effectively suppressing polarization fading noises. The balanced Sagnac interferometer can eliminate command intensity noises and enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Furthermore, it inherently operates at the quadrature point of the response curve without any active stabilizations. Several experiments are conducted for evaluating the performances of the sensor system, as well as for investigating the ability of the detection of high-frequency acoustic emission signals. The experimental results demonstrate that the DOP of the laser beam can be continuously tuned from 0.2% to 100%, and the power fluctuation in the whole DOP tuning range is less than 0.05 dBm. A high-frequency response up to 300 kHz is reached, and the high sensing sensitivity for detections of weak corona discharges, as well as partial discharges also is verified. PMID:24824371

  1. A Fiber Optic PD Sensor Using a Balanced Sagnac Interferometer and an EDFA-Based DOP Tunable Fiber Ring Laser

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lutang; Fang, Nian; Wu, Chunxu; Qin, Haijuan; Huang, Zhaoming

    2014-01-01

    A novel fiber-optic acoustic sensor using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-based fiber ring laser and a balanced Sagnac interferometer for acoustic sensing of the partial discharge (PD) in power transformers is proposed and demonstrated. As a technical background, an experimental investigation on how the variations of the fiber birefringence affect the sensor performances was carried out, and the results are discussed. The operation principles are described, and the relevant formulas are derived. The analytical results show that an EDFA-based fiber ring laser operating in chaotic mode can provide a degree of polarization (DOP) tunable light beam for effectively suppressing polarization fading noises. The balanced Sagnac interferometer can eliminate command intensity noises and enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Furthermore, it inherently operates at the quadrature point of the response curve without any active stabilizations. Several experiments are conducted for evaluating the performances of the sensor system, as well as for investigating the ability of the detection of high-frequency acoustic emission signals. The experimental results demonstrate that the DOP of the laser beam can be continuously tuned from 0.2% to 100%, and the power fluctuation in the whole DOP tuning range is less than 0.05 dBm. A high-frequency response up to 300 kHz is reached, and the high sensing sensitivity for detections of weak corona discharges, as well as partial discharges also is verified. PMID:24824371

  2. High resolution laser imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Thomas G.

    1989-07-01

    Computations indicate that a synthetic aperture laser imaging system can provide images with 10-cm resolution at satellite ranges using a 10-W CW laser. When imaging satellites from the ground, the synthetic aperture system reduces atmospheric degradations. The system uses 20-cm diam receiver optics. The low laser power is made possible by using separate transmitter and receiver optics and coded pulses with a 50 percent transmitter duty cycle. The coded pulses are derived from Hadamard matrices for which there is an efficient algorithm to transform the received data into images. The synthetic aperture yields spatial resolutions independent of range, and the coded pulses result in an effective range dependence of r exp-2 instead of r exp-4.

  3. Human Balance System: A Complex Coordination of Central and Peripheral Systems

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8428 · INFO @ VESTIBULAR . ORG · WWW . VESTIBULAR . ORG The Human Balance System — A Complex Coordination of Central and ... support. 1 A properly functioning balance system allows humans to see clearly while moving, identify orientation with ...

  4. XI UV Laser Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    Brickeen, B.K.; Morelli, G.L.; Paiva, R.A.; Powell, C.A.; Sundvold, P.D.

    1999-01-26

    The X1 accelerator project at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico utilizes SF6 insulated, multi-stage, UV laser triggered gas switches. A 265 nm UV laser system was designed and built to generate eight simultaneous output pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulse width. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser was frequency quadrupled using a two-stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy was frequency doubled with a KTP crystal to 530 nm, achieving 65% conversion efficiency. The 530 nm output was frequency doubled with KD*P crystal to 265 nm, achieving conversion efficiency of 31%. The 265 nm beam pulse was split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and stable energy output were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged into a rugged, o-ring sealed, aluminum structure 10''x19''x2.75''. The size of the electronics was 12''x8''x8''. Subsequent accelerator system requirements dictated a redesign of the triggering system for an output beam with less angular divergence. An unstable, crossed porro prism resonator was designed and incorporated into the system. The beam divergence of the redesigned system was successfully decreased to 0.97 mrad in the UV. The resulting frequency doubling efficiencies were 55% to 530 nm and 25% to 265 nm. The optical output remained at 10 mJ in each channel with an 11 nsec pulse width.

  5. Development of closed loop roll control for magnetic balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covert, E. E.; Haldeman, C. W.; Ramohalli, G.; Way, P.

    1982-01-01

    This research was undertaken with the goal of demonstrating closed loop control of the roll degree of freedom on the NASA prototype magnetic suspension and balance system at the MIT Aerophysics Laboratory, thus, showing feasibility for a roll control system for any large magnetic balance system which might be built in the future. During the research under this grant, study was directed toward the several areas of torque generation, position sensing, model construction and control system design. These effects were then integrated to produce successful closed loop operation of the analogue roll control system. This experience indicated the desirability of microprocessor control for the angular degrees of freedom.

  6. A simple laser system for atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlet, S.; Volodimer, L.; Lours, M.; Pereira Dos Santos, F.

    2014-07-01

    We present here a simple laser system for a laser-cooled atom interferometer, where all functions (laser cooling, interferometry and detection) are realized using only two extended cavity laser diodes, amplified by a common tapered amplifier. One laser is locked by frequency modulation transfer spectroscopy, the other being phase locked with an offset frequency determined by an field-programmable gate array-controlled direct digital synthesizer, which allows for efficient and versatile tuning of the laser frequency. Raman lasers are obtained with a double pass acoustooptic modulator. We demonstrate a gravimeter using this laser system, with performances close to the state of the art.

  7. Heterodyne laser instantaneous frequency measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Johnson, Michael A.; Globig, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    A heterodyne laser instantaneous frequency measurement system is disclosed. The system utilizes heterodyning of a pulsed laser beam with a continuous wave laser beam to form a beat signal. The beat signal is processed by a controller or computer which determines both the average frequency of the laser pulse and any changes or chirp of the frequency during the pulse.

  8. Heterodyne laser instantaneous frequency measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Johnson, Michael A.; Globig, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    A heterodyne laser instantaneous frequency measurement system is disclosed. The system utilizes heterodyning of a pulsed laser beam with a continuous wave laser beam to form a beat signal. The beat signal is processed by a controller or computer which determines both the average frequency of the laser pulse and any changes or chirp of th frequency during the pulse.

  9. ARGOS laser system mechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deysenroth, M.; Honsberg, M.; Gemperlein, H.; Ziegleder, J.; Raab, W.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Borelli, J. L.

    2014-07-01

    ARGOS, a multi-star adaptive optics system is designed for the wide-field imager and multi-object spectrograph LUCI on the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope). Based on Rayleigh scattering the laser constellation images 3 artificial stars (at 532 nm) per each of the 2 eyes of the LBT, focused at a height of 12 km (Ground Layer Adaptive Optics). The stars are nominally positioned on a circle 2' in radius, but each star can be moved by up to 0.5' in any direction. For all of these needs are following main subsystems necessary: 1. A laser system with its 3 Lasers (Nd:YAG ~18W each) for delivering strong collimated light as for LGS indispensable. 2. The Launch system to project 3 beams per main mirror as a 40 cm telescope to the sky. 3. The Wave Front Sensor with a dichroic mirror. 4. The dichroic mirror unit to grab and interpret the data. 5. A Calibration Unit to adjust the system independently also during day time. 6. Racks + platforms for the WFS units. 7. Platforms and ladders for a secure access. This paper should mainly demonstrate how the ARGOS Laser System is configured and designed to support all other systems.

  10. Projection-free approximate balanced truncation of large unstable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinois, Thibault L. B.; Morgans, Aimee S.; Schmid, Peter J.

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we show that the projection-free, snapshot-based, balanced truncation method can be applied directly to unstable systems. We prove that even for unstable systems, the unmodified balanced proper orthogonal decomposition algorithm theoretically yields a converged transformation that balances the Gramians (including the unstable subspace). We then apply the method to a spatially developing unstable system and show that it results in reduced-order models of similar quality to the ones obtained with existing methods. Due to the unbounded growth of unstable modes, a practical restriction on the final impulse response simulation time appears, which can be adjusted depending on the desired order of the reduced-order model. Recommendations are given to further reduce the cost of the method if the system is large and to improve the performance of the method if it does not yield acceptable results in its unmodified form. Finally, the method is applied to the linearized flow around a cylinder at Re = 100 to show that it actually is able to accurately reproduce impulse responses for more realistic unstable large-scale systems in practice. The well-established approximate balanced truncation numerical framework therefore can be safely applied to unstable systems without any modifications. Additionally, balanced reduced-order models can readily be obtained even for large systems, where the computational cost of existing methods is prohibitive.

  11. Digital control of wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, Colin P.; Goodyer, Michael J.; Eskins, Jonathan; Parker, David; Halford, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Digital controllers are being developed for wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems, which in turn permit wind tunnel testing of aircraft models free from support interference. Hardware and software features of two existing digital control systems are reviewed. Some aspects of model position sensing and system calibration are also discussed.

  12. Research developing closed loop roll control for magnetic balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covert, E. E.; Haldeman, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Computer inputs were interfaced to the magnetic balance outputs to provide computer position control and data acquisition. The use of parameter identification of a means of determining dynamic characteristics was investigated. The thyraton and motor generator power supplies for the pitch and yaw degrees of freedom were repaired. Topics covered include: choice of a method for handling dynamic system data; applications to the magnetic balance; the computer interface; and wind tunnel tests, results, and error analysis.

  13. Laser addressed holographic memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.; Wagle, E. M.; Steinmetz, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Holographic recall and storage system uses red-lipid microcrystalline wax as storage medium. When laser beam strikes wax, its energy heats point of incidence enough to pass wax through transition temperature. Holograph image can then be written or erased in softened wax.

  14. An Analysis of System Balance Requirements for Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Sadaf R; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2006-08-01

    Scientific applications are diverse in terms of the resource requirements, and tend to vary significantly from commercial applications. In order to provide sustained performance, a target high performance computing (HPC) platform must offer a balance between CPU performance to memory, interconnect and I/O subsystems performance. We characterize the system balance requirements for two large-scale Office of Science applications, GYRO (fusion simulation) and POP (climate modeling), and develop platform-independent parameterized requirement models. We measure the parallel efficiencies for GYRO and POP on three multiprocessor systems: an SMP cluster (IBM p690), a shared-memory system (SGI Altix) and a vector supercomputer (Cray X1). The higher computational intensity and interconnect bandwidth requirements of GYRO result in higher performance efficiencies on the vector platform. At the same time, small message sizes in POP benefit from low MPI latencies of the shared-memory platform. Overall results confirm system balance requirements that are generated by the requirement models.

  15. Ablative Laser Propulsion Using Multi-Layered Material Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nehls, Mary; Edwards, David; Gray, Perry; Schneider, T.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental investigations are ongoing to study the force imparted to materials when subjected to laser ablation. When a laser pulse of sufficient energy density impacts a material, a small amount of the material is ablated. A torsion balance is used to measure the momentum produced by the ablation process. The balance consists of a thin metal wire with a rotating pendulum suspended in the middle. The wire is fixed at both ends. Recently, multi-layered material systems were investigated. These multi-layered materials were composed of a transparent front surface and opaque sub surface. The laser pulse penetrates the transparent outer surface with minimum photon loss and vaporizes the underlying opaque layer.

  16. Geoscience laser altimeter system - stellar reference system

    SciTech Connect

    Millar, Pamela S.; Sirota, J. Marcos

    1998-01-15

    GLAS is an EOS space-based laser altimeter being developed to profile the height of the Earth's ice sheets with {approx}15 cm single shot accuracy from space under NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). The primary science goal of GLAS is to determine if the ice sheets are increasing or diminishing for climate change modeling. This is achieved by measuring the ice sheet heights over Greenland and Antarctica to 1.5 cm/yr over 100 kmx100 km areas by crossover analysis (Zwally 1994). This measurement performance requires the instrument to determine the pointing of the laser beam to {approx}5 urad (1 arcsecond), 1-sigma, with respect to the inertial reference frame. The GLAS design incorporates a stellar reference system (SRS) to relate the laser beam pointing angle to the star field with this accuracy. This is the first time a spaceborne laser altimeter is measuring pointing to such high accuracy. The design for the stellar reference system combines an attitude determination system (ADS) with a laser reference system (LRS) to meet this requirement. The SRS approach and expected performance are described in this paper.

  17. Reflex ring laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Summers, M.A.

    1983-08-31

    The invention is a method and apparatus for providing a reflex ring laser system for amplifying an input laser pulse. The invention is particularly useful in laser fusion experiments where efficient production of high-energy and high power laser pulses is required. The invention comprises a large aperture laser amplifier in an unstable ring resonator which includes a combination spatial filter and beam expander having a magnification greater than unity. An input pulse is injected into the resonator, e.g., through an aperture in an input mirror. The injected pulse passes through the amplifier and spatial filter/expander components on each pass around the ring. The unstable resonator is designed to permit only a predetermined number of passes before the amplified pulse exits the resonator. On the first pass through the amplifier, the beam fills only a small central region of the gain medium. On each successive pass, the beam has been expanded to fill the next concentric non-overlapping region of the gain medium.

  18. Parametric infrared tunable laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.; Sutter, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A parametric tunable infrared laser system was built to serve as transmitter for the remote detection and density measurement of pollutant, poisonous, or trace gases in the atmosphere. The system operates with a YAG:Nd laser oscillator amplifier chain which pumps a parametric tunable frequency converter. The completed system produced pulse energies of up to 30 mJ. The output is tunable from 1.5 to 3.6 micrometers at linewidths of 0.2-0.5 /cm (FWHM), although the limits of the tuning range and the narrower line crystals presently in the parametric converter by samples of the higher quality already demonstrated is expected to improve the system performance further.

  19. Use of the Microsoft Kinect system to characterize balance ability during balance training

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dohyung; Kim, ChoongYeon; Jung, HoHyun; Jung, Dukyoung; Chun, Keyoung Jin

    2015-01-01

    The risk of falling increases significantly in the elderly because of deterioration of the neural musculature regulatory mechanisms. Several studies have investigated methods of preventing falling using real-time systems to evaluate balance; however, it is difficult to monitor the results of such characterizations in real time. Herein, we describe the use of Microsoft’s Kinect depth sensor system to evaluate balance in real time. Six healthy male adults (25.5±1.8 years, 173.9±6.4 cm, 71.4±6.5 kg, and 23.6±2.4 kg/m2), with normal balance abilities and with no musculoskeletal disorders, were selected to participate in the experiment. Movements of the participants were induced by controlling the base plane of the balance training equipment in various directions. The dynamic motion of the subjects was measured using two Kinect depth sensor systems and a three-dimensional motion capture system with eight infrared cameras. The two systems yielded similar results for changes in the center of body mass (P>0.05) with a large Pearson’s correlation coefficient of γ>0.60. The results for the two systems showed similarity in the mean lower-limb joint angle with flexion–extension movements, and these values were highly correlated (hip joint: within approximately 4.6°; knee joint: within approximately 8.4°) (0.40<γ<0.74) (P>0.05). Large differences with a low correlation were, however, observed for the lower-limb joint angle in relation to abduction–adduction and internal–external rotation motion (γ<0.40) (P<0.05). These findings show that clinical and dynamic accuracy can be achieved using the Kinect system in balance training by measuring changes in the center of body mass and flexion–extension movements of the lower limbs, but not abduction–adduction and internal–external rotation. PMID:26170647

  20. Laser satellite power systems - Concepts and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walbridge, E. W.

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by Earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the Earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by a laser beam. The laser SPS is an alternative to the microwave SPS. Lasers and how they work are described, as are the types of lasers - electric discharge, direct and indirect solar pumped, free electron, and closed-cycle chemical - that are candidates for application in a laser SPS. The advantages of a laser SPS over the microwave alternative are pointed out. One such advantage is that, for the same power delivered to the utility busbar, land requirements for a laser system are much smaller (by a factor of 21) than those for a microwave system. The four laser SPS concepts that have been presented in the literature are described and commented on. Finally key issues for further laser SPS research are discussed.

  1. Ultra-broadband hybrid infrared laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budilova, O. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Kinyaevskiy, I. O.; Klimachev, Yu. M.; Kotkov, A. A.; Kozlov, A. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    A hybrid IR laser system consisting of molecular gas lasers with frequency conversion of laser radiation in a solid-state converter (nonlinear crystal) was developed. One of these gas lasers is a carbon monoxide laser operating in multi-line or single-line mode. Another one is a carbon dioxide laser operating in multi-line mode. The two lasers operate under Q-switching with a joint rotating mirror. Due to sum- and difference-frequency generation in nonlinear crystals, the laser system emits within wavelength range from 2.5 to 16.6 μm. The laser system emitting radiation over such an extremely wide wavelength range (2.7 octaves) is of interest for remote sensing and other applications connected with laser beam propagation in the atmosphere.

  2. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOEpatents

    Milner, J.R.

    1994-10-25

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall temperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser. 8 figs.

  3. Balancing the Contradictions between Accountability and Systemic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersaint, Gladis; Borman, Kathryn M.; Lee, Reginald; Boydston, Theodore L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines effects of the National Urban League's Systemic Initiative reforms in four cities: Chicago, El Paso, Memphis, and Miami, based on an analysis of interviews with 47 principals. Principals must balance the demands of systemic math and science reforms with those of multilevel accountability policies. Such alignments may be unachievable.…

  4. Dual-Laser Schlieren System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, R. B.; Wintherow, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed schlieren system uses two lasers and two knife edges to simultaneously view perpendicular refractive-index gradients in a test volume. It is improvement over conventional schlieren systems, which monitor gradient along only one axis. Although originally developed to monitor materials-processing experiments in space, it should find application wherever there is need to study two-dimensional temperature, pressure, concentration or other gradients related to index of refraction.

  5. NASA Langley Magnetic Suspension/Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A shuttle model is magnetically suspended in the transparent hexagonal test section of the MIT/NASA Langley 6 inch MSBS. Massive power supplies are required to drive electromagnets for model position control. A unique electromagnetic position sensor, similar to a linear variable differential transformer, provides five degrees of freedom for the test model. The low speed (Mach 0.5) wind tunnel was hand crafted from mahogany. Aerodynamic forces on the test model are measured by the proportional electrical current used to hold the model in place. The system was built by MIT in the late sixties, and was relocated to Langley in the mid eighties. In a joint effort with Old Dominion University in 1992 the MSBS was used to test the aerodynamics of store separation, simulating a bomb released from an aircraft. The system has been donated to Old Dominion University.

  6. System balance analysis for vector computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Poole, W. G., Jr.; Voight, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of vector processors capable of sustaining computing rates of 10 to the 8th power arithmetic results pers second raised the question of whether peripheral storage devices representing current technology can keep such processors supplied with data. By examining the solution of a large banded linear system on these computers, it was found that even under ideal conditions, the processors will frequently be waiting for problem data.

  7. Underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS)

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.L.; Kulp, T.J.

    1995-03-10

    Practical limitations of underwater imaging systems are reached when the noise in the back scattered radiation generated in the water between the imaging system and the target obscures the spatial contrast and the resolution necessary for target discovery and identification. The advent of high power lasers operating in the oceanic transmission window of the visible spectrum (blue-green portion) has led to improved experimental illumination systems for underwater imaging The properties of laser bearm in range-gated and synchronously scanned devices take advantage of the unique temporal and spatial coherence effect of common volume back scatter to reduce or eliminate noise, increase signal to noise levels. Synchronously scanned systems rely on the highly collimated nature of the laser beam for spatial rejection of common volume back scatter. A synchronous, raster-scanning underwater laser imaging system (UWLIS) has been developed at Lawrence liver-more National Laboratory. The present UWLIS system differs from earlier synchronous scanners in its ability to scan in two dimensions at conventional video frame rate (30 Hz). The imaging performance of the present UWLIS was measured at distances of up to 6.3 AL (at a physical distance of 15.2 meters) during an in-water tank test and 4.5 to 5.0 AL (at a physical distance of 30 meters) during open water oceanic testing. The test results indicate that the UWLIS system is already capable of extending the underwater imaging range beyond that of conventional floodlight illuminated SIT cameras. The real or near real time frame rates of the UWLIS make possible operations in a mode in which the platform speed is randomly varied. This is typical of the operational environment in which the platform is often maneuvered above and around rugged seafloor terrain`s and obstacles.

  8. Carbon balances during land conversion in early bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenone, T.; Chen, J.; Gelfand, I.; Robertson, G. P.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we established a field experiment and deployed seven eddy-covariance towers to quantify the roles of land use change and the subsequent carbon (C) balances of three different bioenergy systems (corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie species) that were developed from two historical land use types: monocultural grasslands dominated by smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) and lands in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Three CRP fields and three cropland fields were converted to soybean in 2009 (conversion year) before establishing the cellulosic biofuel cropping systems in 2010 (establishment year). A CRP perennial grassland site was kept undisturbed as a reference. Conversion of CRP to soybean induced net C emissions during the conversion year (134 -262 g C m-2 yr-1), while in the same year the net C balance at the CRP grassland reference was -35 g C m-2 yr-1 (i.e., net C sequestration). The establishment of switchgrass and mixed prairie induced a cumulative C balance of -113 g C m-2 (switchgrass from CRP), 250 g C m-2 (switchgrass from cropland), 706 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from CRP), and 59 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from cropland) over the three-year study period. The cumulative three-year C balance of corn converted from CRP and from cropland was -151 g C m-2 and -183 g C m-2, respectively. Eddy flux measurements during cellulosic biofuel crop establishment reveal annual changes in C balance that cannot be detected using conventional mass balance approaches. When end-use of harvested biomass was considered, the C balances for all studied systems, except the reference site, exhibited large C emissions ranging from 150 to 990 g C m-2 over the three-year conversion phase.

  9. Magnetic suspension and balance system advanced study, 1989 design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, Roger W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Abdelsalam, Moustafa K.; Mcintosh, Glen E.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are to experimentally confirm several advanced design concepts on the Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS). The advanced design concepts were identified as potential improvements by Madison Magnetics, Inc. (MMI) during 1984 and 1985 studies of an MSBS utilizing 14 external superconductive coils and a superconductive solenoid in an airplane test model suspended in a wind tunnel. This study confirmed several advanced design concepts on magnetic suspension and balance systems. The 1989 MSBS redesign is based on the results of these experiments. Savings of up to 30 percent in supporting magnet ampere meters and 50 percent in energy stored over the 1985 design were achieved.

  10. Nursing elective: balancing caregiving in oppressive systems.

    PubMed

    Scarry, K D

    1999-12-01

    This course was developed when health care reform was being birthed in local hospitals under the slogan "Patient First." Architects of the change promised to involve nursing in all decisions. In the end, nursing leaders and advocates were terminated or squeezed out of the organizations. No one there now speaks for nurses at an executive level. Returning registered nurses experience this lack of voice in their organizations and come to class feeling powerless to stop the emergence of unsafe or fraudulent practices in health care (i.e. use of unlicensed assistants, altering of diagnostic codes to lengthen stays, etc.). Nurses want to take action but lack the political knowledge and skills to know where to start. Developing and implementing a course in oppression in nursing challenged this author to face the ways nursing education continues to oppress students and prepares them to blend into the status quo. Students graduate to practice in systems consumed with restructuring health care, lowering patient costs, and providing the least amount of qualified staff. Learning about oppression and how to withstand domination of one's nursing practice in deviant health care systems is not part of the regular language of teaching. The course was an attempt to flush out, articulate, and confront the meta-world of the curriculum that silently instructs students to accept oppressive practices in the workplace. The course labeled the beast and served as a catalyst for many interesting discussions. Oppression and tactics to counter oppression must be actively taught to our students. Oppressed nurses equal oppressed nursing care. Based on my learning and a critical eye to the scary realities of practice, this course marks for me my intent to support Jane Hardens (1996) call to teach for peaceful revolution. PMID:10609588

  11. Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pertl, A.; Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G.

    2010-01-15

    One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO{sub 2}.

  12. Laser power conversion system analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. S.; Morgan, L. L.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The orbit-to-ground laser power conversion system analysis investigated the feasibility and cost effectiveness of converting solar energy into laser energy in space, and transmitting the laser energy to earth for conversion to electrical energy. The analysis included space laser systems with electrical outputs on the ground ranging from 100 to 10,000 MW. The space laser power system was shown to be feasible and a viable alternate to the microwave solar power satellite. The narrow laser beam provides many options and alternatives not attainable with a microwave beam.

  13. Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan; Joshi, Sachin; Reynolds, Adam

    2008-03-04

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  14. High speed laser tomography system.

    PubMed

    Samsonov, D; Elsaesser, A; Edwards, A; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E

    2008-03-01

    A high speed laser tomography system was developed capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) images of optically thin clouds of moving micron-sized particles. It operates by parallel-shifting an illuminating laser sheet with a pair of galvanometer-driven mirrors and synchronously recording two-dimensional (2D) images of thin slices of the imaged volume. The maximum scanning speed achieved was 120,000 slices/s, sequences of 24 volume scans (up to 256 slices each) have been obtained. The 2D slices were stacked to form 3D images of the volume, then the positions of the particles were identified and followed in the consecutive scans. The system was used to image a complex plasma with particles moving at speeds up to cm/s. PMID:18377040

  15. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and can have large negative im...

  16. High power laser perforating tools and systems

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-04-22

    ystems devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser perforation of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perforate such boreholes.

  17. System evaluations of laser power beaming options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    1992-01-01

    The major technology options for high-energy FELs and adaptive optics available to the Space Laser Energy (SELENE) program are reviewed. Initial system evaluations of these options are described. A feasibility assessment of laser power beaming is given.

  18. Evaluation of surface energy and radiation balance systems for FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Qian, Ping

    1988-01-01

    The energy balance and radiation balance components were determined at six sites during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) conducted south of Manhattan, Kansas during the summer of 1987. The objectives were: to determine the effect of slope and aspect, throughout a growing season, on the magnitude of the surface energy balance fluxes as determined by the Energy Balance Method (EBM); to investigate the calculation of the soil heat flux density at the surface as calculated from the heat capacity and the thermal conductivity equations; and to evaluate the performance of the Surface Energy and Radiation Balance System (SERBS). A total of 17 variables were monitored at each site. They included net, solar (up and down), total hemispherical (up and down), and diffuse radiation, soil temperature and heat flux density, air and wet bulb temperature gradients, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. A preliminary analysis of the data, for the season, indicate that variables including net radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure, and wind speed were quite similar at the sites even though the sites were as much as 16 km apart and represented four cardinal slopes and the top of a ridge.

  19. Dual strain gage balance system for measuring light loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Paul W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A dual strain gage balance system for measuring normal and axial forces and pitching moment of a metric airfoil model imparted by aerodynamic loads applied to the airfoil model during wind tunnel testing includes a pair of non-metric panels being rigidly connected to and extending towards each other from opposite sides of the wind tunnel, and a pair of strain gage balances, each connected to one of the non-metric panels and to one of the opposite ends of the metric airfoil model for mounting the metric airfoil model between the pair of non-metric panels. Each strain gage balance has a first measuring section for mounting a first strain gage bridge for measuring normal force and pitching moment and a second measuring section for mounting a second strain gage bridge for measuring axial force.

  20. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    The underlying principles and technologies enabling the design and operation of airborne laser sensors are introduced and a detailed review of state-of-the-art avionic systems for civil and military applications is presented. Airborne lasers including Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Laser Range Finders (LRF), and Laser Weapon Systems (LWS) are extensively used today and new promising technologies are being explored. Most laser systems are active devices that operate in a manner very similar to microwave radars but at much higher frequencies (e.g., LIDAR and LRF). Other devices (e.g., laser target designators and beam-riders) are used to precisely direct Laser Guided Weapons (LGW) against ground targets. The integration of both functions is often encountered in modern military avionics navigation-attack systems. The beneficial effects of airborne lasers including the use of smaller components and remarkable angular resolution have resulted in a host of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. On the other hand, laser sensors performance are much more sensitive to the vagaries of the atmosphere and are thus generally restricted to shorter ranges than microwave systems. Hence it is of paramount importance to analyse the performance of laser sensors and systems in various weather and environmental conditions. Additionally, it is important to define airborne laser safety criteria, since several systems currently in service operate in the near infrared with considerable risk for the naked human eye. Therefore, appropriate methods for predicting and evaluating the performance of infrared laser sensors/systems are presented, taking into account laser safety issues. For aircraft experimental activities with laser systems, it is essential to define test requirements taking into account the specific conditions for operational employment of the systems in the intended scenarios and to verify the performance in realistic environments at the test ranges. To support the

  1. A Comparison of Two Prototype Laser-Optical Firing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg L. Morelli; Michelle R. Bright

    2008-08-11

    The design and characterization of small, ruggedized laser-optical subsystems is required for the continued development of robust laser-optical firing systems. Typically, these subsystems must be capable of generating the needed laser optical energy, delivering that energy via fiber-optical cables while taking up occupying a volume as small as possible. A novel beam splitting and fiber injection scheme has been proposed which utilizes two diffractive optical components. These components were utilized to reduce the volume of a previously designed system. A laser-optical prototype system was assembled and tested which utilized this beam splitting and fiber injection scheme along other modifications to the laser module and the power supply. This prototype was based on earlier designs that utilized environmentally proven opto-mechanical sub-assemblies. The system was tested to characterize the laser performance, the splitter-coupler transmission efficiency, channel-to-channel energy balance and fiber interchangeability. The results obtained for this design will be compared to the performance of a prototype system based on a more traditional beam splitting and fiber injection scheme. The traditional design utilized partially reflecting mirrors for beam splitting and plano-convex lenses for fiber injection. These results will be discussed as will their ultimate impact on future designs and packaging strategies.

  2. A Diode Laser System for Synchronous Photoinjection

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, M., Hansknecht, J.

    1997-12-31

    A laser system, which is composed of a gain switched diode seed laser and a single-pass diode optical amplifier, is used to drive the polarized electron source at Jefferson Lab. The system emits pulsed laser light synchronized to the accelerating cavity radio frequency (rf) at 1497 MHz or the third subharmonic, 499 MHz. The maximum average output power from the laser system is 500 mW and the optical pulse width is 60 to 80 ps. The laser system is compact and very reliable operating remotely for many days without attention.

  3. Laser Safety Audit and Inventory System Database

    SciTech Connect

    AUGUSTONI, ARNOLD L.

    2003-05-01

    A laser safety auditing and inventory system has been in use at Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque for the past five years and has recently been considered for adoption by Sandia National Laboratories--Livermore. The system utilizes the ''Microsoft Access'' database application, part of the Office 2000 software package. Audit and inventory data is available on-line for ready access by laser users. Data is updated weekly to provide users with current information relating to laser facility audits and laser inventories.

  4. The SLAC polarized electron source laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) has operated a polarized photocathode electron source and titanium sapphire laser for high energy physics collisions for over 6,500 hours of nearly continuous operation. The laser system for the source has demonstrated > 98.5% total uptime for the duration of the experiment. The laser system uses a pair of titanium sapphire oscillators pumped by frequency doubled YAG lasers to produce 2ns, 250 {micro}J pulses at wavelengths from 740nm to 870nm.

  5. Data Partitioning and Load Balancing in Parallel Disk Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Peter; Weikum, Gerhard; Zabback, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Parallel disk systems provide opportunities for exploiting I/O parallelism in two possible waves, namely via inter-request and intra-request parallelism. In this paper we discuss the main issues in performance tuning of such systems, namely striping and load balancing, and show their relationship to response time and throughput. We outline the main components of an intelligent, self-reliant file system that aims to optimize striping by taking into account the requirements of the applications and performs load balancing by judicious file allocation and dynamic redistributions of the data when access patterns change. Our system uses simple but effective heuristics that incur only little overhead. We present performance experiments based on synthetic workloads and real-life traces.

  6. Experimental nonlinear laser systems: Bigger data for better science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, D. M.; Toomey, J. P.; McMahon, C.; Noblet, Y.; Argyris, A.; Syvridis, D.

    2014-10-01

    Bigger data is supporting knowledge discovery in nonlinear laser systems as will be demonstrated with examples from three semiconductor laser based systems - one with optical feedback, a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) chaotic laser and a frequency shifted feedback laser system.

  7. Laser docking system flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Harry O.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments necessary in the development of the Laser Docking System (LDS) are described. The LDS would be mounted in the Orbiter payload bay, along with a grid connected by fiber optic link to a computer in the cabin. The tests would be performed to aid in the design of an operational sensor which could track a passive target accurately enough to permit soft docking. Additional data would be gained regarding the LDS performance in space, the effects of Orbiter RCS plume impingement on the target, and refinements needed for the flight hardware. A working model which includes an IR laser steered by galvanometer-driven motors for bouncing beams off retroreflectors mounted on targets is described, together with a 300 ft long indoor test facility. Tests on Orbiter flights would first be in a wholly automatic mode and then in a man-in-the-loop mode.

  8. Factors Associated With Balance Confidence in Older Adults With Health Conditions Affecting the Balance Vestibular System

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Gregory F.; Whitney, Susan L.; Redfern, Mark S.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the functional, clinical, and comorbid health condition factors that contribute to balance confidence in persons with balance or vestibular disorders, or both. Design Cross-sectional descriptive. Setting Tertiary care center for balance disorders. Participants Older adults (N95) with signs and symptoms of vestibular dysfunction. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Activity-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) was administered on examination for complaints of balance, postural instability, or both. Results Balance confidence as measured by the ABC was associated with functional balance performance on the Timed Up & Go test and the Dynamic Gait Index. Duration of symptoms and general health-related quality of life (as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) were significant covariates of balance confidence. Self reported treatment for anxiety, depression, or both, significantly reduced balance confidence. Conclusions Balance confidence is a complex construct in older adults with signs and symptoms of balance or vestibular dysfunction, or both. Decreased balance confidence in performing functional activities is associated with actual balance performance, duration of vestibular symptoms, general healthrelated quality of life, and the presence of comorbid psychological and visual impairments. Understanding these relationships can potentially improve management of older adults who present with balance or vestibular disease, or both. PMID:22032223

  9. Progress towards large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments and current research efforts leading towards realization of a large scale production wind tunnel Magnetic Suspension and Balance facility are reviewed. Progress has been made in the areas of model roll control, high angle-of-attack testing, digital system control, high magnetic moment superconducting solenoid model cores, and system failure tolerance. Formal design studies of large scale facilities have commenced and are continuing.

  10. Balanced-Viscosity solutions for multi-rate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, Alexander; Rossi, Riccarda; Savaré, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Several mechanical systems are modeled by the static momentum balance for the displacement u coupled with a rate-independent flow rule for some internal variable z. We consider a class of abstract systems of ODEs which have the same structure, albeit in a finite-dimensional setting, and regularize both the static equation and the rate-independent flow rule by adding viscous dissipation terms with coefficients εα and ε, where 0 < ε « 1 and α > 0 is a fixed parameter. Therefore for α ≠ 1 u and z have different relaxation rates. We address the vanishing-viscosity analysis as ε ↓ 0 of the viscous system. We prove that, up to a subsequence, (reparameterized) viscous solutions converge to a parameterized curve yielding a Balanced Viscosity solution to the original rate-independent system, and providing an accurate description of the system behavior at jumps. We also give a reformulation of the notion of Balanced Viscosity solution in terms of a system of subdifferential inclusions, showing that the viscosity in u and the one in z are involved in the jump dynamics in different ways, according to whether α > 1, α =1, and α є (0,1).

  11. Design of diode laser systems for solid state laser pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, D.; Luethy, Willy A.; Weber, Heinz P.

    2003-11-01

    In contrast to flashlamps the emission of single stripe laser diodes is highly directional and can be focused rather easily to small spots, which gives access to very high pump intensities. Numerical arrangements are possible for transferring the pump radiation to the solid state laser media. In this paper the most important concepts of diode laser systems for pumping solid state lasers are summarized and described. Thereby the aim is to find the most efficient and powerful method for endpumping a Yb3+-double clad fiber.

  12. Capillary Action may Cool Systems and Precisely balance Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriske, Richard

    2011-10-01

    It is well known that it takes no work for Water to rise in a Capillary tube against the force of Gravity. There is a precise balance in this system that resembles Robert Millikan's ``Oil Drop'' experiment, where mass was balanced against the electrostatic force. If at the top of the capillary tube there is evaporation, one can see that the system is cooled as another water molecule has room to move up the column. Furthermore, if the evaporation process can be controlled one photon at a time, a precise balance is created between a photon, and the height/mass of the column. If other molecules are place in the column, they can be moved up and down the column, in a chromatograph way, in a fairly precise manner, by controlling evaporation and molecular weight. If in addition to all of this, the interface of the solution against the walls of the column have Fermi levels, it can be seen as a very precise Electrochemical Device. In the situation of nanotubes, as opposed to trees and plants, these properties can be used to create measure environmental properties and to Balance Chemical Reactions. Forests, and Plants may cool themselves and their environment using this process, and using this process coupled with more energetic photons through photosynthesis.

  13. Short-pulse Laser Capability on the Mercury Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C; Armstrong, P; Bayramian, A; Barty, C J; Bibeau, C; Britten, J; Caird, J; Campbell, R; Chai, B; Crane, J; Cross, R; Erlandson, A; Fei, Y; Freitas, B; Jovanovic, I; Liao, Z; Molander, B; Schaffers, K; Stuart, B; Sutton, S; Ladran, T; Telford, S; Thelin, P; Utterback, E

    2006-06-22

    Applications using high energy ''petawatt-class'' laser drivers operating at repetition rates beyond 0.01 Hz are only now being envisioned. The Mercury laser system is designed to operate at 100 J/pulse at 10 Hz. We investigate the potential of configuring the Mercury laser to produce a rep-rated, ''petawatt-class'' source. The Mercury laser is a prototype of a high energy, high repetition rate source (100 J, 10 Hz). The design of the Mercury laser is based on the ability to scale in energy through scaling in aperture. Mercury is one of several 100 J, high repetition rate (10 Hz) lasers sources currently under development (HALNA, LUCIA, POLARIS). We examine the possibility of using Mercury as a pump source for a high irradiance ''petawatt-class'' source: either as a pump laser for an average power Ti:Sapphire laser, or as a pump laser for OPCPA based on YCa{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (YCOB), ideally producing a source approaching 30 J /30 fs /10 Hz--a high repetition rate petawatt. A comparison of the two systems with nominal configurations and efficiencies is shown in Table 1.

  14. A novel load balancing method for hierarchical federation simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Xiao; Xiao, Tian-yuan

    2013-07-01

    In contrast with single HLA federation framework, hierarchical federation framework can improve the performance of large-scale simulation system in a certain degree by distributing load on several RTI. However, in hierarchical federation framework, RTI is still the center of message exchange of federation, and it is still the bottleneck of performance of federation, the data explosion in a large-scale HLA federation may cause overload on RTI, It may suffer HLA federation performance reduction or even fatal error. Towards this problem, this paper proposes a load balancing method for hierarchical federation simulation system based on queuing theory, which is comprised of three main module: queue length predicting, load controlling policy, and controller. The method promotes the usage of resources of federate nodes, and improves the performance of HLA simulation system with balancing load on RTIG and federates. Finally, the experiment results are presented to demonstrate the efficient control of the method.

  15. Fuzzy Pool Balance: An algorithm to achieve a two dimensional balance in distribute storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenjing; Chen, Gang

    2014-06-01

    The limitation of scheduling modules and the gradual addition of disk pools in distributed storage systems often result in imbalances among their disk pools in terms of both disk usage and file count. This can cause various problems to the storage system such as single point of failure, low system throughput and imbalanced resource utilization and system loads. An algorithm named Fuzzy Pool Balance (FPB) is proposed here to solve this problem. The input of FPB is the current file distribution among disk pools and the output is a file migration plan indicating what files are to be migrated to which pools. FPB uses an array to classify the files by their sizes. The file classification array is dynamically calculated with a defined threshold named Tmax that defines the allowed pool disk usage deviations. File classification is the basis of file migration. FPB also defines the Immigration Pool (IP) and Emigration Pool (EP) according to the pool disk usage and File Quantity Ratio (FQR) that indicates the percentage of each category of files in each disk pool, so files with higher FQR in an EP will be migrated to IP(s) with a lower FQR of this file category. To verify this algorithm, we implemented FPB on an ATLAS Tier2 dCache production system. The results show that FPB can achieve a very good balance in both free space and file counts, and adjusting the threshold value Tmax and the correction factor to the average FQR can achieve a tradeoff between free space and file count.

  16. Force Measurements in Magnetic Suspension and Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzin, Alexander; Shapovalov, George; Prohorov, Nikolay

    1996-01-01

    The description of an infrared telemetry system for measurement of drag forces in Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) is presented. This system includes a drag force sensor, electronic pack and transmitter placed in the model which is of special construction, and receiver with a microprocessor-based measuring device, placed outside of the test section. Piezosensitive resonators as sensitive elements and non-magnetic steel as the material for the force sensor are used. The main features of the proposed system for load measurements are discussed and the main characteristics are presented.

  17. Towards a Load Balancing Middleware for Automotive Infotainment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaluf, Yara; Rettberg, Achim

    In this paper a middleware for distributed automotive systems is developed. The goal of this middleware is to support the load bal- ancing and service optimization in automotive infotainment and entertainment systems. These systems provide navigation, telecommunication, Internet, audio/video and many other services where a kind of dynamic load balancing mechanisms in addition to service quality optimization mechanisms will be applied by the developed middleware in order to improve the system performance and also at the same time improve the quality of services if possible.

  18. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    PubMed

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star. PMID:20048888

  19. Postural balance indicator and associated feedback compensation system.

    PubMed

    Ingerson, Paul; Druzgalski, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Postural balance related disorders not only limit individual mobility but also often result in serious injuries or even death in particular in the elderly. Presented statistical data demonstrates the severity of this growing problem as the population at large is getting older. In addition, the disorders of the vesitibular system, often of idiopathic origin, and related abnormalities affect population across all age groups. Therefore, in order to provide an assessment of balance, awareness to patients, as well as continuous feedback to assist in maintaining equilibrium, a low cost unobtrusive system for postural balance management has been designed. The system is based on two designed and perpendicularly placed level sensors with optical detection, and a set of vibrators interfaced with the PIC based BS2 board by Parallax. The tilt identifiable vibrators provide a feedback. A programmable delay and curtailment of movement related superficial responses provides additional adaptability. The premise of this compact battery operated system is to assist patients in restoring mobility and gaining independence. PMID:17270776

  20. Large-scale violation of detailed balance in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broedersz, Chase; Battle, Christopher; Fakhri, Nikta; Mackintosh, Fred; Schmidt, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Living systems are out of equilibrium. A fundamental manifestation of non-equilibrium dynamics in biological systems is the violation of detailed balance: at the microscopic level, enzymatic processes such as kinetic proofreading or molecular motor activity clearly violate detailed balance. We study how such non-equilibrium dynamics emerge at macroscopic scales in cellular assemblies. We measure the steady-state dynamics of two systems, beating flagella of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and mechanosensitive primary cilia protruding from epithelial kidney cells. The flagellum exhibits clear non-equilibrium driving, whereas fluctuations in the primary cilium are difficult to differentiate from Brownian motion. We parameterize the shapes of the flagellum and primary cilium using a low-dimensional representation of their configuration phase space, and use the measured dynamics to infer the steady-state probability distributions and probability currents. For both the flagellum and the primary cilium we find significant, coherent circulating probability currents, demonstrating that these systems violate detailed balance at the mesoscopic scale.

  1. Fission fragment excited laser system

    DOEpatents

    McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  2. High power laser apparatus and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A high-power, continuous-wave laser was designed for use in power transmission and energy-collecting systems, and for producing incoherent light for pumping a laser material. The laser has a high repetitive pulsing rate per unit time, resulting in a high-power density beam. The laser is composed of xenon flash tubes powered by fast-charging capacitors flashed in succession by a high-speed motor connected to an automobile-type distributor.

  3. Laser Doppler And Range Systems For Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, P. W.; Gagliardi, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses two types of proposed laser systems containing active transponders measuring distance (range) and line-of-sight velocity (via Doppler effect) between deep space vehicle and earth-orbiting satellite. Laser system offers diffraction advantage over microwave system. Delivers comparable power to distant receiver while using smaller transmitting and receiving antennas and less-powerful transmitter. Less subject to phase scintillations caused by passage through such inhomogeneous media as solar corona. One type of system called "incoherent" because range and Doppler measurements do not require coherence with laser carrier signals. Other type of system called "coherent" because successful operation requires coherent tracking of laser signals.

  4. Active vibration and balance system for closed cycle thermodynamic machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass. A method is also provided.

  5. Coherent laser vision system (CLVS)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-13

    The purpose of the CLVS research project is to develop a prototype fiber-optic based Coherent Laser Vision System suitable for DOE`s EM Robotics program. The system provides three-dimensional (3D) vision for monitoring situations in which it is necessary to update geometric data on the order of once per second. The CLVS project plan required implementation in two phases of the contract, a Base Contract and a continuance option. This is the Base Program Interim Phase Topical Report presenting the results of Phase 1 of the CLVS research project. Test results and demonstration results provide a proof-of-concept for a system providing three-dimensional (3D) vision with the performance capability required to update geometric data on the order of once per second.

  6. Laser spark distribution and ignition system

    DOEpatents

    Woodruff, Steven; McIntyre, Dustin L.

    2008-09-02

    A laser spark distribution and ignition system that reduces the high power optical requirements for use in a laser ignition and distribution system allowing for the use of optical fibers for delivering the low peak energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. An optical distributor distributes and delivers optical pumping energy from an optical pumping source to multiple combustion chambers incorporating laser oscillators or laser amplifiers for inducing a laser spark within a combustion chamber. The optical distributor preferably includes a single rotating mirror or lens which deflects the optical pumping energy from the axis of rotation and into a plurality of distinct optical fibers each connected to a respective laser media or amplifier coupled to an associated combustion chamber. The laser spark generators preferably produce a high peak power laser spark, from a single low power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

  7. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  8. Offshore Wind Balance-of-System Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, Michael; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Mone, Christopher

    2015-09-29

    Offshore wind balance-of-system (BOS) costs contribute up to 70% of installed capital costs. Thus, it is imperative to understand the impact of these costs on project economics as well as potential cost trends for new offshore wind technology developments. As a result, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and recently updated a BOS techno-economic model using project cost estimates created from wind energy industry sources.

  9. The 13-inch magnetic suspension and balance system wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William G., Jr.; Dress, David A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA Langley has a small, subsonic wind tunnel in use with the 13-inch Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS). The tunnel is capable of speeds up to Mach 0.5. This report presents tunnel design and construction details. It includes flow uniformity, angularity, and velocity fluctuation data. It also compares experimental Mach number distribution data with computed results for the General Electric Streamtube Curvature Program.

  10. Characterizing the geomorphic setting of precariously balanced rocks using terrestrial laser scanning technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, D. E.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is rapidly becoming an effective three-dimensional imaging tool. Precariously balanced rocks are a subset of spheroidally weathered boulders. They are balanced on bedrock pedestals and are formed in upland drainage basins and pediments of exhumed plutons. Precarious rocks are used as negative evidence of earthquake-driven extreme ground motions. Field surveys of PBRs are coupled with cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) surface exposure dating techniques to determine their exhumation rates. These rates are used in statistical simulations to estimate the magnitudes and recurrences of earthquake-generated extreme ground shaking as a means to physically validate seismic hazard analyses. However, the geomorphic setting of PBRs in the landscape is poorly constrained when interpreting their exhumation rates from CRN surface exposure dates. Are PBRs located on steep or gentle hillslopes? Are they located near drainages or hillslope crests? What geomorphic processes control the spatial distribution of PBRs in a landscape, and where do these processes dominate? Because the fundamental hillslope transport laws are largely controlled by local hillslope gradient and contributing area, the location of a PBR is controlled by the geomorphic agents and their rates acting on it. Our latest efforts involve using a combination of TLS and airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) to characterize the geomorphic situation of PBRs. We used a Riegl LPM 800i (LPM 321) terrestrial laser scanner to scan a ~1.5 m tall by ~1 m wide precariously balanced rock in the Granite Dells, central Arizona. The PBR was scanned from six positions, and the scans were aligned to a point cloud totaling 3.4M points. We also scanned a ~50 m by ~150 m area covering PBR hillslopes from five scan positions. The resulting 5.5M points were used to create a digital terrain model of precarious rocks and their hillslopes. Our TLS- and ALSM-generated surface models and DEMs provide a

  11. Dynamic Load Balancing on Single- and Multi-GPU Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Long; Villa, Oreste; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Gao, Guang R.

    2010-04-19

    The computational power provided by many-core graphics processing units (GPUs) has been exploited in many applications. The programming techniques supported and employed on these GPUs are not sufficient to address problems exhibiting irregular, and unbalanced workload. The problem is exacerbated when trying to effectively exploit multiple GPUs, which are commonly available in many modern systems. In this paper, we propose a task-based dynamic load-balancing solution for single- and multi-GPU systems. The solution allows load balancing at a finer granularity than what is supported in existing APIs such as NVIDIA’s CUDA. We evaluate our approach using both micro-benchmarks and a molecular dynamics application that exhibits significant load imbalance. Experimental results with a single-GPU configuration show that our fine-grained task solution can utilize the hardware more efficiently than the CUDA scheduler for unbalanced workload. On multi-GPU systems, our solution achieves near-linear speedup, load balance, and significant performance improvement over techniques based on standard CUDA APIs.

  12. Laser fiber optics ordnance initiation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    Recent progress on system development in the laser initiation of explosive devices is summarized. The topics included are: development of compact free-running mode and Q-switched lasers, development of low-loss fiber optic bundles and connectors, study of nuclear radiation effects on the system, characterization of laser initiation sensitivities of insensitive high explosives, and the design methods used to achieve attractive system weight and cost savings. Direction for future work is discussed.

  13. High angle of attack position sensing for the Southampton University magnetic suspension and balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, David H.

    1987-01-01

    An all digital five channel position detection system is to be installed in the Southampton University Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (SUMSBS). The system is intended to monitor a much larger range of model pitch attitudes than has been possible hitherto, up to a maximum of a 90 degree angle of attack. It is based on the use of self-scanning photodiode arrays and illuminating laser light beams, together with purpose built processing electronics. The principles behind the design of the system are discussed, together with the results of testing one channel of the system which was used to control the axial position of a magnetically suspended model in SUMSBS. The removal of optically coupled heave position information from the axial position sensing channel is described.

  14. Multiplex electric discharge gas laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, James B. (Inventor); Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A multiple pulse electric discharge gas laser system is described in which a plurality of pulsed electric discharge gas lasers are supported in a common housing. Each laser is supplied with excitation pulses from a separate power supply. A controller, which may be a microprocessor, is connected to each power supply for controlling the application of excitation pulses to each laser so that the lasers can be fired simultaneously or in any desired sequence. The output light beams from the individual lasers may be combined or utilized independently, depending on the desired application. The individual lasers may include multiple pairs of discharge electrodes with a separate power supply connected across each electrode pair so that multiple light output beams can be generated from a single laser tube and combined or utilized separately.

  15. National Ignition Facility system design requirements Laser System SDR002

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.W.; Bowers, J.M.; Bliss, E.S.; Karpenko, V.P.; English, E.

    1996-08-20

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the NIP Laser System. The Laser System generates and delivers high-power optical pulses to the target chamber, and is composed of all optical puke creating and transport elements from Puke Generation through Final Optics as well as the special equipment that supports, energizes and controls them. The Laser System consists of the following WBS elements: 1.3 Laser System 1.4 Beam Transport System 1.6 Optical Components 1.7 Laser Control 1.8.7 Final Optics.

  16. Laser beam modeling in optical storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treptau, J. P.; Milster, T. D.; Flagello, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model has been developed that simulates light propagating through an optical data storage system. A model of a laser beam that originates at a laser diode, propagates through an optical system, interacts with a optical disk, reflects back from the optical disk into the system, and propagates to data and servo detectors is discussed.

  17. The Geoscience Laser Altimetry/Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven C.; Degnan, John J., III; Bufton, Jack L.; Garvin, James B.; Abshire, James B.

    1987-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimetry/Ranging System (GLARS), a combined laser ranging and altimetry system capable of subcentimeter position determinations of retroflector targets and subdecimeter profiling of topography, is described. The system uses advanced but currently available state-of-the-art components. Laboratory, field, and numerical experiments have indicated the suitability of GLARS as an instrument for Eos and other space platforms.

  18. Systems modeling for laser IFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, W. R.; Raffray, A. R.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.

    2006-06-01

    A systems model of a laser-driven IFE power plant is being developed to assist in design trade-offs and optimization. The focus to date has been on modeling the fusion chamber, blanket and power conversion system. A self-consistent model has been developed to determine key chamber and thermal cycle parameters (e.g., chamber radius, structure and coolant temperatures, cycle efficiency, etc.) as a function of the target yield and pulse repetition rate. Temperature constraints on the tungsten armor, ferritic steel wall, and structure/coolant interface are included in evaluating the potential design space. Results are presented for a lithium cooled first wall coupled with a Brayton power cycle. LLNL work performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by the University of California LLNL under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  19. Surface energy and radiation balance systems - General description and improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Simpson, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Surface evaluation of sensible and latent heat flux densities and the components of the radiation balance were desired for various vegetative surfaces during the ASCOT84 experiment to compare with modeled results and to relate these values to drainage winds. Five battery operated data systems equipped with sensors to determine the above values were operated for 105 station days during the ASCOT84 experiment. The Bowen ratio energy balance technique was used to partition the available energy into the sensible and latent heat flux densities. A description of the sensors and battery operated equipment used to collect and process the data is presented. In addition, improvements and modifications made since the 1984 experiment are given. Details of calculations of soil heat flow at the surface and an alternate method to calculate sensible and latent heat flux densities are provided.

  20. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  1. Design of a CO2 laser power control system for a Spacelab microgravity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzler, Carl J.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    The surface tension driven convection experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment manifested to fly aboard the USML-1 Spacelab mission. A CO2 laser is used to heat a spot on the surface of silicone oil contained inside a test chamber. Several CO2 laser control systems were evaluated and the selected system will be interfaced with the balance of the experimental hardware to constitute a working engineering model. Descriptions and a discussion of these various design approaches are presented.

  2. Constraining ice sheet mass balance trends using Cryosat-2 and laser altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, J.; Bamber, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    The mass balance of the Antarctic and Greenland is required to assess their contribution to sea level rise as well as evaluate their sensitivities to variable future forcings. There is general agreement that the ice sheets are losing mass and that loss may be increasing. However, the range of estimates and the uncertainty in those estimates is in many cases, larger than the signal measured, particularly in a regional sense. Cryosat-2 will improve on the legacy satellite measurements from ERS-1 and -2 by using its interferometric model to determine elevation on steep slopes and through it's greater across - track resolution. The new technique will overcome many of the limitations of previous radar altimeters but elevations will still suffer from variable penetration in the firn and errors due to short-wavelength roughness. Building on previous work comparing and combining laser and radar altimeter data, we will assess the uncertainty in elevation due to these limitations. We use NASA Operation Ice Bridge airborne laser altimetry to assess biases in absolute elevation and elevation rates from Cryosat-2 data. We focus on the first 6 months of released data from the mission so that variability in penetration observed can be attributed to seasonal temperature, melt and accumulation variations can be assessed. Unfortunately, coincident airborne data is not currently available so we will assess the impact of the time difference between the datasets as well as presenting comparisons to older, longer time period, NASA ICESat satellite altimetry. The project aims to fully quantify biases and develop algorithms to correct for them and here we present our first comparisons. This will allow us to determine the likely improvement in mass balance estimates from Cryosat-2 as compared to legacy datasets.

  3. Balanced-Rotating-Spray Tank-And-Pipe-Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Eric A.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.

    1995-01-01

    Spray head translates and rotates to clean entire inner surface of tank or pipe. Cleansing effected by three laterally balanced gas/liquid jets from spray head that rotates about longitudinal axis. Uses much less liquid. Cleaning process in system relies on mechanical action of jets instead of contaminant dissolution. Eliminates very difficult machining needed to make multiple converging/diverging nozzles within one spray head. Makes nozzle much smaller. Basic two-phase-flow, supersonic-nozzle design applied to other spray systems for interior or exterior cleaning.

  4. Laser trigger system for the Jupiter module

    SciTech Connect

    Paiva, R.; Sundvoid, S.; Morelli, G.; Powell, C.; Hamil, R.; Corley, J.; Pankuch, P.; Law, K.; Alexander, J.

    1995-10-01

    A UV laser trigger system has been designed to trigger the eight SF6 filled high voltage switches in the Jupiter module. The system is compact and modular, allowing for approximately thirty lasers to be triggered simultaneously in the full Jupiter design. The laser will be kinematically mounted near the high voltage section to minimize the path length to the high voltage switches and decrease the sensitivity to misalignment. The laser system is specifically built for the purpose of triggering the Jupiter module. It is a 265 nm UV laser system designed to generate eight simultaneous laser pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulsewidth. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser is frequency quadrupled with a two stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy is frequency doubled with a type II KTP crystal to generate 530 nm energy. The 530 nm output is frequency doubled with a type I KD*P crystal to generate 265 nm energy. The 265 nm pulse is split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and a stable energy output level for the system were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged in a rugged, sealed aluminum structure 10 in. {times} 19 in. {times} 2.75 in. The size of the laser electronics unit is 7 in. {times} 8 in. {times} 8 in.

  5. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOEpatents

    Galkowski, Joseph J.

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  6. Master-Oscillator/Power-Amplifier Laser System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Unger, Glenn L.

    1994-01-01

    Master-oscillator/power-amplifier (MOPA) laser system operates in continuous-wave mode or in amplitude-modulation (e.g., pulse) mode by modulation of oscillator current. Power amplifier is laser-diode-pumped neodymium:yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) laser; oscillator is laser diode. Offers relatively high efficiency and power. Because drive current to oscillator modulated, external electro-optical modulator not needed. Potential uses include free-space optical communications, coded laser ranging, and generation of high-power, mode-locked pulses.

  7. Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle Marie H.; Kilgore, Robert A.; Boyden, Richmond P.

    1983-01-01

    This publication, containing 206 entries, supersedes an earlier bibliography, NASA TM-80225 (April 1980). Citations for 18 documents have been added in this updated version. Most of the additions report results of recent studies aimed at increasing the research capabilities of magnetic suspension and balance systems, e.g., increasing force and torque capability, increasing angle of attack capability, and increasing overall system reliability. Some of the additions address the problem of scaling from the relatively small size of existing systems to much larger sizes. The purpose of this bibliography is to provide an up-to-date list of publications that might be helpful to persons interested in magnetic suspension and balance systems for use in wind tunnels. The arrangement is generally chronological by date of publication. However, papers presented at conferences or meetings are placed under dates of presentation. The numbers assigned to many of the citations have been changed from those used in the previous bibliography. This has been done in order to allow outdated citations to be removed and some recently discovered older works to be included in their proper chronological order.

  8. Highlights of recent balance of system research and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.G.; Stevens, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    The cost of most photovoltaic (PV) systems is more a function of the balance of system (BOS) components than the collectors. The exception to this rule is the grid-tied system whose cost is related more directly to the collectors, and secondarily to the inverter/controls. In fact, recent procurements throughout the country document that collector costs for roof-mounted, utility-tied systems (Russell, PV Systems Workshop, 7/94) represent 60% to 70% of the system cost. This contrasts with the current market for packaged stand-alone all PV or PV-hybrid systems where collectors represent only 25% to 35% of the total. Not only are the BOS components the cost drivers in the current cost-effective PV system market place, they are also the least reliable components. This paper discusses the impact that BOS issues have on component performance, system performance, and system cost and reliability. We will also look at recent recommended changes in system design based upon performance evaluations of fielded PV systems.

  9. Laser Systems for Orbital Debris Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubenchik, A. M.; Barty, C. P. J.; Beach, R. J.; Erlandson, A. C.; Caird, J. A.

    2010-10-01

    The use of a ground based laser for space debris cleaning was investigated by the ORION project in 1996. Since that study the greatest technological advance in the development of high energy pulsed laser systems has taken place within the NIF project at LLNL. The proposed next laser system to follow the NIF at LLNL will be a high rep rate version of the NIF based on diode-pumping rather than flashlamp excitation; the so called "LIFE" laser system. Because a single "LIFE" beamline could be built up in a few year time frame, and has performance characteristics relevant to the space debris clearing problem, such a beamline could enable a near term demonstration of space debris cleaning. Moreover, the specifics of debris cleaning make it possible to simplify the LIFE laser beyond what is required for a fusion drive laser, and so substantially reduce its cost. Starting with the requirements for laser intensity on the target, and then considering beam delivery, we will flow back the laser requirements needed for space debris cleaning. Using these derived requirements we will then optimize the pulse duration, the operational regime, and the output pulse energy of the laser with a focus of simplifying its overall design. Anticipated simplifications include operation in the heat capacity regime, eliminating cooling requirements on the laser gain slabs, and relaxing B-integral and birefrigence requirements.

  10. Laser Systems for Orbital Debris Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenchik, A. M.; Barty, C. P. J.; Beach, R. J.; Erlandson, A. C.; Caird, J. A.

    2010-10-08

    The use of a ground based laser for space debris cleaning was investigated by the ORION project in 1996. Since that study the greatest technological advance in the development of high energy pulsed laser systems has taken place within the NIF project at LLNL. The proposed next laser system to follow the NIF at LLNL will be a high rep rate version of the NIF based on diode-pumping rather than flashlamp excitation; the so called 'LIFE' laser system. Because a single 'LIFE' beamline could be built up in a few year time frame, and has performance characteristics relevant to the space debris clearing problem, such a beamline could enable a near term demonstration of space debris cleaning. Moreover, the specifics of debris cleaning make it possible to simplify the LIFE laser beyond what is required for a fusion drive laser, and so substantially reduce its cost. Starting with the requirements for laser intensity on the target, and then considering beam delivery, we will flow back the laser requirements needed for space debris cleaning. Using these derived requirements we will then optimize the pulse duration, the operational regime, and the output pulse energy of the laser with a focus of simplifying its overall design. Anticipated simplifications include operation in the heat capacity regime, eliminating cooling requirements on the laser gain slabs, and relaxing B-integral and birefrigence requirements.

  11. Laser Systems for Orbital Debris Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenchik, A M; Barty, C P; Beach, R J; Erlandson, A C; Caird, J A

    2010-02-05

    The use of a ground based laser for space debris cleaning was investigated by the ORION project in 1996. Since that study the greatest technological advance in the development of high energy pulsed laser systems has taken place within the NIF project at LLNL. The proposed next laser system to follow the NIF at LLNL will be a high rep rate version of the NIF based on diode-pumping rather than flashlamp excitation; the so called 'LIFE' laser system. Because a single 'LIFE' beamline could be built up in a few year time frame, and has performance characteristics relevant to the space debris clearing problem, such a beamline could enable a near term demonstration of space debris cleaning. Moreover, the specifics of debris cleaning make it possible to simplify the LIFE laser beyond what is required for a fusion drive laser, and so substantially reduce its cost. Starting with the requirements for laser intensity on the target, and then considering beam delivery, we will flow back the laser requirements needed for space debris cleaning. Using these derived requirements we will then optimize the pulse duration, the operational regime, and the output pulse energy of the laser with a focus of simplifying its overall design. Anticipated simplifications include operation in the heat capacity regime, eliminating cooling requirements on the laser gain slabs, and relaxing B-integral and birefrigence requirements.

  12. [Design of an integrative laser laryngoscope system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yangde; Qiao, Jingliang

    2012-10-01

    Laser technology is widely used in many medical fields such as general surgery, cardio-thoracic surgery, neurosurgery and urology. Laser has the characteristics of identical direction and high energy density, so that a laser knife leaves smooth incisions, less hemorrhage and less infection. The design presented in this paper applied the advanced laser technology in laryngoscopic operations, which increases efficiency and safety of the operation. The design included a laryngoscope, a laser-knife system host machine and a laser-knife, which were integrated in the front of the laryngoscope working terminal. Operators could choose the laser with appropriate wavelength to cut, irradiate, stop bleeding and coagulate the foreign objects or lesions of the larynx. A Chinese national patent (patent number ZL201020537693. 5) has been granted to the design. PMID:23198427

  13. Personal medical information system using laser card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seong H.; Kim, Keun Ho; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Park, Hyun Wook

    1996-04-01

    The well-known hospital information system (HIS) and the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) are typical applications of multimedia to medical area. This paper proposes a personal medical information save-and-carry system using a laser card. This laser card is very useful, especially in emergency situations, because the medical information in the laser card can be read at anytime and anywhere if there exists a laser card reader/writer. The contents of the laser card include the clinical histories of a patient such as clinical chart, exam result, diagnostic reports, images, and so on. The purpose of this system is not a primary diagnosis, but emergency reference of clinical history of the patient. This personal medical information system consists of a personal computer integrated with laser card reader/writer, color frame grabber, color CCD camera and a high resolution image scanner optionally. Window-based graphical user interface was designed for easy use. The laser card has relatively sufficient capacity to store the personal medical information, and has fast access speed to restore and load the data with a portable size as compact as a credit card. Database items of laser card provide the doctors with medical data such as laser card information, patient information, clinical information, and diagnostic result information.

  14. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  15. The Theory of Random Laser Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xunya Jiang

    2002-06-27

    Studies of random laser systems are a new direction with promising potential applications and theoretical interest. The research is based on the theories of localization and laser physics. So far, the research shows that there are random lasing modes inside the systems which is quite different from the common laser systems. From the properties of the random lasing modes, they can understand the phenomena observed in the experiments, such as multi-peak and anisotropic spectrum, lasing mode number saturation, mode competition and dynamic processes, etc. To summarize, this dissertation has contributed the following in the study of random laser systems: (1) by comparing the Lamb theory with the Letokhov theory, the general formulas of the threshold length or gain of random laser systems were obtained; (2) they pointed out the vital weakness of previous time-independent methods in random laser research; (3) a new model which includes the FDTD method and the semi-classical laser theory. The solutions of this model provided an explanation of the experimental results of multi-peak and anisotropic emission spectra, predicted the saturation of lasing modes number and the length of localized lasing modes; (4) theoretical (Lamb theory) and numerical (FDTD and transfer-matrix calculation) studies of the origin of localized lasing modes in the random laser systems; and (5) proposal of using random lasing modes as a new path to study wave localization in random systems and prediction of the lasing threshold discontinuity at mobility edge.

  16. Creating a balanced scorecard for a hospital system.

    PubMed

    Pink, G H; McKillop, I; Schraa, E G; Preyra, C; Montgomery, C; Baker, G R

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, hospitals in Ontario, Canada, collaborated with a university-based research team to develop a report on the relative performance of individual hospitals in Canada's most populated province. The researchers used the balanced-scorecard framework advocated by Kaplan and Norton. Indicators of performance were developed in four areas: clinical utilization and outcomes, patient satisfaction, system integration and change, and financial performance and condition. The process of selecting, calculating, and validating meaningful indicators of financial performance and condition is outlined. Lessons learned along the way are provided. These lessons may prove valuable to other finance researchers and practitioners who are engaged in performance measurement endeavors. PMID:14680029

  17. Modelling human balance using switched systems with linear feedback control.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Glendinning, Paul; Brown, Martin; Medrano-Cerda, Gustavo; Dallali, Houman; Shapiro, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    We are interested in understanding the mechanisms behind and the character of the sway motion of healthy human subjects during quiet standing. We assume that a human body can be modelled as a single-link inverted pendulum, and the balance is achieved using linear feedback control. Using these assumptions, we derive a switched model which we then investigate. Stable periodic motions (limit cycles) about an upright position are found. The existence of these limit cycles is studied as a function of system parameters. The exploration of the parameter space leads to the detection of multi-stability and homoclinic bifurcations. PMID:21697168

  18. Fibre laser component technology for 2-micron laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, G.; Robertson, A.

    2014-05-01

    We report on recent developments in fibre laser component technology for use in 2-micron laser systems. A range of `building block' components has been built to allow novel fibre laser architectures that exploit the advantages of fibre lasers based on Thulium and Holmium active fibres. Fibre lasers operating around 2-microns are becoming widely used in an increasing number of applications, which is driving the need for components that can operate reliably at high powers and also integrate easily with other components. To that end, we have designed and built a range of fused fibre, acousto-optic and magneto-optic devices that can be readily integrated into a range of novel fibre laser systems. Research has been carried out into improving fused fibre technology for components operating at 2um wavelengths. Side-coupled feed through combiners have been developed with signal losses as low as 0.02dB and kilowatt level end-coupled pump couplers. Alongside this a range of taps, splitters and WDMs have been developed which allows for the implementation of a variety of laser architectures. Optical isolators based on new Faraday materials have been developed, providing over 30dB isolation, low insertion loss and 30W power handling in a fibre-in, fibre-out version. New cell designs and materials for Acousto-Optic devices have been researched leading to the development of fibre-coupled Acousto-Optic Modulators (AOM) and allows for the realisation of all fibre Thulium and Holmium Q-switched and pulsed fibre lasers. Novel Acousto-Optic Tunable Filters (AOTF) designs have been realised to produce narrow resolution AOTFs and zero-shift AOTFs.

  19. Magnetic suspension and balance system advanced study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Abdelsalam, M. K.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.

    1990-01-01

    The design improvements for the system encompass 14 or 18 external superconductive coils mounted on a 8 x 8 foot wind tunnel, a superconductive model core magnet on a holmium mandrel to fit an F-16 model, model wings of permanent magnet material Nd2Fe14B, and fiber glass epoxy structure. The Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (MSBS) advanced design is confirmed by the successful construction and test of a full size superconductive model core solenoid with holmium mandrel. The solenoid is 75 cm long and 12.6 cm in diameter and produces 6.1 tesla for a hold time of 47 minutes. An integrated coil system design of a new compact configuration without specific coils for roll or pitch shows promise of simplicity; magnet reductions of 30 percent compared to the most recent 1985 design are possible.

  20. Application of laser Doppler velocimeter to chemical vapor laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartrell, Luther R.; Hunter, William W., Jr.; Lee, Ja H.; Fletcher, Mark T.; Tabibi, Bagher M.

    1993-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was used to measure iodide vapor flow fields inside two different-sized tubes. Typical velocity profiles across the laser tubes were obtained with an estimated +/-1 percent bias and +/-0.3 to 0.5 percent random uncertainty in the mean values and +/-2.5 percent random uncertainty in the turbulence-intensity values. Centerline velocities and turbulence intensities for various longitudinal locations ranged from 13 to 17.5 m/sec and 6 to 20 percent, respectively. In view of these findings, the effects of turbulence should be considered for flow field modeling. The LDV system provided calibration data for pressure and mass flow systems used routinely to monitor the research laser gas flow velocity.

  1. Laser milling simulation system for moulds manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, G.; Orazi, L.; Fortunato, A.; Cuccolini, G.

    2007-02-01

    This paper refers to the development of a numerical simulator for Laser Milling process useful for industrial applications able to predict the machining results when different materials are processed, different surface conditions are encountered and spatial and temporal distributions of the pulsed beam are set. The original software presented, developed by the authors, are well suited for simulating laser milling or laser micromachining operations with power density up to 10 14 W/m2 and pulse duration in the order of nanoseconds. The temperature of the solid phase is evaluated by solving the Fourier equation by using the finite difference method (FDM). The recession velocity of the ablating surface is evaluated according to the Hertz-Knudsen equation assuming that the explosive effects are negligible. The plasma plume is considered in local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and the energy balance permits to evaluate the plume temperature, ion distribution and pressure under the assumption that the gas expansion, from the surface target, produces a sonic front. The plume energy balance is influenced by the energy lost for irradiation from the plume and by the quantity of laser beam energy reflected from the target surface. Numerical simulations have been conducted to quantify this influence on the plasma plume physical state and, consequently, on the ablation process considering a Nd:YAG diode pumped source and three different target materials: Fe-C alloy, copper and aluminum.

  2. Laser Image Contrast Enhancement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Robert L. (Inventor); Holmes, Richard R. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An optical image enhancement system provides improved image contrast in imaging of a target in high temperature surroundings such as a furnace. The optical system includes a source of vertically polarized light such as laser and a beam splitter for receiving the light and directing the light toward the target. A retardation plate is affixed to a target-facing surface of the beam splitter and a vertical polarizer is disposed along a common optical path with the beam splitter between the retardation plate and the target. A horizontal polarizer disposed in the common optical path, receives light passing through a surface of the beam splitter opposed to the target-facing surface. An image detector is disposed at one end of the optical path. A band pass filter having a band pass filter characteristic matching the frequency of the vertically polarized light source is disposed in the path between the horizontal polarizer and the image detector. The use of circular polarization, together with cross polarizers, enables the reflected light to be passed to the detector while blocking thermal radiation.

  3. Study on short distance laser ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jianan; Li, Jicheng; Zhang, Cong

    2015-02-01

    Laser ranging technology is an industrial non contact measuring technology. With the rapidly development of electronics and optical technology, the measuring precision has been improved continuously. In this paper, a simple structure measuring system which based on laser triangulation measuring theory, was built. The system consist of single point laser and CMOS receiver, its measuring range is from 90mm to 110mm. In order to get a higher position accuracy of light spot, gauss cumulative method was used in this paper. For realize the precision system calibration, a linear calibration method was introduced. The experiment shows that the system get a measuring precision of 10um.

  4. Medical laser system WOLF-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Leszek; Peszynski-Drews, Cezary; Szydlak, Jerzy; Nowakowski, Wlodzimierz

    2000-11-01

    In CDTL PL a set of lasers was installed with irradiation connected to treatment and operation rooms by energetic optical fibers. The introduction of irradiation of particular lasers into fiberguides is controlled by the computer. Fiber couplers were installed on the entrance of transmission fiberguides, and they were connected to optical fibers with different end-pieces according to medical needs.

  5. Diesel engine exhaust trap particulate distribution and incineration balancing system

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, G. S.; Parker, W. J.; Tendulkar, D. V.

    1981-09-22

    A diesel particulate trapping and incineration system is disclosed that includes a porous wall monolithic ceramic filter element having dual openended inlet passages separated from adjacent exhaust passages by particulate filtering porous walls. A balancing system for the distribution and incineration of particulates is provided including dual inlet ducts feeding exhaust gases to both ends of the inlet passages and valve means for controlling the amount of inlet gas flow entering the open opposite ends of the inlet ducts. In this way control is obtained of distribution of particulates over the length of the inlet duct walls as well as of the incineration of particulates upon heating of the exhaust gases to incineration temperature.

  6. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  7. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory laser tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Lanham, N. W.; Lehr, C. G.; Wohn, J.

    1977-01-01

    The four SAO laser satellite-ranging systems, located in Brazil, Peru, Australia, and Arizona, have been in operation for more than five years and have provided ranging data at accuracy levels of a meter or better. The paper examines system hardware (laser transmitter, the electronics, mount, photoreceiver, minicomputer, and station timing) and software (prediction program, calibration programs, and data handling and quick-look programs) and also considers calibration, station operation, and system performance.

  8. Laser Mégajoule synchronization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttmann, Michel; Pastor, Jean François; Drouet, Vincent; Prat, Michel; Raimbourg, Jo"l.; Adolf, Alain

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the synchronisation system under development on the Laser Mégajoule (LMJ) in order to synchronize the laser quads on the target to better than 40ps rms. Our architecture is based on a Timing System (TS) which delivers trigger signals with jitter down to 15ps rms coupled with an ultra precision timing system with 5ps rms jitter. In addition to TS, a sensor placed at the target chamber center measures the arrival times of the 3ω nano joule laser pulses generated by front end shots.

  9. High energy chemical laser system

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.; Pearson, R.K.

    1975-12-23

    A high energy chemical laser system is described wherein explosive gaseous mixtures of a reducing agent providing hydrogen isotopes and interhalogen compounds are uniformly ignited by means of an electrical discharge, flash- photolysis or an electron beam. The resulting chemical explosion pumps a lasing chemical species, hydrogen fluoride or deuterium fluoride which is formed in the chemical reaction. The generated lasing pulse has light frequencies in the 3- micron range. Suitable interhalogen compounds include bromine trifluoride (BrF$sub 3$), bromine pentafluoride (BrF$sub 5$), chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF$sub 3$), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF$sub 5$), iodine pentafluoride (IF$sub 5$), and iodine heptafluoride (IF$sub 7$); and suitable reducing agents include hydrogen (H$sub 2$), hydrocarbons such as methane (CH$sub 4$), deuterium (D$sub 2$), and diborane (B$sub 2$H$sub 6$), as well as combinations of the gaseous compound and/or molecular mixtures of the reducing agent.

  10. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  11. Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCay, T. D.; Bible, J. B.; Mueller, R. E.

    1993-10-01

    A program is underway to develop a YAG laser based materials processing workstation to fly in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. This workstation, called Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS), will be capable of cutting and welding steel, aluminum, and Inconel alloys of the type planned for use in constructing the Space Station Freedom. As well as demonstrating the ability of a YAG laser to perform remote (fiber-optic delivered) repair and fabrication operations in space, fundamental data will be collected on these interactions for comparison with terrestrial data and models. The flight system, scheduled to fly in 1996, will be constructed as three modules using standard Get-Away-Special (GAS) canisters. The first module holds the laser head and cooling system, while the second contains a high peak power electrical supply. The third module houses the materials processing workstation and the command and data acquisition subsystems. The laser head and workstation cansisters are linked by a fiber-optic cable to transmit the laser light. The team assembled to carry out this project includes Lumonics Industrial Products (laser), Tennessee Technological University (structural analysis and fabrication), Auburn University Center for Space Power (electrical engineering), University of Waterloo (low-g laser process consulting), and CSTAR/UTSI (data acquisition, control, software, integration, experiment design). This report describes the SAILS program and highlights recent activities undertaken at CSTAR.

  12. Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, T. D.; Bible, J. B.; Mueller, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    A program is underway to develop a YAG laser based materials processing workstation to fly in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. This workstation, called Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS), will be capable of cutting and welding steel, aluminum, and Inconel alloys of the type planned for use in constructing the Space Station Freedom. As well as demonstrating the ability of a YAG laser to perform remote (fiber-optic delivered) repair and fabrication operations in space, fundamental data will be collected on these interactions for comparison with terrestrial data and models. The flight system, scheduled to fly in 1996, will be constructed as three modules using standard Get-Away-Special (GAS) canisters. The first module holds the laser head and cooling system, while the second contains a high peak power electrical supply. The third module houses the materials processing workstation and the command and data acquisition subsystems. The laser head and workstation cansisters are linked by a fiber-optic cable to transmit the laser light. The team assembled to carry out this project includes Lumonics Industrial Products (laser), Tennessee Technological University (structural analysis and fabrication), Auburn University Center for Space Power (electrical engineering), University of Waterloo (low-g laser process consulting), and CSTAR/UTSI (data acquisition, control, software, integration, experiment design). This report describes the SAILS program and highlights recent activities undertaken at CSTAR.

  13. Microoptoelectromechanical system (MOEMS) based laser

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P.

    2003-11-04

    A method for forming a folded laser and associated laser device includes providing a waveguide substrate, micromachining the waveguide substrate to form a folded waveguide structure including a plurality of intersecting folded waveguide paths, forming a single fold mirror having a plurality of facets which bound all ends of said waveguide paths except those reserved for resonator mirrors, and disposing a pair of resonator mirrors on opposite sides of the waveguide to form a lasing cavity. A lasing material is provided in the lasing cavity. The laser can be sealed by disposing a top on the waveguide substrate. The laser can include a re-entrant cavity, where the waveguide substrate is disposed therein, the re-entrant cavity including the single fold mirror.

  14. Laser Threat Analysis System (LTAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaltz, John M.; Richardson, Christina E.; Ruiz, Abel; Barsalou, Norman; Thomas, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    LTAS is a totally integrated modeling and simulation environment designed for the purpose of ascertaining the susceptibility of Air Force pilots and air crews to optical radiation threats. Using LTAS, mission planners can assess the operational impact of optically directed energy weapons and countermeasures. Through various scenarios, threat analysts are able to determine the capability of laser threats and their impact on operational missions including the air crew's ability to complete their mission effectively. Additionally, LTAS allows the risk of laser use on training ranges and the requirement for laser protection to be evaluated. LTAS gives mission planners and threat analysts complete control of the threat environment including threat parameter control and placement, terrain mapping (line-of-site), atmospheric conditions, and laser eye protection (LEP) selection. This report summarizes the design of the final version of LTAS, and the modeling methodologies implemented to accomplish analysis.

  15. A review of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyden, Richmond P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper traces the development of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBSs) for use in wind tunnels. The expression MSBS implies a system that can both suspend a model and also measure the forces and moments acting on the model. This avoids the need for any mechanical support of the model. An MSBS uses electromagnets located outside the test section walls to create magnetic fields inside the test section. Measurement of the electrical current flowing in each of the electromagnets can be used to determine the forces and moments acting on the suspended model. An MSBS is capable of supporting a model with an internal magnetized core subject to gravity, aerodynamic, and inertial loads. The model must have a core made of either a permanent magnet, magnetized soft iron, or a solenoid. The position of the suspended body is inherently unstable. A closed-loop control system which includes a position sensing system has to control the position of the body by controlling the applied magnetic fields. This paper includes a discussion of all the known MSBSs and the outlook for larger systems.

  16. Magnetically switched power supply system for lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A laser power supply system is described in which separate pulses are utilized to avalanche ionize the gas within the laser and then produce a sustained discharge to cause the gas to emit light energy. A pulsed voltage source is used to charge a storage device such as a distributed capacitance. A transmission line or other suitable electrical conductor connects the storage device to the laser. A saturable inductor switch is coupled in the transmission line for containing the energy within the storage device until the voltage level across the storage device reaches a predetermined level, which level is less than that required to avalanche ionize the gas. An avalanche ionization pulse generating circuit is coupled to the laser for generating a high voltage pulse of sufficient amplitude to avalanche ionize the laser gas. Once the laser gas is avalanche ionized, the energy within the storage device is discharged through the saturable inductor switch into the laser to provide the sustained discharge. The avalanche ionization generating circuit may include a separate voltage source which is connected across the laser or may be in the form of a voltage multiplier circuit connected between the storage device and the laser.

  17. Target isolation system, high power laser and laser peening method and system using same

    DOEpatents

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Harris, Fritz

    2007-11-06

    A system for applying a laser beam to work pieces, includes a laser system producing a high power output beam. Target delivery optics are arranged to deliver the output beam to a target work piece. A relay telescope having a telescope focal point is placed in the beam path between the laser system and the target delivery optics. The relay telescope relays an image between an image location near the output of the laser system and an image location near the target delivery optics. A baffle is placed at the telescope focal point between the target delivery optics and the laser system to block reflections from the target in the target delivery optics from returning to the laser system and causing damage.

  18. Gastroretentive hydrodynamically balanced systems of ofloxacin: In vitro evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Das, Biswarup; Maji, Ruma

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBSs) of ofloxacin were prepared using lactose, HPMC K4M, PVP K 30, and liquid paraffin, which may increase the mean residence time in the gastrointestinal tract, and may be able to provide maximum drug at the site of absorption to improve oral bioavailability. All these formulated HBS capsules were floated well over 6 h with no floating lag time. They also showed sustained drug release over 6 h. Time for 50% release of ofloxacin was within the range, 2.47 ± 0.02 to 3.07 ± 0.08 h. The in vitro drug release from these HBS capsules was dependent on HPMC K4M, PVP K 30, and liquid paraffin content. The drug release pattern of these HBS capsules containing ofloxacin followed the Higuchi model with the anomalous transport mechanism. PMID:23960825

  19. Pulse shaping on the Nova laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, J.K.; Speck, D.R.; Bibeau, C.; Weiland, T.L.

    1989-02-06

    Inertial confinement fusion requires temporally shaped pulses to achieve high gain efficiency. Recently, we demonstrated the ability to produce complex temporal pulse shapes at high power at 0.35 microns on the Nova laser system. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Laser power conversion system analysis, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. S.; Morgan, L. L.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The orbit-to-orbit laser energy conversion system analysis established a mission model of satellites with various orbital parameters and average electrical power requirements ranging from 1 to 300 kW. The system analysis evaluated various conversion techniques, power system deployment parameters, power system electrical supplies and other critical supplies and other critical subsystems relative to various combinations of the mission model. The analysis show that the laser power system would not be competitive with current satellite power systems from weight, cost and development risk standpoints.

  1. An improved instantaneous laser Doppler velocity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desio, Charles V.; Olcmen, Semih; Schinetsky, Philip

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, improvements made on a single velocity component instantaneous laser Doppler velocimetry (ILDV) system are detailed. The ILDV system developed in this research effort is capable of measuring a single velocity component at a rate as high as two megahertz. The current system accounts for the effects of the laser intensity variation on the measured velocity and eliminates the use of a Pockels cell used in previous ILDV systems. The system developed in the current effort was tested using compressible, subsonic jet flows. The ILDV system developed would be most beneficial where a high data capture rate is needed such as in shock tubes, and high-speed wind tunnels.

  2. The TileCal Laser Calibration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giangiobbe, Vincent; On Behalf Of The Atlas Tile Calorimeter Group

    TileCal is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector operating at LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter whose active material is made of scintillating plastic tiles. Scintillation light is read by photomultipliers. A Laser system is used to monitor their gain stability. During dedicated calibration runs the Laser system sends via long optical fibers, a monitored amount of light simultaneously to all the ≈10000 photomultipliers of TileCal. This note describes two complementary methods to measure the stability of the photomultipliers gain using the Laser calibration runs. The results of validation tests are presented for both methods and theirrespective performances and limitations are discussed.

  3. Research of laser ignition detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feng; Zhao, Dong; Xu, Qie; Ai, Xin

    2010-10-01

    Laser ignition is an important means of detonation but the accuracy and security is requested strictly. Based on the above, two points were considered in the design: achieve ignition-Fiber-optical health monitoring in the condition of low-intensity light (ensure the safety of gunpowder); observant the explosive imaging. In the paper, the laser ignition equipment was designed with optical detection and inner optical imaging system for the real-time monitoring to the optical fiber and the process of ignition. This design greatly improved the reliability and the safety of laser ignition system and provided the guarantee for usage and industrialization.

  4. Atmospheric Science Measurements by the EOS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James

    1999-01-01

    Scheduled for Launch in July 2001, the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is to be the first satellite instrument to provide full global lidar profiling of clouds and aerosol in the earth's atmosphere. GLAS is an EOS program instrument that is on its own satellite, now called the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite. The instrument is both a surface laser ranging system and an atmospheric profiling lidar. A most important surface measurement for the instrument is to study the change in the mass balance of the polar ice sheets by measuring the change in regional altitudes to an accuracy of 1.5 cm per year. The strategy to combine the surface measurement with a Cloud and aerosol lidar profiling mission is based on the compatibility of the altimetry instrument requirements with those for the required lidar measurements. The primary atmospheric science goal of the GLAS cloud and aerosol measurement is to determine the radiative forcing and vertically resolved atmospheric heating rate due to cloud and aerosol by directly observing the vertical structure and magnitude of cloud and aerosol parameters that are important for the radiative balance of the earth-atmosphere system, but which are ambiguous or impossible to obtain from existing or planned passive remote sensors. A further goal is to directly measure the height of atmospheric transition layers (inversions) which are important for dynamics and mixing, the planetary boundary layer and lifting condensation level.

  5. Solid state laser systems for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    Since the last report several things have happened to effect the research effort. In laser metrology, measurements using Michelson type interferometers with an FM modulated diode laser source have been performed. The discrete Fourier transform technique has been implemented. Problems associated with this technique as well as the overall FM scheme were identified. The accuracy of the technique is not at the level we would expect at this point. We are now investigating the effect of various types of noise on the accuracy as well as making changes to the system. One problem can be addressed by modifying the original optical layout. Our research effort was also expanded to include the assembly and testing of a diode pumped\\Nd:YAG laser pumped\\Ti sapphire laser for possible use in sounding rocket applications. At this stage, the diode pumped Nd:YAG laser has been assembled and made operational.

  6. Laser and solar-photovoltaic space power systems comparison. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.; Stripling, J.; Enderson, T. M.; Humes, D. H.; Davis, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of total system cost is made between solar photovoltaic and laser/receiver systems. The laser systems assume either a solar-pumped CO2 blackbody transfer laser with MHD receiver or a solar pumped liquid neodymium laser with a photovoltaic receiver. Total system costs are less for the laser systems below 300 km where drag is significant. System costs are highly dependent on altitude.

  7. Photovoltaic balance-of-system designs and costs at PVUSA

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, A.B.; Jennings, C.

    1995-05-01

    This report is one in a series of 1994-1995 PVUSA reports that document PVUSA lessons learned at demonstration sites in California and Texas. During the last 7 years (1988 to 1994), 16 PV systems ranging from 20 kW to 500 kW have been installed. Six 20-kW emerging module technology (EMT) arrays and three turnkey (i.e., vendor designed and integrated) utility-scale systems were procured and installed at PVUSA`s main test site in Davis, California. PVUSA host utilities have installed a total of seven EMT arrays and utility-scale systems in their service areas. Additional systems at Davis and host utility sites are planned. One of PVUSA`s key objectives is to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of PV balance-of-system (BOS). In the procurement stage PVUSA encouraged innovative design to improve upon present practice by reducing maintenance, improving reliability, or lowering manufacturing or construction costs. The project team worked closely with suppliers during the design stage not only to ensure designs met functional and safety specifications, but to provide suggestions for improvement. This report, intended for the photovoltaic (PV) industry and for utility project managers and engineers considering PV plant construction and ownership, documents PVUSA utility-scale system design and cost lessons learned. Complementary PVUSA topical reports document: construction and safety experience; five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid-support PV plant benefits; PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  8. Repetitive output laser system and method using target reflectivity

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Roy R.

    1978-01-01

    An improved laser system and method for implosion of a thermonuclear fuel pellet in which that portion of a laser pulse reflected by the target pellet is utilized in the laser system to initiate a succeeding target implosion, and in which the energy stored in the laser system to amplify the initial laser pulse, but not completely absorbed thereby, is used to amplify succeeding laser pulses initiated by target reflection.

  9. Laser Safety and Hazardous Analysis for the ARES (Big Sky) Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    AUGUSTONI, ARNOLD L.

    2003-01-01

    A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the ARES laser system based on the 2000 version of the American National Standards Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1,for Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The ARES laser system is a Van/Truck based mobile platform, which is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites.

  10. Optical design of laser transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yulan; Feng, Jinliang; Li, Yongliang; Yang, Jiandong

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses a design of optical transfer system used in carbon-dioxide laser therapeutic machine. The design of this system is according to the requirement of the therapeutic machine. The therapeutic machine requires the movement of laser transfer system is similar to the movement of human beings arms, which possesses 7 rotating hinges. We use optical hinges, which is composed of 45 degree mirrors. Because the carbon-dioxide laser mode is not good, light beam diameter at focus and divergence angle dissemination are big, we use a collecting lens at the transfer system output part in order to make the light beam diameter at focus in 0.2 to approximately 0.3 mm. For whole system the focus off-axis error is less than 0.5 mm, the transfer power consumption is smaller than 10%. The system can move in three dimension space freely and satisfies the therapeutic machine requirement.

  11. Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C; Carey, R; Demaret, R; Edwards, O; Lagin, L; Van Arsdall, P

    2011-03-18

    A Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) facility point design is being developed at LLNL to support an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) based energy concept. This will build upon the technical foundation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system. NIF is designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn. The LIFE control systems will have an architecture partitioned by sub-systems and distributed among over 1000's of front-end processors, embedded controllers and supervisory servers. LIFE's automated control subsystems will require interoperation between different languages and target architectures. Much of the control system will be embedded into the subsystem with well defined interface and performance requirements to the supervisory control layer. An automation framework will be used to orchestrate and automate start-up and shut-down as well as steady state operation. The LIFE control system will be a high parallel segmented architecture. For example, the laser system consists of 384 identical laser beamlines in a 'box'. The control system will mirror this architectural replication for each beamline with straightforward high-level interface for control and status monitoring. Key technical challenges will be discussed such as the injected target tracking and laser pointing feedback. This talk discusses the the plan for controls and information systems to support LIFE.

  12. Fast Offset Laser Phase-Locking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaddock, Daniel; Ware, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Figure 1 shows a simplified block diagram of an improved optoelectronic system for locking the phase of one laser to that of another laser with an adjustable offset frequency specified by the user. In comparison with prior systems, this system exhibits higher performance (including higher stability) and is much easier to use. The system is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and operates almost entirely digitally; hence, it is easily adaptable to many different systems. The system achieves phase stability of less than a microcycle. It was developed to satisfy the phase-stability requirement for a planned spaceborne gravitational-wave-detecting heterodyne laser interferometer (LISA). The system has potential terrestrial utility in communications, lidar, and other applications. The present system includes a fast phasemeter that is a companion to the microcycle-accurate one described in High-Accuracy, High-Dynamic-Range Phase-Measurement System (NPO-41927), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 22. In the present system (as in the previously reported one), beams from the two lasers (here denoted the master and slave lasers) interfere on a photodiode. The heterodyne photodiode output is digitized and fed to the fast phasemeter, which produces suitably conditioned, low-latency analog control signals which lock the phase of the slave laser to that of the master laser. These control signals are used to drive a thermal and a piezoelectric transducer that adjust the frequency and phase of the slave-laser output. The output of the photodiode is a heterodyne signal at the difference between the frequencies of the two lasers. (The difference is currently required to be less than 20 MHz due to the Nyquist limit of the current sampling rate. We foresee few problems in doubling this limit using current equipment.) Within the phasemeter, the photodiode-output signal is digitized to 15 bits at a sampling frequency of 40 MHz by use of the same analog

  13. Laser beam control and diagnostic systems for the copper-pumped dye laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, E.S.; Peterson, R.L.; Salmon, J.T.; Thomas, R.A.

    1992-11-01

    The laser system described in the previous paper is used for experiments in which success requires tight tolerances on beam position, direction, and wavefront. Indeed, the optimum performance of the laser itself depends on careful delivery of copper laser light to the dye amplifiers, precise propagation of dye laser beams through restricted amplifier apertures, and accurate monitoring of laser power at key locations. This paper describes the alignment systems, wavefront correction systems, and laser diagnostics systems which ensure that the control requirements of both the laser and associated experiments are met. Because laser isotope separation processes utilize more than one wavelength, these systems monitor and control multiple wavelengths simultaneously.

  14. Scanning afocal laser velocimeter projection lens system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, D. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for projecting and focusing parallel laser light beams from a laser doppler velocimeter on a target area are described. The system includes three lenses. Two lenses work together as a fixed afocal lens combination. The third lens is a movable scanning lens. Parallel laser beams travel from the velocimeter through the scanning lens and through the afocal lens combination and converge, i.e., are focused, somewhere beyond. Moving the scanning lens relative to the fixed afocal combination results in a scanning of the focus area along the afocal combination's optical axis.

  15. Lasers and space optical systems study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliano, Concetto; Annaballi, Angela L.

    1998-01-01

    The Air Force and other government organizations have considered the application of space-based lasers since the early 1970s. Recent studies have identified the enormous potential of lasers and optical systems in space to support the Full-Spectrum Dominance envisioned by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in ``Joint Vision 2010.'' The Air Force Research Laboratory has undertaken the LAsers and S_pace O_ptical S_ystems (LASSOS) Study to examine in detail how space lasers and optics (defined as any laser system based in space or any terrestrial-based laser whose beam transits space) could best be used to satisfy this critical need. This twelve-month study will identify promising technology concepts for space laser/optic systems, develop system concepts based on these technologies with special emphasis on systems capable of performing multiple missions, assess how well these systems can accomplish operational tasks in a quantitative manner, and design technology development roadmaps for selected concepts. Since work on the study had commenced only days before the publication deadline, this manuscript is necessarily limited to a description of the background, motivation, and organization of the study. The ``Concept Definition'' phase of the study is scheduled to be completed by the time of the STAIF conference. By that time, study participants will have identified key concepts that best satisfy criteria for timely and cost-effective augmentation of combat capability. A final report, which will be made available to authorized recipients, will be written after completion of the study in August 1998.

  16. Advanced laser systems for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosner, Marc; Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Chan, Gary; Wu, Chunbai; Gross, Daniel; Heller, Donald F.

    2015-03-01

    We describe the ongoing development of laser systems for advanced photoacoustic imaging (PAI). We discuss the characteristics of these laser systems and their particular benefits for soft tissue imaging and next-generation breast cancer diagnostics. We provide an overview of laser performance and compare this with other laser systems that have been used for early-stage development of PAI. These advanced systems feature higher pulse energy output at clinically relevant repetition rates, as well as a novel wavelength-cycling output pulse format. Wavelength cycling provides pulse sequences for which the output repeatedly alternates between two wavelengths that provide differential imaging. This capability improves co-registration of captured differential images. We present imaging results of phantoms obtained with a commercial ultrasound detector system and a wavelength-cycling laser source providing ~500 mJ/pulse at 755 and 797 nm, operating at 25 Hz. The results include photoacoustic images and corresponding pulse-echo data from a tissue mimicking phantom containing inclusions, simulating tumors in the breast. We discuss the application of these systems to the contrast-enhanced detection of various tissue types and tumors.

  17. Experimental nonlinear laser systems: Bigger data for better science?

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D. M.; Toomey, J. P.; McMahon, C.; Noblet, Y.; Argyris, A.; Syvridis, D.

    2014-10-06

    Bigger data is supporting knowledge discovery in nonlinear laser systems as will be demonstrated with examples from three semiconductor laser based systems – one with optical feedback, a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) chaotic laser and a frequency shifted feedback laser system.

  18. Balanced Flow Metering and Conditioning: Technology for Fluid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    Revolutionary new technology that creates balanced conditions across the face of a multi-hole orifice plate has been developed, patented and exclusively licensed for commercialization. This balanced flow technology simultaneously measures mass flow rate, volumetric flow rate, and fluid density with little or no straight pipe run requirements. Initially, the balanced plate was a drop in replacement for a traditional orifice plate, but testing revealed substantially better performance as compared to the orifice plate such as, 10 times better accuracy, 2 times faster (shorter distance) pressure recovery, 15 times less acoustic noise energy generation, and 2.5 times less permanent pressure loss. During 2004 testing at MSFC, testing revealed several configurations of the balanced flow meter that match the accuracy of Venturi meters while having only slightly more permanent pressure loss. However, the balanced meter only requires a 0.25 inch plate and has no upstream or downstream straight pipe requirements. As a fluid conditioning device, the fluid usually reaches fully developed flow within 1 pipe diameter of the balanced conditioning plate. This paper will describe the basic balanced flow metering technology, provide performance details generated by testing to date and provide implementation details along with calculations required for differing degrees of flow metering accuracy.

  19. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.

    1996-01-01

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.

  20. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  1. Testing Postural Stability: Are the Star Excursion Balance Test and Biodex Balance System Limits of Stability Tests Consistent?

    PubMed

    Glave, A Page; Didier, Jennifer J; Weatherwax, Jacqueline; Browning, Sarah J; Fiaud, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of options to test postural stability; however many physical tests lack validity information. Two tests of postural stability - the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and Biodex Balance System Limits of Stability Test (LOS) - were examined to determine if similar components of balance were measured. Healthy adults (n=31) completed the LOS (levels 6 and 12) and SEBT (both legs). SEBT directions were offset by 180° to approximate LOS direction. Correlations and partial correlations controlling for height were analyzed. Correlations were significant for SEBT 45° and LOS back-left (6: r=-0.41; 12: r=-0.42; p<0.05), SEBT 90° and LOS 6 left (r=-0.51, p<0.05), SEBT 135(o) and LOS 6 front-left (r=-0.53, p<0.05), SEBT overall and LOS 6 overall (r=-0.43, p<0.05). Partial correlations were significant for SEBT 90° and LOS 6 left (rSEBT,LOS·H=-0.45, p<0.05) and SEBT 135° and LOS 6 front-left (rSEBT,LOS·H=-0.51, p<0.05), and SEBT overall and LOS 6 overall (rSEBT,LOS·H=-0.37, p<0.05). These findings indicate the tests seem to assess different components of balance. Research is needed to determine and define what specific components of balance are being assessed. Care must be taken when choosing balance tests to best match the test to the purpose of testing (fall risk, athletic performance, etc.). PMID:26514832

  2. Skin friction measurements by a new nonintrusive double-laser-beam oil viscosity balance technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, D. J.; Higuchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    A portable dual-laser-beam interferometer that nonintrusively measures skin friction by monitoring the thickness change of an oil film subject to shear stress is described. The method is an advance over past versions in that the troublesome and error-introducing need to measure the distance to the oil leading edge and the starting time for the oil flow has been eliminated. The validity of the method was verified by measuring oil viscosity in the laboratory, and then using those results to measure skin friction beneath the turbulent boundary layer in a low-speed wind tunnel. The dual-laser-beam skin friction measurements are compared with Preston tube measurements, with mean velocity profile data in a 'law-of-the-wall' coordinate system, and with computations based on turbulent boundary-layer theory. Excellent agreement is found in all cases. This validation and the aforementioned improvements appear to make the present form of the instrument usable to measure skin friction reliably and nonintrusively in a wide range of flow situations in which previous methods are not practical.

  3. Cutting laser systems for ureteral strictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durek, C.; Knipper, Ansgar; Brinkmann, Ralf; Miller, Ado; Gromoll, Bernd; Jocham, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    Acquired ureteral strictures are still treated either with a stent, balloon dilatation, by open surgery or by endoscopic therapy with a `cold knife' or high current density as intubated ureterotomy. The success rates described in the literature range between 50% and 90%. Using the experimental CTH:YAG laser (wavelength 2120 nm) and CT:YAG laser (wavelength 1950 nm), the reduction of invasiveness and of morbidity was evaluated. First, the CTH:YAG laser was investigated on 540 fresh porcine ureters varying the parameters. With a computerized morphometry system, defect depth, defect width, coagulation depth and coagulation width were measured. Then 21 female pigs underwent 7.5 F - 12 F ureteroscopy with CTH:YAG laser, CT:YAG laser, high current density and `cold knife' ureterotomy. An IVP and sacrification with explanation of the whole urinary tract was done on day 6 and around day 60. In practice, laser application via the endoscope was easy to handle and exact cutting was always seen. The CT:YAG laser seems to have the best success results with low ureteral stricture recurrence rates. However, its clinical use remains to be proven.

  4. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) laser studies. Volume 1: Laser environmental impact study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1980-01-01

    The environmental impact of space to Earth power transmission using space borne laser subsystems is emphasized. A laser system is defined, estimates of relevant efficiencies for laser power generation and atmospheric transmission are developed, and a comparison is made to a microwave system. Ancillary issues, such as laser beam spreading, safety and security, mass and volume estimates and technology growth are considered.

  5. Potential benefits of magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, Pierce L.; Dress, David A.; Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) to improve conventional wind tunnel testing techniques is discussed. Topics include: elimination of model geometry distortion and support interference to improve the measurement accuracy of aerodynamic coefficients; removal of testing restrictions due to supports; improved dynamic stability data; and stores separation testing. Substantial increases in wind tunnel productivity are anticipated due to the coalescence of these improvements. Specific improvements in testing methods for missiles, helicopters, fighter aircraft, twin fuselage transports and bombers, state separation, water tunnels, and automobiles are also forecast. In a more speculative vein, new wind tunnel test techniques are envisioned as a result of applying MSBS, including free-flight computer trajectories in the test section, pilot-in-the-loop and designer-in-the-loop testing, shipboard missile launch simulation, and optimization of hybrid hypersonic configurations. Also addressed are potential applications of MSBS to such diverse technologies as medical research and practice, industrial robotics, space weaponry, and ore processing in space.

  6. Systemic oxidant/antioxidant balance in human abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Menteşe, Umit; Turan, Ibrahim; Usta, Sefer; Demir, Selim; Koral, Özgür; Öztaş Menteşe, Seda; Çavuşoğlu, Ismail Gökhan; Karahan, Süleyman Caner; Alver, Ahmet; Doğan, Orhan Veli; Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Forty-two consecutive patients with AAA and 46 control subjects were included. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels were measured and the oxidative stress index (OSI) value determined. Serum TOS and OSI values in patients with AAA were higher than those in the controls (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively). There was a positive correlation between abdominal aortic diameters, serum TOS levels (r=0.592, p<0.001) and OSI values (r=0.598, p<0.001). A cut-off value of 17.68 µmol H2O2equivalent/L for TOS was associated with 86% sensitivity and 83% specificity and a cut-off value of 1.77 for OSI was associated with 86% sensitivity and 81% specificity for predicting AAA. Systemic oxidative imbalance develops in patients with AAA, particularly as a result of an increase in TOS. PMID:26228275

  7. X-ray laser system, x-ray laser and method

    DOEpatents

    London, Richard A.; Rosen, Mordecai D.; Strauss, Moshe

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is an x-ray laser system comprising a laser containing generating means for emitting short wave length radiation, and means external to said laser for energizing said generating means, wherein when the laser is in an operative mode emitting radiation, the radiation has a transverse coherence length to width ratio of from about 0.05 to 1. Also disclosed is a method of adjusting the parameters of the laser to achieve the desired coherence length to laser width ratio.

  8. Use of a Laser Videodisc System: Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sarah A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that assessed the attitudes of novice searchers before and after using a laser videodisk system. The discussion covers the relationships between the users' initial attitudes, prior computer experience, and success in using the videodisk system. (11 references) (Author/CLB)

  9. Laser tracking system with automatic reacquisition capability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R E; Weiss, P F

    1968-06-01

    A laser based tracking system is described that has the capability of automatically performing an acquisition search to locate the target. This work is intended for precision launch phase tracking of the Saturn V launch vehicle. System tracking accuracies limited only by the atmosphere have been demonstrated, as has acquisition over a 1 degrees x 1 degrees field of view. PMID:20068746

  10. Fiber laser front end for high energy petawatt laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H; Mitchell, S; Drobshoff, A; Beach, R J; Siders, C; Lucianetti, A; Crane, J K; Barty, C J

    2006-06-15

    We are developing a fiber laser front end suitable for high energy petawatt laser systems on large glass lasers such as NIF. The front end includes generation of the pulses in a fiber mode-locked oscillator, amplification and pulse cleaning, stretching of the pulses to >3ns, dispersion trimming, timing, fiber transport of the pulses to the main laser bay and amplification of the pulses to an injection energy of 150 {micro}J. We will discuss current status of our work including data from packaged components. Design detail such as how the system addresses pulse contrast, dispersion trimming and pulse width adjustment and impact of B-integral on the pulse amplification will be discussed. A schematic of the fiber laser system we are constructing is shown in figure 1 below. A 40MHz packaged mode-locked fiber oscillator produces {approx}1nJ pulses which are phase locked to a 10MHz reference clock. These pulses are down selected to 100kHz and then amplified while still compressed. The amplified compressed pulses are sent through a non-linear polarization rotation based pulse cleaner to remove background amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The pulses are then stretched by a chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) and then sent through a splitter. The splitter splits the signal into two beams. (From this point we follow only one beam as the other follows an identical path.) The pulses are sent through a pulse tweaker that trims dispersion imbalances between the final large optics compressor and the CFBG. The pulse tweaker also permits the dispersion of the system to be adjusted for the purpose of controlling the final pulse width. Fine scale timing between the two beam lines can also be adjusted in the tweaker. A large mode area photonic crystal single polarization fiber is used to transport the pulses from the master oscillator room to the main laser bay. The pulses are then amplified a two stage fiber amplifier to 150mJ. These pulses are then launched into the main amplifier