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Sample records for laser deposited chalcogenide

  1. Photonic bandgap amorphous chalcogenide thin films with multilayered structure grown by pulsed laser deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shao-qian; Němec, Petre; Nazabal, Virginie; Jin, Yu-qi

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous chalcogenide thin films were fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition technique. Thereafter, the stacks of multilayered thin films for reflectors and microcavity were designed for telecommunication wavelength. The prepared multilayered thin films for reflectors show good compatibility. The microcavity structure consists of Ge25Ga5Sb10S65 (doped with Er3+) spacer layer surrounded by two 5-layer As40Se60/Ge25Sb5S70 reflectors. Scanning/transmission electron microscopy results show good periodicity, great adherence and smooth interfaces between the alternating dielectric layers, which confirms a suitable compatibility between different materials. The results demonstrate that the chalcogenides can be used for preparing vertical Bragg reflectors and microcavity with high quality.

  2. Interface control by homoepitaxial growth in pulsed laser deposited iron chalcogenide thin films

    PubMed Central

    Molatta, Sebastian; Haindl, Silvia; Trommler, Sascha; Schulze, Michael; Wurmehl, Sabine; Hühne, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Thin film growth of iron chalcogenides by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is still a delicate issue in terms of simultaneous control of stoichiometry, texture, substrate/film interface properties, and superconducting properties. The high volatility of the constituents sharply limits optimal deposition temperatures to a narrow window and mainly challenges reproducibility for vacuum based methods. In this work we demonstrate the beneficial introduction of a semiconducting FeSe1−xTex seed layer for subsequent homoepitaxial growth of superconducting FeSe1−xTex thin film on MgO substrates. MgO is one of the most favorable substrates used in superconducting thin film applications, but the controlled growth of iron chalcogenide thin films on MgO has not yet been optimized and is the least understood. The large mismatch between the lattice constants of MgO and FeSe1−xTex of about 11% results in thin films with a mixed texture, that prevents further accurate investigations of a correlation between structural and electrical properties of FeSe1−xTex. Here we present an effective way to significantly improve epitaxial growth of superconducting FeSe1−xTex thin films with reproducible high critical temperatures (≥17 K) at reduced deposition temperatures (200 °C–320 °C) on MgO using PLD. This offers a broad scope of various applications. PMID:26548645

  3. Chalcogenide glass microsphere laser.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Gregor R; Murugan, G Senthil; Wilkinson, James S; Zervas, Michalis N; Hewak, Daniel W

    2010-12-01

    Laser action has been demonstrated in chalcogenide glass microsphere. A sub millimeter neodymium-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass sphere was pumped at 808 nm with a laser diode and single and multimode laser action demonstrated at wavelengths between 1075 and 1086 nm. The gallium lanthanum sulphide family of glass offer higher thermal stability compared to other chalcogenide glasses, and this, along with an optimized Q-factor for the microcavity allowed laser action to be achieved. When varying the pump power, changes in the output spectrum suggest nonlinear and/or thermal effects have a strong effect on laser action. PMID:21165022

  4. Atomic layer deposition of quaternary chalcogenides

    DOEpatents

    Thimsen, Elijah J; Riha, Shannon C; Martinson, Alex B.F.; Elam, Jeffrey W; Pellin, Michael J

    2014-06-03

    Methods and systems are provided for synthesis and deposition of chalcogenides (including Cu.sub.2ZnSnS.sub.4). Binary compounds, such as metal sulfides, can be deposited by alternating exposures of the substrate to a metal cation precursor and a chalcogen anion precursor with purge steps between.

  5. Solution synthesis of mixed-metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and spray deposition of precursor films

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A colloidal suspension comprising metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is made by reacting a metal salt with a chalcogenide salt in an organic solvent to precipitate a metal chalcogenide, recovering the metal chalcogenide, and admixing the metal chalcogenide with a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is spray deposited onto a substrate to produce a semiconductor precursor film which is substantially free of impurities.

  6. Laser-power delivery using chalcogenide glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Albert R., Sr.; Hilton, A. R., Jr.; McCord, James; Loretz, Thomas J.

    1997-04-01

    During the last 15 years, numerous programs have been carried out in the U.S., UK, France, Japan, Israel and Russia aimed at providing a flexible chalcogenide glass fiber suited for delivery of power from a carbon dioxide laser emitting at 10.6 micrometer. The success of these programs has been modest at best with output power limited to 10 watts or less. The purpose of this paper is to examine chalcogenide glasses used for fiber from a thermal lensing standpoint.

  7. Mode-locked fiber laser based on chalcogenide microwires.

    PubMed

    Al-Kadry, Alaa; El Amraoui, Mohammed; Messaddeq, Younès; Rochette, Martin

    2015-09-15

    We report the first mode-locked fiber laser using a chalcogenide microwire as the nonlinear medium. The laser is passively mode-locked with nonlinear polarization rotation and can be adjusted for the emission of solitons or noise-like pulses. The use of the microwire leads to a mode-locking threshold at the microwatt level and shortens the cavity length by 4 orders of magnitude with respect to other lasers of its kind. The controlled birefringence of the microwire, combined with a linear polarizer in the cavity, enables multiwavelength laser operation with tunable central wavelength, switchable wavelength separation, and a variable number of laser wavelengths. PMID:26371923

  8. Laser annealing and defect study of chalcogenide photovoltaic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Ashish

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe), CuZnSn(S,Se)4(CZTSSe), etc., are the potential chalcogenide semiconductors being investigated for next-generation thin film photovoltaics (TFPV). While the champion cell efficiency of CIGSe has exceeded 20%, CZTSSe has crossed the 10% mark. This work investigates the effect of laser annealing on CISe films, and compares the electrical characteristics of CIGSe (chalcopyrite) and CZTSe (kesterite) solar cells. Chapter 1 through 3 provide a background on semiconductors and TFPV, properties of chalcopyrite and kesterite materials, and their characterization using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS). Chapter 4 investigates electrochemical deposition (nonvacuum synthesis) of CISe followed by continuous wave laser annealing (CWLA) using a 1064 nm laser. It is found that CWLA at ≈ 50 W/cm2 results in structural changes without melting and dewetting of the films. While Cu-poor samples show about 40% reduction in the full width at half maximum of the respective x-ray diffraction peaks, identically treated Cu-rich samples register more than 80% reduction. This study demonstrates that an entirely solid-phase laser annealing path exists for chalcopyrite phase formation and crystallization. Chapter 5 investigates the changes in defect populations after pulse laser annealing in submelting regime of electrochemically deposited and furnace annealed CISe films. DLTS on Schottky diodes reveal that the ionization energy of the dominant majority carrier defect state changes nonmonotonically from 215+/-10 meV for the reference sample, to 330+/-10 meV for samples irradiated at 20 and 30 mJ/cm2, and then back to 215+/-10 meV for samples irradiated at 40 mJ/cm2. A hypothesis involving competing processes of diffusion of Cu and laser-induced generation of In vacancies may explain this behavior. Chapter 6 compares the electrical characteristics of chalcopyrite and kesterite materials. Experiments reveal CZTSe cell has an

  9. Spectral diagnostics of laser erosion plasma of mercury chalcogenide targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlyarchuk, B. K.; Popovych, D. I.; Savchuk, V. K.; Savitsky, V. G.

    1995-11-01

    The article sets out to investigate spatial-time and spectral characteristics of laser erosive vapor-plasma torch (EVT), formed at the vaporization of mercury chalcogenines targets. Its influence on the synthesis processes of HgTe and CdHgTe layers, condensed in mercury vapor, is described. It is shown that the laser radiation flux density and Hg vapor pressure in the reaction chamber are dominating factors which determine the character of gas-dynamic spread and EVT composition of mercury chalcogenides targets.

  10. Ultrafast laser fabrication of Bragg waveguides in chalcogenide glass.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Ben; Li, Mingshan; Huang, Sheng; Zhang, Botao; Chen, Kevin P

    2014-06-15

    Bragg waveguides are fundamental components in photonic integrated circuits and are particularly interesting for mid-IR applications in high index, highly nonlinear materials. In this work, we present Bragg waveguides fabricated in bulk chalcogenide glass using an ultrafast laser. Waveguides with near circularly symmetric cross sections and low propagation loss are obtained through spatial and temporal beam shaping. Using a single-pass technique, the waveguide and Bragg structure are formed at the same time. First through sixth order gratings with strengths of up to 25 dB are realized, and performance is evaluated based on the modulation duty cycle of the writing beam. PMID:24978541

  11. Supercontinuum generation in an ultrafast laser inscribed chalcogenide glass waveguide.

    PubMed

    Psaila, Nicholas D; Thomson, Robert R; Bookey, Henry T; Shen, Shaoxiong; Chiodo, Nicola; Osellame, Roberto; Cerullo, Giulio; Jha, Animesh; Kar, Ajoy K

    2007-11-26

    The authors report supercontinuum generation in an ultrafast laser inscribed chalcogenide glass waveguide. The waveguides were fabricated using a Yb:glass cavity-dumped femtosecond oscillator with 600- kHz repetition rate. The waveguides were pumped using an optical parametric amplifier tuned to 1500 nm with a bandwidth of 100 nm. The broadest resulting supercontinuum spanned 600 nm (at -15 dB points) from 1320 to 1920 nm. The supercontinuum was generated in the normal dispersion regime, enhancing stability, and exhibits a smooth spectral shape. PMID:19550862

  12. Lead-strontium-chalcogenide diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, D.L.

    1988-01-26

    A large optical cavity quantum well double heterojunction semiconductor infrared diode laser is described having an active region layer sandwiched between two contiguous layers of monocrystalline semiconductive material. The laser exhibits current carrier and optical confinement for its active region layer but also exhibits increased operating temperature due to close lattice matching of face centered cubic monocrystalline layers forming the double heterojunctions. The laser comprises a monocrystalline buffer layer of a given conductivity type lead salt semiconductor containing strontium, selenium that has an energy band gap greater than, an index of refraction lesser than, and a lattice constant substantially equal to predetermined values of the active region layer, a monocrystalline active region layer on the buffer layer of a lead salt semiconductor containing a pn junction that has the predetermined energy and gap, index of refraction and lattice constant, and a confinement layer on the active region layer an opposite conductivity type lead salt semiconductor containing lesser amounts and smaller proportions of strontium and selenium that has an energy band gap greater than, an index of refraction smaller than, and a lattice constant substantially equal to the predetermined values.

  13. Chalcogenide fiber for mid-infrared transmission and generation of laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenard, Francois; Kuis, Robinson A.

    2010-04-01

    Chalcogenide glass fibers are the best candidates for mid-infrared transmission. Their low optical losses and high-power damage threshold are enabling numerous applications: laser power delivery, chemical sensing and imaging. Furthermore, chalcogenide glass fibers are best candidates for demonstrating rare-earth doped fiber lasers and supercontinuum sources in the mid-infrared. The latest results towards the creation of a 4.5 micron fiber laser and a broadband (2-5 micron) supercontinuum source are presented.

  14. Deposition head for laser

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  15. Laser assisted deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of laser-based processing techniques to solar cell metallization are discussed. Laser-assisted thermal or photolytic maskless deposition from organometallic vapors or solutions may provide a viable alternative to photovoltaic metallization systems currently in use. High power, defocused excimer lasers may be used in conjunction with masks as an alternative to direct laser writing to provide higher throughput. Repeated pulsing with excimer lasers may eliminate the need for secondary plating techniques for metal film buildup. A comparison between the thermal and photochemical deposition processes is made.

  16. Low-phonon-frequency chalcogenide crystalline hosts for rare earth lasers operating beyond three microns

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Nostrand, Michael C.; Krupke, William F.; Schunemann, Peter G.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a RE-doped MA.sub.2 X.sub.4 crystalline gain medium, where M includes a divalent ion such as Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb, Eu, or Yb; A is selected from trivalent ions including Al, Ga, and In; X is one of the chalcogenide ions S, Se, and Te; and RE represents the trivalent rare earth ions. The MA.sub.2 X.sub.4 gain medium can be employed in a laser oscillator or a laser amplifier. Possible pump sources include diode lasers, as well as other laser pump sources. The laser wavelengths generated are greater than 3 microns, as becomes possible because of the low phonon frequency of this host medium. The invention may be used to seed optical devices such as optical parametric oscillators and other lasers.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of micro-structures created by direct laser writing in multi-layered chalcogenide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Casey M.; Grabill, Chris N.; Gleason, Benn; Richardson, Gerald D.; Lewis, Anna M.; Vyas, Aadit; Rivero-Baleine, Clara; Richardson, Kathleen A.; Pogrebnyakov, Alexej; Mayer, Theresa S.; Kuebler, Stephen M.

    2015-03-01

    Arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) is a chalcogenide (ChG) material with excellent infrared (IR) transparency (620 nm to 11 μm), low phonon energies, and large nonlinear refractive indices. These properties directly relate to commercial and industrial applications including sensors, photonic waveguides, and acousto-optics. Multi-photon exposure can be used to photopattern thermally deposited As2S3 ChG glassy films of molecular clusters. Immersing the photo-patterned cross-linked material into a polar-solvent removes the unexposed material leaving behind a structure that is a negative-tone replica of the photo-pattern. Nano-structure arrays that were photo-patterned in single-layered As2S3 films through multi-photon direct laser writing (DLW) resulted in the production of nano-beads as a consequence of a standing wave effect. To overcome this effect, an anti-reflective (AR) layer of arsenic triselenide (As2Se3) was thermally deposited between the silicon substrate and the As2S3 layer, creating a multi-layered film. The chemical composition of the unexposed and photo-exposed multi-layered film was examined through Raman spectroscopy. Nano-structure arrays were photopatterned in the multi-layered film and the resulting structure, morphology, and chemical composition were characterized, compared to results from the single-layered film, and correlated with the conditions of the thermal deposition, patterned irradiation, and etch processing.

  18. Laser induced structural transformation in chalcogenide based superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zallo, Eugenio; Wang, Ruining; Bragaglia, Valeria; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-05-01

    Superlattices made of alternating layers of nominal GeTe and Sb2Te3 have been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. A structural irreversible transformation into ordered GeSbTe alloy is induced by high power laser light exposure. The intensity ratio of anti-Stokes and Stokes scattering under laser illumination gives a maximum average temperature in the sample of 177 °C. The latter is lower than the growth temperature and of 400 °C necessary by annealing to transform the structure in a GeSbTe alloy. The absence of this configuration after in situ annealing even up to 300 °C evidences an electronic excitation induced-transition which brings the system into a different and stable crystalline state.

  19. Electrospray deposition of chalcogenide glass films for gradient refractive index and quantum dot incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Spencer

    Chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) are well-known for their optical properties, making them ideal candidates for emerging applications of mid-infrared microphotonic devices, such as lab-on-a-chip chemical sensing devices, which currently demand additional flexibility in processing and materials available to realize new device designs. Solution-derived processing of ChG films, initially developed in the 1980s by Chern and Lauks, has consisted mainly of spin-coating and offers unique advantages over the more traditional physical vapor deposition techniques. In the present effort, the nanoparticles of interest are luminescent quantum dots (QDs), which can be used as an on-chip source of light for a planar chemical sensing device. Prior efforts of QD incorporation have exposed limitations of spin-coating of ChG solutions, namely QD aggregation and material waste, along with incompatibility with larger scale manufacturing methods such roll-to-roll processing. This dissertation has evaluated electrospray (ES) as an alternative method of solution-derived chalcogenide glass film deposition. While employed in other materials systems, deposition of optical quality ChG films via electrospray has not been previously attempted, nor have parameters until now, been defined. This study has defined pre-cursor solution chemistry, electrospray jet process parameters required for formation of stable films, annealing protocols and resulting film attributes, yielding important correlations needed to realize high optical quality films. Electrosprayed films attributes were compared to those seen for spin coating and trade-offs in processing route and resulting quality, were identified. Optical properties of importance to device applications were defined, including surface roughness, refractive index, and infrared transmission. The use of a serpentine path of the spray over the substrate was demonstrated to obtain uniform thickness, blanket films, and demonstrates process compatibility with roll

  20. Organometallic single source precursors for chemical vapor deposition of metal chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidler, Dean Jerry

    The group 14--16 compounds with the general formula (Bn2SnE)3, (Bn3Sn)2E, and Bn 2Sn(EBn)2, where E = S or Se, were synthesized and investigated as potential single-source precursors for the preparation of tin chalcogenides. Each precursor was pyrolyzed under an inert atmosphere. Decomposition took place at relatively mild conditions (<400°C). The cyclic molecules, (Bn2SnS)3 and (Bn2SnSe)3, produced tin sulfide and tin selenide, respectively. The samples were XRD phase pure, and combustion analysis indicated less than 1% carbon present in the final product. The acyclic precursors, (Bn3Sn)2S and (Bn 3Sn)2Se, yielded a mixture of the tin chalcogenide and elemental tin with carbon content <1%. The pyrolysis of Bn2Sn(SBn) 2 and Bn2Sn(SeBn)2 produced SnS2 and SnSe2, respectively, with carbon contamination <3%. The only volatile by-product detected from the pyrolysis of these compounds was bibenzyl, indicating all of the tin and chalcogen were left behind in the solid state product. Solid solutions could be generated by combining (Bn 2SnS)3 and (Bn2SnSe)3, and pyrolyzing the mixture. Combinations of Bn2Sn(SBn)2 and Bn 2Sn(SeBn)2 yielded products with some solid solution character; however, some phase separation was indicated in the XRD patterns. Bn3SnSBn and (tert-Bu2SnS)2 were pyrolyzed to produce bulk samples of SnS and also used as single-source precursors for the chemical vapor deposition of thin films of SnS on glass and halite substrates. The composition and morphology of the products, both as bulk materials and thin films, were influenced by the structure of the organometallic precursor, the nature of the leaving group attached to the metal (or chalcogen), and the nature of the film substrate.

  1. Electrospray Deposition of Uniform Thickness Ge23Sb7S70 and As40S60 Chalcogenide Glass Films.

    PubMed

    Novak, Spencer; Lin, Pao-Tai; Li, Cheng; Borodinov, Nikolay; Han, Zhaohong; Monmeyran, Corentin; Patel, Neil; Du, Qingyang; Malinowski, Marcin; Fathpour, Sasan; Lumdee, Chatdanai; Xu, Chi; Kik, Pieter G; Deng, Weiwei; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anuradha; Luzinov, Igor; Richardson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Solution-based electrospray film deposition, which is compatible with continuous, roll-to-roll processing, is applied to chalcogenide glasses. Two chalcogenide compositions are demonstrated: Ge23Sb7S70 and As40S60, which have both been studied extensively for planar mid-infrared (mid-IR) microphotonic devices. In this approach, uniform thickness films are fabricated through the use of computer numerical controlled (CNC) motion. Chalcogenide glass (ChG) is written over the substrate by a single nozzle along a serpentine path. Films were subjected to a series of heat treatments between 100 °C and 200 °C under vacuum to drive off residual solvent and densify the films. Based on transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and surface roughness measurements, both compositions were found to be suitable for the fabrication of planar devices operating in the mid-IR region. Residual solvent removal was found to be much quicker for the As40S60 film as compared to Ge23Sb7S70. Based on the advantages of electrospray, direct printing of a gradient refractive index (GRIN) mid-IR transparent coating is envisioned, given the difference in refractive index of the two compositions in this study. PMID:27583775

  2. Dy{sup 3+}-doped Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glasses for mid-infrared lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Mingjie; Yang, Anping; Peng, Yuefeng; Zhang, Bin; Ren, He; Guo, Wei; Yang, Yan; Zhai, Chengcheng; Wang, Yuwei; Yang, Zhiyong; Tang, Dingyuan

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Novel Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glasses doped with Dy{sup 3+} ions were synthesized. • The glasses show good thermal stability and excellent infrared transparency. • The glasses show low phonon energy and intense mid-infrared emissions. • The mid-infrared emissions have high quantum efficiency. • The mid-infrared emissions have large stimulated emission cross sections. - Abstract: Novel Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glasses doped with different amount of Dy{sup 3+} ions were prepared. Their thermal stability, optical properties, and mid-infrared (MIR) emission properties were investigated. The glasses show good thermal stability, excellent infrared transparency, very low phonon energy (∼306 cm{sup −1}), and intense emissions centered at 2.95, 3.59, 4.17 and 4.40 μm. Three Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω{sub 2} = 8.51 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}, Ω{sub 4} = 2.09 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}, and Ω{sub 6} = 1.60 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}) are obtained, and the related radiative transition properties are evaluated. The high quantum efficiencies and large stimulated emission cross sections of the MIR emissions (88.10% and 1.11 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} for 2.95 μm emission, 75.90% and 0.38 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} for 4.40 μm emission, respectively) in the Dy{sup 3+}-doped Ga–Sb–S glasses make them promising gain materials for the MIR lasers.

  3. Nanostructured Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} chalcogenide films produced by laser electrodispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Yavsin, D. A. Kozhevin, V. M.; Gurevich, S. A.; Yakovlev, S. A.; Melekh, B. T.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Pevtsov, A. B.

    2014-12-15

    Amorphous nanostructured films of a complex chalcogenide (Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}) are produced by laser electrodispersion and their structural and electrical properties are studied. It is found that the characteristic size of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} nanoparticles in the structure of the films is 1.5–5 nm.

  4. Photosensitivity study of GeS2 chalcogenide glass under femtosecond laser pulses irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayiriveetil, Arunbabu; Sabapathy, Tamilarasan; Kar, Ajoy K.; Asokan, Sundarrajan

    2015-07-01

    The present study discusses the photosensitivity of GeS2 chalcogenide glass in response to irradiation with femtosecond pulses at 1047 nm. Bulk GeS2 glasses are prepared by conventional melt quenching technique and the amorphous nature of the glass is confirmed using X-ray diffraction. Ultrafast laser inscription technique is used to fabricate the straight channel waveguides in the glass. Single scan and multi scan waveguides are inscribed in GeS2 glasses of length 0.65 cm using a master oscillator power amplifier Yb doped fiber laser (IMRA μjewel D400) with different pulse energy and translation speed. Diameters of the inscribed waveguides are measured and its dependence on the inscription parameters such as translation speed and pulse energy is studied. Butt coupling method is used to characterize the loss measurement of the inscribed optical waveguides. The mode field image of the waveguides is captured using CCD camera and compared with the mode field image of a standard SMF-28 fibers.

  5. Pulsed laser deposition: Prospects for commercial deposition of epitaxial films

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, R.E.

    1999-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique for the deposition of thin films. The vapor source is induced by the flash evaporation that occurs when a laser pulse of sufficient intensity (about 100 MW/cm{sup 2}) is absorbed by a target. In this paper the author briefly defines pulsed laser deposition, current applications, research directed at gaining a better understanding of the pulsed laser deposition process, and suggests some future directions to enable commercial applications.

  6. Solution-processing of chalcogenide materials for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Yunlai

    Chalcogenide glasses are well-known for their desirable optical properties, which have enabled many infrared applications in the fields of photonics, medicine, environmental sensing and security. Conventional deposition methods such as thermal evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, sputtering or pulse laser deposition are efficient for fabricating structures on flat surfaces. However, they have limitations in deposition on curved surfaces, deposition of thick layers and component integration. In these cases, solution-based methods, which involve the dissolution of chalcogenide glasses and processing as a liquid, become a better choice for their flexibility. After proper treatment, the associated structures can have similar optical, chemical and physical properties to the bulk. This thesis presents an in-depth study of solution-processing chalcogenide glasses, starting from the "solution state" to the "film state" and the "structure state". Firstly, chalcogenide dissolution is studied to reveal the mechanisms at molecular level and build a foundation for material processing. Dissolution processes for various chalcogenide solvent pairs are reviewed and compared. Secondly, thermal processing, in the context of high temperature annealing, is explained along with the chemical and physical properties of the annealed films. Another focus is on nanopore formation in propylamine-processed arsenic sulfide films. Pore density changes with respect to annealing temperatures and durations are characterized. Base on a proposed vacancy coalescence theory, we have identified new dissolution strategies and achieved the breakthrough of pore-free film deposition. Thirdly, several solution methods developed along with the associated photonic structures are demonstrated. The first example is "spin-coating and lamination", which produces thick (over 10 mum) chalcogenide structures. Both homogeneous thick chalcogenide structures and heterogeneous layers of different chalcogenide glasses

  7. High power broadband mid-infrared supercontinuum fiber laser using a novel chalcogenide AsSe2 photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diouf, Mbaye; Ben Salem, Amine; Cherif, Rim; Wague, Ahmadou; Zghal, Mourad

    2016-05-01

    A high power supercontinuum (SC) based on a new type of chalcogenide AsSe2 material for broadband mid-infrared light source is numerically reported. Ultra-broadband coherent mid-IR SC generation with more than 3 octave-spanning from 1.7 to 14 μm in a novel design of chalcogenide AsSe2 photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge and aiming to properly model the nonlinear propagation, an accurate fit of the Raman response function and the corresponding Raman gain of the novel AsSe2 chalcogenide glass are proposed numerically for the first time. The obtained SC is generated by pumping at 3.9 μm in the anomalous dispersion regime in only 8 mm long fiber. Our study shows that the initially generated SC from 150 fs pulse duration with 8.8 kW peak power exhibits high power proportion of more than 80% for wavelengths beyond 3 μm which is very promising for designing high power SC fiber laser sources in the mid-IR atmospheric windows and the molecular fingerprint region.

  8. In situ photo-assisted deposition and photocatalysis of ZnIn2S4/transition metal chalcogenides for enhanced degradation and hydrogen evolution under visible light.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Yang; Hong, Minghui; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2016-01-14

    The effective immobilization of a transition chalcogenide co-catalyst via an in situ aqueous photo-assisted deposition technique has shown great accessibility to complex ZnIn2S4 host hierarchical nanostructured materials with homogeneous distribution. The complementary photo-assisted deposition readily deposits finely-dispersed co-catalyst particles and simultaneously generates photocatalytic hydrogen. Another added advantage is that the photo-assisted deposition of the co-catalyst does not compromise the crystal structure or the integrity of the host photocatalyst, hence offering a better alternative to the doping technique. A systematic study of various transition metal chalcogenide co-catalysts and optimization of wt% MoS2, CuS and Ag2S loadings were demonstrated. Among them, the ZnIn2S4/MoS2 composite exhibits exceptional photocatalytic hydrogen production and stability as well as superior MO degradation under visible light irradiation. The present methodology is expected to be extendable to various transition metal oxides/chalcogenides since ionic derivatives exhibit high affinity to a variety of materials under photoirradiation. PMID:26605503

  9. Recent progress in pulsed laser deposition of iron based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haindl, Silvia; Molatta, Sebastian; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Hosono, Hideo

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is the most commonly used deposition technique for Fe-based superconductor thin films today. The number of grown compounds using PLD is still quite limited to so-called 11 compounds (FeTe x S y , FeSe1‑x Te x ) and 122 compounds (primarily Co- and P-substituted BaFe2As2). Especially in the growth of Fe-chalcogenides, PLD is challenged by the strong volatility of the elements and their non-negligible vapour pressure. In addition, in situ PLD of the high-temperature superconducting F-doped iron oxypnictides seemed to be feasible only under reactive deposition and stayed disregarded for some time. Here, we summarise the progress that was recently made in the growth of Fe-based superconducting thin films towards an improved control of thin film stoichiometry and the in situ growth of F-doped iron oxypnictides. The presented new ideas deviate from the standard approach of an adjustment of target composition. We first focus on the growth of FeSe1‑x Te x films, where the introduction of a buffer layer of same composition decreased surface roughness and allowed epitaxial film growth at reduced deposition temperatures with enhanced reproducibility. Second, we illustrate how F-doping in iron oxypnictide thin films can be obtained during in situ PLD using a diffusive reaction between substrate and the growing film.

  10. The effects of porosity on optical properties of semiconductor chalcogenide films obtained by the chemical bath deposition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to study the thin polycrystalline films of semiconductor chalcogenide materials (CdS, CdSe, and PbS) obtained by ammonia-free chemical bath deposition. The obtained material is of polycrystalline nature with crystallite of a size that, from a general point of view, should not result in any noticeable quantum confinement. Nevertheless, we were able to observe blueshift of the fundamental absorption edge and reduced refractive index in comparison with the corresponding bulk materials. Both effects are attributed to the material porosity which is a typical feature of chemical bath deposition technique. The blueshift is caused by quantum confinement in pores, whereas the refractive index variation is the evident result of the density reduction. Quantum mechanical description of the nanopores in semiconductor is given based on the application of even mirror boundary conditions for the solution of the Schrödinger equation; the results of calculations give a reasonable explanation of the experimental data. PMID:22931255

  11. Fabrication of ultrafast laser written low-loss waveguides in flexible As₂S₃ chalcogenide glass tape.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Jerome; Ledemi, Yannick; Loranger, Sébastien; Iezzi, Victor Lambin; Soares de Lima Filho, Elton; Parent, Francois; Morency, Steeve; Messaddeq, Younes; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-01-15

    As2S3 glass has a unique combination of optical properties, such as wide transparency in the infrared region and a high nonlinear coefficient. Recently, intense research has been conducted to improve photonic devices using thin materials. In this Letter, highly uniform rectangular single-index and 2 dB/m loss step-index optical tapes have been drawn by the crucible technique. Low-loss (<0.15  dB/cm) single-mode waveguides in chalcogenide glass tapes have been fabricated using femtosecond laser writing. Optical backscatter reflectometry has been used to study the origin of the optical losses. A detailed study of the laser writing process in thin glass is also presented to facilitate a repeatable waveguide inscription recipe. PMID:26766674

  12. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  13. Chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.C.

    1987-08-15

    Although there are some significant exceptions, most important glass-forming systems contain elements from the sixth, or chalcogenide, column of the periodic table (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium). The glasses that contain oxygen are typically insulators, while those that contain the heavier chalcogen elements are usually semiconductors. Even though oxygen is technically a chalcogen element, the term chalcogenide glass is commonly used to denote those largely covalent, semiconducting glasses contain sulfur, selenium, or tellurium as one of the constituents.

  14. Laser Induced Chemical Liquid Phase Deposition (LCLD)

    SciTech Connect

    Nanai, Laszlo; Balint, Agneta M.

    2012-08-17

    Laser induced chemical deposition (LCLD) of metals onto different substrates attracts growing attention during the last decade. Deposition of metals onto the surface of dielectrics and semiconductors with help of laser beam allows the creation of conducting metal of very complex architecture even in 3D. In the processes examined the deposition occurs from solutions containing metal ions and reducing agents. The deposition happens in the region of surface irradiated by laser beam (micro reactors). Physics -chemical reactions driven by laser beam will be discussed for different metal-substrate systems. The electrical, optical, mechanical properties of created interfaces will be demonstrated also including some practical-industrial applications.

  15. Chalcogenide coatings of Ge15Sb20S65 and Te20As30Se50.

    PubMed

    Nazabal, Virginie; Cathelinaud, Michel; Shen, Weidong; Nemec, Petr; Charpentier, Frédéric; Lhermite, Hervé; Anne, Marie-Laure; Capoulade, Jérémie; Grasset, Fabien; Moreac, Alain; Inoue, Satoru; Frumar, Miloslav; Adam, Jean-Luc; Lequime, Michel; Amra, Claude

    2008-05-01

    Chalcogenide coatings are investigated to obtain either optical components for spectral applications or optochemical sensors in the mid-infrared. The deposition of Ge(15)Sb(20)S(65) and Te(20)As(30)Se(50) chalcogenide glasses is performed by two physical techniques: electron-beam and pulsed-laser deposition. The quality of the film is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy to characterize the morphology, topography, and chemical composition. The optical properties and optical constants are also determined. A CF(4) dry etching is performed on these films to obtain a channeled optical waveguide. For a passband filter made by electron-beam deposition, cryolite as a low-refractive-index material and chalcogenide glasses as high-refractive-index materials are used to favor a large refractive-index contrast. A shift of a centered wavelength of a photosensitive passband filter is controlled by illumination time. PMID:18449231

  16. Feedback control of pulsed laser deposition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, S. J. P.; Stark, E. F.

    1993-10-01

    Implementation of closed loop feedback on PLD (pulsed laser deposition) requires actuators and sensors. Improvements in quality and reproducibility of material depositions are achieved by actuating the process towards desired operating regions. Empirical relationships are experimentally determined for describing the complex dynamical interactions of laser parameters. Feedback control based on this description can then be implemented to reduce process disorder.

  17. Low-loss, robust fusion splicing of silica to chalcogenide fiber for integrated mid-infrared laser technology development.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Rajesh; Gattass, Rafael R; Nguyen, Vinh; Chin, Geoff; Gibson, Dan; Kim, Woohong; Shaw, L Brandon; Sanghera, Jasbinder S

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate a low-loss, repeatable, and robust splice between single-mode silica fiber and single-mode chalcogenide (CHG) fiber. These splices are particularly difficult to create because of the significant difference in the two fibers' glass transition temperatures (∼1000°C) as well as the large difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the fibers (∼20×10(-6)/°C). With 90% light coupled through the silica-CHG fiber splice, predominantly in the fundamental circular-symmetric mode, into the core of the CHG fiber and with 0.5 dB of splice loss measured around the wavelength of 2.5 μm, after correcting only for the Fresnel loss, the silica-CHG splice offers excellent beam quality and coupling efficiency. The tensile strength of the splice is greater than 12 kpsi, and the laser damage threshold is greater than 2 W (CW) and was limited by the available laser pump power. We also utilized this splicing technique to demonstrate 2 to 4.5 μm ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation in a monolithic all-fiber system comprising a CHG fiber and a high peak power 2 μm pulsed Raman-shifted thulium fiber laser. This is a major development toward compact form factor commercial applications of soft-glass mid-IR fibers. PMID:26512522

  18. Laser induced optical bleaching in Ge12Sb25S63 chalcogenide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Ramakanta; Jena, S.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2015-06-01

    Photo induced effects of Ge12Sb25S63 films illuminated with 532 nm laser light is investigated from transmission spectra measured by FTIR spectroscopy. The material exhibit photo bleaching (PB) when exposed to band gap laser for a prolonged time in vacuum. The PB is ascribed to structural changes inside the film as well as surface photo oxidation. The amorphous nature of thin films was detected by X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition of the deposited thin films was examined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). The refractive indices of the films were obtained from the transmission spectra based on inverse synthesis method, and the optical band gaps were derived from optical absorption spectra using the Tauc plot. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico model. It was found that, the mechanism of the optical absorption follows the rule of the allowed non-direct transition. Raman spectra analysis also supports the optical changes.

  19. Giant photocontraction effects in obliquely-deposited chalcogenide glass thin-films*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, M.; Boolchand, P.; Rajagopalan, T.; Chopra, K. L.

    2006-03-01

    GexSe1-x thin-films at several obliqueness angles α (= 0, 20, 45, 60, 80) and compositions x ( = 0.15, 0.20, 0.23, 0.25 and 0.33) were vapor-deposited, and examined in Raman scattering and SEM measurements both in the pristine and illuminated state. The films, placed in an inert ambient, were exposed to Hg lamp radiation, and photo-contraction of the films established using a profilometer. Raman scattering of the pristine and exposed films were studied as a function of depth using a confocal microscope attachment. Our results show (i) Raman scattering of the normally deposited (α = 0) films in the pristine state are similar to those of corresponding bulk glasses, (ii) obliquely deposited films at x = 1/3 reveal Raman lineshapes that change qualitatively with α, suggestive of nanoscale phase separation of the films, while those at x = 0.23 show Raman lineshapes that are largely independent of α, (iii) the photocontraction effect maximizes in the 0.20< x < 0.25 range, confirming the earlier finding (ref1) (iv) light illumination partially undoes effects associated with nanoscale phase separation. Possible interpretation of these results in relation to origin of photocontraction effects will be presented. *Supported by NSF grant DMR 04-56472. 1.Bhanwar Singh, S. Rajagopalan, P. K. Bhat, D. K. Pandya and K. L. Chopra, Solid State Communications, Vol. 29, pp. 167-169 (1979)

  20. Simulation of an erbium-doped chalcogenide micro-disk mid-infrared laser source.

    PubMed

    Al Tal, Faleh; Dimas, Clara; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel C

    2011-06-20

    The feasibility of mid-infrared (MIR) lasing in erbium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide (GLS) micro-disks was examined. Lasing condition at 4.5 µm signal using 800 nm pump source was simulated using rate equations, mode propagation and transfer matrix formulation. Cavity quality (Q) factors of 1.48 × 10(4) and 1.53 × 10(6) were assumed at the pump and signal wavelengths, respectively, based on state-of-the-art chalcogenide micro-disk resonator parameters. With an 80 µm disk diameter and an active erbium concentration of 2.8 × 10(20) cm(-3), lasing was shown to be possible with a maximum slope efficiency of 1.26 × 10(-4) and associated pump threshold of 0.5 mW. PMID:21716429

  1. Planar chalcogenide glass waveguides for IR evanescent wave sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Ganjoo, Ashtosh; Jain, H.; Yu, C.; Song, R.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Irudayaraj, Chanda J.; Ding, Y. J.; Pantano, C. G.

    2006-03-20

    Multi-layered chalcogenide glass waveguide structures have been fabricated for evanescent wave sensing of bio-toxins and other sensor applications. Thin films of Ge containing chalcogenides have been deposited onto Si substrates, with a-GeSe2 as the lower cladding layer and a-GeSbSe as the core layer, to form the slab waveguide. The absence of a defined upper cladding layer enhances the leakage necessary to sense the target molecules. Modal refractive index is estimated from the m-lines. It is shown that photo-induced structural changes by 808 nm laser light in the core layer selectively enhance refractive index in the exposed regions, and thus provide a convenient method to form channel waveguides. A thin layer of Au has been deposited on top of the core layer for the attachment of linker molecules for biosensor application; ATR confirms this.

  2. Nonequilibrium Interlayer Transport in Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Eres, Gyula; Larson, Ben C; Rouleau, Christopher M; Zschack, P.; Lowndes, Douglas H

    2006-01-01

    We use time-resolved surface x-ray diffraction measurements with microsecond range resolution to study the growth kinetics of pulsed laser deposited SrTiO3. Time-dependent surface coverages corresponding to single laser shots were determined directly from crystal truncation rod intensity transients. Analysis of surface coverage evolution shows that extremely fast nonequilibrium interlayer transport, which occurs concurrently with the arrival of the laser plume, dominates the deposition process. A much smaller fraction of material, which is governed by the dwell time between successive laser shots, is transferred by slow, thermally driven interlayer transport processes.

  3. Combinatorial Chemical Bath Deposition of CdS Contacts for Chalcogenide Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Baranowski, Lauryn L; de Souza Lucas, Francisco W; Siol, Sebastian; van Hest, Maikel F A M; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bhargava, Parag; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-09-12

    Contact layers play an important role in thin film solar cells, but new material development and optimization of its thickness is usually a long and tedious process. A high-throughput experimental approach has been used to accelerate the rate of research in photovoltaic (PV) light absorbers and transparent conductive electrodes, however the combinatorial research on contact layers is less common. Here, we report on the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS thin films by combinatorial dip coating technique and apply these contact layers to Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) light absorbers in PV devices. Combinatorial thickness steps of CdS thin films were achieved by removal of the substrate from the chemical bath, at regular intervals of time, and in equal distance increments. The trends in the photoconversion efficiency and in the spectral response of the PV devices as a function of thickness of CdS contacts were explained with the help of optical and morphological characterization of the CdS thin films. The maximum PV efficiency achieved for the combinatorial dip-coating CBD was similar to that for the PV devices processed using conventional CBD. The results of this study lead to the conclusion that combinatorial dip-coating can be used to accelerate the optimization of PV device performance of CdS and other candidate contact layers for a wide range of emerging absorbers. PMID:27479495

  4. Advanced manufacturing methods for chalcogenide molded optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogburn, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    As Chalcogenide glass and Precision Molded Optics (PMO) have developed and matured to a point of being accepted as replacements for Germanium Single Point Diamond Turned (SPDT) optics; technological research is being dedicated to developing infrared PMO that can be used in a broader application base. These include laser arrays, large aperture molded chalcogenide optics, and molded in mount infrared optics. This paper presents applications for infrared laser arrays and the corresponding optics that must be closely mechanically mounted to avoid clipping the beams. Different molding and mounting techniques will be discussed to solve this issue which include; dicing chalcogenide optic lenses, molded in mount chalcogenide optics and stepped optic shape molding for mounting purposes. Accompanying the research and discussion of these techniques will be experiments and molded chalcogenide glass lenses showing the results and application for each lens type.

  5. Ferroelectric thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, Raluca; Vrejoiu, I.; Verardi, P.; Craciun, F.; Dinescu, Maria

    2001-06-01

    Influence of substrate and electrode on the properties of PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition technique (1060 nm wavelength Nd:YAG laser light, 10 ns pulse duration, 10 Hz repetition rate, 0.35 J/pulse, 25 J/cm2 laser fluence, deposition rate about 1 angstrom/pulse) was studied. The substrate temperatures were in the range 380 degree(s)C-400 degree(s)C. Oriented crystalline PZT layers with 1-3 micrometers thickness were deposited on glass substrates plated with Au/Pt/NiCr electrodes, from a PZT commercial target in oxygen reactive atmosphere. The deposited PZT films with perovskite structure were preferentially oriented along the (111) direction as revealed from XRD spectra. Piezoelectric d33 coefficients up to 30 pC/N were obtained on as deposited films. Ferroelectric hysteresis loops at 100 Hz revealed a remanent polarization of 15 (mu) C/cm2 and a coercive field of 100 kV/cm. A comparison with properties of PZT films deposited using a KrF laser and with SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) films is reported.

  6. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Hydrazine-Free Solution-Deposited CuIn(S,Se)2 Solar Cells by Spray Deposition of Metal Chalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Arnou, Panagiota; van Hest, Maikel F A M; Cooper, Carl S; Malkov, Andrei V; Walls, John M; Bowers, Jake W

    2016-05-18

    Solution processing of semiconductors, such as CuInSe2 and its alloys (CIGS), can significantly reduce the manufacturing costs of thin film solar cells. Despite the recent success of solution deposition approaches for CIGS, toxic reagents such as hydrazine are usually involved, which introduce health and safety concerns. Here, we present a simple and safer methodology for the preparation of high-quality CuIn(S, Se)2 absorbers from metal sulfide solutions in a diamine/dithiol mixture. The solutions are sprayed in air, using a chromatography atomizer, followed by a postdeposition selenization step. Two different selenization methods are explored resulting in power conversion efficiencies of up to 8%. PMID:27135679

  8. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; McLean, II, William

    1996-01-01

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

  9. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; McLean, W. II

    1996-02-13

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus. 9 figs.

  10. Pulsed laser deposition of pseudowollastonite coatings.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pradas, J M; Serra, P; Morenza, J L; De Aza, P N

    2002-05-01

    Pseudowollastonite (alpha-CaSiO3) is a bioactive ceramic material that induces direct bone growth. A process to obtain pseudowollastonite coatings that may be applied to implants is described and evaluated in this work. The coatings were first deposited on titanium alloy by laser ablation with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser tripled in frequency. After deposition, they were submitted to a soft laser treatment with a continuous wave Nd:YAG infrared laser. Coatings were characterised by X-ray diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy before and after the laser treatment. As-deposited coatings are composed of pseudowollastonite and amorphous material. They have a porous structure of gathered grains and poor cohesion. After the laser treatment the coatings crystallinity and cohesion are improved. The laser treatment also makes the coatings dense and well adhered to the substrate. Therefore, this two-step process has been demonstrated as a valuable method to coat titanium implants with pseudowollastonite. PMID:11996047

  11. Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Mostako, A. T. T.; Khare, Alika; Rao, C. V. S.

    2011-01-15

    Mirrorlike tungsten thin films on stainless steel substrate deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique in vacuum (10{sup -5} Torr) is reported, which may find direct application as first mirror in fusion devices. The crystal structure of tungsten film is analyzed using x-ray diffraction pattern, surface morphology of the tungsten films is studied with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The film composition is identified using energy dispersive x-ray. The specular and diffuse reflectivities with respect to stainless steel substrate of the tungsten films are recorded with FTIR spectra. The thickness and the optical quality of pulsed laser deposition deposited films are tested via interferometric technique. The reflectivity is approaching about that of the bulk for the tungsten film of thickness {approx}782 nm.

  12. Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film.

    PubMed

    Mostako, A T T; Rao, C V S; Khare, Alika

    2011-01-01

    Mirrorlike tungsten thin films on stainless steel substrate deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique in vacuum (10(-5) Torr) is reported, which may find direct application as first mirror in fusion devices. The crystal structure of tungsten film is analyzed using x-ray diffraction pattern, surface morphology of the tungsten films is studied with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The film composition is identified using energy dispersive x-ray. The specular and diffuse reflectivities with respect to stainless steel substrate of the tungsten films are recorded with FTIR spectra. The thickness and the optical quality of pulsed laser deposition deposited films are tested via interferometric technique. The reflectivity is approaching about that of the bulk for the tungsten film of thickness ∼782 nm. PMID:21280810

  13. Swift and heavy ion implanted chalcogenide laser glass waveguides and their different refractive index distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Feng; Narusawa, Tadashi; Zheng Jie

    2011-02-10

    Planar waveguides have been fabricated in Nd- or Ho-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide laser glasses by 60 MeV Ar or 20 MeV N ion implantation. The refractive index profiles were reconstructed based on the results of prism coupling. The Ar implanted waveguides exhibit an approximate steplike distribution, while the N implanted ones show a ''well + barrier'' type. This difference can be attributed to the much lower dose of Ar ions. After annealing, the N implanted waveguides can support two modes at 1539 nm and have low propagation loss, which makes them candidates for novel waveguide lasers.

  14. Chalcogenide-tellurite composite microstructured optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohoutek, T.; Duan, Z.; Kawashima, H.; Yan, X.; Suzuki, T.; Matsumoto, M.; Misumi, Takashi; Ohishi, Y.

    2012-02-01

    We report on fabrication a composite microstructured optical fibre composed of highly nonlinear chalcogenide Ge-Ga- Sb-S glass core and tellurite TeO2-ZnO-Li20-Bi2O3 glass clad. We aimed at obtaining more flattened chromatic dispersion for pumping chalcogenide glass based optical fibre by a pulse laser at current telecommunication wavelengths, i.e. λ = 1.35 - 1.7 μm, which is difficult to achieve by using a single material chalcogenide fibers due to their high refractive index (n > 2.1). A fibre design exploiting a composite of two glasses and one ring of the air holes brings similar options for tuning the fibre dispersion such as use of complex multi rings of air-holes approach. A good choice of glasses, allows for fabricating a composite chalcogenide-tellurite optical fibre benefiting from high nonlinearity of chalcogenide core glass but exploiting a tellurite glass technology and fibre drawing. In the paper, we discuss some aspects of CMOF design concerning current chalcogenide and tellurite glass choice. Also, we show the supercontinuum spectra recorded from current chalcogenide-tellurite CMOF pumped with a custom made femtosecond fibre laser at λ = 1.55 μm with the pulse duration of 400 fs.

  15. Nanosecond laser ablation for pulsed laser deposition of yttria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sucharita

    2013-09-01

    A thermal model to describe high-power nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of yttria (Y2O3) has been developed. This model simulates ablation of material occurring primarily through vaporization and also accounts for attenuation of the incident laser beam in the evolving vapor plume. Theoretical estimates of process features such as time evolution of target temperature distribution, melt depth and ablation rate and their dependence on laser parameters particularly for laser fluences in the range of 6 to 30 J/cm2 are investigated. Calculated maximum surface temperatures when compared with the estimated critical temperature for yttria indicate absence of explosive boiling at typical laser fluxes of 10 to 30 J/cm2. Material ejection in large fragments associated with explosive boiling of the target needs to be avoided when depositing thin films via the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique as it leads to coatings with high residual porosity and poor compaction restricting the protective quality of such corrosion-resistant yttria coatings. Our model calculations facilitate proper selection of laser parameters to be employed for deposition of PLD yttria corrosion-resistive coatings. Such coatings have been found to be highly effective in handling and containment of liquid uranium.

  16. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Photoresponsive Two-Dimensional GaSe Nanosheet Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Gresback, Ryan G; Tian, Mengkun; Puretzky, Alexander A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Eres, Gyula; Ivanov, Ilia N; Xiao, Kai; McGuire, Michael A; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B

    2014-01-01

    Here we explore pulsed laser deposition (PLD), a well known and versatile synthesis method principally used for epitaxial oxide thin film growth, for the synthesis of functional metal chalcogenide (GaSe) nanosheet networks by stoichiometric transfer of laser vaporized material from bulk GaSe targets in Ar background gas. Uniform coverage of interconnected, crystalline, few-layer, photoresponsive GaSe nanosheets in both in-plane and out-of-plane orientations were achieved under different ablation plume conditions over ~1.5 cm2 areas. Plume propagation was characterized by in situ ICCD-imaging. High (1 Torr) Ar background gas pressures were found to be crucial for the stoichiometric growth of GaSe nanosheet networks. Individual 1-3 layer GaSe triangular nanosheets of ~ 200 nm domain size were formed within 30 laser pulses, coalescing to form nanosheet networks in as few as 100 laser pulses. The thickness of the deposited networks increased linearly with pulse number, adding layers in a two-dimensional (2D) growth mode while maintaining a surface roughness of 2 GaSe layers for increasing overall thickness. Field effect transistors using these interconnected crystalline GaSe networks showed p-type semiconducting characteristics with mobilities reaching as high as 0.1 cm2V-1s-1. Spectrally-resolved photoresponsivities and external quantum efficiencies ranged from 0.4 AW-1 and 100% at 700 nm, to 1.4 AW-1 and 600 % at 240 nm, respectively. Pulsed laser deposition under these conditions appears to provide a versatile and rapid approach to stoichiometrically transfer and deposit photoresponsive networks of 2D nanosheets with digital thickness control and substrate-scale uniformity for a variety of applications.

  17. Second-order susceptibility spectra for δ-BiB₃O₆ polymer nanocomposites deposited on the chalcogenide crystals.

    PubMed

    Kityk, I V; Chrunik, M; Majchrowski, A; Guidi, Mariangela Cestelli; Angelucci, Marco; Kamel, Gihan; Fedorchuk, A O; Pępczyńska, M; Jaroszewicz, L R; Parasyuk, O; Bolesta, I M; Kowerdziej, R

    2015-07-01

    The optimized conditions for the enhancement of the second harmonic generation in the composites of the orthorhombic δ-BiB3O6:Pr(3+) nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol films and deposited on the AgGaGe2Se6, AgGaGe2.7Si0.3Se8 (90 mol.% AgGaGe3Se8 - 10 mol.% AgGaSi3Se8), and AgGaGe3Se8:Cu substrates were established. The highest second-order susceptibility was achieved during the Ag-Ga-Ge-Se crystalline substrates photo-illumination by nanosecond laser pulses of about 2900 nm wavelength. The effect was found to be completely reversible after the interruption of the photo-inducing stimulation. Complementary studies of Atomic Force Microscopy, AFM, X-ray Diffraction, XRD, and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and DFT simulations of spectral dependences of the corresponding second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities, were performed. PMID:25813175

  18. Pulsed laser deposition of pepsin thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskeméti, G.; Kresz, N.; Smausz, T.; Hopp, B.; Nógrádi, A.

    2005-07-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of organic and biological thin films has been extensively studied due to its importance in medical applications among others. Our investigations and results on PLD of a digestion catalyzing enzyme, pepsin, are presented. Targets pressed from pepsin powder were ablated with pulses of an ArF excimer laser ( λ = 193 nm, FWHM = 30 ns), the applied fluence was varied between 0.24 and 5.1 J/cm 2. The pressure in the PLD chamber was 2.7 × 10 -3 Pa. The thin layers were deposited onto glass and KBr substrates. Our IR spectroscopic measurements proved that the chemical composition of deposited thin films is similar to that of the target material deposited at 0.5 and 1.3 J/cm 2. The protein digesting capacity of the transferred pepsin was tested by adapting a modified "protein cube" method. Dissolution of the ovalbumin sections proved that the deposited layers consisted of catalytically active pepsin.

  19. Pulsed laser deposition of zeolitic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Ries, P.D.

    1995-02-01

    The pulsed laser deposition of zeolites to form zeolitic thin films is described. Films were grown using both mordenite and faujasite targets and were deposited on various substrates. The optimal films were obtained when the target and substrate were separated by 5 cm. These films are comprised of small crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the amorphous material is largely porous and that the pores appear to be close to the same size as the parent zeolite. Zeolotic thin films are of interest for sensor, gas separation, and catalytic applications.

  20. A new pulsed laser deposition technique: scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition method.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; de la Fuente, G F; Jansen, M

    2012-04-01

    The scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method realizes uniform depositions of desired coatings by a modified pulsed laser deposition process, preferably with a femto-second laser-system. Multi-component coatings (single or multilayered) are thus deposited onto substrates via laser induced ablation of segmented targets. This is achieved via horizontal line-scanning of a focused laser beam over a uniformly moving target's surface. This process allows to deposit the desired composition of the coating simultaneously, starting from the different segments of the target and adjusting the scan line as a function of target geometry. The sequence and thickness of multilayers can easily be adjusted by target architecture and motion, enabling inter/intra layer concentration gradients and thus functional gradient coatings. This new, simple PLD method enables the achievement of uniform, large-area coatings. Case studies were performed with segmented targets containing aluminum, titanium, and niobium. Under the laser irradiation conditions applied, all three metals were uniformly ablated. The elemental composition within the rough coatings obtained was fixed by the scanned area to Ti-Al-Nb = 1:1:1. Crystalline aluminum, titanium, and niobium were found to coexist side by side at room temperature within the substrate, without alloy formation up to 600 °C. PMID:22559543

  1. A new pulsed laser deposition technique: Scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.; Jansen, M.; Fuente, G. F. de la

    2012-04-15

    The scanning multi-component pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method realizes uniform depositions of desired coatings by a modified pulsed laser deposition process, preferably with a femto-second laser-system. Multi-component coatings (single or multilayered) are thus deposited onto substrates via laser induced ablation of segmented targets. This is achieved via horizontal line-scanning of a focused laser beam over a uniformly moving target's surface. This process allows to deposit the desired composition of the coating simultaneously, starting from the different segments of the target and adjusting the scan line as a function of target geometry. The sequence and thickness of multilayers can easily be adjusted by target architecture and motion, enabling inter/intra layer concentration gradients and thus functional gradient coatings. This new, simple PLD method enables the achievement of uniform, large-area coatings. Case studies were performed with segmented targets containing aluminum, titanium, and niobium. Under the laser irradiation conditions applied, all three metals were uniformly ablated. The elemental composition within the rough coatings obtained was fixed by the scanned area to Ti-Al-Nb = 1:1:1. Crystalline aluminum, titanium, and niobium were found to coexist side by side at room temperature within the substrate, without alloy formation up to 600 deg. C.

  2. How metallic is the binding state of indium hosted by excess-metal chalcogenides in ore deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondina Figueiredo, Maria; Pena Silva, Teresa; Oliveira, Daniel; Rosa, Diogo

    2010-05-01

    Discovered in 1863, indium is nowadays a strategic scarce metal used both in classical technologic fields (like low melting-temperature alloys and solders) and in innovative nano-technologies to produce "high-tech devices" by means of new materials, namely liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and the recently introduced transparent flexible thin-films manufactured with ionic amorphous oxide semiconductors (IAOS). Indium is a typical chalcophile element, seldom forming specific minerals and occurring mainly dispersed within polymetallic sulphides, particularly with excess metal ions [1]. The average content of indium in the Earth's crust is very low but a further increase in its demand is still expected in the next years, thus focusing a special interest in uncovering new exploitation sites through promising polymetallic sulphide ores - e.g., the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) [2] - and in improving recycling technologies. Indium recovery stands mostly on zinc extraction from sphalerite, the natural cubic sulphide which is the prototype of so-called "tetrahedral sulphides" where metal ions fill half of the available tetrahedral sites within the cubic closest packing of sulphur anions where the double of unfilled interstices are available for further in-filling. It is worth remarking that such packing array is particularly suitable for accommodating polymetallic cations by filling closely located interstitial sites [3] as happens in excess-metal tetrahedral sulphides - e.g. bornite, ideally Cu5FeS4, recognized as an In-carrying mineral [4]. Studying the tendency towards In-In interactions able of leading to the formation of polycations would efficiently contribute to understand indium crystal chemistry and the metal binding state in natural chalcogenides. Accordingly, an X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) study at In L3-edge was undertaken using the instrumental set-up of ID21 beamline at the ESRF (European Synchrotron

  3. Apparatus and method for laser deposition of durable coatings

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, J.T.; Vanier, P.; Barletta, R.E.

    1995-08-15

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for depositing durable coatings onto the surface of a substrate without heating the entire substrate to high temperatures by using lasers to heat the substrate and dissociate a deposition gas. The apparatus comprises a deposition chamber for enclosing the substrate upon which a coating is to be deposited, gas delivery means for directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate, a first laser for heating the substrate, and a second laser for irradiating the deposition gas to dissociate the gas. The method includes placing a substrate within a vacuum deposition chamber and directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate. Then the substrate is heated with a first laser while the deposition gas is irradiated with a second laser to dissociate the deposition gas. 1 fig.

  4. Apparatus and method for laser deposition of durable coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.; Vanier, P.; Barletta, R.E.

    1993-12-31

    Disclosed are method and apparatus for depositing durable coatings onto the surface of a substrate without heating the entire substrate to high temperatures by using lasers to heat the substrate and dissociate a deposition gas. The apparatus comprises a deposition chamber for enclosing the substrate upon which a coating is to be deposited, gas delivery means for directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate, a first laser for heating the substrate, and a second laser for irradiating the deposition gas to dissociate the gas. The method includes placing a substrate within a vacuum deposition chamber and directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate. Then the substrate is heated with a first laser while the deposition gas is irradiated with a second laser to dissociate the deposition gas.

  5. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodoceanu, D.; Scarisoreanu, N. D.; Filipescu, M. (Morar); Epurescu, G. N.; Matei, D. G.; Verardi, P.; Craciun, F.; Dinescu, M.

    2004-10-01

    Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) emerged as an attractive technique for growth of thin films with different properties as metals, semiconductors, ferroelectrics, biocompatibles, polymers, etc., due to its important advantages: (i) the stoichiometric transfer of a complex composition from target to film and film crystallization at lower substrate temperature respect to other techniques (due to the high energy of species in the laser plasma); (ii) single step process, synthesis and deposition; (iii) creation in plasma of species impossible to be obtained by other processes; (iv) possibility of "in situ" heterostructure deposition using a multi-target system, etc. Simple or complex oxides are between the materials widely studied for their applications. PMN is the most known relaxor ferroelectric material: it exhibits a high dielectric constant value around the (diffuse) maximum phase transition temperature, of more than 35 000 in bulk form. Other oxides as lead zirconate titanate, Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 simple or La doped exhibit exceptional properties as large remanent polarization, high dielectric permittivity, high piezoelectric coefficient. SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) is characterized by a high "fatigue resistance" (constant remanent polarization until 1012 switching cycles), low imprint, and low leakage current. The physical properties of zirconium oxide (or zirconia) -- high strength, stability at high temperatures -- make it useful for applications involving gas sensors, corrosion or heat resistant mechanical parts, high refractive index optical coatings. Of particular interest is its use as an alternative gate dielectric in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices or capacitor in dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips. All these oxides have been deposited by laser ablation in oxygen reactive atmosphere and some of their properties will be presented in this paper.

  6. Hemocompatible, pulsed laser deposited coatings on polymers.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Juergen M; Waldhauser, Wolfgang; Major, Roman; Major, Boguslaw; Bruckert, Franz

    2010-02-01

    State-of-the-art non-thrombogenic blood contacting surfaces are based on heparin and struggle with the problem of bleeding. However, appropriate blood flow characteristics are essential for clinical application. Thus, there is increasing demand to develop new coating materials for improved human body acceptance. Materials deposited by vacuum coating techniques would be an excellent alternative if the coating temperatures can be kept low because of the applied substrate materials of low temperature resistance (polymers). Most of the recently used plasma-based deposition techniques cannot fulfill this demand. However, adequate film structure and high adhesion can be reached by the pulsed laser deposition at room temperature, which was developed to an industrial-scaled process at Laser Center Leoben. Here, this process is described in detail and the resulting structural film properties are shown for titanium, titanium nitride, titanium carbonitride, and diamond-like carbon on polyurethane, titanium and silicon substrates. Additionally, we present the biological response of blood cells and the kinetic mechanism of eukaryote cell attachment. In conclusion, high biological acceptance and distinct differences for the critical delamination shear stress were found for the coatings, indicating higher adhesion at higher carbon contents. PMID:20128746

  7. 25 years of pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Michael; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    It is our pleasure to introduce this special issue appearing on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), which is today one of the most versatile growth techniques for oxide thin films and nanostructures. Ever since its invention, PLD has revolutionized the research on advanced functional oxides due to its ability to yield high-quality thin films, multilayers and heterostructures of a variety of multi-element material systems with rather simple technical means. We appreciate that the use of lasers to deposit films via ablation (now termed PLD) has been known since the 1960s after the invention of the first ruby laser. However, in the first two decades, PLD was something of a 'sleeping beauty' with only a few publications per year, as shown below. This state of hibernation ended abruptly with the advent of high T c superconductor research when scientists needed to grow high-quality thin films of multi-component high T c oxide systems. When most of the conventional growth techniques failed, the invention of PLD by T (Venky) Venkatesan clearly demonstrated that the newly discovered high-T c superconductor, YBa2Cu3O7-δ , could be stoichiometrically deposited as a high-quality nm-thin film with PLD [1]. As a remarkable highlight of this special issue, Venkatesan gives us his very personal reminiscence on these particularly innovative years of PLD beginning in 1986 [2]. After Venky's first paper [1], the importance of this invention was realized worldwide and the number of publications on PLD increased exponentially, as shown in figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. Published items per year with title or topic PLD. Data from Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge in September 2013. After publication of Venky's famous paper in 1987 [1], the story of PLD's success began with a sudden jump in the number of publications, about 25 years ago. A first PLD textbook covering its basic understanding was soon published, in 1994, by Chrisey and Hubler [3]. Within a

  8. Laser induced optical bleaching in Ge{sub 12}Sb{sub 25}S{sub 63} chalcogenide thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, Ramakanta; Jena, S.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2015-06-24

    Photo induced effects of Ge{sub 12}Sb{sub 25}S{sub 63} films illuminated with 532 nm laser light is investigated from transmission spectra measured by FTIR spectroscopy. The material exhibit photo bleaching (PB) when exposed to band gap laser for a prolonged time in vacuum. The PB is ascribed to structural changes inside the film as well as surface photo oxidation. The amorphous nature of thin films was detected by X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition of the deposited thin films was examined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). The refractive indices of the films were obtained from the transmission spectra based on inverse synthesis method, and the optical band gaps were derived from optical absorption spectra using the Tauc plot. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple–DiDomenico model. It was found that, the mechanism of the optical absorption follows the rule of the allowed non-direct transition. Raman spectra analysis also supports the optical changes.

  9. 25 years of pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Michael; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    It is our pleasure to introduce this special issue appearing on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), which is today one of the most versatile growth techniques for oxide thin films and nanostructures. Ever since its invention, PLD has revolutionized the research on advanced functional oxides due to its ability to yield high-quality thin films, multilayers and heterostructures of a variety of multi-element material systems with rather simple technical means. We appreciate that the use of lasers to deposit films via ablation (now termed PLD) has been known since the 1960s after the invention of the first ruby laser. However, in the first two decades, PLD was something of a 'sleeping beauty' with only a few publications per year, as shown below. This state of hibernation ended abruptly with the advent of high T c superconductor research when scientists needed to grow high-quality thin films of multi-component high T c oxide systems. When most of the conventional growth techniques failed, the invention of PLD by T (Venky) Venkatesan clearly demonstrated that the newly discovered high-T c superconductor, YBa2Cu3O7-δ , could be stoichiometrically deposited as a high-quality nm-thin film with PLD [1]. As a remarkable highlight of this special issue, Venkatesan gives us his very personal reminiscence on these particularly innovative years of PLD beginning in 1986 [2]. After Venky's first paper [1], the importance of this invention was realized worldwide and the number of publications on PLD increased exponentially, as shown in figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. Published items per year with title or topic PLD. Data from Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge in September 2013. After publication of Venky's famous paper in 1987 [1], the story of PLD's success began with a sudden jump in the number of publications, about 25 years ago. A first PLD textbook covering its basic understanding was soon published, in 1994, by Chrisey and Hubler [3]. Within a

  10. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  11. Digital Transfer Growth of Patterned 2D Metal Chalcogenides by Confined Nanoparticle Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Wang, Kai; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Xiao, Kai; Eres, Gyula; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B.

    2014-10-19

    Developing methods for the facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and other layered materials is crucial for emerging applications in functional devices. Controlling the stoichiometry, number of the layers, crystallite size, growth location, and areal uniformity is challenging in conventional vapor phase synthesis. Here, we demonstrate a new route to control these parameters in the growth of metal chalcogenide (GaSe) and dichalcogenide (MoSe2) 2D crystals by precisely defining the mass and location of the source materials in a confined transfer growth system. A uniform and precise amount of stoichiometric nanoparticles are first synthesized and deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature. This source substrate is then covered with a receiver substrate to form a confined vapor transport growth (VTG) system. By simply heating the source substrate in an inert background gas, a natural temperature gradient is formed that evaporates the confined nanoparticles to grow large, crystalline 2D nanosheets on the cooler receiver substrate, the temperature of which is controlled by the background gas pressure. Large monolayer crystalline domains (~ 100 m lateral sizes) of GaSe and MoSe2 are demonstrated, as well as continuous monolayer films through the deposition of additional precursor materials. This novel PLD-VTG synthesis and processing method offers a unique approach for the controlled growth of large-area, metal chalcogenides with a controlled number of layers in patterned growth locations for optoelectronics and energy related applications.

  12. Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xinxing Thelander, Erik; Lorenz, Pierre; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2014-10-07

    Phase transformations between amorphous and crystalline states induced by irradiation of pulsed laser deposition grown GeTe thin films with nanosecond laser pulses at 248 nm and pulse duration of 20 ns are studied. Structural and optical properties of the Ge-Te phase-change films were studied by X-ray diffraction and optical reflectivity measurements as a function of the number of laser pulses between 0 and 30 pulses and of the laser fluence up to 195 mJ/cm². A reversible phase transition by using pulse numbers ≥ 5 at a fluence above the threshold fluence between 11 and 14 mJ/cm² for crystallization and single pulses at a fluence between 162 and 182 mJ/cm² for amorphization could be proved. For laser fluences from 36 up to 130 mJ/cm², a high optical contrast of 14.7% between the amorphous and crystalline state is measured. A simple model is used that allows the discussion on the distribution of temperature in dependency on the laser fluence.

  13. Study on deposition rate and laser energy efficiency of Laser-Induction Hybrid Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, DengZhi; Hu, QianWu; Zheng, YinLan; Xie, Yong; Zeng, XiaoYan

    2016-03-01

    Laser-Induction Hybrid Cladding (LIHC) was introduced to prepare metal silicide based composite coatings, and influence of different factors such as laser type, laser power, laser scan speed and induction preheating temperature on the coating deposition rate and laser energy efficiency was studied systematically. Compared with conventional CO2 laser cladding, fiber laser-induction hybrid cladding improves the coating deposition rate and laser energy efficiency by 3.7 times. When a fiber laser with laser power of 4 kW was combined with an induction preheating temperature of 850 °C, the maximum coating deposition rate and maximum laser energy efficiency reaches 71 g/min and 64% respectively.

  14. Wavelength Effects In Femtosecond Pulsed Laser Ablation And Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Castillejo, Marta; Nalda, Rebeca de; Oujja, Mohamed; Sanz, Mikel

    2010-10-08

    Ultrafast pulsed laser irradiation of solid materials is highly attractive for the micro-and nanostructuring of substrates and for the fabrication of nanostructured deposits. Femtosecond laser pulses promote efficient material removal with reduced heat transfer and high deposition rates of nanometer scale particles free of microscopic particulates. Most of the studies to date have been performed with light pulses centered around the peak wavelength of the Titanium:Sapphire laser, around 800 nm. Analysis of the process over a broader range of wavelengths can provide important information about the processes involved and serve as experimental tests for advanced theoretical models. We report on our current investigations on the effect that laser wavelength of femtosecond pulses has on the superficial nanostructuring induced on biopolymer substrates, and on the characteristics of nanostructured deposits grown by pulsed laser deposition from semiconductor targets.

  15. Pulsed laser ablation and deposition of niobium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansone, M.; De Bonis, A.; Santagata, A.; Rau, J. V.; Galasso, A.; Teghil, R.

    2016-06-01

    NbC crystalline films have been deposited in vacuum by ultra-short pulsed laser deposition technique. The films have been characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopies and by X-ray diffraction. To clarify the ablation-deposition mechanism, the plasma produced by the ablation process has been characterized by optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging. A comparison of the results with those obtained by ns pulsed deposition of the same target has been carried out.

  16. Defect detection in laser powder deposition components by laser thermography and laser ultrasonic inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santospirito, SP; Łopatka, Rafał; Cerniglia, Donatella; Słyk, Kamil; Luo, Bin; Panggabean, Dorothée.; Rudlin, John

    2013-03-01

    Laser Powder Deposition (LDP) techniques are being adopted within aerospace and automotive manufacturing to produce innovative precision components. Non-destructive techniques (NDT) for detecting and quantifying flaws within these components enables performance and acceptance criteria to be verified, improving product safety and reducing ongoing maintenance and product repair costs. In this work, software enabled techniques are presented for in-process analysis of NDT laser ultrasonic signals and pulsed laser thermography images of sequential metallic LPD layers. LPD tracks can be as thin as 200μm while deposited at a rate of 500 mm/min, requiring ultrafast inspection and processing times. The research developed analysis algorithms that allow senior engineers to develop inspection templates and profiles for in-process inspection, as well as an end-to-end, user friendly interface for engineers to perform complete manual Laser Ultrasonic or Laser Thermographic inspections. Several algorithms are offered to quantify the flaw size. location and severity. The identified defects can be imported into a sentencing engine which then automatically compares analysis results against the user defined acceptance criteria so that the manufacturing products can be verified. Where both laser ultrasonic and laser thermographic NDT data is available further statistical tools could increase the confidence level of the inspection decision.

  17. Self-directed control of pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, E. F.; Laube, S. J. P.

    1993-10-01

    Implementation of self-directed control of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) requires actuators, sensors, and a materials and processing knowledge base. Improvements in quality and reproducibility of material deposits are achieved by driving the process toward desired operating regions. Empirical relationships are determined experimentally to describe the complex dynamical interactions of laser parameters. Feedback control based on this description can then be implemented to reduce process disorder and effectively produce consistent coatings with desired properties.

  18. Deposition of tantalum carbide coatings on graphite by laser interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veligdan, James; Branch, D.; Vanier, P. E.; Barietta, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    Graphite surfaces can be hardened and protected from erosion by hydrogen at high temperatures by refractory metal carbide coatings, which are usually prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or chemical vapor reaction (CVR) methods. These techniques rely on heating the substrate to a temperature where a volatile metal halide decomposes and reacts with either a hydrocarbon gas or with carbon from the substrate. For CVR techniques, deposition temperatures must be in excess of 2000 C in order to achieve favorable deposition kinetics. In an effort to lower the bulk substrate deposition temperature, the use of laser interactions with both the substrate and the metal halide deposition gas has been employed. Initial testing involved the use of a CO2 laser to heat the surface of a graphite substrate and a KrF excimer laser to accomplish a photodecomposition of TaCl5 gas near the substrate. The results of preliminary experiments using these techniques are described.

  19. ARPES studies on FeTe1-x Se x iron chalcogenides epitaxial thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innocenti, Davide; Moreschini, Luca; Chang, Young Jun; Walter, Andrew; Bostwick, Aaron; di Castro, Daniele; Tebano, Antonello; Medaglia, Pier Gianni; Bellingeri, Emilio; Pallecchi, Ilaria; Ferdeghini, Carlo; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Rotenberg, Eli

    2011-03-01

    The physics of iron-based chalcogenides raises fundamental questions on the interplay of magnetic order and electron pairing at the origin of the superconducting state. We have performed angle-resolved photemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies on high-quality epitaxial thin films of FeTe 1-x Se x , grown by in situ pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on beamline 7.0.1 at the ALS. Specifically, we are able to show the evolution of the band structure as a function of x. We discuss our experimental results in comparison to the available theoretical band calculations.

  20. Innovations in laser cladding and direct metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückner, Frank; Nowotny, Steffen; Leyens, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    The present paper reviews recent progress in productivity, precision and quality of laser-based cladding and additive layer manufacturing. Recently, we have demonstrated the great benefits obtained from induction assisted laser cladding. This novel hybrid technology combines high deposition rates with excellent cladding properties. Laser-based direct metal deposition is a novel concept for the fabrication of components and repair as well as geometrical surface modifications. Newly developed nozzle design allows focused powder spots to generate wall thicknesses of about 30 μm. An in-depth understanding of the processes and the resulting materials properties is key for the development of technically viable and economically reasonable customized solutions.

  1. Ultraviolet laser deposition of graphene thin films without catalytic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, the formation of nanostructured graphene by ultraviolet laser ablation of a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite target under optimized conditions is demonstrated, without a catalytic layer, and a model for the growth process is proposed. Previously, graphene film deposition by low-energy laser (2.3 eV) was explained by photo-thermal models, which implied that graphene films cannot be deposited by laser energies higher than the C-C bond energy in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (3.7 eV). Here, we show that nanostructured graphene films can in fact be deposited using ultraviolet laser (5 eV) directly over different substrates, without a catalytic layer. The formation of graphene is explained by bond-breaking assisted by photoelectronic excitation leading to formation of carbon clusters at the target and annealing out of defects at the substrate.

  2. Pulsed laser deposition of anatase thin films on textile substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, André; Kunz, Clemens; Gräf, Stephan; Müller, Frank A.

    2015-10-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a highly versatile tool to prepare functional thin film coatings. In our study we utilised a Q-switched CO2 laser with a pulse duration τ ≈ 300 ns, a laser wavelength λ = 10.59 μm, a repetition frequency frep = 800 Hz and a peak power Ppeak = 15 kW to deposit crystalline anatase thin films on carbon fibre fabrics. For this purpose, preparatory experiments were performed on silicon substrates to optimise the anatase deposition conditions including the influence of different substrate temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. Processing parameters were then transferred to deposit anatase on carbon fibres. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analyses, Raman spectroscopy and tactile profilometry were used to characterise the samples and to reveal the formation of phase pure anatase without the occurrence of a secondary rutile phase. Methanol conversion test were used to prove the photocatalytic activity of the coated carbon fibres.

  3. Multiscale modeling of chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro, John C.

    Chalcogenide glasses exhibit unique properties applicable to a wide range of fields, including electrical and optical switching and the transmission of infrared radiation. In this thesis, we adopt a hierarchical multiscale modeling approach to investigate the fundamental physics of chalcogenide systems. Our multiscale modeling begins in Part I at the quantum mechanical level, where we use the highly accurate Moller-Plesset perturbation technique to derive interaction potentials for elemental and heterogeneous chalcogenide systems. The resulting potentials consist of two-, three-, and effective four-body terms. In Part II, we use these ab initio potentials in classical Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the structure of chalcogenide glasses. We discuss our simulation results in relation to the Phillips model of topological constraints, which predicts critical behavior in chalcogenide systems as a function of average coordination number. Finally, in Part III we address the issue of glass transition range behavior. After reviewing previous models of the glass transition, we derive a new model based on nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and an energy landscape formalism. The new model requires as input a description of inherent structure energies and the transition energies between these structures. To address this issue, we derive an eigenvector-following technique for mapping a multidimensional potential energy landscape. This technique is then extended for application to enthalpy landscapes. Our model will enable the first-ever calculation of glass transition behavior based on only ab initio physics.

  4. Fabrication of phase-change chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 patterns by laser-induced forward transfer.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ming Lun; Chen, Bo Han; Chu, Cheng Hung; Chang, Chia Min; Lin, Wei Chih; Chu, Nien-Nan; Mansuripur, Masud; Liu, Ai Qun; Tsai, Din Ping

    2011-08-29

    Femtosecond laser pulses are focused on a thin film of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material, and the transfer of the illuminated material to a nearby substrate is investigated. The size, shape, and phase-state of the fabricated pattern can be effectively controlled by the laser fluence and by the thickness of the Ge2Sb2Te5 film. Results show multi-level electrical and optical reflection states of the fabricated patterns, which may provide a simple and efficient foundation for patterning future phase-change devices. PMID:21935057

  5. Pulsed laser deposition of niobium nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Farha, Ashraf Hassan Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; Ufuktepe, Yüksel; Myneni, Ganapati

    2015-12-04

    Niobium nitride (NbN{sub x}) films were grown on Nb and Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. NbN{sub x} films were deposited on Nb substrates using PLD with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm, ∼40 ns pulse width, and 10 Hz repetition rate) at different laser fluences, nitrogen background pressures and deposition substrate temperatures. When all the fabrication parameters are fixed, except for the laser fluence, the surface roughness, nitrogen content, and grain size increase with increasing laser fluence. Increasing nitrogen background pressure leads to a change in the phase structure of the NbN{sub x} films from mixed β-Nb{sub 2}N and cubic δ-NbN phases to single hexagonal β-Nb{sub 2}N. The substrate temperature affects the preferred orientation of the crystal structure. The structural and electronic, properties of NbN{sub x} deposited on Si(100) were also investigated. The NbN{sub x} films exhibited a cubic δ-NbN with a strong (111) orientation. A correlation between surface morphology, electronic, and superconducting properties was found. The observations establish guidelines for adjusting the deposition parameters to achieve the desired NbN{sub x} film morphology and phase.

  6. Direct laser powder deposition - 'State of the Art'

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, J.W.

    1999-11-01

    Recent developments on Laser Cladding and Rapid Prototyping have led to Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) technologies that produce net shape metal components by laser fusion of metal powder alloys. These processes are known by various names such as Directed Light Fabrication (DLF{trademark}), Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}), and Direct Metal Deposition (DMD{trademark}) to name a few. These types of processes can be referred to as direct laser powder deposition (DLPD). DLPD involves fusing metal alloy powders in the focal point of a laser (or lasers) that is (are) being controlled by Computer Aided Design-Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. DLPD technology has the capability to produce fully dense components with little need for subsequent processing. Research and development of DLPD is being conducted throughout the world. The list of facilities conducting work in this area continues to grow (over 25 identified in North America alone). Selective Laser Sintering (SLS{trademark}) is another type of SFF technology based on laser fusion of powder. The SLS technology was developed as a rapid prototyping technique, whereas DLPD is an extension of the laser cladding technology. Most of the effort in SLS has been directed towards plastics and ceramics. In SLS, the powder is pre-placed by rolling out a layer for each laser pass. The computer control selects where in the layer the powder will be sintered by the laser. Sequential layers are sintered similarly forming a shape. In DLPD, powder is fed directly into a molten metal pool formed at the focal point of the laser where it is melted. As the laser moves on the material it rapidly resolidifies to form a shape. This talk elaborates on the state of these developments.

  7. Lipase biofilm deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronne, Antonio; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Depero, Laura E.; Fanelli, Esther; Federici, Stefania; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2015-05-01

    Lipase is an enzyme that finds application in biodiesel production and for detection of esters and triglycerides in biosensors. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of undamaged biomolecules or polymers, is characterized by the use of a frozen target obtained from a solution/suspension of the guest material (to be deposited) in a volatile matrix (solvent). The presence of the solvent avoids or at least reduces the potential damage of guest molecules by laser radiation but only the guest material reaches the substrate in an essentially solvent-free deposition. MAPLE can be used for enzymes immobilization, essential for industrial application, allowing the development of continuous processes, an easier separation of products, the reuse of the catalyst and, in some cases, enhancing enzyme properties (pH, temperature stability, etc.) and catalytic activity in non-aqueous media. Here we show that MAPLE technique can be used to deposit undamaged lipase and that the complex structure (due to droplets generated during extraction from target) of the deposited material can be controlled by changing the laser beam fluence.

  8. Resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition of cyclic olefin copolymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Singaravelu, Senthil R.; Klopf, John M.; Schriver, Kenneth E.; Park, HyeKyoung; Kelley, Michael J.; Haglund, Jr., Richard F.

    2013-08-01

    Barrier materials on thin-film organic optoelectronic devices inhibit the uptake of water, oxygen, or environmental contaminants, and fabricating them is a major challenge. By definition, these barrier layers must be insoluble, so the usual routes to polymer- or organic-film deposition by spin coating are not problematic. In this paper, we report comparative studies of pulsed laser deposition of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), an excellent moisture barrier and a model system for a larger class of protective materials that are potentially useful in organic electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Thin films of COC were deposited by resonant and nonresonant infrared pulsed laser ablation of solid COC targets, using a free-electron laser tuned to the 3.43 μm C–H stretch of the COC, and a high-intensity nanosecond Q-switched laser operated at 1064 nm. The ablation craters and deposited films were characterized by scanning-electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, atomic-force microscopy, high-resolution optical microscopy, and surface profilometry. Thermal-diffusion calculations were performed to determine the temperature rise induced in the film at the C–H resonant wavelength. The results show that resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition (RIR-PLD) is an effective, low-temperature thin-film deposition technique that leads to evaporation and deposition of intact molecules in homogeneous, smooth films. Nonresonant PLD, on the other hand, leads to photothermal damage, degradation of the COC polymers, and to the deposition only of particulates.

  9. Resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition of cyclic olefin copolymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singaravelu, S.; Klopf, J. M.; Schriver, K. E.; Park, H. K.; Kelley, M. J.; Haglund, R. F.

    2014-03-01

    Barrier materials on thin-film organic optoelectronic devices inhibit the uptake of water, oxygen, or environmental contaminants, and fabricating them is a major challenge. By definition, these barrier layers must be insoluble, so the usual routes to polymer- or organic-film deposition by spin coating are not problematic. In this paper, we report comparative studies of pulsed laser deposition of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), an excellent moisture barrier and a model system for a larger class of protective materials that are potentially useful in organic electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Thin films of COC were deposited by resonant and nonresonant infrared pulsed laser ablation of solid COC targets, using a free-electron laser tuned to the 3.43 μm C-H stretch of the COC, and a high-intensity nanosecond Q-switched laser operated at 1064 nm. The ablation craters and deposited films were characterized by scanning-electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, atomic-force microscopy, high-resolution optical microscopy, and surface profilometry. Thermal-diffusion calculations were performed to determine the temperature rise induced in the film at the C-H resonant wavelength. The results show that resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition (RIR-PLD) is an effective, low-temperature thin-film deposition technique that leads to evaporation and deposition of intact molecules in homogeneous, smooth films. Nonresonant PLD, on the other hand, leads to photothermal damage, degradation of the COC polymers, and to the deposition only of particulates.

  10. Nonlinear optical localization in embedded chalcogenide waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mingshan; Huang, Sheng; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Kevin P.; Petek, Hrvoje

    2014-05-15

    We report the nonlinear optical localization in an embedded waveguide array fabricated in chalcogenide glass. The array, which consists of seven waveguides with circularly symmetric cross sections, is realized by ultrafast laser writing. Light propagation in the chalcogenide waveguide array is studied with near infrared laser pulses centered at 1040 nm. The peak intensity required for nonlinear localization for the 1-cm long waveguide array was 35.1 GW/cm{sup 2}, using 10-nJ pulses with 300-fs pulse width, which is 70 times lower than that reported in fused silica waveguide arrays and with over 7 times shorter interaction distance. Results reported in this paper demonstrated that ultrafast laser writing is a viable tool to produce 3D all-optical switching waveguide circuits in chalcogenide glass.

  11. Fabrication of alkali halide UV photocathodes by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Brendel', V M; Bukin, V V; Garnov, Sergei V; Bagdasarov, V Kh; Denisov, N N; Garanin, Sergey G; Terekhin, V A; Trutnev, Yurii A

    2012-12-31

    A technique has been proposed for the fabrication of atmospheric corrosion resistant alkali halide UV photocathodes by pulsed laser deposition. We produced photocathodes with a highly homogeneous photoemissive layer well-adherent to the substrate. The photocathodes were mounted in a vacuum photodiode, and a tungsten grid was used as an anode. Using pulsed UV lasers, we carried out experiments aimed at evaluating the quantum efficiency of the photocathodes. With a dc voltage applied between the photocathode and anode grid, we measured a shunt signal proportional to the total charge emitted by the cathode exposed to UV laser light. The proposed deposition technique enables one to produce photocathodes with photoemissive layers highly uniform in quantum efficiency, which is its main advantage over thin film growth by resistive evaporation. (laser technologies)

  12. Pulsed Laser Deposition of High Temperature Protonic Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred W.; Berger, M. H.; Sayir, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to fabricate nanostructured BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O3- sigma) films. Protonic conduction of fabricated BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O(3-sigma) films was compared to sintered BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O(3-sigma). Sintered samples and laser targets were prepared by sintering BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O(3-sigma) powders derived by solid state synthesis. Films 1 to 8 micron thick were deposited by KrF excimer laser on porous Al2O3 substrates. Thin films were fabricated at deposition temperatures of 700 to 950 C at O2 pressures up to 200 mTorr using laser pulse energies of 0.45 - 0.95 J. Fabricated films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and electrical impedance spectroscopy. Single phase BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O(3-sigma) films with a columnar growth morphology are observed with preferred crystal growth along the [100] or [001] direction. Results indicate [100] growth dependence upon laser pulse energy. Electrical conductivity of bulk samples produced by solid state sintering and thin film samples were measured over a temperature range of 100 C to 900 C. Electrical conduction behavior was dependent upon film deposition temperature. Maximum conductivity occurs at deposition temperature of 900 oC; the electrical conductivity exceeds the sintered specimen. All other deposited films exhibit a lower electrical conductivity than the sintered specimen. Activation energy for electrical conduction showed dependence upon deposition temperature, it varied

  13. History and current status of commercial pulsed laser deposition equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, James A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will review the history of the scale-up of the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process from small areas ∼1 cm2 up to 10 m2 starting in about 1987. It also documents the history of commercialization of PLD as various companies become involved in selling fully integrated laser deposition tools starting in 1989. The paper will highlight the current state of the art of commercial PLD equipment for R&D that is available on the market today from mainstream vendors as well as production-oriented applications directed at piezo-electric materials for microelectromechanical systems and high-temperature superconductors for coated-conductor applications. The paper clearly demonstrates that considerable improvements have been made to scaling this unique physical vapour deposition process to useful substrate sizes, and that commercial deposition equipment is readily available from a variety of vendors to address a wide variety of technologically important thin-film applications.

  14. Microstructures of laser deposited 304L austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    BROOKS,JOHN A.; HEADLEY,THOMAS J.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.

    2000-05-22

    Laser deposits fabricated from two different compositions of 304L stainless steel powder were characterized to determine the nature of the solidification and solid state transformations. One of the goals of this work was to determine to what extent novel microstructure consisting of single-phase austenite could be achieved with the thermal conditions of the LENS [Laser Engineered Net Shape] process. Although ferrite-free deposits were not obtained, structures with very low ferrite content were achieved. It appeared that, with slight changes in alloy composition, this goal could be met via two different solidification and transformation mechanisms.

  15. State-of-the-art Pb photocathodes deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontad, F.; Perrone, A.

    2014-05-01

    In this article we present and discuss the current status of thin film Pb photocathodes deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with different laser parameters, such as laser fluence, wavelength or pulse duration. The PLD technique appears very efficient for the fabrication of pure Pb photocathodes, providing good adherence and respectable quantum efficiency. The films deposited on the picosecond and subpicosecond regimes are practically free of big droplets and fragments, whereas in the nanosecond regime their presence cannot be neglected. All the films present a granular structure and polycrystalline character with preferential orientation along the (111) crystalline planes, irrespective of the laser pulse duration or wavelength. The main results obtained from the photoemission performance of Pb thin films deposited by PLD demonstrate their chemical stability under vacuum conditions and respectable quantum efficiency with a maximum of 7.3×10-5 for films deposited on the subpicosecond regime. The photoemission properties confirm that Pb thin films deposited by PLD are a notable alternative for the fabrication of photocathodes for superconductive radio-frequency electron guns.

  16. UV laser deposition of metal films by photogenerated free radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. K.; Mantei, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    A novel photochemical method for liquid-phase deposition of metal films is described. In the liquid phase deposition scheme, a metal containing compound and a metal-metal bonded carbonyl complex are dissolved together in a polar solvent and the mixture is irradiated using a UV laser. The optical arrangement consists of a HeCd laser which provides 7 mW of power at a wavelength of 325 nm in the TEM(OO) mode. The beam is attenuated and may be expanded to a diameter of 5-20 mm. Experiments with photochemical deposition of silver films onto glass and quartz substrates are described in detail. Mass spectrometric analysis of deposited silver films indicated a deposition rate of about 1 A/s at incident power levels of 0.01 W/sq cm. UV laser-induced copper and palladium films have also been obtained. A black and white photograph showing the silver Van Der Pauw pattern of a solution-deposited film is provided.

  17. Fast Electron Deposition in Laser Shock Compressed Plastic Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, T. A.; Ellwi, S.; Batani, D.; Bernardinello, A.; Masella, V.; Koenig, M.; Benuzzi, A.; Krishnan, J.; Pisani, F.; Djaoui, A.; Norreys, P.; Neely, D.; Rose, S.; Key, M. H.; Fews, P.

    1998-08-01

    We present the first results of fast electron deposition in a laser shock compressed plasma. The interaction of a 3 ps, 15 J laser pulse with solid polyethylene targets is used to produce fast electrons on one side of foil targets and a 2 ns duration laser pulse is used to drive a shock wave into the target from the opposite side. Kα emission from chlorine fluor buried layers is used to measure the electron transport. The hot electron range in the shock compressed plastic is found to be approximately twice as large as the range in the solid density plastic.

  18. Chromium carbide thin films deposited by ultra-short pulse laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teghil, R.; Santagata, A.; De Bonis, A.; Galasso, A.; Villani, P.

    2009-06-01

    Pulsed laser deposition performed by a laser with a pulse duration of 250 fs has been used to deposit films from a Cr 3C 2 target. Due to the different processes involved in the laser ablation when it is performed by an ultra-short pulse source instead of a conventional short pulse one, it has been possible to obtain in vacuum films containing only one type of carbide, Cr 3C 2, as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On the other hand, Cr 3C 2 is not the only component of the films, since a large amount of amorphous carbon is also present. The films, deposited at room temperature, are amorphous and seem to be formed by the coalescence of a large number of particles with nanometric size. The film composition can be explained in terms of thermal evaporation from particles ejected from the target.

  19. Digital Transfer Growth of Patterned 2D Metal Chalcogenides by Confined Nanoparticle Evaporation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Wang, Kai; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Xiao, Kai; Eres, Gyula; et al

    2014-10-19

    Developing methods for the facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and other layered materials is crucial for emerging applications in functional devices. Controlling the stoichiometry, number of the layers, crystallite size, growth location, and areal uniformity is challenging in conventional vapor phase synthesis. Here, we demonstrate a new route to control these parameters in the growth of metal chalcogenide (GaSe) and dichalcogenide (MoSe2) 2D crystals by precisely defining the mass and location of the source materials in a confined transfer growth system. A uniform and precise amount of stoichiometric nanoparticles are first synthesized and deposited onto a substrate bymore » pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature. This source substrate is then covered with a receiver substrate to form a confined vapor transport growth (VTG) system. By simply heating the source substrate in an inert background gas, a natural temperature gradient is formed that evaporates the confined nanoparticles to grow large, crystalline 2D nanosheets on the cooler receiver substrate, the temperature of which is controlled by the background gas pressure. Large monolayer crystalline domains (~ 100 m lateral sizes) of GaSe and MoSe2 are demonstrated, as well as continuous monolayer films through the deposition of additional precursor materials. This novel PLD-VTG synthesis and processing method offers a unique approach for the controlled growth of large-area, metal chalcogenides with a controlled number of layers in patterned growth locations for optoelectronics and energy related applications.« less

  20. Laser-induced copper deposition with weak reducing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemirovsky, V. A.; Fateev, S. A.; Logunov, L. S.; Tumkin, I. I.; Safonov, S. V.; Khairullina, E. M.

    2013-11-01

    The study showed that organic alcohols with 1,2,3,5,6 hydroxyl groups can be used as reducing agents for laser-induced copper deposition from solutions (LCLD).Multiatomic alcohols, sorbitol, xylitol, and glycerol, are shown to be effective reducing agents for performing LCLD at glass-ceramic surfaces. High-conductivity copper tracks with good topology were synthesized.

  1. Deposition, characterization, and laser ablation patterning of YBCO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vase, Per; Yueqiang, Shen; Freltoft, Torsten

    1990-12-01

    High quality epitaxial thin films of YBa 2Cu 3O 7 have been deposited on single-crystal MgO(001) substrates by 355 nm Nd:YAG laser ablation. Through a systematic optimization of the deposition parameters, it was found that for a target-substrate distance of 30 mm, the optimal laser intensity, substrate temperature, and deposition oxygen pressure were 300 MW/cm 2, 750 ° C, and 0.5-1.0 mbar, respectively. Microstrips with dimensions down to 10 μm across were fabricated using both a photoresist technique and laser ablation through a metal mask. The superconducting transition takes place over 1 K, and the critical temperature is reproducible within ±1.5 K, the best result being Tc,0 = 90 K. The highest critical current density measured on a 10 X 0.15 μm 2 strips was 4 X 10 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K . Film patterning using laser ablation through a metal mask was studied in detail to investigate the applicability of this method. Etch rates as a function of laser intensity were measured, and the process was followed in situ by on-line monitoring of the film resistivity.

  2. Wire deposition by a laser-induced boiling front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkamany, Mohammad Javad; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.; Ghaini, F. Malek; Vänskä, Mikko; Salminen, Antti; Fahlström, Karl; Hedegård, Joakim

    2015-06-01

    In laser materials processing the addition of material by wire is an option for techniques like laser welding, laser cladding or rapid prototyping. The stability of the wire deposition is strongly dependent on the wire interaction with the laser beam. For leading position wire feeding, high speed imaging was applied to study the melt transfer from the wire tip to the workpiece during keyhole welding. The observations revealed that a very stable concave processing front forms at the wire tip. A boiling front is established as an extension of the keyhole and the melt film at the front is sheared downwards by the ablation pressure of boiling. The deposition of the molten wire into the weld zone is smooth and controllable. Various wire front geometries and melt transitions are compared for different parameters. The option of laterally oscillating the laser beam is investigated and the interaction mechanism involved is discussed. Wire deposition by inducing a boiling front is explained here for the first time, which should promote future applications use of this very promising technique.

  3. Excimer-laser-assisted deposition of diamondlike carbon hard coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mao-Kuo; Popp, Angelika; Lang, Adolf; Schutte, Karsten; Bergmann, Hans W.

    1997-08-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited using the excimer laser assisted physical vapor deposition at room temperature. The films deposited at high vacuum (10-5 mbar) revealed more diamond-like character than under other atmospheres of argon and hydrogen. DLC- films can be deposited with a thickness more than 1 micrometers with the help of either an additional Ti-buffer layer or an in-situ laser treatment during the deposition. The adhesion of the films was qualitatively determined by using the indentation and bending tests. Additionally, the adhesion was found to be dependent on the power densities for the target ablation (IT) and for the in-situ laser treatment (IS), as well as, on the applied buffer layer. The roughness was found to be proportional to the film thickness at various surface morphologies of the substrate. The friction coefficient of DLC-films against steel (100Cr6) was found to be approximately 0.1 and the wear loss of the films was dependent on the properties of substrate material.

  4. Fabrication of alkali halide UV photocathodes by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendel', V. M.; Bukin, V. V.; Garnov, Sergei V.; Bagdasarov, V. Kh; Denisov, N. N.; Garanin, Sergey G.; Terekhin, V. A.; Trutnev, Yurii A.

    2012-12-01

    A technique has been proposed for the fabrication of atmospheric corrosion resistant alkali halide UV photocathodes by pulsed laser deposition. We produced photocathodes with a highly homogeneous photoemissive layer well-adherent to the substrate. The photocathodes were mounted in a vacuum photodiode, and a tungsten grid was used as an anode. Using pulsed UV lasers, we carried out experiments aimed at evaluating the quantum efficiency of the photocathodes. With a dc voltage applied between the photocathode and anode grid, we measured a shunt signal proportional to the total charge emitted by the cathode exposed to UV laser light. The proposed deposition technique enables one to produce photocathodes with photoemissive layers highly uniform in quantum efficiency, which is its main advantage over thin film growth by resistive evaporation.

  5. Laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition of nickel and laser cutting in integrated circuit restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remes, J.; Moilanen, H.; Leppävuori, S.

    1997-01-01

    Laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of nickel from Ni(CO)4 has been utilised for the restructuring of integrated circuit (IC) interconnections. Nickel lines were deposited on a SiO2 passivated IC to achieve new local interconnections between integrated circuit structures. Depositions were carried out over the pressure range of 0.2 to 2.2 mbar of pure Ni(CO)4 buffered in 0 to 800 mbar He. Argon ion laser wavelengths of 488 and 514.5 nm, laser power of 50-150 mW and a laser scan speed of 80 μm/s were utilised for the deposition. The morphology and chemical contents of the deposited interconnection microstructures was examined by AFM, optical microscopy and LIMA. The resistivity of the deposited lines was found to be close to the nickel bulk resistivity. The utilisation of Nd: YAG and XeCl excimer lasers in the cutting of Al and Mo conductor lines for integrated circuit modification is also described.

  6. Chalcogenide glass nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Bradley R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; MacIsaac, Brett D.; Sundaram, S. Kamakshi

    2007-05-01

    Chalcogenide nanowires and other micro-and nano scale structures are grown on a preselected portion of on a substrate. They are amorphous and of uniform composition and can be grown by a sublimation-condensation process onto the surface of an amorphous substrate. Among other uses, these structures can be used as coatings on optical fibers, as coatings on implants, as wispering galleries, in electrochemical devices, and in nanolasers.

  7. Properties of zirconia thin films deposited by laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Cancea, V. N.; Filipescu, M.; Colceag, D.; Dinescu, M.; Mustaciosu, C.

    2013-11-13

    Zirconia thin films have been deposited by laser ablation of a ceramic ZrO{sub 2} target in vacuum or in oxygen background at 0.01 mbar. The laser beam generated by an ArF laser (λ=193 nm, ν=40 Hz) has been focalized on the target through a spherical lens at an incident angle of 45°. The laser fluence has been established to a value from 2.0 to 3.4 Jcm{sup −2}. A silicon (100) substrate has been placed parallel to the target, at a distance of 4 cm, and subsequently has been heated to temperatures ranging between 300 °C and 600 °C. Thin films morphology has been characterized by atomic force microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Biocompatibility of these thin films has been assessed by studying the cell attachment of L929 mouse fibroblasts.

  8. Properties of zirconia thin films deposited by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancea, V. N.; Filipescu, M.; Colceag, D.; Mustaciosu, C.; Dinescu, M.

    2013-11-01

    Zirconia thin films have been deposited by laser ablation of a ceramic ZrO2 target in vacuum or in oxygen background at 0.01 mbar. The laser beam generated by an ArF laser (λ=193 nm, ν=40 Hz) has been focalized on the target through a spherical lens at an incident angle of 45°. The laser fluence has been established to a value from 2.0 to 3.4 Jcm-2. A silicon (100) substrate has been placed parallel to the target, at a distance of 4 cm, and subsequently has been heated to temperatures ranging between 300 °C and 600 °C. Thin films morphology has been characterized by atomic force microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Biocompatibility of these thin films has been assessed by studying the cell attachment of L929 mouse fibroblasts.

  9. Drastic deviations from stoichiometry transfer during pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, Arne; Eberl, Christian; Schlenkrich, Susanne; Schlenkrich, Felix; Döring, Florian; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    In common, one of the most characteristic properties of pulsed laser deposition is the stoichiometry transfer between target and substrate, which has been used heavily for many complex systems. In this paper we show that it is yet possible to obtain drastic deviations from stoichiometry transfer in a binary system by just varying the fluence during laser deposition. In the W-Cu system, the W concentration of films grown from a composite W60Cu40 target (60 wt% W) was indeed continuously changed over an unprecedented large range of 0-70 wt% W. Close to the deposition threshold, pure Cu films are formed due to the much higher vapor pressure of Cu. At higher laser fluences, more and more W-rich W-Cu alloy samples are obtained, since ion implantation and intermixing processes occur. These alloys can reach W contents even higher than that of the target because of enhanced resputtering and reflection of the lighter Cu atoms at the film surface. Stoichiometric films with 60 wt% of W are only obtained at laser fluences around 2.7 J/cm2, when the strong Cu evaporation from the target and reflection and resputtering effects of Cu at the film surface are in balance.

  10. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of laser deposited advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sistla, Harihar Rakshit

    Additive manufacturing in the form of laser deposition is a unique way to manufacture near net shape metallic components from advanced materials. Rapid solidification facilitates the extension of solid solubility, compositional flexibility and decrease in micro-segregation in the melt among other advantages. The current work investigates the employment of laser deposition to fabricate the following: 1. Functionally gradient materials: This allows grading dissimilar materials compositionally to tailor specific properties of both these materials into a single component. Specific compositions of the candidate materials (SS 316, Inconel 625 and Ti64) were blended and deposited to study the brittle intermetallics reported in these systems. 2. High entropy alloys: These are multi- component alloys with equiatomic compositions of 5 or more elements. The ratio of Al to Ni was decreased to observe the transition of solid solution from a BCC to an FCC crystal structure in the AlFeCoCrNi system. 3. Structurally amorphous alloys: Zr-based metallic glasses have been reported to have high glass forming ability. These alloys have been laser deposited so as to rapidly cool them from the melt into an amorphous state. Microstructural analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the phase formation, and hardness was measured to estimate the mechanical properties.

  11. Experimental study of porosity reduction in high deposition-rate Laser Material Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Chongliang; Gasser, Andres; Schopphoven, Thomas; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2015-12-01

    For several years, the interest in Additive Manufacturing (AM) is continuously expanding, owing to the paradigm shift that new production processes, such as Laser Material Deposition (LMD), provide over conventional manufacturing technologies. With LMD, three-dimensional, complex components out of a wide range of materials can be manufactured consecutively layer-by-layer. Despite the technological advantages of the LMD process, currently achieved deposition-rates of approx. 0.5 kg/h for Inconel 718 (IN 718) remain a major concern in regards to processing times and economic feasibility. Moreover, processing conditions need to be chosen carefully or else material defects can be systematically formed either at the interface separating two adjacent clad layers, at the bonding zone or within the bulk of the layer. In this respect, the effects of powder humidity, laser power, nominal powder particle size, powder morphology and shielding gas flow rate on the porosity in laser deposited single tracks at an increased deposition-rate of approx. 2 kg/h was investigated through experiments. Based on experimental results, several approaches of reducing porosity in high deposition-rate LMD are proposed in this paper.

  12. Matrix shaped pulsed laser deposition: New approach to large area and homogeneous deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkan, C. K.; May, A.; Hammadeh, M.; Abdul-Khaliq, H.; Aktas, O. C.

    2014-05-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is one of the well-established physical vapor deposition methods used for synthesis of ultra-thin layers. Especially PLD is suitable for the preparation of thin films of complex alloys and ceramics where the conservation of the stoichiometry is critical. Beside several advantages of PLD, inhomogeneity in thickness limits use of PLD in some applications. There are several approaches such as rotation of the substrate or scanning of the laser beam over the target to achieve homogenous layers. On the other hand movement and transition create further complexity in process parameters. Here we present a new approach which we call Matrix Shaped PLD to control the thickness and homogeneity of deposited layers precisely. This new approach is based on shaping of the incoming laser beam by a microlens array and a Fourier lens. The beam is split into much smaller multi-beam array over the target and this leads to a homogenous plasma formation. The uniform intensity distribution over the target yields a very uniform deposit on the substrate. This approach is used to deposit carbide and oxide thin films for biomedical applications. As a case study coating of a stent which has a complex geometry is presented briefly.

  13. Pulsed laser deposition and characterization of ZnO nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Poulami; Sharma, Ashwini K.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the deposition and characterization of ZnO nanopore structures by pulsed laser deposition technique at a fixed substrate temperature and at different deposition times on a silicon (100) substrate. X-ray diffraction shows that ZnO nanopore structures are highly oriented along c-axis. Morphological analysis of the nanostructures studied by FESEM and AFM confirms the pores nature of the structures. The morphological evolution of the nanostructures as a function of deposition time is discussed on the basis of Stranski-Krastanov growth model. Optical properties of the nanostructures studied by photoluminescence spectra indicate that the observed transitions are from near band edge as well as from defect-related states.

  14. Resonant Infrared Pulsed-Laser Deposition of Polymers Using a Free-Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Stephen; Bellmont, Ron; Bubb, Daniel; Haglund, Richard; Schriver, Ken

    2004-11-01

    Thin films of polyethylene glycol and polystyrene have been produced using resonant infrared pulsed-laser deposition (RIR-PLD). The laser used for the experiments was a tunable, high pulse-repetition rate free-electron laser operating in the mid-IR (2.9 - 3.5 im). Transfer of polymers with molecular weights up to 13,000 was accomplished at resonant vibrational frequencies without concomitant fragmentation or other photochemical degradation, in contrast to PLD techniques using ultraviolet lasers. Potential applications for this technique include drug delivery coatings and chemical and biological sensor construction.

  15. Advanced laser diagnostics for diamond deposition research

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, C.H.; Owano, T.G.; Wahl, E.H.

    1995-12-31

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using thermal plasmas is attractive for diamond synthesis applications due to the inherently high reactant densities and throughput, but the associated high gas-phase collision rates in the boundary layer above the substrate produce steep thermal and species gradients which can drive the complex plasma chemistry away from optimal conditions. To understand and control these environments, accurate measurements of temperature and species concentrations within the reacting boundary layer are needed. This is challenging in atmospheric pressure reactors due to the highly luminous environment, steep thermal and species gradients, and small spatial scales. The applicability of degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) as a spectroscopic probe of atmospheric pressure reacting plasmas has been investigated. This powerful, nonlinear technique has been applied to the measurement of temperature and radical species concentrations in the boundary layer of a diamond growth substrate immersed in a flowing atmospheric pressure plasma. In-situ measurements of CH and C{sub 2} radicals have been performed to determine spatially resolved profiles of vibrational temperature, rotational temperature, and species concentration. Results of these measurements are compared with the predictions of a detailed numerical simulation.

  16. Photonic crystal fibers based on chalcogenide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J. L.; Troles, J.; Brilland, L.; Coulombier, Q.; Chartier, T.

    2010-10-01

    Chalcogenide glasses are known for their large transparency in the mid-infrared and their high refractive index (>2). They present also a high non-linear coefficient (n2), 100 to 1000 times larger than for silica, depending on the composition. An original way to obtain single-mode fibers is to design microstructured optical fibers (MOFs). These fibers present unique optical properties thanks to the high degree of freedom in the design of their geometrical structure. A classical method to realize MOFs is the stack-and-draw technique. However, with chalcogenide glasses, that technique induces optical losses at the interfaces in the stack of capillaries. In consequence, we have developed a new casting method to fabricate the chalcogenide preform. This method permits to obtain optical losses around 1 dB/m at 1.55 μm and 0.3 dB/m in the mid-IR region. Various chalcogenide microstructured fibers working in the IR range were prepared in order to take advantage of the non-linear properties of these glasses and of the original MOF properties. For example, fibers with small effective mode area (Aeff < 10 μm2) have been realized to exacerbate the non-linear optical properties. Such fibers will find applications for signal regeneration in telecom, and for the generation of supercontinuum sources. On the contrary, for military applications in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm windows, large effective mode area and single mode fibers have been designed to permit the propagation of high-power gaussian laser beams.

  17. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  18. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Noufi, Rommel; Chen, Yih-Wen

    1987-01-01

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  19. Understanding the deposition mechanism of pulsed laser deposited B-C films using dual-targets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Song; He, Zhiqiang; Wang, Chuanbin; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ji, Xiaoli; Lu, Wenzhong

    2014-04-21

    Boron carbide thin films with stoichiometry (boron-carbon atomic ratio) range of 0.1 ∼ 8.9 were fabricated via pulsed laser deposition by using boron-carbon dual-targets. However, this experimental data on stoichiometry were smaller than the computer simulation values. The discrepancy was investigated by studies on composition and microstructure of the thin films and targets by scanning electron microscopy, excitation laser Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that the boron liquid droplets were formed by phase explosion after laser irradiation on boron sector. Part of the boron droplets would be lost via ejection in the direction of laser beam, which is tilted 45° to the surface of substrate.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition and characterization of cellulase thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicco, N.; Morone, A.; Verrastro, M.; Viggiano, V.

    2013-08-01

    Thin films of cellulase were obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on an appropriate substrate. Glycoside hydrolase cellulase has received our attention because it emerges among the antifouling enzymes (enzymes being able to remove and prevent the formation of micro-organism biofilms) used in industry and medicine field. Pressed cellulase pellets, used as target material, were ablated with pulses of a Nd-YAG laser working at wavelength of 532 nm. In this work, we evaluated the impact of PLD technique both on molecular structure and hydrolytic activity of cellulase. Characteristic chemical bonds and morphology of deposited layers were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and SEM respectively. The hydrolytic activity of cellulase thin films was detected by a colorimetric assay.

  1. thin films by an hybrid deposition configuration: pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar-Alarcón, L.; Solís-Casados, D. A.; Perez-Alvarez, J.; Romero, S.; Morales-Mendez, J. G.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to report the application of an hybrid deposition configuration to deposit Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films modified with different amounts of bismuth (Bi:TiO2). The samples were synthesized combining a TiO2 laser ablation plasma with a flux of vapor of bismuth produced by thermal evaporation. By varying the deposition rate of Bi it was possible to control the amount of Bi incorporated in the film and consequently the film properties. A detailed compositional, structural, and optical characterization by XPS, RBS, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrometry techniques is discussed. Photocatalytic response of the deposited thin films was studied through the degradation of a malachite green solution.

  2. Femtosecond pulsed laser deposition of biological and biocompatible thin layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, B.; Smausz, T.; Kecskeméti, G.; Klini, A.; Bor, Zs.

    2007-07-01

    In our study we investigate and report the femtosecond pulsed laser deposition of biological and biocompatible materials. Teflon, polyhydroxybutyrate, polyglycolic-acid, pepsin and tooth in the form of pressed pellets were used as target materials. Thin layers were deposited using pulses from a femtosecond KrF excimer laser system (FWHM = 450 fs, λ = 248 nm, f = 10 Hz) at different fluences: 0.6, 0.9, 1.6, 2.2, 2.8 and 3.5 J/cm 2, respectively. Potassium bromide were used as substrates for diagnostic measurements of the films on a FTIR spectrometer. The pressure in the PLD chamber was 1 × 10 -3 Pa, and in the case of tooth and Teflon the substrates were heated at 250 °C. Under the optimized conditions the chemical structure of the deposited materials seemed to be largely preserved as evidenced by the corresponding IR spectra. The polyglycolic-acid films showed new spectral features indicating considerable morphological changes during PLD. Surface structure and thickness of the layers deposited on Si substrates were examined by an atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a surface profilometer. An empirical model has been elaborated for the description of the femtosecond PLD process. According to this the laser photons are absorbed in the surface layer of target resulting in chemical dissociation of molecules. The fast decomposition causes explosion-like gas expansion generating recoil forces which can tear off and accelerate solid particles. These grains containing target molecules without any chemical damages are ejected from the target and deposited onto the substrate forming a thin layer.

  3. Chalcogenide glass-based three-dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigel, A.; Kotler, Z.; Sfez, B.; Arsh, A.; Klebanov, M.; Lyubin, V.

    2000-11-01

    AsSeTe chalcogenide glasses are materials that are photosensitive and have a large refractive index. These properties make these glasses particularly suitable for the fabrication of photonic crystals. We present a way to build three-dimensional photonic structures from chalcogenide glasses using vapor deposition and direct holographic writing. We show that this technique is intrinsically self-aligned, providing a simple way to build layer-by-layer photonic crystals and a four-layer structure demonstrating the principle of the technique.

  4. Soft X-Ray Optics by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Felix E.

    1996-01-01

    Mo/Si and C/Co multilayers for soft x-ray optics were designed for spectral regions of interest in possible applications. Fabrication was effected by Pulsed Laser Deposition using Nd:YAG (355 nm) or excimer (248 nm) lasers in order to evaluate the suitability of this technique. Results for Mo/Si structures were not considered satisfactory due mainly to problems with particulate production and target surface modification during Si ablation. These problems may be alleviated by a two-wavelength approach, using separate lasers for each target. Results for C/Co multilayers are much more encouraging, since indication of good layering was observed for extremely thin layers. We expect to continue investigating this possibility. In order to compete with traditional PVD techniques, it is necessary to achieve film coverage uniformity over large enough areas. It was shown that this is feasible, and novel means of achieving it were devised.

  5. Research on the processing experiments of laser metal deposition shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Weijun; Shang, Xiaofeng

    2007-04-01

    Laser additive direct deposition of metals is a new rapid manufacturing technology, which combines with computer-aided design (CAD), laser cladding and rapid prototyping. The advanced technology can build fully dense metal components directly from CAD files with neither mould nor tool. Based on the theory of this technology, a promising rapid manufacturing system called "Laser Metal Deposition Shaping (LMDS)" has been constructed and developed successfully by Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang Institute of Automation. Through the LMDS system, comprehensive experiments are carried out with nickel-based superalloy to systematically investigate the influences of the processing parameters on forming characteristics. By adjusting to the optimal processing parameters, fully dense and near-net-shaped metallic parts can be directly obtained through melting coaxially fed powder with a laser. Moreover, the microstructure and mechanical properties of as-formed samples are tested and analyzed synthetically. As a result, significant processing flexibility with the LMDS system over conventional processing capabilities is recognized, with potentially lower production cost, higher quality components, and shorter lead-time.

  6. Effects of Laser Wavelength and Fluence in Pulsed Laser Deposition of Ge Films

    SciTech Connect

    Yap, Seong Shan; Reenaas, Turid Worren; Siew, Wee Ong; Tou, Teck Yong; Ladam, Cecile

    2011-03-30

    Nanosecond lasers with ultra-violet, visible and infrared wavelengths: KrF (248 nm, 25 ns) and Nd:YAG (1064 nm, 532 nm, 355 nm, 5 ns) were used to ablate polycrystalline Ge target and deposit Ge films in vacuum (<10-6 Torr). Time-integrated optical emission spectra were obtained for laser fluence from 0.5-10 J/cm{sup 2}. Neutrals and ionized Ge species in the plasma plume were detected by optical emission spectroscopy. Ge neutrals dominated the plasma plume at low laser fluence while Ge{sup +} ions above some threshold fluence. The deposited amorphous thin-film samples consisted of particulates of size from nano to micron. The relation of the film properties and plume species at different laser fluence and wavelengths were discussed.

  7. Pulsed laser deposition: the road to hybrid nanocomposites coatings and novel pulsed laser adaptive technique.

    PubMed

    Serbezov, Valery

    2013-01-01

    The applications of Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for producing nanoparticles, nanostructures and nanocomposites coatings based on recently developed laser ablating techniques and their convergence are being reviewed. The problems of in situ synthesis of hybrid inorganic-organic nanocomposites coatings by these techniques are being discussed. The novel modification of PLD called Pulsed Laser Adaptive Deposition (PLAD) technique is presented. The in situ synthesized inorganic/organic nanocomposites coatings from Magnesium (Mg) alloy/Rhodamine B and Mg alloy/ Desoximetasone by PLAD are described. The trends, applications and future development of discussed patented methods based on the laser ablating technologies for producing hybrid nanocomposite coatings have also been discussed in this review. PMID:22747717

  8. Thermochromic VO2 on Zinnwaldite Mica by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathevula, L.; Ngom, B. D.; Kotsedi, L.; Sechogela, P.; Doyle, T. B.; Ghouti, M.; Maaza, M.

    2014-09-01

    VO2 thin films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition on Zinnwaldite Mica substrates. The crystal structure, chemical composition, morphology were determined and the semiconductor/metal transition (SMT) properties of the deposited films were investigated. Without any post annealing, the films exhibit a textured nature with a VO2 (0 1 1) preferred crystallographic orientation and an elevated thermal variation of the electric resistance ratio RS/RM through the SMT at T ≈ 68 °C of the order of 104 and a narrow ∼7 °C hysteresis. In addition, the growth of the VO2 crystallites seem to be governed likely by a Volmer-Weber or Stranski-Krastanov mechanisms and certainly not a Frank-van Der Merwe process.

  9. Laser/Plasma/Chemical-Vapor Deposition Of Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, George C.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed process for deposition of diamond films includes combination of plasma induced in hydrocarbon feed gas by microwave radiation and irradiation of plasma and substrate by lasers. Deposition of graphite suppressed. Reaction chamber irradiated at wavelength favoring polymerization of CH2 radical into powders filtered out of gas. CH3 radicals, having desired sp3 configuration, remains in gas to serve as precursors for deposition. Feed gas selected to favor formation of CH3 radicals; candidates include CH4, C2H4, C2H2, and C2H6. Plasma produced by applying sufficient power at frequency of 2.45 GHz and adjusting density of gas to obtain electron kinetic energies around 100 eV in low-pressure, low-temperature regime.

  10. Detection of defects in laser powder deposition (LPD) components by pulsed laser transient thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santospirito, S. P.; Słyk, Kamil; Luo, Bin; Łopatka, Rafał; Gilmour, Oliver; Rudlin, John

    2013-05-01

    Detection of defects in Laser Powder Deposition (LPD) produced components has been achieved by laser thermography. An automatic in-process NDT defect detection software system has been developed for the analysis of laser thermography to automatically detect, reliably measure and then sentence defects in individual beads of LPD components. A deposition path profile definition has been introduced so all laser powder deposition beads can be modeled, and the inspection system has been developed to automatically generate an optimized inspection plan in which sampling images follow the deposition track, and automatically control and communicate with robot-arms, the source laser and cameras to implement image acquisition. Algorithms were developed so that the defect sizes can be correctly evaluated and these have been confirmed using test samples. Individual inspection images can also be stitched together for a single bead, a layer of beads or multiple layers of beads so that defects can be mapped through the additive process. A mathematical model was built up to analyze and evaluate the movement of heat throughout the inspection bead. Inspection processes were developed and positional and temporal gradient algorithms have been used to measure the flaw sizes. Defect analysis is then performed to determine if the defect(s) can be further classified (crack, lack of fusion, porosity) and the sentencing engine then compares the most significant defect or group of defects against the acceptance criteria - independent of human decisions. Testing on manufactured defects from the EC funded INTRAPID project has successful detected and correctly sentenced all samples.

  11. Chalcogenide phase-change thin films used as grayscale photolithography materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Wei, Jingsong; Fan, Yongtao

    2014-03-10

    Chalcogenide phase-change thin films are used in many fields, such as optical information storage and solid-state memory. In this work, we present another application of chalcogenide phase-change thin films, i.e., as grayscale photolithgraphy materials. The grayscale patterns can be directly inscribed on the chalcogenide phase-change thin films by a single process through direct laser writing method. In grayscale photolithography, the laser pulse can induce the formation of bump structure, and the bump height and size can be precisely controlled by changing laser energy. Bumps with different height and size present different optical reflection and transmission spectra, leading to the different gray levels. For example, the continuous-tone grayscale images of lifelike bird and cat are successfully inscribed onto Sb(2)Te(3) chalcogenide phase-change thin films using a home-built laser direct writer, where the expression and appearance of the lifelike bird and cat are fully presented. This work provides a way to fabricate complicated grayscale patterns using laser-induced bump structures onto chalcogenide phase-change thin films, different from current techniques such as photolithography, electron beam lithography, and focused ion beam lithography. The ability to form grayscale patterns of chalcogenide phase-change thin films reveals many potential applications in high-resolution optical images for micro/nano image storage, microartworks, and grayscale photomasks. PMID:24663836

  12. Chalcogenide three-dimensional photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigel, A. I.; Kotler, Zvi; Sfez, Bruno; Arsh, A.; Klebanov, Matvei; Lyubin, Victor

    2001-05-01

    AsSeTe/AsSe chalcogenide glasses are photosensitive materials with large refractive index. These properties make these glasses suitable for the fabrication of photonic crystals, waveguide components and MOEMS. We present in this article fabrication of 3D photonic crystals, composed from AsSeTe and air, with sub-micron feature size. The method of fabrication is relatively simple and cheap using only vapor deposition and optical holographic lithography. The interferometric alignment allows to eliminate requirement for a mask aligner.

  13. Cation Engineering of Cu-ferrite Films Deposited by Alternating Target Laser Ablation Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yang,A.; Chen, Z.; Islam, S.; Vittoria, C.; Harris, V.

    2008-01-01

    Epitaxial copper ferrite thin films were deposited on MgO substrates by the alternating target laser ablation deposition method. A series of films was studied to explore the impact of oxygen operating pressure, substrate temperature, and the ratio of laser shots incident on each target upon the magnetic, structural, and atomic structural properties. The highest saturation magnetization, 2800?G, was achieved at a 90?mTorr oxygen pressure and at 650? C for the substrate temperature. This value is 65% higher than the room temperature magnetization for bulk equilibrium samples. The inversion parameter was measured by extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. The sample having the highest saturation magnetization had a corresponding inversion parameter (percentage of Cu ion octahedral site occupancy) of 51.5% compared with the bulk value of 85%.

  14. Nanostructuring and texturing of pulsed laser deposited hydroxyapatite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunbin; Catledge, Shane; Vohra, Yogesh; Camata, Renato; Lacefield, William

    2003-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca_10(PO_4)_6(OH)_2] is commonly deposited onto orthopedic and dental metallic implants to speed up bone formation around devices, allowing earlier stabilization in a patient. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a suitable means of placing thin HA films on these implants because of its control over stoichiometry, crystallinity, and nanostructure. These characteristics determine the mechanical properties of the films that must be optimized to improve the performance of load-bearing implants and other devices that undergo bone insertion. We have used PLD to produce nanostructured and preferentially oriented HA films and evaluated their mechanical properties. Pure, highly crystalline HA films on Ti-6Al-4V substrates were obtained using a KrF excimer laser (248nm) with energy density of 4-8 J/cm^2 and deposition temperature of 500-700^rcC. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopies reveal that our careful manipulation of energy density and substrate temperature has led to films made up of HA grains in the nanometer scale. Broadening of x-ray diffraction peaks as a function of deposition temperature suggests it may be possible to control the film nanostructure to a great extent. X-ray diffraction also shows that as the laser energy density is increased in the 4-8 J/cm^2 range, the hexagonal HA films become preferentially oriented along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Texture, nanostructure, and phase make-up all significantly influence the mechanical properties. We will discuss how each of these factors affects hardness and Young's modulus of the HA films as measured by nanoindentation.

  15. Characterization of calcium phosphate coatings doped with Mg, deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique using ArF excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Mróz, W; Jedyński, M; Prokopiuk, A; Slósarczyk, A; Paszkiewicz, Z

    2009-01-01

    Calcium phosphate layers were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates with TiN buffer layers by use of pulsed laser deposition method. With this technique three pressed pellets consisted of tricalcium phosphate (TCP, Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)), hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)) and hydroxyapatite-doped with magnesium (HA with 4% of Mg and trace amount of (Ca,Mg)(3)(PO(4))(2)) were ablated using ArF excimer laser (lambda=193 nm). The using of different targets enabled to determine the influence of target composition on the nature of deposited layers. The obtained deposits were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The obtained Fourier spectras revealed differences in terms of intensity of spectral bands of different layers. The analysis from XRD showed that Mg-doped HA layer has crystalline structure and TCP and HA layers composition is characterized by amorphous nature. PMID:18407507

  16. Direct laser deposition of nanostructured tungsten oxide for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla-Papavlu, Alexandra; Filipescu, Mihaela; Schneider, Christof W.; Antohe, Stefan; Ossi, Paolo M.; Radnóczi, György; Dinescu, Maria; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films are deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency (RF) assisted PLD onto interdigitated sensor structures. Structural characterization by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy shows the WO3 films are polycrystalline, with a pure monoclinic phase for the PLD grown films. The as-fabricated WO3 sensors are tested for ammonia (NH3) detection, by measuring the electrical response to NH3 at different temperatures. Sensors based on WO3 deposited by RF-PLD do not show any response to NH3. In contrast, sensors fabricated by PLD operating at 100 °C and 200 °C show a slow recovery time whilst at 300 °C, these sensors are highly sensitive in the low ppm range with a recovery time in the range of a few seconds. The microstructure of the films is suggested to explain their excellent electrical response. Columnar WO3 thin films are obtained by both deposition methods. However, the WO3 films grown by PLD are porous, (which may allow NH3 molecules to diffuse through the film) whereas RF-PLD films are dense. Our results highlight that WO3 thin films deposited by PLD can be applied for the fabrication of gas sensors with a performance level required for industrial applications.

  17. Electron microscopy study of direct laser deposited IN718

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, R.G.; Huang, Z.W.; Li, H.Y.; Mitchell, I.; Baxter, G.; Bowen, P.

    2015-08-15

    The microstructure of direct laser deposited (DLD) IN718 has been investigated in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results confirm that the dendrite core microstructure can be linked to the cooling rate experienced during the deposition. A ~ 100 μm wide δ partially dissolved region in the IN718 substrate was observed close to the substrate/deposit boundary. In the deposited IN718, γ/Laves eutectic constituent is the predominant minor microconstituent. Irregular and regular (small) (Nb,Ti)C carbides and a mixture of the carbides and Laves were observed. Most M{sub 3}B{sub 2} borides were nucleated around a (Nb,Ti)C carbide. Needles of δ phase precipitated from the Laves phase were also observed. A complex constituent (of Laves, δ, α-Cr, γ″, and γ matrix) is reported in IN718 for the first time. The formation of α-Cr particles could be related to Cr rejection during the formation and growth of Cr-depleted δ phase. - Highlights: • Secondary phases in IN718 deposits were identified using electron diffraction and EDS. • MC, M{sub 3}B{sub 2}, γ/Laves eutectic and γ/NbC/Laves eutectic were observed. • Needle-like δ phases were precipitated from the Laves phase. • A complex constituent (Laves, δ, α-Cr, γ″ and γ) was reported for the first time.

  18. Vitroceramic interface deposited on titanium substrate by pulsed laser deposition method.

    PubMed

    Voicu, Georgeta; Miu, Dana; Dogaru, Ionut; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Busuioc, Cristina

    2016-08-30

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method was used to obtain biovitroceramic thin film coatings on titanium substrates. The composition of the targets was selected from SiO2-CaO-P2O5-(CaF2) systems and the corresponding masses were prepared using the sol-gel method. The depositions were performed in oxygen atmosphere (100mTorr), while the substrates were heated at 400°C. The PLD deposited films were analysed through different experimental techniques: X-ray diffraction, scanning (SEM, EDX) and transmission (HRTEM, SAED) electron microscopy and infra-red spectroscopy coupled with optical microscopy. They were also biologically tested by in vitro cell culture and the contact angle was determined. The bioevaluation results indicate a high biocompatibilty of the obtained materials, demonstrating their potential use for biomedical applications. PMID:26546909

  19. Hardening of smooth pulsed laser deposited PMMA films by heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Britta; Schlenkrich, Felix; Seyffarth, Susanne; Meschede, Andreas; Rotzoll, Robert; Vana, Philipp; Großmann, Peter; Mann, Klaus; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-03-01

    Smooth poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films without any droplets were pulsed laser deposited at a wavelength of 248 nm and a laser fluence of 125 mJ/cm2. After deposition at room temperature, the films possess low universal hardness of only 3 N/mm2. Thermal treatments up to 200°C, either during deposition or afterwards, lead to film hardening up to values of 200 N/mm2. Using a combination of complementary methods, two main mechanisms could be made responsible for this temperature induced hardening effect well above the glass transition temperature of 102°C. The first process is induced by the evaporation of chain fragments and low molecular mass material, which are present in the film due to the ablation process, leading to an increase of the average molecular mass and thus to hardening. The second mechanism can be seen in partial cross-linking of the polymer film as soon as chain scission occurs at higher temperatures and the mobility and reactivity of the polymer material is high enough.

  20. Composition variations in pulsed-laser-deposited Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films as a function of deposition parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, M. C.; Jones, B. B.; Hunt, B. D.; Barner, J. B.; Vasquez, R. P.; Bajuk, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    The composition of pulsed-ultraviolet-laser-deposited Y-Ba-Cu-O films was examined as a function of position across the substrate, laser fluence, laser spot size, substrate temperature, target conditioning, oxygen pressure and target-substrate distance. Laser fluence, laser spot size, and substrate temperature were found to have little effect on composition within the range investigated. Ablation from a fresh target surface results in films enriched in copper and barium, both of which decrease in concentration until a steady state condition is achieved. Oxygen pressure and target-substrate distance have a significant effect on film composition. In vacuum, copper and barium are slightly concentrated at the center of deposition. With the introduction of an oxygen background pressure, scattering results in copper and barium depletion in the deposition center, an effect which increases with increasing target-substrate distance. A balancing of these two effects results in stoichiometric deposition.

  1. Formation of ultrasmooth thin silver films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, I. A.; Garaeva, M. Ya.; Mamichev, D. A. Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Zanaveskin, M. L.

    2013-09-15

    Ultrasmooth thin silver films have been formed on a quartz substrate with a buffer yttrium oxide layer by pulsed laser deposition. The dependence of the surface morphology of the film on the gas (N{sub 2}) pressure in the working chamber and laser pulse energy is investigated. It is found that the conditions of film growth are optimal at a gas pressure of 10{sup -2} Torr and lowest pulse energy. The silver films formed under these conditions on a quartz substrate with an initial surface roughness of 0.3 nm had a surface roughness of 0.36 nm. These films can be used as a basis for various optoelectronics and nanoplasmonics elements.

  2. Hot-electron energy deposition around unsupported laser targets

    SciTech Connect

    Eidmann, K.; Maaswinkel, A.; Sigel, R.; Witkowski, S.; Amiranoff, F.; Fabbro, R.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1983-09-01

    Free-falling spheres, released by a simple mechanism, are used as laser targets. Hot-electron energy transport upon one-sided irradiation with 300-ps iodine laser pulses (6 x 10/sup 15/ W cm/sup -2/) is studied by various methods, including x-ray pinhole photography and time-resolved shadowgraphy. Spatial energy deposition is consistent with hot-electron spreading in the presence of self-generated magnetic fields, as suggested by recent experiments and simulations. The insensitivity of the results to the presence of a supporting stalk is attributed to inductive decoupling of the target. Free-falling targets open the possibility of highly symmetric implosion experiments.

  3. Time-resolved diagnostics of excimer laser-generated ablation plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Geohegan, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    Characteristics of laser plasmas used for pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of thin films are examined with four in situ diagnostic techniques: Optical emission spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, ion probe studies, and gated ICCD (intensified charge-coupled-device array) fast photography. These four techniques are complementary and permit simultaneous views of the transport of ions, excited states, ground state neutrals and ions, and hot particulates following KrF laser ablation of YBCO, BN, graphite and Si in vacuum and background gases. The implementation and advantages of the four techniques are first described in order to introduce the key features of laser plasmas for pulsed laser deposition. Aspects of the interaction of the ablation plume with background gases (i.e., thermalization, attenuation, shock formation) and the collision of the plasma plume with the substrate heater are then summarized. The techniques of fast ICCD photography and gated photon counting are then applied to investigate the temperature, velocity, and spatial distribution of hot particles generated during KrF ablation of YBCO, BN, Si and graphite. Finally, key features of fast imaging of the laser ablation of graphite into high pressure rare gases are presented in order to elucidate internal reflected shocks within the plume, redeposition of material on a surface, and formation of hot nanoparticles within the plume.

  4. Inorganic-organic thin implant coatings deposited by lasers.

    PubMed

    Sima, Felix; Davidson, Patricia M; Dentzer, Joseph; Gadiou, Roger; Pauthe, Emmanuel; Gallet, Olivier; Mihailescu, Ion N; Anselme, Karine

    2015-01-14

    The lifetime of bone implants inside the human body is directly related to their osseointegration. Ideally, future materials should be inspired by human tissues and provide the material structure-function relationship from which synthetic advanced biomimetic materials capable of replacing, repairing, or regenerating human tissues can be produced. This work describes the development of biomimetic thin coatings on titanium implants to improve implant osseointegration. The assembly of an inorganic-organic biomimetic structure by UV laser pulses is reported. The structure consists of a hydroxyapatite (HA) film grown onto a titanium substrate by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) and activated by a top fibronectin (FN) coating deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) was employed at fluences of 7 and 0.7J/cm(2) for HA and FN transfer, respectively. Films approximately 1500 and 450 nm thick were obtained for HA and FN, respectively. A new cryogenic temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry analysis method was employed to accurately measure the quantity of immobilized protein. We determined that less than 7 μg FN per cm(2) HA surface is adequate to improve adhesion, spreading, and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. We believe that the proposed fabrication method opens the door to combining and immobilizing two or more inorganic and organic materials on a solid substrate in a well-defined manner. The flexibility of this method enables the synthesis of new hybrid materials by simply tailoring the irradiation conditions according to the thermo-physical properties of the starting materials. PMID:25485841

  5. Infrared Pulsed Laser Deposition: Applications in Photonics and Biomedical Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Richard

    2006-04-01

    Resonant infrared pulsed-laser deposition (RIR-PLD) shows significant promise for synthesizing thin films of small organic molecules, thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers and biopolymers, without compromising structure or functionality. This contrasts with most attempts at UV-PLD of organic materials, which have often been accompanied by severe photochemical or photothermal degradation of the ablated material. Representative recent successes in RIR-PLD include deposition of: polymers for light emission and hole transport; functionalized polymers and nanoparticles for chemical and biological sensing; and biocompatible polymers suitable for coating medical devices or drug-delivery vehicles. Plume imaging and various other optical- and mass-spectroscopy experiments appear to confirm that polymers or organic molecules ablated by resonant infrared laser irradiation experience a high spatial and temporal density of vibrational excitation, but tend to remain in the electronic ground state. The mechanism of RIR-PLD is observed to depend on the anharmonicity of the mid-infrared absorption modes, their finite relaxation time, mode-specific nonlinear absorption, and rapid changes in polymer viscosity as a function of temperature. Many of the RIR-PLD experiments to date were carried out using a tunable, mid-infrared, picosecond free-electron laser. However, if RIR-PLD is to become a practical tool for making organic thin films, it will be necessary to develop more conventional lasers that can achieve a similar combination of high pulse intensity, low pulse energy, high pulse-repetition frequency and moderate average power. In conclusion, the prospects for developing precisely such table-top RIR-PLD systems will be discussed.

  6. Space processing of chalcogenide glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, D. C.; Ali, M. I.

    1977-01-01

    The manner in which the weightless, containerless nature of in-space processing can be successfully utilized to improve the quality of infrared transmitting chalcogenide glasses is determined. The technique of space processing chalcogenide glass was developed, and the process and equipment necessary to do so was defined. Earthbound processing experiments with As2S3 and G28Sb12Se60 glasses were experimented with. Incorporated into these experiments is the use of an acoustic levitation device.

  7. Defects in zinc oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Francis C. C.; Wang, Zilan; Ping Ho, Lok; Younas, M.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.; Su, S. C.; Shan, C. X.

    2016-01-01

    ZnO films are grown on c-plane sapphire using the pulsed laser deposition method. Systematic studies on the effects of annealing are performed to understand the thermal evolutions of the defects in the films. Particular attention is paid to the discussions of the ZnO/sapphire interface thermal stability, the Zn-vacancy related defects having different microstructures, the origins of the green luminescence (∼2.4-2.5 eV) and the near band edge (NBE) emission at 3.23 eV.

  8. Pulsed laser deposition of ITO thin films and their characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zuev, D. A. Lotin, A. A.; Novodvorsky, O. A.; Lebedev, F. V.; Khramova, O. D.; Petuhov, I. A.; Putilin, Ph. N.; Shatohin, A. N.; Rumyanzeva, M. N.; Gaskov, A. M.

    2012-03-15

    The indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are grown on quartz glass substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of ITO films are studied as a function of the substrate temperature, the oxygen pressure in the vacuum chamber, and the Sn concentration in the target. The transmittance of grown ITO films in the visible spectral region exceeds 85%. The minimum value of resistivity 1.79 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm has been achieved in the ITO films with content of Sn 5 at %.

  9. Application of pulsed-uv laser Raman spectroscopy to chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, P.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Raman detection limits obtained with a KrF laser excitation source were comparable to those obtained by laser-induced fluorescence and photofragment emission spectroscopy under chemical vapor deposition conditions.

  10. Pulsed laser deposition of polyhydroxybutyrate biodegradable polymer thin films using ArF excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskemeti, G.; Smausz, T.; Kresz, N.; Tóth, Zs.; Hopp, B.; Chrisey, D.; Berkesi, O.

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrated the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of high quality films of a biodegradable polymer, the polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Thin films of PHB were deposited on KBr substrates and fused silica plates using an ArF ( λ = 193 nm, FWHM = 30 ns) excimer laser with fluences between 0.05 and 1.5 J cm -2. FTIR spectroscopic measurements proved that at the appropriate fluence (0.05, 0.09 and 0.12 J cm -2), the films exhibited similar functional groups with no significant laser-produced modifications present. Optical microscopic images showed that the layers were contiguous with embedded micrometer-sized grains. Ellipsometric results determined the wavelength dependence ( λ ˜ 245-1000 nm) of the refractive index and absorption coefficient which were new information about the material and were not published in the scientific literature. We believe that our deposited PHB thin films would have more possible applications. For example to our supposal the thin layers would be applicable in laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) of biological materials using them as absorbing thin films.

  11. Role of deposition time on the properties of ZnO:Tb(3+) thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Ntwaeaborwa, O M; Coetsee, E; Swart, H C

    2016-07-15

    Terbium (Tb(3+)) doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Tb(3+)) thin films were grown on silicon (100) substrates by the pulsed laser deposition technique at different deposition times that varied from 15 to 55min. The effects of deposition time on the structural and optical properties of the ZnO:Tb(3+) films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. As expected, the thickness of the ZnO:Tb(3+) film has increased with an increase in the deposition time. The photoluminescence intensity of the band to band emission has also increased with deposition time, while the deep level defect emission has decreased. The blue emission was observed from all the ZnO:Tb(3+) thin films deposited at the different deposition times excited by 325nm He-Cd laser, while a green emission was observed when excited by 228nm. PMID:27124806

  12. Soft x ray optics by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Felix E.

    1994-01-01

    A series of molybdenum thin film depositions by PLD (Pulsed Laser Deposition) have been carried out, seeking appropriate conditions for multilayer fabrication. Green (532 nm) and UV (355 nm) light pulses, in a wide range of fluences, were used. Relatively large fluences (in comparison with Si) are required to cause evaporation of molybdenum. The optical penetration depths and reflectivities for Mo at these two wavelengths are comparable, which means that results should be, and do appear to be similar for equal fluences. For all fluences above threshold used, a large number of incandescent particles is ejected by the target (either a standard Mo sputtering target or a Mo sheet were tried), together with the plasma plume. Most of these particles are clearly seen to bounce off the substrate. The films were observed with light microscopy using Nomarski and darkfield techniques. There is no evidence of large debris. Smooth films plus micron-sized droplets are usually seen. The concentration of these droplets embedded in the film appears not to vary strongly with the laser fluence employed. Additional characterization with SEM and XRD is under way.

  13. Localized planarization of optical damage using laser-based chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Elhadj, Selim; Guss, Gabe M.; Sridharan, Arun; Nielsen, Norman D.; Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Lee, Daeho; Grigoropoulos, Costas

    2013-11-01

    We present a method to repair damaged optics using laser-based chemical vapor deposition (L-CVD). A CO2 laser is used to heat damaged silica regions and polymerize a gas precursor to form SiO2. Measured deposition rates and morphologies agree well with finite element modeling of a two-phase reaction. Along with optimizing deposition rates and morphology, we also show that the deposited silica is structurally identical to high-grade silica substrate and possesses high UV laser damage thresholds. Successful application of such a method could reduce processing costs, extend optic lifetime, and lead to more damage resistant laser optics used in high power applications.

  14. Electrochromic lithium nickel oxide by pulsed laser deposition and sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, M.; Wen, S.J.; Richardson, T.; Kerr, J.; Rottkay, K. von; Slack, J.

    1996-09-01

    Thin films of lithium nickel oxide were deposited by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from targets of pressed LiNiO{sub 2} powder. The composition and structure of these films were analyzed using a variety of techniques, such as nuclear-reaction analysis, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Crystalline structure, surface morphology and chemical composition of Li{sub x}Ni{sub 1{minus}x}O thin films depend strongly on deposition oxygen pressure, temperature as well as substrate-target distance. The films produced at temperatures lower than 600 C spontaneously absorb CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O at their surface once they are exposed to the air. The films deposited at 600 C proved to be stable in air over a long period. Even at room temperature the PLD films are denser and more stable than sputtered films. RBS determined the composition of the best films to be Li{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O deposited by PLD at 60 mTorr O{sub 2} pressure. Electrochemical tests show that the films exhibit excellent reversibility in the range 1.0 V to 3.4 V versus lithium. Electrochemical formatting which is used to develop electrochromism in other films is not needed for the stoichiometric films. The optical transmission range is almost 70% at 550 nm for 150-nm thick films. Devices made from these films were analyzed using novel reference electrodes and by disassembly after cycling.

  15. Laser energy deposition and its dynamic uniformity for direct-drive capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Wu, SiZhong; Zheng, WuDi

    2015-04-15

    The total laser energy deposition of multi-laser-beam irradiation is not only associated with the dynamic behavior of capsule but also the time-dependent angular distribution of the energy deposition of each beam around its axis. The dynamic behavior of laser energy deposition does not linearly respond to the dynamic behavior of laser irradiation. The laser energy deposition uniformity determines the symmetry of implosion. The dynamic behavior of laser energy deposition non-uniformity in OMEGA for laser with square beam shape intensity profile is investigated. In the case of smaller laser spot, the initial non-uniformity caused by laser beam overlap is very high. The shell asymmetry caused by the high initial laser irradiation non-uniformity is estimated by the extent of distortion of shock front which is not as severe as expected before the shock driven by main pulse arrives. This suggests that the large initial non-uniformity due to smaller laser spot is one of the elements that seed disturbance before the main pulse. The rms of laser energy deposition during the main pulse remains above 2%. Since the intensity of main driving pulse usually is several times higher than that of picket pulses, the non-uniformity in main pulse period may jeopardize the symmetrical implosion. When dynamic behavior of capsule is considered, the influence of beam pointing error, the target positioning error, and beam-to-beam power unbalance is quite different for the case of static capsule.

  16. Deposition of bimetallic Au/Ag clusters by the method of laser deposition of nanoparticles from colloidal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, A. A.; Arakelian, S. M.; Kutrovskaya, S. V.; Kucherik, A. O.; Vartanian, T. A.

    2014-02-01

    A method of formation of bimetallic clusters on the surface of optically transparent media is proposed. Nanoparticles of noble metals were obtained by laser ablation into a liquid. Clusters were formed by means of colloidal deposition of nanoparticles. Cluster morphology after deposition was studied by means of atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. We demonstrate transformation of the transmission spectrum of obtained structures before and after laser-induced aggregation.

  17. Modelling of Laser-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research is directed at development of a detailed model of mass and heat transfer and chemical reaction in the pyrolysis of silane for the growth of thin amorphous silicon substrates incorporating laser heating of the gas phase above the film. The model will be the basis for evaluation of the relative importances of the decomposition of SiH4 in the vapor phase, mass transfer of the intermediate species, e.g., SiH2, and the evolution of hydrogen gas. Plans are also underway for developing a model for homogeneous nucleation of Si in the vapor phase to model the rate limitations observed at high gas-phase temperatures and high partial pressures of silane. Work was concentrated on an almost one-dimensional model for the coupling of the CO2 laser beam for heat transfer of the vapor phase with simple kinetic models for SiH4 decomposition and subsequent absorption of Si vapor on the substrate. Mass transfer in the vapor phase is assumed to be solely by diffusion. The role of convection in the vapor phase caused by the large changes in density in and around the center of the laser beam will be analyzed to evaluate the potential of microgravity experiments for increasing the uniformity of the film and the deposition rate.

  18. Photo-induced optical bleaching in Ge12Sb25S63 amorphous chalcogenide thin films: effect of 532 nm laser illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Ramakanta; Jena, Shuvendu; Ganesan, R.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2015-03-01

    The photo-induced effects of Ge12Sb25S63 films illuminated with 532 nm laser light are investigated from transmission spectra measured by FTIR spectroscopy. The material exhibits photo-bleaching (PB) when exposed to band gap light for a prolonged time in a vacuum. The PB is ascribed to structural changes inside the film as well as surface photo-oxidation. The amorphous nature of thin films was detected by x-ray diffraction. The chemical composition of the deposited thin films was examined by energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX). The refractive indices of the films were obtained from the transmission spectra based on an inverse synthesis method and the optical band gaps were derived from optical absorption spectra using the Tauc plot. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico model. It was found that the mechanism of the optical absorption follows the rule of the allowed non-direct transition. Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) were measured and decomposed into several peaks that correspond to the different structural units which support the optical changes.

  19. The structure of deposited metal clusters generated by laser evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, P.; Brandstättner, M.; Ding, A.

    1991-09-01

    Metal clusters have been produced using a laser evaporation source. A Nd-YAG laser beam focused onto a solid silver rod was used to evaporate the material, which was then cooled to form clusters with the help of a pulsed high pressure He beam. TOF mass spectra of these clusters reveal a strong occurrence of small and medium sized clusters ( n<100). Clusters were also deposited onto grid supported thin layers of carbon-films which were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Very high resolution pictures of these grids were used to analyze the size distribution and the structure of the deposited clusters. The diffraction pattern caused by crystalline structure of the clusters reveals 3-and 5-fold symmetries as well as fcc bulk structure. This can be explained in terms of icosahedron and cuboctahedron type clusters deposited on the surface of the carbon layer. There is strong evidence that part of these cluster geometries had already been formed before the depostion process. The non-linear dependence of the cluster size and the cluster density on the generating conditions is discussed. Therefore the samples were observed in HREM in the stable DEEKO 100 microscope of the Fritz-Haber-Institut operating at 100 KV with the spherical aberration c S =0.5 mm. The quality of the pictures was improved by using the conditions of minimum phase contrast hollow cone illumination. This procedure led to a minimum of phase contrast artefacts. Among the well-crystallized particles were a great amount of five- and three-fold symmetries, icosahedra and cuboctahedra respectively. The largest clusters with five- and three-fold symmetries have been found with diameters of 7 nm; the smallest particles displaying the same undistorted symmetries were of about 2 mm. Even smaller ones with strong distortions could be observed although their classification is difficult. The quality of the images was improved by applying Fourier filtering techniques.

  20. Direct deposition of YBCO on polished Ag substrates by pulsed laser deposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, B.; Li, M.; Koritala, R. E.; Fisher, B. L.; Dorris, S. E.; Maroni, V. A.; Miller, D. J.; Balachandran, U.

    2002-09-15

    YBCO thin films were directly deposited on mechanically polished nontextured silver (Ag) substrates at elevated temperature by pulsed laser deposition with various inclination angles of 35, 55, and 72. Strong fiber texture, with the c-axis parallel to the substrate normal was detected by X-ray diffraction pole figure analysis. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images revealed that a few a-axis-oriented grains were dispersed on the top surface of the YBCO films. Transmission electron microscopy revealed dense amorphous layer at the interface between the YBCO film and the Ag substrate. Energy dispersive spectrum analysis indicates that the YBCO film deposited on the Ag substrate is slightly Cu-deficient. A YBCO film deposited at 755 C and an inclination angle of 55 exhibited {Tc} = 90 K. Transport critical current density measured by the four-probe method at 77 K in self-field was 2.7 x 10{sup 5}A/cm2. This work demonstrated a simple and inexpensive method to fabricate YBCO-coated conductors with high critical current density.

  1. Infrared antireflection DLC films by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuyun; Guo, Yanlong; Wang, Xiaobing; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Huisheng; Liu, Xu

    2009-05-01

    Diamond-like Carbon(DLC) films are deposited by Ti:Sapphire femtosecond pulsed laser(800nm, 120fs-2ps, 3.3W, 1-1000Hz) at room temperature. The substrate is n-type Si(100), and the target is 99.999%-purity graphite. After a great lot of experiments, optimal technical parameters, which are 1000Hz repetition frequency, 120fs pulse-width, 5cm-distance between target and underlay and 1014W/cm2 power-density, were used to deposite 443nm thick DLC film. Raman spectrum measurement shows a broad peak with a center at 1550 cm-1 for all films, similar to those of typical diamond-like carbon films prepared using other methods. And sp3-bond content reaches 67% analyzed by XPS. There is no nick on the film when scraped 105 times by a RS-5600 friction test machine under the pressure of 9.8N. The infrared transmittance increases along with the oxygen pressure when between 0.03 Pa and 2 Pa. The result shows that oxygen is effective in etching sp2-bond content. The extreme infrared transmittance of Si slice deposited DLC film on single surface is higher than 64% at 3-5μm, superior to 53% when being uncoated.

  2. Deposition of polyimide precursor by resonant infrared laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, N. L.; Gies, A. P.; Schriver, K. E.; Haglund, R. F., Jr.

    2007-11-01

    We report the successful deposition of a polyimide precursor using resonant infrared laser ablation (RIR-LA). A solution of poly(amic acid) (PAA) dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), the melt processable precursor to polyimide, was frozen in liquid nitrogen for use as an ablation target in a high-vacuum chamber. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine that the local chemical structure remained unaltered. Gel permeation chromatography demonstrated that the transferred PAA retained its molecular weight, showing that RIR-LA is able to transfer the polymer intact, with no detectable chain fragmentation. These results are in stark contrast to UV-processing which degrades the polymer. After deposition the PAA may be removed with a suitable solvent; however, once the material has undergone cyclodehydration it forms an impenetrable three-dimensional network associated with thermosetting polymers. The transfer of uncured PAA precursor supports the hypothesis that RIR-LA is intrinsically a low temperature process, because the PAA is transferred without reaching the curing temperature. The RIR-LA also effectively removes the solvent NMP from the PAA, during both the ablation and deposition phases; this is a necessary step in generating PI films.

  3. Pulsed laser deposition of nanostructured indium-tin-oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Thian Kok; Nee, Chen Hon; Yap, Seong Shan; Siew, Wee Ong; Sáfran, György; Yap, Yoke Kin; Tou, Teck Yong

    2010-08-01

    Effects of O2, N2, Ar and He on the formation of micro- and nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were investigated in pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition on glass substrate. For O2 and Ar, ITO resistivity of <= 4 × 10-4 Ωcm and optical transmittance of > 90% were obtained with substrate temperature of 250 °C. For N2 and He, low ITO resisitivity could be obtained but with poor optical transmittance. SEM images show nano-structured ITO thin films for all gases, where dense, larger and highly oriented, microcrystalline structures were obtained for deposition in O2 and He, as revealed from the XRD lines. EDX results indicated the inclusion of Ar and N2 at the expense of reduced tin (Sn) content. When the ITO films were applied for fabrication of organic light emitting devices (OLED), only those deposited in Ar and O2 produced comparable performance to single-layer OLED fabricated on the commercial ITO.

  4. Impact of laser power density on tribological properties of Pulsed Laser Deposited DLC films

    SciTech Connect

    Gayathri, S.; Sridharan, M. E-mail: m.sridharan@ece.sastra.edu; Kumar, N.; Krishnan, R. E-mail: m.sridharan@ece.sastra.edu; AmirthaPandian, S.; Ravindran, T. R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2013-12-15

    Fabrication of wear resistant and low friction carbon films on the engineered substrates is considered as a challenging task for expanding the applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. In this paper, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used to deposit DLC films on two different types of technologically important class of substrates such as silicon and AISI 304 stainless steel. Laser power density is one of the important parameter used to tailor the fraction of sp{sup 2} bonded amorphous carbon (a-C) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) made by sp{sup 3} domain in the DLC film. The I(D)/I(G) ratio decreases with the increasing laser power density which is associated with decrease in fraction of a-C/ta-C ratio. The fraction of these chemical components is quantitatively analyzed by EELS which is well supported to the data obtained from the Raman spectroscopy. Tribological properties of the DLC are associated with chemical structure of the film. However, the super low value of friction coefficient 0.003 is obtained when the film is predominantly constituted by a-C and sp{sup 2} fraction which is embedded within the clusters of ta-C. Such a particular film with super low friction coefficient is measured while it was deposited on steel at low laser power density of 2 GW/cm{sup 2}. The super low friction mechanism is explained by low sliding resistance of a-C/sp{sup 2} and ta-C clusters. Combination of excellent physical and mechanical properties of wear resistance and super low friction coefficient of DLC films is desirable for engineering applications. Moreover, the high friction coefficient of DLC films deposited at 9GW/cm{sup 2} is related to widening of the intergrain distance caused by transformation from sp{sup 2} to sp{sup 3} hybridized structure.

  5. Impact of laser power density on tribological properties of Pulsed Laser Deposited DLC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayathri, S.; Kumar, N.; Krishnan, R.; AmirthaPandian, S.; Ravindran, T. R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sridharan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fabrication of wear resistant and low friction carbon films on the engineered substrates is considered as a challenging task for expanding the applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. In this paper, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used to deposit DLC films on two different types of technologically important class of substrates such as silicon and AISI 304 stainless steel. Laser power density is one of the important parameter used to tailor the fraction of sp2 bonded amorphous carbon (a-C) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) made by sp3 domain in the DLC film. The I(D)/I(G) ratio decreases with the increasing laser power density which is associated with decrease in fraction of a-C/ta-C ratio. The fraction of these chemical components is quantitatively analyzed by EELS which is well supported to the data obtained from the Raman spectroscopy. Tribological properties of the DLC are associated with chemical structure of the film. However, the super low value of friction coefficient 0.003 is obtained when the film is predominantly constituted by a-C and sp2 fraction which is embedded within the clusters of ta-C. Such a particular film with super low friction coefficient is measured while it was deposited on steel at low laser power density of 2 GW/cm2. The super low friction mechanism is explained by low sliding resistance of a-C/sp2 and ta-C clusters. Combination of excellent physical and mechanical properties of wear resistance and super low friction coefficient of DLC films is desirable for engineering applications. Moreover, the high friction coefficient of DLC films deposited at 9GW/cm2 is related to widening of the intergrain distance caused by transformation from sp2 to sp3 hybridized structure.

  6. Laser crystallisation during pulsed laser deposition of barium titanate thin films at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottmann, J.; Vosseler, B.; Kreutz, E. W.

    2002-09-01

    Using a high dielectric material as substitute for SiO xN y in dielectric film capacitors of dynamic memories (DRAM) allows a significantly higher integration density and a reduction of the die size, even with planar capacitors. BaTiO 3 is such a material. A dielectric constant of ɛr>1000 has been achieved in thin films, made by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). For applications in microelectronic memories it is necessary to produce crystalline, defect-free and oriented BaTiO 3 thin films at substrate temperatures, TS<450 °C. Sintered targets of BaTiO 3 are ablated by KrF excimer laser radiation. The processing gas atmosphere consists of O 2 at pressures of 0.1-50 Pa. The substrate is resitively heated to 360-440 °C and annealed after or during PLD on Pt/Ti/Si multilayer substrates using KrF excimer laser radiation with fluences up to 120 mJ/cm 2. The temperature distribution in the BaTiO 3/Pt/Ti/Si multilayers during laser annealing is dynamically modelled and related to the resulting crystal quality and the dielectric properties of the films. With PLD a minimum substrate temperature of 500 °C is necessary to deposit crystalline BaTiO 3 films. Using in situ laser crystallisation crystalline BaTiO 3 films can be deposited at substrate temperatures of TS=360-440 °C showing a dielectric constant of up to ɛr=1200. The ferroelectric and dielectric properties of the films are determined by C- V and P- V impedance measurements and correlated to the chemical and structural properties, as determined by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, micro Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Pulsed laser deposition of oxide films by multi-kilowatt CO 2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultrich, B.; Lenk, A.; Witke, Th.; Borchardt, G.; Fritze, H.

    1997-02-01

    For realizing a high rate pulsed laser deposition (PLD) a pulsed 6 kW-CO2 laser conventionally used for laser machining was adapted by a suitable beam forming system. It allows intensities between 107 and 108 W/cm2 at a minimum pulse length of 100 μs. The targets consist of various compositions in the Al2O3-SiO2 system including the mullite phase. The deposition has been carried out in high vacuum. Even the average power of 200 W of the available 6 kW mostly used in these experiments due to the small sizes of the specially prepared targets yields mean deposition rates up to 100 nm/s. In-situ measurement of mass loss and momentum transfer on the target reveals that most of the material is ablated as microparticle, not as vapour. This corresponds with the cobblestone appearance of the films. Notwithstanding their rather coarse topography, they are dense without any kind of open porosity. This was also proved by mass loss investigations in oxidation experiments and by diffusion of 18O isotopes in combination with SNMS determination of the concentration profiles.

  8. Tailoring chromatic dispersion in chalcogenide-tellurite microstructured optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohoutek, Tomas; Duan, Zhongchao; Kawashima, Hiroyasu; Cheng, Tonglei; Suzuki, Takenobu; Matsumoto, Morio; Misumi, Takashi; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2014-08-01

    We report fabrication of a highly nonlinear hybrid microstructured optical fiber composed of chalcogenide glass core and tellurite glass cladding. The flattened chromatic dispersion can be achieved in such an optical fiber with near zero dispersion wavelength at telecommunication wavelengths λ = 1.35-1.7 μm, which cannot be achieved in chalcogenide glass optical fibers due to their high refractive index, i.e. n > 2.1. We demonstrate a hybrid 4-air hole chalcogenide-tellurite optical fiber (Δn = 0.25) with flattened chromatic dispersion around λ = 1.55 μm. In optimized 12-air hole optical fiber composed of the same glasses, the chromatic dispersion values were achieved between -20 and 32 ps/nm/km in a broad wavelength range of 1.5-3.8 μm providing the fiber with extremely high nonlinear coefficient 86,000 km-1W-1. Hybrid chalcogenide/tellurite fibers pumped with the near infrared lasers give good promise for broadband optical amplification, wavelength conversion, and supercontinuum generation in the near- to mid-infrared region.

  9. Laser-induced metal plasmas for pulsed laser deposition of metal-oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaars, Erik; Colgan, James; Rajendiran, Sudha; Rossall, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Metal and metal-oxide thin films, e.g. ZnO, MgO, Al2O3 and TiO2, are widely used in e.g. microelectronics, catalysts, photonics and displays. Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is a plasma-based thin-film deposition technique that is highly versatile and fast, however it suffers from limitations in control of film quality due to a lack of fundamental understanding of the underlying physical processes. We present experimental and modelling studies of the initial phases of PLD: laser ablation and plume expansion. A 2D hydrodynamic code, POLLUX, is used to model the laser-solid interaction of a Zn ablation with a Nd:YAG laser. In this early phase of PLD, the plasma plume has temperatures of about 10 eV, is highly ionized, and travels with a velocity of about 10-100 km/sec away from the target. Subsequently, the plasma enters the plume expansion phase in which the plasma cools down and collision chemistry changes the composition of the plume. Time-integrated optical emission spectroscopy shows that Zn I and Zn II emission lines dominate the visible range of the light emission. Comparison with the Los Alamos plasma kinetics code ATOMIC shows an average temperature around 1 eV, indicating a significant drop in plasma temperature during the expansion phase. We acknowledge support from the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), Grant EP/K018388/1.

  10. Processing Parameters Optimization for Material Deposition Efficiency in Laser Metal Deposited Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahamood, Rasheedat M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2016-03-01

    Ti6Al4V is an important Titanium alloy that is mostly used in many applications such as: aerospace, petrochemical and medicine. The excellent corrosion resistance property, the high strength to weight ratio and the retention of properties at high temperature makes them to be favoured in most applications. The high cost of Titanium and its alloys makes their use to be prohibitive in some applications. Ti6Al4V can be cladded on a less expensive material such as steel, thereby reducing cost and providing excellent properties. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process, an additive manufacturing process is capable of producing complex part directly from the 3-D CAD model of the part and it also has the capability of handling multiple materials. Processing parameters play an important role in LMD process and in order to achieve desired results at a minimum cost, then the processing parameters need to be properly controlled. This paper investigates the role of processing parameters: laser power, scanning speed, powder flow rate and gas flow rate, on the material utilization efficiency in laser metal deposited Ti6Al4V. A two-level full factorial design of experiment was used in this investigation, to be able to understand the processing parameters that are most significant as well as the interactions among these processing parameters. Four process parameters were used, each with upper and lower settings which results in a combination of sixteen experiments. The laser power settings used was 1.8 and 3 kW, the scanning speed was 0.05 and 0.1 m/s, the powder flow rate was 2 and 4 g/min and the gas flow rate was 2 and 4 l/min. The experiments were designed and analyzed using Design Expert 8 software. The software was used to generate the optimized process parameters which were found to be laser power of 3.2 kW, scanning speed of 0.06 m/s, powder flow rate of 2 g/min and gas flow rate of 3 l/min.

  11. Zinc oxide epitaxial thin film deposited over carbon on various substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, E; Moodley, M K; Sinha Ray, S; Panigrahi, B K; Krishnan, R; Padhy, N; Nair, K G M; Tyagi, A K

    2010-09-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is a promising candidate material for optical and electronic devices due to its direct wide band gap (3.37 eV) and high exciton binding energy (60 meV). For applications in various fields such as light emitting diode (LED) and laser diodes, growth of p-type ZnO is a prerequisite. ZnO is an intrinsically n-type semiconductor. In this paper we report on the synthesis of Zinc Oxide-Carbon (ZnO:C) thin films using pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD). The deposition parameters were optimized to obtain high quality epitaxial ZnO films over a carbon layer. The structural and optical properties were studied by glazing index X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), photoluminescence (PL), optical absorption (OA), and Raman spectroscopy. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEMEDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to determine the composition and surface morphology of these thin films. The GIXRD pattern of the synthesized films exhibited hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with a preferred (002) orientation. PL spectroscopy results showed that the emission intensity was maximum at -380 nm at a deposition temperature of 573 K. In the Raman spectra, the E2 phonon frequency around at 438 cm(-1) is a characteristic peak of the wurtzite lattice and could be seen in all samples. Furthermore, the optical direct band gap of ZnO films was found to be in the visible region. The growth of the epitaxial layer is discussed in the light of carbon atoms from the buffer layer. Our work demonstrates that the carbon is a novel dopant in the group of doped ZnO semiconductor materials. The introduction of carbon impurities enhanced the visible emission of red-green luminescence. It is concluded that the carbon impurities promote the zinc related native defect in ZnO. PMID:21133080

  12. Magnetotransport in Pulsed Laser Deposited Manganese Doped Lead Sulfide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimal, Gaurab; Sapkota, Keshab; Maksymov, Artur; Spinu, Leonard; Wang, Wenyong; Tang, Jinke

    Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have been proposed as promising candidates for spintronic applications. Most research in this field has been confined to III-V and II-VI semiconductor system. There are reports on IV-VI semiconductors, however reports on lead sulfide (PbS) based DMS is limited. We study the transport, magnetic and structural properties of manganese doped lead sulfide (Mn:PbS) films produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films are found to show hopping transport at low tempeature. Low temperature magnetoresistance (MR) studies show that the sign of MR can be changed by application of gate voltage. The magnetic properties of the films were also studied which showed ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.

  13. Thin nanocrystalline zirconia films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikovska, A. Og; Atanasova, G. B.; Avdeev, G. V.; Strijkova, V. Y.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, thin zirconia films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition at different substrate temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. The substrate temperature was varied from 400 °C to 600 °C, and the oxygen pressure, from 0.01 to 0.05 mbar. The effect was investigated of the substrate temperature and oxygen pressure on the formation of m-zirconia and t-zirconia phases.The formation of a cubic phase of ZrO2 by using targets doped with 3 and 8 mol % content Y2O3 was also investigated. The variation in the optical properties was studied and discussed in relation with the zirconia films' microstructure.

  14. Epitaxial Electronic Oxides on Semiconductors Using Pulsed-Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, D.P.; Budai, J.D.; Chisholm, M.F.

    1999-12-01

    We describe the growth and properties of epitaxial (OO1) CeO{sub 2} on a (001) Ge surface using a hydrogen-assisted pulsed-laser deposition method. Hydrogen gas is introduced during film growth to eliminate the presence of the GeOs from the semiconductor surface during the initial nucleation of the metal oxide film. The hydrogen partial pressure and substrate temperature are selected to be sufficiently high such that the germanium native oxides are thermodynamically unstable. The Gibbs free energy of CeO{sub 2} is larger in magnitude than that of the Ge native oxides, making it more favorable for the metal oxide to reside at the interface in comparison to the native Ge oxides. By satisfying these criteria. the metal oxide/semiconductor interface is shown to be atomically abrupt with no native oxide present. Preliminary structural and electrical properties are reported.

  15. Heteroepitaxial Growth of NSMO on Silicon by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kolagani, R; Friedrich, S

    2008-06-25

    The following is the optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) procedure by which we prepared the final samples that were sent to LLNL. These samples are epitaxial multilayer structures of Si/YSZ/CeO/NSMO, where the abbreviations are explained in the following table. In this heterostructure, YSZ serves as a buffer layer to prevent deleterious chemical reactions, and also serves to de-oxygenate the amorphous SiO{sub 2} layer to generate a crystalline template for epitaxy. CeO and BTO serve as template layers to minimize the effects of thermal and lattice mismatch strains, respectively. More details on the buffer and template layer scheme are included in the manuscript [Yong et al., 2008] attached to this report.

  16. Pulsed laser deposition of amorphous carbon/silver nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matenoglou, G.; Evangelakis, G. A.; Kosmidis, C.; Foulias, S.; Papadimitriou, D.; Patsalas, P.

    2007-07-01

    Metal/amorphous carbon (a-C:M) composite films are emerging as a category of very important engineering materials for surface protection. We implement pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to grow pure a-C and a-C:Ag nanocomposites. Our PLD process is assisted by a static electric field. We investigate the structural features of the a-C:Ag nanocomposites and the bonding configuration of the a-C matrix with respect to the electric field and the composition of the PLD target. For this study we use Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We show that the Ag mean grain size and the sp 2 content of the a-C matrix are increasing with increasing Ag content in the films.

  17. Chalcogenide electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Worrell, W.L.

    1981-09-08

    A battery is provided in which the anode contains an alkali metal in a high state of thermodynamic activity; the cathode comprises a partially alkali metal-intercalated chalcogenide of the formula AYMYZX wherein a is an alkali metal more electropositive and larger than the anode alkali metal, M is a transition metal of group IV or V, X is a numerical value of from about 1.8 to about 2.1, Y is a numerical value of from about 0.01 to about 1 and Z is sulfur, selenium or tellurium; and the electrolyte comprises ions of the anode metal in a medium which is compatible with the anode and cathode allowing transport of the ion from anode to intercalate into the cathode. In the discharged state the battery includes a cathode characterized by the presence of A'ZAYMZX in which A' is alkali metal more electronegative than A and Z is a numerical value in the range 0

  18. Chalcogenide electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Worrell, W.L.

    1980-06-03

    A battery is provided in which the anode contains an alkali metal in a high state of thermodynamic activity; the cathode comprises a partially alkali metal-intercalated chalcogenide of the formula AYMZX wherein A is an alkali metal more electropositive and larger than the anode alkali metal, M is a transition metal of group IV or V, X is a numerical value of from about 1.8 to about 2.1, Y is a numerical value of from about 0.01 to about 1 and Z is sulfur, selenium or tellurium; and the electrolyte comprises ions of the anode metal in a medium which is compatible with the anode and cathode allowing transport of the ion from anode to intercalate into the cathode. In the discharged state the battery includes a cathode characterized by the presence of Z'ZAYMZX in which A' is alkali metal more electronegative than A and Z is a numerical value in the range 0

  19. Space processing of chalcogenide glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, D. C.; Ali, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    Chalcogenide glasses are discussed as good infrared transmitters, possessing the strength, corrosion resistance, and scale-up potential necessary for large 10.6-micron windows. The disadvantage of earth-produced chalcogenide glasses is shown to be an infrared absorption coefficient which is unacceptably high relative to alkali halides. This coefficient is traced to optical nonhomogeneities resulting from environmental and container contamination. Space processing is considered as a means of improving the infrared transmission quality of chalcogenides and of eliminating the following problems: optical inhomogeneities caused by thermal currents and density fluctuation in the l-g earth environment; contamination from the earth-melting crucible by oxygen and other elements deleterious to infrared transmission; and, heterogeneous nucleation at the earth-melting crucible-glass interface.

  20. Properties of pulsed laser deposited fluorinated hydroxyapatite films on titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, J.V.; Smirnov, V.V.; Laureti, S.; Generosi, A.; Varvaro, G.; Fosca, M.; Ferro, D.; Cesaro, S. Nunziante; Albertini, V. Rossi; Barinov, S.M.

    2010-09-15

    Fluorinated hydroxyapatite coated titanium was investigated for application as implant coating for bone substitute materials in orthopaedics and dentistry. Pulsed laser deposition technique was used for films preparation. Fluorinated hydroxyapatite target composition, Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 1.37}(OH){sub 0.63}, was maintained at 2 J/cm{sup 2} of laser fluence and 500-600 {sup o}C of the substrate temperature. Prepared films had a compact microstructure, composed of spherical micrometric-size aggregates. The average surface roughness resulted to be of 3 nm for the film grown at 500 {sup o}C and of 10 nm for that grown at 600 {sup o}C, showing that the temperature increase did not favour the growth of a more fine granulated surface. The films were polycrystalline with no preferential growth orientation. The films grown at 500-600 {sup o}C were about 8 {mu}m thick and possessed a hardness of 12-13 GPa. Lower or higher substrate temperature provides the possibility to obtain coatings with different fine texture and roughness, thus tayloring them for various applications.

  1. In situ mechanical spectroscopy of laser deposited films using plasma plume excited reed

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Thorsten; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich

    2006-09-15

    We show a new approach to in situ measure the mechanical properties of pulsed laser deposited thin films by plasma plume excited reed with high accuracy. A vibrating reed, consisting of a Si substrate, is mounted into a pulsed laser deposition chamber. After deposition of the polymer film for investigation, the Si substrate is excited by the energy of the expanding laser plasma coming from a Ag target. The oscillations of the reed and their damping are measured using a diode laser reflected at the back side of the substrate, by observing the reflections with a position sensitive detector. Data collection as well as the coordination with the deposition setup are done computer controlled. Temperature dependent measurements of the damping of the reed oscillations then allow us to perform mechanical spectroscopy investigations of laser deposited polymer films.

  2. Novel doped hydroxyapatite thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duta, L.; Oktar, F. N.; Stan, G. E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Serban, N.; Luculescu, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of novel ovine and bovine derived hydroxyapatite thin films on titanium substrates by pulsed laser deposition for a new generation of implants. The calcination treatment applied to produce the hydroxyapatite powders from ovine/bovine bones was intended to induce crystallization and to prohibit the transmission of diseases. The deposited films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Pull-off adherence and profilometry measurements were also carried out. X-ray diffraction ascertained the polycrystalline hydroxyapatite nature of the powders and films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy evidenced the vibrational bands characteristic to a hydroxyapatite material slightly carbonated. The micrographs of the films showed a uniform distribution of spheroidal particulates with a mean diameter of ∼2 μm. Pull-off measurements demonstrated excellent bonding strength values between the hydroxyapatite films and the titanium substrates. Because of their physical-chemical properties and low cost fabrication from renewable resources, we think that these new coating materials could be considered as a prospective competitor to synthetic hydroxyapatite used for implantology applications.

  3. Pulsed laser deposition of polymer-metal nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenkrich, Felix; Seyffarth, Susanne; Fuchs, Britta; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-04-01

    Different polymer-metal nanocomposites, metal clusters on a polymer surface and for the first time also polymer/metal multilayers, were pulsed laser deposited at a wavelength of 248 nm. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and Bisphenol A dimeth-acrylate (BisDMA), which strongly differ in their hardness of 3 and 180 N/mm 2, respectively, were taken as polymer components. Metals Ag and Cu were chosen because of their different reactivity to polymers. When depositing Ag on PMMA, spherical clusters are formed due to high diffusion and total coalescence. For Cu, much smaller grains with partially elongated shapes occur because of lower diffusivity and incomplete coalescence. Compared to the results on the soft PMMA, the clusters formed on the harder BisDMA are much larger due to higher diffusivity on this underlayer. In PMMA/Cu multilayers, wavy layered structures and buckling is observed due to relaxation of compressive stress in the Cu layers. Smooth Cu layers with higher thicknesses can only be obtained, when the hardness of the polymer is sufficiently high, as in the case of BisDMA/Cu multilayers.

  4. Deposition of nickel microstructures by CO2 laser-assisted decomposition of nickel tetracarbonyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonneau, D.; Auvert, G.; Pauleau, Y.

    1989-07-01

    Nickel microstructures were produced from decomposition of Ni(CO)4 on quartz plates locally heated with a focused cw CO2 laser beam operating at 10.59 μm. The profile and deposition rate of Ni dots were determined as functions of irradiation time, reactant pressure, laser power, and laser-induced surface temperature. The kinetic data were found to be in good agreement with those of the visible laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of Ni dots and CVD of Ni films in furnace-type CVD reactors. The decomposition of Ni(CO)4 molecules irradiated with the infrared laser light occurred via a purely thermal process.

  5. Laser induced chemical vapor deposition of Ni by decomposition of Ni(CO)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuter, W.; Bäuerle, D.; Fimberger, F.

    1983-05-01

    Polycrystalline Ni has been grown by decomposition of Ni(CO)4 using different wavelengths of the visible radiation of a Kr+ laser. The influence of laser irradiance, substrate material and scanning velocity on deposition rate and widths of patterns has been investigated. The deposition rates achieved are typically several μm/s, and the lateral dimensions of the deposits can be as small as 1 μm.

  6. Electrical and optical properties of vanadium dioxide containing gold nanoparticles deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlianges, J.-C.; Leroy, J.; Crunteanu, A.; Mayet, R.; Carles, P.; Champeaux, C.

    2012-09-01

    Nanostructured vanadium dioxide is one of the most interesting and studied member of the vanadates family performing a reversible transition from an insulating state to a metallic state associated with a structural transition when heated above a temperature of 68 °C. On the other hand, noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) support localized surface plasmon resonance which causes selective absorption bands in the visible and near-IR regions. The purpose of this letter is to study structural, optical, and electrical properties of vanadium dioxide thin films containing gold nanoparticles synthetized using pulsed laser deposition process. Thus, we have performed x-ray diffraction, optical transmission, and four point probe electrical measurements to investigate the nanocomposite properties versus its temperature. Interestingly, we have observed switching behavior for VO2 film containing gold NPs with a resistivity contrast of four orders of magnitude and a decrease of its transition temperature.

  7. Space processing of chalcogenide glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, R. F.; Schramm, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technique of space processing for chalcogenide glass, and to define the process and equipment necessary. In the course of this program, successful long term levitation of objects in a 1-g environment was achieved. Glass beads 4 mm diameter were containerless melted and fused together.

  8. Optical switching of vanadium dioxide thin films deposited by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, M.; Chaker, M.; Haddad, E.; Kruzelecky, R. V.; Nikanpour, D.

    2004-05-01

    The parameters of reactive pulsed laser deposition were successfully optimized for fabrication of vanadium dioxide thin films. It is observed that the O2 concentration in Ar gas and the total deposition pressure are critical in stabilizing the single VO2 phase. Thermochromic VO2 and V1-xWxO2 (x=0.014) thin films were synthesized on various substrates (silicon, quartz, and sapphire) at 5% of O2/Ar ratio gas and total pressure of 90 mTorr. The structural properties of the deposited films were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, while their semiconductor-to-metal phase transitions were studied by electrical resistivity using the four-point technique and infrared transmittance from room temperature up to 100 °C. The observed transition temperature was about 36 °C for W-doped VO2 compared to 68 °C for VO2 films. This transition temperature was then lowered by about 22.85 °C per 1 at. % of W added. The temperature coefficient of resistance was about 1.78%/°C for VO2 and about 1.90%/°C for W-doped VO2. Using the pump-probe experiment, the application of these thermochromic films as optical switches was demonstrated at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. The transmission switching was about 25 dB for VO2 and 28 dB for W-doped VO2. In addition, application of VO2 on optical fiber components was demonstrated by direct VO2 coating on the end faces of cleaved single mode optical fibers and optical fiber connectors. .

  9. Prospects of Colloidal Copper Chalcogenide Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    van der Stam, Ward; Berends, Anne C; de Mello Donega, Celso

    2016-03-01

    Over the past few years, colloidal copper chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising alternatives to conventional Cd and Pb chalcogenide NCs. Owing to their wide size, shape, and composition tunability, Cu chalcogenide NCs hold great promise for several applications, such as photovoltaics, lighting and displays, and biomedical imaging. They also offer characteristics that are unparalleled by Cd and Pb chalcogenide NCs, such as plasmonic properties. Moreover, colloidal Cu chalcogenide NCs have low toxicity, potentially lower costs, and excellent colloidal stability. This makes them attractive materials for the large-scale deployment of inexpensive, sustainable, and environmentally benign solution-processed devices. Nevertheless, the synthesis of colloidal Cu chalcogenide NCs, especially that of ternary and quaternary compositions, has yet to reach the same level of mastery as that available for the prototypical Cd chalcogenide based NCs. This review provides a concise overview of this rapidly advancing field, sketching the state of the art and highlighting the key challenges. We discuss recent developments in the synthesis of size-, shape-, and composition-controlled NCs of Cu chalcogenides, with emphasis in strategies to circumvent the limitations arising from the need to precisely balance the reactivities of multiple precursors in synthesizing ternary and quaternary compositions. In this respect, we show that topotactic cation-exchange reactions are a promising alternative route to complex multinary Cu chalcogenide NCs and hetero-NCs, which are not attainable by conventional routes. The properties and potential applications of Cu chalcogenide NCs and hetero-NCs are also addressed. PMID:26684665

  10. The Effect Of Neutron Attenuation On Power Deposition In Nuclear Pumped 3He-Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetin, Füsun

    2007-04-01

    Nuclear-pumped lasers (NPLs) are driven by the products of nuclear reactions and directly convert the nuclear energy to directed optical energy. Pumping gas lasers by nuclear reaction products has the advantage of depositing large energies per reaction. The need for high laser power output implies high operating pressure. In the case of volumetric excitation by 3He(n, p)3H reactions, however, operation at high pressure (more than a few atm) causes excessive neutron attenuation in the 3He gas. This fact adversely effects on energy deposition and, hence, laser output power and beam quality. Here, spatial and temporal variations of neutron flux inside a closed 3He -filled cylindrical laser tube have been numerically calculated for various tube radii and operating pressures by using a previously reported dynamic model for energy deposition. Calculations are made by using ITU TRIGA Mark II Reactor as the neutron source. The effects of neutron attenuation on power deposition are examined.

  11. The Effect Of Neutron Attenuation On Power Deposition In Nuclear Pumped 3He-Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Cetin, Fuesun

    2007-04-23

    Nuclear-pumped lasers (NPLs) are driven by the products of nuclear reactions and directly convert the nuclear energy to directed optical energy. Pumping gas lasers by nuclear reaction products has the advantage of depositing large energies per reaction. The need for high laser power output implies high operating pressure. In the case of volumetric excitation by 3He(n, p)3H reactions, however, operation at high pressure (more than a few atm) causes excessive neutron attenuation in the 3He gas. This fact adversely effects on energy deposition and, hence, laser output power and beam quality. Here, spatial and temporal variations of neutron flux inside a closed 3He -filled cylindrical laser tube have been numerically calculated for various tube radii and operating pressures by using a previously reported dynamic model for energy deposition. Calculations are made by using ITU TRIGA Mark II Reactor as the neutron source. The effects of neutron attenuation on power deposition are examined.

  12. Inert Gas Enhanced Laser-Assisted Purification of Platinum Electron-Beam-Induced Deposits.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Michael G; Lewis, Brett B; Noh, Joo Hyon; Fowlkes, Jason D; Rack, Philip D

    2015-09-01

    Electron-beam-induced deposition patterns, with composition of PtC5, were purified using a pulsed laser-induced purification reaction to erode the amorphous carbon matrix and form pure platinum deposits. Enhanced mobility of residual H2O molecules via a localized injection of inert Ar-H2 (4%) is attributed to be the reactive gas species for purification of the deposits. Surface purification of deposits was realized at laser exposure times as low as 0.1 s. The ex situ purification reaction in the deposit interior was shown to be rate-limited by reactive gas diffusion into the deposit, and deposit contraction associated with the purification process caused some loss of shape retention. To circumvent the intrinsic flaws of the ex situ anneal process, in situ deposition and purification techniques were explored that resemble a direct write atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. First, we explored a laser-assisted electron-beam-induced deposition (LAEBID) process augmented with reactive gas that resulted in a 75% carbon reduction compared to standard EBID. A sequential deposition plus purification process was also developed and resulted in deposition of pure platinum deposits with high fidelity and shape retention. PMID:26126173

  13. Inert gas enhanced laser-assisted purification of platinum electron-beam-induced deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, Michael G.; Lewis, Brett B.; Noh, Joo Hyon; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Rack, Philip D.

    2015-06-30

    Electron-beam-induced deposition patterns, with composition of PtC5, were purified using a pulsed laser-induced purification reaction to erode the amorphous carbon matrix and form pure platinum deposits. Enhanced mobility of residual H2O molecules via a localized injection of inert Ar–H2 (4%) is attributed to be the reactive gas species for purification of the deposits. Surface purification of deposits was realized at laser exposure times as low as 0.1 s. The ex situ purification reaction in the deposit interior was shown to be rate-limited by reactive gas diffusion into the deposit, and deposit contraction associated with the purification process caused some loss of shape retention. To circumvent the intrinsic flaws of the ex situ anneal process, in situ deposition and purification techniques were explored that resemble a direct write atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. First, we explored a laser-assisted electron-beam-induced deposition (LAEBID) process augmented with reactive gas that resulted in a 75% carbon reduction compared to standard EBID. Lastly, a sequential deposition plus purification process was also developed and resulted in deposition of pure platinum deposits with high fidelity and shape retention.

  14. Inert gas enhanced laser-assisted purification of platinum electron-beam-induced deposits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stanford, Michael G.; Lewis, Brett B.; Noh, Joo Hyon; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Rack, Philip D.

    2015-06-30

    Electron-beam-induced deposition patterns, with composition of PtC5, were purified using a pulsed laser-induced purification reaction to erode the amorphous carbon matrix and form pure platinum deposits. Enhanced mobility of residual H2O molecules via a localized injection of inert Ar–H2 (4%) is attributed to be the reactive gas species for purification of the deposits. Surface purification of deposits was realized at laser exposure times as low as 0.1 s. The ex situ purification reaction in the deposit interior was shown to be rate-limited by reactive gas diffusion into the deposit, and deposit contraction associated with the purification process caused some lossmore » of shape retention. To circumvent the intrinsic flaws of the ex situ anneal process, in situ deposition and purification techniques were explored that resemble a direct write atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. First, we explored a laser-assisted electron-beam-induced deposition (LAEBID) process augmented with reactive gas that resulted in a 75% carbon reduction compared to standard EBID. Lastly, a sequential deposition plus purification process was also developed and resulted in deposition of pure platinum deposits with high fidelity and shape retention.« less

  15. Laser controlled deposition of metal microstructures via nondiffracting Bessel beam illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drampyan, Rafael; Leonov, Nikita; Vartanyan, Tigran

    2016-04-01

    The technique of the laser controlled deposition of sodium and rubidium deposits on the sapphire substrate is presented. The metals were deposited on the clean sapphire substrate from the vapor phase contained in the evacuated and sealed cell. We use an axicon to produce a non-diffracting Bessel beam out of the beam got from the cw diode laser with 200 mW power at the wavelength of 532 nm. After 30 minutes of the laser-controlled deposition the substrates were examined in the optical microscope. The obtained metal deposits form the sharp-cut circles with the pitch of 10 μm, coincident with the tens of dark rings of the Bessel beam. Reduction of the laser power leads to the build up of the continuous metal film over the whole substrate.

  16. Pyramidal growth of ceria nanostructures by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bârcă, E. S.; Filipescu, M.; Luculescu, C.; Birjega, R.; Ion, V.; Dumitru, M.; Nistor, L. C.; Stanciu, G.; Abrudeanu, M.; Munteanu, C.; Dinescu, M.

    2016-02-01

    We report in this paper on the deposition and characterization of CeO2 nanostructured thin films with hierarchical morphology. Micro-sized ceria powder (CeO2, 99.9% purity) was pressed to obtain a ceramic target. An ArF laser working at 193 nm irradiated the target in controlled oxygen gas flow at constant pressure (0.1 mbar). Silicon wafers used as substrates for thin films were heated at different temperatures, up to 773 K. The influence of substrate temperature on the structure and surface morphology of ceria thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The refractive indices and information about roughness and thickness were revealed by spectroellipsometry. Crystalline cubic ceria thin films exhibiting a hierarchical structure that combines columnar and dendritic growth were obtained at temperatures above 473 K. For the samples obtained at 773 K, columns ending in pyramidal formations with sharp edges and sizes of hundreds of nanometers were observed, indicating a high crystallinity of the layer. XRD analysis reveals a consistent increase of the X-ray coherence length/crystallite size along the [111] direction with increasing temperature. Using a semi-empirical formula, Raman crystallites sizes were calculated and it was found that size increases with the temperature increasing. The spectroellipsometry investigations evidenced the increasing of refractive index with the substrate temperature increase. High surface roughness and pyramidal structures were noticed from the atomic force microscopy images for layers deposited at substrate temperature above 473 K.

  17. Coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in all-solid chalcogenide microstructured fibers with all-normal dispersion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lai; Cheng, Tonglei; Nagasaka, Kenshiro; Tong, Hoangtuan; Qin, Guanshi; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2016-01-15

    We report the coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in an all-solid chalcogenide microstructured fiber with all-normal dispersion. The chalcogenide microstructured fiber is a four-hole structure with core material of AsSe2 and air holes that are replaced by As2S5 glass rods. Coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum light extended to 3.3 μm is generated in a 2 cm long chalcogenide microstructured fiber pumped by a 2.7 μm laser. PMID:26766722

  18. Porosity formation and gas bubble retention in laser metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, G. K. L.; Jarfors, A. E. W.; Bi, G.; Zheng, H. Y.

    2009-11-01

    One of the inherent problems associated with laser metal deposition using gas-assisted powder transfer is the formation of porosity, which can be detrimental to the mechanical properties of the bulk material. In this work, a comprehensive investigation of porosity is carried out using gas atomised Inconel 718 powder. In the analysis, a clear distinction is made between two types of porosity; namely lack of fusion and gas porosity. The results show that the two types of porosity are attributed by different factors. The gas porosity, which is more difficult to eliminate than the lack of fusion, can be as high as 0.7%. The study shows that the gas porosity is dependent on the process parameters and the melt pool dynamics. The flotation of entrapped gas bubbles was analysed, showing that in a stationary melt pool the gas would be retained by Marangoni-driven flow. The overall Marangoni-driven flow of the melt pool is in the order of five times higher than the flotation effect, and this is the reason why the melt pool geometry would tend to dominate the flow direction of the gas bubbles. Through optimisation, the gas porosity can be reduced to 0.037%.

  19. Pulsed laser deposition of polytetrafluoroethylene-gold composite layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskeméti, Gabriella; Smausz, Tomi; Berta, Zsófia; Hopp, Béla; Szabó, Gábor

    2014-11-01

    PTFE-metal composites are promising candidates for use as sensor materials. In present study PTFE-Au composite layers were deposited by alternated ablation of pressed Teflon pellets and gold plates with focused beam of an ArF excimer laser at 6 J/cm2 fluence, while keeping the substrate at 150 °C temperature. The morphology and chemical composition of the ~3-4 μm average thickness layers was studied by electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The layers were mainly formed of PTFE gains and clusters which are covered by a conductive Au film. For testing the applicability of such layers as sensing electrodes, composite layers were prepared on one of the two neighbouring electrode of a printed circuit board. Cholesterol and glucose solutions were prepared using 0.1M NaOH solvent containing 10% Triton X-100 surfactant. The electrodes were immersed in the solutions and voltage between the electrodes was measured while a constant current was drawn through the sample. The influence of the analyte concentration on the power spectral density of the voltage fluctuation was studied.

  20. Nano structured physical vapor deposited coatings by means of picosecond laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Bobzin, K; Bagcivan, N; Ewering, M; Gillner, A; Beckemper, S; Hartmann, C; Theiss, S

    2011-10-01

    Molding of nano structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the tools e.g., wear resistance and as low as possible release forces of the molded components. On the other hand it is not allowed to affect the replication precision. Physical vapor deposition is one of the promising technologies for applying coatings with adapted properties like high hardness, low roughness, low Young's modulus and less adhesion to the plastics melt. Although physical vapor deposition technology allows the deposition of films on micro structures without changing the structure significantly, film deposition on nano structures and small micro structures leads to a relevant change in surface topography. For this reason direct structuring of physical vapor deposition coatings might be beneficial. In this paper structuring was done using a picoseconds ultraviolet laser, Lumera Laser "Rapid," with a master oscillator power amplifier system at 355 nm. Two different coatings were deposited by magnetron sputter ion plating physical vapor deposition technology for laser structuring tests ((Cr, Al)N, (Cr, Al,Si)N). After deposition, the coatings were analyzed by common techniques regarding hardness, Young's modulus and morphology. The structures were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show a high potential for laser structuring of coatings deposited via physical vapor deposition. Linear structures with sizes between 400 nm and 10microm were realized. PMID:22400258

  1. Ferromagnets based on diamond-like semiconductors GaSb, InSb, Ge, and Si supersaturated with manganese or iron impurities during laser-plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Demidov, E. S. Podol'skii, V. V.; Lesnikov, V. P.; Sapozhnikov, M. V.; Druzhnov, D. M.; Gusev, S. N.; Gribkov, B. A.; Filatov, D. O.; Stepanova, Yu. S.; Levchuk, S. A.

    2008-01-15

    Properties of thin (30-100 nm) layers of diluted magnetic semiconductors based on diamond-like compounds III-V (InSb and GaSb) and elemental semiconductors Ge and Si doped with 3d impurities of manganese and iron up to 15% were measured and discussed. The layers were grown by laser-plasma deposition onto heated single-crystal gallium arsenide or sapphire substrates. The ferromagnetism of layers with the Curie temperature up to 500 K appeared in observations of the ferromagnetic resonance, anomalous Hall effect, and magneto-optic Kerr effect. The carrier mobility of diluted magnetic semiconductors is a hundred times larger than that of the previously known highest temperature magnetic semiconductors, i.e., copper and chromium chalcogenides. The difference between changes in the magnetization with temperature in diluted semiconductors based on III-V, Ge, and Si was discussed. A complex structure of the ferromagnetic resonance spectrum in Si:Mn/GaAs was observed. The results of magnetic-force microscopy showed a weak correlation between the surface relief and magnetic inhomogeneity, which suggests that the ferromagnetism is caused by the 3d-impurity solid solution, rather than ferromagnetic phase inclusions.

  2. Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides.

    PubMed

    Canciamilla, Antonio; Morichetti, Francesco; Grillanda, Stefano; Velha, Philippe; Sorel, Marc; Singh, Vivek; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel C; Melloni, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    A chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguide is realized by depositing a thin layer of A(2)S(3) glass onto a conventional silicon on insulator optical waveguide. The photosensitivity of the chalcogenide is exploited to locally change the optical properties of the waveguide through exposure to visible light radiation. Waveguide trimming is experimentally demonstrated by permanently shifting the resonant wavelength of a microring resonator by 6.7 nm, corresponding to an effective index increase of 1.6·10(-2). Saturation effects, trimming range, velocity and temporal stability of the process are discussed in details. Results demonstrate that photo-induced treatments can be exploited for a post-fabrication compensation of fabrication tolerances, as well as to set and reconfigure the circuit response. PMID:22772270

  3. Fabrication of chalcogenide glass waveguide for IR evanescent wave sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Ganjoo, Ashtosh; Jain, H.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Song, R.; Chanda, R.; Irudayaraj, Chanda J.; Ding, Y. J.; Pantano, C. G.

    2004-01-24

    Thin film multi-layered chalcogenide glass waveguide structures have been fabricated for evanescent wave sensing of bio toxins and other applications. Thin films of Ge containing chalcogenides have been deposited onto Si substrates, with a-GeSe2 as the cladding layer and a-GeSbSe as the core layer to form the slab waveguide. Channel waveguides have been written in the slab waveguides by appropriate light the through a mask. The photo-induced structural changes in the core layer selectively enhance refractive index at the portions of interest and thus confining the light to the channels. The waveguides have been characterized and tested for the guiding of light.

  4. Angular emission of ions and mass deposition from femtosecond and nanosecond laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Verhoff, B.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-06-15

    We investigated the angular distribution of ions and atoms emanating from femto- and nanosecond laser-produced metal plasmas under similar laser fluence conditions. For producing plasmas, aluminum targets are ablated in vacuum employing pulses from a Ti:Sapphire ultrafast laser (40 fs, 800 nm) and an Nd:YAG laser (6 ns, 1064 nm). The angular distribution of ion emission as well as the kinetic energy distribution is characterized by a Faraday cup, while a quartz microbalance is used for evaluating deposited mass. The ion and deposited mass features showed that fs laser ablated plasmas produced higher kinetic energy and more mass per pulse than ns plumes over all angles. The ion flux and kinetic energy studies show fs laser plasmas produce narrower angular distribution while ns laser plasmas provide narrower energy distribution.

  5. Method for controlling energy density for reliable pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dowden, P. C. E-mail: qxjia@lanl.gov; Bi, Z.; Jia, Q. X. E-mail: qxjia@lanl.gov

    2014-02-15

    We have established a methodology to stabilize the laser energy density on a target surface in pulsed laser deposition of thin films. To control the focused laser spot on a target, we have imaged a defined aperture in the beamline (so called image-focus) instead of focusing the beam on a target based on a simple “lens-focus.” To control the laser energy density on a target, we have introduced a continuously variable attenuator between the output of the laser and the imaged aperture to manipulate the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a “constant voltage” mode to eliminate changes in the lasers’ beam dimensions. This methodology leads to much better controllability/reproducibility for reliable pulsed laser deposition of high performance electronic thin films.

  6. Deposition of hydroxyapatite thin films by Nd:YAG laser ablation: a microstructural study

    SciTech Connect

    Nistor, L.C.; Ghica, C.; Teodorescu, V.S.; Nistor, S.V. . E-mail: snistor@alpha1.infim.ro; Dinescu, M.; Matei, D.; Frangis, N.; Vouroutzis, N.; Liutas, C.

    2004-11-02

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films has been successfully deposited by Nd:YAG laser ablation at {lambda} = 532 nm. The morphology and microstructure of the deposited layers was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). Polycrystalline HA films were directly obtained with the substrate at 300 deg. C and without introducing water vapors in the deposition chamber. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements show that the oxygen stoichiometry in the HA films is also maintained. Depositions performed at {lambda} = 335 nm laser wavelength and 300 deg. C substrate temperature resulted in polycrystalline layers of mixed composition of HA and tricalciumphosphate (TCP)

  7. Process for ion-assisted laser deposition of biaxially textured layer on substrate

    DOEpatents

    Russo, Richard E.; Reade, Ronald P.; Garrison, Stephen M.; Berdahl, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A process for depositing a biaxially aligned intermediate layer over a non-single crystal substrate is disclosed which permits the subsequent deposition thereon of a biaxially oriented superconducting film. The process comprises depositing on a substrate by laser ablation a material capable of being biaxially oriented and also capable of inhibiting the migration of substrate materials through the intermediate layer into such a superconducting film, while simultaneously bombarding the substrate with an ion beam. In a preferred embodiment, the deposition is carried out in the same chamber used to subsequently deposit a superconducting film over the intermediate layer. In a further aspect of the invention, the deposition of the superconducting layer over the biaxially oriented intermediate layer is also carried out by laser ablation with optional additional bombardment of the coated substrate with an ion beam during the deposition of the superconducting film.

  8. Process for ion-assisted laser deposition of biaxially textured layer on substrate

    DOEpatents

    Russo, R.E.; Reade, R.P.; Garrison, S.M.; Berdahl, P.

    1995-07-11

    A process for depositing a biaxially aligned intermediate layer over a non-single crystal substrate is disclosed which permits the subsequent deposition thereon of a biaxially oriented superconducting film. The process comprises depositing on a substrate by laser ablation a material capable of being biaxially oriented and also capable of inhibiting the migration of substrate materials through the intermediate layer into such a superconducting film, while simultaneously bombarding the substrate with an ion beam. In a preferred embodiment, the deposition is carried out in the same chamber used to subsequently deposit a superconducting film over the intermediate layer. In a further aspect of the invention, the deposition of the superconducting layer over the biaxially oriented intermediate layer is also carried out by laser ablation with optional additional bombardment of the coated substrate with an ion beam during the deposition of the superconducting film. 8 figs.

  9. Numerical Laser Energy Deposition on Supersonic Cavity Flow and Sensor Placement Strategies to Control the Flow

    PubMed Central

    Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of laser energy deposition on pressure oscillations and relative sound pressure levels (SPL) in an open supersonic cavity flow is investigated. Laser energy with a magnitude of 100 mJ is deposited on the flow just above the cavity leading edge and up to 7 dB of reduction is obtained in the SPL values along the cavity back wall. Additionally, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is applied to the x-velocity data obtained as a result of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the flow with laser energy deposition. Laser is numerically modeled using a spherically symmetric temperature distribution. By using the POD results, the effects of laser energy on the flow mechanism are presented. A one-dimensional POD methodology is applied to the surface pressure data to obtain critical locations for the placement of sensors for real time flow control applications. PMID:24363612

  10. Numerical laser energy deposition on supersonic cavity flow and sensor placement strategies to control the flow.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of laser energy deposition on pressure oscillations and relative sound pressure levels (SPL) in an open supersonic cavity flow is investigated. Laser energy with a magnitude of 100 mJ is deposited on the flow just above the cavity leading edge and up to 7 dB of reduction is obtained in the SPL values along the cavity back wall. Additionally, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is applied to the x-velocity data obtained as a result of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the flow with laser energy deposition. Laser is numerically modeled using a spherically symmetric temperature distribution. By using the POD results, the effects of laser energy on the flow mechanism are presented. A one-dimensional POD methodology is applied to the surface pressure data to obtain critical locations for the placement of sensors for real time flow control applications. PMID:24363612

  11. Dual beam optical system for pulsed laser ablation film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-09-24

    A laser ablation apparatus having a laser source outputting a laser ablation beam includes an ablation chamber having a sidewall, a beam divider for dividing the laser ablation beam into two substantially equal halves, and a pair of mirrors for converging the two halves on a surface of the target from complementary angles relative to the target surface normal, thereby generating a plume of ablated material emanating from the target. 3 figs.

  12. Modeling of plume dynamics in laser ablation processes for thin film deposition of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Leboeuf, J.N.; Chen, K.R.; Donato, J.M.; Geohegan, D.B.; Liu, C.L.; Puretzky, A.A.; Wood, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    The transport dynamics of laser-ablated neutral/plasma plumes are of significant interest for film growth by pulsed-laser deposition of materials since the magnitude and kinetic energy of the species arriving at the deposition substrate are key processing parameters. Dynamical calculations of plume propagation in vacuum and in background gas have been performed using particle-in-cell hydrodynamics, continuum gas dynamics, and scattering models. Results from these calculations are presented and compared with experimental observations.

  13. Pulsed-Laser Deposition of Electronic Oxides: Superconductor and Semiconductor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, D.P.; Park, C.; Lee, Y.E.; Budai, J.D.; Chisholm, M.F.; Verebelyi, D.T.; Christen, D.K.; Kroeger, D.M.

    2000-01-24

    Over the past decade, pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) has proven to be one of the most versatile and effective methods for obtaining high-quality electronic oxide thin-film materials. Much of this success can be attributed to its initial use in depositing high temperature superconducting materials. However, pulsed-laser deposition is now a leading research tool in the development of various electronic oxide thin-film technologies, In this paper, recent progress in the deposition of oxide materials on dissimilar materials for both superconductor and semiconductor applications is discussed. Recent developments in the synthesis of superconducting wires via epitaxial growth of superconducting oxides on biaxially textured metal tapes is described. In addition, efforts to integrate high-k dielectric oxides on semiconductor surfaces using pulsed-laser deposition are highlighted.

  14. Deposition and modification of tantalum carbide coatings on graphite by laser interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Branch, D.; Vanier, P.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Graphite surfaces can be hardened and protected from erosion by hydrogen at high temperatures by refractory metal carbide coatings, which are usually prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or chemical vapor reaction (CVR) methods. These techniques rely on heating the substrate to a temperature where a volatile metal halide decomposes and reacts with either a hydrocarbon gas or with carbon from the substrate. For CVR techniques, deposition temperatures must be in excess of 2000[degrees]C in order to achieve favorable deposition kinetics. In an effort to lower the bulk substrate deposition temperature, the use of laser interactions with both the substrate and the metal halide deposition gas has been employed. Initial testing, involved the use of a CO[sub 2] laser to heat the surface of a graphite substrate and a KrF excimer laser to accomplish a photodecomposition of TaCl[sub 5] gas near the substrate. Results of preliminary experiments using these techniques are described.

  15. Deposition and modification of tantalum carbide coatings on graphite by laser interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.; Branch, D.; Vanier, P.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1992-12-31

    Graphite surfaces can be hardened and protected from erosion by hydrogen at high temperatures by refractory metal carbide coatings, which are usually prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or chemical vapor reaction (CVR) methods. These techniques rely on heating the substrate to a temperature where a volatile metal halide decomposes and reacts with either a hydrocarbon gas or with carbon from the substrate. For CVR techniques, deposition temperatures must be in excess of 2000{degrees}C in order to achieve favorable deposition kinetics. In an effort to lower the bulk substrate deposition temperature, the use of laser interactions with both the substrate and the metal halide deposition gas has been employed. Initial testing, involved the use of a CO{sub 2} laser to heat the surface of a graphite substrate and a KrF excimer laser to accomplish a photodecomposition of TaCl{sub 5} gas near the substrate. Results of preliminary experiments using these techniques are described.

  16. Laser chemical vapor deposition of Cu and Ni in integrated circuit repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppaevuori, Seppo; Remes, Janne; Moilanen, Hannu

    1996-09-01

    Laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of nickel from Ni(CO)4 and copper from Cu(hfac)tmvs was utilized in the restructuring of an integrated circuit (IC) interconnection. Nickel and copper lines were deposited on passivated ICs by using a focused Ar+ laser beam to achieve new local rewirings on the chip. Nickel line depositions were carried out over the pressure range of 0.2 to 2.2 mbar of Ni(CO)4 buffered in 200 - 800 mbar He. The typical laser beam scan speed was 24 micrometers per second for both metals. The Cu(hfac)tmvs precursor gas partial pressure was 0.3 mbar buffered in 10 mbar He or H2 and typical laser scan speed was 24 micrometers per second. The morphology and chemical contents of the deposited interconnection microstructures was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical microscopy and laser ionization mass analysis (LIMA). The LIMA analysis indicated that the deposited copper surface was contaminated but the contamination level decreased when the layer was depth profiled. The deposited Ni lines were found to be pure Ni with only traces of carbon contamination. The utilization of XeCl excimer laser in the cutting of Al and Mo conductor lines and passivation contact via opening for IC modification is also described. LCVD method was successful in numerous different IC failure inspection and circuit modification cases.

  17. Phonon dynamics of neptunium chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aynyas, Mahendra; Rukmangad, Aditi; Arya, Balwant S.; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2012-06-01

    We have performed phonon calculations of Neptunium Chalcogenides (NpX) (X= S, Se, Te) based on breathing shell model (BSM) which includes breathing motion of electron of the Np-atoms due to f-d hybridization. The model predicts that the short range breathing phenomenon play a dominant role in the phonon properties. We also report, for the first time specific heat for these compounds.

  18. Preparation of γ-Al2O3 films by laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Ito, Akihiko; Goto, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    γ- and α-Al2O3 films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using CO2, Nd:YAG, and InGaAs lasers to investigate the effects of varying the laser wavelength and deposition conditions on the phase composition and microstructure. The CO2 laser was found to mostly produce α-Al2O3 films, whereas the Nd:YAG and InGaAs lasers produced γ-Al2O3 films when used at a high total pressure. γ-Al2O3 films had a cauliflower-like structure, while the α-Al2O3 films had a dense and columnar structure. Of the three lasers, it was the Nd:YAG laser that interacted most with intermediate gas species. This promoted γ-Al2O3 nucleation in the gas phase at high total pressure, which explains the cauliflower-like structure of nanoparticles observed.

  19. Experiment of Flow Control Using Laser Energy Deposition Around High Speed Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, HyoungJin; Jeung, InSeuck; Lee, SangHun; Kim, Seihwan

    2011-11-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to examine the effect of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser energy deposition on the shock structures in supersonic/hypersonic flow and quiescent air. The effect of the laser energy and pressure in the blast wave generation were also investigated. As a result, the strength of plasma and blast wave becomes stronger as pressure or laser energy increase. And the breakdown threshold of air by laser energy deposition is 0.015 bar at 508 mJ laser energy, the blast wave threshold generation in air by laser energy deposition is 0.100 bar at same laser energy. As qualitative analysis, schlieren images are also obtained. After the series of experiments, the effect of laser energy deposition (LED) on high speed flow around the shock—shock interaction created by a wedge and blunt body. By LED, the structure of shock—shock interaction was collapsed momentary and the pressure of the stagnation point was fluctuated while interference of wave.

  20. Interferometric technique for determining the energy deposition in gas-flow nuclear-pumped lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pikulev, A A

    2001-06-30

    An interference technique is developed for determining the energy deposition in gas-flow lasers pumped by uranium fission fragments. It is shown that four types of interference patterns may be formed. Algorithms are presented for determining the type of interference and for enumerating the maxima in interference pattern. (lasers, active media)

  1. PULSED LASER DEPOSITION OF MAGNETIC MULTILAYERS FOR THE GRANT ENTITLED LASER PROCESSING OF ADVANCED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Monica Sorescu

    2003-10-11

    Nanostructured magnetite/T multilayers, with T = Ni, Co, Cr, have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The thickness of individual magnetite and metal layers takes values in the range of 5-40 nm with a total multilayer thickness of 100-120 nm. X-ray diffraction has been used to study the phase characteristics as a function of thermal treatment up to 550 C. Small amounts of maghemite and hematite were identified together with prevailing magnetite phase after treatments at different temperatures. The mean grain size of magnetite phase increases with temperature from 12 nm at room temperature to 54 nm at 550 C. The thermal behavior of magnetite in multilayers in comparison with powder magnetite is discussed. These findings were published in peer-reviewed conference proceedings after presentation at an international materials conference.

  2. Laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition of copper from aqueous solutions without reducing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kochemirovsky, V A; Tumkin, I I; Logunov, L S; Safonov, S V; Menchikov, Leonid G

    2012-08-31

    Laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition of copper without a traditional reducing agent has been used for the first time to obtain conductive patterns on a dielectric surface having a reducing ability. It is shown that phenol-formaldehyde binder of the dielectric (glass fibre) can successfully play the role of a reducing agent in this process. The resulting copper sediments have low electrical resistance and good topology. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasmas)

  3. Schottky diodes and ohmic contacts formed by thermally assisted photolytic laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braichotte, D.; van den Bergh, H.

    Thermally assisted photolytic laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of platinum on n-doped gallium arsenide, a two-phase hybrid scheme for the production of Schottky diodes, is discussed. The low temperature photolytic deposits of the initial slow phase contain a nonnegligible fraction of organic ligand material and tend to be amorphous. In the second phase, light absorption of the photolytically deposited metal causes a temperature rise which facilitates the removal of ligand material from the deposit, and which is sufficient for fast pyrolytic LCVD. Measurements of the influence of light intensity, in addition to metalorganic and inert gas pressure, on the deposition rates in both phases are obtained.

  4. High energy conversion efficiency in laser-proton acceleration by controlling laser-energy deposition onto thin foil targets

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, C. M.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Markey, K.; Scott, R. H. H.; Lancaster, K. L.; Musgrave, I. O.; Spindloe, C.; Winstone, T.; Wyatt, D.; Neely, D.; Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P.; Rosinski, M.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Deppert, O.; Batani, D.; Davies, J. R.; Hassan, S. M.; Tatarakis, M.; and others

    2014-02-24

    An all-optical approach to laser-proton acceleration enhancement is investigated using the simplest of target designs to demonstrate application-relevant levels of energy conversion efficiency between laser and protons. Controlled deposition of laser energy, in the form of a double-pulse temporal envelope, is investigated in combination with thin foil targets in which recirculation of laser-accelerated electrons can lead to optimal conditions for coupling laser drive energy into the proton beam. This approach is shown to deliver a substantial enhancement in the coupling of laser energy to 5–30 MeV protons, compared to single pulse irradiation, reaching a record high 15% conversion efficiency with a temporal separation of 1 ps between the two pulses and a 5 μm-thick Au foil. A 1D simulation code is used to support and explain the origin of the observation of an optimum pulse separation of ∼1 ps.

  5. Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Frozen Alcohols for Deposition of Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoshi, Masayuki; Inoue, Wataru; Inoue, Narumi

    2008-06-01

    A 790 nm, 130 fs Ti:sapphire laser pulse ablated various frozen alcohols (CnH2n + 1OH, n = 1-6) to deposit diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films. The larger the carbon number (n) of the alcohols, the higher the hydrogen content of the DLC films; the sp3 carbon content ranged from 35 to 45%. The hydrogen content caused a change in the optical band gap of the films. Moreover, the deposition rate of the films increased linearly as the carbon number increased. The deposition rate did not simply relate to the amount of carbon species ejected from the frozen alcohols. Even though carbon species were largely generated, the ejected oxygen radicals etched the carbon to lower the deposition rate. When we used frozen benzene as a laser target, DLC thin films were not deposited. By dissolving boric acid in an alcohol, we could deposit boron-doped DLC thin films.

  6. Laser-induced deposition of nanostructured copper tracks from solutions containing oxidising additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateev, Sergey A.; Araslanova, Svetlana M.; Mironov, Vasilii S.; Gordeychuk, Dmitrii I.

    2015-05-01

    This paper involves the laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition of metals (LCLD). Organic alcohols with low molecular weights, such as ethanol and ethylene glycol, were used as the reductants. The addition of KBrO3 demonstrates how inorganic oxidizing additives affect the process of copper laser deposition from aqueous solutions. Such additives increase the deposition speed, which is an important challenge in the LCLD method. The deposited copper structures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive analysis (EDX), and impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent circuit of copper tracks was constructed using the impedance spectroscopy data. The studies revealed that the structures deposited from the solutions consist of densely agglomerated nanocrystals, which is in contrast to the microcrystalline deposit obtained in the absence of oxidizing additives.

  7. Thick film laser induced forward transfer for deposition of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kattamis, Nicholas T.; Purnick, Priscilla E.; Weiss, Ron; Arnold, Craig B.

    2007-10-22

    Laser forward transfer processes incorporating thin absorbing films can be used to deposit robust organic and inorganic materials but the deposition of more delicate materials has remained elusive due to contamination and stress induced during the transfer process. Here, we present the approach to high resolution patterning of sensitive materials by incorporating a thick film polymer absorbing layer that is able to dissipate shock energy through mechanical deformation. Multiple mechanisms for transfer as a function of incident laser energy are observed and we show viable and contamination-free deposition of living mammalian embryonic stem cells.

  8. Thick film laser induced forward transfer for deposition of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattamis, Nicholas T.; Purnick, Priscilla E.; Weiss, Ron; Arnold, Craig B.

    2007-10-01

    Laser forward transfer processes incorporating thin absorbing films can be used to deposit robust organic and inorganic materials but the deposition of more delicate materials has remained elusive due to contamination and stress induced during the transfer process. Here, we present the approach to high resolution patterning of sensitive materials by incorporating a thick film polymer absorbing layer that is able to dissipate shock energy through mechanical deformation. Multiple mechanisms for transfer as a function of incident laser energy are observed and we show viable and contamination-free deposition of living mammalian embryonic stem cells.

  9. Analysis of the influence of substrate temperature on hydroxyapatite deposited by laser ablation method using ArF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mróz, Waldemar; Jedyński, Marcin; Szymański, Zygmunt; Prokopiuk, Artur; Burdyńska, Sylwia

    2007-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite layers (Ca 10(PO 4)6(OH) II) were deposited by means of laser ablation method using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm). The influence of substrate temperature on the structure of deposited layers was studied. The layers were deposited on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy which temperature varied from 250 °C to 700 °C. The characteristics of the hydroxyapatite coatings were determined by means of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The obtained spectra reveal that the presence and abundance of the PO 4 absorption bands depend on the substrate temperature. The topography of the deposited layers were analyzed with the use of an Atomic Force Microscope.

  10. Coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in all-solid chalcogenide microstructured fibers with all-normal dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lai; Cheng, Tonglei; Nagasaka, Kenshiro; Tong, Hoang Tuan; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2016-02-01

    We report the coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in an all-solid chalcogenide microstructured fiber with all-normal dispersion. The chalcogenide microstructured fiber is four-hole structure with core material of AsSe2 and air holes are replaced by As2S5 glass rods. Coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum light is generated in a 2-cm-long chalcogenide microstructured fiber pumped by a 2.7 μm laser. The simulated and experimental results have a good match and the coherence property of supercontinuum light in the chalcogenide microstructured fiber has been studied by using the complex degree of coherence theory. Coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum generation is extended to 3.3 μm in this work.

  11. Electrical and optical characterization of multilayered thin film based on pulsed laser deposition of metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, V.; Orlando, S.; Parisi, G. P.; Giardini, A.; Perna, G.; Santoro, A. M.; Capozzi, V.

    2000-12-01

    Thin films of semiconducting oxides such as In2O3, SnO2, and multilayers of these two compounds have been deposited by reactive pulsed laser ablation, with the aim to produce toxic gas sensors. Deposition of these thin films has been carried out by a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser (λ=532 nm) on silicon (1 0 0) substrates. A comparison, among indium oxide, tin oxide, and multilayers of indium and tin oxides, has been performed. The influence of physical parameters such as substrate temperature, laser fluence and oxygen pressure in the deposition chamber has been investigated. The deposited films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical and electric resistance measurements.

  12. Transient nonlinear laser heating and deposition: A comparison of theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. D.; Goldstone, J. A.; Stone, J. P.; Jan, R. Y.

    1986-03-01

    Time-dependent nonlinear laser-heating calculations have been applied to the laser chemical vapor deposition of reflective metallic coatings on absorptive low thermal conductivity substrates such as fused quartz. The surface temperature profile is modified by the changing optical properties of the substrate as the film is deposited, leading to a decrease in the surface temperature and flattening of the temperature profile with increasing irradiation time and film deposition. The results of the theoretical calculations are compared with real-time optical measurements of the deposition rate of Ni from Ni(CO)4 on SiO2 using a CO2 laser as a function of irradiation time, yielding excellent agreement.

  13. Laser photochemical growth of amorphous silicon at low temperatures and comparison with thermal chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Eres, D.; Lowndes, D.H.; Geohegan, D.B.; Mashburn, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    Pulsed ArF (193 nm) excimer laser radiation has been used to dissociate disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/, resulting in photochemically controlled deposition of amorphous Si thin films. A high stability HeNe (6328 A) laser was used for precise in situ monitoring of film deposition rates, under varying deposition conditions. A helium window purge nearly eliminated Si film deposition on the chamber windows. With the excimer laser beam parallel to the substrate, deposition of amorphous Si can be controlled entirely by the photon fluence (negligible background thermal growth) at temperatures from room temperature up to /approximately/400/degree/C. Reasonable photolytic deposition rate (>1 A/sec) are combined with 'digital' control of film thickness (/approx gt/0.02 A/laser pulse). Activation energies of 1.50 (+-0.1) eV and 0.09 (+-0.02) eV were found for pyrolytic and photolytic deposition, respectively. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Characterization Of Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Si Thin Films Deposited Via Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Manyala, N.; Ngom, Balla; Kana-Kana, J. B.; Bucher, Remy; Maaza, M.; Di Tusa, J. F.

    2008-09-23

    We report on the structural and morphological characterization of B20 cubic structure Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}Si thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for the concentration range 0{<=}x{<=}0.3 deposited on Si (111) substrate. The x-ray diffraction, Rutherford back scattering (RBS), Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the films show that all the films are single phase B20 cubic structure with concentrations close to expected values, very smooth and dense with surface roughness less than 0.8 nm.

  15. Dynamically controlled deposition of colloidal nanoparticle suspension in evaporating drops using laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Ta, V D; Carter, R M; Esenturk, E; Connaughton, C; Wasley, T J; Li, J; Kay, R W; Stringer, J; Smith, P J; Shephard, J D

    2016-05-18

    Dynamic control of the distribution of polystyrene suspended nanoparticles in evaporating droplets is investigated using a 2.9 μm high power laser. Under laser radiation a droplet is locally heated and fluid flows are induced that overcome the capillary flow, and thus a reversal of the coffee-stain effect is observed. Suspension particles are accumulated in a localised area, one order of magnitude smaller than the original droplet size. By scanning the laser beam over the droplet, particles can be deposited in an arbitrary pattern. This finding raises the possibility for direct laser writing of suspended particles through a liquid layer. Furthermore, a highly uniform coating is possible by manipulating the laser beam diameter and exposure time. The effect is expected to be universally applicable to aqueous solutions independent of solutes (either particles or molecules) and deposited substrates. PMID:27094902

  16. Biomolecular papain thin films grown by matrix assisted and conventional pulsed laser deposition: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    György, E.; Pérez del Pino, A.; Sauthier, G.; Figueras, A.

    2009-12-01

    Biomolecular papain thin films were grown both by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and conventional pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques with the aid of an UV KrF∗ (λ =248 nm, τFWHM≅20 ns) excimer laser source. For the MAPLE experiments the targets submitted to laser radiation consisted on frozen composites obtained by dissolving the biomaterial powder in distilled water at 10 wt % concentration. Conventional pressed biomaterial powder targets were used in the PLD experiments. The surface morphology of the obtained thin films was studied by atomic force microscopy and their structure and composition were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The possible physical mechanisms implied in the ablation processes of the two techniques, under comparable experimental conditions were identified. The results showed that the growth mode, surface morphology as well as structure of the deposited biomaterial thin films are determined both by the incident laser fluence value as well as target preparation procedure.

  17. Acoustic monitoring of carbon film formation by laser-induced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Y.; Yeung, E.S. )

    1993-04-01

    Acoustic signals generated by the deposition of carbon thin films were monitored in situ by a microphone. Photolysis of benzene or adamantane vapor in the presence of helium buffer gas of 5 to 100 Torr by an ArF excimer laser formed several kinds of carbon films (e.g., polymeric, amorphous, and graphitic films), depending on the optical configuration, the ambient pressure, the laser fluence, and the reagent pressure. Analysis of the acoustic signal offers some insight into the mechanism of the deposition processes, which include the graphitization of the deposited films and the role of energetic particles, such as vibrationally excited benzene, in the deposition of amorphous hydrogenated carbon film. Also, the acoustic signal clearly showed the presence of surface-related processes in the course of film deposition. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The influence of laser and powder defocusing characteristics on the surface quality in laser direct metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Gangxian; Li, Dichen; Zhang, Anfeng; Pi, Gang; Tang, Yiping

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the influencing rules of the variations of powder and laser defocusing distance on surface quality and obtain the smooth surface of parts in laser direct metal deposition, the thin-walled metal parts were fabricated under three different powder defocusing distances and three different laser defocusing distances conditions. The experimental results show that a high surface quality can be obtained with the powder focussed below the substrate and laser focussed above the substrate process, and the variation in which the powder focus moves from above to below the melt pool plays a leading role and the variation in which the laser focus moves from above to below the melt pool plays a supplementary role in the influence on the surface quality. To explain the experimental results, a simple model of the track height is established.

  19. Photo-induced changes in a hybrid amorphous chalcogenide/silica photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Markos, Christos

    2014-01-06

    Photostructural changes in a hybrid photonic crystal fiber with chalcogenide nanofilms inside the inner surface of the cladding holes are experimentally demonstrated. The deposition of the amorphous chalcogenide glass films inside the silica capillaries of the fiber was made by infiltrating the nanocolloidal solution-based As{sub 25}S{sub 75}, while the photoinduced changes were performed by side illuminating the fiber near the bandgap edge of the formed glass nanofilms. The photoinduced effect of the chalcogenide glass directly red-shifts the transmission bandgap position of the fiber as high as ∼20.6 nm at around 1600 nm wavelength, while the maximum bandgap intensity change at ∼1270 nm was −3 dB.

  20. Grain growth of Ni-based superalloy IN718 coating fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaocheng; Yang, Li; Dai, Jun; Huang, Zedong; Meng, Tao

    2016-06-01

    The pulsed laser deposited Ni-based superalloy coating was fabricated with successive 12 layers using single tracks. The microstructure of the deposited coating was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The grain growth and the grain boundary misorientation were investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), the precipitation phase was determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results showed that the dendrites were the most common microstructure in the coating, and the dendritic growth orientation was paralleled to the direction of the laser deposition. The dendrite got coarser and its space was increased with increasing laser deposited layers. Most grains grew along the preferential grain orientation <001> and formed anisotropy with grain boundaries misorientation angle about 2° in the pulsed laser deposited coating. The grain size along the texture orientation was 3-10 times larger than that in the transverse orientation. The cross section microhardness of the coating ranged between 240-280 HV, and decreased along the depositional direction due to the reasons of the variation of eutectic morphology, grain size distribution, grain misorientation and a small amounts of strengthening phase precipitation.

  1. Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. H.; Simdyankin, S. I.; Hegedus, J.; Heo, J.; Elliott, S. R.

    2010-03-01

    The spatial distribution of Nd3+ ions and GaS4 tetrahedral units in Nd-doped Ge-As-Ga-S glasses has been studied by laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A sharp increase in Nd3+ fluorescence intensities and lifetimes was observed with increasing Ga content, and attributed to the formation of tightly bound Nd3+ clusters in Ga-free glasses and the subsequent dissolution of such clusters upon Ga doping. A large modification in Nd3+ sites was also identified from low-temperature site-selective excitation spectra, suggesting preferential spatial correlations between Nd3+ and GaS4 tetrahedra even at low Ga-doping levels. MD simulations of these materials in the liquid state showed a tendency for Ga cluster formation as well as spatial correlations between Nd and Ga atoms consistent with the experimental results. On the basis of this result, a comprehensive structural model for Nd- and Ga-doped sulfide glasses is proposed.

  2. Laser power and Scanning Speed Influence on the Mechanical Property of Laser Metal Deposited Titanium-Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahamood, Rasheedat M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.; Akinlabi, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    The influence of the laser power and the scanning speed on the microhardness of the Laser Metal Deposited Ti6Al4V, an aerospace Titanium-alloy, was studied. Ti6Al4V powder was deposited on the Ti6Al4V substrate using the Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process, an Additive Manufacturing (AM) manufacturing technology. The laser power was varied between 1.8 kW 3 kW and the scanning speed was varied between 0.05 m/s and 0.1 m/s. The powder flow rate and the gas flow rate were kept at constant values of 2 g/min and 2 l/min respectively. The full factorial design of experiment was used to design the experiment and to also analyze the results in the Design Expert 9 software environment. The microhardness profiling was studied using Microhardness indenter performed at a load of 500 g and at a dwelling time of 15 s. The distance between indentations was maintained at a distance of 15 μm. The study revealed that as the laser power was increased, the microhardness was found to decrease and as the scanning speed was increased, the microhardness was found to also increase. The results are presented and fully discussed.

  3. High rate, large area laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition of nickel from nickel carbonyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paserin, Vlad

    High-power diode lasers (HPDL) are being increasingly used in industrial applications. Deposition of nickel from nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4 ) precursor by laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was studied with emphasis on achieving high deposition rates. An HPDL system was used to provide a novel energy source facilitating a simple and compact design of the energy delivery system. Nickel deposits on complex, 3-dimensional polyurethane foam substrates were prepared and characterized. The resulting "nickel foam" represents a novel material of high porosity (>95% by volume) finding uses, among others, in the production of rechargeable battery and fuel cell electrodes and as a specialty high-temperature filtration medium. Deposition rates up to ˜19 mum/min were achieved by optimizing the gas precursor flow pattern and energy delivery to the substrate surface using a 480W diode laser. Factors affecting the transition from purely heterogeneous decomposition to a combined hetero- and homogeneous decomposition of nickel carbonyl were studied. High quality, uniform 3-D deposits produced at a rate more than ten times higher than in commercial processes were obtained by careful balance of mass transport (gas flow) and energy delivery (laser power). Cross-flow of the gases through the porous substrate was found to be essential in facilitating mass transport and for obtaining uniform deposits at high rates. When controlling the process in a transient regime (near the onset of homogenous decomposition), unique morphology features formed as part of the deposits, including textured surface with pyramid-shape crystallites, spherical and non-spherical particles and filaments. Operating the laser in a pulsed mode produced smooth, nano-crystalline deposits with sub-100 nm grains. The effect of H2S, a commonly used additive in nickel carbonyl CVD, was studied using both polyurethane and nickel foam substrates. H2S was shown to improve the substrate coverage and deposit

  4. Nano-machining of biosensor electrodes through gold nanoparticles deposition produced by femtosecond laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Ventura, B.; Funari, R.; Anoop, K. K.; Amoruso, S.; Ausanio, G.; Gesuele, F.; Velotta, R.; Altucci, C.

    2015-06-01

    We report an application of femtosecond laser ablation to improve the sensitivity of biosensors based on a quartz crystal microbalance device. The nanoparticles produced by irradiating a gold target with 527-nm, 300-fs laser pulses, in high vacuum, are directly deposited on the quartz crystal microbalance electrode. Different gold electrodes are fabricated by varying the deposition time, thus addressing how the nanoparticles surface coverage influences the sensor response. The modified biosensor is tested by weighting immobilized IgG antibody from goat and its analyte (IgG from mouse), and the results are compared with a standard electrode. A substantial increase of biosensor sensitivity is achieved, thus demonstrating that femtosecond laser ablation and deposition is a viable physical method to improve the biosensor sensitivity by means of nanostructured electrodes.

  5. Power deposition in volumetric /U-235/F6-He fission-pumped nuclear lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Deyoung, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The power deposition in (U-235)F6-He fission-pumped nuclear lasers is studied. Specifically, means to maximize the energy density in the He gas are assessed. Primary loss mechanisms are identified as the fission-fragment transport to the laser-cell wall and UF6 gas excitation. The losses are thus strongly dependent on UF6 concentration. It is found that maximum power will be deposited in a laser tube when the tube radius is as large as the range of fission fragments. Experimental results indicate that when the tube radius equals the fission-fragment range, the ratio of a UF6 partial pressure to total pressure is 0.15, and the UF6-He mixing ratio is 1:6, maximum power will be deposited.

  6. Metal-metal chalcogenide molecular precursors to binary, ternary, and quaternary metal chalcogenide thin films for electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruihong; Cho, Seonghyuk; Lim, Daw Gen; Hu, Xianyi; Stach, Eric A; Handwerker, Carol A; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2016-04-11

    Bulk metals and metal chalcogenides are found to dissolve in primary amine-dithiol solvent mixtures at ambient conditions. Thin-films of CuS, SnS, ZnS, Cu2Sn(S(x),Se(1-x))3, and Cu2ZnSn(S(x)Se(1-x))4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were deposited using the as-dissolved solutions. Cu2ZnSn(S(x)Se(1-x))4 solar cells with efficiencies of 6.84% and 7.02% under AM1.5 illumination were fabricated from two example solution precursors, respectively. PMID:26981781

  7. Space processing of chalcogenide glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, M. A.; Larsen, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    The manner in which the weightless, containerless nature of in-space processing can be successfully utilized to improve the quality of infrared transmitting chalcogenide glasses was investigated. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Laboratory experiments have established the techniques, processes and equipment necessary for the production of high purity chalcogenide glasses. (2) Processing techniques have been successfully adopted for Ge28Sb12Se60 glass in a 1-g environment. (3) The Ge28Sb12Se60 glasses that have been processed have optical transmission around 63% (5 mm thick). (4) Laboratory experiments have established that the use of precursor materials in powdered form increases the oxygen contamination of the processed glass. This indicates that high purity precursor materials in bar or pellet form should be used. (5) Modifications were made on the MSFC acoustic levitator in an attempt to improve levitation stability during long-time experiments. Room temperature experiments on As2S3 glasses and high temperature experiments on polystyrene were conducted.

  8. Pulsed laser deposition to synthesize the bridge structure of artificial nacre: Comparison of nano- and femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melaibari, Ammar A.; Molian, Pal

    2012-11-01

    Nature offers inspiration to new adaptive technologies that allow us to build amazing shapes and structures such as nacre using synthetic materials. Consequently, we have designed a pulsed laser ablation manufacturing process involving thin film deposition and micro-machining to create hard/soft layered "brick-bridge-mortar" nacre of AlMgB14 (hard phase) with Ti (soft phase). In this paper, we report pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to mimic brick and bridge structures of natural nacre in AlMgB14. Particulate formation inherent in PLD is exploited to develop the bridge structure. Mechanical behavior analysis of the AlMgB14/Ti system revealed that the brick is to be 250 nm thick, 9 μm lateral dimensions while the bridge (particle) is to have a diameter of 500 nm for a performance equivalent to natural nacre. Both nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) pulsed lasers were employed for PLD in an iterative approach that involves varying pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, and target-to-substrate distance to achieve the desired brick and bridge characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and optical profilometer were used to evaluate the film thickness, particle size and density, stoichiometry, and surface roughness of thin films. Results indicated that both ns-pulsed and fs-pulsed lasers produce the desired nacre features. However, each laser may be chosen for different reasons: fs-pulsed laser is preferred for much shorter deposition time, better stoichiometry, uniform-sized particles, and uniform film thickness, while ns-pulsed laser is favored for industrial acceptance, reliability, ease of handling, and low cost.

  9. Pulsed laser deposition to synthesize the bridge structure of artificial nacre: Comparison of nano- and femtosecond lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Melaibari, Ammar A.; Molian, Pal

    2012-11-15

    Nature offers inspiration to new adaptive technologies that allow us to build amazing shapes and structures such as nacre using synthetic materials. Consequently, we have designed a pulsed laser ablation manufacturing process involving thin film deposition and micro-machining to create hard/soft layered 'brick-bridge-mortar' nacre of AlMgB{sub 14} (hard phase) with Ti (soft phase). In this paper, we report pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to mimic brick and bridge structures of natural nacre in AlMgB{sub 14}. Particulate formation inherent in PLD is exploited to develop the bridge structure. Mechanical behavior analysis of the AlMgB{sub 14}/Ti system revealed that the brick is to be 250 nm thick, 9 {mu}m lateral dimensions while the bridge (particle) is to have a diameter of 500 nm for a performance equivalent to natural nacre. Both nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) pulsed lasers were employed for PLD in an iterative approach that involves varying pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, and target-to-substrate distance to achieve the desired brick and bridge characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and optical profilometer were used to evaluate the film thickness, particle size and density, stoichiometry, and surface roughness of thin films. Results indicated that both ns-pulsed and fs-pulsed lasers produce the desired nacre features. However, each laser may be chosen for different reasons: fs-pulsed laser is preferred for much shorter deposition time, better stoichiometry, uniform-sized particles, and uniform film thickness, while ns-pulsed laser is favored for industrial acceptance, reliability, ease of handling, and low cost.

  10. Performance properties of electro-spark deposited carbide-ceramic coatings modified by laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radek, Norbert; Bartkowiak, Konrad

    The work presented in this paper determines the influence of the laser treatment process on the properties of electrospark coatings. The properties after laser treatment were examined by microstructure analysis, microhardness, roughness and adhesion tests. The studies were conducted using WC-Co-Al2O3 electrodes produced by sintering nanostructural powders. The anti-wear coatings were first deposited by an EIL-8A apparatus on C45 carbon steel and then laser melted within various process parameters. In this case Nd:YAG laser (BLS 720 model) was applied. The electro-spark deposited coatings are very promising to improve abrasive wear resistance of tools and machine parts, which was indicated by tribological tests.

  11. High-speed deposition of titanium carbide coatings by laser-assisted metal–organic CVD

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yansheng; Tu, Rong; Goto, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A semiconductor laser was first used to prepare wide-area LCVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. • The effect of laser power for the deposition of TiC{sub x} coatings was discussed. • TiC{sub x} coatings showed a columnar cross section and a dense surface texture. • TiC{sub x} coatings had a 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous reports. • This study gives the possibility of LCVD applying on the preparation of TiC{sub x} coating. - Abstract: A semiconductor laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of titanium carbide (TiC{sub x}) coatings on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate using tetrakis (diethylamido) titanium (TDEAT) and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} as source materials were investigated. The influences of laser power (P{sub L}) and pre-heating temperature (T{sub pre}) on the microstructure and deposition rate of TiC{sub x} coatings were examined. Single phase of TiC{sub x} coatings were obtained at P{sub L} = 100–200 W. TiC{sub x} coatings had a cauliflower-like surface and columnar cross section. TiC{sub x} coatings in the present study had the highest R{sub dep} (54 μm/h) at a relative low T{sub dep} than those of conventional CVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. The highest volume deposition rate (V{sub dep}) of TiC{sub x} coatings was about 4.7 × 10{sup −12} m{sup 3} s{sup −1}, which had 3–10{sup 5} times larger deposition area and 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous LCVD using CO{sub 2}, Nd:YAG and argon ion laser.

  12. Photoemission Studies of Metallic Photocathodes Prepared by Pulsed Laser Ablation Deposition Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Fasano, V.; Lorusso, A.; Perrone, A.; De Rosa, H.; Cultrera, L.

    2010-11-10

    We present the results of our investigation on metallic films as suitable photocathodes for the production of intense electron beams in RF photoinjector guns. Pulsed laser ablation deposition technique was used for growing Mg and Y thin films onto Si and Cu substrates in high vacuum and at room temperature.Different diagnostic methods were used to characterize the thin films deposited on Si with the aim to optimize the deposition process. Photoelectron performances were investigated on samples deposited on Cu substrate in an ultra high vacuum photodiode chamber at 10{sup -7} Pa. Relatively high quantum efficiencies have been obtained for the deposited films, comparable to those of corresponding bulks. Samples could stay for several months in humid open air before being tested in a photodiode cell. The deposition process and the role of the photocathode surface contamination and its influence on the photoelectron performances are presented and discussed.

  13. Improved passivation of the ZnO/Si interface by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Gluba, M. A.; Nickel, N. H.; Rappich, J.; Hinrichs, K.

    2013-01-28

    Zinc oxide thin-films were grown on crystalline silicon employing magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition. Bulk and interface properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Raman backscattering, photoluminescence, and infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry. Sputter deposited ZnO samples reveal a large degree of disorder and an interface defect density of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. A significant improvement of the structural quality is observed in samples grown by pulsed laser deposition. The bulk defect density is further reduced, when introducing monatomic oxygen during deposition. Simultaneously, the defect density at the ZnO/Si interface decreases by about a factor of five. Implications for devices containing ZnO/Si interfaces are discussed.

  14. Frequency modulation in shock wave-boundary layer interaction by repetitive-pulse laser energy deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamba, T.; Pham, H. S.; Shoda, T.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.

    2015-09-01

    Modulation of shock foot oscillation due to energy deposition by repetitive laser pulses in shock wave-boundary layer interaction over an axisymmetric nose-cylinder-flare model in Mach 1.92 flow was experimentally studied. From a series of 256 schlieren images, density oscillation spectra at each pixel were obtained. When laser pulses of approximately 7 mJ were deposited with a repetition frequency, fe, of 30 kHz or lower, the flare shock oscillation had a peak spectrum equivalent to the value of fe. However, with fe of 40 kHz-60 kHz, it experienced frequency modulation down to lower than 20 kHz.

  15. Late-stage kinetics of laser-induced photochemical deposition in liquid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugonnot, Emmanuel; Muller, Xavier; Delville, Jean-Pierre

    2002-11-01

    Using a reaction-diffusion equation involving the one-photon excitation of a two-level system, we propose a rate equation that describes the late-stage growth of laser-induced photochemical deposits. With appropriate scaling, we show that the kinetics can be reduced to a single master curve for large beam radii. To experimentally illustrate the model, we investigate the coarsening of the deposit induced by a reaction with chromates photoactivated by a continuous Ar+ laser wave. Predicted growth laws are confirmed and the universal single-scaled dynamics is experimentally demonstrated.

  16. Research on laser-removal of a deuterium deposit from a graphite sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubkowska, M.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Rosinski, M.; Gasior, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents experimental results of investigation of a removal of deuterium deposits from a graphite target by means of pulsed laser beams. The sample was a part of the TEXTOR limiter with a deuterium-deposited layer. That target was located in the vacuum chamber, pumped out to 5×10-5 Torr, and it was irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser, which generated 3.5-ns pulses of energy of 0.5 J at λ1 = 1063 nm, or 0.1 J at λ3 = 355 nm.

  17. Cubic AlN thin film formation on quartz substrate by pulse laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biju, Zheng; Wen, Hu

    2016-06-01

    Cubic AlN thin films were obtained on quartz substrate by pulse laser deposition in a nitrogen reactive atmosphere. A Nd-YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm was used as the laser source. In order to study the influence of the process parameters on the deposited AlN film, the experiments were performed at various technique parameters of laser energy density from 70 to 260 J/cm2, substrate temperature from room temperature to 800 °C and nitrogen pressure from 0.1 to 50 Pa. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were applied to characterize the structure and surface morphology of the deposited AlN films. It was found that the structure of AlN films deposited in a vacuum is rocksalt under the condition of substrate temperature 600-800 °C, nitrogen pressure 10-0.1 Pa and a moderate laser energy density (190 J/cm2). The high quality AlN film exhibited good optical property. Project supported by the Yunnan Provincial Natural of Science Foundation of China (No. KKSY201251089).

  18. Note: large area deposition of Rh single and Rh/W/Cu multilayer thin films on stainless steel substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Mostako, A T T; Khare, Alika

    2014-04-01

    Mirror like thin films of single layer Rh and multilayer Rh/W/Cu are deposited on highly polished 50 mm diameter stainless steel substrate by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique for first mirror application in fusion reactors. For this, the conventional PLD technique has been modified by incorporating substrate rastering stage for large area deposition via PLD. Process optimization to achieve uniformity of deposition as estimated from fringe visibility and thickness is also discussed. PMID:24784679

  19. Note: Large area deposition of Rh single and Rh/W/Cu multilayer thin films on stainless steel substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mostako, A. T. T.; Khare, Alika

    2014-04-15

    Mirror like thin films of single layer Rh and multilayer Rh/W/Cu are deposited on highly polished 50 mm diameter stainless steel substrate by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique for first mirror application in fusion reactors. For this, the conventional PLD technique has been modified by incorporating substrate rastering stage for large area deposition via PLD. Process optimization to achieve uniformity of deposition as estimated from fringe visibility and thickness is also discussed.

  20. Effect of Fluid Convection on Dendrite Arm Spacing in Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yousub; Nordin, Mark; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Farson, Dave F.

    2014-08-01

    Ni superalloys are widely used for hot section components in jet engines because they are very resistant to corrosion and maintain reasonably high strength at elevated temperature. However, the repair cost of the parts is high, partly due to the complexities of process variable optimization and control in laser cladding. In particular, optimizing the process parameters by experiments is time-consuming and costly. The microstructure and properties of the metal deposit are significantly influenced by values temperature gradient G and solidification rate R at the weld pool solidification boundary. Optimized values can help to reduce defects and improve properties of laser deposits. Optimization is hindered by the fact that the clad melt pool is hot and small, making in situ measurement of such solidification conditions difficult. Numerical simulation of the laser deposition process is a possible alternative to experimental measurement to obtain values of clad solidification parameters. In this investigation, G and R values at the weld pool solidification boundary were obtained from a three dimensional numerical simulation of laser deposition process and melt pool. The primary dendrite arm spacing and cooling rate of the deposited material were then correlated to these solidification conditions.

  1. IgD Heavy-Chain Deposition Disease: Detection by Laser Microdissection and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Royal, Virginie; Quint, Patrick; Leblanc, Martine; LeBlanc, Richard; Duncanson, Garrett F.; Perrizo, Robert L.; Fervenza, Fernando C.; Kurtin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal Ig deposition disease (MIDD) is a rare complication of monoclonal gammopathy characterized by deposition of monoclonal Ig light chains and/or heavy chains along the glomerular and tubular basement membranes. Here, we describe a unique case of IgD deposition disease. IgD deposition is difficult to diagnose, because routine immunofluorescence does not detect IgD. A 77-year-old man presented with proteinuria and renal failure, and kidney biopsy analysis showed a nodular sclerosing GN with extensive focal global glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Immunofluorescence was negative for Ig deposits, although electron microscopy showed deposits in the glomeruli and along tubular basement membranes. Laser microdissection of glomeruli and mass spectrometry of extracted peptides showed a large spectra number for IgD, and immunohistochemistry showed intense glomerular and tubular staining for IgD. Together, these findings are consistent with IgD deposition disease. Bone marrow biopsy analysis showed 5% plasma cells, which stained for IgD. The patient was treated with bortezomib and dexamethasone, which resulted in improvement of hematologic parameters but no improvement of renal function. The diagnosis of IgD deposition disease underscores the value of laser microdissection and mass spectrometry in further evaluating renal biopsies when routine assessment fails to reach an accurate diagnosis. PMID:25194005

  2. Laser textured superhydrophobic surfaces and their applications for homogeneous spot deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Van Duong; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Li, Ji; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Esenturk, Emre; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2016-03-01

    This work reports the laser surface modification of 304S15 stainless steel to develop superhydrophobic properties and the subsequent application for homogeneous spot deposition. Superhydrophobic surfaces, with steady contact angle of ∼154° and contact angle hysteresis of ∼4°, are fabricated by direct laser texturing. In comparison with common pico-/femto-second lasers employed for this patterning, the nanosecond fiber laser used in this work is more cost-effective, compact and allows higher processing rates. The effect of laser power and scan line separation on surface wettability of textured surfaces are investigated and optimized fabrication parameters are given. Fluid flows and transportations of polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles suspension droplets on the processed surfaces and unprocessed wetting substrates are investigated. After evaporation is complete, the coffee-stain effect is observed on the untextured substrates but not on the superhydrophobic surfaces. Uniform deposition of PS particles on the laser textured surfaces is achieved and the deposited material is confined to smaller area.

  3. Prolonged laser ablation effects of YBCO ceramic targets during thin film deposition: Influence of processing parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, R.; Tsaneva, V.; Tsanev, V.; Ouzounov, D.

    1996-12-01

    Cumulative laser irradiation during high-Tc superconducting thin film pulsed laser deposition (PLD) may have a detrimental effect on film characteristics. Initial decrease of deposition rate and gradual shift of the center of the deposited material spot towards the incoming laser beam were registered on cold glass substrates. Their absorbance was used for evaluation of the film thickness distribution over the substrate area. At the initial stage, two components of the spot could be distinguished along its short axis: central (˜cosn θ, n≫1) and peripherial (˜cos θ), while with cumulative irradiation the thickness followed an overall cosm θ (mlaser-induced plasma optical emission evolution were observed, according to target surface morphology modification. Compositional and morphology changes of the ceramic YBCO target under prolonged XeCl laser irradiation were studied by EDAX and SEM for different processing parameters — laser fluence and oxygen environment. The results can be consistently explained suggesting the existence of an additional effective ablation threshold imposed by the modified surface relief.

  4. Ion implantation induced phase transformation and enhanced crystallinity of as deposited copper oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bind, Umesh Chandra; Dutta, Raj Kumar; Sekhon, Gurpreet Kaur; Yadav, Kanhaiya Lal; Krishna, J. B. M.; Menon, Ranjini; Nabhiraj, P. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Copper oxide thin film of about 260-280 nm thickness was deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on glass substrate at 350 °C and post depositional sample treatment was performed by ion implantation with 50 keV N5+ ion beam with varying particle fluence. Amorphous copper oxide thin film deposited at 80 mTorr partial pressure of oxygen was transformed to cubic Cu2O phase (20.2 nm) when implanted at 1 × 1016 particles/cm2. While mixed Cu2O and CuO phases in the thin film deposited at 100 mTorr oxygen pressure was transformed to single phase of Cu2O (23.5 nm), with enhanced crystallinity when implanted with 2.5 × 1015 particles/cm2. The phase transformation and improved crystallinity is attributed to thermal effect owing to stopping of incident ion beam. Implantation with higher particle fluence led to transformation to CuO phase with reduced crystallite sized and the increased electrical conductivity.

  5. Enhanced material purity and resolution via synchronized laser assisted electron beam induced deposition of platinum.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicholas A; Fowlkes, Jason D; Magel, Gregory A; Rack, Philip D

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a laser assisted electron beam induced deposition (LAEBID) process which is a nanoscale direct write synthesis method that integrates an electron beam induced deposition process with a synchronized pulsed laser step to induce thermal desorption of reaction by-products. Localized, spatially overlapping electron and photon pulses enable the thermal desorption of the reaction by-product while mitigating issues associated with bulk substrate heating, which can shorten the precursor residence time and distort pattern fidelity due to thermal drift. Current results demonstrate purification of platinum deposits (reduced carbon content by ~50%) with the addition of synchronized laser pulses as well as a significant reduction in deposit resistivity. Measured resistivities from platinum LAEBID structures (4 × 10(3)μΩ cm) are nearly 4 orders of magnitude lower than standard EBID platinum structures (2.2 × 10(7)μΩ cm) from the same precursor and are lower than the lowest reported EBID platinum resistivity with post-deposition annealing (1.4 × 10(4)μΩ cm). Finally the LAEBID process demonstrates improved deposit resolution by ~25% compared to EBID structures under the conditions investigated in this work. PMID:23184056

  6. Preparation and analysis of chemically gradient functional bioceramic coating formed by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P; Muraleedharan, C V; Sureshbabu, S; Komath, Manoj; Varma, Harikrishna

    2012-02-01

    Bioactive ceramic coatings based on calcium phosphates yield better functionality in the human body for a variety of metallic implant devices including orthopaedic and dental prostheses. In the present study chemically and hence functionally gradient bioceramic coating was obtained by pulsed laser deposition method. Calcium phosphate bioactive ceramic coatings based on hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were deposited over titanium substrate to produce gradation in physico-chemical characteristics and in vitro dissolution behaviour. Sintered targets of HA and α-TCP were deposited in a multi target laser deposition system. The obtained deposits were characterized by X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy was used to estimate the in vitro dissolution behaviour of coatings. The variation in mechanical property of the gradient layer was evaluated through scratch test and micro-indentation hardness. The bioactivity was examined in vitro with respect to the ability of HA layer to form on the surface as a result of contact with simulated body fluid. It could be inferred that chemically gradient functional bioceramic coating can be produced by laser deposition of multiple sintered targets with variable chemical composition. PMID:22105226

  7. Laser surface modification of electroplated, physically vapor deposited and plasma sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.

    1996-05-01

    Lasers are used to modify surface characteristics in order to improve properties for a variety of industrial applications. Typical surface alterations include: transformation hardening, melting, cladding, alloying, coating, and smoothing. This paper is a critical review that covers surface alloying. It concentrates on coatings applied by electroplating, plasma spraying or physical vapor deposition and the resultant properties obtained after laser treatment. In many cases, significant improvement in properties such as corrosion resistance, wear resistance, creep strength, porosity, and structure was noted after coatings were exposed to a laser treatment. 112 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Pulsed laser deposition of AlMgB14 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Britson, Jason Curtis

    2008-11-18

    Hard, wear-resistant coatings of thin film borides based on AlMgB14 have the potential to be applied industrially to improve the tool life of cutting tools and pump vanes and may account for several million dollars in savings as a result of reduced wear on these parts. Past work with this material has shown that it can have a hardness of up to 45GPa and be fabricated into thin films with a similar hardness using pulsed laser deposition. These films have already been shown to be promising for industrial applications. Cutting tools coated with AlMgB14 used to mill titanium alloys have been shown to substantially reduce the wear on the cutting tool and extend its cutting life. However, little research into the thin film fabrication process using pulsed laser deposition to make AlMgB14 has been conducted. In this work, research was conducted into methods to optimize the deposition parameters for the AlMgB14 films. Processing methods to eliminate large particles on the surface of the AlMgB14 films, produce films that were at least 1m thick, reduce the surface roughness of the films, and improve the adhesion of the thin films were investigated. Use of a femtosecond laser source rather than a nanosecond laser source was found to be effective in eliminating large particles considered detrimental to wear reduction properties from the films. Films produced with the femtosecond laser were also found to be deposited at a rate 100 times faster than those produced with the nanosecond laser. However, films produced with the femtosecond laser developed a relatively high RMS surface roughness around 55nm. Attempts to decrease the surface roughness were largely unsuccessful. Neither increasing the surface temperature of the substrate during deposition nor using a double pulse to ablate the material was found to be extremely successful to reduce the surface roughness. Finally, the adhesion of the thin films to M2 tool steel

  9. Fabrication of uniformly dispersed nanoparticle-doped chalcogenide glass

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Chao; Arnold, Craig; Almeida, Juliana M. P.; Yao, Nan

    2014-12-29

    The dispersion of metallic nanoparticles within a chalcogenide glass matrix has the potential for many important applications in active and passive optical materials. However, the challenge of particle agglomeration, which can occur during traditional thin film processing, leads to materials with poor performance. Here, we report on the preparation of a uniformly dispersed Ag-nanoparticle (Ag NP)/chalcogenide glass heterogeneous material prepared through a combined laser- and solution-based process. Laser ablation of bulk silver is performed directly within an arsenic sulfide/propylamine solution resulting in the formation of Ag NPs in solution with an average particle size of less than 15 nm as determined by dynamic light scattering. The prepared solutions are fabricated into thin films using standard coating processes and are then analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the particle shape and size distribution. By calculating the nearest neighbor index and standard normal deviate of the nanoparticle locations inside the films, we verify that a uniformly dispersed distribution is achieved through this process.

  10. Deposition dynamics of droplet-free Si nanoparticles in Ar gas using laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, D.; Mizuta, T.; Makimura, T.; Yoshida, S.; Fujita, M.; Hata, K.; Shigekawa, H.; Murakami, K.

    2002-09-01

    Droplet-free deposition of Si nanoparticle films has been studied applying time-resolved imaging of Si nanoparticles formed by laser ablation of Si targets in Ar gas. We found that Si nanoparticles can be deposited not only on substrates facing to the targets but also on substrates placed beside the target. We further confirmed using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), Si nanoparticles with sizes of 5-8 nm are deposited on substrates placed beside the target and using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on the substrates, no droplets are observed.

  11. Photoinduced anchoring on a chalcogenide surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, N.; Kurioz, Yu.; Klebanov, M.; Lyubin, V.; Slyusarenko, K.; Reznikov, Yu.

    2012-05-01

    We present basic characteristics and a model of photoinduced anchoring of liquid crystals (LCs) on a chalcogenide surface. It was found that characteristics of the alignment strongly depend on the LC material for the same chalcogenide glass. The photoalignment is partially reversible and can be controlled by changing the light polarization direction. We propose a model in which the existence of dichroic units on the chalcogenide surface and competition between two mechanisms of the photoalignment is suggested. The first mechanism is related to the light-induced anisotropy on the chalcogenide surface and results in an easy orientation axes of a LC parallel to the polarization of the incident light. The second mechanism is attributed to an energy transfer from the dichroic units after the light absorption to the LC molecules adsorbed on the chalcogenide surface. The transferred energy causes polarization-sensitive desorption of the LC molecules from the chalcogenide surface and the light-induced easy orientation axis of a LC perpendicular to the incident light polarization. The competition between these mechanisms leads to the observed change of the direction of the easy axis with the exposure.

  12. [INVITED] Control of femtosecond pulsed laser ablation and deposition by temporal pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrelie, Florence; Bourquard, Florent; Loir, Anne--Sophie; Donnet, Christophe; Colombier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    This study explores the effects of temporal laser pulse shaping on femtosecond pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The potential of laser pulses temporally tailored on ultrafast time scales is used to control the expansion and the excitation degree of ablation products including atomic species and nanoparticles. The ablation plume generated by temporally shaped femtosecond pulsed laser ablation of aluminum and graphite targets is studied by in situ optical diagnostic methods. Taking advantage of automated pulse shaping techniques, an adaptive procedure based on spectroscopic feedback regulates the irradiance for the enhancement of typical plasma features. Thin films elaborated by unshaped femtosecond laser pulses and by optimized sequence indicate that the nanoparticles generation efficiency is strongly influenced by the temporal shaping of the laser irradiation. The ablation processes leading either to the generation of the nanoparticles either to the formation of plasma can be favored by using a temporal shaping of the laser pulse. Insights are given on the possibility to control the quantity of the nanoparticles. The temporal laser pulse shaping is shown also to strongly modify the laser-induced plasma contents and kinetics for graphite ablation. Temporal pulse shaping proves its capability to reduce the number of slow radicals while increasing the proportion of monomers, with the addition of ionized species in front of the plume. This modification of the composition and kinetics of plumes in graphite ablation using temporal laser pulse shaping is discussed in terms of modification of the structural properties of deposited Diamond-Like Carbon films (DLC). This gives rise to a better understanding of the growth processes involved in femtosecond-PLD and picosecond-PLD of DLC suggesting the importance of neutral C atoms, which are responsible for the subplantation process.

  13. Surface modification of biomaterials by pulsed laser ablation deposition and plasma/gamma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Kaustubh R.

    Surface modification of stainless-steel was carried out by two different methods: pulsed laser ablation deposition (PLAD) and a combined plasma/gamma process. A potential application was the surface modification of endovascular stents, to enhance biocompatibility. The pulsed laser ablation deposition process, had not been previously reported for modifying stents and represented a unique and potentially important method for surface modification of biomaterials. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elatomer was studied using the PLAD technique. Cross- linked PDMS was deemed important because of its general use for biomedical implants and devices as well as in other fields. Furthermore, PDMS deposition using PLAD had not been previously studied and any information gained on its ablation characteristics could be important scientifically and technologically. The studies reported here showed that the deposited silicone film properties had a dependence on the laser energy density incident on the target. Smooth, hydrophobic, silicone-like films were deposited at low energy densities (100-150 mJ/cm2). At high energy densities (>200 mJ/cm2), the films had an higher oxygen content than PDMS, were hydrophilic and tended to show a more particulate morphology. It was also determined that (1)the deposited films were stable and extremely adherent to the substrate, (2)silicone deposition exhibited an `incubation effect' which led to the film properties changing with laser pulse number and (3)films deposited under high vacuum were similar to films deposited at low vacuum levels. The mechanical properties of the PLAD films were determined by nanomechanical measurements which are based on the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). From these measurements, it was possible to determine the modulus of the films and also study their scratch resistance. Such measurement techniques represent a significant advance over current state-of-the-art thin film characterization methods. An empirical model for

  14. Mechanical and physicochemical properties of AlN thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibert, C.; Tétard, F.; Djemia, P.; Champeaux, C.; Catherinot, A.; Tétard, D.

    2004-10-01

    AlN thin films have been deposited on Si(100) substrates by a pulsed laser deposition method. The deposition parameters (pressure, temperature, purity of target) play an important role in the mechanical and physicochemical properties. The films have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Brillouin light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wettability testing. With a high purity target of AlN and a temperature deposition of 750 ∘C, the measured Rayleigh wave velocity is close to the one previously determined for AlN films grown at high temperature by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Growth of nanocrystalline AlN at low temperature and of AlN film with good crystallinity for samples deposited at higher temperature is confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, as it was by atomic force microscopy, in agreement with X-ray diffraction results. A high hydrophobicity has been measured with zero polar contribution for the surface energy. These results confirm that films made by pulsed laser deposition of pure AlN at relatively low temperature have good prospects for microelectromechanical systems applications.

  15. Method for continuous control of composition and doping of pulsed laser deposited films

    DOEpatents

    Lowndes, Douglas H.; McCamy, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A method for growing a deposit upon a substrate of semiconductor material involves the utilization of pulsed laser deposition techniques within a low-pressure gas environment. The substrate and a target of a first material are positioned within a deposition chamber and a low-pressure gas atmosphere is developed within the chamber. The substrate is then heated, and the target is irradiated, so that atoms of the target material are ablated from the remainder of the target, while atoms of the gas simultaneously are adsorbed on the substrate/film surface. The ablated atoms build up upon the substrate, together with the adsorbed gas atoms to form the thin-film deposit on the substrate. By controlling the pressure of the gas of the chamber atmosphere, the composition of the formed deposit can be controlled, and films of continuously variable composition or doping can be grown from a single target of fixed composition.

  16. Method for continuous control of composition and doping of pulsed laser deposited films by pressure control

    DOEpatents

    Lowndes, Douglas H.; McCamy, James W.

    1996-01-01

    A method for growing a deposit upon a substrate of semiconductor material involves the utilization of pulsed laser deposition techniques within a low-pressure gas environment. The substrate and a target of a first material are positioned within a deposition chamber and a low-pressure gas atmosphere is developed within the chamber. The substrate is then heated, and the target is irradiated, so that atoms of the target material are ablated from the remainder of the target, while atoms of the gas simultaneously are adsorbed on the substrate/film surface. The ablated atoms build up upon the substrate, together with the adsorbed gas atoms to form the thin-film deposit on the substrate. By controlling the pressure of the gas of the chamber atmosphere, the composition of the formed deposit can be controlled, and films of continuously variable composition or doping can be grown from a single target of fixed composition.

  17. Wettability of oxide thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition: New insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Saurav

    The objective of the thesis is to investigate the wettability of good quality oxide thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In this work, many shortfalls in the water contact angle measurement of thin films of oxides, responsible for the wide scatter in the values reported in literature, have been addressed. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  18. Chromium Carbide Thin Films Synthesized by Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Terajima, Ryou; Emura, Masanari

    1999-06-01

    Chromium carbide thin films are synthesized on Si(100)substrates by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition method at differentsubstrate temperatures. Glancing-angle X-ray diffraction shows that acrystalline chromium carbide film can be prepared at the substratetemperature of 700°C. Grain size of the films, examined witha field-emission secondary electron microscope, increases withincreasing substrate temperature.

  19. Fabricating functionally graded films with designed gradient profiles using pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Yoo Jai; Ki, Hyungson

    2013-05-07

    A novel picosecond-laser pulsed laser deposition method has been developed for fabricating functionally graded films with pre-designed gradient profiles. Theoretically, the developed method is capable of precisely fabricating films with any thicknesses and any gradient profiles by controlling the laser beam powers for the two different targets based on the film composition profiles. As an implementation example, we have successfully constructed functionally graded diamond-like carbon films with six different gradient profiles: linear, quadratic, cubic, square root, cubic root, and sinusoidal. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is employed for investigating the chemical composition along the thickness of the film, and the deposition profile and thickness errors are found to be less than 3% and 1.04%, respectively. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first method for fabricating films with designed gradient profiles and has huge potential in many areas of coatings and films, including multifunctional optical films. We believe that this method is not only limited to the example considered in this study, but also can be applied to all material combinations as long as they can be deposited using the pulsed laser deposition technique.

  20. High quality ZnS/Au/ZnS transparent conductive tri-layer films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Caifeng; Li, Qingshan; Wang, Jisuo; Zhang, Lichun; Zhao, Fengzhou; Dong, Fangying

    2016-07-01

    ZnS/Au/ZnS tri-layer films were deposited on quartz glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The influence of Au layer thickness on optical and electrical properties of the tri-layer ZnS/Au/ZnS was studied. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope were employed to characterize the crystalline structure and surface morphology of the tri-layer films. Hall measurements, ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer, four-point probe were used to explore the optoelectronic properties of the ZnS/Au/ZnS. The increase of Au layer thickness resulted in the decreased resistivity, the increased carrier concentration, and the declined transmittance in the visible light region.

  1. Thermochromic properties of Sn, W co-doped VO2 nanostructured thin film deposited by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Hur, M G; Masaki, T; Yoon, D H

    2014-12-01

    Tin (Sn) and tungsten (W) co-doped vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructured thin films with 50-nm thickness were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to reduce the transition temperature and improve the IR transmittance. The crystal structure of the nanostructured thin films and the presence of elements were evaluated by XRD and XPS analysis. The transition temperature (T(c)) of 1 at% Sn-1 at% W co-doped VO2 nanostructured thin film was decreased to about 22 degrees C (from 70.3 to 48.5 degrees C) compared with the undoped VO2 nanostructured thin film. The transmittance width in the IR range of the co-doped nanostructured thin film decreased from 37.5% to 27% compared with the undoped VO2 nanostructured thin film. Also, the width of hysteresis was narrowed by Sn doping. PMID:25970986

  2. Laser-induced collagen remodeling and deposition within the basilar membrane of the mouse cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Gentiana I.; Anvari, Bahman; Mazhar, Amaan; Pikkula, Brian; Oghalai, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The cochlea is the mammalian organ of hearing. Its predominant vibratory element, the basilar membrane, is tonotopically tuned, based on the spatial variation of its mass and stiffness. The constituent collagen fibers of the basilar membrane affect its stiffness. Laser irradiation can induce collagen remodeling and deposition in various tissues. We tested whether similar effects could be induced within the basilar membrane. Trypan blue was perfused into the scala tympani of anesthetized mice to stain the basilar membrane. We then irradiated the cochleas with a 694-nm pulsed ruby laser at 15 or 180 J /cm2. The mice were sacrificed 14 to 16 days later and collagen organization was studied. Polarization microscopy revealed that laser irradiation increased the birefringence within the basilar membrane in a dose-dependent manner. Electron microscopy demonstrated an increase in the density of collagen fibers and the deposition of new fibrils between collagen fibers after laser irradiation. As an assessment of hearing, auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were found to increase moderately after 15 J/cm2 and substantially after 180 J /cm2. Our results demonstrate that collagen remodeling and new collagen deposition occurs within the basilar membrane after laser irradiation in a similar fashion to that found in other tissues. PMID:17477714

  3. Characterization of hydroxyapatite coating by pulse laser deposition technique on stainless steel 316 L by varying laser energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Himanshu; Singh, Gurbhinder; Agrawal, Khelendra; Prakash, Satya; Agarwal, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is an attractive biomaterial mainly used in bone and tooth implants because it closely resembles human tooth and bone mineral and has proven to be biologically compatible with these tissues. In spite of this advantage of hydroxyapatite it has also certain limitation like inferior mechanical properties which do not make it suitable for long term load bearing applications; hence a lot of research is going on in the development of hydroxyapatite coating over various metallic implants. These metallic implants have good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. The aim of the present work is to deposit hydroxyapatite coating over stainless steel grade 316 L by pulse laser deposition technique by varying laser energy. To know the effect of this variation, the coatings were than characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, finite emission-scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  4. Remote laser spectroscopy of oil and gas deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhevlakov, A. P.; Bespalov, V. G.; Elizarov, V. V.; Grishkanich, A. S.; Kascheev, S. V.; Makarov, E. A.; Bogoslovsky, S. A.; Il'inskiy, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    We developed a Raman lidar with ultraspectral resolution for automatic airborne monitoring of pipeline leaks and for oil and gas exploration. Test flights indicate that a sensitivity of 6 ppm for methane and 2 ppm for hydrogen sulfide has been reached for leakage detection. The lidar is based on the CARS method with a Ti:Sapphire pump laser and a frequencydoubled YLF:Nd probe beam whose frequency is displaced by a BBO crystal. In ground-based experiments, a detection level of 3 to 10 molecules has been reached.

  5. Phase-selective vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanostructured thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Masina, B. N. E-mail: slafane@cdta.dz; Lafane, S. E-mail: slafane@cdta.dz; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T.; Wu, L.; Akande, A. A.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2015-10-28

    Thin films of monoclinic nanostructured vanadium dioxide are notoriously difficult to produce in a selective manner. To date, post-annealing, after pulsed laser deposition (PLD), has been used to revert the crystal phase or to remove impurities, and non-glass substrates have been employed, thus reducing the efficacy of the transparency switching. Here, we overcome these limitations in PLD by optimizing a laser-ablation and deposition process through optical imaging of the laser-induced plasma. We report high quality monoclinic rutile-type vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) (M1) nanoparticles without post-annealing, and on a glass substrate. Our samples demonstrate a reversible metal-to-insulator transition at ∼43 °C, without any doping, paving the way to switchable transparency in optical materials at room temperature.

  6. Dimensional and material characteristics of direct deposited tool steel by CO II laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.

    2006-01-01

    Laser aided direct metalimaterial deposition (DMD) process builds metallic parts layer-by-layer directly from the CAD representation. In general, the process uses powdered metaUmaterials fed into a melt pool, creating fully dense parts. Success of this technology in the die and tool industry depends on the parts quality to be achieved. To obtain designed geometric dimensions and material properties, delicate control of the parameters such as laser power, spot diameter, traverse speed and powder mass flow rate is critical. In this paper, the dimensional and material characteristics of directed deposited H13 tool steel by CO II laser are investigated for the DMD process with a feedback height control system. The relationships between DMD process variables and the product characteristics are analyzed using statistical techniques. The performance of the DMD process is examined with the material characteristics of hardness, porosity, microstructure, and composition.

  7. Phase-selective vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructured thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, B. N.; Lafane, S.; Wu, L.; Akande, A. A.; Mwakikunga, B.; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T.; Forbes, A.

    2015-10-01

    Thin films of monoclinic nanostructured vanadium dioxide are notoriously difficult to produce in a selective manner. To date, post-annealing, after pulsed laser deposition (PLD), has been used to revert the crystal phase or to remove impurities, and non-glass substrates have been employed, thus reducing the efficacy of the transparency switching. Here, we overcome these limitations in PLD by optimizing a laser-ablation and deposition process through optical imaging of the laser-induced plasma. We report high quality monoclinic rutile-type vanadium dioxide (VO2) (M1) nanoparticles without post-annealing, and on a glass substrate. Our samples demonstrate a reversible metal-to-insulator transition at ˜43 °C, without any doping, paving the way to switchable transparency in optical materials at room temperature.

  8. Deposition of functionalized nanoparticles in multilayer thin-film structures by resonant infrared laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papantonakis, Michael R.; Herz, Erik; Simonson, Duane L.; Wiesner, Ulrich B.; Haglund, Richard F., Jr.

    2007-02-01

    We report the successful fabrication of layers of functionalized nanoparticles using a novel infrared, laser-based deposition technique. A frozen suspension of nanoparticles was ablated with a laser tuned to a vibrational mode of the solvent, resulting in the disruption of the matrix and ejection of the nanoparticles. The solvent was pumped away and the nanoparticles collected by a receiving substrate in a conformal process. Photoluminescence measurements of nanoparticles containing two common dyes showed no significant change to the emission properties of either dye, suggesting that no damage occurred during the laser ablation process. The process is generally applicable to particles of various sizes, shapes, and chemistries provided that an appropriate solvent is chosen. Deposition through shadow masks turned out to be straightforward using this technique, suggesting its potential utility in preparing designer sensor structures using functionalized nanoparticles.

  9. Bismuth Oxide Thin Films Deposited on Silicon Through Pulsed Laser Ablation, for Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condurache-Bota, Simona; Constantinescu, Catalin; Tigau, Nicolae; Praisler, Mirela

    2016-12-01

    Infrared detectors are used in many human activities, from industry to military, telecommunications, environmental studies and even medicine. Bismuth oxide thin films have proved their potential for optoelectronic applications, but their uses as infrared sensors have not been thoroughly studied so far. In this paper, pulsed laser ablation of pure bismuth targets within a controlled oxygen atmosphere is proposed for the deposition of bismuth oxide films on Si (100) substrates. Crystalline films were obtained, whose uniformity depends on the deposition conditions (number of laser pulses and the use of a radio-frequency (RF) discharge of the oxygen inside the deposition chamber). The optical analysis proved that the refractive index of the films is higher than 3 and that their optical bandgap is around 1eV, recommending them for infrared applications.

  10. Crystallization kinetics of GeTe phase-change thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xinxing; Thelander, Erik; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Pulsed laser deposition was employed to the growth of GeTe thin films on Silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the critical crystallization temperature lies between 220 and 240 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited films, determining the activation energy to be 3.14 eV. Optical reflectivity and in situ resistance measurements exhibited a high reflectivity contrast of ~21% and 3-4 orders of magnitude drop in resistivity of the films upon crystallization. The results show that pulsed laser deposited GeTe films can be a promising candidate for phase-change applications.

  11. Optical and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline ZrC thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    SciTech Connect

    Craciun, D.; Socol, G.; Lambers, E.; McCumiskey, E. J.; Taylor, C. R.; Martin, C.; Argibay, Nicolas; Craciun, V.; Tanner, D. B.

    2015-01-17

    Thin ZrC films (<500 nm) were grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under different CH4 pressures. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out films were very dense and exhibited a smooth surface morphology. Optical spectroscopy data shows that the films have high reflectivity (>90%) in the infrared region, characteristic of metallic behavior. Nanoindentation results indicated that films deposited under lower CH4 pressures exhibited slightly higher nanohardness and Young modulus values than films deposited under higher pressures. As a result, tribological characterization revealed that these films exhibited relatively high wear resistance and steady-state friction coefficients on the order of μ = 0.4.

  12. Optical and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline ZrC thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Craciun, D.; Socol, G.; Lambers, E.; McCumiskey, E. J.; Taylor, C. R.; Martin, C.; Argibay, Nicolas; Craciun, V.; Tanner, D. B.

    2015-01-17

    Thin ZrC films (<500 nm) were grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under different CH4 pressures. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out films were very dense and exhibited a smooth surface morphology. Optical spectroscopy data shows that the films have high reflectivity (>90%) in the infrared region, characteristic of metallic behavior. Nanoindentation results indicated that films deposited under lower CH4 pressures exhibited slightly higher nanohardness and Young modulus values than films deposited undermore » higher pressures. As a result, tribological characterization revealed that these films exhibited relatively high wear resistance and steady-state friction coefficients on the order of μ = 0.4.« less

  13. Structural strengthening of rocket nozzle extension by means of laser metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honoré, M.; Brox, L.; Hallberg, M.

    2012-03-01

    Commercial space operations strive to maximize the payload per launch in order to minimize the costs of each kg launched into orbit; this yields demand for ever larger launchers with larger, more powerful rocket engines. Volvo Aero Corporation in collaboration with Snecma and Astrium has designed and tested a new, upgraded Nozzle extension for the Vulcain 2 engine configuration, denoted Vulcain 2+ NE Demonstrator The manufacturing process for the welding of the sandwich wall and the stiffening structure is developed in close cooperation with FORCE Technology. The upgrade is intended to be available for future development programs for the European Space Agency's (ESA) highly successful commercial launch vehicle, the ARIANE 5. The Vulcain 2+ Nozzle Extension Demonstrator [1] features a novel, thin-sheet laser-welded configuration, with laser metal deposition built-up 3D-features for the mounting of stiffening structure, flanges and for structural strengthening, in order to cope with the extreme load- and thermal conditions, to which the rocket nozzle extension is exposed during launch of the 750 ton ARIANE 5 launcher. Several millimeters of material thickness has been deposited by laser metal deposition without disturbing the intricate flow geometry of the nozzle cooling channels. The laser metal deposition process has been applied on a full-scale rocket nozzle demonstrator, and in excess of 15 kilometers of filler wire has been successfully applied to the rocket nozzle. The laser metal deposition has proven successful in two full-throttle, full-scale tests, firing the rocket engine and nozzle in the ESA test facility P5 by DLR in Lampoldshausen, Germany.

  14. Influence of laser power on the orientation and microstructure of CeO 2 films deposited on Hastelloy C276 tapes by laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pei; Ito, Akihiko; Tu, Rong; Goto, Takashi

    2010-08-01

    CeO 2 films were prepared on LaMnO 3/MgO/Gd 2Zr 2O 7 multi-coated Hastelloy C276 tapes by laser chemical vapor deposition at different laser power ( PL) from 46 to 101 W. Epitaxial (1 0 0) CeO 2 films were prepared at PL = 46-93 W (deposition temperature, Tdep = 705-792 K). Epitaxial CeO 2 films had rectangular-shaped grains at PL = 46-77 W ( Tdep = 705-754 K), while square-shaped grains were obtained at PL = 85-93 W ( Tdep = 769-792 K). CeO 2 films showed a columnar microstructure. Epitaxial (1 0 0) CeO 2 films with rectangular grains exhibited full width at half maximum of ω-scan on (2 0 0) reflection and ϕ-scan on (2 2 0) reflection of 3.4-3.2° and 6.0-7.2°, respectively. The deposition rate of the epitaxial (1 0 0) CeO 2 films had a maximum of 4.6 μm h -1 at PL = 77 W ( Tdep = 754 K).

  15. Isotopically Enriched Films and Nanostructures by Ultrafast Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pronko

    2004-12-13

    This project involved a systematic study to apply newly discovered isotopic enrichment effects in laser ablation plumes to the fabrication of isotopically engineered thin films, superlattices, and nanostructures. The approach to this program involved using ultrafast lasers as a method for generating ablated plasmas that have preferentially structured isotopic content in the body of the ablation plasma plumes. In examining these results we have attempted to interpret the observations in terms of a plasma centrifuge process that is driven by the internal electro-magnetic fields of the plasma itself. The research plan involved studying the following phenomena in regard to the ablation plume and the isotopic mass distribution within it: (1) Test basic equations of steady state centrifugal motion in the ablation plasma. (2) Investigate angular distribution of ions in the ablation plasmas. (3) Examine interactions of plasma ions with self-generated magnetic fields. (3) Investigate ion to neutral ratios in the ablation plasmas. (5) Test concepts of plasma pumping. (6) Fabricate isotopically enriched nanostructures.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of boron antimonide films by pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Bhunia, R.; Hussain, S.; Bhar, R.; Chakraborty, B. R.; Pal, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    Boron antimonide films (BSb) were successfully deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique on glass, fused silica and silicon substrates by using a target prepared by admixing boron and antimony powders in appropriate proportions. Nd-YAG laser was used to ablate the target. Films deposited at substrate temperatures of 673 K and above showed zinc blende structure. Grain growth in the films was observed in films deposited at higher temperatures. Films deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates at higher deposition temperatures indicated lower residual strain. SIMS studies indicated very uniform distribution of B and Sb in the whole bulk of the films. XPS spectra indicated characteristic peaks at ∼34.87 eV for Sb4d, ∼188.1 eV for B1s, ∼765.5 eV for Sb3p3/2, ∼539 eV for Sb3d3/2 and ∼812.8 eV for Sb3p1/2. Raman peaks for BSb were located at ∼64 cm-1, 152 cm-1, 595 cm-1 and 821 cm-1.

  17. Substrate dependent structural and magnetic properties of pulsed laser deposited Fe3O4 thin films.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Rajendra N; Kaur, Davinder; Pandey, Ashish K

    2010-12-01

    Nanocrystalline iron oxide thin films have been deposited on various substrates such as quartz, MgO(100), and Si(100) by pulsed laser deposition technique using excimer KrF laser (248 nm). The orientations, crystallite size and lattice parameters were studied using X-ray diffraction. The XRD results show that the films deposited on MgO and Si substrates are highly oriented and show only (400) and (311) reflections respectively. On the other hand, the orientation of the films deposited on quarts substrate changed from (311) to (400) with an increase in the substrate temperature from 400 degrees C to 600 degrees C, indicating thereby that the film growth direction is highly affected with nature of substrate and substrate temperature. The surface morphology of the deposited films was studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and spherical ball like regular features of nanometer size grains were obtained. The magnetic properties were studied by Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer in the magnetic field +/- 6 Tesla. The magnetic field dependent magnetization (M-H) curves of all the Fe3O4 thin films measured at 5 K and 300 K show the ferrimagnetic nature. The electrochemical sensing of dopamine studied for these films shows that the film deposited on MgO substrate can be used as a sensing electrode. PMID:21121292

  18. Optoelectronic Characterization of Ta-Doped ZnO Thin Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition.

    PubMed

    Koo, Horng-Show; Peng, Jo-Chi; Chen, Mi; Chin, Hung-I; Chen, Jaw-Yeh; Wu, Maw-Kuen

    2015-11-01

    Transparent conductive oxide of Ta-doped ZnO (TZO) film with doping amount of 3.0 wt% have been deposited on glass substrates (Corning Eagle XG) at substrate temperatures of 100 to 500 degrees C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electronic characteristics of Ta-doped ZnO (TZO) films with 3.0 wt% dopant of tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) was measured and demonstrated in terms of X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UV-Vis), four-probe and Hall-effect measurements. X-ray diffraction pattern shows that TZO films grow in hexagonal crystal structure of wurtzite phase with a preferred orientation of the crystallites along (002) direction and exhibits better physical characteristics of optical transmittance, electrical conductivity, carrier concentration and mobility for the application of window layer in the optoelectronic devices of solar cells, OLEDs and LEDs. The lowest electrical resistivity (ρ) and the highest carrier concentration of the as-deposited film deposited at 300 degrees C are measured as 2.6 x 10(-3) Ω-cm and 3.87 x 10(-20) cm(-3), respectively. The highest optical transmittance of the as-deposited film deposited at 500 degrees C is shown to be 93%, compared with another films deposited below 300 degrees C. It is found that electrical and optical properties of the as-deposited TZO film are greatly dependent on substrate temperature during laser ablation deposition. PMID:26726672

  19. Effect of oxidation dynamics on the film characteristics of Ce:YIG thin films deposited by pulsed-laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Yoshiki; Okada, Tatsuo; Maeda, Mitsuo; Higuchi, Sadao; Ueda, Kiyotaka

    2006-02-01

    Thin films with different compositions of Ce-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Ce:YIG (Y 2CeFe 5O 12)), Ga-doped Ce:YIG (Ce:Ga:YIG (Y 2CeFe 4.25Ga 0.75O 12)), and Gd-doped Ce:YIG (Ce:Gd:YIG (Y 1.6CeGd 0.4Fe 5O 12)) were deposited on gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG (Gd 3Ga 5O 12)) substrates in O 2 or Ar background gas by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) technique. Crystalline films were obtained at a lower O 2 gas pressure of 20 mTorr or at higher Ar gas pressures of more than 100 mTorr. In addition, the behavior of YO molecules was visualized by two-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (2D-LIF), in order to investigate the oxidation dynamics in the ablation plume. The oxidation dynamics and the crystallinity had close correlation.

  20. Pulsed-laser deposition of particulate-free TiC coatings for tribological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, G.; Adams, P. M.

    Hybrid bearings comprising ceramic or ceramic-coated steel balls and steel raceways can provide good fatigue life and resistance to wear. One of the coating materials that has received serious consideration in hybrid systems is titanium carbide (TiC). At present, the commercially available process for the deposition of TiC involves the heating of steel substrates to fairly high temperatures (>900 °C). The high-temperature process involves considerable costs and complexities that are associated with the post-deposition heat treatment and repolishing of the coated steels for bearing applications. Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) is ideally suited to deposit TiC coatings on bearing steels at room temperature. However, it is well known that codeposition of particulates has been one of the most challenging problems of PLD. This is especially of concern when dealing with hard coatings for tribological applications. Here we describe a novel and extremely simple method of depositing high-quality, particulate-free TiC coatings on bearing steel surfaces that uses PLD. The method relies on a new non-line-of-sight deposition that uses a permanent magnet and prevents particulates from arriving at the substrate. The surface roughness of TiC films deposited on steels by way of this technique has an extremely low root mean square value of 1.6 nm. The TiC films have been extensively characterized for their morphology, chemical composition, and mechanical properties with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nanoindentation. Time-resolved emission has been used for the in situ characterization of the laser-ablated TiC plume and has resulted in the identification of various plume species as a function of laser parameters. The spectroscopic results are correlated to film growth and to our modified PLD method.

  1. Fokker Planck theory for energetic electron deposition in laser fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace; Colombant, Denis

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a Fokker Planck model to calculate the transport and deposition of energetic electrons, produced for instance by the two plasmon decay instability at the quarter critical surface. In steady state, the Fokker Planck equation reduces to a single universal equation in energy and space, an equation which appears to be quite simple, but which has a rather unconventional boundary condition. The equation is equally valid in planar and spherical geometry, and it depends on only a single parameter, the charge state Z. Hence one can solve for a universal solution, valid for each Z. An asymptotic solution to this equation will be presented, which allows the heating of the main plasma to be calculated from a simple analytical expression. A more accurate solution in terms of a Bessel function expansion will also be presented. From this, one obtains a heating rate which can be simply incorporated into fluid simulations.

  2. Optical properties of zinc phthalocyanine thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, M.; Bulir, J.; Bensalah-Ledoux, A.; Guy, S.; Fitl, P.; Vrnata, M.; Lancok, J.; Moine, B.

    2014-10-01

    ZnPc thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (KrF laser, λ = 248 nm, τ = 5 ns, f = 50 Hz) on suprasil substrates in vacuum. Optical properties in UV-Vis spectral region were analyzed as functions of laser fluence from 40 to 100 mJ/cm2 by spectrophotometric and spectral ellipsometry measurements. The spectral ellipsometry data were treated using a three-layer model (substrate, film, roughness). The best results of data fitting were obtained when Q band was characterized by two Lorentz oscillators, while two Gaussian oscillators were used for B and C band fitting. We derived the band gap using Tauc plot considering ZnPc a direct band gap semiconductor. The band gap values were found decreasing from 3.13 to 3.09 eV with increasing laser fluence, which might be related with formation of trapping sites at higher fluence.

  3. Silica Nanowire Growth on Photonic Crystal Fiber by Pulsed Femtosecond Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langellier, Nicholas; Li, Chih-Hao; Furesz, Gabor; Glenday, Alex; Phillips, David; Zhang, Huiliang; Noah Chang, Guoqing; Kaertner, Franz; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald

    2012-06-01

    We present a new method of nanowire fabrication using pulsed laser deposition. An 800 mW 1 GHz femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser is guided into a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The PCF, with a core tapered to 1.7 micron diameter, converts femtosecond laser pulses centered at 800 nm into green light with a spectrum down to 500 nm. The PCF is enclosed in a cylindrical tube with glass windows, sealed in a class 100 clean room with silicone-based RTV adhesive. The high power of each laser pulse in a silica-rich environment leads to growth of a silica nanowire at the output end of the PCF. SEM analysis shows that the nanowire is 720 nm in diameter and grows at a rate of about 0.6 um/s. Details of nanowire performance along with potential applications will be presented.

  4. Novel technique for low-jitter dual-laser synchronization in a thin film deposition system

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Pritish; Cuff, John B.; Witanachchi, Sarath

    2001-05-01

    The need for precise laser pulse synchronization in a dual-laser ablation system to optimize the quality of the deposited thin films has been previously demonstrated. We present, in this article, a novel technique for the synchronization of an excimer and a CO{sub 2} laser with synchronization having a temporal fluctuation (jitter) of less than {+-}14 ns. This is several times better than the best precision of temporal synchronization possible using traditional electronic techniques and is crucial for the application of dual-laser ablation in the manufacturing of thin films. Evidence for reproducibility in the ablation of targets using this system is presented by analyzing the initial stages of the ablated plasma using a time-gated charge coupled device imaging system.

  5. Modeling of thermal, electronic, hydrodynamic, and dynamic deposition processes for pulsed-laser deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.L.; LeBoeuf, J.N.; Wood, R.F.; Geohegan, D.B.; Donato, J.M.; Chen, K.R.; Puretzky, A.A.

    1994-11-01

    Various physical processes during laser ablation of solids for pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) are studied using a variety of computational techniques. In the course of the authors combined theoretical and experimental effort, they have been trying to work on as many aspects of PLD processes as possible, but with special focus on the following areas: (a) the effects of collisional interactions between the particles in the plume and in the background on the evolving flow field and on thin film growth, (b) interactions between the energetic particles and the growing thin films and their effects on film quality, (c) rapid phase transformations through the liquid and vapor phases under possibly nonequilibrium thermodynamic conditions induced by laser-solid interactions, (d) breakdown of the vapor into a plasma in the early stages of ablation through both electronic and photoionization processes, (c) hydrodynamic behavior of the vapor/plasma during and after ablation. The computational techniques used include finite difference (FD) methods, particle-in-cell model, and atomistic simulations using molecular dynamics (MD) techniques.

  6. Preventing Technique of Metal Deposition on Optical Devices in Space Diode Laser Welding for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suita, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Kenji; Ohtani, Masato; Shobako, Shinichiro; Terajima, Noboru; Hiraoka, Nobuaki

    In future space developments, the welding in space may be required for the repairs of the ISS and the constructions of lunar base and space structures. The authors have studied the space Gas Hollow Tungsten Arc (GHTA) welding process since 1993. This paper describes the results for space applying the space Diode Laser (DL) welding process which the authors proposed in 2002. It is necessary to prevent the metal deposition on optical devices in order to utilize the space DL welding process in space. The authors studied the preventing technique of metal deposition which covered optical devices with the nozzle and blew the shielding gas out from nozzle outlet. The metal deposition can be reduced by supplying the nozzle with inert gas and blowing the gas out from nozzle outlet. The shielding gas argon perfectly prevents the metal deposition on optical devices when argon pressurizes the nozzle to over 19.9 Pa and spouts out from the nozzle outlet.

  7. Laser reactive ablation deposition of titanium nitride and titanium carbide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anna, Emilia; Leggieri, Gilberto; Luches, Armando; Martino, Maurizio; Perrone, Alessio; Majni, Guiseppe; Mengucci, Paolo; Mihailescu, Ion N.

    1994-11-01

    Titanium nitride and titanium carbide films were deposited on silicon substrates by XeCl excimer laser reactive ablation of titanium in nitrogen and methane atmospheres, respectively. A series of 10,000 pulses at the fluence of approximately 5 J/cm2 and repetition rate of 10 Hz were directed to the target. The pressure in the chamber was fixed, during every irradiation series, at a given value within the range 6 X 10-4 - 10 mbar of N2 or CH4. Very flat films with thickness exceeding 1 micrometers were deposited. The structural characteristics of the deposited films were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and by x-ray diffraction. Under specific experimental conditions very pure nitride films were deposited.

  8. Study of deposition parameters for the fabrication of ZnO thin films using femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashmi, Jaweria Zartaj; Siraj, Khurram; Latif, Anwar; Murray, Mathew; Jose, Gin

    2016-08-01

    Femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser deposition (fs-PLD) of ZnO thin film on borosilicate glass substrates is reported in this work. The effect of important fs-PLD parameters such as target-substrate distance, laser pulse energy and substrate temperature on structure, morphology, optical transparency and luminescence of as-deposited films is discussed. XRD analysis reveals that all the films grown using the laser energy range 120-230 μJ are polycrystalline when they are deposited at room temperature in a ~10-5 Torr vacuum. Introducing 0.7 mTorr oxygen pressure, the films show preferred c-axis growth and transform into a single-crystal-like film when the substrate temperature is increased to 100 °C. The scanning electron micrographs show the presence of small nano-size grains at 25 °C, which grow in size to the regular hexagonal shape particles at 100 °C. Optical transmission of the ZnO film is found to increase with an increase in crystal quality. Maximum transmittance of 95 % in the wavelength range 400-1400 nm is achieved for films deposited at 100 °C employing a laser pulse energy of 180 μJ. The luminescence spectra show a strong UV emission band peaked at 377 nm close to the ZnO band gap. The shallow donor defects increase at higher pulse energies and higher substrate temperatures, which give rise to violet-blue luminescence. The results indicate that nano-crystalline ZnO thin films with high crystalline quality and optical transparency can be fabricated by using pulses from fs lasers.

  9. Epitaxial growth of Ge-Sb-Te films on KCl by high deposition rate pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelander, E.; Gerlach, J. W.; Ross, U.; Frost, F.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2014-06-01

    Pulsed laser deposition was employed to deposit epitaxial Ge2Sb2Te5-layers (GST) on (100) oriented KCl-substrates. XRD-measurements show a process temperature window for epitaxial growth of the cubic phase between 200 and 300 °C. Below 250 °C (111) oriented GST dominates the growth process and above 250 °C the (100) orientation is the dominating one. Pole figure measurements confirm these results and additionally reveal that the (111) orientation consists of 4 domains with 90° azimuthal separation with an initial 15° rotation with the substrate lattice, i.e., [2-1-1]GST || [100]KCl. The (100) orientation grows cube-on-cube with KCl. A systematic variation of the deposition rate showed that it is possible to obtain epitaxial films in the range between 2.5 and 250 nm/min with no significant deterioration of crystal quality. A smooth topography of (111) oriented films was found, whereas the (100) dominated films in general show higher surface roughness as evidenced from atomic force microscopy investigations.

  10. Hybrid nanocomposite coatings from metal (Mg alloy)-drug deposited onto medical implant by laser adaptive ablation deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbezov, Valery; Sotirov, Sotir; Serbezov, Svetlin

    2013-03-01

    Drug-eluting medical implants are active implants whose function is to create healing effects. The current requirements for active medical coatings for Drug-eluting medical implants are to be biocompatible, biodegradable, polymer free, mechanically stable and enable a controlled release of one or more drugs and defined degradation. This brings hybrid nanocomposite coatings into focus especially in the field of cardiovascular implants. We studied the properties of Metal (Mg alloy)-Paclitaxel coatings obtained by novel Laser Adaptive Ablation Deposition Technique (LAAD) onto cardiovascular stents from 316 LVM stainless steel material. The morphology and topology of coatings were studied by Bright field / Fluorescence optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Comparative measurements were made of the morphology and topology of hybrid, polymer free nanocomposite coatings deposited by LAAD and polymerdrug coatings deposited by classical spray technique. The coatings obtained by LAAD are homogeneous without damages and cracks. Metal nanoparticles with sizes from 40 nm to 230 nm were obtained in drug matrixes. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) was used for identification of metal nanoparticles presence in hybrid nanocomposites coatings. The new technology opens up possibilities to obtain new hybrid nanocomposite coatings with applications in medicine, pharmacy and biochemistry.

  11. Carbon nanotube growth from metallic nanoparticles deposited by pulsed-laser deposition on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Mireille; Boulmer-Leborgne, Chantal; Semmar, Nadjib; Millon, Éric; Petit, Agnès

    2012-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes carpets were grown by RF plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on various substrates coated by Fe and Ni transition metals that act as catalyst. C2H2 gas was used for the carbon source. The results show that carbon nanotubes CNT can be grown on Si3N4/Si and SiO2/Si substrates only with an Fe catalyst. They are typically formed by multi-walled graphene layers, and can be obtained for a temperature as low as 550 °C. Nanotubes grown on TiN/SiO2/Si substrate from Fe or Ni catalysts present bamboo-like nanostructures and are obtained for particular experimental conditions. This study demonstrates substrate-to-catalyst effect on the CNT growth and their microstructures indicating that the adhesion force of nanoparticles on substrates is a main parameter. Catalyst particles are spherical and several tens of nm in diameter (weak adhesion strength) when deposited onto SiO2/Si or Si3N4/Si, the tip growth mode of nanotube is favored. On TiN/SiO2/Si substrate, particles are larger (large adhesion strength) and CNT growth is no more in tip mode, bamboo-like structures are obtained. When an Fe-Ni catalyst multilayer has been deposited onto the different substrates, carbon nanotube microstructures show multi-walled graphene parallel layers on Si3N4/Si and SiO2/Si insulating substrates, and bamboo-like microstructures on TiN/SiO2/Si conductor substrate.

  12. The growth of nanostructured Cu2ZnSnS4 films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Sulaiman, Nurul Suhada; Nee, Chen Hon; Yap, Seong Ling; Lee, Yen Sian; Tou, Teck Yong; Yap, Seong Shan

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we investigated on the growth of Cu2ZnSnS4 films by using pulsed Nd:YAG laser (355 nm) ablation of a quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 target. Depositions were performed at laser fluence from 0.5 to 4 J cm-2. The films were grown at substrate temperature from 27 °C to 300 °C onto glass and silicon substrates. The dependence of the film morphology, composition, and optical properties are studied and discussed with respect to laser fluence and substrate temperature. Composition analysis from energy dispersive X-ray spectral results show that CZTS films with composition near stoichiometric were obtained at an optimized fluence at 2 J cm-2 by 355 nm laser where the absorption coefficient is >104 cm-1, and optical band gap from a Tauc plot was ∼1.9 eV. At high fluence, Cu and Sn rich droplets were detected which affect the overall quality of the films. The presence of the droplets was associated to the high degree of preferential and subsurface melting on the target during high fluence laser ablation. Crystallinity and optical band gap (1.5 eV) were improved when deposition was performed at substrate temperature of 100 °C.

  13. Engineering of pulsed laser deposited calcium phosphate biomaterials in controlled atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukteinis, Saulius E.

    Synthetic calcium phosphates (CAP) such as hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used as regenerative bone graft materials and also as thin films to improve the integration of biomedical implant devices within skeletal tissue. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) can deposit crystalline HA with significant adhesion on titanium biomaterials. However, there are PLD processing constraints due to the complex physical and chemical interactions occurring simultaneously during PLD, which influence ablation plume formation and development. In this investigation PLD CAP films were engineered with a focus on novel decoupling of partial pressure of H2O (g) ( PH2O ) from total background pressure, in combination with substrate heat treatment and laser energy density control. Characterization of these films was performed with X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Optical Profilometry. In vitro cellular adhesion testing was also performed using osteoblast (MC3T3) cell lines to evaluate adhesion of bone-forming cells on processed PLD CAP samples. Preferred a-axis orientation films were deposited in H2O (g) saturated atmospheres with reduced laser fluence (< 4 J/cm2). Crystalline HA/tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) films were deposited in H2O ( g)-deficient atmospheres with higher laser fluence (> 3 J/cm 2). Varied PH2O resulted in control of biphasic HA/TTCP composition with increasing TTCP at lower PH2O . These were dense continuous films composed of micron-scale particles. Cellular adhesion assays did not demonstrate a significant difference between osteoblast adhesion density on HA films compared with biphasic HA/TTCP films. Room temperature PLD at varied PH2O combined with furnace heat treatment resulted in controlled variation in surface amplitude parameters including surface roughness (S a), root mean square (Sq), peak to valley height (St), and ten-point height ( Sz). These discontinuous films were

  14. Structure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Białous, Anna; Gazda, Maria; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Thin TiO2 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in the O2 gas ambient using the bulk metal Ti or pressed TiO2 powder targets were characterized using spectroscopic methods. Films were deposited on SiO2 (001) and SiO2 glass substrates heated up to 300 °C. The deposition process was investigated at laser fluencies from the range of 1 - 3 J/cm2 and at oxygen pressure of 0.1 - 3.2 Pa. The μ-Raman and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the TiO2 films revealed consistently both the anatase and rutile crystalline phases and a strong dependence of the phase content ratio on target material and deposition conditions. The range of crystallite size determined from XRD bandwidths was between (2-30) nm and (6-14) nm for anatase and rutile, respectively. The film thickness values between 0.74 and 1.65 μm depending on the deposition time were obtained from the transmittance and ellipsometric measurements. Values of the band gap of 3.5-4.1 eV derived from absorption spectra were higher than that of 3.2 eV corresponding to anatase and this difference was ascribed to the relatively small size of the anatase crystallites and presence of rutile, too. The SEM images of films produced under similar conditions from Ti and TiO2 targets revealed porous structures. The highest anatase content was observed for films deposited by ablation of the TiO2 target at moderate laser fluencies below 2 J/cm2 and at oxygen pressure around 1.9 Pa.

  15. Role of suprathermal electrons during nanosecond laser energy deposit in fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Grua, P.; Hébert, D.; Lamaignère, L.; Rullier, J.-L.

    2014-08-25

    An accurate description of interaction between a nanosecond laser pulse and a wide band gap dielectric, such as fused silica, requires the understanding of energy deposit induced by temperature changes occurring in the material. In order to identify the fundamental processes involved in laser-matter interaction, we have used a 1D computational model that allows us to describe a wide set of physical mechanisms and intended for comparison with specially designed “1D experiments.” We have pointed out that suprathermal electrons are very likely implicated in heat conduction, and this assumption has allowed the model to reproduce the experiments.

  16. A passively mode locked thulium doped fiber laser using bismuth telluride deposited multimode interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, M.; Lee, J.; Song, W.; Lee, J. H.; Shin, W.

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a passively mode-locked thulium doped fiber laser using a bismuth telluride deposited multimode interference (MMI) fiber at a wavelength of 1958 nm. Our MMI based saturable absorber was fabricated by fusion splicing with single mode fiber and null core fiber. The center wavelength and insertion loss of MMI fiber were measured to be ~ 1958 nm and 3.4 dB. We observed a passively mode locked thulium doped fiber laser operating at a wavelength of 1958 nm. The temporal pulse width of output pulses is 4.2 ps with repetition rate of 22.7 MHz.

  17. Infrared laser-based monitoring of the silane dissociation during deposition of silicon thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlome, R.; Feltrin, A.; Ballif, C.

    2009-05-18

    The silane dissociation efficiency, or depletion fraction, is an important plasma parameter by means of which the film growth rate and the amorphous-to-microcrystalline silicon transition regime can be monitored in situ. In this letter we implement a homebuilt quantum cascade laser-based absorption spectrometer to measure the silane dissociation efficiency in an industrial plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. This infrared laser-based diagnostic technique is compact, sensitive, and nonintrusive. Its resolution is good enough to resolve Doppler-broadened rotovibrational absorption lines of silane. The latter feature various absorption strengths, thereby enabling depletion measurements over a wide range of process conditions.

  18. Direct evidence of strongly inhomogeneous energy deposition in target heating with laser-produced ion beams.

    PubMed

    Brambrink, E; Schlegel, T; Malka, G; Amthor, K U; Aléonard, M M; Claverie, G; Gerbaux, M; Gobet, F; Hannachi, F; Méot, V; Morel, P; Nicolai, P; Scheurer, J N; Tarisien, M; Tikhonchuk, V; Audebert, P

    2007-06-01

    We report on strong nonuniformities in target heating with intense, laser-produced proton beams. The observed inhomogeneity in energy deposition can strongly perturb equation of state (EOS) measurements with laser-accelerated ions which are planned in several laboratories. Interferometric measurements of the target expansion show different expansion velocities on the front and rear surfaces, indicating a strong difference in local temperature. The nonuniformity indicates at an additional heating mechanism, which seems to originate from electrons in the keV range. PMID:17677318

  19. Amorphous to crystalline phase transition in pulsed laser deposited silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabbal, M.; Said, A.; Hannoun, E.; Christidis, T.

    2007-06-01

    SiC thin films were grown on Si (1 0 0) substrates by excimer laser ablation of a SiC target in vacuum. The effect of deposition temperature (up to 950 °C), post-deposition annealing and laser energy on the nanostructure, bonding and crystalline properties of the films was studied, in order to elucidate their transition from an amorphous to a crystalline phase. Infra-red spectroscopy shows that growth at temperatures greater than 600 °C produces layers with increasingly uniform environment of the Si-C bonds, while the appearance of large crystallites is detected, by X-ray diffraction, at 800 °C. Electron paramagnetic resonance confirms the presence of clustered paramagnetic centers within the sp 2 carbon domains. Increasing deposition temperature leads to a decrease of the spin density and to a temperature-dependent component of the EPR linewidth induced by spin hopping. For films grown below 650 °C, post-deposition annealing at 1100 °C reduces the spin density as a result of a more uniform Si-C nanostructure, though large scale crystallization is not observed. For greater deposition temperatures, annealing leads to little changes in the bonding properties, but suppresses the temperature dependent component of the EPR linewidth. These findings are explained by a relaxation of the stress in the layers, through the annealing of the bond angle disorder that inhibits spin hopping processes.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition of hydroxyapatite on titanium substrate with titania interlayer.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P; Muraleedharan, C V; Komath, Manoj; Varma, Harikrishna

    2011-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been used to deposit hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic over titanium substrate with an interlayer of titania. PLD has been identified as a potential candidate for bioceramic coatings over metallic substrates to be used as orthopedic and dental implants because of better process control and preservation of phase identity of the coating component. However, direct deposition of hydroxyapatite on titanium at elevated temperature results in the formation of natural oxide layer along with some perovskites like calcium titanate at the interface. This leads to easy debonding of ceramic layer from the metal and thereby affecting the adhesion strength. In the present study, adherent and stable HA coating over Ti6Al4V was achieved with the help of an interlayer of titania. The interlayer was made to a submicron level and HA was deposited consecutively to a thickness of around one micron by exposing to laser ablation at a substrate temperature of 400°C. The deposited phase was identified to be phase pure HA by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. The mechanical behavior of coating evaluated by scratch test indicates that the adhesion strength of HA coating was improved with the presence of titania interlayer. PMID:21234791

  1. Low-Temperature Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Chalcogenide Crystals on Liquid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yubing; Deng, Bing; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Xibiao; Yin, Jianbo; Jin, Chuanhong; Liu, Zhongfan; Peng, Hailin

    2016-03-01

    The growth of high-quality two-dimensional (2D) layered chalcogenide crystals is highly important for practical applications in future electronics, optoelectronics, and photonics. Current route for the synthesis of 2D chalcogenide crystals by vapor deposition method mainly involves an energy intensive high-temperature growth process on solid substrates, often suffering from inhomogeneous nucleation density and grain size distribution. Here, we first demonstrate a facile vapor-phase synthesis of large-area high-quality 2D layered chalcogenide crystals on liquid metal surface with relatively low surface energy at a growth temperature as low as ∼100 °C. Uniform and large-domain-sized 2D crystals of GaSe and GaxIn1-xSe were grown on liquid metal surface even supported on a polyimide film. As-grown 2D GaSe crystals have been fabricated to flexible photodetectors, showing high photoresponse and excellent flexibility. Our strategy of energy-sustainable low-temperature growth on liquid metal surface may open a route to the synthesis of high-quality 2D crystals of Ga-, In-, Bi-, Hg-, Pb-, or Sn-based chalcogenides and halides. PMID:26913671

  2. Ablation of atheroma by laser energy: a comparative study of the efficacy of different temporal rates of energy deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, Donald J.; Walker, Philip J.; Dadswell, Nicola G.; May, James; Piper, James A.; Wacher, Christine

    1990-06-01

    Laser angioplasty continues to attract interest as a potential method for treating atherosclerotic arterial disease. Current efforts are aimed at finding the most effective combination of laser and delivery system. High energy pulsed ultraviolet or infrared lasers demonstrate good photoablative properties but there remain practical difficulties with the optical fibre delivery. Continuous wave lasers are widely used in conjunction with "hot-tip" fibres for thermal ablation but their direct (optical) ablation efficiency is low, causing significant surrounding thermal damage in soft tissue. While considerable attention has been directed previously at the ablative effects for different laser wavelengths, little systematic study has been made of the efficacy for different temporal rates of energy deposition. We have compared the efficacy for tissue ablation in cadaveric human aorta of three different laser systems with similar wavelengths in the visible (green) but different temporal rates of energy deposition. The laser sources were the continuous wave argon ion laser (514.5 nm), the high pulse energy, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) and the copper vapour laser. The copper vapour laser is a high repetition rate, high average power, pulsed laser emitting in the green (511 nm) and yellow (578 nm) which has temporal characteristics intermediate between those of the Nd:YAG laser and the argon ion laser, and has the potential to be effective both for direct optical ablation and hot-tip thermal ablation.

  3. A highly reactive chalcogenide precursor for the synthesis of metal chalcogenide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhu, Dong-Liang; Zhu, Chun-Nan; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2015-11-01

    Metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are ideal inorganic materials for solar cells and biomedical labeling. In consideration of the hazard and instability of alkylphosphines, the phosphine-free synthetic route has become one of the most important trends in synthesizing selenide QDs. Here we report a novel phase transfer strategy to prepare phosphine-free chalcogenide precursors. The anions in aqueous solution were transferred to toluene via electrostatic interactions between the anions and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB). The obtained chalcogenide precursors show high reactivity with metal ions in the organic phase and could be applied to the low-temperature synthesis of various metal chalcogenide NCs based on a simple reaction between metal ions (e.g. Ag+, Pb2+, Cd2+) and chalcogenide anions (e.g. S2-) in toluene. In addition to chalcogenide anions, other anions such as BH4- ions and AuCl4- ions can also be transferred to the organic phase for synthesizing noble metal NCs (such as Ag and Au NCs).Metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are ideal inorganic materials for solar cells and biomedical labeling. In consideration of the hazard and instability of alkylphosphines, the phosphine-free synthetic route has become one of the most important trends in synthesizing selenide QDs. Here we report a novel phase transfer strategy to prepare phosphine-free chalcogenide precursors. The anions in aqueous solution were transferred to toluene via electrostatic interactions between the anions and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB). The obtained chalcogenide precursors show high reactivity with metal ions in the organic phase and could be applied to the low-temperature synthesis of various metal chalcogenide NCs based on a simple reaction between metal ions (e.g. Ag+, Pb2+, Cd2+) and chalcogenide anions (e.g. S2-) in toluene. In addition to chalcogenide anions, other anions such as BH4- ions and AuCl4- ions can also be transferred to

  4. Laser Ablative Deposition of Polymer Films: A Promise for Sensor Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazevska-Gilev, Jadranka; Kupčík, Jaroslav; Šubrt, Jan; Pola, Josef

    There is a continuing interest in the use of polymer films as insulating components of sensors; a number of such films have been prepared by polymer sputtering or vacuum deposition processes involving gas phase pyrolysis/photolysis and by plasma decomposition of monomers. An attractive and rather new technique for the deposition of novel polymer films is IR laser ablation of polymers containing polar groups. We have recently studied this process with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and poly(vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate) P(VC/VAc) to establish its specific features and differences to conventional pyrolysis.

  5. X-ray absorption study of pulsed laser deposited boron nitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiken, A.; Terminello, L.J.; Wong, J.; Doll, G.L.; Sato, T.

    1994-02-02

    B and N K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements have been performed on three BN thin films grown on Si substrates using ion- assisted pulsed laser deposition. Comparison of the films` spectra to those of several single-phase BN powder standards shows that the films consist primarily of sp{sup 2} bonds. Other features in the films`s spectra suggest the presence of secondary phases, possibly cubic or rhombohedral BN. Films grown at higher deposition rates and higher ion-beam voltages are found to be more disordered, in agreement with previous work.

  6. Preparation and characterization of YBCO coating on metallic RABiT substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonal, M. R.; Prajapat, C. L.; Igalwar, P. S.; Maji, B. C.; Singh, M. R.; Krishnan, M.

    2016-05-01

    Superconducting YBCO films are coated on metallic Rolling Assisted Bi-axially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) Ni-5wt % W (NiW) (002) substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system. Targets of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) and buffer layers of Ceria and 8 mole % Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) of high density are synthesized. At each stage of deposition coatings are characterized by XRD. Transport studies show superconducting nature of YBCO only when two successive buffer layers of YSZ and CeO2 are used.

  7. Multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duta, L.; Stan, G. E.; Stroescu, H.; Gartner, M.; Anastasescu, M.; Fogarassy, Zs.; Mihailescu, N.; Szekeres, A.; Bakalova, S.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2016-06-01

    We report on multi-stage pulsed laser deposition of aluminum nitride (AlN) on Si (1 0 0) wafers, at different temperatures. The first stage of deposition was carried out at 800 °C, the optimum temperature for AlN crystallization. In the second stage, the deposition was conducted at lower temperatures (room temperature, 350 °C or 450 °C), in ambient Nitrogen, at 0.1 Pa. The synthesized structures were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). GIXRD measurements indicated that the two-stage deposited AlN samples exhibited a randomly oriented wurtzite structure with nanosized crystallites. The peaks were shifted to larger angles, indicative for smaller inter-planar distances. Remarkably, TEM images demonstrated that the high-temperature AlN "seed" layers (800 °C) promoted the growth of poly-crystalline AlN structures at lower deposition temperatures. When increasing the deposition temperature, the surface roughness of the samples exhibited values in the range of 0.4-2.3 nm. SE analyses showed structures which yield band gap values within the range of 4.0-5.7 eV. A correlation between the results of single- and multi-stage AlN depositions was observed.

  8. Robust multimaterial tellurium-based chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-wave and long-wave infrared transmission.

    PubMed

    Tao, Guangming; Shabahang, Soroush; Ren, He; Khalilzadeh-Rezaie, Farnood; Peale, Robert E; Yang, Zhiyong; Wang, Xunsi; Abouraddy, Ayman F

    2014-07-01

    We describe an approach for producing robust multimaterial chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-wave and long-wave mid-infrared transmission. By combining the traditional rod-in-tube process with multimaterial coextrusion, we prepare a hybrid glass-polymer preform that is drawn continuously into a robust step-index fiber with a built-in, thermally compatible polymer jacket. Using tellurium-based chalcogenides, the fibers have a transparency window covering the 3-12 μm spectral range, making them particularly attractive for delivering quantum cascade laser light and in space applications. PMID:24978794

  9. Interpretation of Absolute Laser Reflectance During Optical Monitoring of Polycrystalline GaAs Deposition on Quartz Using Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Andrew J.; Irvine, Stuart J. C.

    2011-06-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) was deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition in a horizontal quartz reactor tube using trimethylgallium and arsine at 400°C to 500°C. Nucleation time and deposition rate were monitored using in situ laser reflectometry. This allowed differentiation between film and parasitic growth, which was not possible with other optical techniques. An absolute reflectance model was developed using measurements prior to GaAs deposition, and then employed to calculate values for GaAs on quartz. Detected reflectance intensities during experimental GaAs deposition were low compared with the model due to three-dimensional island growth, causing scattering of the incident laser radiation.

  10. Minority carrier device comprising a passivating layer including a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barron, Andrew R. (Inventor); Hepp, Aloysius F. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip P. (Inventor); MacInnes, Andrew N. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A minority carrier device includes at least one junction of at least two dissimilar materials, at least one of which is a semiconductor, and a passivating layer on at least one surface of the device. The passivating layer includes a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component. Embodiments of the minority carrier device include, for example, laser diodes, light emitting diodes, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and solar cells.

  11. On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Z.; Lin, P.; Singh, V.; Kimerling, L.; Hu, J.; Richardson, K.; Agarwal, A.; Tan, D. T. H.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate an on-chip sensor for room-temperature detection of methane gas using a broadband spiral chalcogenide glass waveguide coupled with off-chip laser and detector. The waveguide is fabricated using UV lithography patterning and lift-off after thermal evaporation. We measure the intensity change due to the presence and concentration of methane gas in the mid-infrared (MIR) range. This work provides an approach for broadband planar MIR gas sensing.

  12. Preparation and processing of rare earth chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    Rare earth chalcogenides are initially prepared by a direct combination of the pure rare earth metal and the pure chalcogen element with or without a catalyst. The use of iodine (10 to 100 mg) as a fluxing agent (catalyst), especially to prepare heavy lanthanide chalcogenides, greatly speeds up the formation of the rare earth chalcogenide. The resultant powders are consolidated by melting, pressure assisted sintering (PAS), or pressure assisted reaction sintering (PARS) to obtain near theoretical density solids. Mechanical alloying is a useful technique for preparing ternary alloys. In addition, mechanical alloying and mechanical milling can be used to form metastable allotropic forms of the yttrium and heavy lanthanide sulfides. Chemical analysis techniques are also described because it is strongly recommended that samples prepared by melting should have their chemical compositions verified because of chalcogen losses in the melting step.

  13. Chalcogenide Nanoionic-Based Radio Frequency Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James (Inventor); Lee, Richard (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A nonvolatile nanoionic switch is disclosed. A thin layer of chalcogenide glass engages a substrate and a metal selected from the group of silver and copper photo-dissolved in the chalcogenide glass. A first oxidizable electrode and a second inert electrode engage the chalcogenide glass and are spaced apart from each other forming a gap there between. A direct current voltage source is applied with positive polarity applied to the oxidizable electrode and negative polarity applied to the inert electrode which electrodeposits silver or copper across the gap closing the switch. Reversing the polarity of the switch dissolves the electrodeposited metal and returns it to the oxidizable electrode. A capacitor arrangement may be formed with the same structure and process.

  14. Chalcogenide Nanoionic-based Radio Frequency Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James (Inventor); Lee, Richard (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A nonvolatile nanoionic switch is disclosed. A thin layer of chalcogenide glass engages a substrate and a metal selected from the group of silver and copper photo-dissolved in the chalcogenide glass. A first oxidizable electrode and a second inert electrode engage the chalcogenide glass and are spaced apart from each other forming a gap therebetween. A direct current voltage source is applied with positive polarity applied to the oxidizable electrode and negative polarity applied to the inert electrode which electrodeposits silver or copper across the gap closing the switch. Reversing the polarity of the switch dissolves the electrodeposited metal and returns it to the oxidizable electrode. A capacitor arrangement may be formed with the same structure and process.

  15. Migration of elements in colour layers deposited on a ceramic substrate under the influence of laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewska, Danuta; Synowiec, Barbara; Olszyna, Andrzej; Marczak, Jan; Sarzyński, Antoni; Strzelec, Marek

    This paper summarizes the experimental results in the laser firing of colour agents on ceramic substrates. White glazed and fired ceramic plates were used as the substrate, while the deposited powders were mixtures containing ceramic colours and other colour agents. Various geometric patterns were deposited by a cw fiber Yb:YAG laser with speed controlled by a set of galvanometric scanners. The results, analyzed by means of optical microscopy, SEM EDS and laser profilometry explained the visually observed changes in pattern colours caused by the migration of pigment particles (characteristic elements) and allowed development of proper laser process.

  16. Combinatorial pulsed laser deposition of Fe/MgO granular multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, A.; Pardo, J. A.; Navarro, E.; Štrichovanec, P.; Vovk, A.; Morellón, L.; Algarabel, P. A.; Ibarra, M. R.

    2012-06-01

    Combinatorial pulsed laser deposition (PLD) makes use of the angular spread of laser-ablated material to prepare thin films with lateral compositional gradient. In this paper we have used combinatorial PLD to grow discontinuous Fe/MgO multilayers by alternate ablation from two separate Fe and MgO targets. Films of composition [Fe( t Fe)/MgO( t MgO)]15 were deposited on glass substrates. The thickness of Fe and MgO were varied in the vicinity of critical values determined in previous studies to maximize the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) in the current-in-plane configuration. Optimized multilayers show a substantial improvement of both TMR and field sensitivity at room temperature.

  17. ZnSe and ZnO film growth by pulsed-laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Y. R.; Zhu, S.; Han, S. W.; White, H. W.; Miceli, P. F.; Chandrasekhar, H. R.

    1998-05-01

    ZnSe and ZnO films have been deposited on (001) GaAs substrates under different pressures by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) with a 193 nm laser beam. The ambient pressures were changed from 8×10 -6 to 5×10 -2 Torr with high-purity argon gas for ZnSe and oxygen gas for ZnO. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement was performed on these samples. The FWHM's of X-ray theta-rocking curves for the (004) peaks of ZnSe films were less than 0.5°. X-ray data show that high-quality ZnO films can be also synthesized by PLD.

  18. Characterization of Environmental Stability of Pulsed Laser Deposited Oxide Ceramic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, THADM

    2004-03-02

    A systematic investigation of candidate hydrogen permeation materials applied to a substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition has been performed. The investigation focused on application of leading permeation-resistant materials types (oxide, carbides, and metals) on a stainless steel substrate. and evaluation of the stability of the applied coatings. Type 304L stainless steel substrates were coated with aluminum oxide, chromium oxide, and aluminum. Characterization of the coating-substrate system adhesion was performed using scratch adhesion testing and microindentation. Coating stability and environmental susceptibility were evaluated for two conditions-air at 350 degrees Celsius and Ar-H2 at 350 degrees Celsius for up to 100 hours. Results from this study have shown the pulsed laser deposition process to be an extremely versatile technology that is capable of producing a sound coating/substrate system for a wide variety of coating materials.

  19. Test-Photostability of pulsed laser deposited amorphous thin films from Ge-As-Te system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawlová, P.; Verger, F.; Nazabal, V.; Boidin, R.; Němec, P.

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous thin films from Ge-As-Te system were prepared by pulsed laser deposition to study their intrinsic photostability, morphology, chemical composition, structure and optical properties. Photostability of fabricated layers was studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry within as-deposited as well as relaxed (annealed) layers. For irradiation, laser sources operating at three wavelengths in band gap region of the studied materials were employed. The results show that lowest values of photorefraction accompanied with lowest changes of band gap values were exhibited by Ge20As20Te60 thin films, which are therefore considered as the layers with highest photostability in relaxed state. The structure of the films is discussed based on Raman scattering spectroscopy data.

  20. Test-photostability of pulsed laser deposited amorphous thin films from Ge-As-Te system.

    PubMed

    Hawlová, P; Verger, F; Nazabal, V; Boidin, R; Němec, P

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous thin films from Ge-As-Te system were prepared by pulsed laser deposition to study their intrinsic photostability, morphology, chemical composition, structure and optical properties. Photostability of fabricated layers was studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry within as-deposited as well as relaxed (annealed) layers. For irradiation, laser sources operating at three wavelengths in band gap region of the studied materials were employed. The results show that lowest values of photorefraction accompanied with lowest changes of band gap values were exhibited by Ge20As20Te60 thin films, which are therefore considered as the layers with highest photostability in relaxed state. The structure of the films is discussed based on Raman scattering spectroscopy data. PMID:25797340

  1. Test-Photostability of pulsed laser deposited amorphous thin films from Ge-As-Te system

    PubMed Central

    Hawlová, P.; Verger, F.; Nazabal, V.; Boidin, R.; Němec, P.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous thin films from Ge-As-Te system were prepared by pulsed laser deposition to study their intrinsic photostability, morphology, chemical composition, structure and optical properties. Photostability of fabricated layers was studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry within as-deposited as well as relaxed (annealed) layers. For irradiation, laser sources operating at three wavelengths in band gap region of the studied materials were employed. The results show that lowest values of photorefraction accompanied with lowest changes of band gap values were exhibited by Ge20As20Te60 thin films, which are therefore considered as the layers with highest photostability in relaxed state. The structure of the films is discussed based on Raman scattering spectroscopy data. PMID:25797340

  2. Superlattice CoCrPt/Ru/CoFe structure fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X. F.; Liang, Q.; Li, H. Q.; He, X. X.; Wang, Xiaoru; Zhang, W.

    2006-04-01

    The synthetic antiferromagnets (SAF) have been used in spin-valve sensor in data storage industry [1]. We report a new hard/Ru/soft sandwich structure (SHBL) fabricated by pulsed lased deposition to replace current single layer structure for information recording application. SHBL consists of two magnetic layers separated by thin nonmagnetic layers, typically with Ru layers of 0.7-1.2 nm, through which antiferromagnetic coupling is induced. Varying the relative thickness of the magnetic layers, the spacer layers, and the type of magnetic materials can alter magnetic properties of CoCrPt/Ru/CoFe superlattice. The coercivity Hc and grain size of magnetic layer is also dependent on the laser fluence. High laser fluence results in both small grain size and high Hc. The observed phenomena are related to high quenching and deposition rates during PLD at high fluence, resulting in more pronounced phase segregation.

  3. Vacancies Ordered in Screw Form (VOSF) and Layered Indium Selenide Thin Film Deposition by Laser Back Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Kenneth M.; Wiley, William R.; Venkatasubramanian, Eswaranand; Ohuchi, Fumio S.

    2009-09-30

    Indium selenide thin films are important due to their applications in non-volatile memory and solar cells. In this work, we present an initial study of a new application of deposition-site selective laser back ablation (LBA) for making thin films of In2Se3. In-vacuo annealing and subsequent characterization of the films by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that control of substrate temperature during deposition and post-deposition annealing temperature is critical in determining the phase and composition of the films. The initial laser fluence and target film thickness determine the amount of material deposited onto the substrate.

  4. Effect of deposition temperature on electron-beam evaporated polycrystalline silicon thin-film and crystallized by diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, J. Varalmov, S.; Huang, J.; Green, M. A.; Kim, K.

    2014-06-16

    The effects of the deposition temperature on the microstructure, crystallographic orientation, and electrical properties of a 10-μm thick evaporated Si thin-film deposited on glass and crystallized using a diode laser, are investigated. The crystallization of the Si thin-film is initiated at a deposition temperature between 450 and 550 °C, and the predominant (110) orientation in the normal direction is found. Pole figure maps confirm that all films have a fiber texture and that it becomes stronger with increasing deposition temperature. Diode laser crystallization is performed, resulting in the formation of lateral grains along the laser scan direction. The laser power required to form lateral grains is higher in case of films deposited below 450 °C for all scan speeds. Pole figure maps show 75% occupancies of the (110) orientation in the normal direction when the laser crystallized film is deposited above 550 °C. A higher density of grain boundaries is obtained when the laser crystallized film is deposited below 450 °C, which limits the solar cell performance by n = 2 recombination, and a performance degradation is expected due to severe shunting.

  5. Enhanced localized superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 thin film by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, J.; Massarotti, D.; Vickers, M. E.; Kursumovic, A.; Di Bernardo, A.; Robinson, J. W. A.; Tafuri, F.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.; Blamire, M. G.

    2016-09-01

    Superconducting c-axis-oriented Sr2RuO4 thin film has been fabricated using pulsed laser deposition. Although the superconductivity is localized, the onset critical temperature is enhanced over the bulk value. X-ray microstructural analysis of Sr2RuO4 superconducting and non-superconducting thin films suggests the existence of the localized stacking faults and an overall c-axis lattice expansion which may account for the locally enhanced superconductivity.

  6. Synthesis of Cobalt Oxides Thin Films Fractal Structures by Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Haniam, P.; Kunsombat, C.; Chiangga, S.; Songsasen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of cobalt oxides (CoO and Co3O4) fractal structures have been synthesized by using laser chemical vapor deposition at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Various factors which affect the density and crystallization of cobalt oxides fractal shapes have been examined. We show that the fractal structures can be described by diffusion-limited aggregation model and discuss a new possibility to control the fractal structures. PMID:24672354

  7. Synthesis of cobalt oxides thin films fractal structures by laser chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Haniam, P; Kunsombat, C; Chiangga, S; Songsasen, A

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of cobalt oxides (CoO and Co3O4) fractal structures have been synthesized by using laser chemical vapor deposition at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Various factors which affect the density and crystallization of cobalt oxides fractal shapes have been examined. We show that the fractal structures can be described by diffusion-limited aggregation model and discuss a new possibility to control the fractal structures. PMID:24672354

  8. Model polyimide films: Synthesis, characterization, and deposition by resonant infrared laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, Nicole Leigh

    A new deposition technique for high performance polymer films, resonant infrared laser ablation (RIR-LA) is presented. Ultraviolet laser deposition techniques have been shown to cause decomposition and depolymerization of the deposited polymer films. We hypothesized that the infrared radiation would be a gentler technique compared to ultraviolet radiation and should leave the polymer structure intact. We proposed a technique where a solution-based polymeric precursor is frozen in liquid nitrogen, placed in vacuum chamber, and ablated by a rastered infrared laser beam. Then the ejected material is collected on a substrate forming a thin polymeric film. First we tested the technique on a 15 weight % pyromellitic dianhydride-co-4,4'-oxidianiline (PMDA-ODA) in N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP), the polymeric precursor to polyimide. PMDA-ODA is converted to polyimide by a thermal cure near 250 °C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results confirmed that the PMDA-ODA was transferred intact and without curing by RIR-LA. Molecular weight studies show that only a small portion of the original molecular weight is lost, allowing for the preservation of strength and structural properties. The technique was then tested with other polymers including polyamide imide and polyether imide. Both polymers were successfully transferred intact with no signs of curing. Polyamide imide boasts an even lower cure temperature than polyimide at only 150°C, illustrating how effective RIR-LA is at avoiding thermal transformations.

  9. Nanoscale physical properties of polymer glasses formed by solvent-assisted laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, Kimberly; Arnold, Craig; Priestley, Rodney

    2015-03-01

    High-energy, low-density nanostructured polymer glasses are formed via the solvent-assisted laser deposition technique MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation). During film deposition, micro- to nano-size polymer/solvent clusters are ejected via laser ablation from a frozen dilute polymer solution. During flight to the substrate under vacuum, the clusters experience rapid cooling and solvent stripping, forming polymer nanoglobules. Bulk polymer films are formed via the gradual assembly of these spherical-like nanostructured building blocks (i.e. nanoglobules). The MAPLE process thus enables investigation of the exceptional properties of glasses formed under extreme processing conditions. In the bulk state, we probe the effect of process parameters and chemical identity of the thermal behavior of a series of methacrylate polymers. We also employ multiple techniques to directly measure the properties of the polymer nanoglobules and connect the results to the global film properties. This talk will address nanoscale dilatometry via AFM, in which the volume of an individual polymer nanoglobule is tracked as it is heated through its glass transition, as well as Flash DSC analysis of the thermal properties of nanogram size MAPLE-deposited polymer glasses. We then discuss these findings in the context of the material's unconventional route to the glassy state.

  10. Laser-assisted nanomaterial deposition, nanomanufacturing, in situ monitoring and associated apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Samuel S; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Hwang, David J; Minor, Andrew M

    2013-11-12

    Laser-assisted apparatus and methods for performing nanoscale material processing, including nanodeposition of materials, can be controlled very precisely to yield both simple and complex structures with sizes less than 100 nm. Optical or thermal energy in the near field of a photon (laser) pulse is used to fabricate submicron and nanometer structures on a substrate. A wide variety of laser material processing techniques can be adapted for use including, subtractive (e.g., ablation, machining or chemical etching), additive (e.g., chemical vapor deposition, selective self-assembly), and modification (e.g., phase transformation, doping) processes. Additionally, the apparatus can be integrated into imaging instruments, such as SEM and TEM, to allow for real-time imaging of the material processing.

  11. Accuracy of Nanoscale Pitch Standards Fabricated by Laser-Focused Atomic Deposition

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Jabez J.; Anderson, William R.; Bradley, Curtis C.; Walkiewicz, Mirek; Celotta, Robert J.; Jurdik, Erich; Deslattes, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    The pitch accuracy of a grating formed by laser-focused atomic deposition is evaluated from the point of view of fabricating nanoscale pitch standard artifacts. The average pitch obtained by the process, nominally half the laser wavelength, is simply traceable with small uncertainty to an atomic frequency and hence can be known with very high accuracy. An error budget is presented for a Cr on sapphire sample, showing that a combined standard uncertainty of 0.0049 nm, or a relative uncertainty of 2.3 × 10−5, is readily obtained, provided the substrate temperature does not change. Precision measurements of the diffraction of the 351.1 nm argon ion laser line from such an artifact are also presented. These yield an average pitch of (212.7777 ± 0.0069) nm, which agrees well with the expected value, as corrected for thermal contraction, of (212.7705 ± 0.0049) nm.

  12. Correlations of Melt Pool Geometry and Process Parameters During Laser Metal Deposition by Coaxial Process Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocylok, Sörn; Alexeev, Eugen; Mann, Stefan; Weisheit, Andreas; Wissenbach, Konrad; Kelbassa, Ingomar

    One major demand of today's laser metal deposition (LMD) processes is to achieve a fail-save build-up regarding changing conditions like heat accumulations. Especially for the repair of thin parts like turbine blades is the knowledge about the correlations between melt pool behavior and process parameters like laser power, feed rate and powder mass stream indispensable. The paper will show the process layout with the camera based coaxial monitoring system and the quantitative influence of the process parameters on the melt pool geometry. Therefore the diameter, length and area of the melt pool are measured by a video analytic system at various parameters and compared with the track wide in cross-sections and the laser spot diameter. The influence of changing process conditions on the melt pool is also investigated. On the base of these results an enhanced process of the build-up of a multilayer one track fillet geometry will be presented.

  13. SERS activity of silver and gold nanostructured thin films deposited by pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, N. R.; Tommasini, M.; Fazio, E.; Neri, F.; Ponterio, R. C.; Trusso, S.; Ossi, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    Nanostructured Au and Ag thin films were obtained by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in presence of a controlled Ar atmosphere. Keeping constant other deposition parameters such as target-to-substrate distance, incidence angle, laser wavelength and laser fluence, the film morphology, revealed by SEM, ranges from isolated NPs to island structures and sensibly depends on gas pressure (10-100 Pa) and on the laser pulse number (500-3 × 10). The control of these two parameters allows tailoring the morphology and correspondingly the optical properties of the films. The position and width of the surface plasmon resonance peak, in fact, can be varied with continuity. The films showed remarkable surface-enhanced Raman activity (SERS) that depends on the adopted deposition conditions. Raman maps were acquired on micrometer-sized areas of both silver and gold substrates selected among those with the strongest SERS activity. Organic dyes of interest in cultural heritage studies (alizarin, purpurin) have been also considered for bench marking the substrates produced in this work. Also the ability to detect the presence of biomolecules was tested using lysozyme in a label free configuration.

  14. Study of the laser scribing of molybdenum thin films fabricated using different deposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneller, Eric; Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Shimada, Juliana; Kar, Aravinda

    2013-09-01

    Monolithic cell interconnection is a technique used in solar devices to allow for interconnection of adjacent cells through patterning of the thin films during fabrication. In the case of CuIn1-xGaxSe2-ySy (CIGS) solar cells, Molybdenum is commonly used as the back contact. Patterning of this layer is required in the interconnection scheme to electrically isolate adjacent cells. Laser scribing has been adopted for patterning of this layer. This paper reports on the effect of the molybdenum thin film deposition technique, and the resulting film properties, on the characteristic of the laser scribe. Films were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering over a range of working gas pressures and powers as well as in single and multilayer configurations. It was found that the residual stress within the film lead to significantly different laser ablation processes. This required independent tuning of the laser processing parameters to create a clean, defect free scribe for different samples. Experimentation was carried out using both film-side and glass-side processing. It was shown that glass-side processing leads to a reduction in cracks and delamination originating from the scribe. The processing conditions that produced successful scribe lines for the various films are presented and discussed.

  15. Modeling of the Effect of Path Planning on Thermokinetic Evolutions in Laser Powder Deposition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroozmehr, Ehsan; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2011-07-01

    A thermokinetic model coupling finite-element heat transfer with transformation kinetics is developed to determine the effect of deposition patterns on the phase-transformation kinetics of laser powder deposition (LPD) process of a hot-work tool steel. The finite-element model is used to define the temperature history of the process used in an empirical-based kinetic model to analyze the tempering effect of the heating and cooling cycles of the deposition process. An area is defined to be covered by AISI H13 on a substrate of AISI 1018 with three different deposition patterns: one section, two section, and three section. The two-section pattern divides the area of the one-section pattern into two sections, and the three-section pattern divides that area into three sections. The results show that dividing the area under deposition into smaller areas can influence the phase transformation kinetics of the process and, consequently, change the final hardness of the deposited material. The two-section pattern shows a higher average hardness than the one-section pattern, and the three-section pattern shows a fully hardened surface without significant tempered zones of low hardness. To verify the results, a microhardness test and scanning electron microscope were used.

  16. Nanoindentation study of niobium nitride thin films on niobium fabricated by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, Md Abdullah Al; Farha, Ashraf Hassan; Ufuktepe, Yüksel; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.

    2015-03-01

    Nanomechanical and structural properties of NbNx films deposited on single crystal Nb using pulsed laser deposition for different substrate temperature were previously investigated as a function of film/substrate crystal structure (Mamun et al. (2012) [30]). In this study we focus on the effect of laser fluences and background nitrogen pressure on the nanomechanical and structural properties of NbNx films. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the thin films were tested by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Using nanoindentation, the investigation of the nanomechanical properties revealed that the hardness of the NbNx films was directly influenced by the laser fluence for low background nitrogen pressure, whereas the nanomechanical hardness showed no apparent correlation with laser fluence at high background nitrogen pressure. The NbNx film hardness measured at 30% film thickness increased from 14.0 ± 1.3 to 18.9 ± 2.4 GPa when the laser fluence was increased from 15 to 25 J/cm2 at 10.7 Pa N2 pressure. X-ray diffraction showed NbNx films with peaks that correspond to δ-NbN cubic and β-Nb2N hexagonal phases in addition to the δ'-NbN hexagonal phase. Finally, increasing the laser fluence resulted in NbNx films with larger grain sizes.

  17. Pulsed Laser Deposited Ferromagnetic Chromium Dioxide thin Films for Applications in Spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, S.; Jadhav, J.; Sharma, H.; Biswas, S.

    Stable rutile type tetragonal chromium dioxide (CrO2) thin films have been deposited on lattice-matched layers of TiO2 by KrF excimer laser based pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using Cr2O3 target. The TiO2 seed layer was deposited on oxidized Si substrates by the same PLD process followed by annealing at 1100 °C for 4 h. The lattice-matched interfacial layer is required for the stabilization of Cr (IV) phase in CrO2, since CrO2 behaves as a metastable compound under ambient conditions and readily converts into its stable phase of Cr (III) oxide, Cr2O3. Analyses with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Glancing-angle XRD (GIXRD), Raman spectroscopy and grazing-angle Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy confirm the presence of tetragonal CrO2 phase in the as-deposited films. Microstructure and surface morphology in the films were studied with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Electrical and magnetic characterizations of the films were performed at room temperature. Such type of stable half-metallic CrO2 thin films with low field magnetoresistive switching behaviour are in demand for applications as diverse as spin-FETs, magnetic sensors, and magneto-optical devices.

  18. Epitaxial composition-graded perovskite films grown by a dual-beam pulsed laser deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Joe; Autret-Lambert, Cécile; Sauvage, Thierry; Courtois, Blandine; Wolfman, Jérôme; Gervais, François

    2013-10-01

    We prepared SrTiO3 (STO) to Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST06) out-of-plane composition-graded films on STO (100) substrates by means of a dual-beam dual-target pulsed laser deposition technique. In the deposition system, a sliding mirror divides one KrF excimer laser beam into two, realizing the dual-beam of controlled intensity ratio. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping has revealed that the graded films deposited under oxygen pressure at or lower than 1×10-3 mbar were coherently strained with the same in-plane lattice parameter as the substrate. Their composition gradient along the growth direction was confirmed by Rutherford backscattering analysis to be uniform. We deposited BST06 top layers of various thickness on epitaxial composition-graded (ECG) buffer layers and examined their coherency and crystallinity. In comparison with the cases of STO homoepitaxial buffer layers, ECG buffer layers achieved better crystallinity of top BST06 layers, suggesting that the crystallinity of a heteroepitaxially-grown film is affected not only by the in-plane lattice matching but also by the out-of-plane lattice continuity with the substrate. ECG films that bridge compositions of substrate and top layer materials can be useful buffer layers for epitaxial growth of lattice-mismatched oxide films.

  19. Process development for the manufacture of an integrated dispenser cathode assembly using laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ryan William

    2005-07-01

    Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition (LCVD) has been shown to have great potential for the manufacture of small, complex, two or three dimensional metal and ceramic parts. One of the most promising applications of the technology is in the fabrication of an integrated dispenser cathode assembly. This application requires the deposition of a boron nitride-molybdenum composite structure. In order to realize this structure, work was done to improve the control and understanding of the LCVD process and to determine experimental conditions conducive to the growth of the required materials. A series of carbon fiber and line deposition studies were used to characterize process-shape relationships and study the kinetics of carbon LCVD. These studies provided a foundation for the fabrication of the first high aspect ratio multi-layered LCVD wall structures. The kinetics studies enabled the formulation of an advanced computational model in the FLUENT CFD package for studying energy transport, mass and momentum transport, and species transport within a forced flow LCVD environment. The model was applied to two different material systems and used to quantify deposition rates and identify rate-limiting regimes. A computational thermal-structural model was also developed using the ANSYS software package to study the thermal stress state within an LCVD deposit during growth. Georgia Tech's LCVD system was modified and used to characterize both boron nitride and molybdenum deposition independently. The focus was on understanding the relations among process parameters and deposit shape. Boron nitride was deposited using a B3 N3H6-N2 mixture and growth was characterized by sporadic nucleation followed by rapid bulk growth. Molybdenum was deposited from the MoCl5-H2 system and showed slow, but stable growth. Each material was used to grow both fibers and lines. The fabrication of a boron nitride-molybdenum composite was also demonstrated. In sum, this work served to both advance the

  20. Research Update: Stoichiometry controlled oxide thin film growth by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Groenen, Rik; Smit, Jasper; Orsel, Kasper; Vailionis, Arturas; Bastiaens, Bert; Huijben, Mark; Boller, Klaus; Rijnders, Guus; Koster, Gertjan

    2015-07-01

    The oxidation of species in the plasma plume during pulsed laser deposition controls both the stoichiometry as well as the growth kinetics of the deposited SrTiO{sub 3} thin films, instead of the commonly assumed mass distribution in the plasma plume and the kinetic energy of the arriving species. It was observed by X-ray diffraction that SrTiO{sub 3} stoichiometry depends on the composition of the background gas during deposition, where in a relative small pressure range between 10{sup −2} mbars and 10{sup −1} mbars oxygen partial pressure, the resulting film becomes fully stoichiometric. Furthermore, upon increasing the oxygen (partial) pressure, the growth mode changes from 3D island growth to a 2D layer-by-layer growth mode as observed by reflection high energy electron diffraction.

  1. Gas phase versus surface contributions to photolytic laser chemical vapor deposition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braichotte, D.; van den Bergh, H.

    1988-04-01

    The rate of cw photolytic laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of platinum is measured for λ≈350 nm as a function of the light intensity and the metalorganic vapor pressure. The growth of the metal films is studied in situ and in real time by monitoring their optical transmission. At low intensities the transmitted light decreases monotonically with time, and the LCVD process is photolytic with its rate limiting step in the surface adlayer. At higher intensities we observe two distinct time domains: Relatively slow initial photolytic deposition with its rate limiting step in the gas phase, which is followed by much faster pyrolytic LCVD. An improved method for distinguishing between adlayer and gas-phase limiting processes is demonstrated. These observations are confirmed by studying the photolytic deposition rates while varying the thickness of the adlayer.

  2. Laser-induced chemical vapor deposition of SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, P. K.; Roche, G. A.; Ritchie, W. H.; Collins, G. J.

    1982-04-01

    We have demonstrated rapid (3000 Å/min) photochemical deposition of silicon dioxide from gas phase donor molecules. An ArF (193 nm) laser was used to excite and dissociate gas phase SiH4 and N2O molecules in contrast to earlier work with incoherent mercury lamps. We have achieved 20 times the deposition rate, limited the dissociation volume to a localized region, and minimized the direct impingement of UV photons on the substrate. Although the SiO2 deposition rate was insensitive to substrate temperature from 20 to 600 °C, film quality noticeably improved above 200 °C. Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors were fabricated and characterized in order to measure SiO2 electrical properties. Film composition was investigated using Auger and infrared spectroscopy techniques and showed that the SiO2 is stoichiometric and contains less than 5% nitrogen.

  3. Osteoblast behavior on various ultra short pulsed laser deposited surface coatings.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chengjuan; Myllymaa, Sami; Prittinen, Juha; Koistinen, Arto P; Lappalainen, Reijo; Lammi, Mikko J

    2013-04-01

    Ultra short pulsed laser deposition technique was utilized to create amorphous diamond, alumina and carbon nitride, and two different titania coatings on silicon wafers, thus producing five different surface deposited films with variable physico-chemical properties. The surface characterizations, including the roughness, the contact angle and the zeta potential measurements were performed before we tested the growth properties of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells on these surfaces (three separate experiments). The average roughness and hydrophobicity were the highest on titania-deposited surfaces, while carbon nitride was the most hydrophilic one. Osteoblasts on all surfaces showed a flattened, spread-out morphology, although on amorphous diamond the cell shape appeared more elongated than on the other surfaces. On rough titania, the area covered by the osteoblasts was smaller than on the other ones. Cell proliferation assay did not show any statistically significant differences. PMID:23827623

  4. Laser ray tracing and power deposition on an unstructured three-dimensional grid

    PubMed

    Kaiser

    2000-01-01

    A scheme is presented for laser beam evolution and power deposition on three-dimensional unstructured grids composed of hexahedra, prisms, pyramids, and tetrahedra. The geometrical-optics approximation to the electromagnetic wave equation is used to follow propagation of a collection of discrete rays used to represent the beam(s). Ray trajectory equations are integrated using a method that is second order in time, exact for a constant electron-density gradient, and capable of dealing with density discontinuities that arise in certain hydrodynamics formulations. Power deposition by inverse-bremsstrahlung is modeled with a scheme based on Gaussian quadrature to accommodate a deposition rate whose spatial variation is highly nonuniform. Comparisons with analytic results are given for a density ramp in three dimensions, and a "quadratic-well" density trough in two dimensions. PMID:11046339

  5. High-rate laser metal deposition of Inconel 718 component using low heat-input approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, C. Y.; Scudamore, R. J.; Allen, J.

    Currently many aircraft and aero engine components are machined from billets or oversize forgings. This involves significant cost, material wastage, lead-times and environmental impacts. Methods to add complex features to another component or net-shape surface would offer a substantial cost benefit. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD), currently being applied to the repair of worn or damaged aero engine components, was attempted in this work as an alternative process route, to build features onto a base component, because of its low heat input capability. In this work, low heat input and high-rate deposition was developed to deposit Inconel 718 powder onto thin plates. Using the optimised process parameters, a number of demonstrator components were successfully fabricated.

  6. Laser Physical Vapor Deposition of Nanocrystalline Boron Carbide Films to Enhance Cutting Tool Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannadham, K.; Watkins, Thomas R; Lance, Michael J; Riester, Laura; Lemaster, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Laser physical vapor deposition was used to deposit thin films of boron carbide on Si (100) and WC-Co substrates at 550 C under different pressures of methane atmosphere. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was used to identify a boron carbide phase, which exhibited weak peaks. The presence of particulates in the size range of 50 nm-3 {micro}m embedded in an amorphous matrix was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy indicated that as methane partial pressure was increased during deposition, the amount of disorder with the boron carbide structure also increased. Also, the nanoindentation hardness decreased, while the coefficient of friction and scratch adhesion strength increased. These effects are attributed to an increase in amorphous phase/disorder in the films. Wear tests conducted by machining particleboard using boron carbide coated WC-Co tools in the absence of methane showed the same wear rate as tools coated under higher methane pressures.

  7. Atomic Oxygen Sensors Based on Nanograin ZnO Films Prepared by Pulse Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yunfei; Chen Xuekang; Li Zhonghua; Zheng Kuohai; Wang Lanxi; Feng Zhanzu; Yang Shengsheng

    2009-01-05

    High-quality nanograin ZnO thin films were deposited on c-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by pulse laser deposition (PLD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the samples. The structural and morphological properties of ZnO films under different deposition temperature have been investigated before and after atomic oxygen (AO) treatment. XRD has shown that the intensity of the (0 0 2) peak increases and its FWHM value decreases after AO treatment. The AO sensing characteristics of nano ZnO film also has been investigated in a ground-based atomic oxygen simulation facility. The results show that the electrical conductivity of nanograin ZnO films decreases with increasing AO fluence and that the conductivity of the films can be recovered by heating.

  8. Development of ITER relevant laser techniques for deposited layer characterisation and tritium inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaquias, A.; Philipps, V.; Huber, A.; Hakola, A.; Likonen, J.; Kolehmainen, J.; Tervakangas, S.; Aints, M.; Paris, P.; Laan, M.; Lissovski, A.; Almaviva, S.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Maddaluno, G.; Kubkowska, M.; Gasior, P.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Lof, A. R.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P. A.; Petersson, P.; Rubel, M.; Fortuna, E.; Xiao, Q.

    2013-07-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a potential candidate to monitor the layer composition and fuel retention during and after plasma shots on specific locations of the main chamber and divertor of ITER. This method is being investigated in a cooperative research programme on plasma devices such as TEXTOR, FTU, MAGNUM-PSI and in other various laboratorial experiments. In this paper LIBS results from targets of D-H-rich carbon films and mixed W-Al-C deposits on bulk tungsten substrates are reported (simulating ITER-like deposits with Al as proxy for Be). Two independent methods, one to determine the relative elemental composition and the other the absolute contents of the target based on the experimental LIBS signals are proposed. The results show that LIBS has the capability to provide the relative concentrations of the elements on the deposited layer when the experimental conditions on the targets surface are identical to the calibration samples.

  9. Nd-doped YVO{sub 4} waveguide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongxia Wu Xin; Song Renguo

    2008-08-15

    Nd:YVO{sub 4} thin films have been grown on silica glass substrates by using pulsed laser deposition technique. X-ray diffraction results show that the as-deposited Nd:YVO{sub 4} film is basically oriented polycrystalline and strong (200) peak was revealed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that valence state of elements of prepared films is consistent with that of bulk target material. Prism coupling technique measurement shows that both TE and TM mode reveal sharp drops at some angular positions, indicating favorable light confinements within the Nd:YVO{sub 4} waveguide layer. The surface morphology of the deposited Nd:YVO{sub 4} films was also observed by using atomic force microscopy.

  10. Removal Of Surface Deposits And Intrinsic Stains Of Teeth With Fiber Optics Of Nd-YAG Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marioka, Toshio; Maseda, Yusaku; Oho, Takahiko

    1987-03-01

    An impact of the Q-switched Nd-YAG laser caused bleaching of stains and removal of deposits and pit & fissure contents of teeth. No chalky spots or craters were found microscopically on the enamel surface after irradiation. These results strongly suggested the clinical applicability of Q-switched Nd-YAG laser in removing dental deposits, intrinsic pigmentation of enamel, and pit and fissure contents of molar.

  11. A highly reactive chalcogenide precursor for the synthesis of metal chalcogenide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Zhu, Dong-Liang; Zhu, Chun-Nan; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are ideal inorganic materials for solar cells and biomedical labeling. In consideration of the hazard and instability of alkylphosphines, the phosphine-free synthetic route has become one of the most important trends in synthesizing selenide QDs. Here we report a novel phase transfer strategy to prepare phosphine-free chalcogenide precursors. The anions in aqueous solution were transferred to toluene via electrostatic interactions between the anions and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB). The obtained chalcogenide precursors show high reactivity with metal ions in the organic phase and could be applied to the low-temperature synthesis of various metal chalcogenide NCs based on a simple reaction between metal ions (e.g. Ag(+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+)) and chalcogenide anions (e.g. S(2-)) in toluene. In addition to chalcogenide anions, other anions such as BH4(-) ions and AuCl4(-) ions can also be transferred to the organic phase for synthesizing noble metal NCs (such as Ag and Au NCs). PMID:26531253

  12. Enhancement of thickness uniformity of thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Felix E.

    1995-01-01

    A peculiarity of the pulsed laser deposition technique of thin-film growth which limits its applicability is the very rapid drop of resulting film thickness as a function of distance from the deposition axis. This is due to the narrow forward peaking of the emission plume characteristic of the laser ablation process. The plume is usually modeled by a cos(sup n) theta function with n greater, and in some cases, much higher, than 1. Based on this behavior, a method is presented to substantially enhance coverage uniformity in substrate zones of the order of the target-substrate distance h, and to within a specified thickness tolerance. Essentially, target irradiation is caused to form an annular emission source instead of the usual spot. By calculating the resulting thickness profiles, an optimum radius s is found for the annular source, corresponding to a given power in the emission characteristic and a given value of h. The radius of this annulus scales with h. Calculated numerical results for optimal s/h ratios corresponding to a wide range of values for n are provided for the case of +/- 1% tolerance in deviation from the thickness at deposition axis. Manners of producing annular illumination of the target by means of conic optics are presented for the case of a laser beam with radially symmetric profile. The region of uniform coverage at the substrate can be further augmented by extension of the method to multiple concentric annular sources. By using a conic optic of novel design, it is shown also how a single-laser beam can be focused onto a target in the required manner. Applicability of the method would be limited in practice by the available laser power. On the other hand, the effective emitting area can be large, which favors extremely high growth rates, and since growth can occur uniformly over the whole substrate for each laser pulse, single-shot depositions with substantial thicknesses are possible. In addition, the simultaneity of growth over the

  13. Internal energy deposition with silicon nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SPALDI) mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagan, Shai; Hua, Yimin; Boday, Dylan J.; Somogyi, Arpad; Wysocki, Ronald J.; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2009-06-01

    The use of silicon nanoparticles for laser desorption/ionization (LDI) is a new appealing matrix-less approach for the selective and sensitive mass spectrometry of small molecules in MALDI instruments. Chemically modified silicon nanoparticles (30 nm) were previously found to require very low laser fluence in order to induce efficient LDI, which raised the question of internal energy deposition processes in that system. Here we report a comparative study of internal energy deposition from silicon nanoparticles to previously explored benzylpyridinium (BP) model compounds during LDI experiments. The internal energy deposition in silicon nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SPALDI) with different fluorinated linear chain modifiers (decyl, hexyl and propyl) was compared to LDI from untreated silicon nanoparticles and from the organic matrix, [alpha]-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA). The energy deposition to internal vibrational modes was evaluated by molecular ion survival curves and indicated that the ions produced by SPALDI have an internal energy threshold of 2.8-3.7 eV. This is slightly lower than the internal energy induced using the organic CHCA matrix, with similar molecular survival curves as previously reported for LDI off silicon nanowires. However, the internal energy associated with desorption/ionization from the silicon nanoparticles is significantly lower than that reported for desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS). The measured survival yields in SPALDI gradually decrease with increasing laser fluence, contrary to reported results for silicon nanowires. The effect of modification of the silicon particle surface with semifluorinated linear chain silanes, including fluorinated decyl (C10), fluorinated hexyl (C6) and fluorinated propyl (C3) was explored too. The internal energy deposited increased with a decrease in the length of the modifier alkyl chain. Unmodified silicon particles exhibited the highest analyte internal energy

  14. Synthesis of designed materials by laser-based direct metal deposition technique: Experimental and theoretical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Huan

    Direct metal deposition (DMD), a laser-cladding based solid freeform fabrication technique, is capable of depositing multiple materials at desired composition which makes this technique a flexible method to fabricate heterogeneous components or functionally-graded structures. The inherently rapid cooling rate associated with the laser cladding process enables extended solid solubility in nonequilibrium phases, offering the possibility of tailoring new materials with advanced properties. This technical advantage opens the area of synthesizing a new class of materials designed by topology optimization method which have performance-based material properties. For better understanding of the fundamental phenomena occurring in multi-material laser cladding with coaxial powder injection, a self-consistent 3-D transient model was developed. Physical phenomena including laser-powder interaction, heat transfer, melting, solidification, mass addition, liquid metal flow, and species transportation were modeled and solved with a controlled-volume finite difference method. Level-set method was used to track the evolution of liquid free surface. The distribution of species concentration in cladding layer was obtained using a nonequilibrium partition coefficient model. Simulation results were compared with experimental observations and found to be reasonably matched. Multi-phase material microstructures which have negative coefficients of thermal expansion were studied for their DMD manufacturability. The pixel-based topology-optimal designs are boundary-smoothed by Bezier functions to facilitate toolpath design. It is found that the inevitable diffusion interface between different material-phases degrades the negative thermal expansion property of the whole microstructure. A new design method is proposed for DMD manufacturing. Experimental approaches include identification of laser beam characteristics during different laser-powder-substrate interaction conditions, an

  15. A simple solution to the problem of effective utilisation of the target material for pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzanyan, A S; Kuzanyan, A A; Petrosyan, V A; Pilosyan, S Kh; Grasiuk, A Z

    2013-12-31

    The factors determining the efficiency of the target material utilisation for pulsed laser deposition of films are considered. The target volume is calculated, which is evaporated in the ablation process by the focused laser radiation having a rectangular form. The new device is suggested and developed for obtaining thin films by the method of laser deposition, which is specific in the employment of a simple optical system mounted outside a deposition chamber that comprises two lenses and the diaphragm and focuses the laser beam onto a target in the form of a sector-like spot. Thin films of CuO and YBaCuO were deposited with this device. Several deposition cycles revealed that the target material is consumed uniformly from the entire surface of the target. A maximal spread of the target thickness was not greater than ±2% both prior to deposition and after it. The device designed provides a high coefficient of the target material utilisation efficiency. (laser deposition of thin films)

  16. Laser-induced PVD technique for deposition of diamondlike carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Klaus R.; Mueller, F.

    1993-04-01

    Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films have been grown on various substrates at low temperatures and low pressure by ablation of carbon particles using KrF excimer laser pulses of 30 ns duration. It is shown that the film properties strongly depend on the energy density of the incident laser beam and the deposition temperature. At energy densities above 8 J/cm2 and low substrate temperatures (< 200 degree(s)C) the coatings are transparent, while at lower energy densities or higher substrate temperatures only opaque films are obtained. The thin films were characterized by optical spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and secondary electron microscopy. In addition to film growth and characterization, the kinetic energies and masses of laser ablated carbon ions have been investigated by time-of-flight spectroscopy. We observe an almost linear relation between kinetic particle energy and laser energy density, with maximum values as high as 220 eV at 23 J/cm2, indicating a strong correlation between laser energy density, particle energies and DLC film properties.

  17. Development of a high magnetic field assisted pulsed laser deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kejun; Dai, Jianming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Peng; Zuo, Xuzhong; Zhou, Shu; Zhu, Xuebin; Sheng, Zhigao; Liang, Changhao; Sun, Yuping

    2015-09-01

    A high magnetic field assisted pulsed laser deposition (HMF-PLD) system has been developed to in situ grow thin films in a high magnetic field up to 10 T. In this system, a specially designed PLD cylindrical vacuum chamber is horizontally located in the bore configuration of a superconducting magnet with a bore diameter of 200 mm. To adjust the focused pulsed laser into the target in such a narrow PLD vacuum chamber, an ingeniously built-in laser leading-in chamber is employed, including a laser mirror with a reflection angle of 65° and a damage threshold up to 3.4 J/cm2. A laser alignment system consisting of a built-in video-unit leading-in chamber and a low-energy alignment laser is applied to monitor and align the pulsed laser propagation in the PLD vacuum chamber. We have grown La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) thin films on (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 (001) [LSAT (001)] substrates by HMF-PLD. The results show that the nanostructures of the LSMO films can be tuned from an epitaxially continuous film structure without field to a vertically aligned nanorod structure with an applied high magnetic field above 5 T, and the dimension size of the nanorods can be tuned by the strength of the magnetic field. The associated magnetic anisotropy is found to be highly dependent on the nanorod structures. We show how the HMF-PLD provides an effective route toward tuning the nanostructures and the physical properties of functional thin films, giving it an important role in development of nanodevices and their application.

  18. Development of a high magnetic field assisted pulsed laser deposition system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kejun; Dai, Jianming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Peng; Zuo, Xuzhong; Zhou, Shu; Zhu, Xuebin; Sheng, Zhigao; Liang, Changhao; Sun, Yuping

    2015-09-01

    A high magnetic field assisted pulsed laser deposition (HMF-PLD) system has been developed to in situ grow thin films in a high magnetic field up to 10 T. In this system, a specially designed PLD cylindrical vacuum chamber is horizontally located in the bore configuration of a superconducting magnet with a bore diameter of 200 mm. To adjust the focused pulsed laser into the target in such a narrow PLD vacuum chamber, an ingeniously built-in laser leading-in chamber is employed, including a laser mirror with a reflection angle of 65° and a damage threshold up to 3.4 J/cm(2). A laser alignment system consisting of a built-in video-unit leading-in chamber and a low-energy alignment laser is applied to monitor and align the pulsed laser propagation in the PLD vacuum chamber. We have grown La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) thin films on (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7 (001) [LSAT (001)] substrates by HMF-PLD. The results show that the nanostructures of the LSMO films can be tuned from an epitaxially continuous film structure without field to a vertically aligned nanorod structure with an applied high magnetic field above 5 T, and the dimension size of the nanorods can be tuned by the strength of the magnetic field. The associated magnetic anisotropy is found to be highly dependent on the nanorod structures. We show how the HMF-PLD provides an effective route toward tuning the nanostructures and the physical properties of functional thin films, giving it an important role in development of nanodevices and their application. PMID:26429478

  19. Picosecond pulsed laser deposition of metal-oxide sensing layers with controllable porosity for gas sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekkonen, Ville; Chaudhuri, Saumyadip; Clarke, Fergus; Kaisto, Juho; Liimatainen, Jari; Pandian, Santhosh Kumar; Piirto, Jarkko; Siltanen, Mikael; Zolotukhin, Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Recent results of properties and performance of {WO}_3 gas sensing layers produced by industrial picosecond pulsed laser deposition process developed by Picodeon Ltd Oy are presented in this paper. {WO}_3 layers with controllable porosity and nanostructure were successfully deposited on commercial sensor platforms, and basic measurements to characterize their performance as gas sensors gave promising results.

  20. Pulsed laser deposited iron fluoride thin films for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makimura, Yoshinari; Rougier, Aline; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2006-04-01

    Iron fluoride thin films were successfully grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD), and their physico-chemical properties and electrochemical behaviours were examined by adjusting the deposition conditions, such as the target nature (FeF 2 or FeF 3), the substrate temperature ( Ts ≤ 600 °C), the gas pressure (under vacuum or in oxygen atmosphere) and the repetition rates (2 and 10 Hz). Irrespective of the FeF 2 or FeF 3 target nature, iron fluoride thin films, deposited at 600 °C under vacuum, showed X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns corresponding to the FeF 2 phase. On the other hand, iron fluoride thin films deposited at room temperature (RT) from FeF 2 target were amorphous, whereas the thin films deposited from FeF 3 target consisted of a two-phase mixture of FeF 3 and FeF 2 showing sharp and broad diffraction peaks by XRD, respectively. Their electrochemical behaviour in rechargeable lithium cells was investigated in the 0.05-3.60 V voltage window. Despite a large irreversible capacity on the first discharge, good cycling life was observed up to 30 cycles. Finally, their electrochemical properties were compared to the ones of iron oxide thin films.

  1. Polycrystalline SrFe12O19 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Tupac; de Posada, E.; Jimenez, Ernesto; Sanchez Ll., J. L.; Diaz Castanon, S.; Bartolo-Perez, Pascual; Cauich, W.; Oliva, I.; Pena, J. L.; Ceh, O.

    1999-07-01

    Polycrystalline SrFe12O19 thin films were deposited on Si (100) substrates by PLD using a Nd-YAG laser ((lambda) equals 1064 nm). During the deposition process substrates were kept at room temperature. As-deposited films were annealed in air at temperatures between 600 degree(s)C and 840 degree(s)C. Samples were characterized by AES, ESCA, SEM, AFM, x-ray diffraction and VSM. It is presented the relevance of the preparation of the target surface on the film quality. Some differences in the chemical composition of as-deposited films, compared with the target and the annealed films, were observed. The x-ray diffraction spectra show a textured as- deposited films. Samples annealed at 600 degree(s)C, and below, showed a very weak magnetic response. In contrast annealing in the temperature range 700 degree(s)C - 840 degree(s)C led to the formation of a nanocrystalline particle system (average particle size 150 - 350 nm) which behave as a single domain in the thermally demagnetized state. The obtained coercivities (5750 - 6850 Oe) are among the highest values reported for films, powders and sintered samples.

  2. Seasonal Changes in the Thickness of Martian Polar Crater Deposits From the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerr, N. C.; Garvin, J. B.; Neumann, G. A.; Sakimoto, S. E.

    2001-12-01

    This study uses near-repeat topographic profiles and gridded data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter to investigate temporal changes in several ice-filled craters in the North Polar Region of Mars. The craters we investigated are Korolev (73° N, 163° E), "Sasquatch" (77° N, 89° E) and "Frosty" (77° N, 215° E) [Garvin et. al., 2000, Icarus, 144, 329-352]. Profiles are corrected using crossovers that are not affected by seasonal changes. We find that spatially matched but temporally separated MOLA profiles of the central ice deposits within these craters show vertical variation on the order of 1-5 meters. This change in topography temporally correlates to the seasonal deposition and sublimation of frost in the North Polar Region of Mars [Zuber et al., this session] but is locally greater in magnitude. The change is also localized to the south-facing slopes of the ice deposits within the craters. This suggests that up to 5 m of carbon dioxide frost deposition and ablation may be taking place on the south-facing slopes of these craters each Martian year. This rapid change in ice deposit thickness provides a mechanism for geologically swift modification of the polar-layered terrains.

  3. Influence of laser conditioning on laser induced damage threshold of single layers of ZrO2 with various deposition conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahraee, M.; Reza Fallah, H.; Zabolian, H.; Moradi, B.; Haji Mahmoodzade, M.

    2015-04-01

    Single layers of ZrO2 were coated at base pressure of 10-5 mbar by electron beam evaporation (EBE) technique. The influence of oxygen partial pressure on spectral properties and laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the samples were investigated. Spectral transmittance of the samples was measured by spectrophotometer. Laser induced damage threshold was detected according to ISO standard 11254. Laser conditioning was conducted by scanning the surface of the samples. Results showed that laser damage resistance was enhanced by increasing the oxygen partial pressure during deposition. LIDT of the samples was changed after laser conditioning. Experimental results revealed that there is enhancement of laser damage resistance of the samples with higher oxygen partial pressure after laser conditioning.

  4. One-pot synthesis and transfer of PMMA/Ag photonic nanocomposites by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karoutsos, V.; Koutselas, I.; Orfanou, P.; Mpatzaka, Th.; Vasileiadis, M.; Vassilakopoulou, A.; Vainos, N. A.; Perrone, A.

    2015-08-01

    Nanocomposite films comprising metallic nanoparticles in polymer matrices find increasing use in emerging photonic, electronic and microsystem applications owing to their tailored advanced functionalities. The versatile development of such films based on poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) matrix having embedded Ag nanoparticles is addressed here. Two low-cost one-pot chemical methods for the synthesis of bulk target nanocomposite materials are demonstrated. These nanocomposites are subsequently transferred via pulsed laser deposition using 193 nm ArF excimer laser radiation, producing films maintaining the structural and functional properties. Both target- and laser-deposited materials have been thoroughly characterized using microscopic, spectroscopic and thermal analysis methods. Infrared spectra demonstrated the close molecular PMMA chain similarity for both target and film materials, though structural alterations identified by thermal analysis proved the enhanced characteristics of films grown. High-resolution electron microscopy proved the transfer of Ag nanoparticles sized 10-50 nm. Visible absorption peaked in the spectral range of 430-440 nm and attributed to the Ag nanocomposite plasmonic response verifying the transfer of the functional performance from target to film.

  5. Structural and optical properties of GaAsSb QW heterostructures grown by laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zvonkov, B. N.; Vikhrova, O. V. Dorokhin, M. V.; Kalentyeva, I. L.; Morozov, S. V.; Kryzhkov, D. I.; Yunin, P. A.

    2015-01-15

    The possibility of using the laser deposition method to grow crystalline light-emitting structures with GaAsSb/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) is experimentally demonstrated for the first time. The growth temperature of the GaAs{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x} layers is varied within the range 450–550°C; according to X-ray diffraction analyses, the content of antimony reaches x{sub Sb} ≈ 0.37 at a growth temperature of 450°C. Low-temperature (4 K) photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates the presence of a peak associated with the GaAsSb/GaAs QW at around 1.3 μm at the minimum laser-light pumping level. The optimal growth temperature T{sub g} = 500°C and arsine flow rate P{sub A} = 2.2 × 10{sup −8} mol/s at which the best emission properties of QWs with x{sub Sb} ∼ 0.17–0.25 are observed at temperatures of 77 and 300 K are determined. It is shown that GaAsSb/GaAs QWs with similar parameters (width and composition) grown by laser deposition at 500°C and metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy at 580°C have comparable optical quality.

  6. Thin-film CdTe photovoltaic cells by laser deposition and rf sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compaan, A.; Bohn, R. G.; Bhat, A.; Tabory, C.; Shao, M.; Li, Y.; Savage, M. E.; Tsien, L.

    1992-12-01

    Laser-driven physical vapor deposition (LDPVD) and radio-frequency (rf) sputtering have been used to fabricate thin-film solar cells on SnO2-coated glass substrates. The laser-ablation process readily permits the use of several target materials in the same vacuum chamber and complete solar cell structures have been fabricated on SnO2-coated glass using LDPVD for the CdS, CdTe, and CdCl2. To date the best devices (˜9% AM1.5) have been obtained after a post-deposition anneal at 400 °C. In addition, cells have been fabricated with the combination of LDPVD CdS, rf-sputtered CdTe, and LDPVD CdCl2. The performance of these cells indicates considerable promise for the potential of rf sputtering for CdTe photovoltaic devices. The physical mechanisms of LDPVD have been studied by transient optical spectroscopy on the laser ablation plume. These measurements have shown that, e.g., Cd is predominantly in the neutral atomic state in the plume but with a large fraction which is highly excited internally (≥6 eV) and that the typical neutral Cd translational kinetic energies perpendicular to the target are 20 eV and greater. Quality of as-grown and annealed films has been analyzed by optical absorption. Raman scattering, photoluminescence, electrical conductivity, Hall effect, x-ray diffraction, and SEM/EDS.

  7. Thermal smoothing and hydrodynamical compensation of the nonuniformities of laser energy deposition in a direct-driven target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, S.; Rozanov, V.; Lebo, I.; Vergunova, G.; Tishkin, V.; Zmitrenko, N.; Kozubskaya, T.; Popov, I.; Nikishin, V.

    1996-05-01

    Design of the LIGHT target based on an electron heat conductivity smoothing and hydrodynamical compensation of the nonuniformities of energy deposition of a small quantity laser beams is discussed. 2D distribution of absorbed laser energy deposition in an undercritical low-Z absorber of LIGHT target under propagation of a super sonic electron heat conductivity waves and 2D implosion of target with ablator having special initially given distributions of mass are presented. Numerical simulations show the flexibility of LIGHT target ignition at the laser energy of (200-300) kJ and quantity of beams 6.

  8. Real-time measurement of temperature variation during nanosecond pulsed-laser-induced contamination deposition.

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, Dimitrios; Gailly, Patrick; Georges, Marc P; Tzeremes, Georgios; Rochus, Pierre; Fleury-Frenette, Karl

    2015-12-20

    In this paper, a study of heat generation during UV laser-induced contamination (LIC) and potentially resulting subsequent thermal damage are presented. This becomes increasingly interesting when optics with delicate coatings are involved. During LIC, radiation can interact with outgassing molecules, both in the gas phase and at the surface, thus triggering chemical and photo-fixation reactions. This is a major hazard, in particular for laser units operating under vacuum conditions such as in space applications. The intense photon flux not only affects the contaminant deposition rate but also alters their chemical structure, which can increase their absorption coefficient. Over cumulative irradiation shots, these molecules formed deposits that increasingly absorb photons and produce heat as a by-product of de-excitation, eventually leading to thermal damage. One could better assess the risk of the latter with the knowledge of temperature during the contamination process. For this purpose, a thermoreflectance technique is used here to estimate the temperature variation from pulse to pulse during contamination deposition through the analysis of a temperature-dependent surface reflectance signal. PMID:26837020

  9. Towards a reliable laser spray powder deposition system through process characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Keicher, D.M.; Jellison, J.L.; Schanwald, L.P.; Romero, J.A.; Abbott, D.H.

    1995-07-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to characterize the laser spray powder deposition tea-one (HAZ) in the process. Goal of these experiments was to minimize the heat affected base substrate while obtaining a maximum build-up rate of the deposited material. Response surface models have been developed to achieve this goal. These models indicate that laser irradiance and component travel speed are both important factors to be considered in optimization of this process. These models suggest that a minimum HAZ can be obtained with a maximum material build-up height by maintaining with a slow travel speed. Although these models are useful in identifying significant factor and process trends, further refinement is required for practical use in industrial applications. Weighting of the response variables used in generating the models is being considered to improve the model robustness. High speed imaging of the deposition process suggests that the powder particle size and/or size distribution affects the stability of this process.

  10. Effects of substrate preheating on the thin-wall part built by laser metal deposition shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Shijie; Liu, Weijun; Long, Risheng

    2014-10-01

    Laser metal deposition shaping (LMDS) is a state-of-the-art technology that combines rapid prototyping and laser processing. There are many factors affecting the quality, precision, microstructure and performance of the LMDS-deposited parts. Among these factors, substrate preheating is a significant one because it can change the heat history of the LMDS process. Preheating is generally adopted to reduce the residual stresses and the risk of thermal distortion and cracking. However, it changes the heat transfer conditions and affects the final microstructure and properties. In this work a numerical simulation model was established to analyze the heat transfer characteristics between deposited material and substrate, the influence rules of substrate preheating on the thermal behavior during LMDS, and the distribution characters of temperature and stress field. And then, the experimental methods were used to evaluate the effects of substrate preheating on the surface quality, microstructure, composition, hardness distribution, and mechanical properties of as-built thin-wall parts. The experimental results primarily agree with the theoretical analysis and numerical model, which indicates that in terms of the varied thermo-mechanical coupled field, the investigated microstructure and properties of formed components depend considerably on the initial temperature of the substrate, so the LMDS process can be effectively adjusted and controlled by means of substrate preheating.

  11. Improvement of the Laser Direct Metal Deposition Process in 5-axis Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisselier, Didier; Sankaré, Simon; Engel, Thierry

    The implementation of the continuous 5-axis configuration can extend the limits of the Laser Direct Metal Deposition (LDMD) processes, especially when the complexity of the parts to be built is growing. In order to follow the profile of a part, we use the orientation of its growth axis. Although 5-axis machining is well known nowadays, LDMD processes require a specific optimization that depends on many parameters. Unlike conventional machining, it has to be noted that the speed variation tool tip affects the stability of deposition. Thus, we have to smooth trajectories in order to provide fluid movements and also to ensure the stability of deposition. This article describes the method and results in the optimization of trajectories to build metallic parts with freeform. Optical sensors have been implemented in the focusing unit in order to follow the variations of the laser-powder-substrate interaction and also to detect the process instabilities. Thanks to the right use of a new and large 5 axis machine and specific setting trajectories, manufacturing parts in 5-axis, with no concession on the construction rate has been possible.

  12. Tunable stoichiometry of SiOx-BaTiOy-BOz fabricated by multitarget pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, John G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Smith, Steven R.; Landis, Gerald R.; Grazulis, Lawrence; Sun, Lirong; Murphy, Neil R.; Kozlowski, Gregory; Jakubiak, Rachel; Stutz, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Oxide materials of desired stoichiometry are challenging to make in small quantities. Nanostructured thin films of multiple oxide materials were obtained by using pulsed laser deposition and multiple independent targets consisting of Si, BaTiO3, and B. Programmable stoichiometry of nanostructured thin films was achieved by synchronizing a 248-nm krypton fluoride excimer laser at an energy of 300 mJ/pulse, a galvanometer mirror system, and the three independent target materials with a background pressure of oxygen. Island growth occurred on a per pulse basis; some 500 pulses are required to deposit 1 nm of material. The number of pulses on each target was programmed with a high degree of precision. Trends in material properties were systematically identified by varying the stoichiometry of multiple nanostructured thin films and comparing the resulting properties measured using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, capacitance measurements including relative permittivity and loss, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Films were deposited ˜150 to 907 nm thickness, and in situ ellipsometry data were modeled to calculate thickness n and k. A representative atomic force microscopy measurement was also collected. EDS, ellipsometry, and capacitance measurements were all performed on each of the samples, with one sample having a calculated permittivity greater than 20,000 at 1 kHz.

  13. Spherical silicon-shell photonic band gap structures fabricated by laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Yang, Z. Y.; Lu, Y. F.

    2007-02-01

    Laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition was applied in fabricating three-dimensional (3D) spherical-shell photonic band gap (PBG) structures by depositing silicon shells covering silica particles, which had been self-assembled into 3D colloidal crystals. The colloidal crystals of self-assembled silica particles were formed on silicon substrates using the isothermal heating evaporation approach. A continuous wave Nd:YAG laser (1064nm wavelength) was used to deposit silicon shells by thermally decomposing disilane gas. Periodic silicon-shell/silica-particle PBG structures were obtained. By removing the silica particles enclosed in the silicon shells using hydrofluoric acid, hollow spherical silicon-shell arrays were produced. This technique is capable of fabricating structures with complete photonic band gaps, which is predicted by simulations with the plane wave method. The techniques developed in this study have the potential to flexibly engineer the positions of the PBGs by varying both the silica particle size and the silicon-shell thickness. Ellipsometry was used to investigate the specific photonic band gaps for both structures.

  14. Study of thin TiC xN 1-x films fabricated by hybrid magnetron-laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocourek, Tomáš; Jelínek, Miroslav; Studnička, Václav; Kadlec, Jaromír

    2006-02-01

    Titanium- carbonitride thin films were grown at room temperature using a hybrid deposition arrangement combining DC magnetron sputtering and KrF pulsed laser deposition (MSPLD). Carbon and titanium were simultaneously deposited on the same Si substrate, dimensions of 3 cm × 3 cm. Films were fabricated in argon- nitrogen atmosphere of 1 Pa - 5 Pa, for laser fluence of 15 Jcm -2 and magnetron power of 150 W. Film properties were modified by RF discharge held between the target and substrate. Film crystallinity was studied by XRD and the composition depth profile of TiCN layers by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES).

  15. Structural investigation of Bi doped InSe chalcogenide thin films using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shaveta; Sharma, Rita; Kumar, Praveen; Chander, Ravi; Thangaraj, R.; Mian, M.

    2015-05-01

    The infrared transparency of the chalcogenide glasses have been investigated presently for the CO/CO2 laser power in various medical diagnostic applications. The addition of Bi improves the chemical durability and broadens the IR transparency region of various chalcogenide glassy systems. In the present work, we have studied the effect of Bi addition on the structural properties of In-Se thin films by using the RAMAN spectroscopy. The melt quenched bulk ingot of BixIn25-xSe75 (1≤ x≤ 7) alloys were used for the vacuum thermal evaporation of films in a vacuum better than 10-5 mbar. RAMAN bands at 1575, 1354 and 525 cm-1 has been observed, while with the increase in the Bi concentration vibrational band disappear at 525 cm-1 in sample x=7.

  16. Regularly arranged indium islands on glass/molybdenum substrates upon femtosecond laser and physical vapor deposition processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringleb, F.; Eylers, K.; Teubner, Th.; Boeck, T.; Symietz, C.; Bonse, J.; Andree, S.; Krüger, J.; Heidmann, B.; Schmid, M.; Lux-Steiner, M.

    2016-03-01

    A bottom-up approach is presented for the production of arrays of indium islands on a molybdenum layer on glass, which can serve as micro-sized precursors for indium compounds such as copper-indium-gallium-diselenide used in photovoltaics. Femtosecond laser ablation of glass and a subsequent deposition of a molybdenum film or direct laser processing of the molybdenum film both allow the preferential nucleation and growth of indium islands at the predefined locations in a following indium-based physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. A proper choice of laser and deposition parameters ensures the controlled growth of indium islands exclusively at the laser ablated spots. Based on a statistical analysis, these results are compared to the non-structured molybdenum surface, leading to randomly grown indium islands after PVD.

  17. Enhancement of coercivity with reduced grain size in CoCrPt film grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Hu, X. F.; Li, H. Q.; He, X. X.; Wang, Xiaoru; Zhang, W.

    2006-04-01

    We report a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) growth of VMn/CoCrPt bilayer with a magnetic coercivity ( Hc) of 2.2 kOe and a grain size of 12 nm. The effects of VMn underlayer on magnetic properties of CoCrPt layer were studied. The coercivity, Hc, and squareness, S, of VMn/CoCrPt bilayer, is dependent on the thickness of VMn. The grain size of the CoCrPt film can also be modified by laser parameters. High laser fluence used for CoCrPt deposition produces a smaller grain size. Enhanced Hc and reduced grain size in VMn/CoCrPt is explained by more pronounced surface phase segregation during deposition at high laser fluence.

  18. Observation of self-assembled periodic nano-structures induced by femtosecond laser in both ablation and deposition regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Mingzhen; Zhang, Haitao; Her, Tsing-Hua

    2008-02-01

    We observed the spontaneous formation of periodic nano-structures in both femtosecond laser ablation and deposition. The former involved 400-nm femtosecond pulses from a 250-KHz regenerated amplified mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser and periodic nanocracks and the nano-structure are in the form of periodic nanocracks in the substrate, the latter applied an 80-MHz mode-locked Ti:sapphire oscillator with pulse energy less than half nanojoule in a laser-induced chemical vapor deposition configuration and tungsten nanogratings grow heterogeneously on top of the substrates. These two observed periodic nanostructures have opposite orientations respecting to laser polarization: the periodic nanocracks are perpendicular to, whereas the deposited tungsten nanogratings are parallel to laser polarization direction. By translating the substrate respecting to the laser focus, both the periodic nanocrack and tungsten nanograting extend to the whole scanning range. The deposited tungsten nanogratings possess excellent uniformity on both the grating period and tooth length. Both the attributes can be tuned precisely by controlling the laser power and scanning speed. Furthermore, we discovered that the teeth of transverse tungsten nanogratings are self aligned along their axial direction during multiple scanning with appropriate offset between scans. We demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating large-area one-dimensional grating by exploiting such unique property. These distinct phenomena of nanocracks and tungsten nanogratings indicate different responsible mechanisms.

  19. Experimental Study of Direct Laser Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 by Using Pulsed Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kamran; Haq, Izhar Ul; Shah, Shaukat Ali; Khan, Farid Ullah; Khan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Laser direct metal deposition (LDMD) has developed from a prototyping to a single metal manufacturing tool. Its potential for creating multimaterial and functionally graded structures is now beginning to be explored. This work is a first part of a study in which a single layer of Inconel 718 is deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. Single layer tracks were built at a range of powder mass flow rates using a coaxial nozzle and 1.5 kW diode laser operating in both continuous and pulsed beam modes. This part of the study focused on the experimental findings during the deposition of Inconel 718 powder on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed for characterization and phase identification. Residual stress measurement had been carried out to ascertain the effects of laser pulse parameters on the crack development during the deposition process. PMID:24592190

  20. Direct imprinting on chalcogenide glass and fabrication of infrared wire-grid polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Itsunari; Yamashita, Naoto; Einishi, Toshihiko; Saito, Mitsunori; Fukumi, Kouhei; Nishii, Junji

    2013-05-01

    Infrared wire-grid polarizers were fabricated consisting of a 500-nm pitch Al grating on a low toxic chalcogenide glass (Sb-Ge-Sn-S system) using the direct imprinting of subwavelength grating followed by a deposition of Al metal by thermal evaporation. To fabricate the subwavelength grating on a chalcogenide glass more easily, the sharp grating was formed on the mold surface. The fabricated polarizer with Al thickness of 130 nm exhibited a polarization function with a transverse magnetic transmittance greater than 60% in the 5-9-μm wavelength range, and an extinction ratio greater than 20 dB in the 4-11-μm wavelength range. The polarizer can be fabricated at lower costs and simpler fabrication processes compared to conventional infrared polarizers.

  1. Infrared Polarizer Fabrication by Imprinting on Sb-Ge-Sn-S Chalcogenide Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Itsunari; Yamashita, Naoto; Tani, Kunihiko; Einishi, Toshihiko; Saito, Mitsunori; Fukumi, Kouhei; Nishii, Junji

    2012-01-01

    We fabricated infrared wire-grid polarizers consisting of a 500-nm pitch Al grating on a low toxic chalcogenide glass (Sb-Ge-Sn-S system) using the direct imprinting of subwavelength grating followed by a deposition of Al metal by thermal evaporation. To fabricate the subwavelength grating on a chalcogenide glass more easily, the sharp grating was formed on the mold surface. The fabricated polarizer with Al thickness of 130 nm exhibited a polarization function with a transverse magnetic transmittance greater than 60% in the 5-9 µm wavelength range, and an extinction ratio greater than 20 dB in 3.5-11 µm wavelength range. The extinction ratio of the element with Al wires of 180-nm thickness reached 27 dB at 5.4-µm wavelength. The polarizer can be fabricated at lower costs and simpler fabrication processes compared to conventional infrared polarizers.

  2. Laser beam soldering of fine-pitch technology packages with solid solder deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucher, Hans-Joerg; Glasmacher, Mathias; Geiger, Manfred

    1996-04-01

    Micro electronics is a key technology attracting the attention of information, communication, automation and data processing technologies. Ongoing miniaturization combined with an increasing number of I/Os has inevitably lead to ever finer lead geometries. Therefore the demands put upon the surface mount technology are increasing continuously. Processing of high lead count fine pitch packages, for example those which are applied in high-capacity computers, has not increased the demands put upon the assembly process only, but also on the connecting techniques. By reflow soldering with laser beam radiation the benefits from the tool `laser beam' are used extensively, for example contact and force free processing, strictly localized heating and the good controllability thereof, formation of fine crystalline and homogeneous structures, etc. Within the scope of this paper the fundamentals of laser beam soldering are discussed for fine pitch lead frames (pitch 300 micrometers ) for plastic packages, made by a modified CuFe2P alloy with a 5 micrometers Sn90Pb plating, on solid solder depths (Sn63Pb) performed by the so called High-Pad process. These investigations are unique in the field of laser beam soldering and are carried out by means of a Nd:YAG-laser. A pyrometer is used for detection of the emission of the temperature radiation of the joining area for process control. The additional use of a high-speed camera gives a detailed description of the melting and wetting process. The influence of laser beam parameters and the volume of the solid solder deposits on the joining result are presented.

  3. A Laser Deposition Strategy for the Efficient Identification of Glass-Forming Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Peter; Flores, Katharine M.

    2015-09-01

    Compositionally graded Cu-Zr specimens covering a wide composition range (30 to 60 at. pct Zr) were fabricated by direct laser deposition. By observing the surface topography of the as-fabricated specimens with differential interference contrast microscopy, primarily amorphous regions corresponding to compositions of high glass-forming ability were rapidly identified. Electron diffraction results confirmed the relationship between surface topography and atomic structure. The compositional widths of the amorphous regions were observed to narrow with increasing heat input from the laser, enabling further identification of local maxima in the glass-forming landscape of Cu-Zr alloys. In this work, we report two peaks in the glass-forming ability, located at Cu64.7Zr35.3 and Cu50.2Zr49.8. These two compositions find excellent agreement with previously reported results based on casting of discrete compositions.

  4. Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süske, Erik; Scharf, Thorsten; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich; Panchenko, Elena; Junkers, Thomas; Egorov, Mark; Buback, Michael; Kijewski, Harald

    2005-03-01

    The chemical composition, amount of cross-linking and its influence on the mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at a wavelength of 248nm under ultrahigh vacuum were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, and nanoindentation experiments. The films consist of two components, one fraction with a molecular weight well below that of the target material and a second fraction, which is cross-linked. Compared to bulk material, the Young's modulus of the film is increased. The amount of cross-linking in the film can be tuned by the applied laser fluence leading to changes of the mechanical properties.

  5. In situ electron spectroscopic identification of carbon species deposited by laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Samano, E.C.; Gamietea, A.; Cota, L.; Soto, G. |

    1997-05-01

    Thin carbon films were grown on Si (111) substrates by ablating a graphite target utilizing an excimer pulsed laser in a UHV Riber {copyright} LDM-32 system. Two kinds of films were produced, a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) type and a diamond-like carbon (DLC) type. A relationship of the films microstructure with laser power density and substrate conditions was observed. The HOPG films were homogeneous but the DLC films were heterogeneous, as shown by micrographs. The thin films are monitored and analyzed in situ during the first stages of the deposition process. The monitoring was done by RHEED and the characterization by several surface spectroscopic techniques, AES, XPS and EELS. The formation of a SiC interface was observed for both films due to the reaction of the first carbon species with the substrate surface.

  6. Tuning of cross-linking and mechanical properties of laser-deposited poly (methyl methacrylate) films

    SciTech Connect

    Sueske, Erik; Scharf, Thorsten; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich; Panchenko, Elena; Junkers, Thomas; Egorov, Mark; Buback, Michael; Kijewski, Harald

    2005-03-15

    The chemical composition, amount of cross-linking and its influence on the mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at a wavelength of 248 nm under ultrahigh vacuum were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, and nanoindentation experiments. The films consist of two components, one fraction with a molecular weight well below that of the target material and a second fraction, which is cross-linked. Compared to bulk material, the Young's modulus of the film is increased. The amount of cross-linking in the film can be tuned by the applied laser fluence leading to changes of the mechanical properties.

  7. Pulsed laser deposition of bioactive glass films in ammonia and disilane atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrajo, J. P.; González, P.; Liste, S.; Serra, J.; Chiussi, S.; León, B.; Pérez-Amor, M.

    2005-07-01

    The effect of two reactive gases on the properties of bioactive glass thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was studied. The ablation of a bioactive silica-based glass was carried out by an ArF excimer laser ( λ = 193 nm, Φ = 4.2 J cm -2, τ = 25 ns, f = 10 Hz) at various pressures of Si 2H 6/Ar and NH 3/Ar reactive mixtures. The bonding configuration and chemical environment of the resulting coatings were followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The composition and bond arrangement of bioactive glass films were tuned by varying the chamber atmosphere. The results show how to adjust film characteristics for osteointegration of implants.

  8. Wear Characteristics of Ni-Based Hardfacing Alloy Deposited on Stainless Steel Substrate by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awasthi, Reena; Limaye, P. K.; Kumar, Santosh; Kushwaha, Ram P.; Viswanadham, C. S.; Srivastava, Dinesh; Soni, N. L.; Patel, R. J.; Dey, G. K.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, dry sliding wear characteristics of the Ni-based hardfacing alloy (Ni-Mo-Cr-Si) deposited on stainless steel SS316L substrate by laser cladding have been presented. Dry sliding wear behavior of the laser clad layer was evaluated against two different counter bodies, AISI 52100 chromium steel (~850 VHN) and tungsten carbide ball (~2200 VHN) to study both adhesive and abrasive wear characteristics, in comparison with the substrate SS316L using ball on plate reciprocating wear tester. The wear resistance was evaluated as a function of load and sliding speed for a constant sliding amplitude and sliding distance. The wear mechanisms were studied on the basis of wear surface morphology and microchemical analysis of the wear track using SEM-EDS. Laser clad layer of Ni-Mo-Cr-Si on SS316L exhibited much higher hardness (~700 VHN) than that of substrate SS316L (~200 VHN). The laser clad layer exhibited higher wear resistance as compared to SS316L substrate while sliding against both the counterparts. However, the improvement in the wear resistance of the clad layer as compared to the substrate was much higher while sliding against AISI 52100 chromium steel than that while sliding against WC, at the same contact stress intensity.

  9. Studies of aluminum oxide thin films deposited by laser ablation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płóciennik, P.; Guichaoua, D.; Korcala, A.; Zawadzka, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the structural and optical investigations of the aluminum oxide nanocrystalline thin films. Investigated films were fabricated by laser ablation technique in high vacuum onto quartz substrates. The films were deposited at two different temperatures of the substrates equal to room temperature and 900 K. X-ray Diffraction spectra proved nanocrystalline character and the corundum phase of the film regardless on the substrate temperature during the deposition process. Values of the refractive indices, extinction and absorption coefficients were calculated by using Transmission and Reflection Spectroscopy in the UV-VIS-NIR range of the wavelength. Coupling Prism Method was used for films thickness estimations. Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of the Third Harmonic Generation were also reported. Obtained results show that the lattice strain may affect obtained values of the third order nonlinear optical susceptibility.

  10. Investigation on two magnon scattering processes in pulsed laser deposited epitaxial nickel zinc ferrite thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debangsu; Sakshath, S.; Singh, Geetanjali; Joshi, Rajeev; Bhat, S. V.; Kumar, P. S. Anil

    2015-04-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements are employed to evaluate the presence of the two magnon scattering contribution in the magnetic relaxation processes of the epitaxial nickel zinc ferrite thin films deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on the (0 0 1) MgAl2O4 substrate. Furthermore, the reciprocal space mapping reveals the presence of microstructural defects which acts as an origin for the two magnon scattering process in this thin film. The relevance of this scattering process is further discussed for understanding the higher FMR linewidth in the in-plane configuration compared to the out-of-plane configuration. FMR measurements also reveal the presence of competing uniaxial and cubic anisotropy in the studied films.

  11. Li-rich Thin Film Cathode Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Binggong; Liu, Jichang; Song, Bohang; Xiao, Pengfei; Lu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Li-rich layer-structured cathode thin films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical testing in half battery cells are used to characterize crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical valence states and electrochemical performance of these thin films, respectively. It is observed that partial layer to spinel transformation takes place during post annealing, and the layered structure further gradually transforms to spinel during electrochemical cycling based on the analysis of dQ/dV. Electrochemical measurement shows that the thin film electrode deposited at 350 mTorr and post-annealed at 800°C possesses the best performance. PMID:24276678

  12. Pulsed laser deposition of silicon substituted hydroxyapatite coatings from synthetical and biological sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solla, E. L.; González, P.; Serra, J.; Chiussi, S.; León, B.; López, J. García

    2007-12-01

    Silicon substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) is a new material with an enhanced bioactibity and it can be produced by chemical synthesis. Nevertheless, the coating of metallic substrates with a bioactive material is a common method nowadays to improve its integration with the receptor bone. Si-HA films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), using targets composed of mixtures of HA with different Si containing sources such as SiO 2 and diatomaceous earth. The Si-HA films were characterized in terms of structure and chemical composition by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, XPS), and several ion beam techniques (RBS, PIXE). The analysis revealed that the Si is successfully incorporated into the HA structure, as well as traces of other elements such as Na, Fe or K.

  13. Nanoforest Nb2O5 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Rudresh; Brennaman, Kyle M.; Uher, Tim; Ok, Myoung-Ryul; Samulski, Edward T.; McNeil, L. E.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Lopez, Rene

    2011-10-26

    Vertically aligned bundles of Nb₂O₅ nanocrystals were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and tested as a photoanode material in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). They were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopies, optical absorption spectroscopy (UV–vis), and incident-photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) experiments. The background gas composition and the thickness of the films were varied to determine the influence of those parameters in the photoanode behavior. An optimal background pressure of oxygen during deposition was found to produce a photoanode structure that both achieves high dye loading and enhanced photoelectrochemical performance. For optimal structures, IPCE values up to 40% and APCE values around 90% were obtained with the N₃ dye and I₃{sup –}/I{sup –} couple in acetonitrile with open circuit voltage of 0.71 V and 2.41% power conversion efficiency.

  14. Inverted fractal analysis of TiOx thin layers grown by inverse pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Égerházi, L.; Smausz, T.; Bari, F.

    2013-08-01

    Inverted fractal analysis (IFA), a method developed for fractal analysis of scanning electron microscopy images of cauliflower-like thin films is presented through the example of layers grown by inverse pulsed laser deposition (IPLD). IFA uses the integrated fractal analysis module (FracLac) of the image processing software ImageJ, and an objective thresholding routine that preserves the characteristic features of the images, independently of their brightness and contrast. IFA revealed fD = 1.83 ± 0.01 for TiOx layers grown at 5-50 Pa background pressures. For a series of images, this result was verified by evaluating the scaling of the number of still resolved features on the film, counted manually. The value of fD not only confirms the fractal structure of TiOx IPLD thin films, but also suggests that the aggregation of plasma species in the gas atmosphere may have only limited contribution to the deposition.

  15. Suitability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in screening potential additives to mitigate fouling deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, S.; Midhun Reddy, V.; Mehta, A.; Vasa, N. J.; Nagarajan, R.

    2016-04-01

    Alkali vapors present in the flue gas generated during coal-based combustion form fouling deposits as they condense. An additive added to coal can trap alkali elements in ash, therefore suppress the growth rate of fouling deposits, and increase thermal efficiency of a coal-fired thermal power plant. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is proposed and demonstrated to screen potential additives to trap alkali elements in ash. Five additives—namely, kaolinite, alumina, silica, magnesia, and pumice—were analyzed for their effectiveness on four Indian coals for retaining/confining alkali elements in ash during coal combustion. Ratio analysis based on LIBS emission intensity values clearly shows that kaolinite and pumice are promising additives to trap sodium. Similarly, kaolinite, pumice, and silica exhibited good potassium retention.

  16. Apparatus and method for pulsed laser deposition of materials on wires and pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Felix E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed which allow uniform coatings to be applied by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on inner and outer surfaces of cylindrical objects, such as rods, pipes, tubes, and wires. The use of PLD makes this technique particularly suitable for complex multicomponent materials, such as superconducting ceramics. Rigid objects of any length, i.e., pipes up to a few meters, and with diameters from less than 1 centimeter to over 10 centimeters can be coated using this technique. Further, deposition is effected simultaneously onto an annular region of the pipe wall. This particular arrangement simplifies the apparatus, reduces film uniformity control difficulties, and can result in faster operation cycles. In addition, flexible wires of any length can be continuously coated using the disclosed invention.

  17. Pulsed-laser-deposited coatings for stiction and wear reduction in MEMS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelt, Jamey S.; Ramsey, M. E.; Magana, R., Jr.; Poindexter, E., Jr.; de Boer, Maarten P.; LaVan, David A.; Dugger, Michael T.; Smith, James H.; Durbin, Steven M.

    1999-08-01

    A wide variety of thin layer coatings have been reported for inhibiting the occurrence of post-release stiction in MEMS. Hydrophobic coatings such as self-assembled monolayers perform this function very well, but have a limited lifetime due to eventual generation of wear-induced damage. On the other hand, metallic oxides with superior wear resistance are hydrophilic in character, making them prone to stiction in humid environments. This paper describes the investigation of several dielectric materials as potential candidates for hydrophobic coatings with good wear resistant properties. Films were grown using a combination of vacuum deposition techniques, including enhanced variations of pulsed laser deposition. Contact angle and hardness measurements were performed on flat single crystal wafers for evaluation of film properties, and initial trials on a lateral friction test structure developed at Sandia National Laboratories were performed.

  18. Raman spectroscopy of ZnMnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, S.; Riascos, H.; Duque, S.

    2016-02-01

    ZnMnO thin films were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique onto Silicon (100) substrates at different growth conditions. Thin films were deposited varying Mn concentration, substrate temperature and oxygen pressure. ZnMnO samples were analysed by using Raman Spectroscopy that shows a red shift for all vibration modes. Raman spectra revealed that nanostructure of thin films was the same of ZnO bulk, wurzite hexagonal structure. The structural disorder was manifested in the line width and shape variations of E2(high) and E2(low) modes located in 99 and 434cm-1 respectively, which may be due to the incorporation of Mn ions inside the ZnO crystal lattice. Around 570cm-1 was found a peak associated to E1(LO) vibration mode of ZnO. 272cm-1 suggest intrinsic host lattice defects. Additional mode centred at about 520cm-1 can be overlap of Si and Mn modes.

  19. Optical characteristics of pulsed laser deposited Ge-Sb-Te thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, P.; Prikryl, J.; Frumar, M.; Nazabal, V.

    2011-04-01

    Pulsed laser deposition technique was used for the fabrication of (GeTe){sub 1-x}(Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}){sub x} (x = 0, 0.33, 0.50, 0.66, and 1) amorphous thin films. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, optical reflectivity, and sheet resistance temperature dependences as well as variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize as-deposited (amorphous) and annealed (rocksaltlike) layers. In order to extract optical functions of the films, the Cody-Lorentz model was applied for the analysis of ellipsometric data. Fitted sets of Cody-Lorentz model parameters are discussed in relation with chemical composition and the structure of the layers. The GeTe component content was found to be responsible for the huge optical functions and thickness changes upon amorphous-to-fcc phase transition.

  20. Mechanical properties of pulsed laser deposited nanocrystalline SiC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciun, D.; Socol, G.; Cristea, D. V.; Stoicanescu, M.; Olah, N.; Balazs, K.; Stefan, N.; Lambers, E.; Craciun, V.

    2015-05-01

    The mechanical properties of nanocrystalline SiC thin films grown on (100) Si at a substrate temperature of 1000 °C under a CH4 atmosphere using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique were investigated. Nanoindentation results showed that films exhibited hardness values around 36 GPa and Young modulus values around 250 GPa. Scratch tests found that films were adherent to the substrate, with critical load values similar to those recorded for other hard coatings deposited on significantly softer Si substrates. Wear tests performed at a temperature of 900 °C showed that films exhibited friction coefficients and wear rates very similar to those measured at room temperature, due to the presence of C-C bonds as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations. These results recommend such coatings for demanding high temperature applications such as nuclear fuel encapsulation.

  1. Structural, optical, and electrical properties of pulsed laser deposition CIGSS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan-Bin; Kang, Y. Zhen-Feng; Fan, Yue; Xiao, Ling-ling; Bo, Qing-Rui; Ding, Tie-Zhu

    2015-12-01

    High-quality CuIn0.75Ga0.25(Se0.75S0.25)2 (CIGSS) thin films were synthesized on the soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The structural and optical properties of CIGSS thin films were studied by experiments and theoretical calculations. XRD result reveals that the films are of chalcopyrite structure. The experiments and theory show that CIGSS is a semiconductor with a direct band gap. The direct band gap energy of the deposited CIGSS thin films are in the solar energy range. The band structure and density of states of the CIGSS crystals were studied by the first principles density functional theory. The experimental data and theoretical data have demonstrated good agreement.

  2. Compositional and structural properties of pulsed laser-deposited ZnS:Cr films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematollahi, Mohammadreza; Yang, Xiaodong; Seim, Eivind; Vullum, Per Erik; Holmestad, Randi; Gibson, Ursula J.; Reenaas, Turid W.

    2016-02-01

    We present the properties of Cr-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cr) films deposited on Si(100) by pulsed laser deposition. The films are studied for solar cell applications, and to obtain a high absorption, a high Cr content (2.0-5.0 at.%) is used. It is determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy that Cr is relatively uniformly distributed, and that local Cr increases correspond to Zn decreases. The results indicate that most Cr atoms substitute Zn sites. Consistently, electron energy loss and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the films contain mainly Cr2+ ions. Structural analysis showed that the films are polycrystalline and textured. The films with ~4 % Cr are mainly grown along the hexagonal [001] direction in wurtzite phase. The average lateral grain size decreases with increasing Cr content, and at a given Cr content, increases with increasing growth temperature.

  3. Studies on Pulsed Laser Deposited YbBa_2Cu_3O_7-x Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, S.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Pinto, R.; Bhatnagar, Anil K.

    1998-03-01

    We have deposited high quality YbBa_2Cu_3O_7-x thin films on LaAlO_3<100> substrates using pulsed laser deposition(PLD) method. Films are characterized by XRD, Resistivity, SQUID measurements and surface morphology using Atomic Force Microscopy. We have noticed spiral like growth in a film by AFM. The critical T_co around 88 K and critical current density at zero field is 2x10^6 A/cm^2 at 77 K and SQUID measurement calculations have shown critical current densities as high as 10^7 A/cm^2 at 77K. ( One of the Authors would like to thank UGC-CSIR for financial assistance and is grateful to CSIR for the research support)

  4. Structural and morphological properties of metallic thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for photocathode application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorusso, A.; Gontad, F.; Caricato, A. P.; Chiadroni, E.; Broitman, E.; Perrone, A.

    2016-03-01

    In this work yttrium and lead thin films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique and characterized by ex situ different diagnostic methods. All the films were adherent to the substrates and revealed a polycrystalline structure. Y films were uniform with a very low roughness and droplet density, while Pb thin films were characterized by a grain morphology with a relatively high roughness and droplet density. Such metallic materials are studied because they are proposed as a good alternative to copper and niobium photocathodes which are generally used in radiofrequency and superconducting radiofrequency guns, respectively. The photoemission performances of the photocathodes based on Y and Pb thin films have been also studied and discussed.

  5. TC17 titanium alloy laser melting deposition repair process and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Wang, Yudai; Zheng, Hang; Tang, Kang; Li, Huaixue; Gong, Shuili

    2016-08-01

    Due to the high manufacturing cost of titanium compressor blisks, aero engine repairing process research has important engineering significance and economic value. TC17 titanium alloy is a rich β stable element dual α+β phase alloy whose nominal composition is Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr. It has high mechanical strength, good fracture toughness, high hardenability and a wide forging-temperature range. Through a surface response experiment with different laser powers, scanning speeds and powder feeding speeds, the coaxial powder feeding laser melting deposition repair process is studied for the surface circular groove defects. In this paper, the tensile properties, relative density, microhardness, elemental composition, internal defects and microstructure of the laser-repaired TC17 forging plate are analyzed. The results show that the laser melting deposition process could realize the form restoration of groove defect; tensile strength and elongation could reach 1100 MPa and 10%, which could reach 91-98% that of original TC17 wrought material; with the optimal parameters (1000 W-25 V-8 mm/s), the microhardness of the additive zone, the heat-affected zone and base material is evenly distributed at 370-390 HV500. The element content difference between the additive zone and base material is less than ±0.15%. Due to the existence of the pores 10 μm in diameter, the relative density could reach 99%, which is mainly inversely proportional to the powder feeding speed. The repaired zone is typically columnar and dendrite crystal, and the 0.5-1.5 mm-deep heat-affected zone in the groove interface is coarse equiaxial crystal.

  6. Technological Aspects of High Speed Direct Laser Deposition Based on Heterophase Powder Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turichin, G. A.; Klimova, O. G.; Zemlyakov, E. V.; Babkin, K. D.; Kolodyazhnyy, D. Yu.; Shamray, F. A.; Travyanov, A. Ya.; Petrovskiy, P. V.

    The article deals with physical peculiarities and technology of high speed processes of direct laser deposition. On the base of theoretic research and computer modeling the powder transfer has been optimized, increasing process stability and productivity. Principles of nozzles design also have been developed in accordance with technological needs. An influence of process mode on product properties and material structure was defined for heat resisted Ni-based superalloys. Developed technology provided the mechanic properties of products on the level of rolled material and allows avoid heat treatment and HIP in production process. Possible ways for increasing process performance and economic efficiency also have been discussed.

  7. Behavior of pulsed laser deposited hydroxyapatite thin films under simulated biological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorescu, S.; Sima, F.; Axente, E.; Feugeas, F.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2007-03-01

    In the present paper, a study concerning the in-vitro behaviour of Hydroxyapatite films obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique on titanium under different conditions was performed. The structures were immersed in Hank's Solution for 21 days in accurately controlled environment conditions. Both film and immersion solution changes were analyzed by means of XRD, SEM, EDX and X-Ray fluorescence respectively. The obtained results point to an excellent behaviour of the obtained films as bioactive structures, recommending this type of covering for further analysis in view of its use in orthopedic and dental implantology.

  8. Improvement of Laser Deposited High Alloyed Powder Metallurgical Tool Steel by a Post-tempering Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leunda, J.; Navas, V. García; Soriano, C.; Sanz, C.

    Laser cladding process of a high alloyed powder metallurgical tool steel was studied for die repairing purposes. The low hardness obtained after the deposition process was improved by later tempering cycles, achieving crack free coatings with hardness well above 700 HV. The effect of different post tempering cycles was investigated in order to determine the optimal temperature range. The microstructure of the samples was studied using optical and scanning electron microscope and the volumetric ratio of retained austenite was determined by X-ray diffraction. The tempering effect was mainly evaluated through cross-section microhardness profiles.

  9. Fabrication of highly ultramicroporous carbon nanofoams by SF6-catalyzed laser-induced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Shuhara, Ai; Kondo, Atsushi; Utsumi, Shigenori; Tanaka, Hideki; Ohba, Tomonori; Kanoh, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Kunimitsu; Vallejos-Burgos, Fernando; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) method for preparing nanocarbons with the aid of SF6. This method would offer advantages for the production of aggregates of nanoscale foams (nanofoams) at high rates. Pyrolysis of the as-grown nanofoams induced the high surface area (1120 m2 g-1) and significantly enhanced the adsorption of supercritical H2 (16.6 mg g-1 at 77 K and 0.1 MPa). We also showed that the pyrolized nanofoams have highly ultramicroporous structures. The pyrolized nanofoams would be superior to highly microporous nanocarbons for the adsorption of supercritical gases.

  10. Growth of epitaxial bismuth and gallium substituted lutetium iron garnet films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Leitenmeier, Stephan; Heinrich, Andreas; Lindner, Joerg K. N.; Stritzker, Bernd

    2006-04-15

    Epitaxial bismuth and gallium substituted lutetium iron garnet thin films have been grown on (100) oriented gadolinium gallium garnet Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The films have been studied using x-ray diffraction, high resolution x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction. We obtained smooth films with thicknesses between 0.3 and 1.0 {mu}m showing good crystalline quality and epitaxial growth.

  11. Pulsed laser deposition and investigation of antimony-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzikov, A. S.; Lyanguzov, N. V.; Kaidashev, E. M.

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated the influence of oxygen partial pressure, temperature of synthesis and annealing conditions on nanocsrystallineSb-doped thin films, grown by pulsed laser deposition. It is shown that the minimum resistivity (~8·10-3Ω·cm) and the maximum carriers density (~ 2·1019 cm-3) corresponds to the pressure range 5·10-3-7·10-3 mbar, to the temperature 550 ° C and in situ annealing at 700 °C.Also we show the features of the crystal lattice's dynamics, which are found in the Raman research.

  12. Si nanostructures grown by picosecond high repetition rate pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervolaraki, M.; Komninou, Ph.; Kioseoglou, J.; Athanasopoulos, G. I.; Giapintzakis, J.

    2013-08-01

    One-step growth of n-doped Si nanostructures by picosecond ultra fast pulsed laser deposition at 1064 nm is reported for the first time. The structure and morphology of the Si nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the shape of the Si nanostructures depends on the ambient argon pressure. Fibrous networks, cauliflower formations and Si rectangular crystals grew when argon pressure of 300 Pa, 30 Pa and vacuum (10-3 Pa) conditions were used, respectively. In addition, the electrical resistance of the vacuum made material was investigated.

  13. Third order nonlinearity in pulsed laser deposited LiNbO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumuluri, Anil; Rapolu, Mounika; Rao, S. Venugopal; Raju, K. C. James

    2016-05-01

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) thin films were prepared using pulsed laser deposition technique. Structural properties of the same were examined from XRD and optical band gap of the thin films were measured from transmittance spectra recorded using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Nonlinear optical properties of the thin films were recorded using Z-Scan technique. The films were exhibiting third order nonlinearity and their corresponding two photon absorption, nonlinear refractive index, real and imaginary part of nonlinear susceptibility were calculated from open aperture and closed aperture transmission curves. From these studies, it suggests that these films have potential applications in nonlinear optical devices.

  14. Fabrication of multiferroic GdMnO3 thin film by pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, Puneet; Agrawal, H. M.; Srivastava, R. C.; Asokan, K.

    2012-06-01

    Here, we report the fabrication of GdMnO3 multiferroic thin film on SrTiO3 (110) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The target sample was synthesized using modified solgel route. The thickness of the film observed by Talystep profilometer, is about 200 nm. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the structure of the target as well as of the film. The surface topography of the film was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  15. George E. Pake Prize Lecture: Pulsed Laser Deposition and the Oxide Electronics Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, T.

    2012-02-01

    The discovery of the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) Process at Bellcore was followed by a stream of advances in the epitaxial growth of oxides and a variety of heterostructures and interfaces. Today Oxide Electronics is a fascinating field with a great deal of new Science and potential for applications. Following a discussion of these events, my talk will focus on the adventure involved in creating a new company, Neocera, and, at the same time, pushing ahead in the evolving field of oxide electronics. There, electron spin, pairing, and alignment to create superconductivity and magnetism have opened up new frontiers for research and materials development.

  16. Combinatorial pulsed laser deposition of doped yttrium iron garnet films on yttrium aluminium garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Sposito, A. Eason, R. W.; Gregory, S. A.; Groot, P. A. J. de

    2014-02-07

    We investigate the crystalline growth of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films doped with bismuth (Bi) and cerium (Ce) by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition, co-ablating a YIG target and either a Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} or a CeO{sub 2} target, for applications in microwave and optical communications. Substrate temperature is critical for crystalline growth of YIG with simultaneous inclusion of Bi in the garnet lattice, whereas Ce is not incorporated in the garnet structure, but forms a separate CeO{sub 2} phase.

  17. Photoreceptor perturbation around subretinal drusenoid deposits revealed by adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Xiaolin; Rivero, Ernesto Blanco; Clark, Mark E; Witherspoon, Clark Douglas; Spaide, Richard F; Girkin, Christopher A.; Owsley, Cynthia; Curcio, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the microscopic structure of photoreceptors impacted by subretinal drusenoid deposits, also called pseudodrusen, an extracellular lesion associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO). Design Observational case series. Methods Fifty-three patients with AMD and 10 age-similar subjects in normal retinal health were recruited. All subjects underwent color fundus photography, infrared reflectance, red-free reflectance, autofluorescence, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Subretinal drusenoid deposits were classified with a 3-stage OCT-based grading system. Lesions and surrounding photoreceptors were examined with AOSLO. Results Subretinal drusenoid deposits were found in 26 eyes of 13 patients with AMD and imaged by AOSLO and SD-OCT in 18 eyes (n=342 lesions). SD-OCT showed subretinal drusenoid deposits as highly reflective material accumulated internal to the retinal pigment epithelium. AOSLO revealed that photoreceptor reflectivity was qualitatively reduced by stage 1 subretinal drusenoid deposits and greatly reduced by stage 2. AOSLO presented a distinct structure in stage 3, a hyporeflective annulus consisting of deflected, degenerated or absent photoreceptors. A central core with a reflectivity superficially resembling photoreceptors is formed by the lesion material itself. A hyporeflective gap in the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone on either side of this core shown in SD-OCT corresponded to the hyporeflective annulus seen by AOSLO. Conclusions AOSLO and multimodal imaging of subretinal drusenoid deposits indicate solid, space filling lesions in the subretinal space. Associated retinal reflectivity changes are related to lesion stages and are consistent with perturbations to photoreceptors, as suggested by histology. PMID:24907433

  18. Utilizing pulsed laser deposition lateral inhomogeneity as a tool in combinatorial material science.

    PubMed

    Keller, David A; Ginsburg, Adam; Barad, Hannah-Noa; Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Bouhadana, Yaniv; Rosh-Hodesh, Eli; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Aviv, Hagit; Tischler, Yaakov R; Anderson, Assaf Y; Zaban, Arie

    2015-04-13

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is widely used in combinatorial material science, as it enables rapid fabrication of different composite materials. Nevertheless, this method was usually limited to small substrates, since PLD deposition on large substrate areas results in severe lateral inhomogeneity. A few technical solutions for this problem have been suggested, including the use of different designs of masks, which were meant to prevent inhomogeneity in the thickness, density, and oxidation state of a layer, while only the composition is allowed to be changed. In this study, a possible way to take advantage of the large scale deposition inhomogeneity is demonstrated, choosing an iron oxide PLD-deposited library with continuous compositional spread (CCS) as a model system. An Fe₂O₃-Nb₂O₅ library was fabricated using PLD, without any mask between the targets and the substrate. The library was measured using high-throughput scanners for electrical, structural, and optical properties. A decrease in electrical resistivity that is several orders of magnitude lower than pure α-Fe₂O₃ was achieved at ∼20% Nb-O (measured at 47 and 267 °C) but only at points that are distanced from the center of the PLD plasma plume. Using hierarchical clustering analysis, we show that the PLD inhomogeneity can be used as an additional degree of freedom, helping, in this case, to achieve iron oxide with much lower resistivity. PMID:25798538

  19. Pulsed laser deposition of YBCO thin films on IBAD-YSZ substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Ma, B.; Koritala, R. E.; Fisher, B. L.; Venkataraman, K.; Balachandran, U.

    2003-01-01

    High-quality YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films were fabricated on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-buffered Hastelloy C276 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. YSZ was grown by ion-beam-assisted deposition. A thin (approx10 nm) CeO2 layer was deposited before the deposition of YBCO. The crystalline structure and biaxial texture of the YBCO film and the buffer layer were examined by x-ray diffraction 2theta-scan, phi-scan and pole-figure analysis. Epitaxial growth of the YBCO film on the buffer layer was observed. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) value of 7.4° was measured from the phi-scan of YBCO(103). Raman spectroscopy showed compositional uniformity and phase integrity in the YBCO films. Surface morphologies of the YBCO films were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Comparative studies indicated that the CeO2 buffer layer significantly improves the structural alignment and superconducting properties of YBCO films. Tc = 90 K, with sharp transition, and transport Jc = 2.2 × 106 A cm-2 at 77 K in zero-external field were obtained on the 0.5 mum thick YBCO films. The dependence of Jc on the FWHM of the YBCO(103) phi-scan indicated that high Jc is associated with low FWHM.

  20. Growth of nanolaminate structure of tetragonal zirconia by pulsed laser deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alumina/zirconia (Al2O3/ZrO2) multilayer thin films were deposited on Si (100) substrates at an optimized oxygen partial pressure of 3 Pa at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition. The Al2O3/ZrO2 multilayers of 10:10, 5:10, 5:5, and 4:4 nm with 40 bilayers were deposited alternately in order to stabilize a high-temperature phase of zirconia at room temperature. All these films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM), and atomic force microscopy. The XRD studies of all the multilayer films showed only a tetragonal structure of zirconia and amorphous alumina. The high-temperature XRD studies of a typical 5:5-nm film indicated the formation of tetragonal zirconia at room temperature and high thermal stability. It was found that the critical layer thickness of zirconia is ≤10 nm, below which tetragonal zirconia is formed at room temperature. The XTEM studies on the as-deposited (Al2O3/ZrO2) 5:10-nm multilayer film showed distinct formation of multilayers with sharp interface and consists of mainly tetragonal phase and amorphous alumina, whereas the annealed film (5:10 nm) showed the inter-diffusion of layers at the interface. PMID:23413942

  1. Growth process of nanosized aluminum thin films by pulsed laser deposition for fluorescence enhancement.

    PubMed

    Abdellaoui, N; Pillonnet, A; Berndt, J; Boulmer-Leborgne, C; Kovacevic, E; Moine, B; Penuelas, J; Pereira, A

    2015-03-20

    Pulsed laser deposition was used to deposit aluminum thin films of various thicknesses (tAl) ranging from 5 to 40 nm and to investigate their growth process when they are deposited onto SiO2 and Y2O3. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray reflectivity measurements show that the structure of the Al films are related to the wettability properties of the underlaying layer. Onto SiO2, ultra-smooth layers of aluminum are obtained, due to a perfect wetting of SiO2 by Al. In contrast when deposited onto Y2O3, percolated Al layers are observed with apparent pore size decreasing from 200 to 82 nm as t(Al) is increased from 5 to 40 nm, respectively. This particular morphology is related to partial dewetting of Al on Y2O3. These two different growth mechanisms of aluminum depend therefore on the surface properties of SiO2 and Y2O3. The plasmon resonance of such Al nanostructures in the UV region was then analyzed by studying the coupling between Eu(3+) rare earth emitters and Al. PMID:25712708

  2. Atomically-Smooth MgO films grown on Epitaxial Graphene by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Sean; Sandin, Andreas; Rowe, Jack; Dougherty, Dan; Ulrich, Marc

    2013-03-01

    The growth of high quality insulating films on graphene is a crucial materials science task for graphene electronic and spintronic applications. It has been demonstrated that direct spin injection from a magnetic electrode to graphene is possible using MgO tunnel barriers of sufficient quality. We have used pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to grow thin magnesium oxide films directly on epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001). We observe very smooth film morphologies (typical rms roughness of ~ 0.4 nm) that are nearly independent of film thickness and conform to the substrate surface which had ~ 0.2 nm rms roughness. Surface roughness of 0.04 nm have been recorded for ~ 1nm films with no pinholes seen by AFM. XPS and XRD data show non crystalline, hydroxylated MgO films with uniform coverage. This work shows that PLD is a good technique to produce graphene-oxide interfaces without pre-deposition of an adhesion layer or graphene functionalization. The details and kinetics of the deposition process will be described with comparisons being made to other dielectric-on-graphene deposition approaches. Funded by ARO Staff Research Contract # W911NF.

  3. Pulsed-Laser Deposited Amorphous Diamond and Related Materials: Synthesis, Characterization, and Field Emission Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, L.R.; Geohegan, D.B.; Jellison, G.E., Jr.; Lowndes, D.H.; Merkulov, V.I.; Puretzky, A.A.

    1999-01-23

    Amorphous carbon films with variable sp{sup 3} content were produced by ArF (193nm) pulsed laser deposition. An in-situ ion probe was used to measure kinetic energy of C{sup +} ions. In contrast to measurements made as a function of laser fluence, ion probe measurements of kinetic energy are a convenient as well as more accurate and fundamental method for monitoring deposition conditions, with the advantage of being readily transferable for inter-laboratory comparisons. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements reveal that tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films with the most diamond-like properties are obtained at the C ion kinetic energy of {approximately}90 eV. Film properties are uniform within a 12-15{degree} angle from the plume centerline. Tapping-mode atomic force microscope measurements show that films deposited at near-optimum kinetic energy are extremely smooth, with rms roughness of only {approximately} 1 {angstrom} over distances of several hundred nm. Field emission (FE) measurements show that ta-C does not appear to be a good electron emitter. After conditioning of ta-C films deposited on n-type Si a rather high turn-on voltage of {approximately}50 V/{micro}m was required to draw current of {approximately}1 nA to the probe. The emission was unstable and typically ceased after a few minutes of operation. The FE tests of ta-C and other materials strongly suggest that surface morphology plays a dominant role in the FE process, in agreement with conventional Fowler-Nordheim theory.

  4. Soluble rare-earth chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernin, Christopher G.

    1999-11-01

    The cluster Eu8(DMF)13(mu4-O)(mu 3-OH)12(Se3)(Se4)2(Se 5)2 was synthesized from the reaction of EuCl3 dissolved in tetrahydrofaran with K2Se4 dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The Eu8(O)(OH)12 10+ core is the first example such a polyoxometallo-core. The compound is further unusual in that it contains three different polyselenide chain lengths attaching adjacent Eu atoms. A similar reaction between Ln Cl3·6H2O and K2Se4 in DMF was found to produce the cluster compounds Gd8(DMF) 13(mu4-O)(mu3-OH)12(Se3)(Se 4)2(Se5)2, Yb8 (DMF) 11(mu4-O)(mu3-OH)12(Se4) 2(Se5)2Cl2·(DMF), and Y 8(DMF)12(mu4-O)(mu3-OH)12 (Se4)4Cl2·(DMF)6. Each of these clusters has a similar Ln8(mu 4-OH)(mu3-OH)1210+ core coordinated by a variety of polyselenide and chloride ligands. The organometallic rare-earth chalcogenide compounds (C5H 5)2Y [N( Q PPh2)2] ( Q = S, Se) have been prepared in good yield from the protonolysis reaction between CP3Y and HN( Q PPh2)2 in THF. In both compounds, the [N( Q PPh2)2]-- ligand is bound eta 3 to the Y center. The Y atom is also coordinated to two (C5 H5)-- ligands and so is formally 9-coordinate. 1H, 31P, 77Se, and 89Y NMR data indicate that the solid state connectivity is retained in solution. The compounds (C5H5)2Ln[N( Q PPh2)2] (Ln = La, Gd, Er, Yb, for Q = Se; Ln = Yb for Q = S) were synthesized. The series of compounds indicates that the smaller rare-earth elements cannot accommodate eta3-bonding from the imidodiphosphinochalcogenido ligand. The compounds Y[N( Q PPh2)2]3 ( Q = S (1), Se(2)) have been synthesized from the reactions between Y[N(SiMe3)2]3 and HN( Q PPh2)2. In 1, the Y atom is surrounded by three similar [N(SPPh2)2]-- ligands bound eta3 through two S atoms and an N atom. In 2 , the Y atom is surrounded again by three [N(SePPh2) 2]-- ligands, but two are bound eta2 through the two Se atoms and the other ligand is bound eta3 through the two Se atoms and an N atom. Although a fluxional process is detected in the 31P and 77Se NMR spectra

  5. Beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the deposition process of diamond/Ni60 composite coating with cold spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Yang, Lijing; Li, Bo; Li, Zhihong

    2015-03-01

    Although cold spray process has many unique advantages over other coating techniques, it has difficulties in depositing hard materials. This article presents a study in the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the fabrication process of diamond/Ni60 composite coating using cold spray. The focus of this research is on the comparison between the composite coatings produced with laser cladding (LC) and with supersonic laser deposition (SLD), with respect to diamond graphitization and tribological properties, thus to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the cold spray process. The influence of deposition temperature on the coating characteristics, such as deposition efficiency, diamond volume fraction, microstructure and phase is also investigated. The tribological properties of the diamond/Ni60 composite coating produced with SLD are determined using a pin-on-disc tribometer, along with the diamond/Ni60 coating produced using LC with the optimal process parameters for comparison. The experimental results show that with the assistance of laser irradiation, diamond/Ni60 composite coating can be successfully deposited using cold spray; the obtained coating is superior to that processed with LC, because SLD can suppress the graphitization of the diamond particles. The diamond/Ni60 composite coating fabricated with SLD has much better tribological properties than the LC coating.

  6. Highly textured fresnoite thin films synthesized in situ by pulsed laser deposition with CO2 laser direct heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Michael; de Pablos-Martin, Araceli; Patzig, Christian; Stölzel, Marko; Brachwitz, Kerstin; Hochmuth, Holger; Grundmann, Marius; Höche, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Fresnoite Ba2TiSi2O8 (BTS) thin films were grown and crystallized in situ using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with CO2 laser direct heating of the a-plane sapphire (1 1 0) substrates up to 1250 °C. Starting with 775 °C growth temperature, (0 0 1)- and (1 1 0)-textured BTS and BaTiO3 phases, respectively, could be assigned in the films, and the typical fern-like BTS crystallization patterns appear. For higher process temperatures of 1100 to 1250 °C, atomically smooth, terraced surface of the films was found, accompanied by crystalline high-temperature phases of Ba-Ti-Si oxides. HAADF micrographs taken in both scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry mode show details of morphology and elemental distribution inside the films and at the interface. To balance the inherent Si deficiency of the BTS films, growth from glassy BTS × 2 SiO2 and BTS × 2.5 SiO2 targets was considered as well. The latter targets are ideal for PLD since the employed glasses possess 100% of the theoretical density and are homogeneous at the atomic scale.

  7. An Experimental Study on Slurry Erosion Resistance of Single and Multilayered Deposits of Ni-WC Produced by Laser-Based Powder Deposition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Prabu; Hamid, Syed; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2013-11-01

    Single and multilayered deposits containing different mass fractions of tungsten carbide (WC) in nickel (Ni)-matrix (NT-20, NT-60, NT-80) are deposited on a AISI 4140 steel substrate using a laser-based powder deposition process. The transverse cross section of the coupons reveals that the higher the mass fraction of WC in Ni-matrix leads to a more uniform distribution through Ni-matrix. The slurry erosion resistance of the fabricated coupons is tested at three different impingement angles using an abrasive water jet cutting machine, which is quantified based on the erosion rate. The top layer of a multilayered deposit (i.e., NT-60 in a two-layer NT-60 over NT-20 deposit) exhibits better erosion resistance at all three tested impingement angles when compared to a single-layer (NT-60) deposit. A definite increase in the erosion resistance is noted with an addition of nano-size WC particles. The relationship between the different mass fractions of reinforcement (WC) in the deposited composite material (Ni-WC) and their corresponding matrix (Ni) hardness on the erosion rate is studied. The eroded surface is analyzed in the light of a three-dimensional (3-D) profilometer and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that a volume fraction of approximately 62% of WC with a Ni-matrix hardness of 540 HV resulting in the gouging out of WC from the Ni-matrix by the action of slurry. It is concluded that the slurry erosion resistance of the AISI 4140 steel can be significantly enhanced by introducing single and multilayered deposits of Ni-WC composite material fabricated by the laser-based powder deposition process.

  8. Nanoporous chalcogenides for adsorption and gas separation.

    PubMed

    Ori, Guido; Massobrio, Carlo; Pradel, Annie; Ribes, Michel; Coasne, Benoit

    2016-05-21

    The adsorption and gas separation properties of amorphous porous chalcogenides such as GeS2 are investigated using statistical mechanics molecular simulation. Using a realistic molecular model of such amorphous adsorbents, we show that they can be used efficiently to separate different gases relevant to environmental and energy applications (H2, CO2, CH4, N2). In addition to shedding light on the microscopic adsorption mechanisms, we show that coadsorption in this novel class of porous materials can be described using the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST). Such a simple thermodynamic model, which allows avoiding complex coadsorption measurements, describes the adsorption of mixture from pure component adsorption isotherms. Our results, which are found to be in good agreement with available experimental data, paves the way for the design of gas separation membranes using the large family of porous chalcogenides. PMID:27126718

  9. Fretting wear behavior of laser-nitrided Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe alloy fabricated by laser melting deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Shangguan, Y. J.; Tang, H. B.; Wang, H. M.

    2014-09-01

    Fretting wear behavior of laser-nitrided titanium alloy (Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe) fabricated by laser melting deposition (LMD) has been investigated to explore surface engineering for protection against wear damage of laser melting deposited titanium alloy. The morphology and volume of the wear scars of unmodified and laser-nitrided LMD Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-1Cr-1Fe tested at different frequencies, 10 and 50 Hz, were studied using non-contact three-dimensional surface profilometer and scanning electron microscope. Friction coefficients measured at different frequencies or loading forces were compared for unmodified and laser-nitrided LMD specimens. Experimental results show that laser-nitrided LMD specimens have shown fretting resistance superior to unmodified LMD specimens due to the presence of hard TiN dendrites in the laser-nitrided layer. W-shaped wear scar caused by local rotation of fretting ball at the two ends of the scar was observed. Given a constant loading force of 50 N, unmodified and laser-nitrided LMD specimens exhibited similar friction coefficients and their friction coefficients increased with test frequency. The friction coefficients of both specimens increased with the reduction of normal load, which corresponds to the trend in Hertzian contact model.

  10. Effect of laser power on the microstructural behaviour and strength of modified laser deposited Ti6Al4V+Cu alloy for medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erinosho, Mutiu F.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2016-03-01

    The excellent biocompatibility property of Grade 5 titanium alloy has made its desirability largely increasing in the field of biomedical. The titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) was modified with the addition of 3 weight percent (wt %) copper via a laser deposition process using the Ytterbium fiber laser with a wavelength of 1.047 μm. Therefore, this paper presents the effect of laser power on the microstructural behaviour and strength of the modified Ti6Al4V+Cu alloy. The laser powers were varied between 600 W and 1600 W respectively while all other parameters such as the scanning speed, powder flow rates and gas flow rates were kept constant. The melt pool and width of the deposited alloy increases as the laser power was increased. The α-lamella was observed to be finer at low laser power, and towards the fusion zone, Widmanstettan structures were fused and become smaller; and showing an evidence of α-martensite phases. The strength of the modified alloy was derived from the hardness values. The strength was observed to increase initially to a point as the laser power increases and afterwards decreased as the laser power was further increased. The improved Ti6Al4V+Cu alloy can be anticipated for biomedical application.

  11. Towards new binary compounds: Synthesis of amorphous phosphorus carbide by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Judy N.; May, Paul W.; Allan, Neil L.; Hallam, Keith R.; Claeyssens, Frederik; Fuge, Gareth M.; Ruda, Michelle; Heard, Peter J.

    2013-02-15

    We have recently undertaken comprehensive computational studies predicting possible crystal structures of the as yet unknown phosphorus carbide as a function of composition. In this work, we report the synthesis of amorphous phosphorus-carbon films by pulsed laser deposition. The local bonding environments of carbon and phosphorus in the synthesised materials have been analysed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; we have found strong evidence for the formation of direct P-C bonding and hence phosphorus carbide. There is a good agreement between the bonding environments found in this phosphorus carbide material and those predicted in the computational work. In particular, the local bonding environments are consistent with those found in the {beta}-InS-like structures that we predict to be low in energy for phosphorus:carbon ratios between 0.25 and 1. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have synthesised amorphous phosphorus-carbon films by pulsed laser deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate formation of direct P-C bonds and hence phosphorus carbide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local bonding environments are consistent with those in predicted structures.

  12. Au nanoparticle arrays produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, N. R.; Neri, F.; Trusso, S.; Lucotti, A.; Ossi, P. M.

    2012-09-01

    Using UV pulses from KrF excimer laser, Au targets were ablated in varying pressures of argon to deposit Au nanoparticle (NP) arrays. The morphology of these films from island structures to isolated NPs, observed by SEM and TEM, depends on the gas pressure (10-100 Pa) and pulse number keeping other deposition parameters constant. By fast imaging of the plasma with an iCCD camera at different time delays with respect to the arrival of the laser pulse, we study the plasma propagation regime and we measured its initial velocity. These data and the measured average ablated mass per pulse were introduced to the mixed propagation model to calculate the average asymptotic size of clusters grown in the plume which were compared with NP sizes from TEM measurements. UV-visible Spectroscopy revealed changes of surface plasmon resonance with respect to NP size and spatial density and distribution on the surface. Suitable wavelength to excite the localized surface plasmon was chosen to detect ultra-low concentrations of Rhodamine and Apomorphine as an application to biomedical sensors, using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). A comparison of SERS spectra taken under identical conditions from commercial substrates and from PLD substrates show that the latter have superior performances.

  13. Pulse Laser Deposition Fabricating Gold Nanoclusters on a Glassy Carbon Surface for Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensing.

    PubMed

    Shu, Honghui; Chang, Gang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Pai; Zhang, Yuting; He, Yunbin

    2015-01-01

    A One-step technique for depositing gold nanoclusters (GNCs) onto the surface of a glassy carbon (GC) plate was developed by using pulse laser deposition (PLD) with appropriate process parameters. The method is simple and clean without using any templates, surfactants, or stabilizers. The experimental factors (pulse laser number and the pressure of inert gas (Ar)) that affect the morphology and structure of GNCs, and thus affect the electrocatalytic oxidation performance towards glucose were systematically investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammograms (CV) and chronoamperometry methods). The GC electrode modified by GNCs exhibited a rapid response time (about 2 s), a broad linear range (0.1 to 20 mM), and good stability. The sensitivity was estimated to be 31.18 μA cm(-2) mM(-1) (vs. geometric area), which is higher than that of the Au bulk electrode. It has a good resistance to the common interfering species, such as ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA) and 4-acetaminophen (AP). Therefore, this work has demonstrated a simple and effective sensing platform for the nonenzymatic detection of glucose, and can be used as a new material for a novel non-enzymatic glucose sensor. PMID:26165282

  14. A Laser-Deposition Approach to Compositional-Spread Discovery of Materials on Conventional Sample Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Hans M; Okubo, Isao; Rouleau, Christopher M; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Lowndes, Douglas H

    2005-01-01

    Parallel (multi-sample) approaches, such as discrete combinatorial synthesis or continuous compositional-spread (CCS), can significantly increase the rate of materials discovery and process optimization. Here we review our generalized CCS method, based on pulsed-laser deposition, in which the synchronization between laser firing and substrate translation (behind a fixed slit aperture) yields the desired variations of composition and thickness. In situ alloying makes this approach applicable to the non-equilibrium synthesis of metastable phases. Deposition on a heater plate with a controlled spatial temperature variation can additionally be used for growth-temperature-dependence studies. Composition and temperature variations are controlled on length scales large enough to yield sample sizes sufficient for conventional characterization techniques (such as temperature-dependent measurements of resistivity or magnetic properties). This technique has been applied to various experimental studies, and we present here the results for the growth of electro-optic materials (Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1-x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) and magnetic perovskites (Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}RuO{sub 3}), and discuss the application to the understanding and optimization of catalysts used in the synthesis of dense forests of carbon nanotubes.

  15. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin YBCO Films on Faceted YSZ Single Crystal Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigirev, O.; Chukharkin, M.; Porokhov, N.; Rusanov, S. Y.; Kashin, V. V.; Tsvetkov, V. B.; Kalabukhov, A.; Winkler, D.

    2014-05-01

    Flexible rods of single crystals of 9% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) were used as substrates for deposition of high-critical temperature superconducting (HTS) thin films. YSZ fibers were prepared by mini-pedestal method with laser heating and had average diameter of 300 micrometers and 30 mm length. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated high crystalline quality of obtained fibers and also indicated the presence of 15° deviation of the fiber axis from the [001] YSZ direction. Thin YBa2Cu3O7-x films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on YSZ rods using CeO2 buffer layer. Films have shown high critical temperature of 90 K with sharp superconducting transition. Critical current density was estimated to about 3×104 A/cm2 at 80 K. Temperature dependence of critical current density suggests granular structure of films with grain size about several microns. Our results demonstrate feasibility of flexible YSZ fibers coated by HTS thin films for practical use.

  16. Pulsed Laser Deposition Processing of Improved Titanium Nitride Coatings for Implant Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Talisha M.

    Recently surface coating technology has attracted considerable attention of researchers to develop novel coatings with enhanced functional properties such as hardness, biocompatibility, wear and corrosion resistance for medical devices and surgical tools. The materials currently being used for surgical implants include predominantly stainless steel (316L), cobalt chromium (Co-Cr), titanium and its alloys. Some of the limitations of these implants include improper mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, cytotoxicity and bonding with bone. One of the ways to improve the performance and biocompatibility of these implants is to coat their surfaces with biocompatible materials. Among the various coating materials, titanium nitride (TiN) shows excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and low cytotoxicity. In the present work, a systematic study of pulsed laser ablation processing of TiN coatings was conducted. TiN thin film coatings were grown on commercially pure titanium (Ti) and stainless steel (316L) substrates at different substrate temperatures and different nitrogen partial pressures using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Microstructural, surface, mechanical, chemical, corrosion and biological analysis techniques were applied to characterize the TiN thin film coatings. The PLD processed TiN thin film coatings showed improvements in mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility when compared to the bare substrates. The enhanced performance properties of the TiN thin film coatings were a result of the changing and varying of the deposition parameters.

  17. Pr–Fe–B+α-Fe nanocomposite film magnets prepared by pulsed laser deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Nakano, Masaki; Oshima, Shuichi; Yanai, Takeshi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2016-07-01

    An increase in the remanence of an isotropic film magnet is indispensable to improve the properties of miniaturized devices. We, therefore, tried to prepare Pr–Fe–B/α-Fe multilayered nanocomposite thick-film magnets by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. Namely, a rotated target composed of a Pr x Fe14B (x = 2.2 or 2.4) target together with an α-Fe segment was ablated. We also took account of a small spot size of the laser beam in order to suppress the emission of droplets (large particles) from each target. An optimization on the area of the α-Fe segment in each Pr x Fe14B target was carried out, and the remanence of an annealed film reached approximately 1.1 T. Moreover, a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of the above-mentioned sample revealed that the microstructure varied from a multilayered structure (as-deposited) to a dispersed one through the annealing process. Resultantly, the annealed film had a dispersed nanocomposite structure with good exchange coupling.

  18. Comparison of laser-ablation and hot-wall chemical vapour deposition techniques for nanowire fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, E.; Cheng, G.; Guthrie, S.; Turner-Evans, D.; Broomfield, E.; Lei, B.; Li, C.; Zhang, D.; Zhou, C.; Reed, M. A.

    2006-06-01

    A comparison of the transport properties of populations of single-crystal, In2O3 nanowires (NWs) grown by unassisted hot-wall chemical vapour deposition (CVD) versus NWs grown by laser-ablation-assisted chemical vapour deposition (LA-CVD) is presented. For nominally identical growth conditions across the two systems, NWs fabricated at 850 °C with laser-ablation had significantly higher average mobilities at the 99.9% confidence level, 53.3 ± 5.8 cm2 V-1 s-1 versus 10.2 ± 1.9 cm2 V-1 s-1. It is also observed that increasing growth temperature decreases mobility for LA-CVD NWs. Transmission electron microscopy studies of CVD-fabricated samples indicate the presence of an amorphous In2O3 region surrounding the single-crystal core. Further, low-temperature measurements verify the presence of ionized impurity scattering in low-mobility CVD-grown NWs.

  19. Structural properties of rare earth chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Ramakant; Bhardwaj, Purvee; Singh, Sadhna

    2016-05-01

    The pressure induced NaCl (B1) to CsCl (B2) structural phase transition of rare earth mono-chalcogenide (PuTe) has been investigated in this paper. A modified interaction potential model (MIPM) (including the covalency effect) has been developed. Phase transition pressures are associated with a sudden collapse in volume. The phase transition pressures and associated volume collapses obtained from present potential model show a generally good agreement with available experimental data than others.

  20. Hydroxyapatite thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelea, V.; Morosanu, C.; Iliescu, M.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2004-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films for applications in the biomedical field were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) techniques. The depositions were performed from pure hydroxyapatite targets on Ti-5Al-2.5Fe (TiAlFe) alloys substrates. In order to prevent the HA film penetration by Ti atoms or ions diffused from the Ti-based alloy during and after deposition, the substrates were pre-coated with a thin buffer layer of TiN. In both cases, TiN was introduced by reactive PLD from TiN targets in low-pressure N 2. The PLD films were grown in vacuum onto room temperature substrates. The RF-MS films were deposited in low-pressure argon on substrates heated at 550 °C. The initially amorphous PLD thin films were annealed at 550 °C for 1 h in ambient air in order to restore the initial crystalline structure of HA target. The thickness of the PLD and RF-MS films were ˜1 μm and ˜350 nm, respectively. All films were structurally studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and white light confocal microscopy (WLCM). The mechanical properties of the films were tested by Berkovich nano-indentation. Both PLD and RF-MS films mostly contain HA phase and exhibit good mechanical characteristics. Peaks of CaO were noticed as secondary phase in the GIXRD patterns only for RF-MS films. By its turn, the sputtered films were smoother as compared to the ones deposited by PLD (50 nm versus 250 nm average roughness). The RF-MS films were harder, more mechanically resistant and have a higher Young modulus.

  1. High-throughput planer glass coating using Laser Reactive Deposition (LRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiangxin; Mosso, Ronald; Chiruvolu, Shiv; Euvrard, Eric; Bryan, Michael A.; Jenks, Tim

    2001-10-01

    Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC) technology has been considered as a promising route to integrate a greater number of channels and more optical functionalities onto a small foot print, enabling smaller device sizes and lower costs of manufacturing by using existing semiconductor process technologies. Among several planar technology platforms, silica-on-silicon technology comprised of a silica higher index core and lower index clad has taken the lead in this direction. One of the major advantages of silica based PLC technology is its relative ease to couple to a single mode silica fiber because of a close match of the index and dimensions of the waveguide core of planar chip and fiber. In this structure, to completely confine and guide light signals, the silica layer stack, including lower clad, core and top clad can be as thick as 20 - 40 microns, in which the core layer thickness is around 6 - 8 micron. This has presented a major challenge to several major silica film deposition technologies including CVD, FHD, PVD, and Sol-Gel processes. In addition to basic requirements for optical quality of the glass film, low cost manufacture also demands a high deposition rate to reduce process costs in the fabrication of these planar chips. In this paper, we present a high throughput and planar glass coating technology to lay down doped and undoped glass films at unprecedented rates. The technology is comprised of a laser reactive deposition (LRDTM) process developed based on our nanoscale particle manufacture (NPMTM) methods pioneered by NanoGram Corporation. We report results on planar glass films deposited using this technology and describe the concepts employed using this technology in manufacturing. Furthermore, we will compare it with various existing glass film deposition technologies.

  2. Perpendicularly oriented barium ferrite thin films with low microwave loss, prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da-Ming, Chen; Yuan-Xun, Li; Li-Kun, Han; Chao, Long; Huai-Wu, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Barium ferrite (BaM) thin films are deposited on platinum coated silicon wafers by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The effects of deposition substrate temperature on the microstructure, magnetic and microwave properties of BaM thin films are investigated in detail. It is found that microstructure, magnetic and microwave properties of BaM thin film are very sensitive to deposition substrate temperature, and excellent BaM thin film is obtained when deposition temperature is 910 °C and oxygen pressure is 300 mTorr (1 Torr = 1.3332 × 102 Pa). X-ray diffraction patterns and atomic force microscopy images show that the best thin film has perpendicular orientation and hexagonal morphology, and the crystallographic alignment degree can be calculated to be 0.94. Hysteresis loops reveal that the squareness ratio (M r/M s) is as high as 0.93, the saturated magnetization is 4004 Gs (1 Gs = 104 T), and the anisotropy field is 16.5 kOe (1 Oe = 79.5775 A·m‑1). Ferromagnetic resonance measurements reveal that the gyromagnetic ratio is 2.8 GHz/kOe, and the ferromagnetic resonance linewith is 108 Oe at 50 GHz, which means that this thin film has low microwave loss. These properties make the BaM thin films have potential applications in microwave devices. Project supported by the Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices (Grant No. KFJJ201506), the Scientific Research Starting Foundation of Hainan University (Grant No. kyqd1539), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hainan Province (Grant No. 20165187).

  3. Growth of III-V nitrides and buffer layer investigation by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tzu-Fang

    1999-11-01

    III-V nitrides have been investigated intensively due to the enormous interest in optoelectronic device applications in the green, blue, violet, and near-ultraviolet regions. Advances in III-V nitride materials for short wavelength light sources will lead to both a revolution in optical disk storage, as higher densities can be achieved with short wavelengths, and a major impact on imaging and graphic technology as high quality red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes (LED) and lasers become available. High quality GaN films have mostly been prepared by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and vapor phase epitaxy (VPE). Compared to these techniques, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a relatively new growth technique used widely for the growth of oxide thin films. However, several advantages of PLD make it worthy of study as a method of growing nitrides. The congruent ablation achieved with short UV-laser pulses allows deposition of a multicomponent material by employing a single target and the ability for depositing a wide variety of materials. This advantage makes PLD very suitable for growing multilayer structures sequentially in the same chamber and investigating the effect of buffer layers. Moreover, the strong nonequilibrium growth conditions of PLD may lead to different nucleation and growth processes. In this work, GaN and (Al,Ga)N films have been epitaxially grown on (0001) sapphire substrate by PLD, which has been successfully applied to controlling the lattice constant and band gap of (Al,Ga)N. Room-temperature photoluminescence of PLD-GaN exhibits a strong band edge emission at 3.4eV. The threading dislocations of GaN are predominantly screw dislocations with Burgers vector of <0001> while edge dislocations with Burgers vector of 1/3<11-20> are the dominant ones in GaN grown by MBE, MOCVD and VPE. This variation observed in defect characteristics may come from the difference in nucleation and growth kinetics between PLD

  4. Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    Anne, Marie-Laure; Keirsse, Julie; Nazabal, Virginie; Hyodo, Koji; Inoue, Satoru; Boussard-Pledel, Catherine; Lhermite, Hervé; Charrier, Joël; Yanakata, Kiyoyuki; Loreal, Olivier; Le Person, Jenny; Colas, Florent; Compère, Chantal; Bureau, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Due to the remarkable properties of chalcogenide (Chg) glasses, Chg optical waveguides should play a significant role in the development of optical biosensors. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of chalcogenide fibres and planar waveguides. Using optical fibre transparent in the mid-infrared spectral range we have developed a biosensor that can collect information on whole metabolism alterations, rapidly and in situ. Thanks to this sensor it is possible to collect infrared spectra by remote spectroscopy, by simple contact with the sample. In this way, we tried to determine spectral modifications due, on the one hand, to cerebral metabolism alterations caused by a transient focal ischemia in the rat brain and, in the other hand, starvation in the mouse liver. We also applied a microdialysis method, a well known technique for in vivo brain metabolism studies, as reference. In the field of integrated microsensors, reactive ion etching was used to pattern rib waveguides between 2 and 300 μm wide. This technique was used to fabricate Y optical junctions for optical interconnections on chalcogenide amorphous films, which can potentially increase the sensitivity and stability of an optical micro-sensor. The first tests were also carried out to functionalise the Chg planar waveguides with the aim of using them as (bio)sensors. PMID:22423209

  5. Experimental and numerical studies on laser-based powder deposition of slurry erosion resistant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Prabu

    Slurry erosion (the removal of material caused by the randomly moving high velocity liquid-solid particle mixture) is a serious issue in crude oil drilling, mining, turbines, rocket nozzles, pumps, and boiler tubes that causes excessive downtime and high operating costs as a result of premature part failure. The goal of this research is to enhance the service life of high-value components subjected to slurry erosion by utilizing the concept of functionally graded metal-ceramic composite material (FGMCCM) in which the favorable properties of metal (toughness, ductility, etc.) and ceramic (hardness) are tailored smoothly to improve erosion resistance. Among the potential manufacturing processes, such as the laser-based powder deposition (LBPD), the plasma transferred arc (PTA), and the thermal spray the LBPD process offers good composition and microstructure control with a high deposition rate in producing the FGMCCM. This research focuses on the development of nickel-tungsten carbide (Ni-WC) based FGMCCM using the LBPD process for applications the above mentioned. The LBPD of Ni-WC involves the introduction of Ni and WC powder particle by an inert gas into the laser-formed molten pool at the substrate via nozzles. The LBPD of Ni-WC includes complex multi-physical interactions between the laser beam, Ni-WC powder, substrate, and carrier and shielding gases that are governed by a number of process variables such as laser power, scanning speed, and powder flow rate. In order to develop the best Ni-WC based slurry erosion resistant material using the LBPD process, the following challenges associated with the fabrication and the performance evaluation need to be addressed: 1) flow behavior of the Ni-WC powder and its interaction with the laser, 2) the effect of the process variables, the material compositions, and the thermo-physical properties on thermal cycles, temperature gradient, cooling rate, and residual stress formation within the material and the subsequent

  6. Selective-area laser deposition (SALD) Joining of silicon carbide with silicon carbide filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Shay Llewellyn

    Selective Area Laser Deposition (SALD) is a gas-phase, solid freeform fabrication (SFF) process that utilizes a laser-driven, pyrolytic gas reaction to form a desired solid product. This solid product only forms in the heated zone of the laser beam and thus can be selectively deposited by control of the laser position. SALD Joining employs the SALD method to accomplish 'welding' of ceramic structures together. The solid reaction product serves as a filler material to bond the two parts. The challenges involved with ceramic joining center around the lack of a liquid phase, little plastic deformation and diffusivity and poor surface wetting for many ceramic materials. Due to these properties, traditional metal welding procedures cannot be applied to ceramics. Most alternative ceramic welding techniques use some form of a metal addition to overcome these material limitations. However, the metal possesses a lower ultimate use temperature than the ceramic substrate and therefore it decreases the temperature range over which the joined part can be safely used. SALD Joining enjoys several advantages over these ceramic welding procedures. The solid filler material chemistry can be tailored to match the type of ceramic substrate and therefore fabricate monolithic joints. The SALD filler material bonds directly to the substrate and the joined structure is made in a one step process, without any post-processing. The research documented in this dissertation focused on SALD Joining of silicon carbide structures with silicon carbide filler material. A historical progression of gas-phase SFF research and a literature review of the most prominent ceramic joining techniques are provided. A variety of SiC substrates were examined, as were various conditions of gas precursor pressures and mixtures, laser beam scan speed and joint configuration. The SALD material was characterized for composition and structure by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic

  7. Organo-layered double hydroxides composite thin films deposited by laser techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjega, R.; Vlad, A.; Matei, A.; Dumitru, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Dinescu, M.; Zavoianu, R.; Raditoiu, V.; Corobea, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    We used laser techniques to create hydrophobic thin films of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and organo-modified LDHs. A LDH based on Zn-Al with Zn2+/Al3+ ratio of 2.5 was used as host material, while dodecyl sulfate (DS), which is an organic surfactant, acted as guest material. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) were employed for the growth of the films. The organic anions were intercalated in co-precipitation step. The powders were subsequently used either as materials for MAPLE, or they were pressed and used as targets for PLD. The surface topography of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the crystallographic structure of the powders and films was checked by X-ray diffraction. FTIR spectroscopy was used to evidence DS interlayer intercalation, both for powders and the derived films. Contact angle measurements were performed in order to establish the wettability properties of the as-prepared thin films, in view of functionalization applications as hydrophobic surfaces, owing to the effect of DS intercalation.

  8. Multi-beam pulsed laser deposition: new method of making nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Abdalla M.; Wilson, Simeon; Blackwell, Ashely; Taylor, Keylantra; Sarkisov, Sergey; Patel, Darayas; Mele, Paolo; Koplitz, Brent

    2015-08-01

    Huge number of new photonic devices, including light emitters, chemical sensors, and energy harvesters, etc. can be made of the nanocomposite coatings produced by the new multi-beam pulsed laser deposition (MB-PLD) process. We provide a short review of the conventional single-beam PLD method and explain why it is poorly suitable for making nanocomposite coatings. Then we describe the new MB-PLD process and system, particularly the multiple-beam matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MB-MAPLE) version with laser beam scanning and plume direction control. The latter one is particularly designed to make organic (polymer) - inorganic functionalized nanocomposite coatings. Polymer film serves as a host for inorganic nanoparticles that add a specific functionality to the film. We analyze the properties of such coatings using the examples of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films impregnated with the nanoparticles of rare-earth (RE) upconversion phosphors. They demonstrated the preservation of microcrystalline structure and bright upconversion emission in visible region of the phosphor nanoparticles after they were transferred in the polymer matrix during the MB-MAPLE process. The proposed technology has thus proven to serve its purpose: to make functionalized polymer nanocomposite coatings for a various potential applications.

  9. Kr/sup +/ laser-induced chemical vapor deposition of W

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, G.Q.; Szoerenyi, T.; Baeuerle, D.

    1987-07-15

    Kr/sup +/ laser-induced pyrolytic direct writing of W stripes by H/sub 2/ reduction of WF/sub 6/ has been investigated. The reproducibility of the process and the morphology and electrical properties of deposits depend heavily on the partial pressures of both WF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/; the best results have been obtained with p(WF/sub 6/) = 5 mbar and 100 mbarless than or equal top(H/sub 2/)less than or equal to800 mbar. For a laser focus of 2w/sub 0/ = 7 ..mu..m and laser powers between 30 and 200 mW, the widths of stripes varied between 1.5 and 15 ..mu..m with corresponding thicknesses between 0.1 to 3 ..mu..m. The width of stripes is independent of the scanning speed within the range 20 ..mu..m/sless than or equal toV/sub s/ less than or equal to400 ..mu..m/s. The electrical resistivities of these stripes were about a factor of 1.3--2.3 larger than the bulk value.

  10. Selective deposition of conductive copper films on glass surfaces using femtosecond laser surface modification and electroless plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Liao, Yang; Zeng, Huidan; Zhou, Zenghui; Sun, Haiyi; Song, Juan; Wang, Xinshun; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, selective deposition of conductive copper films on glass surfaces is demonstrated with the assistance of femtosecond laser surface modification followed by electroless plating. Irradiation of femtosecond laser makes it possible to selectively deposit copper films in the irradiated area on glass surfaces coated with silver nitrate films. The influence of the laser direct writing parameters and the electroless plating process on the formation of copper films is discussed. Meanwhile, the electric properties of copper films are investigated, which confirms that copper films are conductive. A tentative mechanism of the selective deposition process is also proposed. In addition, the potential application of this technique for integrating electrical and thermal functions into microdevices is discussed.

  11. The study on the effect of erbium on diamond-like carbon deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foong, Y. M.; Hsieh, J.; Li, X.; Chua, D. H. C.

    2009-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films doped with a small fraction of erbium (0.5-2.0 at. %, at 0.5 at. % interval) were prepared by using a 248 nm KrF pulsed laser deposition technique. The effects of erbium on the surface morphology, microstructure, chemical binding states, tribological property, and the adhesion strength of DLC films were investigated. Atomic force microscopy showed that the surface roughness of the films increased with the increasing of erbium fraction, but generally the nanocomposite films were smooth with rms below 1 nm. Raman analysis showed broad peaks centered at 1550 cm-1 on all the samples. The deconvoluted Raman spectra on DLC doped with different fractions of erbium showed that the ID/IG ratio increased with increasing erbium content, and the comparative percent of sp3 is between 50% and 58% for erbium fraction between 0.5 and 2.0 at. %. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the C 1s peaks had slightly shifted away from 285.2 (diamond) to 284.5 eV (graphite). The deconvolution of the spectra further confirmed the influence of erbium to the sp3 contents and revealed the presence of SiC with the increasing of Er fraction. Microscratch tester results showed that the adhesion strength (critical load) of the films improved with the presence of SiC bonding at the interface. This hinted that the presence of the heavier erbium may force the impinging carbon ions to react more with the interface to form silicon carbide bonds, thus enhancing the adhesion strength. Although the presence of erbium increased the surface roughness of the films, the coefficients of friction of the erbium doped DLC films were still closely resembled to pure DLC, i.e., 0.11-0.12 compared to 0.10 for pure DLC.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of multimaterial chalcogenide glass fiber tapers with high numerical apertures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya'nan; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Peiqing; Wang, Xunsi; Xu, Yinsheng; Liu, Zijun; Chen, Feifei; Wu, Yuehao; Zhang, Yuji; Wang, Rongping; Tao, Guangming

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of multimaterial chalcogenide fiber tapers that have high numerical apertures (NAs). We first fabricated multimaterial As(2)Se(3)-As(2)S(3) chalcogenide fiber preforms via a modified one-step coextrusion process. The preforms were drawn into multi- and single-mode fibers with high NAs (≈1.45), whose core/cladding diameters were 103/207 and 11/246 μm, respectively. The outer diameter of the fiber was tapered from a few hundred microns to approximately two microns through a self-developed automatic tapering process. Simulation results showed that the zero-dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) of the tapers were shorter than 2 μm, indicating that the tapers can be conveniently pumped by commercial short wavelength infrared lasers. We also experimentally demonstrated the supercontinuum generation (SCG) in a 15-cm-long multimaterial As(2)Se(3)-As(2)S(3) chalcogenide taper with 1.9 μm core diameter and the ZDW was shifted to 3.3 μm. When pumping the taper with 100 fs short pulses at 3.4 µm, a 20 dB spectral of the generated supercontinuum spans from 1.5 μm to longer than 4.8 μm. PMID:26368447

  13. Fabrication of Nano-engineered Transparent Conducting Oxides by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Gondoni, Paolo; Ghidelli, Matteo; Di Fonzo, Fabio; Li Bassi, Andrea; Casari, Carlo S.

    2013-01-01

    Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) in the presence of a background gas allows the deposition of metal oxides with tunable morphology, structure, density and stoichiometry by a proper control of the plasma plume expansion dynamics. Such versatility can be exploited to produce nanostructured films from compact and dense to nanoporous characterized by a hierarchical assembly of nano-sized clusters. In particular we describe the detailed methodology to fabricate two types of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films as transparent electrodes in photovoltaic devices: 1) at low O2 pressure, compact films with electrical conductivity and optical transparency close to the state of the art transparent conducting oxides (TCO) can be deposited at room temperature, to be compatible with thermally sensitive materials such as polymers used in organic photovoltaics (OPVs); 2) highly light scattering hierarchical structures resembling a forest of nano-trees are produced at higher pressures. Such structures show high Haze factor (>80%) and may be exploited to enhance the light trapping capability. The method here described for AZO films can be applied to other metal oxides relevant for technological applications such as TiO2, Al2O3, WO3 and Ag4O4. PMID:23486076

  14. Angular Distribution of Tungsten Material and Ion Flux during Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. S.; Dogar, A. H.; Qayyum, A.; Abbasi, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on glass substrates placed at the angles of 0∘ to 70∘ with respect to the target surface normal. Rutherford backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) analysis of the films indicated that about 90% of tungsten material flux is distributed in a cone of 40∘ solid angle while about 54% of it lies even in a narrower cone of 10∘ solid angle. Significant diffusion of tungsten in glass substrate has been observed in the films deposited at smaller angles with respect to target surface normal. Time-of-flight (TOF) measurements performed using Langmuir probe indicated that the most probable ion energy decreases from about 600 to 91eV for variation of θ from 0∘ to 70∘. In general ion energy spread is quite large at all angles investigated here. The enhanced tungsten diffusion in glass substrate observed at smaller angles is most probably due to the higher ion energy and ion assisted recoil implantation of already deposited tungsten.

  15. Pulsed laser deposited GeTe-rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 thin films

    PubMed Central

    Bouška, M.; Pechev, S.; Simon, Q.; Boidin, R.; Nazabal, V.; Gutwirth, J.; Baudet, E.; Němec, P.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition technique was used for the fabrication of Ge-Te rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 (Ge6Sb2Te9, Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15) amorphous thin films. To evaluate the influence of GeTe content in the deposited films on physico-chemical properties of the GST materials, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and reflectometry, atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, optical reflectivity, and sheet resistance temperature dependences as well as variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize as-deposited (amorphous) and annealed (crystalline) layers. Upon crystallization, optical functions and electrical resistance of the films change drastically, leading to large optical and electrical contrast between amorphous and crystalline phases. Large changes of optical/electrical properties are accompanied by the variations of thickness, density, and roughness of the films due to crystallization. Reflectivity contrast as high as ~0.21 at 405 nm was calculated for Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15 layers. PMID:27199107

  16. Mechanical properties of high strength aluminum alloys formed by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, J.A.; Follstaedt, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    Very high-strength alloys of A1(O) have been formed using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system to deposit from alternating targets of A1 and A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Ion beam analysis and transmission electron microscopy show that the deposited material is uniform in composition with up to 33 at. % O and has a highly refined microstructure consisting of a fine, uniform dispersion of {approximately}1 nm diameter {gamma}-A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} precipitates. Ultra-low-load indentation testing combined with finite-element modeling is used to determine the mechanical properties of the layers. Yield stresses as high as 5.1 GPa have been measured in these materials, greatly exceeding the strengths of aerospace Al alloys (-0.5 GPa) and even high strength steels. The key to the properties of these materials is the dispersion of small, hard precipitates spaced only a few Burgers vectors apart; dislocations are apparently unable to cut through and must bow around them.

  17. Optimisation study of the synthesis of vanadium oxide nanostructures using pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, B. N.; Lafane, S.; Wu, L.; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T.; Forbes, A.

    2014-02-01

    Fast imaging plasma plume study have been carried out on vanadium-oxygen plasma generated using 248 nm, 25 ns pulses from an excimer KrF laser under oxygen atmosphere. The plume expansion dynamics of an ablated VO2 target was investigated using a fast-imaging technique. The free expansion, splitting, sharpening and stopping of the plume were observed during these oxygen pressures, 0.01, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mbar. The influence of the plume dynamics study on the properties of the obtained vanadium oxide thin films were examined using X-Ray Diffraction method. A vanadium dioxide phases were deposited at 0.05 mbar oxygen pressure for target-substrate distance of 40 mm and 50 mm. Mixed phases of vanadium oxide were deposited at 0.01, 0.10 and 0.20 mbar oxygen pressure for target-substrate distance of 40 mm. Transition temperatures of around 60.9oC have been measured from sample deposited at 0.05 mbar oxygen pressure for target-substrate distance of 50 mm. We observe mixed nanostructures for thin film prepared at 0.05 mbar for target-substrate distance of 40 mm, while the thin film prepared at 0.05 mbar for target-substrate of 50 mm shows an uniform nanostructure film.

  18. Mobility enhancement in graphene transistors on low temperature pulsed laser deposited boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Md Ahsan E-mail: gkoley@clemson.edu; Koley, Goutam E-mail: gkoley@clemson.edu; Glavin, Nicholas; Singh, Amol; Naguy, Rachel; Jespersen, Michael; Voevodin, Andrey

    2015-11-16

    Low temperature pulsed laser deposited (PLD) ultrathin boron nitride (BN) on SiO{sub 2} was investigated as a dielectric for graphene electronics, and a significant enhancement in electrical transport properties of graphene/PLD BN compared to graphene/SiO{sub 2} has been observed. Graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and transferred on PLD deposited and annealed BN exhibited up to three times higher field effect mobility compared to graphene on the SiO{sub 2} substrate. Graphene field effect transistor devices fabricated on 5 nm BN/SiO{sub 2} (300 nm) yielded maximum hole and electron mobility of 4980 and 4200 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively. In addition, significant improvement in carrier homogeneity and reduction in extrinsic doping in graphene on BN has been observed. An average Dirac point of 3.5 V and residual carrier concentration of 7.65 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2} was observed for graphene transferred on 5 nm BN at ambient condition. The overall performance improvement on PLD BN can be attributed to dielectric screening of charged impurities, similar crystal structure and phonon modes, and reduced substrate induced doping.

  19. Pulsed laser deposited GeTe-rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Bouška, M; Pechev, S; Simon, Q; Boidin, R; Nazabal, V; Gutwirth, J; Baudet, E; Němec, P

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition technique was used for the fabrication of Ge-Te rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 (Ge6Sb2Te9, Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15) amorphous thin films. To evaluate the influence of GeTe content in the deposited films on physico-chemical properties of the GST materials, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and reflectometry, atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, optical reflectivity, and sheet resistance temperature dependences as well as variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize as-deposited (amorphous) and annealed (crystalline) layers. Upon crystallization, optical functions and electrical resistance of the films change drastically, leading to large optical and electrical contrast between amorphous and crystalline phases. Large changes of optical/electrical properties are accompanied by the variations of thickness, density, and roughness of the films due to crystallization. Reflectivity contrast as high as ~0.21 at 405 nm was calculated for Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15 layers. PMID:27199107

  20. Pulsed laser deposited GeTe-rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouška, M.; Pechev, S.; Simon, Q.; Boidin, R.; Nazabal, V.; Gutwirth, J.; Baudet, E.; Němec, P.

    2016-05-01

    Pulsed laser deposition technique was used for the fabrication of Ge-Te rich GeTe-Sb2Te3 (Ge6Sb2Te9, Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15) amorphous thin films. To evaluate the influence of GeTe content in the deposited films on physico-chemical properties of the GST materials, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and reflectometry, atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, optical reflectivity, and sheet resistance temperature dependences as well as variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize as-deposited (amorphous) and annealed (crystalline) layers. Upon crystallization, optical functions and electrical resistance of the films change drastically, leading to large optical and electrical contrast between amorphous and crystalline phases. Large changes of optical/electrical properties are accompanied by the variations of thickness, density, and roughness of the films due to crystallization. Reflectivity contrast as high as ~0.21 at 405 nm was calculated for Ge8Sb2Te11, Ge10Sb2Te13, and Ge12Sb2Te15 layers.

  1. Pulsed laser deposition of ferroelectric thin films in conjunction with superconducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, S.; Sengupta, L. C.; Demaree, J. D.; Kosik, W.

    1994-12-01

    The possibility of combining ferroelectrics and superconductors has been of interest for use in memory storage devices. Additionally, superconductors offer crystal structures compatible to the epitaxial growth of the ferroelectric, Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)TiO3 (BSTO), which is cubic at this stoichiometry. BSTO has a lattice constant of 3.94 A as compared to the superconducting Pr(2 - x)Ce(x)CuO4 tetragonal single crystal which also has a lattice constant of a = 3.94 A. (minor variations with Cerium content). In this study, ferroelectric thin films of BSTO were deposited on single crystals of Pr2CuO4 and Pr(2 - x)Ce(x)CuO4. The optical constants of the substrates, single crystals of Pr2CuO4 and Pr(2 - x)Ce(x)CuO4, were determined using Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE) and the composition and crystal structure were examined using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) with ion beam channeling. The substrate/film interfaces and the compositional variation in the films were also studied with RBS and with SEM/EDS. Glancing angle x-ray diffraction was used to verify the epitaxial nature of the films. The effect of the deposition parameters (laser repetition rate, oxygen backfill pressure, and deposition geometry) on the quality of the films was experimented with previously and only the optimized parameters were used.

  2. Antibacterial copper-nickel bilayers and multilayer coatings by pulsed laser deposition on titanium.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Vinita; Josephine, J; George, R P; Krishnan, R; Dash, S; Kamruddin, M; Kalavathi, S; Manoharan, N; Tyagi, A K; Dayal, R K

    2009-11-01

    Biofouling, especially microfouling, is a major concern with the use of titanium (Ti) in the marine environment as a condenser material in cooling water systems. Earlier, copper-nickel (Cu/Ni) alloys were extensively used in marine environments due to their high corrosion and biofouling resistance. However, the choice of condenser material for the new fast breeder reactor in Kalpakkam is Ti to avoid steam side corrosion problems, which may pose a threat to steam generator parts having sodium as the secondary coolant. This study evaluates the surface modification of Ti using nano films of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) to utilize the antibacterial property of copper ions in reducing microfouling. The surface modification of Ti was carried out by the deposition of a Cu/Ni bilayer and (Cu/Ni)(10) multilayer films using a pulsed laser deposition technique. Various surface characterization studies revealed that the deposited Cu/Ni films were thin and nanocrystalline in nature. The antibacterial properties were evaluated using total viable count and epifluorescence microscopic techniques. The results showed an apparent decrease in bacterial attachment on multilayered and bilayered Cu/Ni thin films on Ti surfaces. Comparative studies between the two types of films showed a bigger reduction in numbers of microorganisms on the multilayers. PMID:20183129

  3. Super growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on pulsed laser deposited catalytic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejes, D.; Pápa, Z.; Kecsenovity, E.; Réti, B.; Toth, Z.; Hernadi, K.

    2015-03-01

    Efficient and reproducible growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) requires precise setting of the properties of the catalyst thin films and CVD conditions. In this work, super growth of vertically aligned CNTs onto Al2O3 support and Fe-Co catalyst layer system is presented. The layers were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto silicon wafer pieces. Their thickness and optical properties were controlled by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The effect of heat treatment at 750 °C in nitrogen and in hydrogen of these PLD layers was compared. High-resolution electron microscopic images showed that treatment of catalyst layers in H2 resulted in finer and denser catalytic particles. As a result, well-aligned, dense and few-walled CNT forests with 1-1.5 mm height were deposited by water-vapor-assisted CVD on the hydrogen-treated films, while without hydrogen treatment defected CNT structures were grown. According to these observations, Raman spectroscopy showed a higher degree of crystallinity in case of CNT-s, where reduction by hydrogen influenced the oxidation state of the metallic catalytic particles in a beneficial way.

  4. Purification of Nanoscale Electron-Beam-Induced Platinum Deposits via a Pulsed Laser-Induced Oxidation Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, Michael G.; Lewis, Brett B.; Noh, Joo Hyon; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Roberts, Nicholas A.; Plank, Harald; Rack, Philip D.

    2014-11-05

    Platinum–carbon deposits made via electron-beam-induced deposition were purified in this study via a pulsed laser-induced oxidation reaction and erosion of the amorphous carbon to form pure platinum. Purification proceeds from the top down and is likely catalytically facilitated via the evolving platinum layer. Thermal simulations suggest a temperature threshold of ~485 K, and the purification rate is a function of the PtC5 thickness (80–360 nm) and laser pulse width (1–100 μs) in the ranges studied. The thickness dependence is attributed to the ~235 nm penetration depth of the PtC5 composite at the laser wavelength, and the pulse-width dependence is attributed to the increased temperatures achieved at longer pulse widths. Finally, remarkably fast purification is realized at cumulative laser exposure times of less than 1 s.

  5. Purification of Nanoscale Electron-Beam-Induced Platinum Deposits via a Pulsed Laser-Induced Oxidation Reaction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stanford, Michael G.; Lewis, Brett B.; Noh, Joo Hyon; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Roberts, Nicholas A.; Plank, Harald; Rack, Philip D.

    2014-11-05

    Platinum–carbon deposits made via electron-beam-induced deposition were purified in this study via a pulsed laser-induced oxidation reaction and erosion of the amorphous carbon to form pure platinum. Purification proceeds from the top down and is likely catalytically facilitated via the evolving platinum layer. Thermal simulations suggest a temperature threshold of ~485 K, and the purification rate is a function of the PtC5 thickness (80–360 nm) and laser pulse width (1–100 μs) in the ranges studied. The thickness dependence is attributed to the ~235 nm penetration depth of the PtC5 composite at the laser wavelength, and the pulse-width dependence is attributedmore » to the increased temperatures achieved at longer pulse widths. Finally, remarkably fast purification is realized at cumulative laser exposure times of less than 1 s.« less

  6. Chalcogenide based materials and devices for flexible electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-Villasenor, Ana Lizeth

    The scaling of large-area electronics for applications in flat-panel displays, digital X-ray images, and flexible electronics is pushing the technological and cost limits of conventional materials and device processing. Chemical bath deposited chalcogenide films are attractive for thin film transistors (TFTs) for large area electronics given its simple fabrication, low temperature and compatibility with most substrates. In this dissertation, we describe the development of a high performance chalcogenide based TFTs using chemical bath deposition (CBD) methods. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and lead sulfide (PbS) are used as the TFT channel layer. The influence of several CBD parameters is studied. CBD pH and CdS film thickness have a profound influence on the TFT electrical characteristics. These parameters impact film cluster size and impurity concentration. With the optimized CdS deposition conditions TFTs with excellent electrical properties are demonstrated. With a novel photolithography approach demonstrated here, TFTs with mobilities as high as 18 cm2 /V s, Ion/Ioff of 109 and V T shift of less than 0.1 eV were fabricated. To achieve these TFTs characteristics, a variety of contact materials, gate dielectrics, annealing conditions and device structures were studied. The factors affecting VT instability for CdS based TFTs are also presented and correlated to electrode materials, gate dielectrics, and post-annealing. In summary, TFT instability is correlated to traps and impurities at the dielectric/semiconductor and/or in the semiconductor film. In addition, this dissertation demonstrates CdS TFTs integration in hybrid complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits. In particular, logic gates and ferroelectric random access (FRAM) memory cells are demonstrated. Finally, CdS based TFTs on flexible and transparent substrates with excellent stability and mobility of 10-18 cm2/V-s, threshold voltage of 1.6-4.8 V, and Ion/Ioff ratios of 107 are demonstrated. This

  7. Characterization of diamond thin films deposited by a CO{sub 2} laser-assisted combustion-flame method

    SciTech Connect

    McKindra, Travis; O'Keefe, Matthew J.; Xie Zhiqiang; Lu Yongfeng

    2010-06-15

    Diamond thin films were deposited by a CO{sub 2} laser-assisted O{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 4} combustion-flame process. The effect of the deposition parameters, in particular the laser wavelength and power, on the film surface morphology, microstructure and phases present was the primary focus of the work. The laser power was set at 100, 400 and 800 W while the wavelength was varied and set at 10.591 {mu}m in the untuned condition and set at 10.532 {mu}m to resonantly match the CH{sub 2}-wagging vibrational mode of the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} molecule when in the tuned condition. When the laser was coupled to the combustion flame during deposition the diamond film growth was enhanced as the lateral grain size increased from 1 {mu}m to greater than 5 {mu}m. The greatest increase in grain size occurred when the wavelength was in the tuned condition. Scanning transmission electron microscopy images from focused-ion beam cross-sectioned samples revealed a sub-layer of smaller grains less than 1 {mu}m in size near the substrate surface at the lower laser powers and untuned wavelength. X-ray diffraction results showed a more intense Diamond (111) peak as the laser power increased from 100 to 800 W for the films deposited with the tuned laser wavelength. Micro-Raman spectra showed a diamond peak nearly twice as intense from the films with the tuned laser wavelength.

  8. Growth of monocrystalline Cu(1 1 1) films on MgO(1 1 1) by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aweke, F.; Antoni, F.; Hulik, J.; Morvan, G.; Speisser, C.; Veis, P.; Le Normand, F.

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) films with a minimal thickness of 300 nm were grown on MgO(1 1 1) substrates in high vacuum by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at various temperatures to achieve a single crystal Cu film with flat terraces without grain boundaries. We investigated the effect of the substrate temperature, the pulse repetition rate, the deposition time and the laser fluence. A temperature threshold is observed above which the growth mode is changed from a uniform flat mode to a three dimensional mode. A combined process involving a germination step at moderate temperature followed by a growth step at higher temperature yields a 450 nm almost continuous film.

  9. MAPLE-deposited PFO films: influence of the laser fluence and repetition rate on the film emission and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricato, A. P.; Anni, M.; Cesaria, M.; Lattante, S.; Leggieri, G.; Leo, C.; Martino, M.; Perulli, A.; Resta, V.

    2015-06-01

    The Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique is emerging as an alternative route to the conventional methods for depositing organic materials, although the MAPLE-deposited films very often present high surface roughness and characteristic morphological features. Films of the blue-emitting polymer, poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)—PFO, have been deposited by MAPLE to investigate the influence of the laser fluence and repetition rate on both their topography and emission properties. The laser fluence has been changed from 150 up to 450 mJ/cm2, while laser repetition rates of 2 and 10 Hz have been considered. The interplay/relationship between the topography and the emission properties of the MAPLE-deposited films has been studied by confocal microscopy, photoluminescence spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. It has been found that under high irradiation (fluence of 450 mJ/cm2) conditions, the sample surface is characterized by bubbles presenting the intrinsic PFO blue emission. Instead, while improvements in the film morphology can be observed for lowered fluence and laser repetition rate, green emission becomes predominant in such conditions. Such result is very interesting to better understand the MAPLE ablation mechanism, which is discussed in this study.

  10. The Surface Chemistry of Metal Chalcogenide Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Nicholas Charles

    The surface chemistry of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals is explored through several interrelated analytical investigations. After a brief discussion of the nanocrystal history and applications, molecular orbital theory is used to describe the electronic properties of semiconductors, and how these materials behave on the nanoscale. Quantum confinement plays a major role in dictating the optical properties of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals, however surface states also have an equally significant contribution to the electronic properties of nanocrystals due to the high surface area to volume ratio of nanoscale semiconductors. Controlling surface chemistry is essential to functionalizing these materials for biological imaging and photovoltaic device applications. To better understand the surface chemistry of semiconducting nanocrystals, three competing surface chemistry models are presented: 1.) The TOPO model, 2.) the Non-stoichiometric model, and 3.) the Neutral Fragment model. Both the non-stoichiometric and neutral fragment models accurately describe the behavior of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals. These models rely on the covalent bond classification system, which divides ligands into three classes: 1.) X-type, 1-electron donating ligands that balance charge with excess metal at the nanocrystal surface, 2.) L-type, 2-electron donors that bind metal sites, and 3.) Z-type, 2-electron acceptors that bind chalcogenide sites. Each of these ligand classes is explored in detail to better understand the surface chemistry of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals. First, chloride-terminated, tri-n-butylphosphine (Bu 3P) bound CdSe nanocrystals were prepared by cleaving carboxylate ligands from CdSe nanocrystals with chlorotrimethylsilane in Bu3P solution. 1H and 31P{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the isolated nanocrystals allowed assignment of distinct signals from several free and bound species, including surface-bound Bu3P and [Bu3P-H]+[Cl]- ligands as well as a Bu

  11. Laser Surface Treatment of Stellite 6 Coating Deposited by HVOF on 316L Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoja-Razavi, Reza

    2016-07-01

    This research aimed to study the effects of laser glazing treatment on microstructure, hardness, and oxidation behavior of Stellite 6 coating deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. The as-sprayed Stellite 6 coating (ST-HVOF) was subjected to single-pass and multiple-pass laser treatments to achieve the optimum glazing parameters. Microstructural characterizations were performed by x-ray diffractometry and field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Two-step optimization showed that laser treatment at the power of 200 W with a scan rate of 4 mm/s causes a surface layer with a thickness of 208 ± 32 µm to be remelted, while the underlying layers retain the original ST-HVOF coating structure. The obtained sample (ST-Glazing) exhibited a highly dense and uniform structure with an extremely low porosity of ~0.3%, much lower than that of ST-HVOF coating (2.3%). The average microhardness of ST-Glazing was measured to be 519 Hv0.3 indicating a 17% decrease compared to ST-HVOF (625 Hv0.3) due to the residual stress relief and dendrite coarsening from submicron size to ~3.4 µm after laser treatment. The lowest oxidation mass gain was obtained for ST-Glazing by 2 mg/cm2 after 8 cycles at 900 °C indicating 52 and 84% improvement in oxidation resistance in comparison to ST-HVOF and bare 316L steel substrates, respectively.

  12. Laser Surface Treatment of Stellite 6 Coating Deposited by HVOF on 316L Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoja-Razavi, Reza

    2016-05-01

    This research aimed to study the effects of laser glazing treatment on microstructure, hardness, and oxidation behavior of Stellite 6 coating deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. The as-sprayed Stellite 6 coating (ST-HVOF) was subjected to single-pass and multiple-pass laser treatments to achieve the optimum glazing parameters. Microstructural characterizations were performed by x-ray diffractometry and field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Two-step optimization showed that laser treatment at the power of 200 W with a scan rate of 4 mm/s causes a surface layer with a thickness of 208 ± 32 µm to be remelted, while the underlying layers retain the original ST-HVOF coating structure. The obtained sample (ST-Glazing) exhibited a highly dense and uniform structure with an extremely low porosity of ~0.3%, much lower than that of ST-HVOF coating (2.3%). The average microhardness of ST-Glazing was measured to be 519 Hv0.3 indicating a 17% decrease compared to ST-HVOF (625 Hv0.3) due to the residual stress relief and dendrite coarsening from submicron size to ~3.4 µm after laser treatment. The lowest oxidation mass gain was obtained for ST-Glazing by 2 mg/cm2 after 8 cycles at 900 °C indicating 52 and 84% improvement in oxidation resistance in comparison to ST-HVOF and bare 316L steel substrates, respectively.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of chalcogenide glass for hollow Bragg fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Bradley F.; Harrington, James A.

    2009-06-01

    Low- and high-refractive-index chalcogenide glasses are studied for their potential use in the fabrication of one-dimensional hollow Bragg fibers. The low-index glasses are based on the GeSe-glass systems with indices varying from 2.0 to 2.5, while the high-index glasses are formed from the AgAsSe glasses with indices ranging from 2.8 to 3.8. High-purity elemental starting materials are distilled and the surface oxides removed prior to mixing in a rocking furnace. The refractive indices of the AgAsSe glasses, measured using a CO2 laser reflectometer, were near 3.10 for the compositions most compatible with the low-index Ge20Se80 glass (n=2.46). Spectral measurements show impurity absorption bands between 12 and 16 {mu}m. The loss at 10.6 {mu}m for the Ag25As40Se35 glass measured using CO2 laser calorimetry was 1.16x10{sup -3} cm{sup -1}.

  14. Magnetic and crystallographic properties of Co-Cr-(Ta,Pt)/Cr films deposited by excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, A.; Tanahashi, K.; Yahisa, Y.; Hosoe, Y.; Shiroishi, Y.

    1994-05-01

    The crystal structure and magnetic properties of Co-alloy films deposited by KrF excimer laser ablation were investigated. A pulsed laser beam with wavelength of 248 nm was focused onto the deposition targets which were fixed in the vacuum chamber. Cr underlayer and Co-alloy films were successively deposited at a rate of 0.012 nm/pulse. The film surface was microscopically smooth compared to the sputtered films. This may be due to the low shadowing effect during the laser deposition. The composition of the film was reproducibly controlled, though there was a slight difference between the composition of film and target material. The coercivities of Co-Cr-Pt/Cr films formed on the Si and Ni-P substrates at 250 °C were 130 and 220 Oe, which were about one-fifth of the coercivity of sputtered films. Crystallographic analyses showed that Cr underlayer had no crystal orientation, and Co-alloy film consisted of fine fcc-type crystal grains. Low coercivity of the laser-deposited film is probably due to the lack of hcp Co phase.

  15. Rapid deposition of biaxially-textured CeO 2 buffer layers on polycrystalline nickel alloy for superconducting tapes by ion assisted pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xuming; Winkler, Dag

    2000-07-01

    The long deposition time of sharply textured buffer layer was the main obstacle for the ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) process to go to large scale fabrication of superconducting tapes. This paper shows that this obstacle can be overcome. (002)-oriented, sharply-textured CeO 2 buffer layers with (111) phi-scan full width of half maximum (FWHM) of 10° were deposited by ion beam assisted pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on polycrystalline Hastelloy C in 10 min. The deposition rate was about 3 nm/s. CeO 2 film surface was smooth and free of cracks compared with film by inclined substrate deposition (ISD). The IBAD was carried out at small ion-to-atom ratio values, which resulted in CeO 2 (200) plane aligned along the incident plane of the ion beam. The Jc of Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7- δ (YBCO) film deposited on the buffer layer was 7.3×10 5 A/cm 2.

  16. Investigation of NbNx thin films and nanoparticles grown by pulsed laser deposition and thermal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan Farha, Ashraf

    Niobium nitride films (NbNx) were grown on Nb and Si (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), laser heating, and thermal diffusion methods. Niobium nitride films were deposited on Nb substrates using PLD with a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (lambda = 1064 nm, 40 ns pulse width, and 10 Hz repetition rate) at different laser fluences, different nitrogen background pressures and deposition temperatures. The effect of changing PLD parameters for films done by PLD was studied. The seen observations establish guidelines for adjusting the laser parameters to achieve the desired morphology and phase of the grown NbNx films. When the fabrication parameters are fixed, except for laser fluence, surface roughness, deposition rate, nitrogen content, and grain size increases with increasing laser fluence. Increasing nitrogen background pressure leads to change in the phase structure of the NbNx films from mixed -Nb 2N and cubic delta-NbN phases to single hexagonal beta- Nb 2N. A change in substrate temperature led to a pronounced change in the preferred orientation of the crystal structure, the phase transformation, surface roughness, and composition of the films. The structural, electronic, and nanomechanical properties of niobium nitride PLD deposited at different nitrogen pressures (26.7-66.7 Pa) on Si(100) were investigated. The NbNx, films exhibited a cubic delta-NbN with a strong (111) orientation. A correlation between surface morphology, electronic, and superconducting properties was found. The highly-textured delta-NbN films have a Tc up to 15.07 K. The film was deposited at a nitrogen background pressure of 66.7 Pa exhibited improved superconducting properties and showed higher hardness values as compared to films deposited at lower nitrogen pressures. NbN nanoclusters that were deposited on carbon coated Cu-grids using PLD at laser fluence of 8 J/cm2 were observed. Niobium nitride is prepared by heating of Nb sample in a reactive nitrogen atmosphere (133 Pa

  17. Nd:YVO4 laser direct ablation of indium tin oxide films deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Kwon, Sang Jik; Han, Jae-Hee; Cho, Eou Sik

    2013-09-01

    A Q-switched diode-pumped neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate (Nd:YVO4, lambda = 1064 nm) laser was applied to obtain the indium tin oxide (ITO) patterns on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by a direct etching method. After the ITO films were deposited on a soda-lime glass and PET substrate, laser ablations were carried out on the ITO films for various conditions and the laser ablated results on the ITO films were investigated and analyzed considering the effects of substrates on the laser etching. The laser ablated widths on ITO deposited on glass were found to be much narrower than those on ITO deposited on PET substrate, especially, at a higher scanning speed of laser beam such as 1000 mm/s and 2000 mm/s. As the thermal conductivity of glass substrate is about 7.5 times higher than that of PET, more thermal energy would be spread and transferred to lateral direction in the ITO film in case of PET substrate. PMID:24205645

  18. Pulsed laser deposited cobalt-doped ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Su, Xue-qiong; Lu, Yi; Chen, Jiang-bo

    2013-09-01

    To realize the room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), we prepared a series of Cobalt-doped ZnO thin films using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at deposition temperatures 500°C under oxygen pressure from 2.5×10-4 Pa to 15 Pa. To elucidate the physical origin of RTFM, Co 2p spectra of cobalt-doped ZnO thin films was measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The magnetic properties of films were measured by an alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM), and the electrical properties were detected by a Hall Effect instrument using the Van der Pauw method. XPS analysis shows that the Co2+ exists and Co clusters and elemental content change greatly in samples under various deposition oxygen pressures. Not only the valence state and elemental content but also the electrical and magnetic properties were changed. In the case of oxygen pressure 10 Pa, an improvement of saturation magnetic moment about one order of magnitude over other oxygen pressure experiments, and the film exhibits ferromagnetism with a curie temperature above room temperature. It was found that the value of carrier concentration in the Co-doped ZnO film under oxygen pressure 10Pa increases about one order of magnitude than the values of other samples under different oxygen pressure. Combining XPS with AGM measurements, we found that the ferromagnetic signals in cobalt-doped ZnO thin film deposited at 500 °C under oxygen pressure 10 Pa only appear with the detectable Co2+ spectra from incompletely oxidized Co metal or Co cluster. So oxygen pressure 10 Pa can be thought the best condition to obtain room-temperature dilute magnetic semiconductor about cobalt-doped ZnO thin films.

  19. Influence of pulse width and target density on pulsed laser deposition of thin YBaCuO film.

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, S.

    1999-01-20

    We have studied the effects of temporal pulse width and target density on the deposition of thin films of YBaCuO. A 248nm excimer laser and an 825nm Ti-sapphire laser were used to conduct the experiments with pulse widths of 27 ns, 16 ns, and 150 fs, and target densities of 80% and 90%. Scanning electron microscope photomicrographs and profilometer traces show a striking difference between nanosecond and femtosecond laser irradiation. Shortening the pulse width reduced particulate formation, provided stoichiometry, and improved the film properties. Decreasing the target density raised the ablation rate, produced thicker but nonuniform films, and reduced particulate formation.

  20. Power deposition in He from the volumetric He-3/n,p/H-3 reaction. [for direct nuclear pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.; Winters, P. A.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations are presented in this paper which show the amount of power that can be expected to be deposited in He-3 for typical direct nuclear-pumped lasers presently in use. The calculations were performed taking into consideration the cylindrical geometry of the system, the depletion of the thermal flux across the tube cross section, and the energy loss of the protons to the cell walls. If a laser efficiency of 1% is assumed, the results indicate a steady-state laser output of 12.5 kW from a volume of 152.6 cu cm or 82 W/cu cm can be achieved.