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Sample records for laser field time-dependent

  1. Energetics and dynamics of laser-assisted field evaporation: Time-dependent density functional theory simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silaeva, Elena P.; Uchida, Kazuki; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Watanabe, Kazuyuki

    2015-10-01

    High positive electrostatic (dc) field can break the bonds in molecules and strip away atoms from the solid surfaces. The dynamics of this field evaporation under laser pulse is studied for a H2 molecule and a Si4 cluster using time-dependent density functional theory combined with molecular dynamics. This allows us to monitor the position and charge state of the evaporated atom in real time. Our simulations demonstrate that the critical dc field for the evaporation is lower if the molecule/cluster is illuminated by a laser pulse. The behavior of the evaporation threshold as a function of laser intensity and dc field is in qualitative agreement with experiments and provides important insights into the mechanisms of laser-assisted field evaporation. Additionally, the laser-assisted field evaporation is found to be sensitive to the laser energy according to the photoabsorption spectra that demonstrate a pronounced redshift in the lower energy region at higher dc field values.

  2. Multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree approach for electron-nuclear correlation in strong laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jhala, Chirag; Lein, Manfred

    2010-06-15

    The multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree approach is applied to study the electron-nuclear correlation in the dynamics of molecules subject to strong external laser fields, using the example of a model hydrogen molecular ion. The ground state of the system is well described by as few as two single-particle functions per degree of freedom. A significantly larger but moderate number of configurations is required to predict laser-induced fragmentation probabilities and high-order harmonic generation spectra accurately, showing that the correlation between electronic and nuclear degree of freedom is strongly increased by the presence of the laser field.

  3. Correlated multielectron systems in strong laser fields: A multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach

    SciTech Connect

    Caillat, J.; Scrinzi, A.; Koch, O.; Kreuzer, W.

    2005-01-01

    The multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach for the description of correlated few-electron dynamics in the presence of strong laser fields is introduced and a comprehensive description of the method is given. Total ionization and electron spectra for the ground and first excited ionic channels are calculated for one-dimensional model systems with up to six active electrons. Strong correlation effects are found in the shape of photoelectron peaks and the dependence of ionization on molecule size.

  4. Time-dependent multiconfiguration self-consistent-field method based on the occupation-restricted multiple-active-space model for multielectron dynamics in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Kenichi L.

    2015-02-01

    The time-dependent multiconfiguration self-consistent-field method based on the occupation-restricted multiple-active-space model is proposed (TD-ORMAS) for multielectron dynamics in intense laser fields. Extending the previously proposed time-dependent complete-active-space self-consistent-field method [TD-CASSCF; Phys. Rev. A 88, 023402 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.023402], which divides the occupied orbitals into core and active orbitals, the TD-ORMAS method further subdivides the active orbitals into an arbitrary number of subgroups and poses the occupation restriction by giving the minimum and maximum number of electrons distributed in each subgroup. This enables highly flexible construction of the configuration-interaction (CI) space, allowing a large-active-space simulation of dynamics, e.g., the core excitation or ionization. The equations of motion for both CI coefficients and spatial orbitals are derived based on the time-dependent variational principle, and an efficient algorithm is proposed to solve for the orbital time derivatives. In-depth descriptions of the computational implementation are given in a readily programmable manner. The numerical application to the one-dimensional lithium hydride cluster models demonstrates that the high flexibility of the TD-ORMAS framework allows for the cost-effective simulations of multielectron dynamics by exploiting systematic series of approximations to the TD-CASSCF method.

  5. Numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for molecular hydrogen ion in linearly polarized laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetić, B.; Milošević, D. B.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of the interaction between intense laser field and one-electron molecule H2+ is investigated by solving three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation (3D TDSE) in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. It is assumed that the laser field is polarized along the internuclear axis. The wave function is expanded in finite series using B-spline functions and spherical harmonics in prolate spheroidal coordinates. The results for the high-order harmonic generation and above-threshold ionization are presented.

  6. Heating liquid dielectrics by time dependent fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalife, A.; Pathak, U.; Richert, R.

    2011-10-01

    Steady state and time-resolved dielectric relaxation experiments are performed at high fields on viscous glycerol and the effects of energy absorption from the electric field are studied. Time resolution is obtained by a sinusoidal field whose amplitude is switched from a low to a high level and by recording voltage and current traces with an oscilloscope during this transition. Based on their distinct time and frequency dependences, three sources of modifying the dynamics and dielectric loss via an increase in the effective temperature can be distinguished: electrode temperature, real sample temperature, and configurational temperatures of the modes that absorbed the energy. Isothermal conditions that are desired for focusing on the configurational temperature changes (as in dielectric hole burning and related techniques) are maintained only for very thin samples and for moderate power levels. For high frequencies, say ν > 1 MHz, changes of the real temperature will exceed the effects of configurational temperatures in the case of macroscopic samples. Regarding microwave chemistry, heating via cell phone use, and related situations in which materials are subject to fields involving frequencies beyond the MHz regime, we conclude that changes in the configurational (or fictive) temperatures remain negligible compared with the increase of the real temperature. This simplifies the assessment of how time dependent electric fields modify the properties of materials.

  7. Recent development of self-interaction-free time-dependent density-functional theory for nonperturbative treatment of atomic and molecular multiphoton processes in intense laser fields.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shih-I

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, we present a short account of some recent developments of self-interaction-free density-functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) for accurate and efficient treatment of the electronic structure, and time-dependent quantum dynamics of many-electron atomic and molecular systems. The conventional DFT calculations using approximate and explicit exchange-correlation energy functional contain spurious self-interaction energy and improper long-range asymptotic potential, preventing reliable treatment of the excited, resonance, and continuum states. We survey some recent developments of DFT/TDDFT with optimized effective potential (OEP) and self-interaction correction (SIC) for both atomic and molecular systems for overcoming some of the above mentioned difficulties. These DFT (TDDFT)/OEP-SIC approaches allow the use of orbital-independent single-particle local potential which is self-interaction free. In addition we discuss several numerical techniques recently developed for efficient and high-precision treatment of the self-interaction-free DFT/TDDFT equations. The usefulness of these procedures is illustrated by a few case studies of atomic, molecular, and condensed matter processes of current interests, including (a) autoionizing resonances, (b) relativistic OEP-SIC treatment of atomic structure (Z=2-106), (c) shell-filling electronic structure in quantum dots, (d) atomic and molecular processes in intense laser fields, including multiphoton ionization, and very-high-order harmonic generation, etc. For the time-dependent processes, an alternative Floquet formulation of TDDFT is introduced for time-independent treatment of multiphoton processes in intense periodic or quasiperiodic fields. We conclude this paper with some open questions and perspectives of TDDFT. PMID:16122293

  8. Simulation of Time-Dependent Energy Modulation by Wake Fields and its Impact on Gain in the VUV free Electron Laser of the TESLA Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, S.; Schlarb, H.

    2000-05-01

    For shorter bunches and narrower undulator gaps the interaction between the electrons in the bunch and the wake fields becomes so large that the FEL amplification is affected. For a typical vacuum chamber of an X-ray or VUV Free Electron Laser three major sources of wake fields exist: a resistance of the beam pipe, a change in the geometric aperture and the surface roughness of the beam pipe. The generated wake fields, which move along with the electrons, change the electron energy and momentum, depending on the electron longitudinal and transverse position. In particular, the accumulated energy modulation shifts the electrons away from the resonance condition. Based on an analytic model the energy loss by the wake fields has been incorporated into the time-dependent FEL simulation code GENESIS 1.3. For the parameters of the TESLA Test Facility the influence of the bunch length, beam pipe diameter and surface roughness has been studied. The results are presented in this paper.

  9. Stable and efficient momentum-space solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for one-dimensional atoms in strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvetsov-Shilovski, N. I.; Räsänen, E.

    2014-12-01

    One-dimensional model systems have a particular role in strong-field physics when gaining physical insight by computing data over a large range of parameters, or when performing numerous time propagations within, e.g., optimal control theory. Here we derive a scheme that removes a singularity in the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation in momentum space for a particle in the commonly used soft-core Coulomb potential. By using this scheme we develop two numerical approaches to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in momentum space. The first approach employs the expansion of the momentum-space wave function over the eigenstates of the field-free Hamiltonian, and it is shown to be more efficient for laser parameters usual in strong field physics. The second approach employs the Crank-Nicolson scheme or the method of lines for time-propagation. The both methods are readily applicable for large-scale numerical simulations in one-dimensional model systems.

  10. Stable and efficient momentum-space solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for one-dimensional atoms in strong laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shvetsov-Shilovski, N.I. Räsänen, E.

    2014-12-15

    One-dimensional model systems have a particular role in strong-field physics when gaining physical insight by computing data over a large range of parameters, or when performing numerous time propagations within, e.g., optimal control theory. Here we derive a scheme that removes a singularity in the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation in momentum space for a particle in the commonly used soft-core Coulomb potential. By using this scheme we develop two numerical approaches to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in momentum space. The first approach employs the expansion of the momentum-space wave function over the eigenstates of the field-free Hamiltonian, and it is shown to be more efficient for laser parameters usual in strong field physics. The second approach employs the Crank–Nicolson scheme or the method of lines for time-propagation. The both methods are readily applicable for large-scale numerical simulations in one-dimensional model systems.

  11. Wave function for time-dependent harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Qi; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2013-09-21

    The many-body wave function of a system of interacting particles confined by a time-dependent harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field is derived via the Feynman path-integral method. The wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The wave function reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function for the case of the time-independent harmonic confining potential. PMID:24070284

  12. Time-dependent numerical simulation of vertical cavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Thode, L.E.; Csanak, G.; So, L.L.; Kwan, T.J.T.; Campbell, M.

    1994-12-31

    To simulate vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), the authors are developing a three-dimensional, time-dependent field-gain model with absorption in bulk dielectric regions and gain in quantum well regions. Since the laser linewidth is narrow, the bulk absorption coefficient is assumed to be independent of frequency with a value determined by the material and the lattice temperature. In contrast, the frequency-dependent gain regions must be solved consistently in the time domain. Treatment of frequency-dependent media in a finite-difference time-domain code is computationally intensive. However, because the volume of the quantum well regions is small relative to the volume of the multilayer dielectric (MLD) mirror regions, the computational overhead is reasonable. A key issue is the calculation of the fields in the MLD mirror regions. Although computationally intensive, good agreement has been obtained between simulation results and matrix equation solutions for the reflection coefficient, transmission coefficient, and bandwidth of MLD mirrors. The authors discuss the development and testing of the two-dimensional field-gain model. This field-gain model will be integrated with a carrier transport model to form the self-consistent laser code, VCSEL.

  13. Brownian motion of electrons in time-dependent magnetic fields.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, G. J.; Williams, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of a weakly ionized plasma in slowly varying time-dependent magnetic fields is studied through an extension of Williamson's stochastic theory. In particular, attention is focused on the properties of electron diffusion in the plane perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field, when the field strength is large. It is shown that, in the strong field limit, the classical 1/B-squared dependence of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient is obtained for two models in which the field B(t) is monotonic in t and for two models in which B(t) possesses at least one turning point.

  14. Particle creation in a time-dependent electric field revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, Gaurang

    2009-02-15

    We adopt the general formalism for analyzing evolution of gaussian states of quantized fields in time-dependent backgrounds in the Schrodinger picture (presented in detail in Mahajan and Padmanabhan [G. Mahajan, T. Padmanabhan, Gen. Rel. Grav. 40 (2008) 661]) to study the example of a spatially uniform electric field background (in a time-dependent gauge) which is kept turned on for a finite duration of time. In particular, we study the time-dependent particle content, defined in terms of the concept of instantaneous eigenstates, and describe how it captures the time evolution of the quantized field modes. The actual particle creation process occurs over a relatively short interval in time, and the particle content saturates rather quickly. We also compare the power spectrum of the field modes, computed in the asymptotic limit, with the corresponding situation in a cosmological de Sitter background. Particle creation under the influence of a spiked electric field localized in time, as a particular limiting case of the above general model, is also considered.

  15. Particle creation in a time-dependent electric field revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Gaurang

    2009-02-01

    We adopt the general formalism for analyzing evolution of gaussian states of quantized fields in time-dependent backgrounds in the Schrodinger picture (presented in detail in Mahajan and Padmanabhan [G. Mahajan, T. Padmanabhan, Gen. Rel. Grav. 40 (2008) 661]) to study the example of a spatially uniform electric field background (in a time-dependent gauge) which is kept turned on for a finite duration of time. In particular, we study the time-dependent particle content, defined in terms of the concept of instantaneous eigenstates, and describe how it captures the time evolution of the quantized field modes. The actual particle creation process occurs over a relatively short interval in time, and the particle content saturates rather quickly. We also compare the power spectrum of the field modes, computed in the asymptotic limit, with the corresponding situation in a cosmological de Sitter background. Particle creation under the influence of a spiked electric field localized in time, as a particular limiting case of the above general model, is also considered.

  16. String pair production in a time-dependent gravitational field

    SciTech Connect

    Tolley, Andrew J.; Wesley, Daniel H.

    2005-12-15

    We study the pair creation of point particles and strings in a time-dependent, weak gravitational field. We find that, for massive string states, there are surprising and significant differences between the string and point-particle results. Central to our approach is the fact that a weakly curved spacetime can be represented by a coherent state of gravitons, and therefore we employ standard techniques in string perturbation theory. String and point-particle pairs are created through tree-level interactions between the background gravitons. In particular, we focus on the production of excited string states and perform explicit calculations of the production of a set of string states of arbitrary excitation level. The differences between the string and point-particle results may contain important lessons for the pair production of strings in the strong gravitational fields of interest in cosmology and black hole physics.

  17. Light pressure of time-dependent fields in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidler, A.; Schnabl, H.; Mulser, P.

    1985-01-01

    An expression of the light pressure Pi is derived for the case of a nearly monochromatic electromagnetic wave with arbitrarily time-dependent amplitude. Thereby Pi is defined as the time-averaged force density exerted on a plasma by the wave. The resulting equations are valid for both transverse and longitudinal waves. The light pressure turns out to consist of two components: the well-known gradient-type term and a new nonstationary solenoidal term. This is true for warm as well as cold plasmas. The importance of the new term for the generation of static magnetic fields is shown, and a model in which shear forces may result is given. Formulas for the nonstationary light pressure developed previously are discussed.

  18. Time-dependent intensity and phase measurements of ultrashort laser pulses as short as 10 fs

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, K.W.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Ladera, C.L.; Trebino, R.; Taft, G.; Rundquist, A.; Murnane, M.M.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Christov, I.P.

    1995-05-01

    Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) measures the time-dependent intensity and phase of an ultrashort laser pulse. Using FROG, we have tested theories for the operation of sub{minus}10 fs laser oscillators.

  19. High-Field Quantum Calculation Reveals Time-Dependent Negative Kerr Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béjot, P.; Cormier, E.; Hertz, E.; Lavorel, B.; Kasparian, J.; Wolf, J.-P.; Faucher, O.

    2013-01-01

    The exact quantum time-dependent optical response of hydrogen under strong-field near-infrared excitation is investigated and compared to the perturbative model widely used for describing the effective atomic polarization induced by intense laser fields. By solving the full 3D time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we exhibit a supplementary, quasi-instantaneous defocusing contribution missing in the weak-field model of polarization. We show that this effect is far from being negligible, in particular when closures of ionization channels occur and stems from the interaction of electrons with their parent ions. It provides an interpretation of the higher-order Kerr effect recently observed in various gases.

  20. High-field quantum calculation reveals time-dependent negative Kerr contribution.

    PubMed

    Béjot, P; Cormier, E; Hertz, E; Lavorel, B; Kasparian, J; Wolf, J-P; Faucher, O

    2013-01-25

    The exact quantum time-dependent optical response of hydrogen under strong-field near-infrared excitation is investigated and compared to the perturbative model widely used for describing the effective atomic polarization induced by intense laser fields. By solving the full 3D time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we exhibit a supplementary, quasi-instantaneous defocusing contribution missing in the weak-field model of polarization. We show that this effect is far from being negligible, in particular when closures of ionization channels occur and stems from the interaction of electrons with their parent ions. It provides an interpretation of the higher-order Kerr effect recently observed in various gases. PMID:25166165

  1. Pulsed-field-gradient measurements of time-dependent gas diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Cory, D. G.; Peled, S.; Tseng, C. H.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Pulsed-field-gradient NMR techniques are demonstrated for measurements of time-dependent gas diffusion. The standard PGSE technique and variants, applied to a free gas mixture of thermally polarized xenon and O2, are found to provide a reproducible measure of the xenon diffusion coefficient (5.71 x 10(-6) m2 s-1 for 1 atm of pure xenon), in excellent agreement with previous, non-NMR measurements. The utility of pulsed-field-gradient NMR techniques is demonstrated by the first measurement of time-dependent (i.e., restricted) gas diffusion inside a porous medium (a random pack of glass beads), with results that agree well with theory. Two modified NMR pulse sequences derived from the PGSE technique (named the Pulsed Gradient Echo, or PGE, and the Pulsed Gradient Multiple Spin Echo, or PGMSE) are also applied to measurements of time dependent diffusion of laser polarized xenon gas, with results in good agreement with previous measurements on thermally polarized gas. The PGMSE technique is found to be superior to the PGE method, and to standard PGSE techniques and variants, for efficiently measuring laser polarized noble gas diffusion over a wide range of diffusion times. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  2. Time-dependent quantum chemistry of laser driven many-electron molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen-Dang, Thanh-Tung; Couture-Bienvenue, Étienne; Viau-Trudel, Jérémy; Sainjon, Amaury

    2014-12-28

    A Time-Dependent Configuration Interaction approach using multiple Feshbach partitionings, corresponding to multiple ionization stages of a laser-driven molecule, has recently been proposed [T.-T. Nguyen-Dang and J. Viau-Trudel, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244102 (2013)]. To complete this development toward a fully ab-initio method for the calculation of time-dependent electronic wavefunctions of an N-electron molecule, we describe how tools of multiconfiguration quantum chemistry such as the management of the configuration expansion space using Graphical Unitary Group Approach concepts can be profitably adapted to the new context, that of time-resolved electronic dynamics, as opposed to stationary electronic structure. The method is applied to calculate the detailed, sub-cycle electronic dynamics of BeH{sub 2}, treated in a 3–21G bound-orbital basis augmented by a set of orthogonalized plane-waves representing continuum-type orbitals, including its ionization under an intense λ = 800 nm or λ = 80 nm continuous-wave laser field. The dynamics is strongly non-linear at the field-intensity considered (I ≃ 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}), featuring important ionization of an inner-shell electron and strong post-ionization bound-electron dynamics.

  3. Developments in deep brain stimulation using time dependent magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, L.J.; Nlebedim, I.C.; Jiles, D.C.

    2012-03-07

    The effect of head model complexity upon the strength of field in different brain regions for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been investigated. Experimental measurements were used to verify the validity of magnetic field calculations and induced electric field calculations for three 3D human head models of varying complexity. Results show the inability for simplified head models to accurately determine the site of high fields that lead to neuronal stimulation and highlight the necessity for realistic head modeling for TMS applications.

  4. Time-dependent meson melting in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Akbari, M.; Charmchi, F.; Davody, A.; Ebrahim, H.; Shahkarami, L.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of a probe D7-brane in an asymptotically anti-de Sitter-Vaidya background has been investigated in the presence of an external magnetic field. Holographically, this is dual to the dynamical meson melting in the N =2 super Yang-Mills theory. If the final temperature of the system is large enough, the probe D7-brane will dynamically cross the horizon (the black hole embedding). By turning on the external magnetic field and raising it sufficiently, the final embedding of the corresponding D7-brane changes to a Minkowski embedding. On the field theory side, this means that the mesons which melt due to the raise in the temperature will form bound states again by applying an external magnetic field. We also show that the evolution of the system to its final equilibrium state is postponed due to the presence of the magnetic field.

  5. Field quantization and squeezed states generation in resonators with time-dependent parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodonov, V. V.; Klimov, A. B.; Nikonov, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of electromagnetic field quantization is usually considered in textbooks under the assumption that the field occupies some empty box. The case when a nonuniform time-dependent dielectric medium is confined in some space region with time-dependent boundaries is studied. The basis of the subsequent consideration is the system of Maxwell's equations in linear passive time-dependent dielectric and magnetic medium without sources.

  6. Extended gyrokinetic field theory for time-dependent magnetic confinement fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Nunami, M.

    2014-01-15

    A gyrokinetic system of equations for turbulent toroidal plasmas in time-dependent axisymmetric background magnetic fields is derived from the variational principle. Besides governing equations for gyrocenter distribution functions and turbulent electromagnetic fields, the conditions which self-consistently determine the background magnetic fields varying on a transport time scale are obtained by using the Lagrangian, which includes the constraint on the background fields. Conservation laws for energy and toroidal angular momentum of the whole system in the time-dependent background magnetic fields are naturally derived by applying Noether's theorem. It is shown that the ensemble-averaged transport equations of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum given in the present work agree with the results from the conventional recursive formulation with the WKB representation except that collisional effects are disregarded here.

  7. On the effect of time-dependent inhomogeneous magnetic fields in electron-positron pair production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlfürst, Christian; Alkofer, Reinhard

    2016-05-01

    Electron-positron pair production in space- and time-dependent electromagnetic fields is investigated. Especially, the influence of a time-dependent, inhomogeneous magnetic field on the particle momenta and the total particle yield is analyzed for the first time. The role of the Lorentz invariant E2 -B2, including its sign and local values, in the pair creation process is emphasized.

  8. Second quantized scalar QED in homogeneous time-dependent electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    2014-12-15

    We formulate the second quantization of a charged scalar field in homogeneous, time-dependent electromagnetic fields, in which the Hamiltonian is an infinite system of decoupled, time-dependent oscillators for electric fields, but it is another infinite system of coupled, time-dependent oscillators for magnetic fields. We then employ the quantum invariant method to find various quantum states for the charged field. For time-dependent electric fields, a pair of quantum invariant operators for each oscillator with the given momentum plays the role of the time-dependent annihilation and the creation operators, constructs the exact quantum states, and gives the vacuum persistence amplitude as well as the pair-production rate. We also find the quantum invariants for the coupled oscillators for the charged field in time-dependent magnetic fields and advance a perturbation method when the magnetic fields change adiabatically. Finally, the quantum state and the pair production are discussed when a time-dependent electric field is present in parallel to the magnetic field.

  9. Time-dependent model for vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser

    SciTech Connect

    Thode, L.; Csanak, G.; Hotchkiss, R.; Snell, C.

    1995-03-01

    Two models have been developed to simulate a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The first model is a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of Maxwell`s equations, with frequency-independent bulk dielectric and absorption coefficients. These bulk coefficients depend upon the material, lattice temperature, and carrier concentration. This field model is coupled with a frequency-dependent gain model that describes the quantum well regions in the time domain. Treatment of frequency-dependent media in a finite-difference time-domain code is computationally intensive. On the other hand, because the volume of the active region is small relative to the volume of the distributed laser cavity, the computational overhead is reasonable. A semi-empirical transport model is used to describe the bulk transport, which drives the quantum well transport. In addition, the semi-empirical model provides a spatial distribution for the lattice temperature and carrier concentrations. The second model is a three-dimensional solution of Maxwell`s equations. The three-dimensional model can be used for cold-cavity calculations. The two-dimensional code generates the dielectric and absorption coefficients assuming azimuthal symmetry, providing the initial conditions for the three-dimensional calculation.

  10. Time-dependent interaction of pulsed CO 2 laser radiation with liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olfert, M.; Duley, W. W.

    2000-10-01

    Many industrial applications of high-power lasers involve the creation by vaporization of a keyhole in a solid target. This structure is unstable with respect to collapse and can be maintained only by achieving a balance between pressure terms from laser vaporization and those of surface tension and hydrostatics. In addition, liquid flow and plasma effects also modulate the laser beam intensity resulting in a complex feedback system in coupling laser radiation into the target. In this paper, we report data obtained on the time dependence of structures associated with laser drilling of an absorbing liquid. These data, obtained at low incident laser intensities in the absence of plasma effects, show the complex nature of the laser-keyhole interaction even in a two-phase system. Some results of experiments carried out in low gravity are also presented.

  11. Non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effect with the time-dependent gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali; Mirza, Behrouz

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect for time-dependent gauge fields. We prove that the non-Abelian AB phase shift related to time-dependent gauge fields, in which the electric and magnetic fields are written in the adjoint representation of SU (N) generators, vanishes up to the first order expansion of the phase factor. Therefore, the flux quantization in a superconductor ring does not appear in the time-dependent Abelian or non-Abelian AB effect.

  12. Theory of time-dependent intense-field collisional resonance fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiber, P. D.; Cooper, J.; Burnett, K.; Kunasz, C. V.; Raymer, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    The time-dependent theory of Courtens and Szoke (1977) is generalized using the approach of Burnett et al. (1982) to derive time-dependent spectral intensities of resonance fluorescence from atoms driven by a pulsed laser in the presence of collisions. These results are valid both for laser detunings inside and outside the usual impact region of the spectrum, including Zeeman degeneracy effects. This theory is applied to a simple but important example (J = 0 to J = 1) to obtain quantitative predictions for the observable scattered-light spectrum which can be directly compared with recent experiments.

  13. Time-dependent scalar fields in modified gravities in a stationary spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yi; Gu, Bao-Ming; Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Most no-hair theorems involve the assumption that the scalar field is independent of time. Recently in Graham and Jha (Phys. Rev. D90: 041501, 2014) the existence of time-dependent scalar hair outside a stationary black hole in general relativity was ruled out. We generalize this work to modified gravities and non-minimally coupled scalar field with the additional assumption that the spacetime is axisymmetric. It is shown that in higher-order gravity such as metric f( R) gravity the time-dependent scalar hair does not exist. In Palatini f( R) gravity and the non-minimally coupled case the time-dependent scalar hair may exist.

  14. Control of the frozen geometric quantum correlation by applying the time-dependent electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Mei; Xu, Jing-Bo; Yu, You-Hong

    2016-04-01

    We investigate how the time-dependent electromagnetic field affects the sudden transitions of the geometric quantum correlation for two qubits each coupled to its own dissipative environment, and two qubits uniformly coupled to a common dissipative environment, respectively. It is shown that the sudden transitions of the geometric quantum correlation in both cases can be controlled by making use of time-dependent electromagnetic field and, in addition, the frozen time during which the geometric quantum correlation remains constant can be lengthened.

  15. Atomic collisions in the presence of laser radiation - Time dependence and the asymptotic wave function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    A time-dependent, wave-packet description of atomic collisions in the presence of laser radiation is extracted from the more conventional time-independent, stationary-state description. This approach resolves certain difficulties of interpretation in the time-independent approach which arise in the case of asymptotic near resonance. In the two-state model investigated, the approach predicts the existence of three spherically scattered waves in this asymptotically near-resonant case.

  16. Evolution of Arbitrary States under Fock—Darwin Hamiltonian and a Time-Dependent Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Tao; Zhai, Zhi-Yuan; Pan, Xiao-Yin

    2012-01-01

    The method of path integral is employed to calculate the time evolution of the eigenstates of a charged particle under the Fock—Darwin (FD) Hamiltonian subjected to a time-dependent electric field in the plane of the system. An exact analytical expression is established for the evolution of the eigenstates. This result then provides a general solution to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  17. Simulating Time-Dependent Energy Transfer Between Crossed Laser Beams in an Expanding Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hittinger, J F; Dorr, M R; Berger, R L; Williams, E A

    2004-10-11

    A coupled mode system is derived to investigate a three-wave parametric instability leading to energy transfer between co-propagating laser beams crossing in a plasma flow. The model includes beams of finite width refracting in a prescribed transverse plasma flow with spatial and temporal gradients in velocity and density. The resulting paraxial light equations are discretized spatially with a Crank-Nicholson-type scheme, and these algebraic constraints are nonlinearly coupled with ordinary differential equations in time that describe the ion acoustic response. The entire nonlinear differential-algebraic system is solved using an adaptive, backward-differencing method coupled with Newton's method. A numerical study is conducted in two dimensions that compares the intensity gain of the fully time-dependent coupled mode system with the gain computed under the further assumption of a strongly-damped ion acoustic response. The results demonstrate a time-dependent gain suppression when the beam diameter is commensurate with the velocity gradient scale length. The gain suppression is shown to depend on time-dependent beam refraction and is interpreted as a time-dependent frequency shift.

  18. Charged Particle in a Time-dependent Electric Field: A White Noise Functional Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gravador, E. B.; Bornales, J. B.; Liwanag, M. J.

    2008-06-18

    The propagator for a charged particle in a time-dependent electric field is calculated following Hida and Streit's framework where the propagator is the T-transform of Feynman functional. However, we have to regard the potential V = -qE({tau})x{identical_to}{radical}((m/({Dirac_h}/2{pi}))){xi}x following C. C. Bernido and M. V. Carpio-Bernido's prescription of time-dependent potentials. The result agrees with the limiting form of Eqn. (16) of N. Morgenstern Horing, H. L. Cui, and G. Fiorenza, when the magnetic field is switched off, and Eqn. (17) of [3] when the electric field is constant in time.

  19. Development of a three-dimensional time-dependent flow field model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R. C.; Waldrop, W. R.; Pitts, F. H.; Shah, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time-dependent mathematical model to represent Mobile Bay was developed. Computer programs were developed which numerically solve the appropriate conservation equations for predicting bay and estuary flow fields. The model is useful for analyzing the dispersion of sea water into fresh water and the transport of sediment, and for relating field and physical model data.

  20. Spectral method for efficient computation of time-dependent phenomena in complex lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, O.; Makris, K. G.; Türeci, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Studying time-dependent behavior in lasers is analytically difficult due to the saturating nonlinearity inherent in the Maxwell-Bloch equations and numerically demanding because of the computational resources needed to discretize both time and space in conventional finite-difference time-domain approaches. We describe here an efficient spectral method to overcome these shortcomings in complex lasers of arbitrary shape, gain medium distribution, and pumping profile. We apply this approach to a quasidegenerate two-mode laser in different dynamical regimes and compare the results in the long-time limit to the steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT), which is also built on a spectral method but makes a more specific ansatz about the long-time dynamical evolution of the semiclassical laser equations. Analyzing a parameter regime outside the known domain of validity of the stationary inversion approximation, we find that for only a narrow regime of pump powers the inversion is not stationary, and that this, as pump power is further increased, triggers a synchronization transition upon which the inversion becomes stationary again. We provide a detailed analysis of mode synchronization (also known as cooperative frequency locking), revealing interesting dynamical features of such a laser system in the vicinity of the synchronization threshold.

  1. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals. PMID:27608987

  2. Time-dependent simulation of prebunched one and two-beam free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mirian, N. S.; Maraghechi, B.

    2014-04-15

    A numerical simulation in one-dimension is conducted to study the slippage effects on prebunched free electron laser. A technique for the simulation of time dependent free electron lasers (FEL) to model the slippage effects is introduced, and the slowly varying envelope approximation in both z and t is used to illustrate the temporal behaviour in the prebunched FEL. Slippage effect on prebunched two-beam FEL is compared with the one-beam modeling. The evaluation of the radiation pulse energy, thermal and phase distribution, and radiation pulse shape in one-beam and two-beam modeling is studied. It was shown that the performance is considerably undermined when the slippage time is comparable to the pulse duration. However, prebunching reduces the slippage. Prebunching also leads to the radiation pulse with a single smooth spike.

  3. On use of time-dependent microwave fields to increase an FEL oscillator efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    Various schemes of a high efficiency FEL oscillator with time-dependent accelerating (or decelerating) microwave field in interaction region are proposed. All the, schemes are based on standard accelerating structure and undulator technology. Feasibility of the proposed schemes is confirmed by results of numerical simulations. Realistic examples of FEL oscillators of infrared and visible wavelength ranges with efficiency about 20 % are presented.

  4. Exactly solvable model for nonlinear light-matter interaction in an arbitrary time-dependent field

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. M.; Lotti, A.; Teleki, A.; Kolesik, M.

    2011-12-15

    Exact analytic expressions are derived for the dipole moment and nonlinear current of a one-dimensional quantum particle subject to a short-range attractive potential and an arbitrary time-dependent electric field. An efficient algorithm for the current evaluation is described and a robust implementation suitable for numerical simulations is demonstrated.

  5. Wave function for dissipative harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Meng-Yun; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Li, Yu-Qi

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the many-body wave function of a dissipative system of interacting particles confined by a harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field. Applying the method of Yu and Sun (1994), it is found that the wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical damped driven equation of motion, plus an addition fluctuation term due to the Brownian motion. The wave function reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem (HPT) wave function in the absence of the dissipation. An example of application of the results derived is also given.

  6. Ultrafast strong-field photoelectron emission from biased metal surfaces: exact solution to time-dependent Schrödinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-driven ultrafast electron emission offers the possibility of manipulation and control of coherent electron motion in ultrashort spatiotemporal scales. Here, an analytical solution is constructed for the highly nonlinear electron emission from a dc biased metal surface illuminated by a single frequency laser, by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation exactly. The solution is valid for arbitrary combinations of dc electric field, laser electric field, laser frequency, metal work function and Fermi level. Various emission mechanisms, such as multiphoton absorption or emission, optical or dc field emission, are all included in this single formulation. The transition between different emission processes is analyzed in detail. The time-dependent emission current reveals that intense current modulation may be possible even with a low intensity laser, by merely increasing the applied dc bias. The results provide insights into the electron pulse generation and manipulation for many novel applications based on ultrafast laser-induced electron emission.

  7. Ultrafast strong-field photoelectron emission from biased metal surfaces: exact solution to time-dependent Schrödinger Equation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Laser-driven ultrafast electron emission offers the possibility of manipulation and control of coherent electron motion in ultrashort spatiotemporal scales. Here, an analytical solution is constructed for the highly nonlinear electron emission from a dc biased metal surface illuminated by a single frequency laser, by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation exactly. The solution is valid for arbitrary combinations of dc electric field, laser electric field, laser frequency, metal work function and Fermi level. Various emission mechanisms, such as multiphoton absorption or emission, optical or dc field emission, are all included in this single formulation. The transition between different emission processes is analyzed in detail. The time-dependent emission current reveals that intense current modulation may be possible even with a low intensity laser, by merely increasing the applied dc bias. The results provide insights into the electron pulse generation and manipulation for many novel applications based on ultrafast laser-induced electron emission. PMID:26818710

  8. Ultrafast strong-field photoelectron emission from biased metal surfaces: exact solution to time-dependent Schrödinger Equation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-driven ultrafast electron emission offers the possibility of manipulation and control of coherent electron motion in ultrashort spatiotemporal scales. Here, an analytical solution is constructed for the highly nonlinear electron emission from a dc biased metal surface illuminated by a single frequency laser, by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation exactly. The solution is valid for arbitrary combinations of dc electric field, laser electric field, laser frequency, metal work function and Fermi level. Various emission mechanisms, such as multiphoton absorption or emission, optical or dc field emission, are all included in this single formulation. The transition between different emission processes is analyzed in detail. The time-dependent emission current reveals that intense current modulation may be possible even with a low intensity laser, by merely increasing the applied dc bias. The results provide insights into the electron pulse generation and manipulation for many novel applications based on ultrafast laser-induced electron emission. PMID:26818710

  9. Landau levels of scalar QED in time-dependent magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    2014-05-15

    The Landau levels of scalar QED undergo continuous transitions under a homogeneous, time-dependent magnetic field. We analytically formulate the Klein–Gordon equation for a charged spinless scalar as a Cauchy initial value problem in the two-component first order formalism and then put forth a measure that classifies the quantum motions into the adiabatic change, the nonadiabatic change, and the sudden change. We find the exact quantum motion and calculate the pair-production rate when the magnetic field suddenly changes as a step function. -- Highlights: •We study the Landau levels of scalar QED in time-dependent magnetic fields. •Instantaneous Landau levels make continuous transitions but keep parity. •The Klein–Gordon equation is expressed in the two-component first order formalism. •A measure is advanced that characterizes the quantum motions into three categories. •A suddenly changing magnetic field produces pairs of charged scalars from vacuum.

  10. The development of the time dependence of the nuclear EMP electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, C

    2009-10-30

    The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) electric field calculated with the legacy code CHAP is compared with the field given by an integral solution of Maxwell's equations, also known as the Jefimenko equation, to aid our current understanding on the factors that affect the time dependence of the EMP. For a fair comparison the CHAP current density is used as a source in the Jefimenko equation. At first, the comparison is simplified by neglecting the conduction current and replacing the standard atmosphere with a constant density air slab. The simplicity of the resultant current density aids in determining the factors that affect the rise, peak and tail of the EMP electric field versus time. The three dimensional nature of the radiating source, i.e. sources off the line-of-sight, and the time dependence of the derivative of the current density with respect to time are found to play significant roles in shaping the EMP electric field time dependence. These results are found to hold even when the conduction current and the standard atmosphere are properly accounted for. Comparison of the CHAP electric field with the Jefimenko electric field offers a direct validation of the high-frequency/outgoing wave approximation.

  11. Lie algebraic approach to the time-dependent quantum general harmonic oscillator and the bi-dimensional charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V. G.; Sandoval-Santana, J. C.; Cardoso, J. L.; Kunold, A.

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the one-dimensional, time-dependent general quadratic Hamiltonian and the bi-dimensional charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields through the Lie algebraic approach. Such method consists in finding a set of generators that form a closed Lie algebra in terms of which it is possible to express a quantum Hamiltonian and therefore the evolution operator. The evolution operator is then the starting point to obtain the propagator as well as the explicit form of the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. First, the set of generators forming a closed Lie algebra is identified for the general quadratic Hamiltonian. This algebra is later extended to study the Hamiltonian of a charged particle in electromagnetic fields exploiting the similarities between the terms of these two Hamiltonians. These results are applied to the solution of five different examples: the linear potential which is used to introduce the Lie algebraic method, a radio frequency ion trap, a Kanai-Caldirola-like forced harmonic oscillator, a charged particle in a time dependent magnetic field, and a charged particle in constant magnetic field and oscillating electric field. In particular we present exact analytical expressions that are fitting for the study of a rotating quadrupole field ion trap and magneto-transport in two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures illuminated by microwave radiation. In these examples we show that this powerful method is suitable to treat quadratic Hamiltonians with time dependent coefficients quite efficiently yielding closed analytical expressions for the propagator and the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators.

  12. Unitarity Bounds and RG Flows in Time Dependent Quantum Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-04-05

    We generalize unitarity bounds on operator dimensions in conformal field theory to field theories with spacetime dependent couplings. Below the energy scale of spacetime variation of the couplings, their evolution can strongly affect the physics, effectively shifting the infrared operator scaling and unitarity bounds determined from correlation functions in the theory. We analyze this explicitly for large-N double-trace flows, and connect these to UV complete field theories. One motivating class of examples comes from our previous work on FRW holography, where this effect explains the range of flavors allowed in the dual, time dependent, field theory.

  13. Transverse electric and transverse magnetic pulsed-beam decomposition of time-dependent aperture fields.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Timor; Abuhasira, Dor; Dayan, David

    2012-06-01

    The present contribution is concerned with applying beam-type expansion to a planar aperture time-dependent (TD) electromagnetic field in which the propagating elements, the electromagnetic pulsed-beams, are a priori decomposed into transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) field polarizations. The propagating field is described as a discrete superposition of tilted, shifted, and delayed TE and TM electromagnetic pulsed-beam propagators over the frame spectral lattice. These waveobjects are evaluated by using TD plane-wave spectral representations. Explicit asymptotic expressions for electromagnetic isodiffracting pulsed-quadratic beam propagators are presented, as well as a numerical example. PMID:22673443

  14. Resolution-of-identity stochastic time-dependent configuration interaction for dissipative electron dynamics in strong fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkusch, Stefan; Tremblay, Jean Christophe

    2016-05-01

    In this contribution, we introduce a method for simulating dissipative, ultrafast many-electron dynamics in intense laser fields. The method is based on the norm-conserving stochastic unraveling of the dissipative Liouville-von Neumann equation in its Lindblad form. The N-electron wave functions sampling the density matrix are represented in the basis of singly excited configuration state functions. The interaction with an external laser field is treated variationally and the response of the electronic density is included to all orders in this basis. The coupling to an external environment is included via relaxation operators inducing transition between the configuration state functions. Single electron ionization is represented by irreversible transition operators from the ionizing states to an auxiliary continuum state. The method finds its efficiency in the representation of the operators in the interaction picture, where the resolution-of-identity is used to reduce the size of the Hamiltonian eigenstate basis. The zeroth-order eigenstates can be obtained either at the configuration interaction singles level or from a time-dependent density functional theory reference calculation. The latter offers an alternative to explicitly time-dependent density functional theory which has the advantage of remaining strictly valid for strong field excitations while improving the description of the correlation as compared to configuration interaction singles. The method is tested on a well-characterized toy system, the excitation of the low-lying charge transfer state in LiCN.

  15. Resolution-of-identity stochastic time-dependent configuration interaction for dissipative electron dynamics in strong fields.

    PubMed

    Klinkusch, Stefan; Tremblay, Jean Christophe

    2016-05-14

    In this contribution, we introduce a method for simulating dissipative, ultrafast many-electron dynamics in intense laser fields. The method is based on the norm-conserving stochastic unraveling of the dissipative Liouville-von Neumann equation in its Lindblad form. The N-electron wave functions sampling the density matrix are represented in the basis of singly excited configuration state functions. The interaction with an external laser field is treated variationally and the response of the electronic density is included to all orders in this basis. The coupling to an external environment is included via relaxation operators inducing transition between the configuration state functions. Single electron ionization is represented by irreversible transition operators from the ionizing states to an auxiliary continuum state. The method finds its efficiency in the representation of the operators in the interaction picture, where the resolution-of-identity is used to reduce the size of the Hamiltonian eigenstate basis. The zeroth-order eigenstates can be obtained either at the configuration interaction singles level or from a time-dependent density functional theory reference calculation. The latter offers an alternative to explicitly time-dependent density functional theory which has the advantage of remaining strictly valid for strong field excitations while improving the description of the correlation as compared to configuration interaction singles. The method is tested on a well-characterized toy system, the excitation of the low-lying charge transfer state in LiCN. PMID:27179472

  16. Modeling molecule-plasmon interactions using quantized radiation fields within time-dependent electronic structure theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nascimento, Daniel R.; DePrince, A. Eugene

    2015-12-07

    We present a combined cavity quantum electrodynamics/ab initio electronic structure approach for simulating plasmon-molecule interactions in the time domain. The simple Jaynes-Cummings-type model Hamiltonian typically utilized in such simulations is replaced with one in which the molecular component of the coupled system is treated in a fully ab initio way, resulting in a computationally efficient description of general plasmon-molecule interactions. Mutual polarization effects are easily incorporated within a standard ground-state Hartree-Fock computation, and time-dependent simulations carry the same formal computational scaling as real-time time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. As a proof of principle, we apply this generalized method to the emergence of a Fano-like resonance in coupled molecule-plasmon systems; this feature is quite sensitive to the nanoparticle-molecule separation and the orientation of the molecule relative to the polarization of the external electric field.

  17. Representation independent algorithms for molecular response calculations in time-dependent self-consistent field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretiak, Sergei; Isborn, Christine M.; Niklasson, Anders M. N.; Challacombe, Matt

    2009-02-01

    Four different numerical algorithms suitable for a linear scaling implementation of time-dependent Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham self-consistent field theories are examined. We compare the performance of modified Lanczos, Arooldi, Davidson, and Rayleigh quotient iterative procedures to solve the random-phase approximation (RPA) (non-Hermitian) and Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) (Hermitian) eigenvalue equations in the molecular orbital-free framework. Semiempirical Hamiltonian models are used to numerically benchmark algorithms for the computation of excited states of realistic molecular systems (conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes). Convergence behavior and stability are tested with respect to a numerical noise imposed to simulate linear scaling conditions. The results single out the most suitable procedures for linear scaling large-scale time-dependent perturbation theory calculations of electronic excitations.

  18. Representation independent algorithms for molecular response calculations in time-dependent self-consistent field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Tretiak, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Four different numerical algorithms suitable for a linear scaling implementation of time-dependent Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham self-consistent field theories are examined. We compare the performance of modified Lanczos, Arooldi, Davidson, and Rayleigh quotient iterative procedures to solve the random-phase approximation (RPA) (non-Hermitian) and Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) (Hermitian) eigenvalue equations in the molecular orbital-free framework. Semiempirical Hamiltonian models are used to numerically benchmark algorithms for the computation of excited states of realistic molecular systems (conjugated polymers and carbon nanotubes). Convergence behavior and stability are tested with respect to a numerical noise imposed to simulate linear scaling conditions. The results single out the most suitable procedures for linear scaling large-scale time-dependent perturbation theory calculations of electronic excitations.

  19. Modeling molecule-plasmon interactions using quantized radiation fields within time-dependent electronic structure theory.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Daniel R; DePrince, A Eugene

    2015-12-01

    We present a combined cavity quantum electrodynamics/ab initio electronic structure approach for simulating plasmon-molecule interactions in the time domain. The simple Jaynes-Cummings-type model Hamiltonian typically utilized in such simulations is replaced with one in which the molecular component of the coupled system is treated in a fully ab initio way, resulting in a computationally efficient description of general plasmon-molecule interactions. Mutual polarization effects are easily incorporated within a standard ground-state Hartree-Fock computation, and time-dependent simulations carry the same formal computational scaling as real-time time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. As a proof of principle, we apply this generalized method to the emergence of a Fano-like resonance in coupled molecule-plasmon systems; this feature is quite sensitive to the nanoparticle-molecule separation and the orientation of the molecule relative to the polarization of the external electric field. PMID:26646866

  20. The time-dependent quantum harmonic oscillator revisited: Applications to quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Vergel, Daniel Villasenor, Eduardo J.S.

    2009-06-15

    In this article, we formulate the study of the unitary time evolution of systems consisting of an infinite number of uncoupled time-dependent harmonic oscillators in mathematically rigorous terms. We base this analysis on the theory of a single one-dimensional time-dependent oscillator, for which we first summarize some basic results concerning the unitary implementability of the dynamics. This is done by employing techniques different from those used so far to derive the Feynman propagator. In particular, we calculate the transition amplitudes for the usual harmonic oscillator eigenstates and define suitable semiclassical states for some physically relevant models. We then explore the possible extension of this study to infinite dimensional dynamical systems. Specifically, we construct Schroedinger functional representations in terms of appropriate probability spaces, analyze the unitarity of the time evolution, and probe the existence of semiclassical states for a wide range of physical systems, particularly, the well-known Minkowskian free scalar fields and Gowdy cosmological models.

  1. Dynamics of runaway tails with time-dependent sub-Dreicer dc fields in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of runaway tails driven by sub-Dreicer time-dependent dc fields in a magnetized plasma are studied numerically using a quasi-linear code based on the Ritz-Galerkin method and finite elements. It is found that the runaway tail maintained a negative slope during the dc field increase. Depending on the values of the dc electric field at t = 0 and the electron gyrofrequency to the plasma frequency ratio the runaway tail became unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance or remained stable before the saturation of the dc field at some maximum value. The systems that remained stable during this stage became unstable to the anomalous Doppler or the Cerenkov resonances when the dc field was kept at the saturation level or decreased. Once the instability is triggered, the runaway tail is isotropized.

  2. Dynamics of runaway tails with time-dependent sub-Dreicer dc fields in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-10-01

    The evolution of runaway tails driven by sub-Dreicer time-dependent dc fields in a magnetized plasma are studied numerically using a quasilinear code based on the Ritz--Galerkin method and finite elements. It is found that the runaway tail maintained a negative slope during the dc field increase. Depending on the values of the dc electric field at t = 0 and the electron gyrofrequency to the plasma frequency ratio the runaway tail became unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance or remained stable before the saturation of the dc field at some maximum value. The systems that remained stable during this stage became unstable to the anomalous Doppler or the C-hacekerenkov resonances when the dc field was kept at the saturation level or decreased. Once the instability is triggered, the runaway tail is isotropized.

  3. Lifshitz black holes with a time-dependent scalar field in a Horndeski theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaete, Moisés Bravo; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2014-05-01

    In arbitrary dimensions, we consider a particular Horndeski action given by the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian with a cosmological constant term, while the source part is described by a real scalar field with its usual kinetic term together with a nonminimal kinetic coupling. In order to evade the no-hair theorem, we look for solutions where the radial component of the conserved current vanishes identically. Under this hypothesis, we prove that this model cannot accommodate Lifshitz solutions with a radial scalar field. This problem is finally circumvented by turning on the time dependence of the scalar field, and we obtain a Lifshitz black hole solution with a fixed value of the dynamical exponent z=1/3. The same metric is also shown to satisfy the field equations arising only from the variation of the matter source.

  4. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. I. Optical response calculations.

    PubMed

    Bjorgaard, J A; Kuzmenko, V; Velizhanin, K A; Tretiak, S

    2015-01-28

    We implement and examine three excited state solvent models in time-dependent self-consistent field methods using a consistent formalism which unambiguously shows their relationship. These are the linear response, state specific, and vertical excitation solvent models. Their effects on energies calculated with the equivalent of COSMO/CIS/AM1 are given for a set of test molecules with varying excited state charge transfer character. The resulting solvent effects are explained qualitatively using a dipole approximation. It is shown that the fundamental differences between these solvent models are reflected by the character of the calculated excitations. PMID:25637965

  5. Strong field ionization rates simulated with time-dependent configuration interaction and an absorbing potential

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Pascal; Sonk, Jason A.; Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    2014-05-07

    Ionization rates of molecules have been modeled with time-dependent configuration interaction simulations using atom centered basis sets and a complex absorbing potential. The simulations agree with accurate grid-based calculations for the ionization of hydrogen atom as a function of field strength and for charge resonance enhanced ionization of H{sub 2}{sup +} as the bond is elongated. Unlike grid-based methods, the present approach can be applied to simulate electron dynamics and ionization in multi-electron polyatomic molecules. Calculations on HCl{sup +} and HCO{sup +} demonstrate that these systems also show charge resonance enhanced ionization as the bonds are stretched.

  6. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. I. Optical response calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Kuzmenko, V.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-01-22

    In this study, we implement and examine three excited state solvent models in time-dependent self-consistent field methods using a consistent formalism which unambiguously shows their relationship. These are the linear response, state specific, and vertical excitation solvent models. Their effects on energies calculated with the equivalent of COSMO/CIS/AM1 are given for a set of test molecules with varying excited state charge transfer character. The resulting solvent effects are explained qualitatively using a dipole approximation. It is shown that the fundamental differences between these solvent models are reflected by the character of the calculated excitations.

  7. Kink ratchet induced by a time-dependent symmetric field potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús; Quintero, Niurka R.

    2016-07-01

    The ratchet effect of a sine-Gordon kink is investigated in the absence of any external force while the symmetry of the field potential at every time instant is maintained. The directed motion appears by a time shift of the sine-Gordon potential through a time-dependent additional phase. A symmetry analysis provides the necessary conditions for the existence of net motion. It is also shown analytically, by using a collective coordinate theory, that the novel physical mechanism responsible for the appearance of the ratchet effect is the coupled dynamics of the kink width with the background field. Biharmonic and dichotomic periodic variations of the additional phase of the sine-Gordon potential are considered. The predictions established by the symmetry analysis and the collective coordinate theory are verified by means of numerical simulations. Inversion and maximization of the resulting current as a function of the system parameters are investigated.

  8. Generation of accurate integral surfaces in time-dependent vector fields.

    PubMed

    Garth, Christoph; Krishnan, Han; Tricoche, Xavier; Bobach, Tom; Joy, Kenneth I

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel approach for the direct computation of integral surfaces in time-dependent vector fields. As opposed to previous work, which we analyze in detail, our approach is based on a separation of integral surface computation into two stages: surface approximation and generation of a graphical representation. This allows us to overcome several limitations of existing techniques. We first describe an algorithm for surface integration that approximates a series of time lines using iterative refinement and computes a skeleton of the integral surface. In a second step, we generate a well-conditioned triangulation. Our approach allows a highly accurate treatment of very large time-varying vector fields in an efficient, streaming fashion. We examine the properties of the presented methods on several example datasets and perform a numerical study of its correctness and accuracy. Finally, we investigate some visualization aspects of integral surfaces. PMID:18988990

  9. Studies of time dependence of fields in TEVATRON superconducting dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Hanft, R.W.; Brown, B.C.; Herrup, D.A.; Lamm, M.J.; McInturff, A.D.; Syphers, M.J.

    1988-08-22

    The time variation in the magnetic field of a model Tevatron dipole magnet at constant excitation current has been studied. Variations in symmetry allowed harmonic components over long time ranges show a log t behavior indicative of ''flux creep.'' Both short time range and long time range behavior depend in a detailed way on the excitation history. Similar effects are seen in the remnant fields present in full-scale Tevatron dipoles following current ramping. Both magnitudes and time dependences are observed to depend on details for the ramps, such as ramp rate, flattop duration, and number of ramps. In a few magnets, variations are also seen in symmetry unallowed harmonics. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Kink ratchet induced by a time-dependent symmetric field potential.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús; Quintero, Niurka R

    2016-07-01

    The ratchet effect of a sine-Gordon kink is investigated in the absence of any external force while the symmetry of the field potential at every time instant is maintained. The directed motion appears by a time shift of the sine-Gordon potential through a time-dependent additional phase. A symmetry analysis provides the necessary conditions for the existence of net motion. It is also shown analytically, by using a collective coordinate theory, that the novel physical mechanism responsible for the appearance of the ratchet effect is the coupled dynamics of the kink width with the background field. Biharmonic and dichotomic periodic variations of the additional phase of the sine-Gordon potential are considered. The predictions established by the symmetry analysis and the collective coordinate theory are verified by means of numerical simulations. Inversion and maximization of the resulting current as a function of the system parameters are investigated. PMID:27575137

  11. Time dependent response of equatorial ionospheric electric fields to magnetospheric disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Fejer, B.G.; Scherliess, L.

    1995-04-01

    The authors use extensive radar measurements of F region vertical plasma drifts and auroral electrojet indices to determine the storm time dependence of equatorial zonal electric fields. These disturbance drifts result from the prompt penetration of high latitude electric fields and from the dynamo action of storm time winds which produce the largest perturbations a few hours after the onset of magnetic activity. The signatures of the equatorial disturbance electric fields change significantly depending on the relative contributions of these two components. The prompt electric field responses, with lifetimes of about one hour, are in excellent agreement with results from global convection models. The electric fields generated by storm time winds have longer lifetimes, amplitudes proportional to the energy input into the high latitude ionosphere, and a daily variation which follows closely the disturbance dynamo pattern of Blanc and Richmond. The storm wind driven electric fields are responsible for the larger amplitudes and longer lifetimes of the drift perturbations following sudden decreases in convection compared to those associated with sudden convection enhancements. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Statistical Inference of Selection and Divergence from a Time-Dependent Poisson Random Field Model

    PubMed Central

    Amei, Amei; Sawyer, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    We apply a recently developed time-dependent Poisson random field model to aligned DNA sequences from two related biological species to estimate selection coefficients and divergence time. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate species divergence time and selection coefficients for each locus. The model assumes that the selective effects of non-synonymous mutations are normally distributed across genetic loci but constant within loci, and synonymous mutations are selectively neutral. In contrast with previous models, we do not assume that the individual species are at population equilibrium after divergence. Using a data set of 91 genes in two Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, we estimate the species divergence time (or 1.68 million years, assuming the haploid effective population size years) and a mean selection coefficient per generation . Although the average selection coefficient is positive, the magnitude of the selection is quite small. Results from numerical simulations are also presented as an accuracy check for the time-dependent model. PMID:22509300

  13. Field study of time-dependent selenium partitioning in soils using isotopically enriched stable selenite tracer.

    PubMed

    Di Tullo, Pamela; Pannier, Florence; Thiry, Yves; Le Hécho, Isabelle; Bueno, Maïté

    2016-08-15

    A better understanding of selenium fate in soils at both short and long time scales is mandatory to consolidate risk assessment models relevant for managing both contamination and soil fertilization issues. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate Se retention processes and their kinetics by monitoring time-dependent distribution/speciation changes of both ambient and freshly added Se, in the form of stable enriched selenite-77, over a 2-years field experiment. This study clearly illustrates the complex reactivity of selenium in soil considering three methodologically defined fractions (i.e. soluble, exchangeable, organic). Time-dependent redistribution of Se-77 within solid-phases having different reactivity could be described as a combination of chemical and diffusion controlled processes leading to its stronger retention. Experimental data and their kinetic modeling evidenced that transfer towards less labile bearing phases are controlled by slow processes limiting the overall sorption of Se in soils. These results were used to estimate time needed for (77)Se to reach the distribution of naturally present selenium which may extend up to several decades. Ambient Se speciation accounted for 60% to 100% of unidentified species as function of soil type whereas (77)Se(IV) remained the more abundant species after 2-years field experiment. Modeling Se in the long-term without taking account these slow sorption kinetics would thus result in underestimation of Se retention. When using models based on Kd distribution coefficient, they should be at least reliant on ambient Se which is supposed to be at equilibrium. PMID:27100008

  14. Full-field sensitivity and its time-dependence for the STIS CCD and MAMAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Proffitt, Charles

    2013-07-01

    The three STIS detectors - CCD, NUV-MAMA, FUV-MAMA - are subject to temperature- and time-dependent sensitivity changes. These temporal sensitivity variations are cal- ibrated as part of routine calibration monitoring programs, and corrected for in the standard CALSTIS pipeline. In order to determine whether the correction algorithms, developed based on spectroscopic observations prior to the 2004 failure of STIS, are adequate for pre- and post-SM4 STIS imaging data, we examine the photometry of stan- dard stellar fields (NGC5139 for the CCD, NGC6681 for the MAMAs) obtained between 1997 and 2012 as part of the routine full-field sensitivity calibration programs. For the CCD, we include a correction for CTE effects. We find statistically significant residual temporal variations in the full-field sensitivity of 0.5 mmag/year, 0.04 mmag/year, and 0.54 mmag/year for the CCD, NUV-MAMA, and FUV-MAMA respectively. However, these residual trends are small: they do not incur flux changes exceeding 1% over a 15 year time period.

  15. Controlling surface plasmon polaritons by a static and/or time-dependent external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmiak, V.; Eyderman, S.; Vanwolleghem, M.

    2012-07-01

    We have demonstrated numerically by using of Fourier modal method (FMM) that the interface between a metal and a uniformly magnetized two-dimensional photonic crystal fabricated from a transparent dielectric magneto-optical (MO) material possesses a one-way frequency range in which a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) is allowed to propagate only in one direction. The time-reversal symmetry breaking is implied by the MO properties of the photonic crystal material, namely, bismuth iron garnet (BIG), which may be magnetically saturated by fields of the order of tens of milli tesla. The results obtained by FMM have been validated by a theoretical model and a standard plane-wave method that yield separately a nonreciprocal dispersion relation for the SPP and the band structure of the two-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystal (2D MOPhC), respectively. These spectra represent the key characteristics assuring the functionality of the one-way waveguide associated with the both underlying mechanisms, namely, time-reversal symmetry breaking and a suppression of disorder-induced backscattering. By using a generalized finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, which allows studying the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves through media with a tensor MO permittivity, we studied transport properties of the one-way waveguide. We examined the influence of specific types of boundary conditions on one-way functionality in the presence of a static external magnetic field and have shown that the SPP can be dynamically controlled by applying a time-dependent magnetic field. By evaluating the Fourier transform of the energy density, we have analyzed the behavior of the field patterns observed in the waveguide in the case of ac magnetic field, and have interpreted new and interesting features associated with the redistribution of the EM field that may offer new mechanisms for dynamical control of SPP flow.

  16. Domain-wall motion in ferromagnetic nanowires driven by arbitrary time-dependent fields: an exact result.

    PubMed

    Goussev, Arseni; Robbins, J M; Slastikov, Valeriy

    2010-04-01

    We address the dynamics of magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires under the influence of external time-dependent magnetic fields. We report a new exact spatiotemporal solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the case of soft ferromagnetic wires and nanostructures with uniaxial anisotropy. The solution holds for applied fields with arbitrary strength and time dependence. We further extend this solution to applied fields slowly varying in space and to multiple domain walls. PMID:20481956

  17. Entanglement in a time-dependent coupled XY spin chain in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Sadiek, Gehad; Alkurtass, Bedoor; Aldossary, Omar

    2010-11-15

    We consider an infinite one-dimensional anisotropic XY spin chain with a nearest-neighbor time-dependent Heisenberg coupling J(t) between the spins in presence of a time-dependent magnetic field h(t). We discuss a general solution for the system and present an exact solution for particular choice of J and h of practical interest. We investigate the dynamics of entanglement for different degrees of anisotropy of the system and at both zero and finite temperatures. We find that the time evolution of entanglement in the system shows nonergodic and critical behavior at zero and finite temperatures and different degrees of anisotropy. The asymptotic behavior of entanglement at the infinite time limit at zero temperature and constant J and h depends only the parameter {lambda}=J/h rather than the individual values of J and h for all degrees of anisotropy but changes for nonzero temperature. Furthermore, the asymptotic behavior is very sensitive to the initial values of J and h and for particular choices we may create finite asymptotic entanglement regardless of the final values of J and h. The persistence of quantum effects in the system as it evolves and as the temperature is raised is studied by monitoring the entanglement. We find that the quantum effects dominate within certain regions of the kT-{lambda} space that vary significantly depending on the degree of the anisotropy of the system. Particularly, the quantum effects in the Ising model case persist in the vicinity of both its critical phase transition point and zero temperature as it evolves in time. Moreover, the interplay between the different system parameters to tune and control the entanglement evolution is explored.

  18. Entanglement in a time-dependent coupled XY spin chain in an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiek, Gehad; Alkurtass, Bedoor; Aldossary, Omar

    2010-11-01

    We consider an infinite one-dimensional anisotropic XY spin chain with a nearest-neighbor time-dependent Heisenberg coupling J(t) between the spins in presence of a time-dependent magnetic field h(t). We discuss a general solution for the system and present an exact solution for particular choice of J and h of practical interest. We investigate the dynamics of entanglement for different degrees of anisotropy of the system and at both zero and finite temperatures. We find that the time evolution of entanglement in the system shows nonergodic and critical behavior at zero and finite temperatures and different degrees of anisotropy. The asymptotic behavior of entanglement at the infinite time limit at zero temperature and constant J and h depends only the parameter λ=J/h rather than the individual values of J and h for all degrees of anisotropy but changes for nonzero temperature. Furthermore, the asymptotic behavior is very sensitive to the initial values of J and h and for particular choices we may create finite asymptotic entanglement regardless of the final values of J and h. The persistence of quantum effects in the system as it evolves and as the temperature is raised is studied by monitoring the entanglement. We find that the quantum effects dominate within certain regions of the kT-λ space that vary significantly depending on the degree of the anisotropy of the system. Particularly, the quantum effects in the Ising model case persist in the vicinity of both its critical phase transition point and zero temperature as it evolves in time. Moreover, the interplay between the different system parameters to tune and control the entanglement evolution is explored.

  19. Time-dependent renormalized-natural-orbital theory applied to laser-driven H2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanusch, A.; Rapp, J.; Brics, M.; Bauer, D.

    2016-04-01

    Recently introduced time-dependent renormalized-natural-orbital theory (TDRNOT) is extended towards a multicomponent approach in order to describe H2 + beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Two kinds of natural orbitals, describing the electronic and the nuclear degrees of freedom are introduced, and the exact equations of motion for them are derived. The theory is benchmarked by comparing numerically exact results of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for an H2 + model system with the corresponding TDRNOT predictions. Ground-state properties, linear-response spectra, fragmentation, and high-order harmonic generation are investigated.

  20. Time-dependent flow fields around the spherical colonial alga Volvox carteri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumley, Douglas; Polin, Marco; Morez, Constant; Goldstein, Raymond; Pedley, Timothy

    2011-11-01

    Volvox carteri is a spherical colonial alga, consisting of thousands of biflagellate cells. The somatic cells embedded on the surface of the colony beat their flagella approximately towards the south pole, producing a net fluid motion. Using high-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV) we have been able to accurately analyse the time-dependent flow fields around such colonies. The somatic cells on the colony surface may beat their flagella in a perfectly synchronised fashion, or may exhibit behaviour in which the coordination wanders periodically between forward and backward propagating metachronal waves. We analyse the dependence of this synchronisation on fundamental parameters in the system such as colony radius, characterise the speed and wavelength of metachronal waves propagating on the surface, and investigate the extent to which hydrodynamic interactions are responsible for the exhibited behaviour. The time-averaged flow fields agree with previous experiments involving freely swimming colonies (Phys. Rev. Lett. 105:168101, 2010) and Blake's squirmer model (J. Fluid Mech. 46, 199-208, 1971b).

  1. Measurements of the time dependent velocity field surrounding a model propeller in uniform water flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaurock, Joerg; Lammers, Gerd

    1987-06-01

    As part of a research program, the flow field around an operating ship propeller was investigated in a water tunnel, using laser Doppler velocimetry. The 3-D velocity field was measured in three planes at the suction side and four planes on the pressure side of the propeller at the design thrust coefficient of K sub T = 0.185. In one of the planes in the propeller's slipstream, the measurements were repeated at thrust coefficients of K sub T = 0.12 and 0.25. The volocity profiles measured in the propeller's slipstream are compared with the induced velocities derived from design calculations, and occurring deviations are discussed. Furthermore, the instationary flow field permits study of the tip vortices at different distances behind the propeller. The measurements yield a quantitative description of the vortices, and the influence of propeller load at the blade tips on geometry and intensity of the tip vortices can be seen.

  2. Time dependency of the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of metallic alloys subjected to femtosecond laser irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizi-bandoki, P.; Valette, S.; Audouard, E.; Benayoun, S.

    2013-05-01

    Surfaces of metallic alloys were laser-processed with femtosecond laser pulses of 800 nm, with different power densities. The effect of time on the wettability of these surfaces was investigated. A multi-scale roughness made of undulations was created after the laser processing. This specific surface topography allowed the occurrence of a Wenzel's state. This state clearly explains the high hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity observed respectively one day after laser treatment and several days later. The change from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity occurred over time and is due to surface chemistry modifications. The creation of new hydrophobic functional groups on aluminum alloy surface, for example, was proposed to be responsible for the hydrophobic behavior observed on these surfaces.

  3. Pulse- and time-dependent observation of UV-laser-induced structures on polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesting, Wolfgang; Knittel, Dierk; Bahners, Thomas; Schollmeyer, Eckhard

    1992-01-01

    Irradiation of highly absorbing polymers with a pulsed excimer laser can change the surface topography under certain conditions. Fibres made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polyamide show a characteristic roll-like morphology after treatment with 193 or 248 nm laser irradiation, which promises interesting applications in industrial processing of textile fibres. For a systematic study of the influences of the various parameters monofilaments made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and poly(propylene) were irradiated in place in a microscope. This allowed the observation of the evolution of the structure shot by shot. Quantitative data were taken by use of an image analysing system. The study was done with various laser fluences, wavelengths and in dependence on mechanical stress (draw) on the sample. With increasing number of shots the morphology gets more coarse due to a sort of "combining" of the rolls showing a logarithmic dependence of the mean roll-distance on the number of pulses applied. Characteristically, the fibre decomposes into ellipsoidal pieces after a sufficient number of shots. The polyolefinic material cannot be modified directly with 193 or 248 nm laser radiation due to the low absorption coefficient for these wavelenghts. By using a 157 nm F 2 laser certain surface modifications were observed on fibres and films. The structures were similar to the effects previously found on poly(ethylene terephthalate).

  4. Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field singles method for many-electron dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Miyagi, Haruhide; Bojer Madsen, Lars

    2014-04-28

    The time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field singles (TD-RASSCF-S) method is presented for investigating TD many-electron dynamics in atoms and molecules. Adopting the SCF notion from the muticonfigurational TD Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method and the RAS scheme (single-orbital excitation concept) from the TD configuration-interaction singles (TDCIS) method, the TD-RASSCF-S method can be regarded as a hybrid of them. We prove that, for closed-shell N{sub e}-electron systems, the TD-RASSCF-S wave function can be fully converged using only N{sub e}/2 + 1 ⩽ M ⩽ N{sub e} spatial orbitals. Importantly, based on the TD variational principle, the converged TD-RASSCF-S wave function with M = N{sub e} is more accurate than the TDCIS wave function. The accuracy of the TD-RASSCF-S approach over the TDCIS is illustrated by the calculation of high-order harmonic generation spectra for one-dimensional models of atomic helium, beryllium, and carbon in an intense laser pulse. The electronic dynamics during the process is investigated by analyzing the behavior of electron density and orbitals. The TD-RASSCF-S method is accurate, numerically tractable, and applicable for large systems beyond the capability of the MCTDHF method.

  5. Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in time-dependent fields

    SciTech Connect

    Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-09-28

    The quantum Jarzynski equality is an important theorem of modern quantum thermodynamics. We show that the Jarzynski equality readily generalizes to relativistic quantum mechanics described by the Dirac equation. After establishing the conceptual framework we solve a pedagogical, yet experimentally relevant, system analytically. As a main result we obtain the exact quantum work distributions for charged particles traveling through a time-dependent vector potential evolving under Schrödinger as well as under Dirac dynamics, and for which the Jarzynski equality is verified. Thus, special emphasis is put on the conceptual and technical subtleties arising from relativistic quantum mechanics.

  6. Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in time-dependent fields.

    PubMed

    Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-09-01

    The quantum Jarzynski equality is an important theorem of modern quantum thermodynamics. We show that the Jarzynski equality readily generalizes to relativistic quantum mechanics described by the Dirac equation. After establishing the conceptual framework we solve a pedagogical, yet experimentally relevant, system analytically. As a main result we obtain the exact quantum work distributions for charged particles traveling through a time-dependent vector potential evolving under Schrödinger as well as under Dirac dynamics, and for which the Jarzynski equality is verified. Special emphasis is put on the conceptual and technical subtleties arising from relativistic quantum mechanics. PMID:26465456

  7. Laser-induced electron dynamics including photoionization: A heuristic model within time-dependent configuration interaction theory.

    PubMed

    Klinkusch, Stefan; Saalfrank, Peter; Klamroth, Tillmann

    2009-09-21

    We report simulations of laser-pulse driven many-electron dynamics by means of a simple, heuristic extension of the time-dependent configuration interaction singles (TD-CIS) approach. The extension allows for the treatment of ionizing states as nonstationary states with a finite, energy-dependent lifetime to account for above-threshold ionization losses in laser-driven many-electron dynamics. The extended TD-CIS method is applied to the following specific examples: (i) state-to-state transitions in the LiCN molecule which correspond to intramolecular charge transfer, (ii) creation of electronic wave packets in LiCN including wave packet analysis by pump-probe spectroscopy, and, finally, (iii) the effect of ionization on the dynamic polarizability of H(2) when calculated nonperturbatively by TD-CIS. PMID:19778110

  8. Inferring generalized time-dependent complex Ginzburg-Landau equations from modulus and gauge-field information

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Rotha P.; Paganin, David M.; Morgan, Michael J.

    2008-04-01

    We develop a means to 'measure' the generalized 2+1-dimensional time-dependent complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, given both the wave-function modulus and gauge-field information over a series of five planes that are closely spaced in time. The methodology is tested using simulated data for a thin-film high-temperature superconductor in the Meissner state.

  9. Effect of the time-dependent coupling on a superconducting qubit-field system under decoherence: Entanglement and Wehrl entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Khalek, S.; Berrada, K.; Eleuch, H.

    2015-10-15

    The dynamics of a superconducting (SC) qubit interacting with a field under decoherence with and without time-dependent coupling effect is analyzed. Quantum features like the collapse–revivals for the dynamics of population inversion, sudden birth and sudden death of entanglement, and statistical properties are investigated under the phase damping effect. Analytic results for certain parametric conditions are obtained. We analyze the influence of decoherence on the negativity and Wehrl entropy for different values of the physical parameters. We also explore an interesting relation between the SC-field entanglement and Wehrl entropy behavior during the time evolution. We show that the amount of SC-field entanglement can be enhanced as the field tends to be more classical. The studied model of SC-field system with the time-dependent coupling has high practical importance due to their experimental accessibility which may open new perspectives in different tasks of quantum formation processing.

  10. Dielectrics in a time-dependent electric field: A real-time approach based on density-polarization functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüning, M.; Sangalli, D.; Attaccalite, C.

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of a (time-dependent) macroscopic electric field the electron dynamics of dielectrics cannot be described by the time-dependent density only. We present a real-time formalism that has the density and the macroscopic polarization P as key quantities. We show that a simple local function of P already captures long-range correlation in linear and nonlinear optical response functions. Specifically, after detailing the numerical implementation, we examine the optical absorption, the second- and third-harmonic generation of bulk Si, GaAs, AlAs, and CdTe, at different levels of approximation. We highlight links with ultranonlocal exchange-correlation functional approximations proposed within a linear response time-dependent density functional theory framework.

  11. Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in time-dependent fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    The quantum Jarzynski equality is an important theorem of modern quantum thermodynamics. We show that the Jarzynski equality readily generalizes to relativistic quantum mechanics described by the Dirac equation. After establishing the conceptual framework we solve a pedagogical, yet experimentally relevant, system analytically. As a main result we obtain the exact quantum work distributions for charged particles traveling through a time-dependent vector potential evolving under Schrödinger as well as under Dirac dynamics, and for which the Jarzynski equality is verified. Special emphasis is put on the conceptual and technical subtleties arising from relativistic quantum mechanics. SD acknowledges financial support by the U.S. Department of Energy through a LANL Director's Funded Fellowship.

  12. A semi-classical approach for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianxiong; Thumm, Uwe

    2016-05-01

    During the IR-streaked XUV photoemission from nanoparticles, the net IR electric field varies over the spatial extension of the target, an effect that for metallic particles is further enhanced by strong induced plasmonic polarization. This spatial dependence prevents the convenient use of ``Volkov states'' [solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a free electron in a spatially homogeneous (cw) electromagnetic field] as approximate final states in quantum-mechanical photoemission calculations. To obtain the wave function of a free electron in a spatially inhomogeneous electromagnetic field, we propose a semi-classical approach based on time-dependent WKB theory. Generalizing ordinary Volkov states, this method provides a simple expression for modeling the final photoelectron state. We employ such generalized Volkov states to calculate the streaked photoelectron spectra from gold nanospheres and assess their accurary. Supported by the NSD-EPSCoR program, NSF, and the USDoE.

  13. Fock quantization of a scalar field with time dependent mass on the three-sphere: Unitarity and uniqueness

    SciTech Connect

    Cortez, Jeronimo; Mena Marugan, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, Jose M.

    2010-02-15

    We study the Fock description of a quantum free field on the three-sphere with a mass that depends explicitly on time, also interpretable as an explicitly time dependent quadratic potential. We show that, under quite mild restrictions on the time dependence of the mass, the specific Fock representation of the canonical commutation relations which is naturally associated with a massless free field provides a unitary dynamics even when the time varying mass is present. Moreover, we demonstrate that this Fock representation is the only acceptable one, up to unitary equivalence, if the vacuum has to be SO(4)-invariant (i.e., invariant under the symmetries of the field equation) and the dynamics is required to be unitary. In particular, the analysis and uniqueness of the quantization can be applied to the treatment of cosmological perturbations around Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes with the spatial topology of the three-sphere, like e.g. for gravitational waves (tensor perturbations). In addition, we analyze the extension of our results to free fields with a time dependent mass defined on other compact spatial manifolds. We prove the uniqueness of the Fock representation in the case of a two-sphere as well, and discuss the case of a three-torus.

  14. Asymptotic expansion of pair production probability in a time-dependent electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    We study particle creation in a single pulse of an electric field in scalar quantum electrodynamics. We investigate the parameter condition for the case where the dynamical pair creation and Schwinger mechanism respectively dominate. Then, an asymptotic expansion for the particle distribution in terms of the time interval of the applied electric field is derived. We compare our result with particle creation in a constant electric field with a finite-time interval. These results coincide in an extremely strong field, however they differ in general field strength. We interpret the reason of this difference as a nonperturbative effect of high-frequency photons in external electric fields. Moreover, we find that the next-to-leading-order term in our asymptotic expansion coincides with the derivative expansion of the effective action.

  15. Exact Green's function renormalization approach to spectral properties of open quantum systems driven by harmonically time-dependent fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrachea, Liliana

    2007-01-01

    We present an efficient method and a fast algorithm to exactly calculate spectral functions and one-body observables of open quantum systems described by lattice Hamiltonians with harmonically time-dependent terms and without many-body interactions. The theoretical treatment is based in Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism. We illustrate the implementation of the technique in a paradigmatic model of a quantum pump driven by local fields oscillating in time with one and two harmonic components.

  16. Destabilizing effect of time-dependent oblique magnetic field on magnetic fluids streaming in porous media.

    PubMed

    El-Dib, Yusry O; Ghaly, Ahmed Y

    2004-01-01

    The present work studies Kelvin-Helmholtz waves propagating between two magnetic fluids. The system is composed of two semi-infinite magnetic fluids streaming throughout porous media. The system is influenced by an oblique magnetic field. The solution of the linearized equations of motion under the boundary conditions leads to deriving the Mathieu equation governing the interfacial displacement and having complex coefficients. The stability criteria are discussed theoretically and numerically, from which stability diagrams are obtained. Regions of stability and instability are identified for the magnetic fields versus the wavenumber. It is found that the increase of the fluid density ratio, the fluid velocity ratio, the upper viscosity, and the lower porous permeability play a stabilizing role in the stability behavior in the presence of an oscillating vertical magnetic field or in the presence of an oscillating tangential magnetic field. The increase of the fluid viscosity plays a stabilizing role and can be used to retard the destabilizing influence for the vertical magnetic field. Dual roles are observed for the fluid velocity in the stability criteria. It is found that the field frequency plays against the constant part for the magnetic field. PMID:14651916

  17. Time-dependent Suppression of Oscillatory Power in Evolving Solar Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Prasad, S.; Jess, D. B.; Jain, R.; Keys, P. H.

    2016-05-01

    Oscillation amplitudes are generally smaller within magnetically active regions like sunspots and plage when compared to their surroundings. Such magnetic features, when viewed in spatially resolved power maps, appear as regions of suppressed power due to reductions in the oscillation amplitudes. Employing high spatial- and temporal-resolution observations from the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) in New Mexico, we study the power suppression in a region of evolving magnetic fields adjacent to a pore. By utilizing wavelet analysis, we study for the first time how the oscillatory properties in this region change as the magnetic field evolves with time. Image sequences taken in the blue continuum, G-band, Ca ii K, and Hα filters were used in this study. It is observed that the suppression found in the chromosphere occupies a relatively larger area, confirming previous findings. Also, the suppression is extended to structures directly connected to the magnetic region, and is found to get enhanced as the magnetic field strength increased with time. The dependence of the suppression on the magnetic field strength is greater at longer periods and higher formation heights. Furthermore, the dominant periodicity in the chromosphere was found to be anti-correlated with increases in the magnetic field strength.

  18. Time-dependent perturbation of a two-state quantum system by a sinusoidal field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dion, D. R.; Hirschfelder, J. O.

    1976-01-01

    Different methods for solving the 'two-level problem' are discussed, namely, the problem of what happens to a material system having only two nondegenerate energy levels when it is perturbed by an electromagnetic field that varies with time in a monochromatic sinusoidal fashion. The various methods discussed include: (1) the Sen Gupta technique using nondegenerate Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory, (2) the Salwen-Winter-Shirley partitioning perturbation technique, (3) the Shirley and series degenerate Rayleigh-Schroedinger expansion, (4) the degenerate Rayleigh-Schroedinger technique for considering high frequency fields, and (5) the singular perturbation expansion technique.

  19. Measuring chirality in NMR in the presence of a time-dependent electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, Jamie D.; Harris, Robert A.

    2014-06-21

    Traditional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments are “blind” to chirality since the spectra for left and right handed enantiomers are identical in an achiral medium. However, theoretical arguments have suggested that the effective Hamiltonian for spin-1/2 nuclei in the presence of electric and magnetic fields can be different for left and right handed enantiomers, thereby enabling NMR to be used to spectroscopically detect chirality even in an achiral medium. However, most proposals to detect the chiral NMR signature require measuring signals that are equivalent to picomolar concentrations for {sup 1}H nuclei, which are outside current NMR detection limits. In this work, we propose to use an AC electric field that is resonantly modulated at the Larmor frequency, thereby enhancing the effect of the chiral term by four to six orders of magnitude. We predict that a steady-state transverse magnetization, whose direction will be opposite for different enantiomers, will build up during application of an AC electric field. We also propose an experimental setup that uses a solenoid coil with an AC current to generate the necessary periodic electric fields that can be used to generate chiral signals which are equivalent to the signal from a {sup 1}H submicromolar concentration.

  20. Geometric Phase of the Gyromotion for Charged Particles in a Time-dependent Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Liu and Hong Qin

    2011-07-18

    We study the dynamics of the gyrophase of a charged particle in a magnetic field which is uniform in space but changes slowly with time. As the magnetic field evolves slowly with time, the changing of the gyrophase is composed of two parts. The rst part is the dynamical phase, which is the time integral of the instantaneous gyrofrequency. The second part, called geometric gyrophase, is more interesting, and it is an example of the geometric phase which has found many important applications in different branches of physics. If the magnetic field returns to the initial value after a loop in the parameter space, then the geometric gyrophase equals the solid angle spanned by the loop in the parameter space. This classical geometric gyrophase is compared with the geometric phase (the Berry phase) of the spin wave function of an electron placed in the same adiabatically changing magnetic field. Even though gyromotion is not the classical counterpart of the quantum spin, the similarities between the geometric phases of the two cases nevertheless reveal the similar geometric nature of the different physics laws governing these two physics phenomena.

  1. Time-resolved resonant photoionization of He using a time-dependent Feshbach method with ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados-Castro, C. M.; Sanz-Vicario, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    We study the photoionization and autoionization of the helium atom subject to ultrashort laser pulses by using a Feshbach formalism in the time domain. We solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in terms of a configuration interaction (CI) spectral method, in which the total wavefunction is expanded with configurations defined within bound-like ( {Q}) and scattering-like ( {P}) halfspaces. The method allows one to provide accurate descriptions of both the atomic structure (energy positions and widths) and the photodynamics. We illustrate our approach by (i) calculating the time-resolved one-photon ionization below the He+ (n = 2) ionization threshold, from 11Se and 21Po initial states, then reaching the lowest autoionizing states of 1Se, 1Po and 1De final symmetries, (ii) studying the temporal formation of the Fano profile of 1Po resonances and (iii) showing its performance in obtaining the perturbative long-time limit of one- and two-photon ionization cross sections using ultrashort laser pulses following a recently developed procedure in Palacios et al (2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 032716).

  2. A time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach for studying the electronic optical response of molecules in intense fields.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaosong; Smith, Stanley M; Markevitch, Alexei N; Romanov, Dmitri A; Levis, Robert J; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2005-01-21

    For molecules in high intensity oscillating electric fields, the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method is used to simulate the behavior of the electronic density prior to ionization. Since a perturbative approach is no longer valid at these intensities, the full TDHF equations are used to propagate the electronic density. A unitary transform approach is combined with the modified midpoint method to provide a stable and efficient algorithm to integrate these equations. The behavior of H2+ in an intense oscillating field computed using the TDHF method with a STO-3G basis set reproduces the analytic solution for the two-state coherent excitation model. For H2 with a 6-311++G(d,p) basis set, the TDHF results are nearly indistinguishable from calculations using the full time-dependent Schrödinger equation. In an oscillating field of 3.17 x 10(13) W cm(-2) and 456 nm, the molecular orbital energies, electron populations, and atomic charges of H2 follow the field adiabatically. As the field intensity is increased, the response becomes more complicated as a result of contributions from excited states. Simulations of N2 show even greater complexity, yet the average charge still follows the field adiabatically. PMID:19785143

  3. Quantum logic gates from time-dependent global magnetic field in a system with constant exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Nenashev, A. V. Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Zinovieva, A. F.; Gornov, A. Yu.; Zarodnyuk, T. S.

    2015-03-21

    We propose a method that implements a universal set of one- and two-quantum-bit gates for quantum computation in a system of coupled electron pairs with constant non-diagonal exchange interaction. In our proposal, suppression of the exchange interaction is performed by the continual repetition of single-spin rotations. A small g-factor difference between the electrons allows for addressing qubits and avoiding strong magnetic field pulses. Numerical experiments were performed to show that, to implement the one- and two-qubit operations, it is sufficient to change the strength of the magnetic field by a few Gauss. This introduces one and then the other electron in a resonance. To determine the evolution of the two-qubit system, we use the algorithms of optimal control theory.

  4. Time-dependent low-field MRI characteristics of canine blood: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jimo; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Eunseok; Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Minsu; Jung, Yechan; Cho, Youngkwon; Lee, Kichang

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to assess time-sensitive magnetic resonance (MR) changes in canine blood using low-field MR. Arterial and venous blood samples were collected from eight healthy beagle dogs. Samples were placed in 5-mL tubes and imaged within 3 hours of collection at 1 day intervals from day 1 to day 30. The following sequences were used: T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and T2-star gradient-echo (T2(*)-GRE). Visual comparison of the images revealed that four relatively homogenous blood clots and twelve heterogeneous blood clots developed. The margination of the clot and plasma changed significantly on day 2 and day 13. On day 2, heterogeneous blood clots were differentiated into 2 to 3 signal layers in the T2W, T1W, and especially the STIR images. Hypointense signal layers were also detected in the blood clots in STIR images, which have T2 hypo, FLAIR hypo, and T1 hyper intense signals. In all images, these signal layers remained relatively unchanged until day 13. Overall, the results suggest that hematomas are complex on low-field MRI. Accordingly, it may not be feasible to accurately characterize hemorrhages and predict clot age based on low-field MRI. PMID:27051346

  5. Non-linear dielectric signatures of entropy changes in liquids subject to time dependent electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richert, Ranko

    2016-03-01

    A model of non-linear dielectric polarization is studied in which the field induced entropy change is the source of polarization dependent retardation time constants. Numerical solutions for the susceptibilities of the system are obtained for parameters that represent the dynamic and thermodynamic behavior of glycerol. The calculations for high amplitude sinusoidal fields show a significant enhancement of the steady state loss for frequencies below that of the low field loss peak. Also at relatively low frequencies, the third harmonic susceptibility spectrum shows a "hump," i.e., a maximum, with an amplitude that increases with decreasing temperature. Both of these non-linear effects are consistent with experimental evidence. While such features have been used to conclude on a temperature dependent number of dynamically correlated particles, Ncorr, the present result demonstrates that the third harmonic susceptibility display a peak with an amplitude that tracks the variation of the activation energy in a model that does not involve dynamical correlations or spatial scales.

  6. Time-dependent low-field MRI characteristics of canine blood: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jimo; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Eunseok; Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Minsu; Jung, Yechan; Cho, Youngkwon

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess time-sensitive magnetic resonance (MR) changes in canine blood using low-field MR. Arterial and venous blood samples were collected from eight healthy beagle dogs. Samples were placed in 5-mL tubes and imaged within 3 hours of collection at 1 day intervals from day 1 to day 30. The following sequences were used: T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and T2-star gradient-echo (T2*-GRE). Visual comparison of the images revealed that four relatively homogenous blood clots and twelve heterogeneous blood clots developed. The margination of the clot and plasma changed significantly on day 2 and day 13. On day 2, heterogeneous blood clots were differentiated into 2 to 3 signal layers in the T2W, T1W, and especially the STIR images. Hypointense signal layers were also detected in the blood clots in STIR images, which have T2 hypo, FLAIR hypo, and T1 hyper intense signals. In all images, these signal layers remained relatively unchanged until day 13. Overall, the results suggest that hematomas are complex on low-field MRI. Accordingly, it may not be feasible to accurately characterize hemorrhages and predict clot age based on low-field MRI. PMID:27051346

  7. Time-dependent Z-R relationships for estimating rainfall fields from radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, L.; Claps, P.; Laio, F.

    2010-01-01

    The operational use of weather radars has become a widespread and useful tool for estimating rainfall fields. The radar-gauge adjustment is a commonly adopted technique which allows one to reduce bias and dispersion between radar rainfall estimates and the corresponding ground measurements provided by rain gauges. This paper investigates a new methodology for estimating radar-based rainfall fields by recalibrating at each time step the reflectivity-rainfall rate (Z-R) relationship on the basis of ground measurements provided by a rain gauge network. The power-law equation for converting reflectivity measurements into rainfall rates is readjusted at each time step, by calibrating its parameters using hourly Z-R pairs collected in the proximity of the considered time step. Calibration windows with duration between 1 and 24 h are used for estimating the parameters of the Z-R relationship. A case study pertaining to 19 rainfall events occurred in the north-western Italy is considered, in an area located within 25 km from the radar site, with available measurements of rainfall rate at the ground and radar reflectivity aloft. Results obtained with the proposed method are compared to those of three other literature methods. Applications are described for a posteriori evaluation of rainfall fields and for real-time estimation. Results suggest that the use of a calibration window of 2-5 h yields the best performances, with improvements that reach the 28% of the standard error obtained by using the most accurate fixed (climatological) Z-R relationship.

  8. Schwinger pair production in space- and time-dependent electric fields: Relating the Wigner formalism to quantum kinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hebenstreit, F.; Alkofer, R.; Gies, H.

    2010-11-15

    The nonperturbative electron-positron pair production (Schwinger effect) is considered for space- and time-dependent electric fields E-vector(x-vector,t). Based on the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism, we derive a system of partial differential equations of infinite order for the 16 irreducible components of the Wigner function. In the limit of spatially homogeneous fields the Vlasov equation of quantum kinetic theory is rediscovered. It is shown that the quantum kinetic formalism can be exactly solved in the case of a constant electric field E(t)=E{sub 0} and the Sauter-type electric field E(t)=E{sub 0}sech{sup 2}(t/{tau}). These analytic solutions translate into corresponding expressions within the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism and allow to discuss the effect of higher derivatives. We observe that spatial field variations typically exert a strong influence on the components of the Wigner function for large momenta or for late times.

  9. Self-Similar Nonlinear Dynamical Solutions for One-Component Nonneutral Plasma in a Time-Dependent Linear Focusing Field

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Qin and Ronald C. Davidson

    2011-07-19

    In a linear trap confining a one-component nonneutral plasma, the external focusing force is a linear function of the configuration coordinates and/or the velocity coordinates. Linear traps include the classical Paul trap and the Penning trap, as well as the newly proposed rotating-radio- frequency traps and the Mobius accelerator. This paper describes a class of self-similar nonlinear solutions of nonneutral plasma in general time-dependent linear focusing devices, with self-consistent electrostatic field. This class of nonlinear solutions includes many known solutions as special cases.

  10. Paramagnetic Meissner effect and strong time dependence at high fields in melt-textured high- T C superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paiva Gouvêa, Cristol; Dias, Fábio Teixeira; das Neves Vieira, Valdemar; da Silva, Douglas Langie; Schaf, Jacob; Wolff-Fabris, Frederik; Rovira, Joan Josep Roa

    2013-05-01

    In this work we report on systematic field-cooled magnetization experiments in melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7- δ samples containing Y211 precipitates. Magnetic fields up to 14 T were applied either parallel or perpendicular to the ab planes and a strong paramagnetic response related to the superconducting state was observed. This effect is known as paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME). The magnitude of the PME increases when the field is augmented. This effect shows a strong paramagnetic relaxation, such that the paramagnetic moment increases as a function of the time. The pinning by the Y211 particles plays a crucial role in the explanation of this effect and our results suggest that the pinning capacity can produce a strong flux compression into the sample, originating the PME and the strong time dependence.

  11. An MHD simulation model of time-dependent global solar corona with temporally varying solar-surface magnetic field maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.

    2013-11-01

    We present a model of a time-dependent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation of the sub-Alfvenic solar corona and super-Alfvenic solar wind with temporally varying solar-surface boundary magnetic field data. To (i) accommodate observational data with a somewhat arbitrarily evolving solar photospheric magnetic field as the boundary value and (ii) keep the divergence-free condition, we developed a boundary model, here named Confined Differential Potential Field model, that calculates the horizontal components of the magnetic field, from changes in the vertical component, as a potential field confined in a thin shell. The projected normal characteristic method robustly simulates the solar corona and solar wind, in response to the temporal variation of the boundary Br. We conduct test MHD simulations for two periods, from Carrington Rotation number 2009 to 2010 and from Carrington Rotation 2074 to 2075 at solar maximum and minimum of Cycle 23, respectively. We obtained several coronal features that a fixed boundary condition cannot yield, such as twisted magnetic field lines at the lower corona and the transition from an open-field coronal hole to a closed-field streamer. We also obtained slight improvements of the interplanetary magnetic field, including the latitudinal component, at Earth.

  12. Time dependent wind fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelton, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Two tasks were performed: (1) determination of the accuracy of Seasat scatterometer, altimeter, and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer measurements of wind speed; and (2) application of Seasat altimeter measurements of sea level to study the spatial and temporal variability of geostrophic flow in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The results of the first task have identified systematic errors in wind speeds estimated by all three satellite sensors. However, in all cases the errors are correctable and corrected wind speeds agree between the three sensors to better than 1 ms sup -1 in 96-day 2 deg. latitude by 6 deg. longitude averages. The second task has resulted in development of a new technique for using altimeter sea level measurements to study the temporal variability of large scale sea level variations. Application of the technique to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current yielded new information about the ocean circulation in this region of the ocean that is poorly sampled by conventional ship-based measurements.

  13. Time-dependent complete-active-space self-consistent-field method for atoms: Application to high-order harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Kenichi L.; Březinová, Iva; Lackner, Fabian; Nagele, Stefan; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    We present a numerical implementation of the time-dependent complete-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-CASSCF) method [Phys. Rev. A 88, 023402 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.023402] for atoms driven by a strong linearly polarized laser pulse. The present implementation treats the problem in its full dimensionality and introduces a gauge-invariant frozen-core approximation, an efficient evaluation of the Coulomb mean field scaling linearly with the number of basis functions, and a split-operator method specifically designed for stable propagation of stiff spatial derivative operators. We apply this method to high-harmonic generation in helium, beryllium, and neon and explore the role of electron correlations.

  14. Communication: Transition state trajectory stability determines barrier crossing rates in chemical reactions induced by time-dependent oscillating fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Galen T.; Bartsch, Thomas; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2014-07-01

    When a chemical reaction is driven by an external field, the transition state that the system must pass through as it changes from reactant to product—for example, an energy barrier—becomes time-dependent. We show that for periodic forcing the rate of barrier crossing can be determined through stability analysis of the non-autonomous transition state. Specifically, strong agreement is observed between the difference in the Floquet exponents describing stability of the transition state trajectory, which defines a recrossing-free dividing surface [G. T. Craven, T. Bartsch, and R. Hernandez, "Persistence of transition state structure in chemical reactions driven by fields oscillating in time," Phys. Rev. E 89, 040801(R) (2014)], and the rates calculated by simulation of ensembles of trajectories. This result opens the possibility to extract rates directly from the intrinsic stability of the transition state, even when it is time-dependent, without requiring a numerically expensive simulation of the long-time dynamics of a large ensemble of trajectories.

  15. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. II. Variational formulations and analytical gradients

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-08-06

    This study describes variational energy expressions and analytical excited state energy gradients for time-dependent self-consistent field methods with polarizable solvent effects. Linear response, vertical excitation, and state-specific solventmodels are examined. Enforcing a variational ground stateenergy expression in the state-specific model is found to reduce it to the vertical excitation model. Variational excited state energy expressions are then provided for the linear response and vertical excitation models and analytical gradients are formulated. Using semiempiricalmodel chemistry, the variational expressions are verified by numerical and analytical differentiation with respect to a static external electric field. Lastly, analytical gradients are further tested by performingmore » microcanonical excited state molecular dynamics with p-nitroaniline.« less

  16. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. II. Variational formulations and analytical gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-08-06

    This study describes variational energy expressions and analytical excited state energy gradients for time-dependent self-consistent field methods with polarizable solvent effects. Linear response, vertical excitation, and state-specific solventmodels are examined. Enforcing a variational ground stateenergy expression in the state-specific model is found to reduce it to the vertical excitation model. Variational excited state energy expressions are then provided for the linear response and vertical excitation models and analytical gradients are formulated. Using semiempiricalmodel chemistry, the variational expressions are verified by numerical and analytical differentiation with respect to a static external electric field. Lastly, analytical gradients are further tested by performing microcanonical excited state molecular dynamics with p-nitroaniline.

  17. Time-dependent and radiation field effects on collisional-radiative simulations of radiative properties of blast waves launched in clusters of xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Espinosa, G.; Gil, J. M.; Rubiano, J. G.; Mendoza, M. A.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.; Symes, D. R.; Hohenberger, M.; Smith, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Radiative shock waves are ubiquitous throughout the universe and play a crucial role in the transport of energy into the interstellar medium. This fact has led to many efforts to scale the astrophysical phenomena to accessible conditions. In some laboratory experiments radiative blast waves are launched in clusters of gases by means of the direct deposition of the laser energy. In this work, by using a collisional-radiative model, we perform an analysis of the plasma level populations and radiative properties of a blast wave launched in a xenon cluster. In particular, for both the shocked and unshocked material, we study the influence of different effects such as LTE, steady-state or time-dependent NLTE simulations, plasma self-absorption or external radiation field in the determination of those properties and also in the diagnosis of the electron temperature of the blast wave.

  18. Linear scaling solution of the time-dependent self-consistent-field equations with quasi-independent Rayleigh quotient iteration

    SciTech Connect

    Challacombe, Matt

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm for solution of the Time-Dependent Self-Consistent-Field (TD-SCF) equations is developed, based on dual solution channels for non-linear optimization of the Tsiper functional [J.Phys.B, 34 L401 (2001)]. This formulation poses the TD-SCF problem as two Rayleigh quotients, coupled weakly through biorthogonality. Convergence rates for the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) are found to be equivalent to the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). Moreover, the variational nature of the quotient is robust to approximation errors, allowing linear scaling solution to the bulk limit of the RPA matrix-eigenvalue and exchange operator problem for molecular wires with extended conjugation, including polyphenylene vinylene and the (4,3) nanotube.

  19. Off-equilibrium scaling behaviors driven by time-dependent external fields in three-dimensional O (N ) vector models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore

    2016-03-01

    We consider the dynamical off-equilibrium behavior of the three-dimensional O (N ) vector model in the presence of a slowly varying time-dependent spatially uniform magnetic field H (t )=h (t )e , where e is an N -dimensional constant unit vector, h (t ) =t /ts , and ts is a time scale, at fixed temperature T ≤Tc , where Tc corresponds to the continuous order-disorder transition. The dynamic evolutions start from equilibrium configurations at hi<0 , correspondingly ti<0 , and end at time tf>0 with h (tf)>0 , or vice versa. We show that the magnetization displays an off-equilibrium scaling behavior close to the transition line H (t )=0 . It arises from the interplay among the time t , the time scale ts, and the finite size L . The scaling behavior can be parametrized in terms of the scaling variables tsκ/L and t /tsκt , where κ >0 and κt>0 are appropriate universal exponents, which differ at the critical point and for T time dependence of the external field. We define a scaling function for the hysteresis loop area of the magnetization that can be used to quantify how far the system is from equilibrium.

  20. Theoretical Shaping of Femtosecond Laser Pulses for Molecular Photodissociation with Control Techniques Based on Ehrenfest's Dynamics and Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Castro, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    The combination of nonadiabatic Ehrenfest-path molecular dynamics (EMD) based on time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and quantum optimal control formalism (QOCT) was used to optimize the shape of ultra-short laser pulses to achieve photodissociation of a hydrogen molecule and the trihydrogen cation H3 (+) . This work completes a previous one [A. Castro, ChemPhysChem, 2013, 14, 1488-1495], in which the same objective was achieved by demonstrating the combination of QOCT and TDDFT for many-electron systems on static nuclear potentials. The optimization model, therefore, did not include the nuclear movement and the obtained dissociation mechanism could only be sequential: fast laser-assisted electronic excitation to nonbonding states (during which the nuclei are considered to be static), followed by field-free dissociation. Here, in contrast, the optimization was performed with the QOCT constructed on top of the full dynamic model comprised of both electrons and nuclei, as described within EMD based on TDDFT. This is the first numerical demonstration of an optimal control formalism for a hybrid quantum-classical model, that is, a molecular dynamics method. PMID:26945807

  1. SVD-Based Technique for Interference Cancellation and Noise Reduction in NMR Measurement of Time-Dependent Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjun; Ma, Hong; Yu, De; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment for measurement of time-dependent magnetic fields was introduced. To improve the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of NMR data, a new method for interference cancellation and noise reduction (ICNR) based on singular value decomposition (SVD) was proposed. The singular values corresponding to the radio frequency interference (RFI) signal were identified in terms of the correlation between the FID data and the reference data, and then the RFI and noise were suppressed by setting the corresponding singular values to zero. The validity of the algorithm was verified by processing the measured NMR data. The results indicated that, this method has a significantly suppression of RFI and random noise, and can well preserve the FID signal. At present, the major limitation of the proposed SVD-based ICNR technique is that the threshold value for interference cancellation needs to be manually selected. Finally, the inversion waveform of the applied alternating magnetic field was given by fitting the processed experimental data. PMID:26959024

  2. SVD-Based Technique for Interference Cancellation and Noise Reduction in NMR Measurement of Time-Dependent Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenjun; Ma, Hong; Yu, De; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment for measurement of time-dependent magnetic fields was introduced. To improve the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of NMR data, a new method for interference cancellation and noise reduction (ICNR) based on singular value decomposition (SVD) was proposed. The singular values corresponding to the radio frequency interference (RFI) signal were identified in terms of the correlation between the FID data and the reference data, and then the RFI and noise were suppressed by setting the corresponding singular values to zero. The validity of the algorithm was verified by processing the measured NMR data. The results indicated that, this method has a significantly suppression of RFI and random noise, and can well preserve the FID signal. At present, the major limitation of the proposed SVD-based ICNR technique is that the threshold value for interference cancellation needs to be manually selected. Finally, the inversion waveform of the applied alternating magnetic field was given by fitting the processed experimental data. PMID:26959024

  3. Strong-field ionization rates of linear polyenes simulated with time-dependent configuration interaction with an absorbing potential

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Pascal; Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    2014-11-07

    The strong field ionization rates for ethylene, trans 1,3-butadiene, and trans,trans 1,3,5-hexatriene have been calculated using time-dependent configuration interaction with single excitations and a complex absorbing potential (TDCIS-CAP). The calculations used the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set with a large set of diffuse functions (3 s, 2 p, 3 d, and 1 f) on each atom. The absorbing boundary was placed 3.5 times the van der Waals radius from each atom. The simulations employed a seven-cycle cosine squared pulse with a wavelength of 800 nm. Ionization rates were calculated for intensities ranging from 0.3 × 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} to 3.5 × 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Ionization rates along the molecular axis increased markedly with increasing conjugation length. By contrast, ionization rates perpendicular to the molecular axis were almost independent of the conjugation length.

  4. Strong-field ionization rates of linear polyenes simulated with time-dependent configuration interaction with an absorbing potential.

    PubMed

    Krause, Pascal; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2014-11-01

    The strong field ionization rates for ethylene, trans 1,3-butadiene, and trans,trans 1,3,5-hexatriene have been calculated using time-dependent configuration interaction with single excitations and a complex absorbing potential (TDCIS-CAP). The calculations used the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set with a large set of diffuse functions (3 s, 2 p, 3 d, and 1 f) on each atom. The absorbing boundary was placed 3.5 times the van der Waals radius from each atom. The simulations employed a seven-cycle cosine squared pulse with a wavelength of 800 nm. Ionization rates were calculated for intensities ranging from 0.3 × 10(14) W/cm(2) to 3.5 × 10(14) W/cm(2). Ionization rates along the molecular axis increased markedly with increasing conjugation length. By contrast, ionization rates perpendicular to the molecular axis were almost independent of the conjugation length. PMID:25381499

  5. Time-dependent Induced Seismicity Rates Described with an Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence Model at The Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Totten, E. J.; Burgmann, R.

    2015-12-01

    To improve understanding of the link between injection/production activity and seismicity, we apply an Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model to an earthquake catalog from The Geysers geothermal field (GGF) between 2005-2015 using >140,000 events and Mc 0.8 . We partition the catalog along a northeast-southwest trending divide, which corresponds to regions of high and low levels of enhanced geothermal stimulation (EGS) across the field. The ETAS model is fit to the seismicity data using a 6-month sliding window with a 1-month time step to determine the background seismicity rate. We generate monthly time series of the time-dependent background seismicity rate in 1-km depth intervals from 0-5km. The average wellhead depth is 2-3 km and the background seismicity rates above this depth do not correlate well with field-wide injected masses over the time period of interest. The auto correlation results show a 12-month period for monthly time series proximal to the average wellhead depths (2-3km and 3-4km) for northwest GGF strongly correlates with field-wide fluid injection masses, with a four-month phase shift between the two depth intervals as fluid migrates deeper. This periodicity is not observed for the deeper depth interval of 4-5 km, where monthly background seismicity rates reduce to near zero. Cross-correlation analysis using the monthly time series for background seismicity rate and the field-wide injection, production and net injection (injection minus production) suggest that injection most directly modulates seismicity. Periodicity in the background seismicity is not observed as strongly in the time series for the southeast field. We suggest that the variation in background seismicity rate is a proxy for pore-pressure diffusion of injected fluids at depth. We deduce that the contrast between the background seismicity rates in the northwest and southeast GGF is a result of reduced EGS activity in the southeast region.

  6. From Gravitostatics to Gravitodynamics: The space-time dependent gravity field by Eulerian versus Lagrangean force fields: Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, P.; Grafarend, E.; Engels, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Cartesian moments of the mass density of a gravitating body and the spherical/ellipsoidal harmonic coefficients of its gravitational field are dependent in a peculiar way. In particular, the products of inertia can be expressed by the spherical/ellipsoidal harmonic coefficients of the gravitational potential as derived by Mac Cullagh formulae for a rigid body. Here, the Mac Cullagh formulae are extended to a deformable body, which is restricted by radial symmetry in order to apply the Love-Shida hypothesis and its ellipsoidal extension. The mass conservation law allows a representation of the incremental mass density by respective excitation functions. A representation of an arbitrary Caresian monome is always possible by sums of solid spherical/ellipsoidal harmonics multiplied by powers of the radius or its ellipsoidal analogue. Introducing these representations into the definitions of the Cartesian moments, an extension of the Mac Cullagh formulae is obtained. In particular, for excitation functions with a vanishing harmonic coefficient of degree zero, the diagonal incremental moments of inertia can be expressed by excitation coefficients. Four types of excitation functions are considered: (i) tidal excitation, (ii) loading potential, (iii) centrifugal potential, and (iv) transverse surface stress. One application of the results could be a model computation of the lenght-of-day variations and polar motion, which depend on the moments of inertia.

  7. Color opponent receptive fields self-organize in a biophysical model of visual cortex via spike-timing dependent plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Akihiro; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Stringer, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Although many computational models have been proposed to explain orientation maps in primary visual cortex (V1), it is not yet known how similar clusters of color-selective neurons in macaque V1/V2 are connected and develop. In this work, we address the problem of understanding the cortical processing of color information with a possible mechanism of the development of the patchy distribution of color selectivity via computational modeling. Each color input is decomposed into a red, green, and blue representation and transmitted to the visual cortex via a simulated optic nerve in a luminance channel and red–green and blue–yellow opponent color channels. Our model of the early visual system consists of multiple topographically-arranged layers of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, with sparse intra-layer connectivity and feed-forward connectivity between layers. Layers are arranged based on anatomy of early visual pathways, and include a retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and layered neocortex. Each neuron in the V1 output layer makes synaptic connections to neighboring neurons and receives the three types of signals in the different channels from the corresponding photoreceptor position. Synaptic weights are randomized and learned using spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). After training with natural images, the neurons display heightened sensitivity to specific colors. Information-theoretic analysis reveals mutual information between particular stimuli and responses, and that the information reaches a maximum with fewer neurons in the higher layers, indicating that estimations of the input colors can be done using the output of fewer cells in the later stages of cortical processing. In addition, cells with similar color receptive fields form clusters. Analysis of spiking activity reveals increased firing synchrony between neurons when particular color inputs are presented or removed (ON-cell/OFF-cell). PMID:24659956

  8. Time dependent holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Diptarka

    One of the most important results emerging from string theory is the gauge gravity duality (AdS/CFT correspondence) which tells us that certain problems in particular gravitational backgrounds can be exactly mapped to a particular dual gauge theory a quantum theory very similar to the one explaining the interactions between fundamental subatomic particles. The chief merit of the duality is that a difficult problem in one theory can be mapped to a simpler and solvable problem in the other theory. The duality can be used both ways. Most of the current theoretical framework is suited to study equilibrium systems, or systems where time dependence is at most adiabatic. However in the real world, systems are almost always out of equilibrium. Generically these scenarios are described by quenches, where a parameter of the theory is made time dependent. In this dissertation I describe some of the work done in the context of studying quantum quench using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We recover certain universal scaling type of behavior as the quenching is done through a quantum critical point. Another question that has been explored in the dissertation is time dependence of the gravity theory. Present cosmological observations indicate that our universe is accelerating and is described by a spacetime called de-Sitter(dS). In 2011 there had been a speculation over a possible duality between de-Sitter gravity and a particular field theory (Euclidean SP(N) CFT). However a concrete realization of this proposition was still lacking. Here we explicitly derive the dS/CFT duality using well known methods in field theory. We discovered that the time dimension emerges naturally in the derivation. We also describe further applications and extensions of dS/CFT. KEYWORDS: Holography, AdS/CFT correspondence, Quantum Quench, dS/CFT correspondence, Chaos.

  9. Nonlinear time-dependent density-functional-theory study of ionization and harmonic generation in CO{sub 2} by ultrashort intense laser pulses: Orientational effects

    SciTech Connect

    Fowe, Emmanuel Penka; Bandrauk, Andre D.

    2010-02-15

    Time-dependent density-functional-theory (TDDFT) methods are used to calculate the orientational dependence of ionization and molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHOHG) in the CO{sub 2} molecule as a function of laser intensity I{sub 0{>=}}10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} for few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses. A time-series analysis is used to confirm the recollision model in MHOHG for different density potentials. It is found that at intensities I{sub 0}>3.5x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}, lower highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO's) contribute significantly to ionization and to the MHOHG process. This is due to the symmetry of these orbitals. Even though such lower orbitals have higher ionization potentials (IP), ionization and MHOHG processes occur when orbital densities are maximum with laser polarization direction.

  10. Methodology for determining time-dependent mechanical properties of tuff subjected to near-field repository conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Blacic, J.D.; Andersen, R.

    1983-01-01

    We have established a methodology to determine the time dependence of strength and transport properties of tuff under conditions appropriate to a nuclear waste repository. Exploratory tests to determine the approximate magnitudes of thermomechanical property changes are nearly complete. In this report we describe the capabilities of an apparatus designed to precisely measure the time-dependent deformation and permeability of tuff at simulated repository conditions. Preliminary tests with this new apparatus indicate that microclastic creep failure of tuff occurs over a narrow strain range with little precursory Tertiary creep behavior. In one test, deformation under conditions of slowly decreasing effective pressure resulted in failure, whereas some strain indicators showed a decreasing rate of strain.

  11. Time-dependent drift Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-03-01

    The lowest-order drift equations are given in a canonical magnetic coordinate form for time-dependent magnetic and electric fields. The advantages of the canonical Hamiltonian form are also discussed.

  12. Time-dependent density-functional study of the ionization and fragmentation of C2H2 and H2 by strong circularly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russakoff, Arthur; Varga, Kálmán

    2015-11-01

    The ionization and fragmentation dynamics of acetylene and the hydrogen molecule driven by strong short circularly polarized laser pulses are investigated within the framework of the time-dependent density-functional theory coupled with the Ehrenfest dynamics. The effects of alignment are considered and the dynamics is compared to that driven by linearly polarized pulses. It is found that the coupled ion-electron dynamics of both molecules driven by circularly polarized pulses follows the enhanced ionization mechanism, as was found in previous theoretical studies with linearly polarized pulses. A moderate localization asymmetry in the ionization dynamics of the hydrogen molecule was also found, in qualitative agreement with previous experimental investigations.

  13. Time dependent view factor methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    View factors have been used for treating radiation transport between opaque surfaces bounding a transparent medium for several decades. However, in recent years they have been applied to problems involving intense bursts of radiation in enclosed volumes such as in the laser fusion hohlraums. In these problems, several aspects require treatment of time dependence.

  14. Time-dependent manipulation of ultracold ion bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijnders, M. P.; Debernardi, N.; van der Geer, S. B.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Vredenbregt, E. J. D.; Luiten, O. J.

    2011-02-01

    The combination of an ultracold ion source based on photoionization of a laser-cooled gas and time-dependent acceleration fields enables precise manipulation of ion beams. We demonstrate reduction in the longitudinal energy spread and transverse (de)focusing of the beam by applying time-dependent acceleration voltages. In addition, we show how time-dependent acceleration fields can be used to control both the sign and strength of the spherical aberrations. The experimental results are in close agreement with detailed charged particle tracking simulations and can be explained in terms of a simple analytical model.

  15. Random crystal field effect on the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model under a time-dependent oscillating field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hachimi, A. G.; Dakir, O.; Sidi Ahmed, S.; Zaari, H.; El Yadari, M.; Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of random crystal-field on the stationary states of the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model is investigated within the framework of the mean-field approach. The Glauber-type stochastic dynamics is used to describe the time evolution of the system which is subject to a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field. In addition to the well-known phase transitions and the appearance of the partly ferromagnetic phase characterized by the magnetization m = 1 in equilibrium case, a new dynamical regions between the ferromagnetic phases F1/2, F1 and F3/2 are found where F3/2 +F 1 / 2 ,F3/2 +F1, F1 +F1/2 phases coexist for a weak value of the reduced magnetic field (h). Whereas for higher value of h both solutions ordered F and disordered P phases coexist. Hence we present six types topologies of phase diagrams which exhibit dynamical first-order, second-order transition lines, dynamical tricritical and isolated critical end points. Furthermore, the dynamical thermal behavior magnetizations, susceptibilities and phase space trajectories are given and discussed.

  16. Status Report on the Modeling of TRISO Energy Deposition, Time-Dependent Temperature Field and Doppler Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Javier Ortensi; Abderrafi M Ougouag

    2009-07-01

    The Doppler feedback mechanism is a major contributor to the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature reactors that use fuel based on Tristructural-Isotropic coated particles. It follows that the correct prediction of the magnitude and time-dependence of this feedback effect is essential to the conduct of safety analyses for these reactors. We present a fuel conduction model for obtaining better estimates of the temperature feedback during moderate and fast transients. The fuel model has been incorporated in the CYNOD-THERMIX-KONVEK suite of coupled codes as a single TRISO particle within each calculation cell. The heat generation rate is scaled down from the neutronic solution and a Dirichlet boundary condition is imposed as the bulk graphite temperature from the thermal-hydraulic solution. This simplified approach yields similar results to those obtained with more complex methods, requiring multi-TRISO calculations within one control volume, but with much less computational effort. We provide an analysis of the hypothetical total control ejection event in the PBMR-400 design that clearly depicts the improvement in the predictions of the fuel temperature.

  17. Breaking of the first adiabatic invariants of charged particles in time-dependent magnetic fields - Computer simulations and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.; Hansen, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanics of the first adiabatic invariant mu of nonrelativistic charged particles in time-dependent magnetic inductions B (t) are studied by means of computer simulations and analytic theory. Linear-ramp magnetic-induction profiles are utilized, as well as hyperbolic-tangent ramps and sine half-wave ramps. The change in mu that results from an induction change Delta B that occurs over a time Delta t is quantified for all values of Delta B and Delta t, as well as for all values of the particle position. It is found that the cases fall into two categories with very different mu behavior: cases in which the change in the magnetic induction occurs over a time Delta t that is exactly equal to an integer number of gyroperiods (textbook case) or cases in which the change in the induction occurs over a time Delta t that is not equal to an integer number of gyroperiods (more general case). In both categories mu is an adiabatic invariant, although the conservation of mu is much poorer in the latter category.

  18. Studies of Cosmic Ray Modulation and Energetic Particle Propagation in Time-Dependent 3-Dimensional Heliospheric Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ming

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to perform theoretical calculations of propagation of cosmic rays and energetic particles in 3-dimensional heliospheric magnetic fields. We used Markov stochastic process simulation to achieve to this goal. We developed computation software that can be used to study particle propagation in, as two examples of heliospheric magnetic fields that have to be treated in 3 dimensions, a heliospheric magnetic field suggested by Fisk (1996) and a global heliosphere including the region beyond the termination shock. The results from our model calculations were compared with particle measurements from Ulysses, Earth-based spacecraft such as IMP-8, WIND and ACE, Voyagers and Pioneers in outer heliosphere for tests of the magnetic field models. We particularly looked for features of particle variations that can allow us to significantly distinguish the Fisk magnetic field from the conventional Parker spiral field. The computer code will eventually lead to a new generation of integrated software for solving complicated problems of particle acceleration, propagation and modulation in realistic 3-dimensional heliosphere of realistic magnetic fields and the solar wind with a single computation approach.

  19. Theoretical shaping of femtosecond laser pulses for ultrafast molecular photo-dissociation with control techniques based on time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Castro, Alberto

    2013-05-10

    The combination of time-dependent density functional theory and quantum optimal control formalism is used to optimize the shape of ultra-short laser pulses in order to achieve the photodissociation of the hydrogen molecule. The very short pulse durations used in this work (a few femtoseconds) do not allow for significant nuclear movement during irradiation, and thus the dissociation mechanism is sequential. During pulse irradiation, a large sudden momentum is communicated which can be understood in terms of population of excited, bound or unbound, dissociative electronic states. The target is defined in terms of the average opposing force during the action of the pulse, or equivalently, in terms of the final dissociative velocity. PMID:23532962

  20. First-order quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Gen

    2011-02-15

    First-order quantum correction to the Larmor radiation is investigated on the basis of the scalar QED on a homogeneous background of a time-dependent electric field, which is a generalization of a recent work by Higuchi and Walker so as to be extended for an accelerated charged particle in a relativistic motion. We obtain a simple approximate formula for the quantum correction in the limit of the relativistic motion when the direction of the particle motion is parallel to that of the electric field.

  1. Modeling of field- and time-dependent resistance change phenomena under electrical stresses in Fe-O films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriguchi, Koji; Wei, Zhiqiang; Takagi, Takeshi; Ono, Kouichi

    2010-01-01

    An electrical stress-induced resistance change in an Fe-O film was studied in detail. Under constant voltage stress (CVS) and constant current injection, the resistance of the Fe-O film abruptly increased. The observed time-to-resistance increase (tr) was found to depend on the applied voltage as well as on the injected current density. The total input energy until tr also depended on the applied voltage. From these observations, the mechanisms of resistance change are considered to obey a field-enhanced reaction, and this resistance increase is attributed to a high-resistive Fe-O layer formation at the interface between the anode electrode and the low-resistive Fe-O layer. We proposed a simplified two-step model for the time evolution of the current under CVS [ICVS(t)]. The predicted ICVS(t) showed a good agreement with experimental results. The model also explained the field dependence of tr.

  2. First-principles molecular-dynamics simulation of biphenyl under strong laser pulses by time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruyama, Jun; Hu, Chunping; Watanabe, Kazuyuki

    2012-06-01

    The femtosecond laser reaction dynamics of the 3,5-difluoro-3',5'-dibromo-biphenyl (DFDBrBPh) molecule is investigated using time-dependent density-functional theory combined with molecular-dynamics (TDDFT-MD) simulation. This work is based on a recent experiment that monitored torsional motion of the DFDBrBPh molecule by femtosecond time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging [Madsen , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.073007 102, 073007 (2009)]. The results confirm that the probe pulse triggers a Coulomb explosion and the kick pulse induces the torsional motion of two phenyl rings, using the experimental settings of the lasers. The Coulomb explosion dynamics simulation verifies that the F and Br atoms dissociate to the ion detector while maintaining their initial alignment with respect to the phenyl rings, which is the fundamental basis of Coulomb explosion imaging of molecular torsion. Furthermore, the period and amplitude of the torsional motion obtained by the simulation are consistent with the experimental values. This validates the ability of the TDDFT-MD method to reveal the underlying mechanism of experimentally observed molecular torsional dynamics.

  3. Time Dependent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the flow characteristics of thixotropic and negative thixotropic fluids; various theories underlying the thixotropic behavior; and thixotropic phenomena exhibited in drilling muds, commercial paints, pastes, and greases. Inconsistencies in the terminology used to label time dependent effects are revealed. (CC)

  4. Non-linear optics and local-field factors in liquid chloroform: A time-dependent density-functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strubbe, David A.; Andrade, Xavier; Rubio, Angel; Louie, Steve G.

    2009-03-01

    Chloroform is often used as a solvent and reference when measuring non-linear optical properties of organic molecules. We calculate directly the non-linear susceptibilities of liquid chloroform at optical frequencies, using molecular dynamics and the Sternheimer equation in time-dependent density-functional theory [X. Andrade et al., J. Chem. Phys. 126, 184106 (2007)]. We compare the results to those of chloroform in the gas and solid phases, and experimental values, and make an ab initio calculation of the local-field factors which are needed to extract molecular properties from liquid calculations and experimental measurements.

  5. Breakup of the aligned H{sub 2} molecule by xuv laser pulses: A time-dependent treatment in prolate spheroidal coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Guan Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus; Schneider, Barry I.

    2011-04-15

    We have carried out calculations of the triple-differential cross section for one-photon double ionization of molecular hydrogen for a central photon energy of 75 eV, using a fully ab initio, nonperturbative approach to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in prolate spheroidal coordinates. The spatial coordinates {xi} and {eta} are discretized in a finite-element discrete-variable representation. The wave packet of the laser-driven two-electron system is propagated in time through an effective short iterative Lanczos method to simulate the double ionization of the hydrogen molecule. For both symmetric and asymmetric energy sharing, the present results agree to a satisfactory level with most earlier predictions for the absolute magnitude and the shape of the angular distributions. A notable exception, however, concerns the predictions of the recent time-independent calculations based on the exterior complex scaling method in prolate spheroidal coordinates [L. Tao et al., Phys. Rev. A 82, 023423 (2010)]. Extensive tests of the numerical implementation were performed, including the effect of truncating the Neumann expansion for the dielectronic interaction on the description of the initial bound state and the predicted cross sections. We observe that the dominant escape mode of the two photoelectrons depends dramatically on the energy sharing. In the parallel geometry, when the ejected electrons are collected along the direction of the laser polarization axis, back-to-back escape is the dominant channel for strongly asymmetric energy sharing, while it is completely forbidden if the two electrons share the excess energy equally.

  6. Density functional study of multiplicity-changing valence and Rydberg excitations of p-block elements: delta self-consistent field, collinear spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (DFT), and conventional time-dependent DFT.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Peverati, Roberto; Truhlar, Donald G; Valero, Rosendo

    2011-07-28

    A database containing 17 multiplicity-changing valence and Rydberg excitation energies of p-block elements is used to test the performance of density functional theory (DFT) with approximate density functionals for calculating relative energies of spin states. We consider only systems where both the low-spin and high-spin state are well described by a single Slater determinant, thereby avoiding complications due to broken-symmetry solutions. Because the excitations studied involve a spin change, they require a balanced treatment of exchange and correlation, thus providing a hard test for approximate density functionals. We test three formalisms for predicting the multiplicity-changing transition energies. First is the ΔSCF method; we also test time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), both in its conventional form starting from the low-spin state and in its collinear spin-flip form starting from the high-spin state. Very diffuse basis functions are needed to give a qualitatively correct description of the Rydberg excitations. The scalar relativistic effect needs to be considered when quantitative results are desired, and we include it in the comparisons. With the ΔSCF method, most of the tested functionals give mean unsigned errors (MUEs) larger than 6 kcal/mol for valence excitations and MUEs larger than 3 kcal/mol for Rydberg excitations, but the performance for the Rydberg states is much better than can be obtained with time-dependent DFT. It is surprising to see that the long-range corrected functionals, which have 100% Hartree-Fock exchange at large inter-electronic distance, do not improve the performance for Rydberg excitations. Among all tested density functionals, ΔSCF calculations with the O3LYP, M08-HX, and OLYP functionals give the best overall performance for both valence and Rydberg excitations, with MUEs of 2.1, 2.6, and 2.7 kcal/mol, respectively. This is very encouraging since the MUE of the CCSD(T) coupled cluster method with quintuple

  7. An alternative approach to exact wave functions for time-dependent coupled oscillator model of charged particle in variable magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Menouar, Salah; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2010-08-15

    The quantum states of time-dependent coupled oscillator model for charged particles subjected to variable magnetic field are investigated using the invariant operator methods. To do this, we have taken advantage of an alternative method, so-called unitary transformation approach, available in the framework of quantum mechanics, as well as a generalized canonical transformation method in the classical regime. The transformed quantum Hamiltonian is obtained using suitable unitary operators and is represented in terms of two independent harmonic oscillators which have the same frequencies as that of the classically transformed one. Starting from the wave functions in the transformed system, we have derived the full wave functions in the original system with the help of the unitary operators. One can easily take a complete description of how the charged particle behaves under the given Hamiltonian by taking advantage of these analytical wave functions.

  8. Development of an efficient computer code to solve the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. [for predicting viscous flow fields about lifting bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, J. L., Jr.; Oatway, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    A research effort was conducted with the goal of reducing computer time of a Navier Stokes Computer Code for prediction of viscous flow fields about lifting bodies. A two-dimensional, time-dependent, laminar, transonic computer code (STOKES) was modified to incorporate a non-uniform timestep procedure. The non-uniform time-step requires updating of a zone only as often as required by its own stability criteria or that of its immediate neighbors. In the uniform timestep scheme each zone is updated as often as required by the least stable zone of the finite difference mesh. Because of less frequent update of program variables it was expected that the nonuniform timestep would result in a reduction of execution time by a factor of five to ten. Available funding was exhausted prior to successful demonstration of the benefits to be derived from the non-uniform time-step method.

  9. Time-Dependent Deformation at Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Field (Nevada) Measured With Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar and Modeled with Multiple Working Hypotheses of Coupled Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigl, K. L.; Ali, S. T.; Akerley, J.; Baluyut, E.; Cardiff, M. A.; Davatzes, N. C.; Foxall, W.; Fratta, D.; Kreemer, C.; Mellors, R. J.; Lopeman, J.; Spielman, P.; Wang, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    To measure time-dependent deformation at the Brady Hot Springs geothermal field in western Nevada, we analyze interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2004 and 2014 by five satellite missions, including: ERS-2, Envisat, ALOS, TerraSAR-X, and TanDEM-X. The resulting maps of deformation show an elliptical subsiding area that is ~4 km by ~1.5 km. Its long axis coincides with the strike of the dominant normal-fault system at Brady. Within this bowl of subsidence, the interference pattern shows several smaller features with length scales of the order of ~1 km. This signature occurs consistently in all of the well-correlated interferometric pairs spanning several months. Results from inverse modeling suggest that the deformation is a result of volumetric contraction in shallow units, no deeper than 600 m, that are probably associated with damaged regions where faults interact via thermal (T), hydrological (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes. Such damaged zones are expected to extend downward along steeply dipping fault planes, providing high-permeability conduits to the production wells. Using time series analysis, we test the hypothesis that geothermal production drives the observed deformation. We find a good correlation between the observed deformation rate and the rate of production in the shallow wells. We explore first-order models to calculate the time-dependent deformation fields produced by coupled processes, including: thermal contraction of rock (T-M coupling), decline in pore pressure (H-M coupling), and dissolution of minerals over time (H-C-M coupling). These processes are related to the heterogeneity of hydro-geological and material properties at the site. This work is part of a project entitled "Poroelastic Tomography by Adjoint Inverse Modeling of Data from Seismology, Geodesy, and Hydrology" (PoroTomo) http://geoscience.wisc.edu/feigl/porotomo.

  10. Time-dependent rheological behavior of natural polysaccharide xanthan gum solutions in interrupted shear and step-incremental/reductional shear flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Seok; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically elucidate the time-dependent rheological behavior of concentrated xanthan gum systems in complicated step-shear flow fields. Using a strain-controlled rheometer (ARES), step-shear flow behaviors of a concentrated xanthan gum model solution have been experimentally investigated in interrupted shear flow fields with a various combination of different shear rates, shearing times and rest times, and step-incremental and step-reductional shear flow fields with various shearing times. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows. (i) In interrupted shear flow fields, the shear stress is sharply increased until reaching the maximum stress at an initial stage of shearing times, and then a stress decay towards a steady state is observed as the shearing time is increased in both start-up shear flow fields. The shear stress is suddenly decreased immediately after the imposed shear rate is stopped, and then slowly decayed during the period of a rest time. (ii) As an increase in rest time, the difference in the maximum stress values between the two start-up shear flow fields is decreased whereas the shearing time exerts a slight influence on this behavior. (iii) In step-incremental shear flow fields, after passing through the maximum stress, structural destruction causes a stress decay behavior towards a steady state as an increase in shearing time in each step shear flow region. The time needed to reach the maximum stress value is shortened as an increase in step-increased shear rate. (iv) In step-reductional shear flow fields, after passing through the minimum stress, structural recovery induces a stress growth behavior towards an equilibrium state as an increase in shearing time in each step shear flow region. The time needed to reach the minimum stress value is lengthened as a decrease in step-decreased shear rate.

  11. Time dependent seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidoro, B.; Iervolino, I.; Chioccarelli, E.; Giorgio, M.

    2012-04-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard is usually computed trough a homogeneous Poisson process that even though it is a time-independent process it is widely used for its very convenient properties. However, when a single fault is of concern and/or the time scale is different from that of the long term, time-dependent processes are required. In this paper, different time-dependent models are reviewed with working examples. In fact, the Paganica fault (in central Italy) has been considered to compute both the probability of occurrence of at least one event in the lifespan of the structure, as well as the seismic hazard expressed in terms of probability of exceedance of an intensity value in a given time frame causing the collapse of the structure. Several models, well known or novel application to engineering hazard have been considered, limitation and issues in their applications are also discussed. The Brownian Passage Time (BPT) model is based on a stochastic modification of the deterministic stick-slip oscillator model for characteristic earthquakes; i.e., based on the addition of random perturbations (a Gaussian white noise) to the deterministic load path predicted by elastic rebound theory. This model assumes that the load state is at some ground level immediately after an event, increases steadly over time, reaches a failure threshold and relaxes instantaneously back to the ground level. For this model also a variable threshold has been considered to take into account the uncertainty of the threshold value. For the slip-predictable model it is assumed that the stress accumulates at a constant rate starting from some initial stress level. Stress is assumed to accumulate for a random period of time until an earthquake occurs. The size of the earthquake is governed by the stress release and it is a function of the elapsed time since the last event. In the time-predictable model stress buildup occurs at a constant rate until the accumulated stress reaches a threshold

  12. Control of Mars global atmospheric loss by the continuous rotation of the crustal magnetic field: A time-dependent MHD study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Brain, David; Dong, Yaxue; Lillis, Robert

    2015-12-01

    We present a time-dependent MHD study of the controlling effects of the Mars crustal field on atmospheric escape. We calculate globally integrated planetary ion loss rates under quiet solar conditions considering the continuous rotation of crustal anomalies with the planet. It is found that the rotating crustal field plays an important role in controlling atmospheric escape. Significant time variation of ˜20% and ˜50% is observed during the entire rotation period for O+ and for O2+ and CO2+, respectively. The control is exerted mainly through two processes. First, the crustal magnetic pressure over the subsolar regime controls solar wind penetration and mass loading and therefore the escaping planetary ion source. There is a strong negative correlation between the magnetic pressure and ion loss, with a time lag of <1 h for O+ and ˜2.5 h for O2+ and CO2+. Second, the crustal magnetic pressure near the terminator region controls the cross-section area between the induced magnetospheric boundary and 100 km altitude at the terminator. The change in day-night connection regulates the extent to which planetary ions created on the dayside can be ultimately carried away by the solar wind and escape Mars. There is a strong positive correlation between the cross-section area and ion loss, with no significant time lag. As the planet rotates, the dayside process and the terminator process work together to control the total amount of escaping planetary ions. However, their relative importance changes with the local time of the strong crustal field region.

  13. A time-dependent density-functional theory and complete active space self-consistent field method study of vibronic absorption and emission spectra of coumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junfeng; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Cao, Zexing

    2014-07-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) and complete active space multiconfiguration self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations have been used to determine equilibrium structures and vibrational frequencies of the ground state and several singlet low-lying excited states of coumarin. Vertical and adiabatic transition energies of S1, S2, and S3 have been estimated by TD-B3LYP and CASSCF/PT2. Calculations predict that the dipole-allowed S1 and S3 states have a character of 1(ππ*), while the dipole-forbidden 1(nπ*) state is responsible for S2. The vibronic absorption and emission spectra of coumarin have been simulated by TD-B3LYP and CASSCF calculations within the Franck-Condon approximation, respectively. The simulated vibronic spectra show good agreement with the experimental observations available, which allow us to reasonably interpret vibronic features in the S0→S1 and S0→S3 absorption and the S0←S1 emission spectra. Based on the calculated results, activity, intensity, and density of the vibronic transitions and their contribution to the experimental spectrum profile have been discussed.

  14. A time-dependent density-functional theory and complete active space self-consistent field method study of vibronic absorption and emission spectra of coumarin.

    PubMed

    Li, Junfeng; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Cao, Zexing

    2014-07-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) and complete active space multiconfiguration self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations have been used to determine equilibrium structures and vibrational frequencies of the ground state and several singlet low-lying excited states of coumarin. Vertical and adiabatic transition energies of S1, S2, and S3 have been estimated by TD-B3LYP and CASSCF/PT2. Calculations predict that the dipole-allowed S1 and S3 states have a character of (1)(ππ*), while the dipole-forbidden (1)(nπ*) state is responsible for S2. The vibronic absorption and emission spectra of coumarin have been simulated by TD-B3LYP and CASSCF calculations within the Franck-Condon approximation, respectively. The simulated vibronic spectra show good agreement with the experimental observations available, which allow us to reasonably interpret vibronic features in the S0→S1 and S0→S3 absorption and the S0←S1 emission spectra. Based on the calculated results, activity, intensity, and density of the vibronic transitions and their contribution to the experimental spectrum profile have been discussed. PMID:25005288

  15. Time-Dependent Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Natta, Antonella

    1995-01-01

    We present theoretical models of the time-dependent thermal and chemical structure of molecular gas suddenly exposed to far-ultraviolet (FUV) (6 eV less than hv less than 13.6 eV) radiation fields and the consequent time- dependent infrared emission of the gas. We focus on the response of molecular hydrogen for cloud densities ranging from n = 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 6)/cu cm and FUV fluxes G(sub 0) = 10(exp 3)-10(exp 6) times the local FUV interstellar flux. For G(sub 0)/n greater than 10(exp -2) cu cm, the emergent H(sub 2) vibrational line intensities are initially larger than the final equilibrium values. The H(sub 2) lines are excited by FUV fluorescence and by collisional excitation in warm gas. Most of the H(sub 2) intensity is generated at a characteristic hydrogen column density of N approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm, which corresponds to an FUV optical depth of unity caused by dust opacity. The time dependence of the H(sub 2) intensities arises because the initial abundances of H(sub 2) at these depths is much higher than the equilibrium values, so that H(sub 2) initially competes more effectively with dust in absorbing FUV photons. Considerable column densities of warm (T approximately 1000) K H(sub 2) gas can be produced by the FUV pumping of H(sub 2) vibrational levels followed by collisional de-excitation, which transfers the energy to heat. In dense (n greater than or approximately 10(exp 5)/cu cm) gas exposed to high (G(sub 0) greater than or approximately 10(exp 4)) fluxes, this warm gas produces a 2-1 S(1)/1-0 S(l) H(sub 2) line ratio of approximately 0.1, which mimics the ratio found in shocked gas. In lower density regions, the FUV pumping produces a pure-fluorescent ratio of approximately 0.5. We also present calculations of the time dependence of the atomic hydrogen column densities and of the intensities of 0 I 6300 A, S II 6730 A, Fe II 1.64 microns, and rotational OH and H20 emission. Potential applications include star-forming regions, clouds

  16. Birefringence in time-dependent moving media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shirong; Zhang, Ruoyang; Zhai, Yanwang; Wei, Jianye; Zhao, Qing

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic wave propagation in one- and two-dimensional time-dependent moving media is investigated in this paper. We identify another origin of linear birefringence caused by the component of the flow perpendicular to the wave vector. Previously, birefringence is induced by applying external electric and magnetic fields to non-crystalline material. Here it is shown that the time-varying velocity field also contributes to such a phenomenon. Our results indicate that the parallel component, time-dependent or not, will not yield birefringence. Furthermore, the time-dependent flow also results in a frequency shift. One-dimensional simulation is conducted to demonstrate these effects.

  17. Determination of efficiencies, loss mechanisms, and performance degradation factors in chopper controlled dc vehical motors. Section 2: The time dependent finite element modeling of the electromagnetic field in electrical machines: Methods and applications. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. B.; Strangas, E.

    1980-01-01

    The time dependent solution of the magnetic field is introduced as a method for accounting for the variation, in time, of the machine parameters in predicting and analyzing the performance of the electrical machines. The method of time dependent finite element was used in combination with an also time dependent construction of a grid for the air gap region. The Maxwell stress tensor was used to calculate the airgap torque from the magnetic vector potential distribution. Incremental inductances were defined and calculated as functions of time, depending on eddy currents and saturation. The currents in all the machine circuits were calculated in the time domain based on these inductances, which were continuously updated. The method was applied to a chopper controlled DC series motor used for electric vehicle drive, and to a salient pole sychronous motor with damper bars. Simulation results were compared to experimentally obtained ones.

  18. Spatiotemporal distribution of strain field and hydraulic conductivity at the Phoenix valley basins, constrained using InSAR time series and time-dependent models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. M.; Shirzaei, M.

    2015-12-01

    Poroelastic theory suggests that long-term aquifer deformation is linearly proportional to changes in pore pressure. Land subsidence is the surface expression of deformation occurring at depth that is observed with dense, detailed, and high precision interferometric SAR data. In earlier work, Miller & Shirzaei [2015] identified zones of subsidence and uplift across the Phoenix valley caused by pumping and artificial recharge operations. we combined ascending and descending Envisat InSAR datasets to estimate vertical and horizontal displacement time series from 2003-2010. Next, wavelet decomposition was used to extract and compare the elastic components of vertical deformation and hydraulic head data to estimate aquifer storage coefficients. In the following, we present the results from elastic aquifer modeling using a 3D array of triangular dislocations, extending from depth of 0.5 to 3.5 km. We employ a time-dependent modeling scheme to invert the InSAR displacement time series, solving for the spatiotemporal distribution of the aquifer-aquitard compaction. Such models are used to calculate strain and stress fields and forecast the location of extensional cracks and earth fissures, useful for urban planning and management. Later, applying the framework suggested by Burbey [1999], the optimum compaction model is used to estimate the 3D distribution of hydraulic conductivities as a function of time. These estimates are verified using in-situ and laboratory observations and provide unique evidence to investigate the stress-dependence of the hydraulic conductivity and its variations due to pumping, recharge, and injection. The estimates will also be used in groundwater flow models, enhancing water management in the valley and elsewhere. References Burby, T. J. (1999), Effects of horizontal strain in estimating specific storage and compaction in confined and leaky aquifer systems, Hydrogeology Journal, 7(6), 521-532, doi:10.1007/s100400050225

  19. Attosecond-magnetic-field-pulse generation by electronic currents in bichromatic circularly polarized UV laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2015-12-01

    Attosecond-magnetic-field-pulse generation is simulated from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations for oriented H2 +. Two schemes with high frequency co- and counter-rotating bichromatic ω2=2 ω1 circularly polarized UV laser pulses are investigated. Results show that comparing to single color processes, stronger induced localized magnetic fields B at the molecular center O (r =0 ) are obtained with attosecond duration. This is attributed to frequent recollision and to interference effects of two pathways in photoionization. The induced magnetic fields are shown to be sensitive to (i) the helicity of the combined laser pulses due to different recollision laser-induced electron trajectories and currents, and (ii) also the carrier envelope phases of the combined attosecond laser pulses. The sensitivity of recollision to bichromatic pulses thus allows one to control the induced magnetic-field-pulse generation.

  20. Observations on the effect of time dependent gravitational fields on the thermal convective stability of a fluid layer heated from above

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Narayanan, R.

    The effect of a time dependent gravity vector on the thermal stability of a fluid layer heated from above is explained physically and by way of a calculation. An analytical result for the stability is obtained and this is compared favorably with a full numerical calculation using Floquet coefficients. Two cases are studied. These are the single and double frequency cases. Contrary to our initial expectations the fluid layer can become more unstable as it is heated from above.

  1. Time dependent Doppler shifts in high-order harmonic generation in intense laser interactions with solid density plasma and frequency chirped pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, E. C.; Zhang, P.; He, Z.-H.; Dollar, F.; Krushelnick, K.; Thomas, A. G. R.

    2015-05-15

    High order harmonic generation from solid targets is a compelling route to generating intense attosecond or even zeptosecond pulses. However, the effects of ion motion on the generation of harmonics have only recently started to be considered. Here, we study the effects of ion motion in harmonics production at ultrahigh laser intensities interacting with solid density plasma. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we find that there is an optimum density for harmonic production that depends on laser intensity, which scales linearly with a{sub 0} with no ion motion but with a reduced scaling if ion motion is included. We derive a scaling for this optimum density with ion motion and also find that the background ion motion induces Doppler red-shifts in the harmonic structures of the reflected pulse. The temporal structure of the Doppler shifts is correlated to the envelope of the incident laser pulse. We demonstrate that by introducing a frequency chirp in the incident pulse we are able to eliminate these Doppler shifts almost completely.

  2. Helicity sensitive enhancement of strong-field ionization in circularly polarized laser fields.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaosong; Lan, Pengfei; Liu, Kunlong; Li, Yang; Liu, Xi; Zhang, Qingbin; Barth, Ingo; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-02-22

    We investigate the strong-field ionization from p± orbitals driven by circularly polarized laser fields by solving the two-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation in polar coordinates with the Lagrange mesh technique. Enhancement of ionization is found in the deep multiphoton ionization regime when the helicity of the laser field is opposite to that of the p electron, while this enhancement is suppressed when the helicities are the same. It is found that the enhancement of ionization is attributed to the multiphoton resonant excitation. The helicity sensitivity of the resonant enhancement is related to the different excitation-ionization channels in left and right circularly polarized laser fields. PMID:26907068

  3. Modeling HEDLA magnetic field generation experiments on laser facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatenejad, M.; Bell, A. R.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Crowston, R.; Drake, R. P.; Flocke, N.; Gregori, G.; Koenig, M.; Krauland, C.; Lamb, D.; Lee, D.; Marques, J. R.; Meinecke, J.; Miniati, F.; Murphy, C. D.; Park, H.-S.; Pelka, A.; Ravasio, A.; Remington, B.; Reville, B.; Scopatz, A.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.; Woolsey, N.; Young, R.; Yurchak, R.

    2013-03-01

    The Flash Center is engaged in a collaboration to simulate laser driven experiments aimed at understanding the generation and amplification of cosmological magnetic fields using the FLASH code. In these experiments a laser illuminates a solid plastic or graphite target launching an asymmetric blast wave into a chamber which contains either Helium or Argon at millibar pressures. Induction coils placed several centimeters away from the target detect large scale magnetic fields on the order of tens to hundreds of Gauss. The time dependence of the magnetic field is consistent with generation via the Biermann battery mechanism near the blast wave. Attempts to perform simulations of these experiments using the FLASH code have uncovered previously unreported numerical difficulties in modeling the Biermann battery mechanism near shock waves which can lead to the production of large non-physical magnetic fields. We report on these difficulties and offer a potential solution.

  4. Long-time solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for an atom in an electromagnetic field using complex coordinate contours

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Liang; Vanroose, Wim; Reps, Brian; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2009-09-08

    We demonstrate that exterior complex scaling (ECS) can be used to impose outgoing wave boundary conditions exactly on solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for atoms in intense electromagnetic pulses using finite grid methods. The procedure is formally exact when applied in the appropriate gauge and is demonstrated in a calculation of high harmonic generation in which multiphoton resonances are seen for long pulse durations. However, we also demonstrate that while the application of ECS in this way is formally exact, numerical error can appear for long time propagations that can only be controlled by extending the finite grid. A mathematical analysis of the origins of that numerical error, illustrated with an analytically solvable model, is also given.

  5. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  6. Analytic Time Depending Galaxy Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Considerando las hip6tesis de Chandrasekhar para el estudjo de la GalActicaq se han desarrollado varios modelos analiticos integrables con simetria axial y dependientes del . . By considering Chandrasekhar hypotheses +or the study o+ Galactic Dynamics, several integrable analytic axisymmetric time-depending galactic models have been developed. Ke ords; GALAXY-DYNAMICS - GALAXY-STRUCTURE

  7. Time-dependent interstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    Some current problems in interstellar chemistry are considered in the context of time-dependent calculations. The limitations of steady-state models of interstellar gas-phase chemistry are discussed, and attempts to chemically date interstellar clouds are reviewed. The importance of studying the physical and chemical properties of interstellar dust is emphasized. Finally, the results of a series of studies of collapsing clouds are described.

  8. Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-10-27

    FRANTIC-3 was developed to evaluate system unreliability using time-dependent techniques. The code provides two major options: to evaluate standby system unavailability or, in addition to the unavailability to calculate the total system failure probability by including both the unavailability of the system on demand as well as the probability that it will operate for an arbitrary time period following the demand. The FRANTIC-3 time dependent reliability models provide a large selection of repair and testingmore » policies applicable to standby or continously operating systems consisting of periodically tested, monitored, and non-repairable (non-testable) components. Time-dependent and test frequency dependent failures, as well as demand stress related failure, test-caused degradation and wear-out, test associated human errors, test deficiencies, test override, unscheduled and scheduled maintenance, component renewal and replacement policies, and test strategies can be prescribed. The conditional system unavailabilities associated with the downtimes of the user specified failed component are also evaluated. Optionally, the code can perform a sensitivity study for system unavailability or total failure probability to the failure characteristics of the standby components.« less

  9. Molecules and Clusters in Intense Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posthumus, Jan

    2009-09-01

    Preface; 1. Ultra-high intensity based on Ti:Sapphire Philip F. Taday and Andrew J. Langley; 2. Diatomic molecules in intense laser fields Jan H. Posthumus and James F. McCann; 3. Small polyatomic molecules in intense laser fields C. Cornaggia; 4. Coherent control in intense laser fields Eric Charron and Brian Sheehy; 5. Experimental studies of laser-heated rare gas clusters M. Lezius and M. Schmidt; 6. Single cluster explosions and high harmonic generation John W. G. Tisch and Emma Springate; 7. Intense laser interaction with extended cluster media Roland A. Smith and Todd Ditmire.

  10. Molecules and Clusters in Intense Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posthumus, Jan

    2001-06-01

    Preface; 1. Ultra-high intensity based on Ti:Sapphire Philip F. Taday and Andrew J. Langley; 2. Diatomic molecules in intense laser fields Jan H. Posthumus and James F. McCann; 3. Small polyatomic molecules in intense laser fields C. Cornaggia; 4. Coherent control in intense laser fields Eric Charron and Brian Sheehy; 5. Experimental studies of laser-heated rare gas clusters M. Lezius and M. Schmidt; 6. Single cluster explosions and high harmonic generation John W. G. Tisch and Emma Springate; 7. Intense laser interaction with extended cluster media Roland A. Smith and Todd Ditmire.

  11. Nonlinear stability of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves in magnetic fluids stressed by a time-dependent acceleration and a tangential magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dib, Yusry O.

    1996-04-01

    The nonlinear stability of surface waves propagating between two superposed streaming magnetic fluids is investigated. The fluids are stressed by a constant tangential magnetic field and a vertical periodic acceleration. The solution employs the method of multiple scales. Owing to the periodicity, resonant cases appear. Two parametrically nonlinear Schrödinger equations are derived for the resonant cases to describe the elevation of weakly nonlinear capillary waves. The standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation is satisfied for the non resonant cases. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability are obtained. A formula for the surface elevation is obtained in each case. It is found that the magnetic field, the velocities and the frequency of the applied periodic force play dual roles in the resonant region. Investigation of the stability criterion by nonlinear perturbation shows that an increase in the acceleration frequency has a stabilizing effect. The stabilizing role of the frequency is due to the destabilizing effect of the amplitude of the periodic acceleration.

  12. A self-consistent model for the particles and fields upstream of an outgassing comet. II - A time-dependent description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flammer, K.; Birmingham, T. E.; Mendis, D. A.; Northrop, T. G.

    1992-01-01

    In a previous paper, the global variation of the magnetic field and solar wind flow parameters in the unshocked region upstream of an outgassing comet was determined using a kinetic treatment for the cometary ions. Two different assumptions were made concerning the cometary ion distribution function: the pickup cometary ions formed either a velocity space gyrotropic ring distribution or a velocity space isotropic shell distribution in the solar wind frame of reference. In the present paper the general case is considered wherein the newly picked up ions are elastically pitch angle scattered from the initial ring distribution to a shell with some characteristic time scale. Using theoretically determined parameters which reflect the conditions expected at Comet Kopff (a typical short-period comet and a possible target for the CRAF/Cassini mission) for various heliocentric distances, how the pitch angle scattering rate affects the global morphology is determined.

  13. Active tailoring of nanoantenna plasmonic fields using few-cycle laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Ciappina, M. F.; Pérez-Hernández, J. A.; Landsman, A. S.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, D.

    2016-02-01

    Plasmonic nanoatennas are a versatile tool for coherently manipulating light on a nanoscale by confining electric fields of the driving laser into subwavelength volumes, thereby significantly enhancing electric near fields. It is normally assumed that the time-dependent spectral properties of these near fields are independent of the duration of the driving laser pulse. Here we show that when a few-cycle laser pulse shines on a bow-tie nanoantenna, its spectral properties are dramatically modified, as evidenced by a large shift of the center wavelength of the near field, relative to the driving laser. In addition, for certain geometries, a second color appears in the near field, creating conditions for generation of an isolated attosecond pulse at megahertz repetition rate. Our results open the door to frequency-tunable ultrafast sources at nanometer scale without tuning the frequency of the driving laser.

  14. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  15. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-08-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  16. Laser Resurfacing: Full Field and Fractional.

    PubMed

    Pozner, Jason N; DiBernardo, Barry E

    2016-07-01

    Laser resurfacing is a very popular procedure worldwide. Full field and fractional lasers are used in many aesthetic practices. There have been significant advances in laser resurfacing in the past few years, which make patient treatments more efficacious and with less downtime. Erbium and carbon dioxide and ablative, nonablative, and hybrid fractional lasers are all extremely effective and popular tools that have a place in plastic surgery and dermatology offices. PMID:27363765

  17. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) coupled with reference interaction site model self-consistent field explicitly including spatial electron density distribution (RISM-SCF-SEDD).

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, D

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical approach to design bright bio-imaging molecules is one of the most progressing ones. However, because of the system size and computational accuracy, the number of theoretical studies is limited to our knowledge. To overcome the difficulties, we developed a new method based on reference interaction site model self-consistent field explicitly including spatial electron density distribution and time-dependent density functional theory. We applied it to the calculation of indole and 5-cyanoindole at ground and excited states in gas and solution phases. The changes in the optimized geometries were clearly explained with resonance structures and the Stokes shift was correctly reproduced. PMID:27608983

  18. Generation of vortex rings by nonstationary laser wake field

    SciTech Connect

    Tsintsadze, N.L.; Murtaza, G.; Shah, H.A.

    2006-01-15

    A new concept of generating quasistatic magnetic fields, vortex rings, and electron jets in an isotropic homogeneous plasma is presented. The propagation of plasma waves, generated by a relativistically intense short pulse laser, is investigated by using the kinetic model and a novel nonpotential, time-dependent ponderomotive force is derived by obtaining a hydrodynamic equation of motion. This force can in turn generate quasistatic magnetic fields, vortex rings, and electron jets. It is also shown that the vortex rings can become a means for accelerating electrons, which are initially in equilibrium. The conservation of canonical momentum circulation and the frozen-in condition for the vorticity is discussed. The excitation of the vortex waves by the modulation of the amplitude of the plasma waves is considered. These vortex waves, which generate a lower hybrid mode propagating across the generated magnetic field, are also investigated.

  19. Time-dependent response of dissipative electron systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, Jean Christophe; Krause, Pascal; Klamroth, Tillmann; Saalfrank, Peter

    2010-06-15

    We present a systematic study of the influence of energy and phase relaxation on dynamic polarizability simulations in the linear response regime. The nonperturbative approach is based on explicit electron dynamics using short laser pulses of low intensities. To include environmental effects on the property calculation, we use the time-dependent configuration-interaction method in its reduced density matrix formulation. Both energy dissipation and nonlocal pure dephasing are included. The explicit treatment of time-resolved electron dynamics gives access to the phase shift between the electric field and the induced dipole moment, which can be used to define a useful uncertainty measure for the dynamic polarizability. The nonperturbative treatment is compared to perturbation theory expressions, as applied to a simple model system, the rigid H{sub 2} molecule. It is shown that both approaches are equivalent for low field intensities, but the time-dependent treatment provides complementary information on the phase of the induced dipole moment, which allows for the definition of an uncertainty associated with the computation of the dynamic polarizability in the linear response regime.

  20. STRONG FIELD PHYSICS WITH MID INFRARED LASERS.

    SciTech Connect

    POGORELSKY,I.V.

    2001-08-27

    Mid-infrared gas laser technology promises to become a unique tool for research in strong-field relativistic physics. The degree to which physics is relativistic is determined by a ponderomotive potential. At a given intensity, a 10 {micro}m wavelength CO{sub 2} laser reaches a 100 times higher ponderomotive potential than the 1 {micro}m wavelength solid state lasers. Thus, we can expect a proportional increase in the throughput of such processes as laser acceleration, x-ray production, etc. These arguments have been confirmed in proof-of-principle Thomson scattering and laser acceleration experiments conducted at BNL and UCLA where the first terawatt-class CO{sub 2} lasers are in operation. Further more, proposals for the 100 TW, 100 fs CO{sub 2} lasers based on frequency-chirped pulse amplification have been conceived. Such lasers can produce physical effects equivalent to a hypothetical multi-petawatt solid state laser. Ultra-fast mid-infrared lasers will open new routes to the next generation electron and ion accelerators, ultra-bright monochromatic femtosecond x-ray and gamma sources, allow to attempt the study of Hawking-Unruh radiation, and explore relativistic aspects of laser-matter interactions. We review the present status and experiments with terawatt-class CO{sub 2} lasers, sub-petawatt projects, and prospective applications in strong-field science.

  1. Strong-Field Control of Laser Filamentation Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levis, Robert; Romanov, Dmitri; Filin, Aleskey; Compton, Ryan

    2008-05-01

    The propagation of short strong-file laser pulses in gas and solution phases often result in formation of filaments. This phenomenon involves many nonlinear processes including Kerr lensing, group velocity dispersion, multi-photon ionization, plasma defocusing, intensity clamping, and self-steepening. Of these, formation and dynamics of pencil-shape plasma areas plays a crucial role. The fundamental understanding of these laser-induced plasmas requires additional effort, because the process is highly nonlinear and complex. We studied the ultrafast laser-generated plasma dynamics both experimentally and theoretically. Ultrafast plasma dynamics was probed using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering. The measurements were made in a room temperature gas maintained at 1 atm in a flowing cell. The time dependent scattering was measured by delaying the CARS probe with respect to the intense laser excitation pulse. A general trend is observed between the spacing of the ground state and the first allowed excited state with the rise time for the noble gas series and the molecular gases. This trend is consistent with our theoretical model, which considers the ultrafast dynamics of the strong field generated plasma as a three-step process; (i) strong-field ionization followed by the electron gaining considerable kinetic energy during the pulse; (ii) immediate post-pulse dynamics: fast thermalization, impact-ionization-driven electron multiplication and cooling; (iii) ensuing relaxation: evolution to electron-ion equilibrium and eventual recombination.

  2. Network-timing-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Delattre, Vincent; Keller, Daniel; Perich, Matthew; Markram, Henry; Muller, Eilif B

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD), with STDP-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding. PMID:26106298

  3. Network-timing-dependent plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Delattre, Vincent; Keller, Daniel; Perich, Matthew; Markram, Henry; Muller, Eilif B.

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP). In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD), with STDP-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding. PMID:26106298

  4. Dirac equation with some time-dependent electromagnetic terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeedi, K.; Zarrinkamar, S.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2016-07-01

    We study the motion of relativistic fermions in a time-dependent electromagnetic field within the framework of Dirac equation. We consider the time-dependent scalar potential of the exponential form and the vector potential of linear form. We obtain the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues.

  5. Inelastic scattering of electrons by metastable hydrogen atoms in a laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buica, Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    The inelastic scattering of fast electrons by metastable hydrogen atoms in the presence of a linearly polarized laser field is theoretically studied in the domain of field intensities below 1010 W/cm2. The interaction of the hydrogen atom with the laser field is described by first-order time-dependent perturbation theory, while the projectile electrons interacting with the laser field are described by the Gordon-Volkov wave functions. An analytic expression is obtained for the differential scattering cross section in the first-order Born approximation for laser-assisted inelastic e--H (2 s ) scattering for the 2 s →n l excitation. Detailed analytical and numerical results are presented for inelastic scattering accompanied by one-photon absorption, and the angular dependence and resonance structure of the differential cross sections are discussed for the 2 s →4 l excitation of metastable hydrogen.

  6. Time-dependent diffusion in stellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecian, G.; Stift, M. J.; Dorfi, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The chemical peculiarities of Ap stars are due to abundance stratifications produced by atomic diffusion in their outer layers. Theoretical models can predict such stratifications, but so far only provide equilibrium solutions which correspond to the maximum depth-dependent abundances for each element that can be supported by the radiation field. However, these stratifications are actually built up through a non-linear, time-dependent process which has never been modelled for realistic stellar atmospheres. Here, we present the first numerical simulations of time-dependent diffusion. We solve the continuity equation after having computed, as accurately as possible, atomic diffusion velocities (with and without a magnetic field) for a simplified fictitious - but still realistic - chemical element: cloudium. The direct comparison with existing observations is not the immediate aim of this work but rather a general understanding of how the stratification build-up proceeds in time and space. Our results raise serious questions as to the relevance of equilibrium solutions and reinforce the suspicion that certain accumulations of chemical elements might prove unstable.

  7. Relativistic electron scattering from a freely movable proton in a strong laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ai-Hua; Li, Shu-Min

    2014-11-01

    We study the electron scattering from the freely movable spin-1/2 proton in the presence of a linearly polarized laser field in the first Born approximation. The dressed state of the electron is described by a time-dependent wave function derived from a perturbation treatment (in a laser field). With the aid of numerical results we explore the dependencies of the differential cross section (DCS) on the electron-impact energy. Due to the mobility of the target, the DCS of this process is modified compared to the Mott scattering, especially in large scattering angles.

  8. Probing the influence of the Coulomb field on atomic ionization by sculpted two-color laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xinhua; Roither, Stefan; Gräfe, Stefanie; Kartashov, Daniil; Persson, Emil; Lemell, Christoph; Zhang, Li; Schöffler, Markus S.; Baltuška, Andrius; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Kitzler, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Interpretation of electron or photon spectra obtained with strong laser pulses that may carry attosecond dynamical and Ångström structural information about atoms or molecules usually relies on variants of the strong-field approximation (SFA) within which the influence of the Coulomb potential on the electron trajectory is neglected. We employ two-color sculpted laser fields to experimentally tune and probe the influence of the Coulomb field on the strong-field-driven wavepacket as observed by two-dimensional electron and ion momentum spectra. By comparison of measured spectra with predictions of the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation as well as the quasi-classical limit of the SFA, the strong-field classical trajectory model, we are able to trace back the influence of the Coulomb field to the timing of the wavepacket release with sub-cycle precision.

  9. Time-dependent behavior of positrons in noble gases

    SciTech Connect

    Wadehra, J.M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Drallos, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Both equilibrium and nonequilibrium behaviors of positrons in several noble gases are reviewed. Our novel procedure for obtaining the time-dependent behavior of various swarm parameters -- such as the positron drift velocity, average positron energy, positron annihilation rate (or equivalently Z{sub eff}) etc. -- for positrons in pure ambient gases subjected to external electrostatic fields is described. Summaries of time-dependent as well as electric field-dependent results for positron swarms in various noble gases are presented. New time-dependent results for positron swarms in neon are also described in detail. 36 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Assessment of charge-transfer excitations with time-dependent, range-separated density functional theory based on long-range MP2 and multiconfigurational self-consistent field wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedegârd, Erik Donovan; Heiden, Frank; Knecht, Stefan; Fromager, Emmanuel; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2013-11-01

    Charge transfer excitations can be described within Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT), not only by means of the Coulomb Attenuated Method (CAM) but also with a combination of wave function theory and TD-DFT based on range separation. The latter approach enables a rigorous formulation of multi-determinantal TD-DFT schemes where excitation classes, which are absent in conventional TD-DFT spectra (like for example double excitations), can be addressed. This paper investigates the combination of both the long-range Multi-Configuration Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) and Second Order Polarization Propagator Approximation (SOPPA) ansätze with a short-range DFT (srDFT) description. We find that the combinations of SOPPA or MCSCF with TD-DFT yield better results than could be expected from the pure wave function schemes. For the Time-Dependent MCSCF short-range DFT ansatz (TD-MC-srDFT) excitation energies calculated over a larger benchmark set of molecules with predominantly single reference character yield good agreement with their reference values, and are in general comparable to the CAM-B3LYP functional. The SOPPA-srDFT scheme is tested for a subset of molecules used for benchmarking TD-MC-srDFT and performs slightly better against the reference data for this small subset. Beyond the proof-of-principle calculations comprising the first part of this contribution, we additionally studied the low-lying singlet excited states (S1 and S2) of the retinal chromophore. The chromophore displays multireference character in the ground state and both excited states exhibit considerable double excitation character, which in turn cannot be described within standard TD-DFT, due to the adiabatic approximation. However, a TD-MC-srDFT approach can account for the multireference character, and excitation energies are obtained with accuracy comparable to CASPT2, although using a much smaller active space.

  11. Assessment of charge-transfer excitations with time-dependent, range-separated density functional theory based on long-range MP2 and multiconfigurational self-consistent field wave functions.

    PubMed

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Heiden, Frank; Knecht, Stefan; Fromager, Emmanuel; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2013-11-14

    Charge transfer excitations can be described within Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT), not only by means of the Coulomb Attenuated Method (CAM) but also with a combination of wave function theory and TD-DFT based on range separation. The latter approach enables a rigorous formulation of multi-determinantal TD-DFT schemes where excitation classes, which are absent in conventional TD-DFT spectra (like for example double excitations), can be addressed. This paper investigates the combination of both the long-range Multi-Configuration Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) and Second Order Polarization Propagator Approximation (SOPPA) ansätze with a short-range DFT (srDFT) description. We find that the combinations of SOPPA or MCSCF with TD-DFT yield better results than could be expected from the pure wave function schemes. For the Time-Dependent MCSCF short-range DFT ansatz (TD-MC-srDFT) excitation energies calculated over a larger benchmark set of molecules with predominantly single reference character yield good agreement with their reference values, and are in general comparable to the CAM-B3LYP functional. The SOPPA-srDFT scheme is tested for a subset of molecules used for benchmarking TD-MC-srDFT and performs slightly better against the reference data for this small subset. Beyond the proof-of-principle calculations comprising the first part of this contribution, we additionally studied the low-lying singlet excited states (S1 and S2) of the retinal chromophore. The chromophore displays multireference character in the ground state and both excited states exhibit considerable double excitation character, which in turn cannot be described within standard TD-DFT, due to the adiabatic approximation. However, a TD-MC-srDFT approach can account for the multireference character, and excitation energies are obtained with accuracy comparable to CASPT2, although using a much smaller active space. PMID:24320275

  12. Nonsequential double ionization with time-dependent renormalized-natural-orbital theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brics, M.; Rapp, J.; Bauer, D.

    2014-11-01

    Recently introduced time-dependent renormalized-natural-orbital theory (TDRNOT) is tested on nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of a numerically exactly solvable one-dimensional model He atom subject to few-cycle, 800-nm laser pulses. NSDI of atoms in strong laser fields is a prime example of nonperturbative, highly correlated electron dynamics. As such, NSDI is an important "worst-case" benchmark for any time-dependent few and many-body technique beyond linear response. It is found that TDRNOT reproduces the celebrated NSDI "knee," i.e., a many-order-of-magnitude enhancement of the double-ionization yield (as compared to purely sequential ionization) with only the ten most significant natural orbitals (NOs) per spin. Correlated photoelectron spectra—as "more differential" observables—require more NOs.

  13. Strong field laser control of photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Solá, Ignacio R; González-Vázquez, Jesús; de Nalda, Rebeca; Bañares, Luis

    2015-05-28

    Strong ultrashort laser pulses have opened new avenues for the manipulation of photochemical processes like photoisomerization or photodissociation. The presence of light intense enough to reshape the potential energy surfaces may steer the dynamics of both electrons and nuclei in new directions. A controlled laser pulse, precisely defined in terms of spectrum, time and intensity, is the essential tool in this type of approach to control chemical dynamics at a microscopic level. In this Perspective we examine the current strategies developed to achieve control of chemical processes with strong laser fields, as well as recent experimental advances that demonstrate that properties like the molecular absorption spectrum, the state lifetimes, the quantum yields and the velocity distributions in photodissociation processes can be controlled by the introduction of carefully designed strong laser fields. PMID:25835746

  14. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, Takeshi Okamura, Masahiro; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro

    2014-11-10

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 10{sup 11}, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  15. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-12

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  16. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-12

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, whichmore » was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.« less

  17. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  18. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Driving slow-light solitons by a controlling laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybin, Andrei V.; Vadeiko, Ilya P.; Bishop, Alan R.

    2005-05-01

    In the framework of the nonlinear Λ-model we investigate propagation of a slow-light soliton in atomic vapours and Bose-Einstein condensates. The velocity of the slow-light soliton is controlled by a time-dependent background field created by a controlling laser. For a fairly arbitrary time dependence of the field we find the dynamics of the slow-light soliton inside the medium. We provide an analytical description for the nonlinear dependence of the velocity of the signal on the controlling field. If the background field is turned off at some moment of time, the signal stops. We find the location and shape of the spatially localized memory bit imprinted into the medium. We show that the process of writing optical information can be described in terms of scattering data for the underlying scattering problem.

  19. Spectral methods for time dependent problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, Eitan

    1990-01-01

    Spectral approximations are reviewed for time dependent problems. Some basic ingredients from the spectral Fourier and Chebyshev approximations theory are discussed. A brief survey was made of hyperbolic and parabolic time dependent problems which are dealt with by both the energy method and the related Fourier analysis. The ideas presented above are combined in the study of accuracy stability and convergence of the spectral Fourier approximation to time dependent problems.

  20. Characterization of the time-dependent strain field at seismogenic depths using first-motion focal mechanisms: Observations of large-scale decadal variations in stress along the San Andrea fault system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sipkin, S.A.; Silver, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a method for summing moment tensors derived from first-motion focal mechanisms to study temporal dependence in features of the subsurface regional strain field. Time-dependent processes are inferred by comparing mechanisms summed over differing time periods. We apply this methodology to seismogenic zones in central and southern California using focal mechanisms produced by the Northern and Southern California Seismograph Networks for events during 1980-1999. We find a consistent pattern in both the style of deformation (strike-slip versus compressional) and seismicity rate across the entire region. If these temporal variations are causally related, it suggests a temporal change in the regional-scale stress field. One change consistent with the observations is a rotation in the regional maximum horizontal compressive stress direction, followed by a reversal to the original direction. Depending upon the dominant style of deformation locally, this change in orientation of the regional stress will tend to either enhance or hinder deformation. The mode of enhanced deformation can range from increased microseismicity and creep to major earthquakes. We hypothesize that these temporal changes in the regional stress field are the result of subtle changes in apparent relative plate motion between the Pacific and North American plates, perhaps due to long-range postseismic stress diffusion. Others have hypothesized that small changes in plate motion over thousands of years, and/or over decades, are responsible for changes in the style of deformation in southern California. We propose that such changes, over the course of just a few years, also affect the style of deformation.

  1. Simulation of Intense Isolated Attosecond Pulse Generation with a Two-color Laser Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilanlou, Abdolreza Amani; Ishikawa, Kenichi L.; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    A numerical analysis by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation on a neon atom within the single-active electron approximation shows that a two-color laser field synthesized from a sub-12-fs fundamental field and a detuned second harmonic field with a wavelength shorter than 380nm is suitable for generating an intense isolated attosecond pulse (IAP). We have also investigated the effects of carrier-envelope phase variation on the obtained IAP and have compared the results to those obtained from a 5-fs fundamental field alone with the same peak field amplitude to show that a more intense IAP can be generated by the two-color laser field which is useful for nonlinear experiments in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range.

  2. Ion and electron emission from silver nanoparticles in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect

    Doeppner, T.; Fennel, Th.; Radcliffe, P.; Tiggesbaeumker, J.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.

    2006-03-15

    By a comparative analysis of the emission of highly charged ions and energetic electrons the interaction dynamics of intense femtosecond laser fields (10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) with nanometer-sized silver clusters is investigated. Using dual laser pulses with variable optical delay the time-dependent cluster response is resolved. A dramatic increase both in the atomic charge state of the ions and the maximum electron kinetic energy is observed for a certain delay of the pulses. Corresponding Vlasov calculations on a metal cluster model system indicate that enhanced cluster ionization as well as the generation of fast electrons coincide with resonant plasmon excitation.

  3. Photoelectron Holography: Exploration of the Multiphoton Ionization and Multiple Rescattering in Intense Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chon-Teng; Li, Peng-Cheng; Chu, Shih-I.

    2015-05-01

    We perform a fully ab initio investigation of the multiphoton ionization (MPI) and electron multiple rescattering dynamics of atomic H driven by intense ultrashort mid-IR laser fields. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved accurately and efficiently by means of the time-dependent generalized pseudospectral method (TDGPS) in the Kramers-Henneberger (KH) frame. We use the semiclassical approach to analyze and visualize all the trajectories during the atom-laser interaction, unveiling the multiple e-parent ion rescattering processes. In this way, we can identify the dominant behaviors of different parts of photoelectron holography to a particular number of times of the electron's revisits to its parent ion. This work was partially supported by DOE.

  4. Momentum space iterative solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, G. Zs.; Borbély, S.; Nagy, L.

    2013-11-13

    We present a novel approach, the iterative solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (iTDSE model), for the investigation of atomic systems interacting with external laser fields. This model is the extension of the momentum-space strong-field approximation (MSSFA) [1], in which the Coulomb potential was considered only as a first order perturbation. In the iTDSE approach higher order terms were gradually introduced until convergence was achieved. Benchmark calculations were done on the hydrogen atom, and the obtained results were compared to the direct numerical solution [2].

  5. Infrared Blobs : Time-dependent Flags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, P. R.; Mack, J.; Dulude, M.; Hilbert, B.

    2014-10-01

    We describe the creation of time-dependent flags for pixels associated with "blobs" on the WFC3 IR detector. We detect the blobs on flat fields obtained by repeated observations of the night side of the Earth. We provide the most complete census of IR blobs' positions, radii, and times of first appearance. In aggregate, a set of 46 blobs, 27 "strong" and 19 "medium" in their effective scattering cross section, affect slightly less than 1% of the pixels of the detector. A second set of 81 "weak" (and typically smaller) blobs affect another 1% of the pixels. In the past, the "blob" flag, bit 9 (i.e. value = 512) in the data quality (DQ) array described in Table 2.5 of the WFC3 Data Handbook (Rajan et al. 2010) has been a static 2-D array; henceforth a set of such arrays, each associated with a "use after" date corresponding to the appearance of one or more new blobs, can be used. We prepared such DQ arrays using the 46 "strong" and "medium" blobs and discuss why we did not include the fainter blobs therein. As an added data product, we create and test a blob flat field that corrects the effects of blobs on extended emission; however, it should not be applied if stellar photometry is the goal.

  6. Cyclotron resonance cooling by strong laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Tagcuhi, Toshihiro; Mima, Kunioka

    1995-12-31

    Reduction of energy spread of electron beam is very important to increase a total output radiation power in free electron lasers. Although several cooling systems of particle beams such as a stochastic cooling are successfully operated in the accelerator physics, these cooling mechanisms are very slow and they are only applicable to high energy charged particle beams of ring accelerators. We propose here a new concept of laser cooling system by means of cyclotron resonance. Electrons being in cyclotron motion under a strong magnetic field can resonate with circular polarized electromagnetic field, and the resonance take place selectively depending on the velocity of the electrons. If cyclotron frequency of electrons is equal to the frequency of the electromagnetic field, they absorb the electromagnetic field energy strongly, but the other electrons remain unchanged. The absorbed energy will be converted to transverse kinetic energy, and the energy will be dumped into the radiation energy through bremastrahlung. To build a cooling system, we must use two laser beams, where one of them is counter-propagating and the other is co-propagating with electron beam. When the frequency of the counter-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of fast electrons and the co-propagating laser is tuned with the cyclotron frequency of slow electrons, the energy of two groups will approach and the cooling will be achieved. We solve relativistic motions of electrons with relativistic radiation dumping force, and estimate the cooling rate of this mechanism. We will report optimum parameters for the electron beam cooling system for free electron lasers.

  7. Time-dependent photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyang

    1999-09-01

    I show that the angular distribution of electrons photoionized from gas phase targets by short light pulses is time-dependent, when the orbital momentum composition of the photocurrent changes with excitation energy so evolves with the time of detection. A theory of time- dependent photoionization is outlined and general formulas of time-dependent photoelectron flux and angular distribution are given. Two general propagator methods suitable to describe the time-dependent photoionization and scattering processes are developed. The photoionization process is viewed as a local excitation followed by a half scattering. The local excitation process is solved theoretically in a small region around the target core. This approach has been generalized to describe the evolution of a wavepacket in an unbound system. An asymptotic propagator theorem is discovered and used to derive analytic expressions for asymptotic propagators. The origin of the time dependence is explored by parameterizing the time delay and orbital momentum coupling in a two channel model. K-shell photoionization of N2 and CO are calculated with this time- dependent photoionization theory, implemented using a multiple scattering model. Numerical results demonstrate that the time dependence of photoelectron angular distributions is a realistic effect.

  8. Laser plasma in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo,K.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.; Dabrowski, R.; Okamura, M.

    2009-09-20

    Laser Ion Source (LIS) is a candidate among various heavy ion sources. A high density plasma produced by Nd:YAG laser with drift velocity realizes high current and high charge state ion beams. In order to obtain higher charged particle ions, we had test experiments of LIS with a magnetic field by which a connement effect can make higher charged beams. We measured total current by Faraday Cup (FC) and analyzed charge distribution by Electrostatic Ion Analyzer (EIA). It is shown that the ion beam charge state is higher by a permanent magnet.

  9. Time dependent friction in a free gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Cristiano; Sisti, Francesco; Stagno, Gabriele V.

    2016-03-01

    We consider a body moving in a perfect gas, described by the mean-field approximation and interacting elastically with the body, we study the friction exerted by the gas on the body fixed at constant velocities. The time evolution of the body in this setting was studied in Caprino et al. [Math. Phys. 264, 167-189 (2006)], Caprino et al. [Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci. 17, 1369-1403 (2007)], and Cavallaro [Rend. Mat. Appl. 27, 123-145 (2007)] for object with simple shape; the first study where a simple kind of concavity was considered was in Sisti and Ricciuti [SIAM J. Math. Anal. 46, 3759-3611 (2014)], showing new features in the dynamic but not in the friction term. The case of more general shape of the body was left out for further difficulties, and we believe indeed that there are actually non-trivial issues to be faced for these more general cases. To show this and in the spirit of getting a more realistic perspective in the study of friction problems, in this paper, we focused our attention on the friction term itself, studying its behavior on a body with a more general kind of concavity and fixed at constant velocities. We derive the expression of the friction term for constant velocities, we show how it is time dependent, and we give its exact estimate in time. Finally, we use this result to show the absence of a constant velocity in the actual dynamic of such a body.

  10. Topic 5: Time-Dependent Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Tanabe, Tada-aki

    1991-12-31

    This chapter is a report of the material presented at the International Workshop on Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete, Session 4 -- Time Dependent Behavior, held at Columbia University, New York on June 3--6, 1991. Dr. P.A. Pfeiffer presented recent developments in time-dependent behavior of concrete and Professor T. Tanabe presented a review of research in Japan on time-dependent behavior of concrete. The chapter discusses the recent research of time-dependent behavior of concrete in the past few years in both the USA-European and Japanese communities. The author appreciates the valuable information provided by Zdenek P. Bazant in preparing the USA-European Research section.

  11. Near-circularly polarized single attosecond pulse generation from nitrogen molecules in spatially inhomogeneous laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Li, Yang; Zhu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Qingbin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-01-01

    The generation of an attosecond pulse in nitrogen molecules using spatially inhomogeneous laser fields is investigated by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. It is found that an isolated attosecond pulse with elliptical polarization can be generated using linearly polarized laser fields. By changing polarization direction with respect to the molecular axis, the ellipticity of the attosecond pulse can be easily controlled. At some specific angles, the intensities of the two mutually vertical harmonic components, parallel and perpendicular to the driving laser polarization direction, are comparable. Additionally, the relative phase between the two components is about π/2. As a result, it supports the generation of the isolated near-circularly polarized attosecond pulse with a duration of 155 as.

  12. Time dependent breakdown in silicon dioxide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svensson, C.; Shumka, A.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted regarding the possible existence of a time-dependent breakdown mechanism in thermal oxides of the type used as gate oxide in MOS circuits. Questions of device fabrication are discussed along with details concerning breakdown measurements and the determination of C-V characteristics. A relatively large prebreakdown current observed in one of the cases is related to the time-dependent breakdown.

  13. Plasmon-Enhanced Multi-Ionization of Small Metal Clusters in Strong Femtosecond Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köller, L.; Schumacher, M.; Köhn, J.; Teuber, S.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Meiwes-Broer, K. H.

    1999-05-01

    The multiply charging process of platinum cluster ions under intense field conditions show a strong dependence on the width of the femtosecond laser pulse. Increasing the pulse width from 140 to 600 fs while keeping the energy per pulse constant leads to an increase in the highest observed charge state z* of the ejected atoms from z* = 13 to z* = 20. This increased charging efficiency is explained by the evolution of the plasmon energy of the metal cluster upon the change in electron density during the Coulomb explosion process. Thus the time dependence of the charging of a cluster in an intense light field has been observed in real time.

  14. 21 CFR 886.1360 - Visual field laser instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Visual field laser instrument. 886.1360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1360 Visual field laser instrument. (a) Identification. A visual field laser instrument is an AC-powered device intended to...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1360 - Visual field laser instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Visual field laser instrument. 886.1360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1360 Visual field laser instrument. (a) Identification. A visual field laser instrument is an AC-powered device intended to...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1360 - Visual field laser instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Visual field laser instrument. 886.1360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1360 Visual field laser instrument. (a) Identification. A visual field laser instrument is an AC-powered device intended to...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1360 - Visual field laser instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Visual field laser instrument. 886.1360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1360 Visual field laser instrument. (a) Identification. A visual field laser instrument is an AC-powered device intended to...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1360 - Visual field laser instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Visual field laser instrument. 886.1360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1360 Visual field laser instrument. (a) Identification. A visual field laser instrument is an AC-powered device intended to...

  19. Exterior complex scaling method in TDDFT: HHG of Ar atoms in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnova, K. E.; Telnov, D. A.; Rozenbaum, E. B.; Chu, S. I.

    2014-04-01

    The exterior complex scaling (ECS) method is applied in the framework of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) to study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of multielectron atoms in intense laser fields. With the help of ECS, correct outgoing-wave boundary conditions can be imposed on the wave functions at large distances. In our implementation, ECS is combined with the time-dependent generalized pseudospectral method for accurate and efficient solution of the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. We make use of LB94 exchange-correlation potential which appears quite accurate in calculations of unperturbed electronic structure of Ar. Calculations of HHG are performed for the laser fields with the wavelength of 800 nm and several peak intensities. The HHG spectrum exhibits an intensity-independent minimum corresponding to the photon energy of about 51 eV which is closely related to the Cooper minimum in the photoionization cross section of Ar. We found that HHG spectra calculated with the frozen-core potential (not including dynamic response of the electron density) differ significantly from those obtained by TDDFT.

  20. Pedagogical Aspects of Time-Dependent Rotation Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leubner, C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the reformulation of a classical magnetic moment interacting with various magnetic field configurations in terms of coordinate-free, time-dependent rotation operators. This approach provides useful exercises for the manipulation of three-dimensional rotation operators and provides examples for a number of quantum-mechanics related…

  1. Intense transient magnetic-field generation by laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1981-08-18

    In a laser system, the return current of a laser generated plasma is conducted near a target to subject that target to the magnetic field thereof. In alternate embodiments the target may be either a small non-fusion object for testing under the magnetic field or a laser-fusion pellet. In the laser-fusion embodiment, the laser-fusion pellet is irradiated during the return current flow and the intense transient magnetic field is used to control the hot electrons thereof to hinder them from striking and heating the core of the irradiated laser-fusion pellet.

  2. Time-dependent corona models - Scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korevaar, P.; Martens, P. C. H.

    1989-01-01

    Scaling laws are derived for the one-dimensional time-dependent Euler equations that describe the evolution of a spherically symmetric stellar atmosphere. With these scaling laws the results of the time-dependent calculations by Korevaar (1989) obtained for one star are applicable over the whole Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and even to elliptic galaxies. The scaling is exact for stars with the same M/R-ratio and a good approximation for stars with a different M/R-ratio. The global relaxation oscillation found by Korevaar (1989) is scaled to main sequence stars, a solar coronal hole, cool giants and elliptic galaxies.

  3. Time-Dependent Molecular Reaction Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Oehrn, Yngve

    2007-11-29

    This paper is a brief review of a time-dependent, direct, nonadiabatic theory of molecular processes called Electron Nuclear Dynamics (END). This approach to the study of molecular reaction dynamics is a hierarchical theory that can be applied at various levels of approximation. The simplest level of END uses classical nuclei and represents all electrons by a single, complex, determinantal wave function. The wave function parameters such as average nuclear positions and momenta, and molecular orbital coefcients carry the time dependence and serve as dynamical variables. Examples of application are given of the simplest level of END to ion-atom and ion-molecule reactions.

  4. Manipulating electron-ion recollision in a midinfrared laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yinghui; Diao, Hanhu; Zeng, Zhinan; Ge, Xiaochun; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-09-01

    As one of the most important physical processes of strong-field laser-matter interaction, laser-driven electron-ion recollision depends sensitively on the polarization of the laser field and can be effectively manipulated via an orthogonally polarized two-color (OTC) laser field. Here we present an extension of recollision manipulation in an OTC field to the midinfrared laser field regime, and demonstrate that only a few recollisions occur in a multicycle 1800 /900 nm OTC laser field. The number of recollisions can be controlled by simply tuning the relative delay of the two-color laser pulses, and this manipulation process can be visualized by measuring the high-order harmonic spectra. When the intensity of a midinfrared OTC field is further increased, a single recollision can be correlated to one hump in the harmonic spectrum, which will help to increase the measurement accuracy of time-resolved dynamics in atoms and molecules.

  5. Curved laser microjet in near field.

    PubMed

    Kotlyar, Victor V; Stafeev, Sergey S; Kovalev, Alexey A

    2013-06-20

    With the use of the finite-difference time-domain-based simulation and a scanning near-field optical microscope that has a metal cantilever tip, the diffraction of a linearly polarized plane wave of wavelength λ by a glass corner step of height 2λ is shown to generate a low divergence laser jet of a root-parabolic form: over a distance of 4.7λ on the optical axis, the beam path is shifted by 2.1λ. The curved laser jet of the FWHM length depth of focus=9.5λ has the diameter FWHM=1.94λ over the distance 5.5λ, and the intensity maximum is 5 times higher than the incident wave intensity. The discrepancy between the analytical and the experimental results amounts to 11%. PMID:23842153

  6. Fragmentation dynamics of Ar2^+ dimers in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrakvelidze, M.; Wu, J.; Dörner, R.; Thumm, U.

    2012-06-01

    We studied the fragmentation dynamics of the Ar2 dimers in 790 nm pump and 1400 nm probe pulses with intensities of 10^14 W/cm^2 by analyzing kinetic energy release (KER) spectra as a function of the pump probe delay. The KER spectra are measured by detecting Ar-ion fragments in a COLTRIMS [1] setup and are compared with model calculations based on the numerical propagations of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation [2]. The measured spectra are best reproduced by two-state calculations that include the adiabatic electronic states I(1/2)u and II(1/2)g of Ar2^+, dipole coupled in the pump- and probe-laser electric fields. [4pt] [1] J. Wu, A. Vredenborg, B. Ulrich, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, M. Meckel, S. Voss, H. Sann, H. Kim, T. Jahnke, and R. D"orner, PRA 83, 061403(R) (2011) [0pt] [2] M. Magrakvelidze, F. He, Th. Niederhausen, I. V. Litvinyuk, and U. Thumm, PRA 79, 033410 (2009).

  7. Time-Dependent Interfacial Properties and DNAPL Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Tuck, D.M.

    1999-03-10

    Interfacial properties play a major role in governing where and how dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) move in the subsurface. Interfacial tension and contact angle measurements were obtained for a simple, single component DNAPL (tetrachloroethene, PCE), complex laboratory DNAPLs (PCE plus Sudan IV dye), and a field DNAPL from the Savannah River Site (SRS) M-Area DNAPL (PCE, trichloroethene [TCE], and maching oils). Interfacial properties for complex DNAPLs were time-dependent, a phenomenon not observed for PCE alone. Drainage capillary pressure-saturation curves are strongly influenced by interfacial properties. Therefore time-dependence will alter the nature of DNAPL migration and penetration. Results indicate that the time-dependence of PCE with relatively high Sudan IV dye concentrations is comparable to that of the field DNAPL. Previous DNAPL mobility experiments in which the DNAPL was dyed should be reviewed to determine whether time-dependent properties influenced the resutls. Dyes appear to make DNAPL more complex, and therefore a more realistic analog for field DNAPLs than single component DNAPLs.

  8. Time-dependent dynamic behavior of light diffraction in ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Min-Feng; Chou, S. E.; Fu, Chao-Ming

    2012-04-01

    The time-dependent dynamic behavior of diffraction patterns induced by external magnetic field in a suspension of nano-sized magnetic particles (Fe3O4) in a water-based magnetic fluid was investigated. It was observed that the diffraction pattern changed with time as the magnetic field was applied. In the absence of applied magnetic field, there was no diffraction pattern in the screen. When the magnetic field was applied, the transmitted light was perpendicular to the magnetic field, and the diffraction pattern was unstable. There were many small lines and points moving with time. After one minute, the diffraction pattern turned stable, and the small lines became longer. This time-dependent behavior helps us to understand the evolution of the forming chains of magnetic nanoparticles. Moreover, we have measured the other diffraction pattern, the transmitted light propagating parallel to the applied field. These time-dependent diffraction patterns give a new point to understand the dynamic three-dimensional structure of magnetic fluid under a dc magnetic field.

  9. Formation of the domain structure in CLN under the pyroelectric field induced by pulse infrared laser heating

    SciTech Connect

    Shur, V. Ya.; Kosobokov, M. S.; Mingaliev, E. A.; Karpov, V. R.

    2015-10-15

    The evolution of the self-assembled quasi-regular micro- and nanodomain structures after pulse infrared laser irradiation in congruent lithium niobate crystal was studied by in situ optical observation. Several scenarios of domain kinetics represented covering of the irradiated zone by nets of the separated domain chains and rays have been revealed. The time dependence of the total domain length was analyzed in terms of modified Kolmogorov-Avrami theory. The domain structure evolution was attributed to the action of pyroelectric field appeared during cooling. The time dependence of the spatial distribution of the pyroelectric field during pulse laser heating and subsequent cooling was calculated by finite element method. The results of computer simulation allowed us to explain the experimental results and can be used for creation of tailored domain structures thus opening the new abilities of the submicron-scale domain engineering in ferroelectrics.

  10. Formation of the domain structure in CLN under the pyroelectric field induced by pulse infrared laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Kosobokov, M. S.; Mingaliev, E. A.; Karpov, V. R.

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of the self-assembled quasi-regular micro- and nanodomain structures after pulse infrared laser irradiation in congruent lithium niobate crystal was studied by in situ optical observation. Several scenarios of domain kinetics represented covering of the irradiated zone by nets of the separated domain chains and rays have been revealed. The time dependence of the total domain length was analyzed in terms of modified Kolmogorov-Avrami theory. The domain structure evolution was attributed to the action of pyroelectric field appeared during cooling. The time dependence of the spatial distribution of the pyroelectric field during pulse laser heating and subsequent cooling was calculated by finite element method. The results of computer simulation allowed us to explain the experimental results and can be used for creation of tailored domain structures thus opening the new abilities of the submicron-scale domain engineering in ferroelectrics.

  11. Quasinormal modes in a time-dependent black hole background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Wang, Bin; Abdalla, Elcio; Su, Ru-Keng

    2005-02-01

    We have studied the evolution of the massless scalar field propagating in a time-dependent charged Vaidya black hole background. A generalized tortoise coordinate transformation was used to study the evolution of the massless scalar field. It is shown that, for the slowest damped quasinormal modes, the approximate formulas in the stationary Reissner-Nordström black hole turn out to be a reasonable prescription, showing that results from quasinormal mode analysis are rather robust.

  12. Quasinormal modes in a time-dependent black hole background

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Chenggang; Wang Bin; Abdalla, Elcio; Su Rukeng

    2005-02-15

    We have studied the evolution of the massless scalar field propagating in a time-dependent charged Vaidya black hole background. A generalized tortoise coordinate transformation was used to study the evolution of the massless scalar field. It is shown that, for the slowest damped quasinormal modes, the approximate formulas in the stationary Reissner-Nordstroem black hole turn out to be a reasonable prescription, showing that results from quasinormal mode analysis are rather robust.

  13. Ellipticity dependence of high harmonic yield in intense laser field: case of s-valence electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantseva, T. S.; Silaev, A. A.; Vvedenskii, N. V.; Frolov, M. V.; Manakov, N. L.

    2016-04-01

    Having solved numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we have analysed the dependence of the high harmonic generation yield on the ellipticity of an intense laser field. For the case of a zero angular momentum of an initial state, it has been shown that the ellipticity dependence of the HHG yield is affected by the harmonic number. The numerical results are interpreted in the framework of our recently developed quasi-classical analytical model for HHG. In the quasi-classical approximation, the difference in the ellipticity dependence of the HHG yield for different harmonics is shown to be caused by the interference effects of quantum orbits.

  14. On refractive processes in strong laser field quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Di Piazza, A.

    2013-11-15

    Refractive processes in strong-field QED are pure quantum processes, which involve only external photons and the background electromagnetic field. We show analytically that such processes occurring in a plane-wave field and involving external real photons are all characterized by a surprisingly modest net exchange of energy and momentum with the laser field, corresponding to a few laser photons, even in the limit of ultra-relativistic laser intensities. We obtain this result by a direct calculation of the transition matrix element of an arbitrary refractive QED process and accounting exactly for the background plane-wave field. A simple physical explanation of this modest net exchange of laser photons is provided, based on the fact that the laser field couples with the external photons only indirectly through virtual electron–positron pairs. For stronger and stronger laser fields, the pairs cover a shorter and shorter distance before they annihilate again, such that the laser can transfer to them an energy corresponding to only a few photons. These results can be relevant for the future experiments aiming to test strong-field QED at present and next-generation facilities. -- Highlights: •Investigation of the one-loop amplitude of refractive QED processes in a laser field. •The amplitude is suppressed for a large number of net-exchanged laser photons. •Suggestion for first observation of high-nonlinear vacuum effects in a laser field.

  15. Ultrafast Modulation of Semiconductor Lasers Through a Terahertz Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng; Hughes, Steven; Citrin, David

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate, by means of numerical simulation, a new mechanism to modulate and switch semiconductor lasers at THz and sub-THz frequency rates. A sinusoidal terahertz field applied to a semiconductor laser heats the electron-hole plasma and consequently modifies the optical susceptibility. This allows an almost linear modulation of the output power of tile semiconductor laser and leads to a faithful reproduction of the terahertz-field waveform in the emitted laser intensity.

  16. High-order optical processes in intense laser field: Towards nonperturbative nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelkov, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    We develop an approach describing nonlinear-optical processes in the strong-field domain characterized by the nonperturbative field-with-matter interaction. The polarization of an isolated atom in the external field calculated via the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation agrees with our analytical findings. For the practically important case of one strong laser field and several weaker fields, we derive and analytically solve propagation equations describing high-order (HO) wave mixing, HO parametric amplification, and HO stimulated scattering. These processes provide a way of efficient coherent xuv generation. Some properties of HO processes are new in nonlinear optics: essentially complex values of the coefficients in the propagation equations, the superexponential (hyperbolic) growing solutions, etc. Finally, we suggest conditions for the practical realization of these processes and discuss published numerical and experimental results where such processes could have been observed.

  17. Enhanced nonlinear double excitation of He in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields.

    PubMed

    Hishikawa, A; Fushitani, M; Hikosaka, Y; Matsuda, A; Liu, C-N; Morishita, T; Shigemasa, E; Nagasono, M; Tono, K; Togashi, T; Ohashi, H; Kimura, H; Senba, Y; Yabashi, M; Ishikawa, T

    2011-12-01

    Nonlinear, three-photon double excitation of He in intense extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser fields (∼24.1  eV, ∼5  TW/cm2) is presented. Resonances to the doubly excited states converging to the He+ N=3 level are revealed by the shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy and identified by theoretical calculations based on the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the two-electron atom under a laser field. It is shown that the three-photon double excitation is enhanced by intermediate Rydberg states below the first ionization threshold, giving a greater contribution to the photoionization yields than the two-photon process by more than 1 order of magnitude. PMID:22242995

  18. High-order-harmonic generation from Rydberg atoms driven by plasmon-enhanced laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikman, Y.; Yavuz, I.; Ciappina, M. F.; Chacón, A.; Altun, Z.; Lewenstein, M.

    2016-02-01

    We theoretically investigate high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) in Rydberg atoms driven by spatially inhomogeneous laser fields, induced, for instance, by plasmonic enhancement. It is well known that the laser intensity should exceed a certain threshold in order to stimulate HHG when noble gas atoms in their ground state are used as an active medium. One way to enhance the coherent light coming from a conventional laser oscillator is to take advantage of the amplification obtained by the so-called surface plasmon polaritons, created when a low-intensity laser field is focused onto a metallic nanostructure. The main limitation of this scheme is the low damage threshold of the materials employed in the nanostructure engineering. In this work we propose the use of Rydberg atoms, driven by spatially inhomogeneous, plasmon-enhanced laser fields, for HHG. We exhaustively discuss the behavior and efficiency of these systems in the generation of coherent harmonic emission. Toward this aim we numerically solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for an atom, with an electron initially in a highly excited n th Rydberg state, located in the vicinity of a metallic nanostructure. In this zone the electric field changes spatially on scales relevant for the dynamics of the laser-ionized electron. We first use a one-dimensional model to investigate systematically the phenomena. We then employ a more realistic situation, in which the interaction of a plasmon-enhanced laser field with a three-dimensional hydrogen atom is modeled. We discuss the scaling of the relevant input parameters with the principal quantum number n of the Rydberg state in question and demonstrate that harmonic emission can be achieved from Rydberg atoms well below the damage threshold, thus without deterioration of the geometry and properties of the metallic nanostructure.

  19. Time-Dependent Erosion of Ion Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard E.; Anderson, John R.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.

    2008-01-01

    The accurate prediction of thruster life requires time-dependent erosion estimates for the ion optics assembly. Such information is critical to end-of-life mechanisms such as electron backstreaming. CEX2D was recently modified to handle time-dependent erosion, double ions, and multiple throttle conditions in a single run. The modified code is called "CEX2D-t". Comparisons of CEX2D-t results with LDT and ELT post-tests results show good agreement for both screen and accel grid erosion including important erosion features such as chamfering of the downstream end of the accel grid and reduced rate of accel grid aperture enlargement with time.

  20. Time-dependent oral absorption models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higaki, K.; Yamashita, S.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma concentration-time profiles following oral administration of drugs are often irregular and cannot be interpreted easily with conventional models based on first- or zero-order absorption kinetics and lag time. Six new models were developed using a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), wherein the time dependency was varied to account for the dynamic processes such as changes in fluid absorption or secretion, in absorption surface area, and in motility with time, in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the plasma concentration profiles of propranolol obtained in human subjects following oral dosing were analyzed using the newly derived models based on mass balance and compared with the conventional models. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that the conventional compartment model including lag time (CLAG model) could not predict the rapid initial increase in plasma concentration after dosing and the predicted Cmax values were much lower than that observed. On the other hand, all models with the time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), were superior to the CLAG model in predicting plasma concentration profiles. Based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), the fluid absorption model without lag time (FA model) exhibited the best overall fit to the data. The two-phase model including lag time, TPLAG model was also found to be a good model judging from the values of sum of squares. This model also described the irregular profiles of plasma concentration with time and frequently predicted Cmax values satisfactorily. A comparison of the absorption rate profiles also suggested that the TPLAG model is better at prediction of irregular absorption kinetics than the FA model. In conclusion, the incorporation of a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient ka(t) allows the prediction of nonlinear absorption characteristics in a more reliable manner.

  1. Time-dependent projected Hartree-Fock

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-03-28

    Projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) has recently emerged as an alternative approach to describing degenerate systems where static correlation is abundant, when the spin-symmetry is projected. Here, we derive a set of linearized time-dependent equations for PHF in order to be able to access excited states. The close connection of such linear-response time-dependent PHF (TDPHF) to the stability condition of a PHF wave function is discussed. Expanding this analysis also makes it possible to give analytical expressions for the projected coupling terms of Hamiltonian and overlaps between excited Slater determinants. TDPHF with spin-projection (TDSUHF) and its Tamm-Dancoff approximation are benchmarked for several electronically degenerate molecules including the dissociating H{sub 2}, F{sub 2} and O{sub 3} at equilibrium, and the distorted ethylene. It is shown that they give consistently better descriptions of excited states than does time-dependent HF (TDHF). Furthermore, we demonstrate that they offer not only singly but also doubly excited states, which naturally arise upon spin-projection. We also address the thermodynamic limit of TDSUHF, using non-interacting He gas. While TDPHF singly excited states tend to converge to those of HF with the size of the system due to the lack of size-extensivity of PHF, doubly excited states remain reasonable even at the thermodynamic limit. We find that the overall performance of our method is systematically better than the regular TDHF in many cases at the same computational scaling.

  2. Time Dependent Behavior in the Weissenberg Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degen, Michael M.; Andereck, C. David

    1997-03-01

    The Weissenberg effect is the climb of a non-Newtonian fluid up a rotating rod. We have found novel transitional effects in the behavior of a particular climbing fluid, STP(STP Oil Treatment distributed by First Brands Corporation.). The first state is a time-independent axisymmetric concave climb. As the rotation rate of the rod is increased, the first transition is to an axisymmetric climb with an ``onion dome'' shape. At higher rotation rates, the flow undergoes a symmetry breaking bifurcation to a time-dependent state. This time-dependent state exhibits an oscillation with a single frequency. Upon further increase of the rod rotation rate, the oscillation becomes modulated by a second frequency. The nature of each transition will be characterized, including the measurement of oscillation amplitudes and the frequency (or frequencies) of the time dependent states. These results will be compared with previous work.(G.S. Beavers, D.D. Joseph, J. Fluid Mech. 69), 475 (1975).(D.D. Joseph, R.L. Fosdick, Arch. Rational Mech. 49), 321 (1973).

  3. Time-dependent projected Hartree-Fock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-03-01

    Projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) has recently emerged as an alternative approach to describing degenerate systems where static correlation is abundant, when the spin-symmetry is projected. Here, we derive a set of linearized time-dependent equations for PHF in order to be able to access excited states. The close connection of such linear-response time-dependent PHF (TDPHF) to the stability condition of a PHF wave function is discussed. Expanding this analysis also makes it possible to give analytical expressions for the projected coupling terms of Hamiltonian and overlaps between excited Slater determinants. TDPHF with spin-projection (TDSUHF) and its Tamm-Dancoff approximation are benchmarked for several electronically degenerate molecules including the dissociating H2, F2 and O3 at equilibrium, and the distorted ethylene. It is shown that they give consistently better descriptions of excited states than does time-dependent HF (TDHF). Furthermore, we demonstrate that they offer not only singly but also doubly excited states, which naturally arise upon spin-projection. We also address the thermodynamic limit of TDSUHF, using non-interacting He gas. While TDPHF singly excited states tend to converge to those of HF with the size of the system due to the lack of size-extensivity of PHF, doubly excited states remain reasonable even at the thermodynamic limit. We find that the overall performance of our method is systematically better than the regular TDHF in many cases at the same computational scaling.

  4. Above-threshold ionization and photoelectron spectra in atomic systems driven by strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Noslen; Chacón, Alexis; Ciappina, Marcelo F.; Biegert, Jens; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2015-12-01

    Above-threshold ionization (ATI) results from strong-field laser-matter interaction and it is one of the fundamental processes that may be used to extract electron structural and dynamical information about the atomic or molecular target. Moreover, it can also be used to characterize the laser field itself. Here we develop an analytical description of ATI, which extends the theoretical strong-field approximation (SFA), for both the direct and rescattering transition amplitudes in atoms. From a nonlocal, but separable potential, the bound-free dipole and the rescattering transition matrix elements are analytically computed. In comparison with the standard approaches to the ATI process, our analytical derivation of the rescattering matrix elements allows us to study directly how the rescattering process depends on the atomic target and laser-pulse features; we can turn on and off contributions having different physical origins or corresponding to different physical mechanisms. We compare SFA results with the full numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) within the few-cycle pulse regime. Good agreement between our SFA and TDSE model is found for the ATI spectrum. Our model captures also the strong dependence of the photoelectron spectra on the carrier envelope phase of the laser field.

  5. Nature of the strong field capabilities of lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    Research with lasers of extremely high intensity has been proposed in terms of tunneling and the "Schwinger Limit", which refers to breakdown of the vacuum into electron-positron pairs caused by a static or quasistatic electric field. The difficulty is that lasers produce transverse fields, wherein the electric and magnetic fields form a mutually orthogonal triad with the direction of propagation. Tunneling, including the Schwinger Limit, relates to longitudinal fields, in which the direction of the electric field vector is the only preferred direction. Transverse fields propagate indefinitely without inputs from source or current distributions. By contrast, longitudinal fields require continuing contributions from external source or current distributions. Failure to distinguish between longitudinal and transverse fields is consequential in that some proposed applications of very high intensity lasers pertain only to tunneling processes, but not to laser fields. A related difficulty is the flawed notion that tunneling constitutes a low-frequency limit of laser-induced processes. A counter-indication is that the ponderomotive potential of a charged particle in a laser field is proportional to the inverse square of the field frequency. Thus there is no possible approach to a zero-frequency laser field. The Göppert-Mayer gauge transformation of atomic physics makes possible a limited correspondence between transverse and longitudinal fields. The correspondence fails at both high and, most importantly, at low field frequencies. Vacuum pair production does not require the Schwinger Limit, but can be achieved at much lower intensities.

  6. Time-dependent Dyson orbital theory.

    PubMed

    Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J

    2016-08-21

    Although time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has become the tool of choice for real-time propagation of the electron density ρ(N)(t) of N-electron systems, it also encounters problems in this application. The first problem is the neglect of memory effects stemming from the, in TDDFT virtually unavoidable, adiabatic approximation, the second problem is the reliable evaluation of the probabilities P(n)(t) of multiple photoinduced ionization, while the third problem (which TDDFT shares with other approaches) is the reliable description of continuum states of the electrons ejected in the process of ionization. In this paper time-dependent Dyson orbital theory (TDDOT) is proposed. Exact TDDOT equations of motion (EOMs) for time-dependent Dyson orbitals are derived, which are linear differential equations with just static, feasible potentials of the electron-electron interaction. No adiabatic approximation is used, which formally resolves the first TDDFT problem. TDDOT offers formally exact expressions for the complete evolution in time of the wavefunction of the outgoing electron. This leads to the correlated probability of single ionization P(1)(t) as well as the probabilities of no ionization (P(0)(t)) and multiple ionization of n electrons, P(n)(t), which formally solves the second problem of TDDFT. For two-electron systems a proper description of the required continuum states appears to be rather straightforward, and both P(1)(t) and P(2)(t) can be calculated. Because of the exact formulation, TDDOT is expected to reproduce a notorious memory effect, the "knee structure" of the non-sequential double ionization of the He atom. PMID:26987972

  7. Pulsar Electrodynamics: a Time-dependent View

    SciTech Connect

    Spitkovsky, Anatoly; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-04-10

    Pulsar spindown forms a reliable yet enigmatic prototype for the energy loss processes in many astrophysical objects including accretion disks and back holes. In this paper we review the physics of pulsar magnetospheres, concentrating on recent developments in force-free modeling of the magnetospheric structure. In particular, we discuss a new method for solving the equations of time-dependent force-free relativistic MHD in application to pulsars. This method allows to dynamically study the formation of the magnetosphere and its response to perturbations, opening a qualitatively new window on pulsar phenomena. Applications of the method to other magnetized rotators, such as magnetars and accretion disks, are also discussed.

  8. Topologically nontrivial time-dependent chiral condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.

    1996-11-01

    Topologically nontrivial time-dependent solutions of the classical nonlinear {sigma} model are studied as candidates of the disoriented chiral condensate (DCC) in 3+1 dimensions. Unlike the analytic solutions so far discussed, these solutions cannot be transformed into isospin-uniform ones by chiral rotations. If they are produced as DCC{close_quote}s, they can be detected by a distinct pattern in the angle-rapidity distribution of the neutral-to-charged pion ratio. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Radiation-Reaction Trapping of Electrons in Extreme Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, L. L.; Pukhov, A.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Shen, B. F.; Akli, K.

    2014-04-01

    A radiation-reaction trapping (RRT) of electrons is revealed in the near-QED regime of laser-plasma interaction. Electrons quivering in laser pulse experience radiation reaction (RR) recoil force by radiating photons. When the laser field reaches the threshold, the RR force becomes significant enough to compensate for the expelling laser ponderomotive force. Then electrons are trapped inside the laser pulse instead of being scattered off transversely and form a dense plasma bunch. The mechanism is demonstrated both by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations using the QED photonic approach and numerical test-particle modeling based on the classical Landau-Lifshitz formula of RR force. Furthermore, the proposed analysis shows that the threshold of laser field amplitude for RRT is approximately the cubic root of laser wavelength over classical electron radius. Because of the pinching effect of the trapped electron bunch, the required laser intensity for RRT can be further reduced.

  10. Time-dependent MOS breakdown. [of Na contaminated capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, S. P.; Bates, E. T.; Maserjian, J.

    1976-01-01

    A general model for time-dependent breakdown in metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) structures is developed and related to experimental measurements on samples deliberately contaminated with Na. A statistical method is used for measuring the breakdown probability as a function of log time and applied field. It is shown that three time regions of breakdown can be explained respectively in terms of silicon surface defects, ion emission from the metal interface, and lateral ion diffusion at the silicon interface.