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1

Application of laser Raman spectroscopy to dental diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research is related with the diagnosis of caries by use of a laser. We study the fundamental characterization of the diagnosis method using both fluorescence and Raman scattering spectroscopy. We try to evaluate the possibility of the caries diagnosis using Raman spectroscopy and its clinical application. We focus on the PO34- ion that flows out with the dissolution of hydroxyapatite (HAp), and the fluorescence that increases in connection with caries. The Raman line of P-O vibration is overlapped on the continuous, background spectrum by fluorescence. Consequently, we try to find out the correlation between a healthy part and a carious part by analyzing both fluorescence and Raman spectra. It was found that Raman intensity of HAp at carious lesion was weaker than those of healthy parts and the florescence intensity at the same portions was stronger. We have obtained the feasibility to estimate the degree of caries and health condition by deriving the ratio between Raman and florescence intensity. And the trial measurements in vivo were carried out to verify the availability of the method by using a fiber probe type multi channel Raman spectrometer. The process of remineralization is under researching for the development of preventive medicine.

Izawa, Takahiro; Wakaki, Moriaki

2005-03-01

2

Laser Raman spectroscopy of some local anesthetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Raman spectra of benzocaine and procaine hydrochlorides in solid phase are reported. From the assigned inversion and torsion modes we have also estimated the corresponding barriers by using the harmonic approximation.

Alcolea, M.; Sigüenza, C.; Santos, M.; Gonzalez-Diaz, P. F.

1986-03-01

3

Femtosecond laser induced nanostructuring for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of periodical nanostructures with femtosecond laser pulses was used to create highly efficient substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). We report about the structuring of silver and copper substrates and their application to the SERS of DNA (herring sperm) and protein molecules (egg albumen). The maximum enhancement factors were found on Ag substrates processed with the second harmonic generation (SHG) of a 1-kHz Ti:sapphire laser and structure periods near the SHG wavelength. In the case of copper, however, the highest enhancement was obtained with long-period ripples induced with at fundamental wavelength. This is explained by an additional significant influence of nanoparticles on the surface. Nanostructured areas in the range of 1.25 mm2 were obtained in 10 s. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fast Fourier Transform and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the role of the chemical modification of the metal structures is addressed. Thin oxide layers resulting from working in atmosphere which improve the biocompatibility were indicated by vibration spectra. It is expected that the detailed study of the mechanisms of laser-induced nanostructure formation will stimulate further applications of functionalized surfaces like photocatalysis, selective chemistry and nano-biology.

Messaoudi, H.; Das, S. K.; Lange, J.; Heinrich, F.; Schrader, S.; Frohme, M.; Grunwald, R.

2014-03-01

4

Ring-Down Spectroscopy for Characterizing a CW Raman Laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

.A relatively simple technique for characterizing an all-resonant intracavity continuous-wave (CW) solid-state Raman laser involves the use of ring-down spectroscopy. As used here, characterizing signifies determining such parameters as threshold pump power, Raman gain, conversion efficiency, and quality factors (Q values) of the pump and Stokes cavity modes. Heretofore, in order to characterize resonant-cavity-based Raman lasers, it has usually been necessary to manipulate the frequencies and power levels of pump lasers and, in each case, to take several sets of measurements. In cases involving ultra-high-Q resonators, it also has been desirable to lock pump lasers to resonator modes to ensure the quality of measurement data. Simpler techniques could be useful. In the present ring-down spectroscopic technique, one infers the parameters of interest from the decay of the laser out of its steady state. This technique does not require changing the power or frequency of the pump laser or locking the pump laser to the resonator mode. The technique is based on a theoretical analysis of what happens when the pump laser is abruptly switched off after the Raman generation reaches the steady state. The analysis starts with differential equations for the evolution of the amplitudes of the pump and Stokes electric fields, leading to solutions for the power levels of the pump and Stokes fields as functions of time and of the aforementioned parameters. Among other things, these solutions show how the ring-down time depends, to some extent, on the electromagnetic energy accumulated in the cavity. The solutions are readily converted to relatively simple equations for the parameters as functions of quantities that can be determined from measurements of the time-dependent power levels. For example, the steady-state intracavity conversion efficiency is given by G1/G2 1 and the threshold power is given by Pin(G2/G1)2, where Pin is the steady-state input pump power immediately prior to abrupt switch-off, G1 is the initial rate of decay of the pump field, and G2 is the final rate of decay of the pump field. Hence, it is possible to determine all the parameters from a single ring-down scan, provided that the measurements taken in that scan are sufficiently accurate and complete.

Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

2007-01-01

5

Raman Spectroscopy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature on Raman spectroscopy from late 1981 to late 1983. Topic areas include: instrumentation and sampling; liquids and solutions; gases and matrix isolation; biological molecules; polymers; high-temperature and high-pressure studies; Raman microscopy; thin films and surfaces; resonance-enhanced and surface-enhanced spectroscopy; and…

Gerrard, Donald L.

1984-01-01

6

Nonlinear Raman spectroscopy without tunable laser for sensitive gas detection in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for photo-acoustic Raman spectroscopy (PARS) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is proposed and demonstrated for the detection of H 2 and CH 4 at atmospheric pressure. Conventionally, these types of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy require two lasers whose frequency difference is tuned to the Raman frequency. In the proposed scheme, only a pulsed Nd:YAG laser is used as a pumping source, and a Raman shifter filled with the same gas to be detected is combined. This allows automatic generation of the Raman-shifted radiation. In the case of CH 4, the measurement with the optimized scheme shows that detection limits up to 1 ppm for PARS and 15 ppm for CARS are achieved. The proposed PARS technique allows the measurement of the CH 4 concentration in the natural air. Although the sensitivity of CARS is lower than that of PARS, the signal to noise ratio (S/N) for higher concentrations is better.

Oki, Yuji; Kawada, Noriyuki; Abe, Yoshiteru; Maeda, Mitsuo

1999-03-01

7

Application of laser Raman spectroscopy in concentration measurements of multiple analytes in human body fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of these studies was to demonstrate that NIR Raman spectroscopy is feasible as a rapid and reagentless analytic method for clinical diagnostics. Raman spectra were collected on human serum and urine samples using a 785 nm excitation laser and a single-stage holographic spectrometer. A partial east squares method was used to predict the analyte concentrations of interest.

Jianan N. Qu; David Suria; Brian C. Wilson

1998-01-01

8

Raman-laser spectroscopy of Wannier-Stark states  

SciTech Connect

Raman lasers are used as a spectroscopic probe of the state of atoms confined in a shallow one-dimensional (1D) vertical lattice. For sufficiently long laser pulses, resolved transitions in the bottom band of the lattice between Wannier Stark states corresponding to neighboring wells are observed. Couplings between such states are measured as a function of the lattice laser intensity and compared to theoretical predictions, from which the lattice depth can be extracted. Limits to the linewidth of these transitions are investigated. Transitions to higher bands can also be induced, as well as between transverse states for tilted Raman beams. All these features allow for a precise characterization of the trapping potential and for an efficient control of the atomic external degrees of freedom.

Tackmann, G.; Pelle, B.; Hilico, A.; Beaufils, Q.; Pereira dos Santos, F. [LNE-SYRTE, UMR 8630 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, UPMC, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France)

2011-12-15

9

Recent advances in laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) for label-free analysis of single cells.  

PubMed

Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS), a technique that integrates optical tweezers with confocal Raman spectroscopy, is a variation of micro-Raman spectroscopy that enables the manipulation and biochemical analysis of single biological particles in suspension. This article provides an overview of the LTRS method, with an emphasis on highlighting recent advances over the past several years in the development of the technology and several new biological and biomedical applications that have been demonstrated. A perspective on the future developments of this powerful cytometric technology will also be presented. PMID:23175434

Chan, James W

2013-01-01

10

Tunable excitation source for coherent Raman spectroscopy based on a single fiber laser  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a wavelength tunable optical excitation source for coherent Raman scattering (CRS) spectroscopy based on a single femtosecond fiber laser. Electrically controlled wavelength tuning of Stokes optical pulses was achieved with soliton self frequency shift in an optical fiber, and linear frequency chirping was applied to both the pump and the Stokes waves to significantly improve the spectral resolution. The coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectrum of cyclohexane was measured and vibrational resonant Raman peaks separated by 70?cm?1 were clearly resolved. Single laser-based tunable excitation may greatly simplify CRS measurements and extend the practicality of CRS microscopy. PMID:22121254

Adany, Peter; Arnett, David C.; Johnson, Carey K.; Hui, Rongqing

2011-01-01

11

Laser Raman Spectroscopy Of Gap Vibration Of Se Impurity In Natural Mineral Cinnabar From Various Mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural minerals ?-HgS from various mines have been studied by laser Raman-spectroscopy and resonance Raman-spectroscopy. The crystals differ from each other in the content of selenium impurities included in samples from different mines. Based on Raman spectra and factor-group analyze the classification the first order phonons and then the comparison the results with the results from other works are carried out. The Raman spectra analysis of minerals from various mines show the presence of selenium impurity gap vibration at 203 cm-1 and 226 cm-1 frequencies respectively. On the statistical basis of the Raman measurements, one can conclude that the frequencies of impurities of ?-HgS generally may be used for identifying mines. Low resonance has been fixed as well in impure minerals at spectral band frequency 203 cm-1 characterizing vibrationgap of isomorphic Se impurity in cinnabar.

Gotoshia, Sergo V.; Gotoshia, Lamara V.

2011-09-01

12

Laser Raman and resonance Raman spectroscopies of natural semiconductor mineral cinnabar, ?-HgS, from various mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural minerals ?-HgS from various mines have been studied by laser Raman spectroscopy and resonance Raman spectroscopy. The crystals differ from each other in the content of selenium impurity, included in samples from some mines. Based on the Raman spectra and the factor-group analysis the classification of the first order phonons and then the comparison of the results with the results from other works were carried out. The Raman spectra analysis of minerals from various mines show the selenium impurity gap vibration at 203 cm-1 and 226 cm-1 frequencies, respectively. On the basis of statistical measurements of the Raman spectra one can conclude that impurity frequencies of ?-HgS may be generally used for the identification of the mine. Resonance Raman scattering for pure minerals has been studied by a dye laser. Phonon resonance in the indirect semiconductor ?-HgS is found to be far more intense than the indirect resonance detected until now in various semiconductors in the proximity of the first indirect band Eg, for instance, in GaP. In our opinion, this may be conditioned by cinnabar band structure peculiarities. Low resonance has also been fixed in 'dirty' minerals at the spectral band frequency of 203 cm-1 characterizing gap vibration of isomorphic impurity Se in cinnabar.

Gotoshia, Sergo V.; Gotoshia, Lamara V.

2008-06-01

13

STUDIES OF MYOSIN AND ITS PROTEOLYTIC FRAGMENTS BY LASER RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY  

E-print Network

STUDIES OF MYOSIN AND ITS PROTEOLYTIC FRAGMENTS BY LASER RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY E. B. CAREW Department bands in the Raman spectrum of myosin, at 1,304 cm-' and 1,270 cm-', are attributable to a) but not in that of subfragment-l (S-1), is assigned to the coiled-coil tail region of myosin; the second, seen in spectra of S-1

Stanley, H. Eugene

14

Miniaturized diode laser-based light sources for in-situ shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weak Raman bands are often covered by pronounced background signals due to fluorescence or Rayleigh scattering. Several techniques to separate Raman lines from the background are known. In this paper, diode laser based light sources will be presented suitable for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS). The two wavelengths are realized by varying the injection current, by addressing two micro-integrated ECLs or by temperature tuning. Due to the freedom of choice in the wavelengths using diode lasers, the emission wavelength can be selected with respect to the addressed application (e.g. the required penetration depth) or the plasmonic resonances of the substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Devices were developed for the wavelengths 488 nm, 671 nm, and 785 nm. The two emission wavelengths each were selected to have a spectral distance of 10 cm-1 according to the typical width of Raman lines of solid or liquid samples. Output powers between 20 mW for the shorter wavelength devices and 200 mW for the red emitting lasers were achieved at electrical power consumptions below 1 W. With a footprint of only 25 x 25 mm2 including all collimation and filter elements, these devices are well suited for portable applications. The diode lasers were implemented into Raman measurement systems. The SERDS signal-to-background ratio was improved by several orders of magnitude.

Sumpf, Bernd; Maiwald, Martin; Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

2013-05-01

15

A combined laser-induced breakdown and Raman spectroscopy Echelle system for elemental and molecular microanalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is integrated into a single system for molecular and elemental microanalyses. Both analyses are performed on the same ~ 0.002 mm 2 sample spot allowing the assessment of sample heterogeneity on a micrometric scale through mapping and scanning. The core of the spectrometer system is a novel high resolution dual arm Echelle spectrograph utilized for both techniques. In contrast to scanning Raman spectroscopy systems, the Echelle-Raman spectrograph provides a high resolution spectrum in a broad spectral range of 200-6000 cm - 1 without moving the dispersive element. The system displays comparable or better sensitivity and spectral resolution in comparison to a state-of-the-art scanning Raman microscope and allows short analysis times for both Raman and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy performance of the system is characterized by ppm detection limits, high spectral resolving power (15,000), and broad spectral range (290-945 nm). The capability of the system is demonstrated with the mapping of heterogeneous mineral samples and layer by layer analysis of pigments revealing the advantages of combining the techniques in a single unified set-up.

Hoehse, Marek; Mory, David; Florek, Stefan; Weritz, Friederike; Gornushkin, Igor; Panne, Ulrich

2009-11-01

16

[Study on characteristics of laser ablation in KTP crystal and its influence on the Raman spectroscopy].  

PubMed

The research and development of the KTP crystal with high threshold is of very importance for its application in high-energy laser systems. Ablation characteristics in KTP crystal as well as their influence on the Raman spectroscopy were studied by UV laser with high repetition frequency. The research results show that the laser plasma effects are the main reasons for the damage in the KTP crystal. The inverse bremsstrahlung absorption effect can increase the deposition of the laser pulse energy greatly; the ionization effect can make the crystal dislocated completely; shock wave effect can push away the mixture of melted, vaporized and ionized materials and cause cracks in the pit. Through investigation and comparison of the Raman spectroscopy before and after the laser ablation, it was found that the distribution characteristics of Raman peaks are almost the same, suggesting that the basic structures of KTP crystal do not change. But almost all the Raman characteristic peaks' R1R values have changed and the widths are broadened, which means that the crystalline degree has been decreased. The Raman peaks of TiO6 and PO4 oxygen polyhedron shift to the lower wave number, which indicates that bonding force becomes weaker and the KTP crystal can be damaged easily. PMID:23016332

Han, Jing-Hua; Duan, Tao; Fan, Wei-Xing; Feng, Guo-Ying; Yang, Li-Ming; Niu, Rui-Hua; Yang, Jie; Zhai, Ling-Ling; Guo, Chao

2012-07-01

17

Laser Raman spectroscopy of biomolecules: Structural studies of ragweed allergen Ra5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Raman spectroscopy was used to probe structural features of Ra5S, a small disulfide-rich polypeptide allergen in short ragweed pollen. The Raman data indicated predominantly irregular secondary structure with an approximately equal mix of ?-helix and ?-sheet. The critical importance of the disulfides in stabilizing native Ra5S was shown by the persistence of key spectral features under typical denaturing conditions. Comparison of Raman data for Ra5S and Ra5G, a homolog of Ra5S in giant ragweed pollen, showed differences in secondary structure and disulfide geometry.

Lord, R. C.; Petsko, G. A.; Seaton, B. A.; Goodfriend, L.

18

Raman spectroscopy study of laser-shocked tatb-based explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a nanosecond single-shot Raman spectroscopy experiment to study the initiation and decomposition mechanisms of heterogeneous solid explosives under shock compression. The laser-driven flyer plate technique was used to generate shock waves on TATB-based explosives samples. Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measurements were performed to estimate the generated shock pressures. The first Raman spectra obtained under shock compression are presented here. The shifts observed for the different Raman peaks are consistent with those observed under static pressure.

Hebert, Philippe; Bouyer, Viviane; Doucet, Michel; Rideau, Joël; Terzulli, Louis-Pierre

2012-03-01

19

Laser Raman spectroscopy of snake venom neurotoxins: conformation.  

PubMed

Laser Raman spectra of neurotoxins of Pelamis platurus (yellow-bellied sea snake) and Laticauda semifasciata (broad-banded blue sea snake) were investigated. The amide I band appeared at 1672 cm-1 for both toxins, which presents an indication of anti-parallel beta structure. Since this agrees well with the result from the CD-ORD studies of snake neurotoxin, it was concluded that snake neurotoxins mainly consist of beta structure. The amide III band appeared at 1245 cm-1 for P. platurus toxin and 1248 cm-1 for L. semifasciata toxin. The four disulfide bonds present in the toxin have a very similar geometry. After vigorous heat treatment, the backbone configuration of the toxin molecule basically remained the same although it was partially denatured. The major peak at 512 cm-1 was not altered by the heat treatment but a new shoulder appeared at 546 cm-1. This suggests that a new type of S-S stretching vibration (trans-gauche-trans) was produced as a result of heat treatment. However, the majority of the S-S vibrations remained in the gauche-gauche-gauche orientation. A substantial change in the interactions between a tyrosine aromatic ring and neighboring residues was apparently the alteration caused by the heat treatment. PMID:955780

Tu, A T; Jo, B H; Yu, N T

1976-01-01

20

Investigating Surface Mineralogy, Alteration Processes, and Biomarkers on Mars Using Laser Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite a wealth of information from past and ongoing missions to Mars, the capability to determine the mineralogy of surface materials and to connect mineralogy with lithologic characteristics that are diagnostic of the environment in which those materials formed remains inadequate. The 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) will carry a Mini-TES and a Mossbauer spectrometer, which will provide some detailed mineralogy information. For general characterization of minerals and/or biogenic phases (reduced carbon, PAHs, etc) on the surface of Mars, we have been developing a miniaturized laser Raman spectrometer for in situ analyses -- the Mars Microbeam Raman Spectrometer, MMRS. We are also developing strategies to use Raman spectroscopy as a stand-alone technique and to be used synergistically with other in situ analysis methods in future planetary missions. Through studies of Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogs, we are gaining experience of what compositional and structural information can be obtained on key mineral groups using in-situ Raman measurements. We are developing methods for determining mineral proportions in rocks or soils and identifying rock types from sets of closely spaced, rapidly acquired spectra. We are studying how weathering and alteration affect the Raman and luminescence features of minerals and rocks, and we are investigating the Raman characteristics of biogenic organisms and their remains. These studies form the scientific basis for in-situ planetary Raman spectroscopy, and they are being done in parallel with instrument development towards a flight version of the MMRS.

Wang, Alian; Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.

2003-01-01

21

Laser Heated High Density Fluids Probed by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We describe an integrated experimental method of Coherent Antistoke Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), laser-heating and diamond-anvil cell (DAC) technologies probing molecular vibrations of transparent molecular fluids at the pressure-temperature conditions of energetic detonation and Giant planetary interiors. In this method, we use a microfabricated metal toroid to conductively heat a surrounding transparent sample in a DAC, using a CW Nd:YLF laser. The laser is operated at a TEM{sub 01*} mode to match the shape of the toroid and thus produces a uniform heating area. The CARS probe utilizes two pulsed lasers with similar cavity lengths: a commercial narrow-band mode-locked Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and a home-built broadband dye laser. A strong CARS signal is then produced from the sample in the central region of laser-heated metal toroid where the two laser pulses spatially and temporally coincide. In this paper, we will demonstrate that this technique is capable of producing high quality vibrational spectra from nitrogen fluid above 2000 K and 13 GPa, where the application of spontaneous Raman spectroscopy is limited because of intense thermal radiation.

Baer, B J; Yoo, C

2004-05-19

22

Planetary geochemical investigations using Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.  

PubMed

An integrated Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument is a valuable geoanalytical tool for future planetary missions to Mars, Venus, and elsewhere. The ChemCam instrument operating on the Mars Curiosity rover includes a remote LIBS instrument. An integrated Raman-LIBS spectrometer (RLS) based on the ChemCam architecture could be used as a reconnaissance tool for other contact instruments as well as a primary science instrument capable of quantitative mineralogical and geochemical analyses. Replacing one of the ChemCam spectrometers with a miniature transmission spectrometer enables a Raman spectroscopy mineralogical analysis to be performed, complementing the LIBS chemical analysis while retaining an overall architecture resembling ChemCam. A prototype transmission spectrometer was used to record Raman spectra under both Martian and Venus conditions. Two different high-pressure and high-temperature cells were used to collect the Raman and LIBS spectra to simulate surface conditions on Venus. The resulting LIBS spectra were used to generate a limited partial least squares Venus calibration model for the major elements. These experiments demonstrate the utility and feasibility of a combined RLS instrument. PMID:25226246

Clegg, Samuel M; Wiens, Roger; Misra, Anupam K; Sharma, Shiv K; Lambert, James; Bender, Steven; Newell, Raymond; Nowak-Lovato, Kristy; Smrekar, Sue; Dyar, M Darby; Maurice, Sylvestre

2014-09-01

23

Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of polytetrafluoroethylene under laser-driven shock compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy has been performed to study polymer films, polytetrafluoroethylene, under laser-driven shock compression at about 2.3 GPa. A vibrational line at 1895 cm-1, which is attributed to the symmetric stretching mode of a C2F4 monomer produced by depolymerization, appears under the shock compression, and its intensity increases along the propagation of the shock wave.

Wakabayashi, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Kondo, Ken-ichi; Yoshida, Masatake

1999-08-01

24

Interfacial Micromechanics in Model Composites Using Laser Raman Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of load transfer in single carbon-fibre\\/epoxy-resin model composites, are investigated. The composites are subjected to incremental tensile loading and the fibre fragmentation process is continuously monitored. The fibre strain distribution along the fibre fragments is derived through the Raman spectrum of the carbon fibre and its strain dependence. In turn, the interfacial shear stress distribution is evaluated by

N. Melanitis; C. Galiotis

1993-01-01

25

Remote pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy system for detecting water, ice, and hydrous minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For exploration of planetary surfaces, detection of water and ice is of great interest in supporting existence of life on other planets. Therefore, a remote Raman spectroscopy system was demonstrated at NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with the University of Hawaii for detecting ice-water and hydrous minerals on planetary surfaces. In this study, a 532 nm pulsed laser is utilized as an excitation source to allow detection in high background radiation conditions. The Raman scattered signal is collected by a 4-inch telescope positioned in front of a spectrograph. The Raman spectrum is analyzed using a spectrograph equipped with a holographic super notch filter to eliminate Rayleigh scattering, and a holographic transmission grating that simultaneously disperses two spectral tracks onto the detector for higher spectral range. To view the spectrum, the spectrograph is coupled to an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), which allows detection of very weak Stokes line. The ICCD is operated in gated mode to further suppress effects from background radiation and long-lived fluorescence. The sample is placed at 5.6 m from the telescope, and the laser is mounted on the telescope in a coaxial geometry to achieve maximum performance. The system was calibrated using the spectral lines of a Neon lamp source. To evaluate the system, Raman standard samples such as calcite, naphthalene, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol were analyzed. The Raman evaluation technique was used to analyze water, ice and other hydrous minerals and results from these species are presented.

Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; Sandford, Steve P.

2006-08-01

26

Application of laser Raman spectroscopy in concentration measurements of multiple analytes in human body fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of these studies was to demonstrate that NIR Raman spectroscopy is feasible as a rapid and reagentless analytic method for clinical diagnostics. Raman spectra were collected on human serum and urine samples using a 785 nm excitation laser and a single-stage holographic spectrometer. A partial east squares method was used to predict the analyte concentrations of interest. The actual concentrations were determined by a standard clinical chemistry. The prediction accuracy of total protein, albumin, triglyceride and glucose in human sera ranged from 1.5 percent to 5 percent which is greatly acceptable for clinical diagnostics. The concentration measurements of acetaminophen, ethanol and codeine inhuman urine have demonstrated the potential of NIR Raman technology in screening of therapeutic drugs and substances of abuse.

Qu, Jianan Y.; Suria, David; Wilson, Brian C.

1998-05-01

27

Multispectral diode laser based shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy for biological sample identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is a well established analytical method with applications in many areas, e.g. analysis of biological samples. To overcome the problem of an undesired fluorescence background masking the Raman signals we present a multi-spectral approach using shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS). For our investigations we applied microsystem diode lasers which realize two slightly shifted excitation wavelengths required to perform SERDS at 488 nm, 671 nm, and 785 nm. The emission at 488 nm with an optical power of up to 30 mW and a spectral shift of 0.3 nm (12 cm-1) is realized by frequency doubling of a 976 nm distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser. The 671 nm laser diode contains two separate laser cavities (spectral shift: 0.7 nm (13 cm-1)) each incorporating a volume Bragg grating as frequency selective element. In that case, optical powers up to 50 mW can be obtained. For investigations at 785 nm we used a DFB laser with a maximum optical power of 110 mW and a spectral shift of 0.5 nm (7 cm-1). Meat, fat tissue, connective tissue and bones from pork and beef were used as test samples to demonstrate the effective background removal using SERDS. For all three wavelengths integration times of only 5 - 10 seconds were necessary showing the possibility of SERDS for rapid sample identification. A comparison with conventional Raman spectra is given pointing out the improvement of spectral quality. The applicability of SERDS for other analytical applications, e.g. medical diagnosis will be discussed.

Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

2012-06-01

28

Time evolution studies of laser induced chemical changes in InAs nanowire using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the study of time evolution of chemical changes on the surface of an InAs nanowire (NW) on laser irradiation in different power density regime, using Raman spectroscopy for a time span of 8-16 min. Mixture of metastable oxides like InAsO4, As2O3 are formed upon oxidation, which are reflected as sharp Raman peaks at ˜240-254 and 180-200 cm-1. Evidence of removal of arsenic layer by layer is also observed at higher power density. Position controlled laser induced chemical modification on a nanometer scale, without changing the core of the NW, can be useful for NW based device fabrication.

Pal, Suparna; Aggarwal, R.; Kumari Gupta, Vandna; Ingale, Alka

2014-07-01

29

Improvements to a laser Raman spectroscopy system for reducing the false positives of autofluorescence bronchoscopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preneoplastic lesions of the bronchial tree have a high probability of developing into malignant tumours. Currently the best method for localizing them for further treatment is a combined white light and autofluorescence bronchoscopy (WLB+AFB). Unfortunately the average specificity from large clinical trials for this combined detection method is low at around 60%, which can result in many false positives. However a recent pilot study showed that adding a point laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) measurement improved the specificity of detecting lesions with high grade dysplasia or carcinoma in situ to 91% with a sensitivity of 96% compared to WLB+AFB alone. Despite this success, there is still room for much improvement. One constant need is to find better ways to measure the inherently weak Raman emissions in vivo which will result in even better diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. With this aim in mind a new generation Raman system was developed. The system uses the latest charge coupled device (CCD) with low noise, and fast cool down times. A spectrometer was incorporated that was able to measure both the low and high frequency Raman emissions with high resolution. The Raman catheter was also redesigned to include a visible light channel to facilitate the accurate indication of the area being measured. Here the benefits in the adjunct use of LRS to WLB + AFB are presented, and description of the new system and the improvements it offers over the old system are shown.

Pawluk, Hanna C.; Short, Michael A.; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette M.; Ionescue, Diana N.; Zeng, Haishan

2012-02-01

30

Nanoparticle detection in aqueous solutions using Raman and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show the chemical identification and quantification of the concentration and size of nanoparticle (NP) dispersions in aqueous solutions by using a combination of Raman Spectroscopy and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The two spectroscopic techniques are applied to demonstrate the NP detection for off-line configuration. The implementation of the techniques for further in-line and on-line NP monitoring will allow for the optimization of the synthesis process, reduction of the failure rate and improvement of NP quality. We demonstrate the implementation of the Raman-LIBS technique on two metaloxide nanoparticles: titanium dioxide (TiO2) and a rare earth sesquioxide nanoparticle, holmium oxide (Ho2O3). The determination of the elemental (LIBS) and molecular (Raman) compositions, as well as the determination of the particle size down to 5 nm is demonstrated. The LIBS spectra of NP dispersions reveal the absorption of the continuum emission by the electrons present in the plasma via the inverse Bremsstrahlung effect. This effect manifests as the appearance of dips in the LIBS spectrum, rather than the conventional emission peaks. An interpretation of these spectra that incorporates this absorption effect is presented, enabling new opportunities for understanding the LIBS spectra of liquids.

Sovago, Maria; Buis, Ernst-Jan; Sandtke, Marijn

2013-09-01

31

Application of laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy techniques to the monitoring of single cell response to stimuli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) combines optical trapping with micro-Raman spectroscopy to enable label-free biochemical analysis of individual cells and small biological particles in suspension. The integration of the two technologies greatly simplifies the sample preparation and handling of suspension cells for spectroscopic analysis in physiologically meaningful conditions. In our group, LTRS has been used to study the effects of external perturbations, both chemical and mechanical, on the biochemistry of the cell. Single cell dynamics can be studied by performing longitudinal studies to continuously monitor the response of the cell as it interacts with its environment. The ability to carry out these measurements in-vitro makes LTRS an attractive tool for many biomedical applications. Here, we discuss the use of LTRS to study the response of cancer cells to chemotherapeutics and bacteria cells to antibiotics and show that the life cycle and apoptosis of the cells can be detected. These results show the promise of LTRS for drug discovery/screening, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and chemotherapy response monitoring applications. In separate experiments, we study the response of red blood cells to the mechanical forces imposed on the cell by the optical tweezers. A laser power dependent deoxygenation of the red blood cell in the single beam trap is reported. Normal, sickle cell, and fetal red blood cells have a different behavior that enables the discrimination of the cell types based on this mechanochemical response. These results show the potential utility of LTRS for diagnosing and studying red blood cell diseases.

Chan, James W.; Liu, Rui; Matthews, Dennis L.

2012-06-01

32

Planetary Surface Analysis Using Fast Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Combined Microscopic Raman, LIBS, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ exploration of planetary surfaces has to date required multiple techniques that, when used together, yield important information about their formation histories and evolution. We present a time-resolved laser spectroscopic technique that could potentially collect complementary sets of data providing information on mineral structure, composition, and hydration state. Using a picosecond-scale pulsed laser and a fast time-resolved detector we can simultaneously collect spectra from Raman, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and fluorescence emissions that are separated in time due to the unique decay times of each process. The use of a laser with high rep rate (40 KHz) and low pulse energy (1 ?J/pulse) allows us to rapidly collect high signal to noise Raman spectra while minimizing sample damage. Increasing the pulse energy by about an order of magnitude creates a microscopic plasma near the surface and enables the collection of LIBS spectra at an unusually high rep rate and low pulse energy. Simultaneously, broader fluorescence peaks can be detected with lifetimes varying from nanosecond to microsecond. We will present Raman, LIBS, and fluorescence spectra obtained on natural mineral samples such as sulfates, clays, pyroxenes and carbonates that are of interest for Mars mineralogy. We demonstrate this technique using a photocathode-based streak camera detector as well as a newly-developed solid state Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) sensor array based on Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. We will discuss the impact of system design and detector choice on science return of a potential planetary surface mission, with a specific focus on size, weight, power, and complexity. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

Blacksberg, J.; Rossman, G. R.; Maruyama, Y.; Charbon, E.

2011-12-01

33

Fast single-photon avalanche diode arrays for laser Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We incorporate newly developed solid-state detector technology into time-resolved laser Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the ability to distinguish spectra from Raman and fluorescence processes. As a proof of concept, we show fluorescence rejection on highly fluorescent mineral samples willemite and spodumene using a 128×128 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array with a measured photon detection efficiency of 5%. The sensitivity achieved in this new instrument architecture is comparable to the sensitivity of a technically more complicated system using a traditional photocathode-based imager. By increasing the SPAD active area and improving coupling efficiency, we expect further improvements in sensitivity by over an order of magnitude. We discuss the relevance of these results to in situ planetary instruments, where size, weight, power, and radiation hardness are of prime concern. The potential large-scale manufacturability of silicon SPAD arrays makes them prime candidates for future portable and in situ Raman instruments spanning numerous applications where fluorescence interference is problematic. PMID:21931428

Blacksberg, Jordana; Maruyama, Yuki; Charbon, Edoardo; Rossman, George R

2011-09-15

34

Remote Raman - laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) geochemical investigation under Venus atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

The extreme Venus surface temperatures ({approx}740 K) and atmospheric pressures ({approx}93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. and Sharma et al. demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachyandesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to quantitatively determine the major elemental abundance of the remaining samples. PLS analysis suggests that the major element compositions can be determined with root mean square errors ca. 5% (absolute) for SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(total), MgO, and CaO, and ca. 2% or less for TiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnO, K{sub 2}O, and Na{sub 2}O. Finally, the Raman experiments have been conducted under supercritical CO{sub 2} involving single-mineral and mixed-mineral samples containing talc, olivine, pyroxenes, feldspars, anhydrite, barite, and siderite. The Raman data have shown that the individual minerals can easily be identified individually or in mixtures.

Clegg, Sanuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Humphries, Seth D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vaniman, D. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharma, S. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Misra, A. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Dyar, M. D. [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Smrekar, S. E. [JET PROPULSION LAB.

2010-12-13

35

Multiple-trap laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous monitoring of the biological dynamics of multiple individual cells.  

PubMed

We report the development of a multiple-trap laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) array for simultaneously acquiring Raman spectra of individual cells in physiological environments. This LTRS-array technique was also combined with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, allowing measurement of Raman spectra, refractility, and fluorescence images of individual cells with a temporal resolution of ~5 s. As a demonstration, we used this technique to monitor multiple Bacillus cereus spores germinating in a nutrient medium for up to 90min and observed the kinetics of dipicolinic acid release and uptake of nucleic acid-binding stain molecules during spore germination. PMID:20967053

Zhang, Pengfei; Kong, Lingbo; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-Qing

2010-10-15

36

Monitoring Dynamic Protein Expression in Single Living E. Coli. Bacterial Cells by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) is a novel, nondestructive, and label-free method that can be used to quantitatively measure changes in cellular activity in single living cells. Here, we demonstrate its use to monitor changes in a population of E. coli cells that occur during overexpression of a protein, the extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(1-120)) Raman spectra were acquired of individual E. coli cells suspended in solution and trapped by a single tightly focused laser beam. Overexpression of MOG(1-120) in transformed E. coli Rosetta-Gami (DE3)pLysS cells was induced by addition of isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG). Changes in the peak intensities of the Raman spectra from a population of cells were monitored and analyzed over a total duration of three hours. Data was also collected for concentrated purified MOG(1-120) protein in solution, and the spectra compared with that obtained for the MOG(1-120) expressing cells. Raman spectra of individual, living E. coli cells exhibit signatures due to DNA and protein molecular vibrations. Characteristic Raman markers associated with protein vibrations, such as 1257 cm{sup -1}, 1340 cm{sup -1}, 1453 cm{sup -1} and 1660 cm{sup -1}, are shown to increase as a function of time following the addition of IPTG. Comparison of these spectra and the spectra of purified MOG protein indicates that the changes are predominantly due to the induction of MOG protein expression. Protein expression was found to occur mostly within the second hour, with a 470% increase relative to the protein expressed in the first hour. A 230% relative increase between the second and third hour indicates that protein expression begins to level off within the third hour. It is demonstrated that LTRS has sufficient sensitivity for real-time, nondestructive, and quantitative monitoring of biological processes, such as protein expression, in single living cells. Such capabilities, which are not currently available in flow cytometry, open up new possibilities for analyzing cellular processes occurring in single microbial and eukaryotic cells.

Chan, J W; Winhold, H; Corzett, M H; Ulloa, J M; Cosman, M; Balhorn, R; Huser, T

2007-01-09

37

A laser Raman spectroscopy study of molybdenum oxide supported on alumina and titania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molybdenum oxide supported on alumina and titania prepared by three different methods (impregnation, calcination and hydrothermal treatment of mechanical mixtures), have been studied by laser Raman spectroscopy. Different oxomolybdenum species have been detected depending on the method of preparation and on the calcination conditions. Heptamolybdate and polymolybdate species were found in the impregnated and in the uncalcined, hydrothermally treated samples supported on alumina and titania, respectively, whereas polymolybdate species were formed on the surface of alumina when the mechanical mixtures and the hydrothermally treated samples were calcined in the presence of water vapour. However, two kinds of species, polymolybdate and mono-oxomolybdenum, were found in the case of the mechanical mixtures and the hydrothermally treated samples calcined in the presence of water vapour when supported on titania.

Del Arco, M.; Carrazán, S. R. G.; Martín, C.; Rives, V.; García-Ramos, J. V.; Carmona, P.

1994-11-01

38

Au nanoparticle arrays produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using UV pulses from KrF excimer laser, Au targets were ablated in varying pressures of argon to deposit Au nanoparticle (NP) arrays. The morphology of these films from island structures to isolated NPs, observed by SEM and TEM, depends on the gas pressure (10-100 Pa) and pulse number keeping other deposition parameters constant. By fast imaging of the plasma with an iCCD camera at different time delays with respect to the arrival of the laser pulse, we study the plasma propagation regime and we measured its initial velocity. These data and the measured average ablated mass per pulse were introduced to the mixed propagation model to calculate the average asymptotic size of clusters grown in the plume which were compared with NP sizes from TEM measurements. UV-visible Spectroscopy revealed changes of surface plasmon resonance with respect to NP size and spatial density and distribution on the surface. Suitable wavelength to excite the localized surface plasmon was chosen to detect ultra-low concentrations of Rhodamine and Apomorphine as an application to biomedical sensors, using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). A comparison of SERS spectra taken under identical conditions from commercial substrates and from PLD substrates show that the latter have superior performances.

Agarwal, N. R.; Neri, F.; Trusso, S.; Lucotti, A.; Ossi, P. M.

2012-09-01

39

The Detection of Biosignatures by Laser Raman Spectroscopy for Mars Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Raman spectra of potential biosignature molecules on Mars possess strong bands to distinguish them from each other and from minerals. Tests of the detection limits demonstrated satisfaction of the requirements posted by Mars2020 STD report.

Wei, J.; Wang, A.; Lu, Y.; Connor, K.; Bradley, A.; Marshall, C.; Steele, A.

2014-06-01

40

Sensitivity-enhanced transmission Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Transmission Raman sensitivity for a representative commercial pharmaceutical tablet was increased by a factor of 40 using optics that returned lost laser and Raman photons to the tablet surface. A new achromatic one-way mirror is introduced that uses the spatial coherence of laser light to nondestructively force laser photons through the reflective tablet coating. Transmission Raman mapping and spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) mapping were developed and used to better understand the sensitivity-enhancement technology. Fundamental limitations of the sensitivity-enhancement approach are described and used to guide the design of the optics. The sensitivity-enhancement optics are compatible with commercial transmission Raman instruments. PMID:23876721

Pelletier, Michael J

2013-08-01

41

Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage with pulsed lasers: High resolution ion dip spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of two narrow band (??<100 MHz) UV light pulses of different intensity with a molecular three-level system is investigated experimentally. The laser frequencies are tuned to an up (pump) and a down (dump) transition sharing a common excited rovibronic S1 level whose population is probed by a transition to the ionization continuum and ion detection. The time sequence of the two pulses results either in a lambda type coherent stimulated Raman adiabatic passage or a stimulated emission pumping (SEP) process. When the first case is realized by a 6.4 ns delay of the low intensity pump laser from the high intensity dump laser pulse, a fourfold increase of the depth of the ion dips compared to the SEP experiment is observed. This is in line with numerical calculations of the level populations using a density matrix formalism including coherent effects. Rotationally resolved ion dip spectra of the 62 state of benzene are presented and demonstrate the high sensitivity of the coherent excitation process of this work for ion dip spectroscopy.

Sussmann, R.; Neuhauser, R.; Neusser, H. J.

1994-04-01

42

Fiber-coupled laser-induced breakdown and Raman spectroscopy for flexible sample characterization with depth profiling capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy system for depth profile analyses is presented. The system incorporates a single 532 nm laser source, which is delivered through an optical fiber to the sample site. The homogenized laser beam results in well-defined cylindrical craters with diameters of 100 ?m. LIBS depth profiling analyses of metals was performed applying pulse energies of about 1 mJ. The application of up to 500 pulses allowed to drill through layers of several tens of microns, while observing sharp transitions at the layer interfaces. The capability of the system for Raman spectroscopy was investigated for various polymer samples by reducing the pulse energies below the respective ablation threshold. A combined Raman/LIBS depth profiling was applied to a polymer-coated metal. Additionally, the capability of the system for calibration-free LIBS quantification (CF-LIBS) was evaluated. Quantification of major elements in metallic reference materials showed good agreement with the certified values with relative deviations of less than 30%. Finally, the optimized system was applied for depth profiling and elemental composition analysis of ancient Roman bronze rings. Overall, the presented setup combines the high flexibility of a fiber-coupled system with Raman and micro-LIBS, making the system interesting for depth profiling and elemental quantification in archaeometric as well as industrial applications.

Glaus, Reto; Hahn, David W.

2014-10-01

43

Real-time detection of single-living pancreatic beta-cell by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy: high glucose stimulation.  

PubMed

Glucose acts as a beta-cell stimulus factor and leads to cellular responses that involve a large amount of biomolecule formation, relocation, and transformation. We hypothesize that information about these changes can be obtained in real-time by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy. To test this hypothesis, repeated measurements designs in accordance with the application of Raman spectroscopy detection were used in the current experiment. Single rat beta-cells were measured by Raman spectroscopy in 2.8 mmol/l glucose culture medium as a basal condition. After stimulation with high glucose (20 mmol/l), the same cells were measured continuously. Each cell was monitored over a total time span of 25 min, in 5 min intervals. During this period of time, cells were maintained at an appropriate temperature controlled by an automatic heater, to provide near-physiological conditions. It was found that some significant spectral changes induced by glucose were taking place during the stimulation time course. The most noticeable changes were the increase of spectral intensity at the 1002, 1085, 1445, and 1655 cm(-1) peaks, mainly corresponding to protein and lipid. We speculate that these changes might have to do with beta-cell protein and lipid synthesis. Using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy in combination with glucose stimulation, optical spectral information from rat beta-cells was received and analyzed. PMID:20091674

Rong, Xi; Huang, Shu-Shi; Kuang, Xiao-Cong; Liu, Hong

2010-07-01

44

Remote Raman - Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Geochemical Investigation under Venus Atmospheric Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extreme Venus surface temperatures (~740 K) and atmospheric pressures (~93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. [1] and Sharma et al. [2] demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic [3] with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachy-andesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to quantitatively determine the major elemental abundance of the remaining samples [4]. PLS analysis suggests that the major element compositions can be determined with root mean square errors ca. 5% (absolute) for SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3(total), MgO, and CaO, and ca. 2% or less for TiO2, Cr2O3, MnO, K2O, and Na2O. Finally, the Raman experiments have been conducted under supercritical CO2 involving single-mineral and mixed-mineral samples containing talc, olivine, pyroxenes, feldspars, anhydrite, barite, and siderite. The Raman data have shown that the individual minerals can easily be identified individually or in mixtures. [1] Wiens R.C., et al. (2005) Spect. Acta A 61, 2324; [2] Sharma, S. K. et al. (2007) Spect. Acta A, 68 , 1036 (2007); [3] Barsukov VL (1992) Venusian Igneous Rocks. In Venus Geology, Geochemistry, and Geophysics (eds. VL Barsukov et al.). Univ. Arizona Press, pp. 165-176. [4] Tucker, J.M. et al. (2010) Chem. Geol., in press.

Clegg, S. M.; Barefield, J. E.; Humphries, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Dyar, M. D.; Smrekar, S. E.

2010-12-01

45

Monolithic Y-branch dual wavelength DBR diode laser at 671nm for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dual-wavelength laser diode source suitable for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) is presented. This monolithic device contains two ridge waveguide (RW) sections with wavelengths adjusted distributed Bragg reflection (DBR) gratings as rear side mirrors. An integrated Y-branch coupler guides the emission into a common output aperture. The two wavelengths are centered at 671 nm with a well-defined spectral spacing of about 0.5 nm, i.e. 10 cm-1. Separate RW sections can be individually addressed by injection current. An output power up to 110 mW was achieved. Raman experiments demonstrate the suitability of these devices for SERDS.

Maiwald, M.; Fricke, J.; Ginolas, A.; Pohl, J.; Sumpf, B.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.

2013-05-01

46

Evaluation of Residual Strain and Oxygen Vacancy in Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor Using Laser Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to investigate the residual strain and oxygen vacancies of BaTiO3-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with a Ni internal electrode. Strain was found to accumulate around the internal Ni electrodes layers than at other parts of the MLCCs. In addition, the number of oxygen vacancies near the internal Ni electrode was larger than that at any other parts of the MLCCs. These observations clearly show that Raman spectroscopy is extremely useful for evaluating the residual strain and oxygen vacancies in MLCC devices.

Nishida, Ken; Kishi, Hiroshi; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Hironari; Katoda, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takashi

2007-10-01

47

Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy using a diode laser and CCD detector for tissue diagnostics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper surveys the possibility to observe high-quality NIR Raman spectra of both fluorescent and non-fluorescent samples with the use of a diode laser, a fibre optic sample, a single spectrometer and a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. A shifted e...

U. Gustafsson

1993-01-01

48

Wavelength Selection For Laser Raman Spectroscopy of Putative Martian Habitats and Biomolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigments are key potential biomarkers for any former life on Mars because of the selective pressure of solar radiation on any biological system that could have evolved at its surface. We have found that the near -Infrared laser Raman spectrometer available to use was eminently suitable for diagnostic analysis of pigments because of their minimal autofluorescence at its 1064 nm

D. D. Wynn-Williams; E. M. G. Newton; H. G. M. Edwards

2002-01-01

49

In vivo Molecular Evaluation of Guinea Pig Skin Incisions Healing after Surgical Suture and Laser Tissue Welding Using Raman Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The healing process in guinea pig skin following surgical incisions was evaluated at the molecular level, in vivo, by the use of Raman spectroscopy. After the incisions were closed either by suturing or by laser tissue welding (LTW), differences in the respective Raman spectra were identified. The study determined that the ratio of the Raman peaks of the amide III (1247 cm?1) band to a peak at 1326 cm?1 (the superposition of elastin and keratin bands) can be used to evaluate the progression of wound healing. Conformational changes in the amide I band (1633 cm?1 to 1682 cm?1) and spectrum changes in the range of 1450 cm?1 to 1520 cm?1 were observed in LTW and sutured skin. The stages of the healing process of the guinea pig skin following LTW and suturing were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, using histopathology as the gold standard. LTW skin demonstrated better healing than sutured skin, exhibiting minimal hyperkeratosis, minimal collagen deposition, near-normal surface contour, and minimal loss of dermal appendages. A wavelet decomposition-reconstruction baseline correction algorithm was employed to remove the fluorescence wing from the Raman spectra. PMID:19581109

Alimova, A.; Chakraverty, R.; Muthukattil, R.; Elder, S.; Katz, A.; Sriramoju, V.; Lipper, Stanley; Alfano, R. R.

2009-01-01

50

In vivo molecular evaluation of guinea pig skin incisions healing after surgical suture and laser tissue welding using Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The healing process in guinea pig skin following surgical incisions was evaluated at the molecular level, in vivo, by the use of Raman spectroscopy. After the incisions were closed either by suturing or by laser tissue welding (LTW), differences in the respective Raman spectra were identified. The study determined that the ratio of the Raman peaks of the amide III (1247 cm(-1)) band to a peak at 1326 cm(-1) (the superposition of elastin and keratin bands) can be used to evaluate the progression of wound healing. Conformational changes in the amide I band (1633-1682 cm(-1)) and spectrum changes in the range of 1450-1520 cm(-1) were observed in LTW and sutured skin. The stages of the healing process of the guinea pig skin following LTW and suturing were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, using histopathology as the gold standard. LTW skin demonstrated better healing than sutured skin, exhibiting minimal hyperkeratosis, minimal collagen deposition, near-normal surface contour, and minimal loss of dermal appendages. A wavelet decomposition-reconstruction baseline correction algorithm was employed to remove the fluorescence wing from the Raman spectra. PMID:19581109

Alimova, A; Chakraverty, R; Muthukattil, R; Elder, S; Katz, A; Sriramoju, V; Lipper, Stanley; Alfano, R R

2009-09-01

51

A time-resolved 128x128 SPAD camera for laser Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a time-gated single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array, the first of its kind to be integrated with a newly developed time-resolved laser Raman spectrometer. Time-resolved Raman spectra from various highly fluorescent minerals were successfully observed using our SPAD array; these spectra were obscured by an overwhelming fluorescence background when measured using a traditional continuous wave green laser. The system has photon detection efficiency (PDE) of 5 % at 5 V excess bias with on-chip microlenses. The dark count rate (DCR) of this SPAD is 1.8 kHz at 5 V excess bias. However, thanks to the nanosecond scale time-gating, noise rate per frame is effectively reduced to ~10-3 counts at 40 kHz laser repetition rate.

Maruyama, Yuki; Blacksberg, Jordana; Charbon, Edoardo

2012-06-01

52

Wavelength Selection For Laser Raman Spectroscopy of Putative Martian Habitats and Biomolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pigments are key potential biomarkers for any former life on Mars because of the selective pressure of solar radiation on any biological system that could have evolved at its surface. We have found that the near -Infrared laser Raman spectrometer available to use was eminently suitable for diagnostic analysis of pigments because of their minimal autofluorescence at its 1064 nm excitation wav elength. However, we have now evaluated a diverse range of excitation wavelengths to confirm this choice, to ensure that we have the best technique to seek for pigments and their derivatives from any former surface life on Mars. The Raman is weak relative to fluorescence, which results in elevated baseline and concurrent swamping of Raman bands. We confirm the molecular information available from near-IR FT Raman spectra for two highly pigmented UV-tolerant epilithic Antarctic lichens (Acarospora chlorop hana and Caloplaca saxicola) from Victoria Land, a whole endolithic microbial community and endolithic cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis from within translucent sandstone of the Trans -Antarctic Mountains, and the free- living cyanobacterium Nostoc commune from Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula region. We also show that much of the information we require on biomolecules is not evident from lasers of shorter wavelengths. A miniature 1064 nm Raman spectrometer with an In-Ga-As detector sensitive to IR is being developed by Montana State University (now existing as a prototype) as the prime instrument for a proposed UK-led Mars rover mission (Vanguard). Preliminary spectra from this system confirm the suitability of the near-IR laser.

Wynn-Williams, D. D.; Newton, E. M. G.; Edwards, H. G. M.

53

Ultrashort high repetition rate exposure of dielectric materials: laser bonding of glasses analyzed by micro-Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the joining of different glass types with dissimilar optical, thermal and mechanical properties by ultrashort laser welding at high repetition rates. Femtosecond laser pulses were focused at the interface of two optically contacted transparent samples. Using nonlinear absorption processes and heat accumulation of successive pulses, we achieved strong bonds between the samples. We used a three-point bending test to determine the breaking strength. With this technique, we achieved for instance for a borosilicate glass a breaking strength of up to 95 % of the bulk material. In addition, we even welded different material combinations. Although the welded glasses exhibit different thermal and mechanical properties, we obtained breaking strengths which are comparable to the utilized bulk materials. Using Raman spectroscopy we mapped the laser-processed material along the welded interface. Thereby, we determined that the welds consist of a mixture of both species, which is formed during the laser induced melting of the materials.

Richter, S.; Zimmermann, F.; Döring, S.; Tünnermann, A.; Nolte, S.

2013-01-01

54

Augmented coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy linewidth parameter from laser-mode structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the modes of the pump, Stokes, and anti-Stokes spectra in even low-intensity multimode coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) experiments do not have the same widths, the relation among the spectral profiles with unresolved modes differs from the relation among the exact spectra by having a linewidth parameter for the third-order susceptibility that is augmented by the sum of the

R. L. Saint Peters

1979-01-01

55

Portable Raman spectroscopy using retina-safe (1550 nm) laser excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of portable Raman analyzers to identify unknown substances in the field has grown dramatically during the past decade. Measurements often require the laser beam to exit the confines of the sample compartment, which increases the potential of eye or skin damage. This is especially true for most commercial analyzers, which use 785 nm laser excitation. To overcome this safety concern, we have built a portable FT-Raman analyzer using a 1550 nm retina-safe excitation laser. Excitation at 1550 nm falls within the 1400 to 2000 nm retina-safe range, so called because the least amount of damage to the eye occurs in this spectral region. In contrast to wavelengths below 1400 nm, the retina-safe wavelengths are not focused by the eye, but are absorbed by the cornea, aqueous and vitreous humor. Here we compare the performance of this system to measurements of explosives at shorter wavelengths, as well as its ability to measure surface-enhanced Raman spectra of several chemicals, including the food contaminant melamine.

Brouillette, Carl; Smith, Wayne; Donahue, Michael; Huang, Hermes; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Inscore, Frank; Patient, Michael; Farquharson, Stuart

2012-06-01

56

Laser-nanostructured Ag films as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed-laser (248 nm) irradiation of Ag thin films was employed to\\u000a produce nanostructured Ag\\/SiO2 substrates. By tailoring the laser\\u000a fluence, it was possible to controllably adjust the mean diameter of the\\u000a resultant near-spherical Ag droplets. Thin films of tetrahedral\\u000a amorphous carbon (ta-C) were subsequently deposited onto the\\u000a nanostructured substrates. Visible Raman measurements were performed on\\u000a the ta-C films, where it

S. J. Henley; J. D. Carey; S.R.P. Silva

2006-01-01

57

Integrated amplification and passivation nanolayers for ultra-high-sensitivity photodetector arrays: application for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniaturized field-deployable spectrometers used for the rapid analysis of chemical and biological substances require high-sensitivity photo detectors. For example, in a Raman spectroscopy system, the receiver must be capable of high-gain, low-noise detection performance due to the intrinsically weak signals produced by the Raman effects of most substances. We are developing a novel, high-gain hetero-junction phototransistor (HPT) detector which employs two nano-structures simultaneously to achieve 100 times higher sensitivity than InGaAs avalanche photodiodes, the most sensitive commercially available photo-detector in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength range, under their normal operation conditions. Integrated into a detector array, this technology has application for Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), pollution monitoring, pharmaceutical manufacturing by reaction monitoring, chemical & biological transportation safety, and bio-chemical analysis in planetary exploration.

Gardner, Patrick; Yao, Jie; Wang, Sean; Zhou, Jack; Li, Ken; Mokina, Irina; Lange, Michael; Yang, Weiguo; Peltz, Leora; Frampton, Robert; Hunt, Jeffrey H.; Becker, Jill

2009-05-01

58

Laser Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anderson localization of matter-waves in a controlled disorder: a quantum simulator? / A. Aspect ... [et al.] -- Squeezing and entanglement in a Bose-Einstein condensate / C. Gross ... [et al.] -- New physics in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates / Y. Kawaguchi, H. Saito, and M. Ueda -- Observation of vacuum fluctuations in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate / C. Klempt ... [et al.] -- Negative-index media for matter waves / F. Perales ... [et al.] -- Entanglement of two individual atoms using the Rydberg blockade / A. Browaeys ... [et al.] -- Array of mesoscopic ensembles on a magnetic atom chip / A. F. Tauschinsky ... [et al.] -- Stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio tested with molecules using an optical link to primary clock / A. Amy-Klein ... [et al.] -- Metastable helium: lifetime measurements using cold atoms as a test of QED / K. G. H. Baldwin ... [et al.] -- Optical lattice clocks with single occupancy bosons and spin-polarized fermions toward 10[symbol] accuracy / M. Takamoto ... [et al.] -- Frequency measurements of Al[symbol] and Hg[symbol] optical standards / W. M. Itano ... [et al.] -- Switching of light with light using cold atoms inside a hollow optical fiber / M. Bajcsy ... [et al.] -- Room-temperature atomic ensembles for quantum memory and magnetometry / K. Jensen ... [et al.] -- Components for multi-photon non-classical state preparation and measurement / G. Puentes ... [et al.] -- Quantum field state measurement and reconstruction in a cavity by quantum nondemolition photon counting / M. Brune ... [et al.] -- XUV frequency comb spectroscopy / C. Gohle ... [et al.] -- Ultrahigh-repetition-rate pulse train with absolute-phase control produced by an adiabatic raman process / M. Katsuragawa ... [et al.] -- Strongly correlated bosons and fermions in optical lattices / S. Will ... [et al.] -- Bragg spectroscopy of ultracold bose gases in optical lattices / L. Fallani ... [et al.] -- Synthetic quantum many-body systems / C. Guerlin ... [et al.] -- Ultracold Ytterbium atoms in optical lattices / S. Sugawa ... [et al.] -- Ultracold polar molecules in the rovibrational ground state / J. Deiglmayr ... [et al.] -- Polar molecules near quantum degeneracy / J. Ye and D. S. Jin -- Production of a quantum gas of rovibronic ground-state molecules in an optical lattice / J. G. Danzl ... [et al.] -- Recent progress in x-ray nonlinear optics / K. Tamasaku, K. Sawada, and T. Ishikawa -- Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - laser spectroscopy in unconventional environments / S. Svanberg -- Laser spectroscopy on relativistic ion beams / S. Reinhardt ... [et al.] -- Single frequency microcavity lasers and applications / L. Xu ... [et al.].

Katori, H.; Yoneda, H.; Nakagawa, K.; Shimizu, F.

2010-02-01

59

Transient Bond Scission of Polytetrafluoroethylene under Laser-Induced Shock Compression Studied by Nanosecond Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy has been performed to study polymer films, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), under laser driven shock compression at laser power density of 4.0 GW/cm2. The CF2 stretching mode line of PTFE showed a higher shift (18 cm-1) at delay time of 9.3 ns due to the shock compression and corresponding pressure was estimated to be approximately 2.3 GPa. A new vibrational line at 1900 cm-1 appeared only under shock compression and was assigned to the C=C stretching in transient species such as a monomer (C2F4) produced by the shock-induced bond scission. Intensity of the new line increased with increasing delay time along propagation of the shock compression.

Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Wakabayashi, Kunihiko; Kondo, Ken-ichi

2002-07-01

60

Laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy in capillary electrophoresis as an possible instrument for extraterrestrial life signs detection.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The one of a significant aims in extraterrestrial exploration is a seeking for a life traces in a open space and planetary objects. Complex composition and unknown origin of suspected signs of life required ? new analytical approaches and technical solutions. The promising assai here can be Laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy methods. The combined instrument developed by our team reveal the advantage of capillary electrophoresis assays in a junction with laser induced fluorescence detection technology. We optimized excitation configuration of fluorescence in capillary electrophoresis to reduce pumping laser power up to 1 mW and decrease background scattering. The improvement of the device sensitivity at poor sample concentration we achieved by incorporating fluorescence flow-through cuvette into spectrometer. That allows to simplify setup, to minimize weight and increase reproducibility of measurements. The device has been tasted in complex organic chemical mixes and microbial strains differentiation tasks. 3d multinational spectra allow us to increase the spectra information loads in comparison with ordinary capillary electrophoresis approaches. Possible updating the device with Raman approach can even furthermore multiple the differentiation power of the instrument. The analytical module developed using this approach can be potentially effectively used in extraterrestrial researches as a payload of the future spacecraft.

Mikhail, Gorlenko; Cheptcov, Vladimir; Anton, Maydykovskiy; Eugeniy, Vasilev

61

Raman spectroscopy and laser desorption mass spectrometry for minimal destructive forensic analysis of black and color inkjet printed documents.  

PubMed

Inkjet ink analysis is the best way to discriminate between printed documents, or even though more difficult, to connect an inkjet printed document with a brand or model of printers. Raman spectroscopy and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) have been demonstrated as powerful tools for dyes and pigments analysis, which are ink components. The aim of this work is to evaluate the aforementioned techniques for inkjet inks analysis in terms of discriminating power, information quality, and nondestructive capability. So, we investigated 10 different inkjet ink cartridges (primary colors and black), 7 from the HP manufacturer and one each from Epson, Canon and Lexmark. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of three methods: Raman spectroscopy, LDMS and MALDI-MS. Raman spectroscopy, as it is preferable to try the nondestructive approach first, is successfully adapted to the analysis of color printed documents in most cases. For analysis of color inkjet inks by LDMS, we show that a MALDI matrix (9-aminoacridine, 9AA) is needed to desorb and to ionize dyes from most inkjet inks (except Epson inks). Therefore, a method was developed to apply the 9AA MALDI matrix directly onto the piece of paper while avoiding analyte spreading. The obtained mass spectra are very discriminating and lead to information about ink additives and paper compositions. Discrimination of black inkjet printed documents is more difficult because of the common use of carbon black as the principal pigment. We show for the first time the possibility to discriminate between two black-printed documents coming from different, as well as from the same, manufacturers. Mass spectra recorded from black inks in positive ion mode LDMS detect polyethylene glycol polymers which have characteristic mass distributions and end groups. Moreover, software has been developed for rapid and objective comparison of the low mass range of these positive mode LDMS spectra which have characteristic unknown peaks. PMID:22225847

Heudt, Laetitia; Debois, Delphine; Zimmerman, Tyler A; Köhler, Laurent; Bano, Fouzia; Partouche, Franck; Duwez, Anne-Sophie; Gilbert, Bernard; De Pauw, Edwin

2012-06-10

62

Pulsed laser deposited Ag nanoparticles on nickel hydroxide nanosheet arrays for highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, silver nanoparticles (NPs) were deposited on nickel hydroxide nanosheet (NS) arrays by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The effective high specific surface area with silver NPs decorated on the NS arrays was revealed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructure and optical property of this three-dimensional (3D) substrate were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectra, respectively. Using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as probe molecules with the concentration down to 10-5 M, the Ag/Ni(OH)2 composite film exhibits very high Raman scattering enhancement ability, possessing an enhancement factor as high as 5 × 106. It has been found that the enhancement ability of the substrate was strongly dependent on the size and interparticle gap of Ag NPs rather than the testing position on the film surface. In addition, the 3D structure of Ni(OH)2 NS arrays and the charge transfer of Ag NPs may be responsible for this high sensitivity Raman phenomenon.

Jing, Yuting; Wang, Huanwen; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Xuefeng; Wei, Huige; Guo, Zhanhu

2014-10-01

63

Developing Continuous-Wave Raman Lasers Using Solid Para-Hydrogen and Barium Nitrate for Molecular Spectroscopy Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many interesting molecular targets have vibrational transitions between 5 and 10 ?m. However, widely tunable continuous-wave laser sources in this region are extremely rare. One possible solution to this situation is with continuous-wave Raman lasers. We will present our recent work toward the construction of two continuous-wave Raman lasers: one using solid para-hydrogen as the Raman shifting medium, and the other using barium nitrate. Solid para-hydrogen is a promising medium for a continuous-wave Raman laser because of its high Raman gain coefficient (18 cm/MW, almost 400 times higher than any room-temperature crystal), wide spectral transmission window (transparent from ˜100 nm to ˜30 ?m), its nature as a ``quantum crystal," and its large Raman shift (4150 cm-1 in the solid). We will also describe our more recent work designing and constructing a continuous-wave Raman laser in barium nitrate. Barium nitrate has the advantage of being the room-temperature crystal with the highest Raman gain coefficient, as well as being highly transparent from 350 to 1800 nm. Barium nitrate has been used as a continuous-wave Raman shifter for several years. Our recent work builds upon this foundation, combining lessons learned from our work with solid para-hydrogen. Our design is the first barium nitrate Raman laser using an actively-locked, doubly-resonant laser cavity. This holds the promise of requiring much lower threshold pump powers than previous setups. We will discuss some of the details in designing and building these lasers. Finally, we will report on the current state of our projects as well as anticipated future work.

Evans, William R.; Momose, Takamasa; McCall, Benjamin J.

2012-06-01

64

Intersubband Raman Laser  

SciTech Connect

An intersubband Raman laser has been realized in an artificial GaAs/AlGaAs three-level quantum-well structure. A CO{sub 2} laser in resonance with the one-to-three level transition is used as the pump, while the lasing emission occurs via the three-to-two level transition. The one-to-two level spacing is designed to be in resonance with the AlAs-like longitudinal optical phonon mode, favoring the Raman process. This work presents an alternative mechanism for realizing intersubband lasers and opens up new possibilities in reaching the far infrared region and achieving room-temperature operation. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Liu, H. C.; Cheung, Iva W.; SpringThorpe, A. J.; Dharma-wardana, C.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Lockwood, D. J.; Aers, G. C.

2001-06-04

65

Communication: Two-dimensional gas-phase coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (2D-CARS): Simultaneous planar imaging and multiplex spectroscopy in a single laser shot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has been widely used as a powerful tool for chemical sensing, molecular dynamics measurements, and rovibrational spectroscopy since its development over 30 years ago, finding use in fields of study as diverse as combustion diagnostics, cell biology, plasma physics, and the standoff detection of explosives. The capability for acquiring resolved CARS spectra in multiple spatial dimensions within a single laser shot has been a long-standing goal for the study of dynamical processes, but has proven elusive because of both phase-matching and detection considerations. Here, by combining new phase matching and detection schemes with the high efficiency of femtosecond excitation of Raman coherences, we introduce a technique for single-shot two-dimensional (2D) spatial measurements of gas phase CARS spectra. We demonstrate a spectrometer enabling both 2D plane imaging and spectroscopy simultaneously, and present the instantaneous measurement of 15 000 spatially correlated rotational CARS spectra in N2 and air over a 2D field of 40 mm2.

Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.

2013-06-01

66

Blood analysis by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of multiple analytes were simultaneously measured in whole blood with clinical accuracy, without sample processing, using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were acquired with an instrument employing nonimaging optics, designed using Monte Carlo simulations of the influence of light-scattering-absorbing blood cells on the excitation and emission of Raman light in turbid medium. Raman spectra were collected from whole blood drawn from 31 individuals. Quantitative predictions of glucose, urea, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were made by means of partial least-squares (PLS) analysis with clinically relevant precision (r2 values >0.93). The similarity of the features of the PLS calibration spectra to those of the respective analyte spectra illustrates that the predictions are based on molecular information carried by the Raman light. This demonstrates the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for quantitative measurements of biomolecular contents in highly light-scattering and absorbing media.

Enejder, Annika M. K.; Koo, Tae-Woong; Oh, Jeankun; Hunter, Martin; Sasic, Slobodan; Feld, Michael S.; Horowitz, Gary L.

2002-11-01

67

Rapid Raman spectroscopy of musculoskeletal tissue using a visible laser and an electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background fluorescence can often complicate the use of Raman microspectroscopy in the study of musculoskeletal tissues. Such fluorescence interferences are undesirable as the Raman spectra of matrix and mineral phases can be used to differentiate between normal and pathological or microdamaged bone. Photobleaching with the excitation laser provides a non-invasive method for reducing background fluorescence, enabling 532 nm Raman hyperspectral imaging of bone tissue. The signal acquisition time for a 400 point Raman line image is reduced to 1-4 seconds using electronmultiplying CCD (EMCCD) detector, enabling acquisition of Raman images in less than 10 minutes. Rapid photobleaching depends upon multiple scattering effects in the tissue specimen and is applicable to some, but not all experimental situations.

Golcuk, Kurtulus; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Callender, Andrew F.; Finney, William F.; Sahar, Nadder; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

2006-02-01

68

Raman spectroscopy in halophile research  

PubMed Central

Raman spectroscopy plays a major role in robust detection of biomolecules and mineral signatures in halophile research. An overview of Raman spectroscopic investigations in halophile research of the last decade is given here to show advantages of the approach, progress made as well as limits of the technique. Raman spectroscopy is an excellent tool to monitor and identify microbial pigments and other biomolecules in extant and extinct halophile biomass. Studies of bottom gypsum crusts from salterns, native evaporitic sediments, halite inclusions, and endoliths as well as cultures of halophilic microorganisms permitted to understand the content, distribution, and behavior of important molecular species. The first papers describing Raman spectroscopic detection of microbiological and geochemical key markers using portable instruments are highlighted as well. PMID:24339823

Jehlicka, Jan; Oren, Aharon

2013-01-01

69

Effect of pulsed laser irradiation on the structure of GeTe films deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition: A Raman spectroscopy study  

SciTech Connect

Phase changes between amorphous and crystallized states were induced by laser irradiation with nanosecond pulses in Ge{sub x}Te{sub y} films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The different phases were obtained by adjusting the pulse energy and could be distinguished by their different optical reflectivities. The corresponding structural changes were studied by Raman spectroscopy, showing marked differences for the two phases. A clear correlation is found between optical reflectivity levels, crystallographic state and the evolution of Ge-Ge, Te-Te, and Ge-Te Raman bands.

Salicio, O.; Wiemer, C.; Fanciulli, M. [CNR-INFM MDM Laboratory, via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Gawelda, W.; Siegel, J.; Afonso, C. N. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Plausinaitiene, V.; Abrutis, A. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-2006 VU (Lithuania)

2009-02-01

70

Determining the Authenticity of Gemstones Using Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The benefits of laser spectroscopy in the undergraduate curriculum have been the focus of several recent articles in this journal. Raman spectroscopy has been of particular interest since the similarities of Raman to conventional infrared spectroscopy make the interpretation of spectral data well within undergraduate comprehension. In addition, the accessibility to this technology is now within the reach of most undergraduate institutions. This paper reports the development of an experiment using Raman spectroscopy which determines the authenticity of both diamonds and pearls. The resulting spectra provide an introduction to vibrational spectroscopy and can be used in a variety of laboratory courses ranging from introductory chemistry to instrumental analysis.

Aponick, Aaron; Marchozzi, Emedio; Johnston, Cynthia R.; Wigal, Carl T.

1998-04-01

71

Impurity and stress distribution in diamond films investigated by laser-excited Raman and luminescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impurity and stress distribution in diamond films have been studied by microRaman and microphotoluminescence. Raman and PL lateral profiles reveal the existence of a large anisotropic stress at the grain boundary resulting in frequency splitting and linewidth variations of the TO phonon. The detection of an additional peak at 1326 cm-1 related to exagonal diamond phases and the high intensity reached by the 1.68 eV PL band at the coalescence region between two grains give evidence of preferential incorporation of defects at the grain boundary regions. Similarly, Raman and PL depth profiles indicate that the non-diamond intergrain tissue, abundant close to the substrate, induces compressive stress and represents a preferential site for Si diffusion.

Salvatori, S.; Rossi, M. C.; Galluzzi, Fabrizio M.; Somma, F.; Montereali, Rosa M.

1998-10-01

72

High fidelity nanohole enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

SciTech Connect

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive technique that can even detect single molecules. However, in many SERS applications, the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of intense local fields makes it very difficult for a quantitive assessment of the fidelity, or reproducibility of the signal, which limits the application of SERS. Herein, we report the development of exceptionally high-fidelity hole-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HERS) from ordered, 2D hexagonal nanohole arrays. We take the fidelity f to be a measure of the percent deviation of the Raman peaks from measurement to measurement. Overall, area averaged fidelities for 12 gold array samples ranged from f {approx} 2-15% for HERS using aqueous R6G molecules. Furthermore, intensity modulations of the enhanced Raman spectra were measured for the first time as a function of polarization angle. The best of these measurements, which focus on static laser spots on the sample, could be consistent with even higher fidelities than the area-averaged results. Nanohole arrays in silver provided supporting polarization measurements and a more complete enhanced Raman fingerprint for phenylalanine molecules. We also carried out finite-difference time-domain calculations to assist in the interpretation of the experiments, identifying the polarization dependence as possibly arising from hole-hole interactions. Our results represent a step toward making quantitative and reproducible enhanced Raman measurements possible and also open new avenues for a large-scale source of highly uniform hot spots.

Bahns, J. T.; Guo, Q.; Gray, S. K.; Jaeger, H. M.; Chen, L.; Montgomery, J. M.; Univ. of Chicago

2009-01-01

73

Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments  

PubMed Central

Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

2014-01-01

74

Healing and evaluating guinea pig skin incision after surgical suture and laser tissue by welding using in vivo Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in collagen in the wound during the healing process of guinea pig skin following surgical incisions and LTW was evaluated using in vivo, using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy provided information regarding the internal structure of the proteins. After the incisions were closed either by suturing or by LTW the ratio of the Raman peaks of the amide III (1247 cm-1) band to a peak at 1326 cm-1 used to evaluate the progression of collagen deposition. Histopathology was used as the gold standard. LTW skin demonstrated better healing than sutured skin, exhibiting minimal hyperkeratosis, minimal collagen deposition, near-normal surface contour, and minimal loss of dermal appendages. This work is important to plastic surgery.

Alimova, A.; Sriramoju, V.; Chakraverty, R.; Muthukattil, R.; Alfano, R. R.

2010-02-01

75

Enthalpic and entropic stages in alpha-helical peptide unfolding, from laser T-jump/UV Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The alpha-helix is a ubiquitous structural element in proteins, and a number of studies have addressed the mechanism of helix formation and melting in simple peptides. However, fundamental issues remain to be resolved, particularly the temperature (T) dependence of the rate. In this work, we report application of a novel kHz repetition rate solid-state tunable NIR (pump) and deep UV Raman (probe) laser system to study the dynamics of helix unfolding in Ac-GSPEA3KA4KA4-CO-D-Arg-CONH2, a peptide designed for helix stabilization in aqueous solution. Its T-dependent UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectra, excited at 197 nm for optimal enhancement of amide vibrations, were decomposed into variable contributions from helix and coil spectra. The helix fractions derived from the UVRR spectra and from far UV CD spectra were coincident at low T but deviated increasingly at high T, the UVRR curve giving higher helix content. This difference is consistent with the greater sensitivity of UVRR spectra to local conformation than CD. After a laser-induced T-jump, the UVRR-determined helix fractions defined monoexponential decays, with time-constants of approximately 120 ns, independent of the final T (Tf = 18-61 degrees C), provided the initial T (Ti) was held constant (6 degrees C). However, there was also a prompt loss of helicity, whose amplitude increased with increasing Tf, thereby defining an initial enthalpic phase, distinct from the subsequent entropic phase. These phases are attributed to disruption of H-bonds followed by reorientation of peptide links, as the chain is extended. When Ti was raised in parallel with Tf (10 degrees C T-jumps), the prompt phase merged into an accelerating slow phase, an effect attributable to the shifting distribution of initial helix lengths. Even greater acceleration with rising Ti has been reported in T-jump experiments monitored by IR and fluorescence spectroscopies. This difference is attributable to the longer range character of these probes, whose responses are therefore more strongly weighted toward the H-bond-breaking enthalpic process. PMID:17910449

Balakrishnan, Gurusamy; Hu, Ying; Bender, Gretchen M; Getahun, Zelleka; DeGrado, William F; Spiro, Thomas G

2007-10-24

76

Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe  

DOEpatents

A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

Schmucker, John E. (Hurt, VA); Blasi, Raymond J. (Harrison City, PA); Archer, William B. (Bethel Park, PA)

1999-01-01

77

Superradiant Raman Laser Magnetometer  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a proof-of-principle magnetometer that relies on the active oscillation of a cold atom Raman laser to continuously map a field-sensitive atomic phase onto the phase of the radiated light. We demonstrate wideband sensitivity during continuous active oscillation, as well as narrowband sensitivity in passive Ramsey-like mode with translation of the narrowband detection in frequency using spin-echo techniques. The sensor operates with a sensitivity of 190 pT/Hz^(1/2) at 1 kHz and effective sensing volume of 2 * 10^-3 mm^3. Fundamental quantum limits on the magnetic field sensitivity of an ideal detector are also considered.

Joshua M. Weiner; Kevin C. Cox; Justin G. Bohnet; Zilong Chen; James K. Thompson

2012-10-13

78

Superradiant Raman Laser Magnetometer  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a proof-of-principle magnetometer that relies on the active oscillation of a cold atom Raman laser to continuously map a field-sensitive atomic phase onto the phase of the radiated light. We demonstrate wideband sensitivity during continuous active oscillation, as well as narrowband sensitivity in passive Ramsey-like mode with translation of the narrowband detection in frequency using spin-echo techniques. The sensor operates with a sensitivity of 190 pT/Hz^(1/2) at 1 kHz and effective sensing volume of 2 * 10^-3 mm^3. Fundamental quantum limits on the magnetic field sensitivity of an ideal detector are also considered.

Weiner, Joshua M; Bohnet, Justin G; Chen, Zilong; Thompson, James K

2012-01-01

79

Ultra-narrow bandwidth OPS laser in the green-yellow wavelength range for Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optically pumped semiconductor lasers are scalable up to several 10ths of Watts of output power, maintaining excellent beam quality and high reliability. A further key advantage of the OPS technology is wavelength flexibility: the accessible wavelength range spans from 915 nm to 1180 nm. Frequency doubling expands this into the blue to yellow spectral range. The current investigation aims at

Christian Kannengiesser; Wolf Seelert; Vasiliy Ostroumov; Rüdiger von Elm; Simone Hilbich; Manuel Bracker; Jukka Lindfors

2009-01-01

80

Proximal and point detection of contaminated surfaces using Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are actively investigating the use of Raman spectroscopy for proximal standoff detection of chemicals and explosive materials on surfaces. These studies include Raman Chemical Imaging of contaminated fingerprints for forensic attribution and the assessments of commercial handheld or portable Raman instruments operating with near-infrared (IR) as well as ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation specifically developed for on-the-move reconnaissance of chemical

Jason A. Guicheteau; Steven D. Christesen; Ashish Tripathi; Erik D. Emmons; Phillip G. Wilcox; Darren K. Emge; Ian J. Pardoe; Augustus W. Fountain III

2011-01-01

81

Simultaneous Conoscopic Holography and Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new instrument was developed for chemical characterization of surfaces that combines the analytical power of Raman spectroscopy with the three-dimensional topographic information provided by conoscopic holography. The figure schematically depicts the proposed hybrid instrument. The output of the conoscopic holographic portion of the instrument is a topographical map of the surface; the output of the Raman portion of the instrument is hyperspectral Raman data, from which the chemical and/or biological composition of the surface would be deduced. By virtue of the basic principles of design and operation of the instrument, the hyperspectral image data would be inherently spatially registered with the topographical data. In conoscopic holography, the object and reference beams of classical holography are replaced by the ordinary and extraordinary components generated by a single beam traveling through a birefringent, uniaxial crystal. In the basic conoscopic configuration, a laser light is projected onto a specimen and the resulting illuminated spot becomes a point source of diffuse light that propagates in every direction. The laser beam is rasterscanned in two dimensions (x and y) perpendicular to the beam axis (z), and at each x,y location, the pattern of interference between the ordinary and extraordinary rays is recorded. The recorded interferogram constitutes the conoscopic hologram. Of particular significance for the proposed instrument is that the conoscopic hologram contains information on the z coordinate (height) of the illuminated surface spot. Hence, a topographical map of the specimen is constructed point-by-point by rastering the laser beam in the x and y directions and correlating the x and y coordinates with the z information obtained from the interferograms. Conoscopic imaging is an established method, and conoscopic laboratory instruments for surface metrology are commercially available. In Raman spectroscopy of a surface, one measures the spectrum of laser light scattered inelastically from a laser-illuminated spot on the surface. The wavelengths of the inelastically scattered light differ from that of the incident laser beam by amounts that correspond to the energies of molecular vibrations. The resulting vibrational spectrum can be used to identify the molecules. Raman spectroscopy is a standard laboratory technique for identifying mineralogical, biological, and other specific chemical compositions.

Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

2005-01-01

82

NEW MICROSCOPIC LASER-COUPLED SPECTROSCOPY INSTRUMENT COMBINING RAMAN, LIBS, AND FLUORESCENCE FOR PLANETARY SURFACE MINERALOGY. J. Blacksberg1  

E-print Network

is under consideration for a host of planetary surface missions (e.g. Mars, primitive bodies, Venus of large background fluorescence that is often associated with altered minerals (e.g. clays, sulfates-resolved laser spectroscopy in a Figure 1. Image of our pulsed 532 nm microchip laser focused to ~ 1 µm spot

Rossman. George R.

83

Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (?=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

2012-02-01

84

FT-Raman Spectroscopy: A Catalyst for the Raman Explosion?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The limitations of Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy, which is used to detect and analyze the scattered radiation, are discussed. FT-Raman has served to revitalize a field that was lagging and the presence of Raman instrumentation as a routine analytical tool is established for the foreseeable future.

Chase, Bruce

2007-01-01

85

Laser wavelength selection for Raman spectroscopy of microbial pigments in situ in Antarctic desert ecosystem analogues of former habitats on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vital ultraviolet- (UV-) protective and photosynthetic pigments of cyanobacteria and lichens (microbial symbioses) that dominate primary production in Antarctic desert ecosystems auto-fluoresce at short wavelengths. We therefore use a long-wavelength (1064 nm) infrared laser for non-intrusive in situ Raman spectrometry of their ecologically significant compounds (especially pigments). To confirm that the power loss at this longer wavelength is justified to avoid swamping by background fluorescence, we compared Raman spectra obtained with excitation at 1064, 852, 830, 785, 633 and 515 nm. These are typical of lasers used for Raman spectroscopy. We analysed communities of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and the highly pigmented lichens Acarospora chlorophana and Caloplaca saxicola. These require screening compounds (e.g. pigments such as scytonemin in cyanobacteria and rhizocarpic acid in the fungal symbiont of lichens). They are augmented by quenching pigments (e.g. carotenoids) to dissipate the energy of free radicals generated by penetrating UV. We also analysed organisms having avoidance strategies (e.g. endolithic communities within translucent rocks, including the common cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis). These require accessory pigments for photosynthesis at very low light intensities. Although some organisms gave useable Raman spectra with short-wavelength lasers, 1064 nm was the only excitation that was consistently excellent for all organisms. We conclude that a 1064 nm Raman spectrometer, miniaturized using an InGaAs detector, is the optimal instrument for in situ studies of pigmented microbial communities at the limits of life on Earth. This has practical potential for the quest for biomolecules residual from any former surface life on Mars.

Edwards, Howell G. M.; Newton, Emma M.; Wynn-Williams, David D.; Dickensheets, David; Schoen, Chris; Crowder, Chelle

2002-10-01

86

Raman Spectroscopy of Ocular Tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in excised tissue samples and synthetic preparations and thus to identify potential biomarkers for the onset of this disease. Using resonance Raman detection techniques, the concentration and spatial distribution of macular pigment, a protective compound, can be detected in the living human retina Useable in clinical settings for patient screening, the technology is suitable to investigate correlations between pigment concentration levels and risk for macular degeneration and to monitor increases in pigment levels occurring as a result of dietary intervention strategies.

Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner

87

Raman spectroscopy of graphene edges.  

PubMed

Graphene edges are of particular interest since their orientation determines the electronic properties. Here we present a detailed Raman investigation of graphene flakes with edges oriented at different crystallographic directions. We also develop a real space theory for Raman scattering to analyze the general case of disordered edges. The position, width, and intensity of G and D peaks are studied as a function of the incident light polarization. The D-band is strongest for polarization parallel to the edge and minimum for perpendicular. Raman mapping shows that the D peak is localized in proximity of the edge. For ideal edges, the D peak is zero for zigzag orientation and large for armchair, allowing in principle the use of Raman spectroscopy as a sensitive tool for edge orientation. However, for real samples, the D to G ratio does not always show a significant dependence on edge orientation. Thus, even though edges can appear macroscopically smooth and oriented at well-defined angles, they are not necessarily microscopically ordered. PMID:19290608

Casiraghi, C; Hartschuh, A; Qian, H; Piscanec, S; Georgi, C; Fasoli, A; Novoselov, K S; Basko, D M; Ferrari, A C

2009-04-01

88

Highly efficient diamond Raman laser.  

PubMed

We report an efficient 532 nm pumped external cavity diamond Raman laser generating output chiefly at the 573 nm first Stokes. At a pulse repetition rate of 5 kHz, the Raman laser generated 1.2 W output with a conversion efficiency of 63.5%, a slope efficiency of 75%, a pulse peak instantaneous conversion efficiency of 85%, and a peak photon conversion efficiency of 91%. The laser generated a maximum output energy of 0.67 mJ by increasing the pump beam size and the pulse energy. The efficiency is commensurate with the highest previously reported for other Raman materials pumped by Q-switched lasers. PMID:19756113

Mildren, R P; Sabella, A

2009-09-15

89

Raman accumulator as a fusion laser driver  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for simultaneous laser pulse amplification and compression, using multiple pass Raman scattering in one Raman cell and pulse switchout from the optical cavity through use of a dichroic device associated with the Raman cell.

George, E.V.; Swingle, J.C.

1982-03-31

90

FT Raman spectroscopy of some metal hexaborides  

SciTech Connect

Fourier-transform Raman (FT) spectra of single-crystal LaB{sub 6} and SmB{sub 6} and of sintered EuB{sub 6-x}C{sub x}(X {approx} 0.1) were measured at room temperature. For excitation a Nd:YAG laser with about 2 W irradiation power was used. The spectra exhibited many more details of the phonon densities of states than those obtained with conventional Raman spectroscopy by other authors. In particular two low-energy peaks were found at 104 and 204 cm{sup -1}, which can be easily attributed to the acoustical and the lowest optical branches. The FT Raman spectra of LaB{sub 6} agree well with the phonon densities of states determined by other experimental methods and theoretical calculation, while for SmB{sub 6} a considerable softening of the optical modes is observed, which is probably due to nonlinear effects in consequence of the high excitation power used in the FT Raman spectrometer.

Schmechel, R.; Werheit, H. [Gerhard Mercator Univ., Duisburg (Germany)] [Gerhard Mercator Univ., Duisburg (Germany); Paderno, Yu.B. [I.N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, Kiev (Russian Federation)] [I.N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, Kiev (Russian Federation)

1997-10-01

91

Raman spectroscopy at high pressure and high temperature. Phase transitions and thermodynamic properties of minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outline of recent developments in Raman spectroscopy at high pressure, high temperature and combined high pressure and high temperature is presented. The instrumental and technical aspects of Raman spectroscopy, and coupling of diamond anvil cells and miniature furnaces to Raman microspectrometers are discussed. Some potential pitfalls, such as the thermal pressure in laser heated diamond anvil cells or the

P. Gillet

1996-01-01

92

In Vivo Analysis of Laser Preconditioning in Incisional Wound Healing of Wild-Type and HSP70 Knockout Mice With Raman Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective Laser preconditioning augments incisional wound healing by reducing scar tissue and increasing maximum tensile load of the healed wound [.Wilmink et al. (2009) J Invest Dermatol 129(1): 205–216]. Recent studies have optimized treatments or confirmed results using HSP70 as a biomarker. Under the hypothesis that HSP70 plays a role in reported results and to better understand the downstream effects of laser preconditioning, this study utilized a probe-based Raman spectroscopy (RS) system to achieve an in vivo, spatiotemporal biochemical profile of murine skin incisional wounds as a function of laser preconditioning and the presence of HSP70. Study Design/Materials and Methods A total of 19 wild-type (WT) and HSP70 knockout (HSP70?/?) C57BL/ 6 mice underwent normal and laser preconditioned incisional wounds. Laser thermal preconditioning was conducted via previously established protocol (? = 1.85 µm, H0 =7.64 mJ/cm2 per pulse, spot diameter = 5 mm, Rep. rate = 50 Hz, ?p = 2 milliseconds, exposure time = 10 minutes) with an Aculight Renoir diode laser, with tissue temperature confirmed by real-time infrared camera measurements. Wound-healing progression was quantified by daily collection of a spatial distribution of Raman spectra. The results of RS findings were then qualified using standard histology and polarization microscopy. Results Raman spectra yielded significant differences (t-test; ? =0.05) in several known biochemical peaks between WT and HSP70 (?/?) mice on wounds and in adjacent tissue early in the wound-healing process. Analysis of peak ratios implied (i) an increase in protein configuration in and surrounding the wound in WT mice, and (ii) an increased cellular trend in WT mice that was prolonged due to laser treatment. Polarization microscopy confirmed that laser treated WT mice showed increased heterogeneity in collagen orientation. Conclusions The data herein supports the theory that HSP70 is involved in normal skin protein configuration and the cellularity of early wound healing. Laser preconditioning extends cellular trends in the presence of HSP70. Despite study limitations, RS provided a non-invasive method for quantifying temporal trends in altered wound healing, narrowing candidates and design for future studies with clinically applicable instrumentation. PMID:22275297

Makowski, Alexander J.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Jansen, E. Duco

2013-01-01

93

Raman Spectroscopy and Related Techniques in Biomedicine  

PubMed Central

In this review we describe label-free optical spectroscopy techniques which are able to non-invasively measure the (bio)chemistry in biological systems. Raman spectroscopy uses visible or near-infrared light to measure a spectrum of vibrational bonds in seconds. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman (CARS) microscopy and stimulated Raman loss (SRL) microscopy are orders of magnitude more efficient than Raman spectroscopy, and are able to acquire high quality chemically-specific images in seconds. We discuss the benefits and limitations of all techniques, with particular emphasis on applications in biomedicine—both in vivo (using fiber endoscopes) and in vitro (in optical microscopes). PMID:21151763

Downes, Andrew; Elfick, Alistair

2010-01-01

94

A study on Raman Injection Laser  

E-print Network

The Raman Injection Laser is a new type of laser which is based on triply resonant stimulated Raman scattering between quantum confined states within the active region of a Quantum Cascade Laser that serves as an internal optical pump. The Raman...

Liu, Debin

2005-11-01

95

Proximal and point detection of contaminated surfaces using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are actively investigating the use of Raman spectroscopy for proximal standoff detection of chemicals and explosive materials on surfaces. These studies include Raman Chemical Imaging of contaminated fingerprints for forensic attribution and the assessments of commercial handheld or portable Raman instruments operating with near-infrared (IR) as well as ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation specifically developed for on-the-move reconnaissance of chemical contamination. As part of these efforts, we have measured the Raman cross sections of chemical agents, toxic industrial chemicals, and explosives from the UV to NIR. We have also measured and modeled the effect interrogation angle has on the Raman return from droplets on man-made surfaces. Realistic droplet distributions have been modeled and tested against variations in surface scan patterns and laser spot size for determining the optimum scan characteristics for detection of relevant surface contamination.

Guicheteau, Jason A.; Christesen, Steven D.; Tripathi, Ashish; Emmons, Erik D.; Wilcox, Phillip G.; Emge, Darren K.; Pardoe, Ian J.; Fountain, Augustus W., III

2011-11-01

96

High performance Raman spectroscopy with simple optical components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several simple experimental setups for the observation of Raman scattering in liquids and gases are described. Typically these setups do not involve more than a small (portable) CCD-based spectrometer (without scanning), two lenses, and a portable laser. A few extensions include an inexpensive beam-splitter and a color filter. We avoid the use of notch filters in all of the setups. These systems represent some of the simplest but state-of-the-art Raman spectrometers for teaching/demonstration purposes and produce high quality data in a variety of situations; some of them traditionally considered challenging (for example, the simultaneous detection of Stokes/anti-Stokes spectra or Raman scattering from gases). We show examples of data obtained with these setups and highlight their value for understanding Raman spectroscopy. We also provide an intuitive and nonmathematical introduction to Raman spectroscopy to motivate the experimental findings.

Somerville, W. R. C.; Le Ru, E. C.; Northcote, P. T.; Etchegoin, P. G.

2010-07-01

97

Raman and surface Raman spectroscopy with ultraviolet excitation.  

PubMed

We record the accurate and reliable Raman spectra of benzoic acid (BA), p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNBA) and o-nitrobenzoic (ONBA) in aqueous solution with ultraviolet excitation. And we find that the ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectrum of aqueous BA solution has one-to-one correspondence to that of BA solid whereas the others are less resemble to the solid counterparts. We also report surface Raman spectroscopy of them in silver colloid without any enhancement in UV region and call it surface-unenhanced Raman spectroscopy (SUERS) while the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects are perfect in near infrared or visible regions. It demonstrates the SERS effects are strongly dependent on the excitation wavelength. On the basis of the experiments, we discuss the mechanism of SERS excited in different regions. PMID:15911382

Lili, Xu; Yan, Fang

2005-07-01

98

Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to control the size, shape, and material of a surface has reinvigorated the field of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Because excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance of a nanostructured surface or nanoparticle lies at the heart of SERS, the ability to reliably control the surface characteristics has taken SERS from an interesting surface phenomenon to a rapidly developing analytical tool. This article first explains many fundamental features of SERS and then describes the use of nanosphere lithography for the fabrication of highly reproducible and robust SERS substrates. In particular, we review metal film over nanosphere surfaces as excellent candidates for several experiments that were once impossible with more primitive SERS substrates (e.g., metal island films). The article also describes progress in applying SERS to the detection of chemical warfare agents and several biological molecules.

Stiles, Paul L.; Dieringer, Jon A.; Shah, Nilam C.; van Duyne, Richard P.

2008-07-01

99

Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman spectroscopy is a molecular vibrational spectroscopic technique that is capable of optically probing the biomolecular changes associated with diseased transformation. The purpose of this study was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for identifying dysplasia from normal gastric mucosa tissue. A rapid-acquisition dispersive-type NIR Raman system was utilised for tissue Raman spectroscopic measurements at 785 nm laser excitation. A

S K Teh; W Zheng; K Y Ho; M Teh; K G Yeoh; Z Huang

2008-01-01

100

In vivo Raman spectroscopy of cervix cancers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervix-cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide. It is the leading cancer among Indian females with more than million new diagnosed cases and 50% mortality, annually. The high mortality rates can be attributed to late diagnosis. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of normal and pathological conditions in cervix cancers on diverse populations has already been demonstrated. Our earlier ex vivo studies have shown the feasibility of classifying normal and cancer cervix tissues as well as responders/non-responders to Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The present study was carried out to explore feasibility of in vivo Raman spectroscopic methods in classifying normal and cancerous conditions in Indian population. A total of 182 normal and 132 tumor in vivo Raman spectra, from 63 subjects, were recorded using a fiberoptic probe coupled HE-785 spectrometer, under clinical supervision. Spectra were acquired for 5 s and averaged over 3 times at 80 mW laser power. Spectra of normal conditions suggest strong collagenous features and abundance of non-collagenous proteins and DNA in case of tumors. Preprocessed spectra were subjected to Principal Component-Linear Discrimination Analysis (PCLDA) followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation. Classification efficiency of ~96.7% and 100% for normal and cancerous conditions respectively, were observed. Findings of the study corroborates earlier studies and suggest applicability of Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis of cervical cancers in Indian population. In view of encouraging results, extensive validation studies will be undertaken to confirm the findings.

Rubina, S.; Sathe, Priyanka; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Krishna, C. Murali

2014-03-01

101

Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy for in situ planetary mineralogy.  

PubMed

Planetary mineralogy can be revealed through a variety of remote sensing and in situ investigations that precede any plans for eventual sample return. We briefly review those techniques and focus on the capabilities for on-surface in situ examination of Mars, Venus, the Moon, asteroids, and other bodies. Over the past decade, Raman spectroscopy has continued to develop as a prime candidate for the next generation of in situ planetary instruments, as it provides definitive structural and compositional information of minerals in their natural geological context. Traditional continuous-wave Raman spectroscopy using a green laser suffers from fluorescence interference, which can be large (sometimes saturating the detector), particularly in altered minerals, which are of the greatest geophysical interest. Taking advantage of the fact that fluorescence occurs at a later time than the instantaneous Raman signal, we have developed a time-resolved Raman spectrometer that uses a streak camera and pulsed miniature microchip laser to provide picosecond time resolution. Our ability to observe the complete time evolution of Raman and fluorescence spectra in minerals makes this technique ideal for exploration of diverse planetary environments, some of which are expected to contain strong, if not overwhelming, fluorescence signatures. We discuss performance capability and present time-resolved pulsed Raman spectra collected from several highly fluorescent and Mars-relevant minerals. In particular, we have found that conventional Raman spectra from fine grained clays, sulfates, and phosphates exhibited large fluorescent signatures, but high quality spectra could be obtained using our time-resolved approach. PMID:20830184

Blacksberg, Jordana; Rossman, George R; Gleckler, Anthony

2010-09-10

102

Commercial anesthetic-respiratory gas monitor utilizing Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commercial gas monitor which utilizes Raman Spectroscopy has been developed to monitor anesthetic and respiratory gases in the hospital operating room. The instrument measures all molecular gases administered by the anesthesiologist in real time with fast response of breath waveform. These gases include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, oxygen, nitrogen and various volatile halogenated organic anesthetics, e.g. halothane, isoflurane, enflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane. The key feature of this instrument which allows it to produce adequate Raman signals with a low cost argon ion laser is measuring these gases inside the laser resonant cavity.

Gregonis, Donald E.; Van Wagenen, Richard A.; Coleman, D.; Mitchell, John R.

1990-11-01

103

Inverse Raman bands in ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy (URLS) is equivalent to anti-Stokes femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS), using a broadband probe pulse that extends to the blue of the narrow bandwidth Raman pump, and can be described as inverse Raman scattering (IRS). Using the Feynman dual time-line diagram, the third-order polarization for IRS with finite pulses can be written down in terms of a four-time correlation function. An analytic expression is obtained for the latter in the harmonic approximation which facilitates computation. We simulated the URLS of crystal violet (CV) for various resonance Raman pump excitation wavelengths using the IRS polarization expression with finite pulses. The calculated results agreed well with the experimental results of S. Umapathy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 024505 (2010). In the limit of monochromatic Raman pump and probe pulses, we obtain the third-order susceptibility for multi-modes, and for a single mode we recover the well-known expression for the third-order susceptibility, ? _{IRS}^{(3)}, for IRS. The latter is used to understand the mode dependent phase changes as a function of Raman pump excitation in the URLS of CV.

Qiu, Xueqiong; Li, Xiuting; Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

2011-10-01

104

Inverse Raman bands in ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy (URLS) is equivalent to anti-Stokes femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS), using a broadband probe pulse that extends to the blue of the narrow bandwidth Raman pump, and can be described as inverse Raman scattering (IRS). Using the Feynman dual time-line diagram, the third-order polarization for IRS with finite pulses can be written down in terms of a four-time correlation function. An analytic expression is obtained for the latter in the harmonic approximation which facilitates computation. We simulated the URLS of crystal violet (CV) for various resonance Raman pump excitation wavelengths using the IRS polarization expression with finite pulses. The calculated results agreed well with the experimental results of S. Umapathy et al., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 024505 (2010). In the limit of monochromatic Raman pump and probe pulses, we obtain the third-order susceptibility for multi-modes, and for a single mode we recover the well-known expression for the third-order susceptibility, ?(IRS) ((3)), for IRS. The latter is used to understand the mode dependent phase changes as a function of Raman pump excitation in the URLS of CV. PMID:22047247

Qiu, Xueqiong; Li, Xiuting; Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y

2011-10-28

105

Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive glucose measurements  

E-print Network

We report the first successful study of the use of Raman spectroscopy for quantitative, noninvasive (“transcutaneous”) measurement of blood analytes, using glucose as an example. As an initial evaluation of the ability of ...

Enejder, Annika M. K.

106

Time- and frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy with sub-25 fs laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, many different diagrams can contribute to the signal measured in broadband four-wave mixing experiments. Care must therefore be taken when designing an experiment to be sensitive to only the desired diagram by taking advantage of phase matching, pulse timing, sequence, and the wavelengths employed. We use sub-25 fs pulses to create and monitor vibrational wavepackets in gaseous iodine, bromine, and iodine bromide through time- and frequency-resolved femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. We experimentally illustrate this using iodine, where the broad bandwidths of our pulses, and Boltzmann population in the lower three vibrational levels conspire to make a single diagram dominant in one spectral region of the signal spectrum. In another spectral region, however, the signal is the sum of two almost equally contributing diagrams, making it difficult to directly extract information about the molecular dynamics. We derive simple analytical expressions for the time- and frequency-resolved CARS signal to study the interplay of different diagrams. Expressions are given for all five diagrams which can contribute to the CARS signal in our case.

Lausten, Rune; Smirnova, Olga; Sussman, Benjamin J.; Gräfe, Stefanie; Mouritzen, Anders S.; Stolow, Albert

2008-06-01

107

Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the demonstration of the first silicon Raman laser. Experimentally, pulsed Raman laser emission at 1675 nm with 25 MHz repetition rate is demonstrated using a silicon waveguide as the gain medium. The laser has a clear threshold at 9 W peak pump pulse power and a slope efficiency of 8.5%.

Ozdal Boyraz; Bahram Jalali

2004-01-01

108

Laser Raman characterization of tungsten oxide supported on alumina: influence of calcination temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of calcination temperature upon the solid state chemistry of WOâ on AlâOâ was examined with laser Raman spectroscopy. Laser Raman spectroscopy revealed the amorphous and crystalline structural transformations occurring in the WOâ on AlâOâ oxide system. Below monolayer coverage of tungsten oxide on alumina, the tungsten oxide phase is present as a highly dispersed and amorphous surface complex

S. S. Chan; I. E. Wachs; L. L. Murrell; N. C. Jr. Dispenziere

1985-01-01

109

[Study on the treatment turquoise using Raman spectroscopy].  

PubMed

Due to a variety of the enhancement and treatment turquoises discovered in gem markets, the identification of turquoise is becoming more and more difficult. By using laser Raman spectroscopy analysis, the characteristics of Raman spectra of the pressed and filled turquoises were studied. The results show that laser Raman spectroscopy is an effective technique to identify the enhancement and treatment turquoises and the natural ones, moreover, it's a non-destructive testing method. The Raman spectra of the enhancement and treatment turquoises are resulted mainly from the vibrational mode and frequency of water, hydroxyl units, PO4 tetrahedron and CH2 units. Besides, they have the characteristic Raman spectra peaks at 2,937, 2,883 and 1,451 cm(-1) which are attributed to the stretching vibration and the bending vibration of CH2, respectively. These characteristic Raman vibration bands, it will help to distinguish the natural turquoises and the treatment ones. The study provides a new train of thought on the rapid, accurate, and non-destructive identification of turquoise. PMID:20827971

Chen, Quan-li; Yuan, Xin-qiang; Chen, Jing-zhong; Qi, Li-jian

2010-07-01

110

Sensitive algorithm for multiple-excitation-wavelength resonance Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is a widely used spectroscopic technique with a number of applications. During the past few years, we explored the use of simultaneous multiple-excitation-wavelengths (MEW) in resonance Raman spectroscopy. This approach takes advantage of Raman band intensity variations across the Resonance Raman spectra obtained from two or more excitation wavelengths. Amplitude variations occur between corresponding Raman bands in Resonance Raman spectra due to complex interplay of resonant enhancement, self-absorption and laser penetration depth. We have developed a very sensitive algorithm to estimate concentration of an analyte from spectra obtained using the MEW technique. The algorithm uses correlations and least-square minimization approach to calculate an estimate for the concentration. For two or more excitation wavelengths, measured spectra were stacked in a two dimensional matrix. In a simple realization of the algorithm, we approximated peaks in the ideal library spectra as triangles. In this work, we present the performance of the algorithm with measurements obtained from a dual-excitation-wavelength Resonance Raman sensor. The novel sensor, developed at WVHTCF, detects explosives from a standoff distance. The algorithm was able to detect explosives with very high sensitivity even at signal-to-noise ratios as low as ~1.6. Receiver operating characteristics calculated using the algorithm showed a clear benefit in using the dual-excitation-wavelength technique over single-excitation-wavelength techniques. Variants of the algorithm that add more weight to amplitude variation information showed improved specificity to closely resembling spectra.

Yellampalle, Balakishore; Wu, Hai-Shan; McCormick, William; Sluch, Mikhail; Martin, Robert; Ice, Robert; Lemoff, Brian E.

2014-05-01

111

anti-Stokes Raman laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intracavity pumped SrWO4 anti-Stokes Raman laser is realized by placing an inclined SrWO4 Raman cavity in a Q-switched Nd:YAG fundamental cavity. This structure is used to achieve non-collinear phase matching between the fundamental, the first-order Stokes and the first-order anti-Stokes waves. The maximum forward and backward first anti-Stokes outputs are 0.683 and 0.667 mJ, respectively, and the corresponding first anti-Stokes pulse widths are both 3.3 ns. A rate equation model is set up to simulate the output energies and temporal characteristics of these pulses. The stimulated results are in agreement with the experimental ones on the whole.

Wei, W.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, Q. P.; Wang, C.; Cong, Z. H.; Chen, X. H.; Liu, Z. J.; Wang, W. T.; Wu, Z. G.; Ding, S. H.; Tu, C. Y.; Li, Y. F.; Cheng, W. Y.

2014-09-01

112

Recognition of gastric cancer by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing cancer from normal gastric tissue. In our study, a total of 236 Raman spectra of mucosa from 43 gastric cancer patients were obtained by NIR Raman spectroscopy system with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. After pretreatment, a comparison of the Raman spectra between cancer and normal tissues occurred. It was found that the gastric cancerous mucosa showed lower intensities at around 748, 944, and 1520cm-1, while higher at 807 and 1661cm-1, compared with normal tissue. And there was only one peak at 1022cm-1 in the spectra of normal mucosa, while there were two peaks at 1022 and 1052cm-1 in the spectra of cancerous mucosa. Support Vector Machine (SVM) was employed to classify Raman spectra between cancer and normal gastric tissues. A sensitivity of 88.2%, a specificity of 91.9%, and an overall diagnostic accuracy of 90.3% were achieved for discriminating gastric cancer from normal tissues with a Radial Basic Function (RBF) SVM algorithm. The experimental results show that Raman spectra differed significantly between cancerous and normal gastric tissue, which provides the experimental basis for the diagnosis of gastric cancer by Raman spectroscopy technology. And RBF SVM algorithm can give the well generalized classification performance for the samples, which expands the application of mathematical algorithms in the classification.

Xu, Ming; Ma, Jun; Qu, Yefei; Mao, Weizheng; Zheng, Ronger

2009-08-01

113

Application of micro-Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy to defect and thin film characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of micro-Raman and micro-Photoluminescence spectroscopy to defect and thin film characterization in semiconductor processing and equipment development are presented. The Raman spectrometer is coupled to a confocal laser Defect Review Tool (DRT). This system locates particles as small as 0.2 mum, both on 200 mm and 300 mm wafers. Raman spectroscopy is fast, non-destructive, can be performed in ambient,

Giuseppina Conti; Yuri Uritsky; C. R. Brundle

2001-01-01

114

Noninvasive detection of glucose using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the possibilities of applying Raman spectroscopy for the in-vivo determination of blood glucose levels. To this end we measured Raman spectra of glucose dissolved in pure water and in the presence of other analytes such as glycogen and proteins. Secondly, we determined the fluorescence of blood serum for different excitation wavelengths. Since all measurements were done in an absolute way, we were able to predict if the Raman signal level of glucose was high enough to permit the in-vivo determination of the physiological glucose levels in blood.

Kanger, Johannes S.; de Mul, Frits F. M.; Otto, Cees

1999-01-01

115

Raman Spectroscopy Study of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Bulk Tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among men. The mortality rate for this disease can be dramatically reduced if it can be diagnosed in its early stages. Raman spectroscopy is one of the optical techniques which can provide fingerprints of a disease in terms of its molecular composition which changes due to the onset of disease. The aim of this project is to investigate the differences in the Raman spectra to identify benign epithelium (BE), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and adenocarcinoma of various Gleason grades in archived bulk tissues embedded in paraffin wax. For each tissue, two adjacent tissue sections were cut and dewaxed, where one of the sections was stained using haematoxylin and eosin for histological examination and the other unstained adjacent section was used for Raman spectroscopic studies. We have collected Raman spectra from 10 prostatic adenocarcinoma dewaxed tissue sections using Raman microscope (785 nm excitation laser). The data were analyzed using statistical methods of principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis to classify the tissue regions. The results indicate that Raman Spectroscopy can differentiate between BE, PIN and Cancer regions.

Devpura, S.; Dai, H.; Thakur, J. S.; Naik, R.; Cao, A.; Pandya, A.; Auner, G. W.; Sarkar, F.; Sakr, W.; Naik, V.

2009-03-01

116

Kilowatt Ytterbium-Raman fiber laser.  

PubMed

A kilowatt-level Raman fiber laser is demonstrated with an integrated Ytterbium-Raman fiber amplifier architecture. A high power Ytterbium-doped fiber master oscillator power amplifier at 1080 nm is seeded with a 1120 nm fiber laser at the same time. By this way, a kilowatt-level Raman pump laser at 1080 nm and signal laser at 1120 nm is combined in the fiber core. The subsequent power conversion from 1080 nm to 1120 nm is accomplished in a 70 m long passive fiber. A 1.28 kW all-fiber Raman amplifier at 1120 nm with an optical efficiency of 70% is demonstrated, limited only by the available pump power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Raman fiber laser with over one kilowatt output. PMID:25089467

Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chi; Jiang, Huawei; Qi, Yunfeng; He, Bing; Zhou, Jun; Gu, Xijia; Feng, Yan

2014-07-28

117

Experimental demonstration of mode-selective phonon excitation of 6H-SiC by a mid-infrared laser with anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Mode-selective phonon excitation by a mid-infrared laser (MIR-FEL) is demonstrated via anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of 6H-silicon carbide (SiC). Irradiation of SiC with MIR-FEL and a Nd-YAG laser at 14 K produced a peak where the Raman shift corresponds to a photon energy of 119 meV (10.4 ?m). This phenomenon is induced by mode-selective phonon excitation through the irradiation of MIR-FEL, whose photon energy corresponds to the photon-absorption of a particular phonon mode.

Yoshida, Kyohei; Hachiya, Kan; Okumura, Kensuke; Mishima, Kenta; Inukai, Motoharu; Torgasin, Konstantin; Omer, Mohamed [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sonobe, Taro [Kyoto University Research Administration Office, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)] [Kyoto University Research Administration Office, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Zen, Heishun; Negm, Hani; Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasyo, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasyo, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2013-10-28

118

Raman spectroscopy of gliomas: an exploratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gliomas are extremely infiltrative type of brain cancers, the borders of which are difficult to locate. Gliomas largely consist of tumors of astrocytic or oligodendroglial lineage. Usually stereotactic surgery is performed to obtain tumor tissue sample. Complete excision of these tumors with preservation of uninvolved normal areas is important during brain tumor surgeries. The present study was undertaken to explore feasibility of classifying abnormal and normal glioma tissues with Raman spectroscopy (RS). RS is a nondestructive vibrational spectroscopic technique, which provides information about molecular composition, molecular structures and molecular interactions in tissue. Postoperated 33 (20-abnormal and 13-normal) gliomas tissue samples of different grades were collected under clinical supervision. Five micron section from tissue sample was used for confirmatory histopathological diagnosis while the remaining tissue was placed on CaF2 window and spectra were acquired using a fiberoptic-probe-coupled HE-785 Raman-spectrometer. Spectral acquisition parameters were laser power-80mW, integration-20s and averaged over 3 accumulations. Spectra were pre-processed and subjected to unsupervised Principal-Component Analysis (PCA) to identify trends of classification. Supervised PC-LDA (Principal-Component-Linear-Discriminant Analysis) was used to develop standard-models using spectra of 12 normal and abnormal specimens each. Leave-one-out crossvalidation yielded classification-efficiency of 90% and 80% for normal and abnormal conditions, respectively. Evaluation with an independent-test data-set comprising of 135 spectra of 9 samples provided sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 70%. Findings of this preliminary study may pave way for objective tumor margin assessment during brain surgery.

Shenoy, Mahesh; Hole, Arti R.; Shridhar, E.; Moiyadi, Aliasgar V.; Krishna, C. Murali

2014-03-01

119

Bilayer interference enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of the interference of incident and reflected coherent beams from a metal surface with a dielectric overlayer is calculated to yield an enhancement of the Raman signal of ultrathin adsorbed layers. The thickness of the dielectric layer is determined by optimizing the interference effect of the incident and reflected beams to enhance the electric field. In the case

W. S. Bacsa; J. S. Lannin

1992-01-01

120

Analytical procedure for characterization of medieval wall-paintings by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical procedure for the comprehensive chemical characterization of samples from medieval Nubian wall-paintings by means of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) was proposed in this work. The procedure was used for elemental and molecular investigations of samples from archeological excavations in Nubia (modern southern Egypt and northern Sudan). Numerous remains of churches with painted decorations dated back to the 7th-14th century were excavated in the region of medieval kingdoms of Nubia but many aspects of this art and its technology are still unknown. Samples from the selected archeological sites (Faras, Old Dongola and Banganarti) were analyzed in the form of transfers (n = 26), small fragments collected during the excavations (n = 35) and cross sections (n = 15). XRF was used to collect data about elemental composition, LA-ICPMS allowed mapping of selected elements, while RS was used to get the molecular information about the samples. The preliminary results indicated the usefulness of the proposed analytical procedure for distinguishing the substances, from both the surface and sub-surface domains of the wall-paintings. The possibility to identify raw materials from the wall-paintings will be used in the further systematic, archeometric studies devoted to the detailed comparison of various historic Nubian centers.

Syta, Olga; Rozum, Karol; Choi?ska, Marta; Zieli?ska, Dobrochna; ?ukowska, Gra?yna Zofia; Kijowska, Agnieszka; Wagner, Barbara

2014-11-01

121

Raman spectroscopy in investigation of rheometric processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of application of Raman spectroscopy in measurement of important parameters of rheometric process, including profile of oil film thickness and composition of oil/paste system, were carried out. The films of silicone oil AK106 (Wacker) extracted from ceramic paste AlOOH were subjects of investigations presented in this paper. Boundary between oil film and extruded paste is not regular and ambiguous during the extrusion process of ceramic paste in capillary rheometer. Moreover, the pastes are scattering materials, what makes determination of the film thickness by conventional optical methods difficult. Preliminary Raman measurements were made separately for oil and paste samples in range extending from 50 to 3500 cm-1. Determination of main Raman bands assigned to oil, ceramics and glass showed that Raman spectroscopy enables discernment of these materials. During the next step, studies were conducted for a model sample of the oil spread on the paste, using Raman microscope. This device was equipped with long-working-distance objective which should enable remote measurements through a borosilicate, view-port-window in the wall of capillary rheometry die. Two methods of Raman determination of the thickness were compared. Results of analysis and experimental works suggest that one of them can be applied for in-situ monitoring of the extrusion process.

Gnyba, Marcin; Bogdanowicz, Robert; Kozanecki, Marcin

2005-09-01

122

Raman Spectroscopy of Bone and Cartilage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter will reviews the Raman spectroscopy of the subject tissues. After a brief introduction to the structure, biology, and function of these tissues, we will describe the spectra and band assignments of the tissues and then summarize applications to studies of tissue development, mechanical function and competence, and pathology. Both metabolic diseases and genetic disorders will be covered.

Morris, Michael

123

Intrinsic Raman spectroscopy for quantitative biological spectroscopy Part II  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate the effectiveness of intrinsic Raman spectroscopy (IRS) at reducing errors caused by absorption and scattering. Physical tissue models, solutions of varying absorption and scattering coefficients with known concentrations of Raman scatterers, are studied. We show significant improvement in prediction error by implementing IRS to predict concentrations of Raman scatterers using both ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and partial least squares regression (PLS). In particular, we show that IRS provides a robust calibration model that does not increase in error when applied to samples with optical properties outside the range of calibration. PMID:18711512

Bechtel, Kate L.; Shih, Wei-Chuan; Feld, Michael S.

2009-01-01

124

FT-Raman spectroscopy study of human breast tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical spectroscopy has been extensively studied as a potential in vivo diagnostic tool to provide information about the chemical and morphologic structure of tissue. Raman Spectroscpy is an inelastic scattering process that can provide a wealth of spectral features that can be related to the specific molecular structure of the sample. This article reports results of an in vitro study of the FT-Raman human breast tissue spectra. An Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm was used as the excitation source in the FT-Raman Spectrometer. The neoplastic human breast samples, both Fibroadenoma and ICD, were obtained during therapeutical routine medical procedures required by the primary disease, and the non-diseased human tissue was obtained in plastic surgery. No sample preparation was needed for the FT-Raman spectra collection. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded from normal, benign (Fibroadenomas) and malignant (IDC-Intraductal Carcinoma) samples, adding up 51 different areas. The main spectral differences of a typical FT-Raman spectra of a Normal (Non-diseased), Fibroadenoma, and Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) breast tissue at the interval of 600 to 1800cm-1, which may differentiate diagnostically the sample, were found in the bands of 1230 to 1295cm-1, 1440 to 1460 cm-1 and 1650 to 1680 cm-1, assigned to the vibrational bands of the carbohydrate-amide III, proteins and lipids, and carbohydrate-amide I, respectively.

Bitar Carter, Renata A.; Martin, Airton A.; Netto, Mario M.; Soares, Fernando A.

2004-07-01

125

Raman spectroscopy of rare earth doped silver halide crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phonon energy of rare earth doped silver halide crystals was investigated using Raman spectroscopy. An additional phonon vibrational mode was observed and attributed to localized defect vibrational modes. Good agreement was found between the measured and the predicted frequencies of the local modes. These additional low energy (65-80 cm-1) vibrational modes do not increase the thermal quenching of mid-IR luminescence of the rare earth ions in silver halide crystals. The rare earth doped silver halide crystals are suitable for the fabrication of mid-IR solid state lasers and fiber lasers due to their extremely low phonon energies.

Shafir, I.; Nagli, L.; Katzir, A.

2009-06-01

126

Development of a drug assay using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been used to detect low levels of several chemical compounds, including the drugs of abuse -cocaine hydrochloride and methamphetamme hydrochloride. Raman spectra of these substances have also been taken over optical fibers using red-wavelength excitation. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of the remote determination of various target chemicals using diode laser excitation and diode array detection.

Angel, S. M.; Roe, Jeffrey N.; Andresen, Brian D.; Myrick, Michael L.; Milanovich, Fred P.

1990-07-01

127

Assessment of bone healing on tibial fractures treated with wire osteosynthesis associated or not with infrared laser light and biphasic ceramic bone graft (HATCP) and guided bone regeneration (GBR): Raman spectroscopy study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate, through Raman spectroscopy, the repair of complete tibial fracture in rabbits fixed with wire osteosynthesis - WO, treated or not with infrared laser light (? 780nm, 50mW, CW) associated or not to the use of HATCP and GBR. Surgical fractures were created under general anesthesia (Ketamine 0.4ml/Kg IP and Xilazine 0.2ml/Kg IP), on the tibia of 15 rabbits that were divided into 5 groups and maintained on individual cages, at day/night cycle, fed with solid laboratory pelted diet and had water ad libidum. On groups II, III, IV and V the fracture was fixed with WO. Animals of groups III and V were grafted with hydroxyapatite + GBR technique. Animals of groups IV and V were irradiated at every other day during two weeks (16J/cm2, 4 x 4J/cm2). Observation time was that of 30 days. After animal death the specimens were kept in liquid nitrogen for further analysis by Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy showed significant differences between groups (p<0.001). It is concluded that IR laser light was able to accelerate fracture healing and the association with HATCP and GBR resulted on increased deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite.

Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Aciole, Gilberth Tadeu S.; Aciole, Jouber Mateus S.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.; Nunes dos Santos, Jean; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

2011-03-01

128

The effect of aqueous solution in Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Raman detection, the most popular solution for the samples is tri-distilled water. But the effect of aqueous solution is barely studied in Raman spectroscopy. In fact Raman spectroscopy of solid-state and liquid-state are obvious different. In addition, FWHM of Raman spectral peaks also change evidently. In this paper, several samples were selected for the experiment; including sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, glucose and caffeine. By comparing the Raman spectroscopy of samples at different concentrations, it is found that the concentration of the sample can affect the strength of Raman spectroscopy, but it can hardly impact FWHM of Raman spectral peaks. By comparing the Raman spectroscopy of liquid-state with the Raman spectroscopy of solid-state, it is observed that the FWHM of some Raman spectral peaks varied obviously; that may be because when the sample was dissolved into the water, the crystal lattice structure was broken, and for some samples atom form became ion form in aqueous solution. Those structural variations caused the variation of the FWHM. The Raman spectroscopy of caffeine aqueous solution at very low concentration was also detected and analyzed. Compared with the Raman spectra of solid-state samples, it is found that some Raman spectral peaks disappeared when the sample was dissolved in water. It is possible that the low concentration of the sample result in the weakening of Raman signals and the disappearing of some weak Raman spectral peaks. Then Ag nanoparticles were added into the caffeine aqueous solution, the results suggest that surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) not only can enhance the Raman spectral signal, but also can reduce the effect of aqueous solution. It is concluded that the concentration of sample only affects the strength of Raman spectroscopy; the aqueous solution can affect the FWHM of Raman spectral peaks; and SERS can reduce the effect of aqueous solution.

Kang, Jian; Yuan, Xiaojuan; Dong, Xiao; Gu, Huaimin

2009-08-01

129

Metallized Capillaries as Probes for Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of miniature probes has been proposed to supplant the fiber-optic probes used heretofore in some Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic systems. A probe according to the proposal would include a capillary tube coated with metal on its inside to make it reflective. A microlens would be hermetically sealed onto one end of the tube. A spectroscopic probe head would contain a single such probe, which would both deliver laser light to a sample and collect Raman or fluorescent light emitted by the sample.

Pelletier, Michael

2003-01-01

130

Raman spectroscopy of soft musculoskeletal tissues.  

PubMed

Tendon, ligament, and joint tissues are important in maintaining daily function. They can be affected by disease, age, and injury. Slow tissue turnover, hierarchical structure and function, and nonlinear mechanical properties present challenges to diagnosing and treating soft musculoskeletal tissues. Understanding these tissues in health, disease, and injury is important to improving pharmacologic and surgical repair outcomes. Raman spectroscopy is an important tool in the examination of soft musculoskeletal tissues. This article highlights exciting basic science and clinical/translational Raman studies of cartilage, tendon, and ligament. PMID:25286106

Esmonde-White, Karen

2014-11-01

131

A novel method for the identification of inorganic and organic gunshot residue particles of lead-free ammunitions from the hands of shooters using scanning laser ablation-ICPMS and Raman micro-spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A method based on scanning laser ablation and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SLA-ICPMS) and Raman micro-spectroscopy for the detection and identification of compounds consistent with gunshot residue particles (GSR) has been developed. The method has been applied to the characterization of particles resulting from the discharge of firearms using lead-free ammunition. Modified tape lifts were used to collect the inorganic and organic residues from skin surfaces in a single sample. Using SLA-ICPMS, aggregates related to the composition of the ammunition, such as Cu-Zn-Sn, Zr-Sr, Cu-Zn, Al-Ti, or Al-Sr-Zr were detected, but this composition is only consistent with GSR from lead-free ammunitions. Additional evidence was provided by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which identified the characteristic organic groups of the particles as centralite, diphenylamine or their nitrated derivatives, which are indicative of GSR. PMID:25303642

Abrego, Zuriñe; Grijalba, Nagore; Unceta, Nora; Maguregui, Maite; Sanchez, Alicia; Fernández-Isla, Alberto; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

2014-12-01

132

Bright emission from a random Raman laser.  

PubMed

Random lasers are a developing class of light sources that utilize a highly disordered gain medium as opposed to a conventional optical cavity. Although traditional random lasers often have a relatively broad emission spectrum, a random laser that utilizes vibration transitions via Raman scattering allows for an extremely narrow bandwidth, on the order of 10?cm(-1). Here we demonstrate the first experimental evidence of lasing via a Raman interaction in a bulk three-dimensional random medium, with conversion efficiencies on the order of a few percent. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the complex spatial and temporal dynamics of nonlinear processes in turbid media. In addition to providing a large signal, characteristic of the Raman medium, the random Raman laser offers us an entirely new tool for studying the dynamics of gain in a turbid medium. PMID:25014073

Hokr, Brett H; Bixler, Joel N; Cone, Michael T; Mason, John D; Beier, Hope T; Noojin, Gary D; Petrov, Georgi I; Golovan, Leonid A; Thomas, Robert J; Rockwell, Benjamin A; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

2014-01-01

133

Detection of liquid hazardous molecules using linearly focused Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In security, it is an important issue to analyze hazardous materials in sealed bottles. Particularly, prompt nondestructive checking of sealed liquid bottles in a very short time at the checkpoints of crowded malls, stadiums, or airports is of particular importance to prevent probable terrorist attack using liquid explosives. Aiming to design and fabricate a detector for liquid explosives, we have used linearly focused Raman spectroscopy to analyze liquid materials in transparent or semi-transparent bottles without opening their caps. Continuous lasers with 532 nm wavelength and 58 mW/130 mW beam energy have been used for the Raman spectroscopy. Various hazardous materials including flammable liquids and explosive materials have successfully been distinguished and identified within a couple of seconds. We believe that our technique will be one of suitable methods for fast screening of liquid materials in sealed bottles.

Cho, Soo Gyeong; Chung, Jin Hyuk

2013-05-01

134

Combined Raman spectrometer\\/laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for the next ESA mission to Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the different instruments that have been pre-selected to be on-board the Pasteur payload on ExoMars is the Raman\\/laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities.An international team under the lead of TNO has been gathered to produce a design concept for a combined Raman spectrometer\\/LIBS elegant

Grégory Bazalgette Courrèges-Lacoste; Berit Ahlers; Fernando Rull Pérez

2007-01-01

135

Raman spectroscopy of blood in-vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Raman spectra from a sample of 8 volunteers that have different type of blood. The experimental data were carried out using a 785 nm excitation laser and an ocean optics spectrometer of 6 cm-1 resolution, with a used spectral region from 1000 to 1800 cm-1. We find Raman features at 1000 and 1542 cm-1 regarded with hemoglobin and its derivatives. Also we find Raman features at 1248 and 1342 cm-1 that are now regarded with pure fibrin. In this work, we use Principal Component analysis (PCA) to determine all variations of our samples, which allows us to define a classification of the influence of the blood type. Finally, we found vibrational lines of cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides that are reported in literature.

Villanueva-Luna, A. E.; Castro-Ramos, J.; Vazquez-Montiel, S.; Flores-Gil, A.; Ortiz-Lima, C. M.; Delgado-Atencio, J. A.

2012-03-01

136

Characterization of diatomaceous silica by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The network characteristic of a selection of diatomaceous silica derived from China has been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Before any thermal treatment of the sample, two prominent bands of 607 and circa 493 cm -1 are resolved in the Raman spectra of diatomaceous silica, corresponding to the (SiO) 3-ring breathing mode of D 2-line and the O 3SiOH tetrahedral vibration mode of D 1-line, respectively. This is more similar to the pyrogenic silica rather than the silica gel. For the latter, to obtain a (SiO) 3-ring, the sample must be heated between 250 and 450 °C. Significant difference is also found between the diatomaceous silica and other natural silicas, e.g. in the Raman spectra of sedimentary and volcanic opals, neither D 1 nor D 2 band is detected in previous reports.

Yuan, P.; He, H. P.; Wu, D. Q.; Wang, D. Q.; Chen, L. J.

2004-10-01

137

Characterization of diatomaceous silica by Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The network characteristic of a selection of diatomaceous silica derived from China has been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Before any thermal treatment of the sample, two prominent bands of 607 and circa 493 cm(-1) are resolved in the Raman spectra of diatomaceous silica, corresponding to the (SiO)3-ring breathing mode of D2-line and the O3SiOH tetrahedral vibration mode of D1-line, respectively. This is more similar to the pyrogenic silica rather than the silica gel. For the latter, to obtain a (SiO)3-ring, the sample must be heated between 250 and 450 degrees C. Significant difference is also found between the diatomaceous silica and other natural silicas, e.g. in the Raman spectra of sedimentary and volcanic opals, neither D1 nor D2 band is detected in previous reports. PMID:15350933

Yuan, P; He, H P; Wu, D Q; Wang, D Q; Chen, L J

2004-10-01

138

Detecting changes during pregnancy with Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preterm labor is the second leading cause of neonatal mortality and leads to a myriad of complications like delayed development and cerebral palsy. Currently, there is no way to accurately predict preterm labor, making its prevention and treatment virtually impossible. While there are some at-risk patients, over half of all preterm births do not fall into any high-risk category. This study seeks to predict and prevent preterm labor by using Raman spectroscopy to detect changes in the cervix during pregnancy. Since Raman spectroscopy has been used to detect cancers in vivo in organs like the cervix and skin, it follows that spectra will change over the course of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that fluorescence decreased during pregnancy and increased during post-partum exams to pre-pregnancy levels. We believe significant changes will occur in the Raman spectra obtained during the course of pregnancy. In this study, Raman spectra from the cervix of pregnant mice and women will be acquired. Specific changes that occur due to cervical softening or changes in hormonal levels will be observed to understand the likelihood that a female mouse or a woman will enter labor.

Vargis, Elizabeth; Robertson, Kesha; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Reese, Jeff; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

2010-02-01

139

Single bacteria identification by Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We report on rapid identification of single bacteria using a low-cost, compact, Raman spectroscope. We demonstrate that a 60-s procedure is sufficient to acquire a comprehensive Raman spectrum in the range of 600 to 3300 cm?¹. This time includes localization of small bacteria aggregates, alignment on a single individual, and spontaneous Raman scattering signal collection. Fast localization of small bacteria aggregates, typically composed of less than a dozen individuals, is achieved by lensfree imaging over a large field of view of 24 mm². The lensfree image also allows precise alignment of a single bacteria with the probing beam without the need for a standard microscope. Raman scattered light from a 34-mW continuous laser at 532 nm was fed to a customized spectrometer (prototype Tornado Spectral Systems). Owing to the high light throughput of this spectrometer, integration times as low as 10 s were found acceptable. We have recorded a total of 1200 spectra over seven bacterial species. Using this database and an optimized preprocessing, classification rates of ~90% were obtained. The speed and sensitivity of our Raman spectrometer pave the way for high-throughput and nondestructive real-time bacteria identification assays. This compact and low-cost technology can benefit biomedical, clinical diagnostic, and environmental applications. PMID:25028774

Strola, Samy Andrea; Baritaux, Jean-Charles; Schultz, Emmanuelle; Simon, Anne Catherine; Allier, Cédric; Espagnon, Isabelle; Jary, Dorothée; Dinten, Jean-Marc

2014-11-01

140

Laser wavelength selection for Raman spectroscopy of microbial pigments in situ in Antarctic desert ecosystem analogues of former habitats on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vital ultraviolet- (UV-) protective and photosynthetic pigments of cyanobacteria and lichens (microbial symbioses) that dominate primary production in Antarctic desert ecosystems auto-fluoresce at short wavelengths. We therefore use a long-wavelength (1064 nm) infrared laser for non-intrusive in situ Raman spectrometry of their ecologically significant compounds (especially pigments). To confirm that the power loss at this longer wavelength is justified

Howell G. M. Edwards; Emma M. Newton; David D. Wynn-Williams; David Dickensheets; Chris Schoen; Chelle Crowder

2002-01-01

141

Resonance Raman spectroscopy in twisted bilayer graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we study the Raman spectra of twisted bilayer graphene samples, with different twisting angles, by changing the incident laser energy between 2.54 and 4.14 eV. The spectra exhibit a number of extra peaks, classified in different families, each one associated with bilayer graphenes with different twisting rotational angles. We theoretically analyze the laser energy dependence of these extra peaks considering a set of discrete wavevectors within the interior of the Brillouin zone of graphene, which activate special double-resonance Raman processes. Our result show a nice qualitative agreement between the experimental and simulated spectra, demonstrating that these extra peaks are indeed ascribed to an umklapp double-resonance process in graphene systems.

Righi, A.; Venezuela, P.; Chacham, H.; Costa, S. D.; Fantini, C.; Ruoff, R. S.; Colombo, L.; Bacsa, W. S.; Pimenta, M. A.

2013-12-01

142

The Impact of Array Detectors on Raman Spectroscopy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of array detectors in the field of Raman spectroscopy and all low-light-level spectroscopic techniques is examined. The high sensitivity of array detectors has allowed Raman spectroscopy to be used to detect compounds at part per million concentrations and to perform Raman analyses at advantageous wavelengths.

Denson, Stephen C.; Pommier, Carolyn J. S.; Denton, M. Bonner

2007-01-01

143

Near infrared Raman spectroscopy for Alzheimer's disease detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the use of Raman spectroscopy for the detection and diagnosis of disease has steadily grown within the research field. However, this research has primarily been restricted to oncology. This research expands the use of Raman spectroscopy as a potential tool for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, which is currently the most prevalent, and fastest growing type of dementia in the Western world. Using a commercial Raman spectrometer (Renishaw PLC ®, UK) flash frozen post-mortem ex vivo brain tissue sections were illuminated using a high power (20mW) 830 nm near infrared diode laser, and subsequently spectra were gained in the region of 2000-200 cm-1 from a 10 second accumulation time. Ethical approval was gained for the examination of 18 individual donors exhibiting varying states of Alzheimer's disease, Huntingdon's disease and their corresponding age-matched healthy controls. Following on from previous preliminary studies, the Raman spectra were found to be highly reproducible, and when examined further, the spectra showed differences relating to the content and structure of the proteins in the individual brain samples, in particular, the beta-amyloid protein structure found in Alzheimer's disease patients. Principle components analysis further determined these protein structural changes, with Alzheimer's disease and Huntingdon's disease samples being defined from the healthy controls, and from each other.

Sudworth, Caroline D.; Archer, John K. J.; Mann, David

2005-08-01

144

NIR Raman spectroscopy in medicine and biology: results and aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of biomaterial by 'classical' Raman spectroscopy with excitation in the visible range has not been possible since the fluorescence of many essential constituents of all animal and plant cells and tissues overlays the Raman spectra completely. Fluorescence, however, is virtually avoided, when Raman spectra are excited with the Nd : YAG laser line at 1064 nm. Within seven dissertations we explored different fields of potential applications to medical diagnostics. Identification and qualification of tissues and cells is possible. Tumors show small but significant differences to normal tissues; in order to develop a reliable tool for tumor diagnostics more research is necessary, especially a collection of reference spectra in a data bank is needed. Raman spectra of biomineralization structures in teeth and bones show pathological tissues as well as the development of new mineralized structures. NIR Raman spectra of flowers, leaves, and fruit show, without special preparation, their constituents: alkaloids, the essential oils, natural dyes, flavors, spices and drugs. They allow application to taxonomy, optimizing plant breeding and control of food.

Schrader, B.; Dippel, B.; Erb, I.; Keller, S.; Löchte, T.; Schulz, H.; Tatsch, E.; Wessel, S.

1999-05-01

145

Two dimensional spectroscopy of Liquids in THz-domain: THz analogue of 2D Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the initial proposal(Y. Tanimura and S. Mukamel, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 9496 (1993)), the two dimensional Raman spectroscopy in the liquid phase has been received a considerable attention. Both experimental and theoretical activity of this field has been quite high. Since we have two controllable delay times, we can obtain more information than the lower-order experiments such as OKE. The new information includes that on heterogeneous distribution in liquids. Recently, it is found that the coupling between the modes in liquids can be investigated by the technique, both experimentally and theoretically(A. Tokmakoff, M.J. Lang, D.S. Larsen, G.R. Fleming, V. Chernyak, and S. Mukamel, Phys. Rev. Lett. (in press))^,(K. Okumura and Y. Tanimura, Chem. Phys. Lett. 278, 175 (1997)) In this talk, we will emphasize that we can perform the THz analogue of the 2D Raman spectroscopy if the THz short-pulse laser becomes available, which may not be in the far future. Theoretically, we can formulate this novel THz spectroscopy on the same footing as the 2D Raman spectroscopy. We will clarify new aspects of this technique comparing with the 2D Raman spectroscopy--- the reason it worth trying the tough experiment. See

Okumura, K.; Tanimura, Y.

1998-03-01

146

Raman spectroscopy explores molecular structural signatures of hidden materials in depth: Universal Multiple Angle Raman Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive 3D imaging in materials and medical research involves methodologies such as X-ray imaging, MRI, fluorescence and optical coherence tomography, NIR absorption imaging, etc., providing global morphological/density/absorption changes of the hidden components. However, molecular information of such buried materials has been elusive. In this article we demonstrate observation of molecular structural information of materials hidden/buried in depth using Raman scattering. Typically, Raman spectroscopic observations are made at fixed collection angles, such as, 90°, 135°, and 180°, except in spatially offset Raman scattering (SORS) (only back scattering based collection of photons) and transmission techniques. Such specific collection angles restrict the observations of Raman signals either from or near the surface of the materials. Universal Multiple Angle Raman Spectroscopy (UMARS) presented here employs the principle of (a) penetration depth of photons and then diffuse propagation through non-absorbing media by multiple scattering and (b) detection of signals from all the observable angles. PMID:24930768

Sil, Sanchita; Umapathy, Siva

2014-01-01

147

Summary report of FY 1995 Raman spectroscopy technology development  

SciTech Connect

US DOE is sponsoring development of remote, fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for rapid chemical characterization of Hanford high-level radioactive tank waste. Deployment targets for this technology are analytical hot cells and, via the Light-Duty Utility Arm and cone penetrometer, the waste tanks themselves. Perceived benefits of fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy are (1) rapid generation of tank-waste safety-related data, (2) reduced personnel exposure to highly radioactive waste, (3) reduced tank-waste sampling and analysis costs, and (4) reduced radioactive analytical waste. This document presents the results from the investigation of two dispersive, transmission-grating Raman systems and four fiber-optic Raman probe designs with non-radioactive tank waste simulants. One Raman system used a 532-nm, 400 mW, solid-state laser; the other used a 785-nm, 500 mW, solid-state diode laser. We found (1) the transmission-grating systems had better wavelength stability than previously tried Czerny-Turner-Based systems and (2) the 785-nm system`s specie detection limits in the spectral fingerprint regiion were at least as good as those for the 532-nm system. Based on these results, and the fact that some tank wastes luminesce with 514.5nm excitation, we selected the 785-nm system for hot-cell use. Of the four probes tested, three had a ``six-around-on`` fiber probe design; the fourth probe was a one-fiber-in-one-fiber-out, diffuse-relectance design. Comparison of the four probes` signal-to-noise rations, rations, transmission/collection efficiencies, and probe-silica Raman backgrounds showed that the best probe for use with Hanford-Site tank waste should (1) be filtered as close to the probe tip as possible to reduce the probe-silica Raman background and (2) have multiple collection fibers. The responses of all the probes tested showed a strong dependence on probe-sample distance, and the presence of a probe window appeared to increase the probe`s silica Raman background.

Douglas, J.G.

1995-11-01

148

Applications of Raman Spectroscopy to Virology and Microbial Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reports from the utilization of Raman spectroscopic techniques like Raman microscopy, Raman optical activity (ROA), UV-resonance Raman (UVRR)-spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) for the investigation of viruses and microorganisms, especially bacteria and yeasts for medical and pharmaceutical applications. The application of these Raman techniques allows for the analysis of chemical components of cells and subcellular regions, as well as the monitoring of chemical differences occurring as a result of the growth of microorganisms. In addition, the interaction of microorganisms with active pharmaceutical agents can be investigated. In combination with chemometric methods Raman spectroscopy can also be applied to identify microorganisms both in micro colonies and even on single cells.

Harz, Michaela; Stöckel, Stephan; Ciobot?, Valerian; Cialla, Dana; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

149

Mineralogy of Meteorite Chelyabinsk as Determined by Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Raman spectroscopy, we have characterized the mineral phases of meteorite Chelyabinsk, fall 15 February 2013, Chelyabinsk, Russia. Raman spectra are shown for olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, magnetite, pyrrhotite, calcite and, possibly, parisite.

Voropaev, S. A.; Eliseev, A. A.; Petukhov, D. I.

2014-06-01

150

Biomedical applications of laser spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very soon after the invention of the laser, the use of the thermal effects of the radiation was introduced. Such techniques have been refined and the laser is now routinely used for treatment in many specialities. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-thermal modality employing the combination of a tumor-seeking agent and activating laser light. During the last 15 years laser spectroscopic techniques have also been developed providing powerful means for non-intrusive medical diagnostics of tissue in real time. At the beginning only few groups were involved in exploratory work, but successively the field has developed now to occupy a large number of research teams, which meet at large specialized conferences. We will here consider three aspects of laser diagnostics: fluorescence, Raman and near-IR, and elastic scattering spectroscopy, and we will also briefly discuss PDT. The activity in the field is very extensive, and rather than trying to give a full overview, illustrations from work performed at the Lund University Medical Laser Center will be given.

Svanberg, Sune

1999-07-01

151

Searching for minicharged particles via birefringence, dichroism and Raman spectroscopy of the vacuum polarized by a high-intensity laser wave  

SciTech Connect

Absorption and dispersion of probe photons in the field of a high-intensity circularly polarized laser wave are investigated. The optical theorem is applied for determining the absorption coefficients in terms of the imaginary part of the vacuum polarization tensor. Compact expressions for the vacuum refraction indices and the photon absorption coefficients are obtained in various asymptotic regimes of interest. The outcomes of this analysis reveal that, far from the region relatively close to the threshold of the two-photon reaction, the birefringence and dichroism of the vacuum are small and, in some cases, strongly suppressed. On the contrary, in a vicinity of the region in which the photo-production of a pair occurs, these optical properties are manifest with lasers of moderate intensities. We take advantage of such a property in the search of minicharged particles by considering high-precision polarimetric experiments. In addition, Raman-like electromagnetic waves resulting from the inelastic part of the vacuum polarization tensor are suggested as an alternative form for finding exclusion limits on these hypothetical charge carriers. The envisaged parameters of upcoming high-intensity laser facilities are used for establishing upper bounds on the minicharged particles. -- Highlights: •Via dichroism and birefringence of the vacuum by a strong laser wave, minicharged particles can be probed. •The discovery potential is the highest in a vicinity of the first pair production threshold. •As alternative observable, Raman scattered waves are put forward.

Villalba-Chávez, S., E-mail: selymv@gmail.com; Müller, C., E-mail: c.mueller@tp1.uni-duesseldorf.de

2013-12-15

152

Fourier transform raman spectroscopy of synthetic and biological calcium phosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier-transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the organic and mineral components of biological and synthetic calcium phosphate minerals. Raman spectroscopy provides information on biological minerals that is complimentary to more widely used infrared methodologies as some infrared-inactive vibrational modes are Raman-active. The application of FT-Raman technology has, for the first time, enabled the problems of high sample fluorescence

G. R. Sauer; W. B. Zunic; J. R. Durig; R. E. Wuthier

1994-01-01

153

Raman spectroscopic studies of CO 2 laser-irradiated human dental enamel  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser radiation on the physical properties of human dental enamel are well characterized, little is known regarding laser-induced chemical changes. In this study, enamel was exposed to CO2 laser radiation to induce fusion and recrystallization, and the Raman spectra recorded using both dispersive and Fourier-transformed (FT) Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were compared to a

A. Aminzadeh; S Shahabi; L. J Walsh

1999-01-01

154

Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ Raman spectroscopy to diagnose benign and malignant lesions in human breast tissue based on chemical composition. In this study, 130 Raman spectra are acquired from ex vivo samples of human breast tissue (normal, fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and infiltrating carcinoma) from 58 patients. Data are fit by using a linear combination model in which nine basis spectra represent the morphologic and chemical features of breast tissue. The resulting fit coefficients provide insight into the chemical/morphological makeup of the tissue and are used to develop diagnostic algorithms. The fit coefficients for fat and collagen are the key parameters in the resulting diagnostic algorithm, which classifies samples according to their specific pathological diagnoses, attaining 94% sensitivity and 96% specificity for distinguishing cancerous tissues from normal and benign tissues. The excellent results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to be applied in vivo to accurately classify breast lesions, thereby reducing the number of excisional breast biopsies that are performed. Author contributions: M.F., J.C., R.R.D., and M.S.F. designed research; A.S.H. and K.E.S.-P. performed research; A.S.H. and M.F. analyzed data; and A.S.H. wrote the paper.This paper was submitted directly (Track II) to the PNAS office.Abbreviations: DEH, ductal epithelial hyperplasia; ROC, receiver operating characteristic; N/C, nuclear-to-cytoplasm.

Haka, Abigail S.; Shafer-Peltier, Karen E.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Crowe, Joseph; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

2005-08-01

155

Deep Raman spectroscopy for the non-invasive standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents.  

PubMed

Deep Raman spectroscopy has been utilized for the standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents from a distance of 15 m under real life background illumination conditions. By using combined time and space resolved measurements, various explosive precursors hidden in opaque plastic containers were identified non-invasively. Our results confirm that combined time and space resolved Raman spectroscopy leads to higher selectivity towards the sub-layer over the surface layer as well as enhanced rejection of fluorescence from the container surface when compared to standoff spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra that have minimal interference from the packaging material and good signal-to-noise ratio were acquired within 5 s of measurement time. A new combined time and space resolved Raman spectrometer has been designed with nanosecond laser excitation and gated detection, making it of lower cost and complexity than picosecond-based laboratory systems. PMID:22608458

Izake, Emad L; Cletus, Biju; Olds, William; Sundarajoo, Shankaran; Fredericks, Peter M; Jaatinen, Esa

2012-05-30

156

Characterization of the lithium surface by infrared and Raman spectroscopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of the pristine passivation layer formed on the surface of commercial lithium foils has been investigated by polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and confocal Raman microspectrometry (CRM). Carbonates and hydroxides are easily detected by PM-IRRAS and on-line non-destructive analysis could be envisaged with this technique or even with the simpler IRRAS technique in dry atmosphere. On the other hand, local heating under laser irradiation is difficult to avoid in CRM. It transforms carbonate species into lithium acetylides of the Li 2C 2 type characterized by a ?C?C line at ca. 1845 cm -1. This might explain an unexpected Raman line observed at 1830-1850 cm -1 in previous literature studies of the lithium/electrolyte interface or of the carbon/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries.

Naudin, C.; Bruneel, J. L.; Chami, M.; Desbat, B.; Grondin, J.; Lassègues, J. C.; Servant, L.

157

Raman spectroscopy of single-wall boron nitride nanotubes.  

PubMed

Single-wall boron nitride nanotubes samples synthesized by laser vaporization of a hexagonal BN target under a nitrogen atmosphere are studied by UV and visible Raman spectroscopy. We show that resonant conditions are necessary for investigating phonon modes of BNNTs. Raman excitation in the UV (229 nm) provides preresonant conditions, allowing the identification of the A1 tangential mode at 1370 cm(-1). This is 5 cm(-1) higher than the E(2g) mode in bulk h-BN. Ab initio calculations show that the lower frequency of bulk h-BN with respect to large diameter nanotubes and the single sheet of h-BN is related to a softening of the sp2 bonds in the bulk due to interlayer interaction. PMID:16895378

Arenal, R; Ferrari, A C; Reich, S; Wirtz, L; Mevellec, J-Y; Lefrant, S; Rubio, A; Loiseau, A

2006-08-01

158

Laser pulses for coherent xuv Raman excitation  

E-print Network

We combine multi-channel electronic structure theory with quantum optimal control to derive Raman pulse sequences that coherently populate a valence excited state. For a neon atom, Raman target populations of up to 13% are obtained. Superpositions of the ground and valence Raman states with a controllable relative phase are found to be reachable with up to 4.5% population and phase control facilitated by the pump pulse carrier envelope phase. Our results open a route to creating core-hole excitations in molecules and aggregates that locally address specific atoms and represent the first step towards realization of multidimensional spectroscopy in the xuv and x-ray regimes.

Greenman, Loren; Whaley, K Birgitta

2014-01-01

159

Raman spectroscopy - in situ characterization of growth and surface processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this thesis is to expand on the usefulness of Raman spectroscopy as an in situ probe to aid in the growth and implementation of electronic, optical, and biodetection materials. We accomplish this goal by developing two diverse optical characterization projects. In the first project, an autoclave similar to those used in solvothermal growth which has been outfitted with an optical window is used to collect vibrational spectra of solvents and mineralizers commonly used in the ammonothermal growth of gallium nitride. Secondly, novel silver nanowires created by ferroelectric lithography are evaluated by surface enhanced micro-Raman spectroscopy for use as surface enhanced substrates for low detection limit or single molecule bio-detectors. Raman spectroscopy is already a widely accepted method to characterize and identify a wide variety of materials. Vibrational spectra can yield much information on the presence of chemical species as well as information regarding the phase and interactive properties. Because Raman spectroscopy is a generally non-intrusive technique it is ideal for analysis of hazardous or far-from-ambient liquids, gases, or solids. This technique is used in situ to characterize crystal growth and surface enhanced photochemistry. The phenomenon of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) has been observed in many systems but some fundamental understanding is still lacking and the technique has been slow to transition from the laboratory to the industry. Aggregated colloids and lithographically created islands have shown the best success as reproducible substrates for SERS detection. These techniques, however, lack control over shape, size, and position of the metal nanoparticles which leave them reliant on hotspots. Because of the potential for control of the position of aggregates, ferroelectric lithographically created silver nanowires are evaluated as a potential SERS substrate using pyridine, benzoic acid, and Rhodamine 6g. Surface enhancement from these samples varies periodically as excitation light is scanned perpendicular to the wires. The periodicity, however, has the frequency of the positive domains where carbon laser damage is preferentially created. There is a current need for homoepitaxial substrates for gallium nitride devices including light emitting diodes, transistors, and laser diodes. Ammonothermal growth is a promising technique for creating bulk single crystalline GaN, but questions remain concerning the intermediates of reactions in supercritical Ammonia. Neat ammonia and water are monitored by Raman spectroscopy from room temperature to 500°C and 20 kpsi with both UV and visible excitation. In both systems, the amount of hydrogen bonding, which can be determined by O-H and N-H stretch frequency shifts, decreases with increasing temperature. In supercritical ammonia, the degree of Fermi resonance between the nu1 and 2nu4 modes decreases linearly with temperature while a minimum in pyramidal height of the NH3 molecule is reached at moderate pressures. Binary solutions of sodium azide and ammonia are investigated to temperatures which allow observation of the breakdown of the azides. The pressure and N2 Raman signal increase as the azide decomposes to sodium amide and N2 and H2 process gasses. The rate of decrease of the Raman signal of the azide increases as the reaction proceeds suggesting that the reaction rate is proportional to the pressure. The Fermi resonance, hydrogen bonding, and pyramidal height parameters were not affected by the presence of the azide.

Perkins, James Robert

160

Raman spectroscopy study of carbon-doped resorcinol-formaldehyde thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we investigated the properties of carbon resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) cryogel thin films. RF cryogels were doped by single-wall carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene quantum dots. The structure of the deposited films was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, and optical, transmission electron and atomic force microscopy. Raman spectroscopy was performed using three excitation laser energies in the visible range. The effect of glass substrate on the Raman features of investigated carbon cryogel thin films was determined as well. The particle size of the carbon-doped RF cryogel thin films was determined by atomic force microscopy.

Kleut, D. N.; Markovi, Z. M.; Babi?, B. M.; Holclajtner Antunovi?, I. D.; Milosavljevi?, M. S.; Drami?anin, M. D.; Todorovi? Markovi?, B. M.

2013-11-01

161

In vivo lipidomics using single-cell Raman spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

We describe a method for direct, quantitative, in vivo lipid profiling of oil-producing microalgae using single-cell laser-trapping Raman spectroscopy. This approach is demonstrated in the quantitative determination of the degree of unsaturation and transition temperatures of constituent lipids within microalgae. These properties are important markers for determining engine compatibility and performance metrics of algal biodiesel. We show that these factors can be directly measured from a single living microalgal cell held in place with an optical trap while simultaneously collecting Raman data. Cellular response to different growth conditions is monitored in real time. Our approach circumvents the need for lipid extraction and analysis that is both slow and invasive. Furthermore, this technique yields real-time chemical information in a label-free manner, thus eliminating the limitations of impermeability, toxicity, and specificity of the fluorescent probes common in currently used protocols. Although the single-cell Raman spectroscopy demonstrated here is focused on the study of the microalgal lipids with biofuel applications, the analytical capability and quantitation algorithms demonstrated are applicable to many different organisms and should prove useful for a diverse range of applications in lipidomics. PMID:21310969

Wu, Huawen; Volponi, Joanne V.; Oliver, Ann E.; Parikh, Atul N.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

2011-01-01

162

UTI diagnosis and antibiogram using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram require a 48 hour waiting period using conventional methods. This results in ineffective treatments, increased costs and most importantly in increased resistance to antibiotics. In this work, a novel method for classifying bacteria and determining their sensitivity to an antibiotic using Raman spectroscopy is described. Raman spectra of three species of gram negative Enterobacteria, most commonly responsible for urinary tract infections, were collected. The study included 25 samples each of E.coli, Klebsiella p. and Proteus spp. A novel algorithm based on spectral ratios followed by discriminant analysis resulted in classification with over 94% accuracy. Sensitivity and specificity for the three types of bacteria ranged from 88-100%. For the development of an antibiogram, bacterial samples were treated with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin to which they were all sensitive. Sensitivity to the antibiotic was evident after analysis of the Raman signatures of bacteria treated or not treated with this antibiotic as early as two hours after exposure. This technique can lead to the development of new technology for urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram with same day results, bypassing urine cultures and avoiding all undesirable consequences of current practice.

Kastanos, Evdokia; Kyriakides, Alexandros; Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Pitris, Constantinos

2009-07-01

163

Detection of glutamate in the eye by Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, Raman spectroscopy was investigated as a tool for monitoring glutamate levels in the eye. Glutamate is a by product of nerve cell death, and is an indicator of macular degeneration. Raman spectra was from ex vivo porcine eyes was investigated, with glutamate injected into the eyes to simulate disease conditions. The Raman spectra from the native eye

Alvin Katz; Erik F. Kruger; Glenn Minko; C. H. Liu; Richard B. Rosen; Robert R. Alfano

2000-01-01

164

Raman spectroscopy in dental research: a short review of recent studies.  

PubMed

The Raman spectroscopic technique enables us to obtain vibrational (IR and far-IR) spectra of minerals by analyzing scattered light caused by (visible or near-visible) monochromatic laser excitation. The method possesses several advantages over IR absorption, including simple sample preparation, easy spectral/band analysis, and linear-response to mineral/chemical concentrations. In micro-Raman spectrometer systems, samples are positioned under an optical microscope, and specimens can be scanned with a lateral resolution (approximately 1 mm). In this paper, recent applications of micro-Raman spectroscopy and near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy in the study of dental hard tissues and of calculus are reviewed. Special attention is given to mineral components in enamel, dentin, and calculus, and to calcium fluoride formed in/on enamel. The results from the use of an Ar(+)-laser/grating-based micro-Raman spectrometer show that: CaF2 formed in/on enamel by APF treatment is detectable and different from pure CaF2; and with the technique, the crystallite orientation in enamel can be determined. A Raman spectrometer based on Fourier transform and a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser (1.06 mm) can be used to obtain fluorescence-free Raman signals from biological materials, and identification of mineral components present in dental calculus is possible. PMID:9470515

Tsuda, H; Arends, J

1997-11-01

165

Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy are emerging biophotonic tools to recognize various diseases. The current review gives an overview of the experimental techniques, data-classification algorithms and applications to assess soft tissues, hard tissues and body fluids. The methodology section presents the principles to combine vibrational spectroscopy with microscopy, lateral information and fiber-optic probes. A crucial step is the classification of spectral data by a variety of algorithms. We discuss unsupervised algorithms such as cluster analysis or principal component analysis and supervised algorithms such as linear discriminant analysis, soft independent modeling of class analogies, artificial neural networks support vector machines, Bayesian classification, partial least-squares regression and ensemble methods. The selected topics include tumors of epithelial tissue, brain tumors, prion diseases, bone diseases, atherosclerosis, kidney stones and gallstones, skin tumors, diabetes and osteoarthritis. PMID:19343682

Krafft, Christoph; Steiner, Gerald; Beleites, Claudia; Salzer, Reiner

2009-02-01

166

Coronagraphic Notch Filter for Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified coronagraph has been proposed as a prototype of improved notch filters in Raman spectrometers. Coronagraphic notch filters could offer alternatives to both (1) the large and expensive double or triple monochromators in older Raman spectrometers and (2) holographic notch filters, which are less expensive but are subject to environmental degradation as well as to limitations of geometry and spectral range. Measurement of a Raman spectrum is an exercise in measuring and resolving faint spectral lines close to a bright peak: In Raman spectroscopy, a monochromatic beam of light (the pump beam) excites a sample of material that one seeks to analyze. The pump beam generates a small flux of scattered light at wavelengths slightly greater than that of the pump beam. The shift in wavelength of the scattered light from the pump wavelength is known in the art as the Stokes shift. Typically, the flux of scattered light is of the order of 10 7 that of the pump beam and the Stokes shift lies in the wave-number range of 100 to 3,000 cm 1. A notch filter can be used to suppress the pump-beam spectral peak while passing the nearby faint Raman spectral lines. The basic principles of design and operation of a coronagraph offer an opportunity for engineering the spectral transmittance of the optics in a Raman spectrometer. A classical coronagraph may be understood as two imaging systems placed end to end, such that the first system forms an intermediate real image of a nominally infinitely distant object and the second system forms a final real image of the intermediate real image. If the light incident on the first telescope is collimated, then the intermediate image is a point-spread function (PSF). If an appropriately tailored occulting spot (e.g., a Gaussian-apodized spot with maximum absorption on axis) is placed on the intermediate image plane, then the instrument inhibits transmission of light from an on-axis source. However, the PSFs of off-axis light sources are formed off axis - that is, away from the occulting spot - so that they become refocused onto the final image plane.

Cohen, David; Stirbl, Robert

2004-01-01

167

Resonant Raman spectroscopy of twisted multilayer graphene.  

PubMed

Graphene and other two-dimensional crystals can be combined to form various hybrids and heterostructures, creating materials on demand with properties determined by the interlayer interaction. This is the case even for a single material, where multilayer stacks with different relative orientation have different optical and electronic properties. Probing and understanding the interface coupling is thus of primary importance for fundamental science and applications. Here we study twisted multilayer graphene flakes with multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy. We find a significant intensity enhancement of the interlayer coupling modes (C peaks) due to resonance with new optically allowed electronic transitions, determined by the relative orientation of the layers. The interlayer coupling results in a Davydov splitting of the C peak in systems consisting of two equivalent graphene multilayers. This allows us to directly quantify the interlayer interaction, which is much smaller compared with Bernal-stacked interfaces. This paves the way to the use of Raman spectroscopy to uncover the interface coupling of two-dimensional hybrids and heterostructures. PMID:25382099

Wu, Jiang-Bin; Zhang, Xin; Ijäs, Mari; Han, Wen-Peng; Qiao, Xiao-Fen; Li, Xiao-Li; Jiang, De-Sheng; Ferrari, Andrea C; Tan, Ping-Heng

2014-01-01

168

Orientation effects in waveguide resonance Raman spectroscopy of monolayers.  

PubMed

In this paper we study the effect of molecular orientation on the observed Raman spectra in waveguide Raman spectroscopy. Depolarization ratios differ from those in 'normal' Raman spectroscopy due to the polarization properties of the guiding modes that excite the Raman scattering. Waveguide Raman spectra of submonolayers of cytochrome c and NiOEP were recorded using different polarization settings. The observed depolarization ratios strongly deviate from those obtained in bulk Raman spectra. Using the derived equations for the depolarization ratios, the preferred orientation angle of the molecules can be obtained from the observed depolarization ratios. From these results we first conclude that high-quality spectra of sub-monolayers can be obtained using waveguide Raman spectroscopy and secondly, that these spectra can be used to determine the preferred orientation of the molecule with respect to the waveguide surface. PMID:14686770

Kanger, J S; Otto, C

2003-12-01

169

Novel micro-Raman setup with tunable laser excitation for time-efficient resonance Raman microscopy and imaging.  

PubMed

We describe a micro-Raman setup allowing for efficient resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), i.e., mapping of Raman spectra as a function of tunable laser excitation wavelength. The instrument employs angle-tunable bandpass optical filters which are integrated into software-controlled Raman and laser cleanup filter devices. These automatically follow the excitation laser wavelength and combine tunability with high bandpass transmission as well as high off-band blocking of light. Whereas the spectral intervals which can be simultaneously acquired are bandpass limited to ~350 cm(-1), they can be tuned across the spectrum of interest to access all characteristic Raman features. As an illustration of performance, we present Raman mapping of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs): (i) in a small volume of water-surfactant dispersion as well as (ii) after deposition onto a substrate. A significant improvement in the acquisition time (and efficiency) is demonstrated compared to previous RRS implementations. These results may help to establish (micro) Raman spectral mapping as a routine tool for characterization of SWNTs as well as other materials with a pronounced resonance Raman response in the visible-near-infrared spectral region. PMID:23521587

Stürzl, Ninette; Lebedkin, Sergei; Klumpp, Stefanie; Hennrich, Frank; Kappes, Manfred M

2013-05-01

170

Raman shifted lasers for medical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose to operate a Nd:YAG laser at the secondary emission line of 1319 nm and Raman shift in H2 to the first Stokes at 2918 nm near the maximum of water absorption. The quantum efficiency is 45 % and energy conversion of 25 % is achievable in practice. A 300 mJ Nd:YAG laser at 1.32 ?m will produce 75

V. B. Krapchev

1994-01-01

171

Molecular imaging with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy nanoparticle reporters  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging scans cellular and molecular targets in living subjects through the introduction of imaging agents that bind to these targets and report their presence through a measurable signal. The picomolar sensitivity, signal stability, and high multiplexing capacity of Raman spectroscopy satisfies important needs within the field of molecular imaging, and several groups now utilize Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to image molecular targets in small animal models of human disease. This article details the role of Raman spectroscopy in molecular imaging, describes some substrates and imaging agents used in animal models, and illustrates some examples. PMID:24293809

Jokerst, Jesse V.; Pohling, Christoph; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

2013-01-01

172

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: substrate-related issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

After over 30 years of development, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is now facing a very important stage in its\\u000a history. The explosive development of nanoscience and nanotechnology has assisted the rapid development of SERS, especially\\u000a during the last 5 years. Further development of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is mainly limited by the reproducible\\u000a preparation of clean and highly surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)

Xiu-Mei Lin; Yan Cui; Yan-Hui Xu; Bin Ren; Zhong-Qun Tian

2009-01-01

173

Searching for minicharged particles via birefringence, dichroism and Raman spectroscopy of the vacuum polarized by a high-intensity laser wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption and dispersion of probe photons in the field of a high-intensity circularly polarized laser wave are investigated. The optical theorem is applied for determining the absorption coefficients in terms of the imaginary part of the vacuum polarization tensor. Compact expressions for the vacuum refraction indices and the photon absorption coefficients are obtained in various asymptotic regimes of interest. The outcomes of this analysis reveal that, far from the region relatively close to the threshold of the two-photon reaction, the birefringence and dichroism of the vacuum are small and, in some cases, strongly suppressed. On the contrary, in a vicinity of the region in which the photo-production of a pair occurs, these optical properties are manifest with lasers of moderate intensities. We take advantage of such a property in the search of minicharged particles by considering high-precision polarimetric experiments. In addition, Raman-like electromagnetic waves resulting from the inelastic part of the vacuum polarization tensor are suggested as an alternative form for finding exclusion limits on these hypothetical charge carriers. The envisaged parameters of upcoming high-intensity laser facilities are used for establishing upper bounds on the minicharged particles.

Villalba-Chávez, S.; Müller, C.

2013-12-01

174

Calibration of Raman spectroscopy at 1064 nm for beeswax quantification.  

PubMed

In the early sixties, coating with molten beeswax was considered a valuable method for preventing the erosive action of weather and/or salinity on the surface of granite sculptures and monuments. This technique had been traditionally employed by the Galician stoneworkers for partial repair of historical monuments. For this purpose, beeswax was applied to the Renaissance Frieze in the Cloister of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia (Northwest Spain). The beeswax treatment was counterproductive. An intense grain disaggregation of the granite can be observed in the Frieze, owing to the crystallization of salts. As a consequence, the restoration of the Cloister presents many problems. This fact imposes the need for an exhaustive study of the wax-stone system and the demand for a nondestructive method to measure the beeswax thickness at the stone surface. The aim of this contribution is the evaluation of a laser-based method, namely Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, for analyzing the wax presence in specific rocky material of the Frieze to be restored. To obtain a reliable quantitative calibration, we prepared beeswax films of five different thicknesses on aluminum plates (26.6-97.2 microm). Nylon was selected as external reference to obtain the Raman emission independently from the laser beam power. The ratios of the relative intensities of the Raman bands corresponding to beeswax and nylon were used for the construction of a calibration curve used for the quantitative analysis. The intensities at 2879 cm(-1), I(c2879), and 2880 cm(-1), I(n2880), for beeswax and nylon, respectively, in the Raman spectra of each material were used. A linear dependence was found for the ratio I(c2879)/I(n2880) with the beeswax thickness. The validation of this calibration curve was tested with a second validation set of samples that spans beeswax film thicknesses both inside and outside the calibration range (12.1 to 180 mum), in order to evaluate in addition the accuracy of the model at extrapolation. Without complex sample preparation, near-infrared Raman spectroscopy resulted in an effective technique for localizing the wax with lateral resolution of tens of micrometers, and for determining wax layer thickness in the stone with an uncertainty of a few micrometers. PMID:18028707

Pan, A; Chiussi, S; Serra, J; González, P; León, B

2007-11-01

175

Measurement of clathrate hydrates via Raman spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Raman spectra of clathrate hydrate guest molecules are presented for three known structures (I (sI), II (sII), and H (sH)) in the following systems: CH4 (sI), CO2 (sI), C3H8 (sII), CH4 + CO2 (sI), CD4 + C3H8 (sII), CH4 + N2 (sI), CH4 + THF-d8 (sII), and CH4 + C7D14 (sH). Relative occupancy of CH4 in the large and small cavities of sI were determined by deconvoluting the ??1 symmetric bands, resulting in hydration numbers of 6.04 ?? 0.03. The frequency of the ??1 bands for CH4 in structures I, II, and H differ statistically, so that Raman spectroscopy is a potential tool to identify hydrate crystal structure. Hydrate guest compositions were also measured for two vapor compositions of the CH4 + CO2 system, and they compared favorably with predictions. The large cavities were measured to be almost fully occupied by CH4 and CO2, whereas only a small fraction of the small cavities are occupied by CH4. No CO2 was found in the small cavities. Hydration numbers from 7.27 to 7.45 were calculated for the mixed hydrate.

Sum, A. K.; Burruss, R. C.; Sloan, Jr. , E. D.

1997-01-01

176

Raman spectroscopy of hypersonic shock waves  

PubMed

Raman spectroscopy is shown to be an efficient diagnostic methodology for the study of hypersonic shock waves. As a test, absolute density and rotational population profiles have been measured across five representative normal shock waves of N2 generated in a free jet, spanning the Mach number range 7.7

Ramos; Mate; Tejeda; Fernandez; Montero

2000-10-01

177

Denoising of single scan Raman spectroscopy signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise reduction algorithms for improving Raman spectroscopy signals while preserving signal information were implemented. Algorithms based on Wavelet denoising and Kalman filtering are presented in this work as alternatives to the well-known Savitky-Golay algorithm. The Wavelet and Kalman algorithms were designed based on the noise statistics of real signals acquired using CCD detectors in dispersive spectrometers. Experimental results show that the random noise generated in the data acquisition is governed by sub-Poisson statistics. The proposed algorithms have been tested using both real and synthetic data, and were compared using Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Infinity Norm (L?) to each other and to the standard Savitky-Golay algorithm. Results show that denoising based on Wavelets performs better in both the MSE and (L?) the sense.

Quintero, Luis; Matthäus, Christian; Hunt, Shawn; Diem, Max

2010-02-01

178

REMOTE RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF VARIOUS MIXED AND COMPOSITE MINERAL PHASES AT 7.2 m DISTANCE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote Raman [e.g.,1-5] and micro-Raman spectroscopy [e.g., 6-10] are being evaluated on geological samples for their potential applications on Mars rover or lander. The Raman lines of minerals are sharp and distinct. The Raman finger-prints of minerals do not shift appreciably but remain distinct even in sub-micron grains and, therefore, can be used for mineral identification in fine-grained rocks [e.g., 4,7]. In this work we have evaluated the capability of a directly coupled remote Raman system (co-axial configuration) for distinguishing the mineralogy of multiple crystals in the exciting laser beam. We have measured the Raman spectra of minerals in the near vicinity of each other and excited with a laser beam (e.g. -quartz (Qz) and K-feldspar (Feld) plates, each 5 mm thick). The spectra of composite transparent mineral plates of 5 mm thickness of -quartz and gypsum over calcite crystal were measured with the composite samples perpendicular to the exciting laser beam. The measurements of remote Raman spectra of various bulk minerals, and mixed and composite minerals with our portable UH remote Raman system were carried out at the Langley Research Center in a fully illuminated laboratory.

Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, U. N.

2006-01-01

179

Diamond Raman laser in eye safe region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work was the external cavity CVD diamond Raman laser generating at wavelength of 1.63 ?m which belongs to an eye safe region. As the Raman medium a sample of CVD grown single diamond crystal was used. The crystal was grown in the [100] direction and after cutting, the sample sides were formed by {110} planes. The diamond crystal sample dimensions were 5 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm and it had no anti-reflection coatings. As a pumping radiation source the compact Q-switched Nd:YAP laser operating at the wavelength 1.34 ?m was used. The pulse duration was 12 ns. This pumping radiation was focused by the lens (f = 250 mm) perpendicularly on the diamond crystal face. The beam radius inside the crystal was 180 ?m. The 15 mm long Raman laser resonator was formed by a pumping mirror (HR @ 1.63 ?m and T = 97 % @ 1.34 ?m) and an output coupler (R = 95 % @ 1.63 ?m, r = 500 mm). The maximum generated laser output energy was 18 ?J @ 1.63 ?m for the pumping energy of 3.35 mJ corresponding to the conversion efficiency of 0.5 %. The output spatial beam profile corresponds to the fundamental Gaussian beam in both axes.

Jelinková, Helena; Kitzler, Ond?ej; Jelínek, Michal; Šulc, Jan; N?mec, Michal; Kube?ek, Václav

2011-09-01

180

Diamond Raman laser in eye safe region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work was the external cavity CVD diamond Raman laser generating at wavelength of 1.63 ?m which belongs to an eye safe region. As the Raman medium a sample of CVD grown single diamond crystal was used. The crystal was grown in the [100] direction and after cutting, the sample sides were formed by {110} planes. The diamond crystal sample dimensions were 5 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm and it had no anti-reflection coatings. As a pumping radiation source the compact Q-switched Nd:YAP laser operating at the wavelength 1.34 ?m was used. The pulse duration was 12 ns. This pumping radiation was focused by the lens (f = 250 mm) perpendicularly on the diamond crystal face. The beam radius inside the crystal was 180 ?m. The 15 mm long Raman laser resonator was formed by a pumping mirror (HR @ 1.63 ?m and T = 97 % @ 1.34 ?m) and an output coupler (R = 95 % @ 1.63 ?m, r = 500 mm). The maximum generated laser output energy was 18 ?J @ 1.63 ?m for the pumping energy of 3.35 mJ corresponding to the conversion efficiency of 0.5 %. The output spatial beam profile corresponds to the fundamental Gaussian beam in both axes.

Jelinková, Helena; Kitzler, Ond?ej; Jelínek, Michal; Šulc, Jan; N?mec, Michal; Kube?ek, Václav

2012-02-01

181

Photonic crystals with SiO2Ag "post-cap" nanostructure coatings for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Photonic crystals with SiO2�Ag "post-cap" nanostructure coatings for surface enhanced Raman efficiently couple light from a laser to SiO2�Ag "post-cap" nanostructures deposited on the PC surface by a glancing angle evaporation technique for achieving high surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy SERS

Cunningham, Brian

182

Assessment of Transient Changes in Corneal Hydration Using Confocal Raman Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Assessment of Transient Changes in Corneal Hydration Using Confocal Raman Spectroscopy Brian T with ex- cimer laser refractive surgery may result from a better understand- ing of the transient changes recorded every 30 seconds for 6 minutes while the prepared cornea surfaces were exposed to quiescent air

Hahn, David W.

183

[Preliminary study on identification of oil products using laser-Raman fingerprint spectrum].  

PubMed

Laser-Raman spectroscopy technology was used for measuring and analyzing properties of oil products. Through comparing with the Raman shifts and relative Raman intensity ratios of the main fingerprint peaks, different kinds of oil products were identified successfully. Furthermore, the Raman spectra of the same type of petroleum products obtained from different private gas stations were measured and the petroleum qualities were detected. The favorable results were obtained in both oil identification and quality test. The present work provides a feasible method for quick, sensitive and nondestructive identification of oil products. PMID:22497144

Lou, Ting-ting; Wang, Yun-qing; Li, Jin-hua; Sun, Pei-yan; Feng, Wei-wei; Gao, Zhen-hui; Chen, Ling-xin

2012-01-01

184

Increased wavelength options in the visible and ultraviolet for Raman lasers operating on dual Raman modes.  

PubMed

We report increased wavelength options from Raman lasers for Raman media having two Raman modes of similar gain coefficient. For an external-cavity potassium gadolinium tungstate Raman laser pumped at 532 nm, we show that two sets of Stokes orders are generated simultaneously by appropriate orientation of the Raman crystal, and also wavelengths that correspond to sums of the two Raman modes. Up to 14 visible Stokes lines were observed in the wavelength range 555-675 nm. The increase in Stokes wavelengths also enables a much greater selection of wavelengths to be accessed via intracavity nonlinear sum frequency and difference frequency mixing. For example, we demonstrate 30 output wavelength options for a wavelength-selectable 271-321 nm Raman laser with intracavity sum frequency mixing in BBO. We also present a theoretical analysis that enables prediction of wavelength options for dual Raman mode systems. PMID:18542414

Mildren, R P; Piper, J A

2008-03-01

185

[Water Raman spectrum suppression with low-pass filter in underwater in-situ Raman spectroscopy].  

PubMed

As a powerful tool for studying chemical structures, Raman spectroscopy has been used in aquatic environments in-situ measurement widely, and has been used in deep sea research recently. For underwater in-situ detection, O-H vibration Raman peak of water is inherent and strong compared with other dissolved matter's Raman signals. When the authors want to get a good SNR Raman signal of dissolved matter by increasing detection time, O-H vibration Raman peak of water will get to saturation easily, which influences other Raman signal's detection. In the present paper, a specially designed short-pass optical filter was used for suppression of water's O-H vibration Raman peak. The authors calculated the suppression effect of short-pass optical filter with linear and exponential edges. The simulation shows that exponential edge filter has better performance and can suppress water's O-H vibration Raman peak effectively. The experiment also proves the calculation results. With the suppression optical filter, the intensity of water's O-H vibration Raman signal and other dissolved matters' become similar. And the influence of suppression optical filter on other dissolved matters' Raman signal is little. So the suppression optical filter is feasible for in-situ underwater Raman spectroscopy. PMID:22097842

Guo, Jin-Jia; Liu, Zhi-Shen

2011-09-01

186

Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) As Next Generation Nonlinear LIDAR Spectroscopy and Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear spectroscopy using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and femtosecond laser pulses has been successfully developed as powerful tools for chemical analysis and biological imaging. Recent developments show promising possibilities of incorporating CARS into LIDAR system for remote detection of molecular species in airborne particles. The corresponding theory is being developed to describe nonlinear scattering of a mesoscopic particle composed of complex molecules by laser pulses with arbitrary shape and spectral content. Microscopic many-body transform theory is used to compute the third order susceptibility for CARS in molecules with known absorption spectrum and vibrational modes. The theory is combined with an integral scattering formula and Mie-Lorentz formulae, giving a rigorous formalism which provides powerful numerical experimentation of CARS spectra, particularly on the variations with the laser parameters and the direction of detection.

Ooi, C. H. Raymond [School of Engineering, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Selangor DarulEhsan, Malaysia and Department of Physics, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-07-10

187

Sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy to normal patient variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many groups have used Raman spectroscopy for diagnosing cervical dysplasia; however, there have been few studies looking at the effect of normal physiological variations on Raman spectra. We assess four patient variables that may affect normal Raman spectra: Race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), parity, and socioeconomic status. Raman spectra were acquired from a diverse population of 75 patients undergoing routine screening for cervical dysplasia. Classification of Raman spectra from patients with a normal cervix is performed using sparse multinomial logistic regression (SMLR) to determine if any of these variables has a significant effect. Results suggest that BMI and parity have the greatest impact, whereas race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status have a limited effect. Incorporating BMI and obstetric history into classification algorithms may increase sensitivity and specificity rates of disease classification using Raman spectroscopy. Studies are underway to assess the effect of these variables on disease.

Vargis, Elizabeth; Byrd, Teresa; Logan, Quinisha; Khabele, Dineo; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

2011-11-01

188

Raman spectroscopy of submicron KNO3 films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained Raman spectra of phase-I, -II, and -III KNO3 films 0.26 ?m thick. The primary aim was to establish the physical mechanism for stabilization of the ferroelectric phase III in thin films. In bulk, phase III exists only as a reentrant phase stable from ~113 °C to 120 °C. However, application of hydrostatic or uniaxial pressure greatly enlarges the temperature range over which phase III is stable. This has led to the conjecture that stress (e.g., from differential thermal expansion of film and substrate) stabilizes phase III in thin films. Our vibrational spectroscopy shows that this is not likely to be the dominant effect. The dominant effect appears to be surface electric fields. This is shown in the shift and splitting of low-energy odd-parity modes from an unresolved broad peak at 120 cm-1 in bulk crystals to resolved TO-LO pairs at 92 and 97 cm-1 and 107 and 113 cm-1. The Raman data show that the KNO3 thin films are more highly ordered than in bulk. This is compatible with spontaneous polarization values, which are 50% or more greater in the films, and with much higher TC values in the thinner films. The values of TC as a function of thickness d are compatible with the theory of Tilley and Zeks [Solid State Commun. 49, 823 (1984)] as well as with similar experimental results by Hadni and Thomas [Thin Solid Films 81, 247 (1981); Ferroelectrics 59, 221 (1989)] on triglycine sulfate.

Scott, J. F.; Zhang, Ming-Sheng; Godfrey, R. Bruce; Araujo, C.; McMillan, L.

1987-03-01

189

High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of phase change materials  

SciTech Connect

We used high-pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the evolution of vibrational frequencies of the phase change materials (PCMs) Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}, and SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. We found that the critical pressure for triggering amorphization in the PCMs decreases with increasing vacancy concentration, demonstrating that the presence of vacancies, rather than differences in the atomic covalent radii, is crucial for pressure-induced amorphization in PCMs. Compared to the as-deposited amorphous phase, the pressure-induced amorphous phase has a similar vibrational spectrum but requires much lower laser power to transform into the crystalline phase, suggesting different kinetics of crystallization, which may have implications for applications of PCMs in non-volatile data storage.

Hsieh, Wen-Pin, E-mail: wphsieh@stanford.edu; Mao, Wendy L. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States) [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zalden, Peter [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)] [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut (IA), RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany) [I. Physikalisches Institut (IA), RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); JARA – Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Lindenberg, Aaron M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States) [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, PULSE Institute, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

2013-11-04

190

Raman spectroscopy of polystyrene nanofibers—Multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy investigations of nanofibers of polystyrene loaded with various amounts of multiwalled carbon nanotubes are reported. The modifications of the main Raman bands (D and G) of multiwalled carbon nanotubes due to their dispersion in polystyrene demonstrates and quantifies the stress transfer from the polymeric nanofiber matrix (polystyrene) to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. TGA data show an increase of the thermal stability of polystyrene nanofibers upon the loading with multiwalled carbon nanotubes, conforming Raman data.

Chipara, Dorina M.; Macossay, Javier; Ybarra, Ana V. R.; Chipara, A. C.; Eubanks, Thomas M.; Chipara, Mircea

2013-06-01

191

Hyperspectral Imaging with Stimulated Raman Scattering by Chirped Femtosecond Lasers  

E-print Network

Hyperspectral Imaging with Stimulated Raman Scattering by Chirped Femtosecond Lasers Dan Fu, Gary imaging system using chirped femtosecond lasers to achieve rapid Raman spectra acquisition while retaining laser beams with an energy difference tuned to the vibrational frequency of the molecule of interest

Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

192

A combined remote Raman and LIBS instrument for characterizing minerals with 532 nm laser excitation.  

PubMed

The authors have developed an integrated remote Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system for measuring both the Raman and LIBS spectra of minerals with a single 532 nm laser line of 35 mJ/pulse and 20 Hz. The instrument has been used for analyzing both Raman and LIBS spectra of carbonates, sulfates, hydrous and anhydrous silicates, and iron oxide minerals in air. These experiments demonstrate that by focusing a frequency-doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam with a 10x beam expander to a 529-microm diameter spot on a mineral surface located at 9 m, it is possible to measure simultaneously both the remote Raman and LIBS spectra of calcite, gypsum and olivine by adjusting the laser power electronically. The spectra of calcite, gypsum, and olivine contain fingerprint Raman lines; however, it was not possible to measure the remote Raman spectra of magnetite and hematite at 9 m because of strong absorption of 532 nm laser radiation and low intensities of Raman lines from these minerals. The remote LIBS spectra of both magnetite and hematite contain common iron emission lines but show difference in the minor amount of Li present in these two minerals. Remote Raman and LIBS spectra of a number of carbonates, sulfates, feldspars and phyllosilicates at a distance of 9 m were measured with a 532-nm laser operating at 35 mJ/pulse and by changing photon flux density at the sample by varying the spot diameter from 10 mm for Raman to 530 microm for LIBS measurements. The complementary nature of these spectra is highlighted and discussed. The combined Raman and LIBS system can also be re-configured to perform micro-Raman and micro-LIBS analyses, which have applications in trace/residue analysis and analysis of very small samples in the nano-gram range. PMID:19084470

Sharma, Shiv K; Misra, Anupam K; Lucey, Paul G; Lentz, Rachel C F

2009-08-01

193

Fire debris analysis by Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paper reporting the use of Raman spectroscopy in fire debris analysis is presented. Five polymer based samples, namely carpet (polypropylene), nylon stockings (nylon), foam packaging (polystyrene), CD cases (polystyrene) and DVD cases (polypropylene) were burnt with each one of the following ignitable liquids: petrol, diesel, kerosene and ethanol. Raman shifts were obtained and, in some cases, peaks were identified

J. González-Rodríguez; N. Sissons; S. Robinson

2011-01-01

194

Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy Yan Zhou Cheng-Hui Liu Yi Sun Yang Pu://biomedicaloptics.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 11/16/2012 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman, and 13,700 deaths from brain and other nervous system cancers were reported in the United States

Sun, Yi

195

Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

E-print Network

1 , De Yin Wu1 , Bin Ren1 , Zhong Lin Wang2 & Zhong Qun Tian1 Surface-enhanced Raman scattering or alumina (here denoted Au/SiO2 or Au/Al2O3 nanoparticles). Each nanoparticle acts as an Au tip in the TERSLETTERS Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy Jian Feng Li1 , Yi Fan Huang1

La Rosa, Andres H.

196

Raman spectroscopy as a diagnostic probe for ancient skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the use of Raman microprobe spectroscopy and Raman imaging to study the chemical composition of fresh, unmounted bone at a microscopic level. A specimen of human cortical bone was analyzed and evidence for the presence of amorphous-type calcium phosphate, a theoretical precursor in the bone formation process, was found. In general the amorphous-type calcium phosphate appears away from

Howell G. Edwards

1999-01-01

197

Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes with electrostatically attached cytochrome c  

E-print Network

of Cc to the SWCNTs Cytochrome c Oxidized SWCNT+ +++ ++ + ++ - - - Si/SiO2 1Institut für with cytochrome c Oxidized SWCNTs Cytochrome c Silicon 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 Raman shift [cm -1Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes with electrostatically attached cytochrome c SWCNTs

Nabben, Reinhard

198

Raman Spectroscopy for the Biochemical Characterization of Bacteria Khozima Hamasha  

E-print Network

Raman Spectroscopy for the Biochemical Characterization of Bacteria Khozima Hamasha Department was used as a tool to investigate the effect that the phosphorylation state of Wag31 (a homolog of the cell Intensity Raman Shift (cm -1 ) Experimental Setup Bacterial colonies are grown at room temperature (37°C

Rehse, Steven J.

199

COHERENT ANTI-STOKES RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) was used to obtain Raman spectra of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) composed of between three and seven fused rings. The compounds were pumped in the resonance and preresonance regions to obtain the sensitivity neces...

200

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface  

E-print Network

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an attractive analytical technique, which enables single-molecule sensitive detection and provides its special chemical fingerprints. During the past decades, researchers have ...

Xu, Weigao

201

Detection of integrins using surface enhanced raman spectroscopy  

E-print Network

changes of integrins on the surface of a cell maybe possible by developing a combined device such as an atomic force microscope (AFM) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) system. However, the focus of this research is to first determine...

Gant, Virgil Alexander

2005-08-29

202

Detection of Physiologically Relevant Alcohol Concentrations Using Raman Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

This is the first step in a series of studies to test the feasibility of using Raman Spectroscopy (RS) to non-invasively detect physiologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations. Blood tests, urine tests, and the breathalyzer are currently...

McKay, Joshua L.

2006-08-16

203

Quantitative biological Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive blood analysis  

E-print Network

The long term goal of this project is the measurement of clinically-relevant analytes in the blood tissue matrix of human subjects using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy, with the shorter term research directed towards ...

Shih, Wei-Chuan

2007-01-01

204

Isotopic dilution and solvent effect studies using raman difference spectroscopy  

E-print Network

ISOTOPIC DILUTION AND SOLVENT EFFECT STUDIES USING RAMAN DIFFERENCE SPECTROSCOPY A Thesis by ANDREW NORMAN JOHNSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major Subject: Chemistry ISOTOPIC DILUTION AND SOLVENT EFFECT STUDIES USING RAMAN DIFFERENCE SPECTROSCOPY A Thesis by ANDREW NORMAN JOHNSON Approved as to style and content by: Jaan Laane (Chairman of Committee) J. . Bevan...

Johnson, Andrew Norman

2012-06-07

205

Combustion Diagnosis By Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) appears very promising for the remote, spatially and temporally precise probing of hostile combustion environments due to its large signal conversion efficiency and coherent signal nature. CARS is a wave mixing process in which incident laser beams at frequencies w1 and 0)2, with a frequency difference tuned to a Raman resonance in the molecular species being probed, interact to generate a coher-ent signal at frequency w3 = 2(.01 - w2. By analyzing the spectral distribution of the CARS signal, temperature measurements can be performed. Species concentration measurements derive from the intensity of the CARS radiation or, in certain cases, from its spectral shape. CARS spectra have been recorded in a variety of flames from the major flame constituents and generally show very good agreement with computer synthesized spectra. Significantly, CARS has been successfully demonstrated with both liquid and gaseous fuels in the primary zone and exhaust of practical combustors. Both thermometry and species concentration measurements have been performed. High pressure effects on CARS spectra have also been examined.

Hall, Robert J.; Eckbreth, Alan C.

1981-08-01

206

Probing the nature of defects in graphene by Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Raman spectroscopy is able to probe disorder in graphene through defect-activated peaks. It is of great interest to link these features to the nature of disorder. Here we present a detailed analysis of the Raman spectra of graphene containing different type of defects. We found that the intensity ratio of the D and D' peak is maximum (?13) for sp(3)-defects, it decreases for vacancy-like defects (?7), and it reaches a minimum for boundaries in graphite (?3.5). This makes Raman Spectroscopy a powerful tool to fully characterize graphene. PMID:22764888

Eckmann, Axel; Felten, Alexandre; Mishchenko, Artem; Britnell, Liam; Krupke, Ralph; Novoselov, Kostya S; Casiraghi, Cinzia

2012-08-01

207

Characterization of the pigment xanthomonadin in the bacterial genus Xanthomonas using micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm and 514.5 nm laser excitation, respectively, to characterize a plant pathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae D150. The bacterial genus Xathomonas is closely related to bacterial genus Stenotrophomonas that causes an infection in humans. This study has identified for the first time the unique Raman spectra of the carotenoid-like pigment xanthomonadin of the Xanthomonas strain. Xanthomonadin is a brominated aryl-polyene pigment molecule similar to carotenoids. Further studies were conducted using resonance Raman spectroscopy with 514.5 nm laser excitation on several strains of the bacterial genus Xanthomonas isolated from numerous plants from various geographical locations. The current study revealed that the Raman bands representing the vibrations (v1, v2, v3) of the polyene chain of xanthomonadin are 1003-1005 (v3), 1135-1138 (v2), and 1530 (v1). Overtone bands representing xanthomonadin were identified as 2264-2275 (2v2), and combinational bands at 2653-2662 (v1+ v2). The findings from this study validate our previous finding that the Raman fingerprints of xanthomonadin are unique for the genus Xanthomonas. This facilitates rapid identification (~5 minutes) of Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial culture plates. The xanthomonadin marker is different from Raman markers of many other bacterial genus including Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Clavibacter, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Ralstonia. This study also identified Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial strains isolated from a diseased wheat sample on a culture plate.

Paret, Mathews L.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Acosta, Tayro; deSilva, Asoka S.; Vowell, Tomie; Alvarez, Anne M.

2012-06-01

208

In vitro quantitation of human femoral artery atherosclerosis using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy has been used in vitro to identify calcified atherosclerotic plaques in human femoral arteries. Raman techniques allow for the identification of these plaques in a nondestructive manner, which may allow for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in cardiac patients in the future. As Raman spectroscopy also reveals chemical information about the composition of the arteries, it can also be used as a prognostic tool. The in vivo detection of atherosclerotic plaques at risk for rupture in cardiac patients will enhance treatment methods while improving clinical outcomes for these procedures. Raman spectra were excited by an Invictus 785-nm NIR laser and measured with a fiber-coupled micro-Raman RXN system (Kaiser Optical Systems, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI) equipped with a 785 nm CW laser and CCD detector. Chemical mapping of arteries obtained post mortem allowed for the discrete location of atherosclerotic plaques. Raman peaks at 961 and 1073 cm-1 reveal the presence of calcium hydroxyapatite and carbonate apatite, which are known to be present in calcified plaques. By mapping the locations of these peaks the boundaries of the plaques can be precisely determined. Areas of varying degrees of calcification were also identified. Because this can be useful in determining the degree of plaque calcification and vessel stenosis, this may have a significant impact on the clinical treatment of atherosclerotic plaques in the future.

Dykes, Ava C.; Anastasiadis, Pavlos; Allen, John S., III; Sharma, Shiv K.

2012-06-01

209

In situ visible Raman spectroscopic study of phase change in LiCoO 2 film by laser irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phase change in LiCoO2\\/Co films in a spot of 1 ?m diameter has been investigated under ambient conditions using 514.5 nm radiation by laser Raman spectroscopy. Laser irradiation resulted in a remarkable phase change of the film from hexagonal to cubic spinel, forming a lithium deficient phase Li1?xCoO2, which was enhanced with laser power. Based on comparative Raman studies,

Seung-Wan Song; Kyoo-Seung Han; Hirofumi Fujita; Masahiro Yoshimura

2001-01-01

210

Improving Raman velocimetry of laser-cooled cesium atoms by spin-polarization  

E-print Network

We study the peformances of Raman velocimetry applied to laser-cooled, spin-polarized, cesium atoms. Atoms are optically pumped into the F=4, m=0 ground-state Zeeman sublevel, which is insensitive to magnetic perturbations. High resolution Raman stimulated spectroscopy is shown to produce Fourier-limited lines, allowing, in realistic experimental conditions, atomic velocity selection to one-fiftieth of a recoil velocity.

Julien Chabé; Hans Lignier; Pascal Szriftgiser; Jean Claude Garreau

2006-03-23

211

Drop Coating Deposition Raman Spectroscopy of Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Labeled Protein  

PubMed Central

Using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the model protein normal Raman spectra of Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) -conjugated protein was systematically studied for the first time using both solution and the drop coating deposition Raman (DCDR) sampling techniques. The FITC-BSA Raman spectra are dominated by the FITC Raman features that are strongly pH dependent. Current DCDR detection sensitivity obtained with a 10:1 FITC-BSA conjugate is 45 fmol in terms of total protein consumption and ~15 attomol at laser probed volume. Unlike the FITC-BSA solution Raman spectra where the FITC Raman features are photostable, concurrent FITC fluorescence and Raman photobleaching is observed in the DCDR spectra of FITC-BSA. While the FITC Raman photobleaching follows a single exponential decay function with a time constant independent of the FITC labeling ratio, the fluorescence background photobleaching is much more complicated and it depends strongly on the FITC labeling ratio and sample conditions. Mechanistically, the FITC Raman photobleaching is believed to be due to photochemical reaction of the FITC molecules in the electronically excited state. The FITC fluorescence photobleaching involves both concentration quenching and photochemical quenching, and the latter may involve a photochemical intermediate that is fluorescence inactive but Raman active. PMID:20925976

Vangala, Karthikeshwar; Jiang, Dongping; Zou, Sige; Pechan, Tibor

2011-01-01

212

Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.  

DOEpatents

A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. A low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively.

Alfano, Robert R. (Bronx, NY); Wang, Wubao (Flushing, NY)

2003-05-06

213

Remote pulsed Raman spectroscopy of inorganic and organic materials to a radial distance of 100 meters.  

PubMed

A portable pulsed remote Raman spectroscopy system has been fabricated and tested to 100 m radial distance. The remote Raman system is based on a directly coupled f/2.2 spectrograph with a small (125 mm diameter) telescope and a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser (20 Hz, 532 nm, 25 mJ/pulse) used as the excitation source in a co-axial geometry. The performance of the Raman system is demonstrated by measuring the gated Raman spectra of calcite, sodium phosphate, acetone, and naphthalene. Raman spectra of these materials were recorded with the 532 nm pulsed laser excitation and accumulating the spectra with 600 laser shots (30 s integration time) at 100 m with good signal-to-background ratio. The remote pulsed Raman system can be used for remotely identifying both inorganic and organic materials during daytime or nighttime. The system will be useful for terrestrial applications such as monitoring environmental pollution and for detecting minerals and organic materials such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on planetary surfaces such as Mars. PMID:16925922

Sharma, S K; Misra, A K; Lucey, P G; Angel, S M; McKay, C P

2006-08-01

214

A versatile femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy setup with tunable pulses in the visible to near infrared  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a versatile and efficient setup to perform femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS). Technical innovations are implemented to achieve the wavelength tunability for both the picosecond narrowband Raman pump pulse and femtosecond broadband Raman probe pulse. Using a simplified one-grating scheme in a home-built second harmonic bandwidth compressor followed by a two-stage noncollinear optical parametric amplifier, we tune the Raman pump pulse from ca. 480 to 750 nm. To generate the suitable Raman probe pulse in tandem, we rely on our recently demonstrated broadband up-converted multicolor array technique that readily provides tunable broadband laser sidebands across the visible to near-infrared range. This unique setup has unparalleled flexibility for conducting FSRS. We measure the ground-state Raman spectra of a cyclohexane standard using tunable pump-probe pairs at various wavelengths across the visible region. The best spectral resolution is ˜12 cm-1. By tuning the pump wavelength closer to the electronic absorption band of a photoacid pyranine in water, we observe the pre-resonantly enhanced Raman signal. The stimulated Raman gain of the 1627 cm-1 mode is increased by over 15 times.

Zhu, Liangdong; Liu, Weimin; Fang, Chong

2014-07-01

215

High average power generation in barium nitrate Raman laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of low divergent ( M 2?1.5) first and third Stokes radiation in a barium nitrate Raman laser with average powers of 11 W and 5 W, respectively, was demonstrated. The quantum conversion efficiency was up to 21%. The possibility of thermal lens compensation in such Raman lasers was shown.

Lisinetskii, V. A.; Riesbeck, T.; Rhee, H.; Eichler, H. J.; Orlovich, V. A.

2010-04-01

216

FT-Raman, FTIR and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of the antiviral and antiparkinsonian drug amantadine  

Microsoft Academic Search

FT-Raman, FTIR and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) are applied to the vibrational characterization of the antiviral and antiparkinsonian drug amantadine. SERS spectroscopy is employed for the first time for characterizing the interfacial behavior of this molecule and to study its interaction with colloidal silver. The comparison of SERS spectrum with the Raman spectra of amantadine in solid state and in

L Rivas; S Sánchez-Cortés; J Stanicova; J. V Garc??a-Ramos; P Miskovsky

1999-01-01

217

Trace Element-Isotope Geochemistry of Impact Breccia, Target Basalts and Laser Raman Spectroscopy of Shocked Plagioclase from Lonar Crater, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace element and isotopic data indicate Archean basement component in the impact breccia of the Deccan basalt-hosted Lonar Crater. Raman spectral study of Lonar and Manicouagan maskelynites indicate different modes of origin of maskelynites.

Chakrabarti, R.; Basu, A. R.; Peterson, J.

2006-03-01

218

An all-silicon Raman laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of light generation and/or amplification in silicon has attracted a great deal of attention for silicon-based optoelectronic applications owing to the potential for forming inexpensive, monolithic integrated optical components. Because of its indirect bandgap, bulk silicon shows very inefficient band-to-band radiative electron-hole recombination. Light emission in silicon has thus focused on the use of silicon engineered materials such as nanocrystals, Si/SiO2 superlattices, erbium-doped silicon-rich oxides, surface-textured bulk silicon and Si/SiGe quantum cascade structures. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) has recently been demonstrated as a mechanism to generate optical gain in planar silicon waveguide structures. In fact, net optical gain in the range 2-11dB due to SRS has been reported in centimetre-sized silicon waveguides using pulsed pumping. Recently, a lasing experiment involving silicon as the gain medium by way of SRS was reported, where the ring laser cavity was formed by an 8-m-long optical fibre. Here we report the experimental demonstration of Raman lasing in a compact, all-silicon, waveguide cavity on a single silicon chip. This demonstration represents an important step towards producing practical continuous-wave optical amplifiers and lasers that could be integrated with other optoelectronic components onto CMOS-compatible silicon chips.

Rong, Haisheng; Liu, Ansheng; Jones, Richard; Cohen, Oded; Hak, Dani; Nicolaescu, Remus; Fang, Alexander; Paniccia, Mario

2005-01-01

219

Studies of Minerals, Organic and Biogenic Materials through Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact remote Raman spectroscopy system was developed at NASA Langley Research center and was previously demonstrated for its ability to identify chemical composition of various rocks and minerals. In this study, the Raman sensor was utilized to perform time-resolved Raman studies of various samples such as minerals and rocks, Azalea leaves and a few fossil samples. The Raman sensor utilizes a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser as excitation source, a 4-inch telescope to collect the Raman-scattered signal from a sample several meters away, a spectrograph equipped with a holographic grating, and a gated intensified CCD (ICCD) camera system. Time resolved Raman measurements were carried out by varying the gate delay with fixed short gate width of the ICCD camera, allowing measurement of both Raman signals and fluorescence signals. Rocks and mineral samples were characterized including marble, which contain CaCO3. Analysis of the results reveals the short (approx.10-13 s) lifetime of the Raman process, and shows that Raman spectra of some mineral samples contain fluorescence emission due to organic impurities. Also analyzed were a green (pristine) and a yellow (decayed) sample of Gardenia leaves. It was observed that the fluorescence signals from the green and yellow leaf samples showed stronger signals compared to the Raman lines. Moreover, it was also observed that the fluorescence of the green leaf was more intense and had a shorter lifetime than that of the yellow leaf. For the fossil samples, Raman shifted lines could not be observed due the presence of very strong short-lived fluorescence.

Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Ismail, Syed; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Nyugen, Trac; Elsayed-Ali, hani

2009-01-01

220

Study of minerals, organic, and biogenic materials through time-resolved Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact remote Raman spectroscopy system was developed at NASA Langley Research center and was previously demonstrated for its ability to identify chemical composition of various rocks and minerals. In this study, the Raman sensor was utilized to perform time-resolved Raman studies of various samples such as minerals and rocks, Azalea leaves, and a few fossil samples. The Raman sensor utilizes a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser as excitation source, a 4-inch telescope to collect the Raman-scattered signal from a sample several meters away, a spectrograph equipped with a holographic grating, and a gated intensified CCD (ICCD) camera system. Time resolved Raman measurements were carried out by varying the gate delay with fixed short gate width of the ICCD camera, allowing measurement of both Raman signals and fluorescence signals. Rocks and mineral samples were characterized, including marble, which contains CaCO3. Analysis of the results reveals the short (~10-13 s) lifetime of the Raman process and shows that the Raman spectra of some mineral samples contain fluorescence emission due to organic impurities. Also analyzed were a green (pristine) and a yellow (decayed) sample of Gardenia leaves. It was observed that the fluorescence signals from the green and yellow leaf samples showed stronger signals compared to the Raman lines. It was also observed that the fluorescence of the green leaf was more intense and had a shorter lifetime than that of the yellow leaf. For the fossil samples, Raman shifted lines could not be observed due to the presence of very strong short-lived fluorescence.

Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Ismail, Syed; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Nguyen, Trac; Elsayed-Ali, Hani

2009-05-01

221

Raman Spectroscopy of Lithium Hydride Corrosion: Selection of an Appropriate Excitation Wavelength to Minimize Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

The recent interest in a hydrogen-based fuel economy has renewed research into metal hydride chemistry. Many of these compounds react readily with water to release hydrogen gas and form a caustic. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFT) has been used to study the hydrolysis reaction. The LiOH stretch appears at 3670 cm{sup -1}. Raman spectroscopy is a complementary technique that employs monochromatic excitation (laser) allowing access to the low energy region of the vibrational spectrum (<600 cm{sup -1}). Weak scattering and fluorescence typically prevent Raman from being used for many compounds. The role of Li{sub 2}O in the moisture reaction has not been fully studied for LiH. Li{sub 2}O can be observed by Raman while being hidden in the Infrared spectrum.

Stowe, A. C.; Smyrl, N. R.

2011-05-26

222

Monitoring the influence of antibiotic exposure using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report on combination of the data obtained from MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) with infor- mation of microoragnisms fingerprint provided by Raman spectroscopy. In our feasibility study we could follow mechanisms of the bacteriostatic versus bactericidal action on biofilm-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis simply by monitoring Raman bands corresponding to DNA translating the changes introduced by selected antibiotics. The Raman spectra of Staphylococcus epidermidis treated with a bacteriostatic agent show little effect on DNA which is in contrast with the action of a bactericidal agent where decreased in dedicated Raman spectra signal strength suggests DNA fragmentation. Moreover, we demonstrate that Raman tweezers are indeed able to distinguish strains of biofilm-forming (biofilm-positive) and biofilm-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis strains using principal component analysis (PCA).

Samek, Ota; Zemanek, Pavel; Bernatova, Silvie; Jezek, Jan; Sery, Mojmir; Jakl, Petr; Siler, Martin; Ruzicka, Filip

2014-03-01

223

Detection of glutamate in the eye by Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Raman spectroscopy is used to detect glutamate in the eye. Glutamate, a by-product of nerve cell death, is an indicator of glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. The Raman spectra of ex vivo whole porcine eyes and individual components (lens, cornea, vitreous) are measured and characterized. Monosodium glutamate is injected into the eyes to simulate disease conditions, and the contribution to the Raman spectrum due to the presence of glutamate is identified. The Raman spectra from the native eye is dominated by vibrational modes from proteins in the lens. An optical system is designed to optimize collection of signal from the vitreous, where the glutamate is located, and reduce the Raman from the lens. Two vibrational fingerprints of monosodium glutamate are detected at 1369 and 1422 cm(-1), although the concentrations are much above physiological concentrations. PMID:12683841

Katz, Al; Kruger, Erik F; Minko, Glenn; Liu, C H; Rosen, Richard B; Alfano, Robert R

2003-04-01

224

Subframe Burst Gating for Raman Spectroscopy in Combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an architecture for spontaneous Raman scattering utilizing a frame-transfer CCD sensor operating in a subframe burst-gating mode to realize time-resolved combustion diagnostics. The technique permits all-electronic optical gating with microsecond shutter speeds 5 J.Ls) without compromising optical throughput or image fidelity. When used in conjunction with a pair of orthogonally polarized excitation lasers, the technique measures single-shot vibrational Raman scattering that is minimally contaminated by problematic optical background noise.

Kojima, Jun; Fischer, David; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

2010-01-01

225

Probing the Nature of Defects in Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman Spectroscopy is able to probe disorder in graphene through defect-activated peaks. It is of great interest to link these features to the nature of disorder. Here we present a detailed analysis of the Raman spectra of graphene containing different type of defects. We found that the intensity ratio of the D and D' peak is maximum (~ 13) for sp3-defects, it decreases for vacancy-like defects (~ 7) and reaches a minimum for boundaries in graphite (~3.5).

Eckmann, Axel; Felten, Alexandre; Mishchenko, Artem; Britnell, Liam; Krupke, Ralph; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Casiraghi, Cinzia

2012-08-01

226

Detection of biosignatures in silicified rocks using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we demonstrate the usefulness of Raman spectroscopy, and in particular Raman mapping, as a very powerful tool for the study of both organic matter and minerals associated with silicified biological remains. Our investigations concern silicified organic matter, microorganisms and biological remains of various origins and ages, from the metacherts of Isua, Greenland, 3.8 Ga, to silicified wood from the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA, 225 Ma.

Foucher, F.; Westall, F.

2012-09-01

227

Raman spectroscopy of individual monocytes reveals that single-beam optical trapping of mononuclear cells occurs by their nucleus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy of eukaryotic cells with a significantly larger diameter than the tight focus of a single-beam laser trap leads to optical trapping of the cell by its optically densest part, i.e. typically the cell's nucleus. Raman spectra of individual optically trapped monocytes are compared with location-specific Raman spectra of monocytes adhered to a substrate. When the cell's nucleus is stained with a fluorescent live cell stain, the Raman spectrum of the DNA-specific stain is observed only in the nucleus of individual monocytes. Optically trapped monocytes display the same behavior. We also show that the Raman spectra of individual monocytes exhibit the characteristic Raman signature of cells that have not yet fully differentiated and that individual primary monocytes can be distinguished from transformed monocytes based on their Raman spectra. This work provides further evidence that laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy of individual cells provides meaningful biochemical information in an entirely non-destructive fashion that permits discerning differences between cell types and cellular activity.

Fore, Samantha; Chan, James; Taylor, Douglas; Huser, Thomas

2011-04-01

228

Raman spectroscopy of individual monocytes reveals that single-beam optical trapping of mononuclear cells occurs by their nucleus  

PubMed Central

We show that laser-tweezers Raman spectroscopy of eukaryotic cells with a significantly larger diameter than the tight focus of a single beam laser trap leads to optical trapping of the cell by its optically densest part, i.e. typically the cell’s nucleus. Raman spectra of individual optically trapped monocytes are compared with location-specific Raman spectra of monocytes adhered to a substrate. When the cell’s nucleus is stained with a fluorescent live cell stain, the Raman spectrum of the DNA-specific stain is observed only in the nucleus of individual monocytes. Optically trapped monocytes display the same behavior. We also show that the Raman spectra of individual monocytes exhibit the characteristic Raman signature of cells that have not yet fully differentiated and that individual primary monocytes can be distinguished from transformed monocytes based on their Raman spectra. This work provides further evidence that laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy of individual cells provides meaningful biochemical information in an entirely nondestructive fashion that permits discerning differences between cell types and cellular activity. PMID:21984959

Fore, Samantha; Chan, James; Taylor, Douglas; Huser, Thomas

2011-01-01

229

Raman spectroscopy with an integrated arrayed-waveguide grating.  

PubMed

An integrated arrayed-waveguide grating fabricated in silicon-oxynitride technology is applied to Raman spectroscopy. After its validation by reproducing the well-known spectrum of cyclohexane, polarized Raman spectra are measured of extracted human teeth containing localized initial carious lesions. Excellent agreement is obtained between the spectra of healthy and carious tooth enamel measured with our integrated device and spectra recorded using a conventional Raman spectrometer. Our results represent a step toward the realization of compact, hand-held, integrated spectrometers, e.g. for the detection of dental caries at an early stage. PMID:22139265

Ismail, N; Choo-Smith, L-P; Wörhoff, K; Driessen, A; Baclig, A C; Caspers, P J; Puppels, G J; de Ridder, R M; Pollnau, M

2011-12-01

230

Fiber-optic Raman Spectroscopy of Joint Tissues  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report adaptation of Raman spectroscopy for arthroscopy of joint tissues using a custom-built fiber optic probe. Differentiation of healthy and damaged tissue or examination of subsurface tissue, such as subchondral bone, is a challenge in arthroscopy because visual inspection may not provide sufficient contrast. Discrimination of healthy versus damaged tissue may be improved by incorporating point spectroscopy or hyperspectral imaging into arthroscopy where contrast is based on molecular structure or chemical composition. Articular joint surfaces of knee cadaveric human tissue and tissue phantoms were examined using a custom-designed Raman fiber optic probe. Fiber-optic Raman spectra were compared against reference spectra of cartilage, subchondral bone and cancellous bone collected using Raman microspectroscopy. In fiber-optic Raman spectra of the articular surface, there was an effect of cartilage thickness on recovery of signal from subchondral bone. At sites with intact cartilage, the bone mineralization ratio decreased but there was a minimal effect in the bone mineral chemistry ratios. Tissue phantoms were prepared as experimental models of the osteochondral interface. Raman spectra of tissue phantoms suggested that optical scattering of cartilage has a large effect on the relative cartilage and bone signal. Finite element analysis modeling of light fluence in the osteochondral interface confirmed experimental findings in human cadaveric tissue and tissue phantoms. These first studies demonstrate proof of principle for Raman arthroscopic measurement of joint tissues and provide a basis for future clinical or animal model studies. PMID:21359366

Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Esmonde-White, Francis W.L.; Morris, Michael D.

2011-01-01

231

Using micro-Raman spectroscopy for nasopharyngeal cancerous tissue detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-Raman spectroscopy is widely used for non-invasive tissue diagnosis and detection, as it provides detailed information about biomolecular composition, structure, and interaction of tissue. In this work, micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate non-cancerous and cancerous nasopharyngeal tissues. The obtained nasopharyngeal tissue samples in vitro are divided into two groups: cancerous (n=12, undifferentiated non-keratinizing carcinomas) and non-cancerous (n=10, 7 chronic inflammations, 2 lymphomas and 1 lymphocytosis). Firstly, we analyzed the Raman spectra in the fingerprint (FP, 400-1800cm-1) region acquired. Preliminary results showed that there are some spectral differences in different pathological conditions. Furthermore, Raman spectra from cancerous and non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissue in the high wavenumber region (HW, 2800-3100cm-1) were also reported for the first time. After detailed analysis, we achieved significant differences in Raman bands at 2854, 2874, 2934, and 3067cm-1 between cancerous and non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissues. This study demonstrates that both fingerprint and high wavenumber regions of micro-Raman spectroscopy have the potential for the early detection of nasopharyngeal carcinomas.

Wu, Shanshan; Sun, Liqing; Chen, Maowen; Lin, Jia; Cao, Gang; Huang, Wei; Chen, Rong

2014-09-01

232

Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Algae: Composition Analysis and Fluorescence Background Behavior  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Algae: Composition Analysis and Fluorescence Background performed using Stokes Raman scattering for compositional analysis of algae. Two algal species, Chlorella were considered to be candidates for biofuel production. Raman signals due to storage lipid

233

Multidimensional resonance raman spectroscopy by six-wave mixing in the deep UV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional (2D) resonance Raman spectroscopies hold great potential for uncovering photoinduced relaxation processes in molecules but are not yet widely applied because of technical challenges. Here, we describe a newly developed 2D resonance Raman experiment operational at the third-harmonic of a Titanium-Sapphire laser. High-sensitivity and rapid data acquisition are achieved by combining spectral interferometry with a background-free (six-pulse) laser beam geometry. The third-harmonic laser pulses are generated in a filament produced by the fundamental and second-harmonic pulses in neon gas at pressures up to 35 atm. The capabilities of the setup are demonstrated by probing ground-state wavepacket motions in triiodide. The information provided by the experiment is explored with two different representations of the signal. In one representation, Fourier transforms are carried out with respect to the two experimentally controlled delay times to obtain a 2D Raman spectrum. Further insights are derived in a second representation by dispersing the signal pulse in a spectrometer. It is shown that, as in traditional pump-probe experiments, the six-wave mixing signal spectrum encodes the wavepacket's position by way of the (time-evolving) emission frequency. Anharmonicity additionally induces dynamics in the vibrational resonance frequency. In all cases, the experimental signals are compared to model calculations based on a cumulant expansion approach. This study suggests that multi-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopies conducted on systems with Franck-Condon active modes are fairly immune to many of the technical issues that challenge off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies (e.g., third-order cascades) and photon-echo experiments in the deep UV (e.g., coherence spikes). The development of higher-order nonlinear spectroscopies operational in the deep UV is motivated by studies of biological systems and elementary organic photochemistries.

Molesky, Brian P.; Giokas, Paul G.; Guo, Zhenkun; Moran, Andrew M.

2014-09-01

234

Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.  

DOEpatents

A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. In accordance with the teachings of the invention, a low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic tansaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively. For example, it may also be used to diagnose diseases associated with the concentration of Raman-active constituents in urine, lymph and saliva It may be used to identify cancer in the breast, cervix, uterus, ovaries and the like by measuring the fingerprint excitation Raman spectra of these tissues. It may also be used to reveal the growing of tumors or cancers by measuring the levels of nitric oxide in tissue.

Alfano, Robert R. (Bronx, NY); Wang, Wubao (Flushing, NY)

2000-11-21

235

Examination of cellulose textile fibres in historical objects by micro-Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The investigation and characterisation of historical objects can be an exacting piece of work because of the small quantity of material that can be investigated and the degradation of the material and its value, which sometimes demands only non-destructive methods. In this study, as one such method, Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the cellulose fibres of painting canvases and linings. Historical samples of fabrics were taken from different paintings and their linings from different locations in Slovenia. Raman spectra were recorded on the fibres of these historical samples. Additionally, a database of the Raman spectra of modern cellulose fibres was created and compared with the literature data. Differences in the Raman spectra of different cellulose fibres were observed, and on this basis fibres of different types were discriminated. The recorded Raman spectra of historical samples were compared with the database spectra of modern cellulose fibres. Strong luminescence effects because of the changes caused by ageing, degradation products and surface contamination caused difficulties in interpreting the Raman spectra of historical fibres. The luminescence effects were partly overcome by prolonged exposition times and previous "signal quenching" with the laser. The Raman spectra of historical cotton showed no luminescence effects, and only slight differences to the reference spectra of modern cotton fibres appeared, whereas the Raman spectra of historical flax fibres were overwhelmed with luminescence and showed changes in spectra through degradation. The research showed that by using Raman spectroscopy the identification and differentiation of different cellulose fibres and materials that accompany cellulose in the fibres are possible and that degraded and aged material can be differentiated. PMID:21190892

Kavkler, Katja; Demšar, Andrej

2011-02-01

236

Spectral broadening in continuous-wave intracavity Raman lasers.  

PubMed

Spectral broadening of the fundamental field in intracavity Raman lasers is investigated. The mechanism for the spectral broadening is discussed and the effect is compared in two lasers using Raman crystals with different Raman linewidths. The impact of the spectral broadening on the effective Raman gain is analyzed, and the use of etalons to limit the fundamental spectral width is explored. It was found that an improvement in output power could be obtained by using etalons to limit the fundamental spectrum to a single narrow peak. PMID:24718123

Bonner, Gerald M; Lin, Jipeng; Kemp, Alan J; Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Huaijin; Spence, David J; Pask, Helen M

2014-04-01

237

Plasmon-assisted chemical reactions revealed by high-vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is the technique that combines the nanoscale spatial resolution of a scanning probe microscope and the highly sensitive Raman spectroscopy enhanced by the surface plasmons. It is suitable for chemical analysis at nanometer scale. Recently, TERS exhibited powerful potential in analyzing the chemical reactions at nanoscale. The high sensitivity and spatial resolution of TERS enable us to learn the reaction processes more clearly. More importantly, the chemical reaction in TERS is assisted by surface plasmons, which provides us an optical method to manipulate the chemical reactions at nanoscale. Here using our home-built high-vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HV-TERS) setup, we successfully observed the plasmon-assisted molecule dimerization and dissociation reactions. In HV-TERS system, under laser illumination, 4-nitrobenzenethiol (4NBT) molecules can be dimerized to p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB), and dissociation reaction occurs for malachite green (MG) molecules. Using our HV-TERS setup, the dynamic processes of the reactions are clearly revealed. The chemical reactions can be manipulated by controlling the plasmon intensity through changing the power of the incident laser, the tunneling current and the bias voltage. We also investigated the role of plasmonic thermal effect in the reactions by measuring both the Stokes and anti- Stokes Raman peaks. Our findings extend the applications of TERS, which can help to study the chemical reactions and understand the dynamic processes at single molecular level, and even design molecules by the plasmon-assisted chemical reactions.

Lu, Shuaicheng; Sheng, Shaoxiang; Zhang, Zhenglong; Xu, Hongxing; Zheng, Hairong

2014-08-01

238

Detection and characterization of human tissue lesions with near-infrared Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful method for quantitative histochemistry of human tissue and disease diagnosis. The feasibility and potential of this technique for in situ histochemical analysis of human coronary artery has been demonstrated and presented in other reports from our laboratory. In this work, we review recent results obtained with the NIR Raman spectroscopy on a variety of tissue types studied at the MIT Laser Biomedical Research Center. We have collected NIR Raman spectra from colon, bladder, breast, and carotid artery. For colon, bladder and breast, consistent differences between carcinoma and normal tissue spectra were observed. For colon and bladder, the spectral differences appear to be due to an increased content of nucleic acid in carcinomas, while the spectral changes in malignant breast tissue are associated with an increase of protein content. Spectra from carotid artery have similar features as those from aorta and coronary arteries. We also show some preliminary results obtained with a NIR Raman microspectroscopy setup with 20 micron lateral resolution. The biochemical distributions for normal and diseased regions on the same tissue samples are observed. The potential of using this NIR Raman spectroscopy for detection and characterization of carcinoma and atherosclerosis, is discussed.

Feld, Michael S.; Manoharan, Ramasamy; Salenius, Juha; Orenstein-Carndona, Jacobo; Roemer, Tjeerd J.; Brennan, James F., III; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Wang, Yang

1995-05-01

239

Discrimination analysis of human lung cancer cells associated with histological type and malignancy using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Raman spectroscopic technique enables the observation of intracellular molecules without fixation or labeling procedures in situ. Raman spectroscopy is a promising technology for diagnosing cancers-especially lung cancer, one of the most common cancers in humans-and other diseases. The purpose of this study was to find an effective marker for the identification of cancer cells and their malignancy using Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate a classification of cultured human lung cancer cells using Raman spectroscopy, principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discrimination analysis (LDA). Raman spectra of single, normal lung cells, along with four cancer cells with different pathological types, were successfully obtained with an excitation laser at 532 nm. The strong appearance of bands due to cytochrome c (cyt-c) indicates that spectra are resonant and enhanced via the Q-band near 550 nm with excitation light. The PCA loading plot suggests a large contribution of cyt-c in discriminating normal cells from cancer cells. The PCA results reflect the nature of the original cancer, such as its histological type and malignancy. The five cells were successfully discriminated by the LDA.

Oshima, Yusuke; Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Takenaka, Tatsuji; Furihata, Chie; Sato, Hidetoshi

2010-01-01

240

Cell identification using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical trapping and microfluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell identification by Raman spectroscopy has evolved to be an attractive complement to established optical techniques. Raman activated cell sorting (RACS) offers prospects to complement the widely applied fluorescence activated cell sorting. RACS can be realized by combination with optical traps and microfluidic devices. The progress of RACS is reported for a cellular model system that can be found in peripheral blood of tumor patients. Lymphocytes and erythrocytes were extracted from blood samples. Breast carcinoma derived tumor cells (MCF-7, BT-20) and acute myeloid leukemia cells (OCI-AML3) were grown in cell cultures. First, Raman images were collected from dried cells on calcium fluoride slides. Support vector machines (SVM) classified 99.7% of the spectra to the correct cell type. Second, a 785 nm laser was used for optical trapping of single cells in aqueous buffer and for excitation of the Raman spectrum. SVM distinguished 1210 spectra of tumor and normal cells with a sensitivity of >99.7% and a specificity of >99.5%. Third, a microfluidic glass chip was designed to inject single cells, modify the flow speed, accommodate fibers of an optical trap and sort single cells after Raman based identification with 514 nm for excitation. Forth, the microfluidic chip was fabricated by quartz which improved cell identification results with 785 nm excitation. Here, partial least squares discriminant analysis gave classification rates of 98%. Finally, a Raman-on-chip approach was developed that integrates fibers for trapping, Raman excitation and signal detection in a single compact unit.

Krafft, Christoph; Dochow, Sebastian; Beleites, Claudia; Popp, Jürgen

2014-03-01

241

Trace vapour detection at room temperature using Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A miniaturized flow-through system consisting of a gold coated silicon substrate based on enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the detection of vapour from model explosive compounds. The measurements show that the detectability of the vapour molecules at room temperature depends sensitively on the interaction between the molecule and the substrate. The results highlight the capability of a flow system combined with Raman spectroscopy for detecting low vapour pressure compounds with a limit of detection of 0.2 ppb as demonstrated by the detection of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, a common polymer additive emitted from a commercial polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing at room temperature. PMID:24588003

Chou, Alison; Radi, Babak; Jaatinen, Esa; Juodkazis, Saulius; Fredericks, Peter M

2014-04-21

242

Structural study of TiO 2 thin films by micro-Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Raman spectroscopy method was used for structural characterization of TiO2 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on fused silica and single-crystal\\u000a silicon and sapphire substrates. Using ALD, anatase thin films were grown on silica and silicon substrates at temperatures\\u000a 125–425 C. At higher deposition temperatures, mixed anatase and rutile phases grew on

Ahti Niilisk; Mart Moppel; Martti Pärs; Ilmo Sildos; Taavi Jantson; Tea Avarmaa; Raivo Jaaniso; Jaan Aarik

2006-01-01

243

The use of four-photon Raman spectroscopy for the remote sensing of natural objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the laboratory simulation of optical Kerr effect/Raman spectroscopy for the purpose of remote sensing are presented. The experimental setup is described, and measurements of the vibrational spectra of various liquids obtained. Attention is paid to the possibility of using the proposed method to detect trace hydrocarbons in water, and the spectrum of petroleum is obtained. Full-scale measurements using a laser spectrometer were made on the Black Sea.

Bunkin, A. F.; Galumyan, A. S.; Zhumanov, Kh. A.; Maltsev, D. V.

1988-01-01

244

The use of four-photon Raman spectroscopy for the remote sensing of natural objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the laboratory simulation of optical Kerr effect/Raman spectroscopy for the purpose of remote sensing are presented. The experimental setup is described, and measurements of the vibrational spectra of various liquids are obtained. Attention is given to the possibility of using the proposed method to detect trace hydrocarbons in water, and the spectrum of petroleum is obtained. Full-scale measurements using a laser spectrometer were made on the Black Sea.

Bunkin, A. F.; Galumian, A. S.; Zhumanov, Kh. A.; Mal'Tsev, D. V.; Surskii, K. O.

1987-08-01

245

Raman spectroscopy of garnet-group minerals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Raman spectra of the natural end members of the garnet-group minerals, which include pyrope, almandine and spessarite of Fe-Al garnet series and grossularite, andradite and uvarovite of Ca-Fe garnet series, have been studied. Measured Raman spectra of these minerals are reasonably and qualitatively assigned to the internal modes, translational and rotatory modes of SiO4 tetrahedra, as well as the translational motion of bivalent cations in the X site. The stretch and rotatory Alg modes for the Fe-Al garnet series show obvious Raman shifts as compared with those for the Ca-Fe garnet series, owing to the cations residing in the X site connected with SiO4 tetrahedra by sharing the two edges. The Raman shifts of all members within either of the series are attributed mainly to the properties of cations in the X site for the Fe-Al garnet series and in the Y site for the Ca-Fe garnet series. ?? 1994 Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Mingsheng, P.; Mao, H. K.; Dien, L.; Chao, E. C. T.

1994-01-01

246

Applications of laser Raman and FT-IR techniques to leprology, neurology, bacteriology and traumatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and laser Raman spectroscopy for obtaining structural information\\u000a about the subtle changes occurring at the molecular level following leprosy, pulmonary tuberculosis, infected burns, epilepsy\\u000a and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are reported in this paper. It is shown that IR spectra exhibit specific signals for\\u000a each disease. Results of the observed bands of hemoproteins

S. Mishra; Ravindra Kumar; S. K. Aryal; S. Kumar; Rajesh Kumar; M. M. Bajaj

1990-01-01

247

Raman mapping of laser-induced changes and ablation of InAs nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indium arsenic (InAs) nanowires were irradiated with a focused laser beam, followed by in situ Raman spectroscopy mapping and scanning electron microscopy imaging to investigate the changes of the nanowires due to laser irradiation. It was found that laser irradiation with the power intensity above a certain threshold causes arsenic (As) atoms to disintegrate from InAs and accumulate on the surface of the nanowire; the accumulated As atoms evaporate under the continued laser irradiation. This process reduces the As content in the nanowire. The reduction of As content, in turn, lowers the melting temperature of the nanowire locally and facilitates laser ablation, which eventually fractures the nanowire. The laser irradiation induced changes of the InAs nanowires are attributed to the local temperature rises due to the irradiation, as confirmed by the Raman peak shifts. The results from this work show that in situ Raman spectroscopy mapping can provide detailed information about the entire process of laser-induced change and ablation of InAs nanowires and has the potential to become a powerful tool for the characterization of laser modification of nanowires and other nanometer-sized objects.

He, Jiayu; Chen, Pingping; Lu, Wei; Dai, Ning; Zhu, Da-Ming

2014-06-01

248

Combined Raman spectrometer/laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for the next ESA mission to Mars.  

PubMed

Among the different instruments that have been pre-selected to be on-board the Pasteur payload on ExoMars is the Raman/laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities. An international team under the lead of TNO has been gathered to produce a design concept for a combined Raman spectrometer/LIBS elegant bread-board (EBB). The instrument is based on a specially designed, extremely compact, spectrometer with high resolution over a large wavelength range, suitable for both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS measurements. Low mass, size and power consumption are the main drivers of the instrument's design concept. In this paper, science objectives for the combined instrument are detailed. Background information on Raman spectroscopy and LIBS are presented, focussing on the synergy of these two techniques. In the last section, the instrument concept resulting from the assessment of the feasibility of the combined Raman/LIBS EBB is presented. PMID:17466575

Bazalgette Courrèges-Lacoste, Grégory; Ahlers, Berit; Pérez, Fernando Rull

2007-12-15

249

High power Raman lasers at 1.6 ?m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) has been observed in various crystals generating a multitude of wavelengths covering the range from 280 nm to 3 ?m with a mean spacing of 1 nm. Barium nitrate crystals pumped by two different pulsed Nd:YAG laser systems have been used to demonstrate Raman laser action achieving a high average power of 5 W or an output energy of up to 23 mJ with a quantum efficiency of 43% at 1.599 ?m intended for CO2 detection in longrange LIDAR systems. Spectral narrowing of the pump radiation reduced the Raman laser emission bandwidth to 0.08 cm-1.

Lux, O.; Rhee, H.; Eichler, H. J.; Chulkov, R. V.

2010-09-01

250

Laser Spectroscopy of Transuranium Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper aims to discuss the prospects for nuclear structure investigation of the transuranium elements by laser spectroscopy. The authors lay stress on two peculiarities of the nuclear structure in this region: the deformed shell closure at neutron number N = 152 and the appearance of superdeformed isomeric states. A laser spectroscopic experimental method is proposed for studying these

Yu. P. Gangrsky; D. V. Karaivanov; K. P. Marinova; B. N. Markov; Yu. E. Penionshkevich; S. G. Zemlyanoi

2005-01-01

251

Ultraviolet resonant Raman spectroscopy of nucleic acid components.  

PubMed Central

The first resonant Raman excitation profile using UV as well as visible radiation is presented. Measurements of the intensity of the Raman spectrum of adenosine 5'-monophosphate as a function of the frequency of the incident laser light are presented in the range from 20 to 38 kK (1000 cm-1). The scattering intensity per molecule increases by about 10(5) as the laser is tuned from low to high frequencies. The Raman excitation profile has been calculated by using a simple form of the vibronic theory of Raman scattering. The theoretical curves are found to adequately fit the data using only the frequencies of the excited electronic states of AMP and their corresponding vibronic linewidths as adjustable parameters. The Raman bands at 1484 cm-1 and 1583 cm-1 appear to obtain virtually all of their intensity from a weak electronic transition at 276 nm. The set of Raman bands in the range 1300 cm-1-1400 cm-1 appear to derive at least part of their intensity from an electronic band whose 0-0 transition is in the 269-259 nm region although the possibility of some intensity arising from the vibronic mixing between these two electronic states cannot as yet be ruled out. PMID:268615

Blazej, D C; Peticolas, W L

1977-01-01

252

Monitoring of aqueous humor metabolites using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Raman scattering has been used to monitor glucose and lactate metabolites within aqueous humor specimens obtained from nine human eyes during cataract surgery. Nine postmortem rabbit eyes were also investigated. Raman measurements were obtained using a single grating Raman spectrometer with a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD. A 514.5 nm line from an argon laser was used to illuminate capillaries containing several microliters of aqueous humor. A water background was subtracted from each of the aqueous humor Raman spectra. This experimental system was calibrated so that each metabolite in water could be measured down to 0.1 weight percent. Raman peaks indicative of the stretching vibrations of methylene and methyl groups associated with glucose and lactate, respectively, were observed in the human specimens. A second stretching mode characteristic of lactate between the carbon atom and either the carboxylic acid group or carboxylate ion group was also observed providing a distinguishing feature between the glucose and lactate Raman peaks. Similar structure was observed from the rabbit specimens, but these samples have recently been found to have been contaminated during euthanasia.

Wicksted, James P.; Erckens, Roel J.; Motamedi, Massoud; March, Wayne F.

1994-05-01

253

Vibrational characterization of pheomelanin and trichochrome F by Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We characterize for the first time the vibrational state of natural pheomelanin using Raman spectroscopy and model pigment synthesized from 5-S-cysteinyldopa. The shape of the Raman spectrum was very different from that of eumelanin. Four Raman bands were visible in the 500-2000 cm(-1) wavenumber region about 500, 1150, 1490 and 2000 cm(-1), which we assigned to the out-of-plane deformation and the stretching vibration of the phenyl rings, to the stretching vibration of C-N bonds or the stretching and wagging vibration of CH2, and to overtone or combination bands. Interestingly, we also show that the Raman spectrum of synthetic trichochrome F, a pigment that may be produced along with pheomelanin during pheomelanogenesis, is different from that of pheomelanin and similar to the spectrum of eumelanin. We could detect Raman signal of both eumelanin and pheomelanin in feathers and hairs where both pigments simultaneously occur without the need of isolating the pigment. This indicates that Raman spectroscopy represents a non-invasive method to detect pheomelanin and distinguish it from other pigments. This may be especially relevant to detect pheomelanin in animal skin including humans, where it has been associated with animal appearance and classification, human phototypes, prevention of skin diseases and cancer risk. PMID:23563634

Galván, Ismael; Jorge, Alberto; Solano, Francisco; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

2013-06-01

254

Vibrational characterization of pheomelanin and trichochrome F by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We characterize for the first time the vibrational state of natural pheomelanin using Raman spectroscopy and model pigment synthesized from 5-S-cysteinyldopa. The shape of the Raman spectrum was very different from that of eumelanin. Four Raman bands were visible in the 500-2000 cm-1 wavenumber region about 500, 1150, 1490 and 2000 cm-1, which we assigned to the out-of-plane deformation and the stretching vibration of the phenyl rings, to the stretching vibration of C-N bonds or the stretching and wagging vibration of CH2, and to overtone or combination bands. Interestingly, we also show that the Raman spectrum of synthetic trichochrome F, a pigment that may be produced along with pheomelanin during pheomelanogenesis, is different from that of pheomelanin and similar to the spectrum of eumelanin. We could detect Raman signal of both eumelanin and pheomelanin in feathers and hairs where both pigments simultaneously occur without the need of isolating the pigment. This indicates that Raman spectroscopy represents a non-invasive method to detect pheomelanin and distinguish it from other pigments. This may be especially relevant to detect pheomelanin in animal skin including humans, where it has been associated with animal appearance and classification, human phototypes, prevention of skin diseases and cancer risk.

Galván, Ismael; Jorge, Alberto; Solano, Francisco; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

2013-06-01

255

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of urine component in the toilet set using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of non-invasive and unaware measurement of physiological signal in the house of live-alone person, Raman spectroscopy was applied for urine component analysis in the toilet set. 785nm, 250-300mW output solid state diode laser and 2048 element linear silicon TE cooled CCD array were incorporated for this system. Several tests were performed for setting up Raman spectroscopy in non-constrained situation: toilet set in the house. The effect of dark current, integration time, warming up time of laser, property of probe and interference of water in the toilet were tested and controlled for appropriate measurement in this environment. The spectra were obtained immediately when the subject uses the toilet set, and they can be transmitted to the server though Bluetooth. Those spectra were pre-processed for removing or correcting the effect of undesired light scattering, sample path-length difference and baseline-effect. The preprocessed data were enhanced for more exact result of multivariate analysis. The training data was prepared for predicting unknown component and its concentration by using multivariate methods. Several kinds of multivariate methods: PCA, PCR, PLS were performed to validate what is the fittest method in this environment. Through quantitative and qualitative analysis of Raman spectroscopy"s spectra obtained in the house's toilet set, we could know the component and its concentration of urine which can be index of disease.

Chung, So Hyun; Park, Kwang Suk; Choi, Jong Min; Lee, Won Jin

2004-07-01

256

Multi-wavelength enhancement of silicon Raman scattering by nanoscale laser surface ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we produce nanoholes on a silicon surface by laser ablation. Those nanoholes lead to a yield enhancement of light-matter interaction. Performing Raman spectroscopy on silicon, an enhancement of its main Raman mode is observed: it is twice higher with the nanoholes compared to a flat surface. Such a feature appears whatever the excitation wavelength (488, 514.5 and 632.8 nm) and the laser power, revealing a broad band light-matter interaction enhancement. In addition, no change in the position and shape of the main Raman mode of silicon is observed, suggesting that no structural damages are induced by laser ablation. These results clearly demonstrate the potentiality of such nanostructures for the further development of silicon photonics.

Merlen, A.; Sangar, A.; Torchio, P.; Kallepalli, L. N. D.; Grojo, D.; Utéza, O.; Delaporte, P.

2013-11-01

257

Predicting tenderness of fresh ovine semimembranosus using Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A hand held Raman probe was used to predict shear force (SF) of fresh lamb m. semimembranosus (topside). Eighty muscles were measured at 1 day PM and after a further 4 days ageing (5 days PM). At 1 day PM sarcomere length (SL) and particle size (PS) were measured and at 5 days PM, SF, PS, cooking loss (CL) and pH were also measured. SF values were regressed against Raman spectra using partial least squares regression and against traditional predictors (e.g. SL) using linear regression. The best prediction of SF used spectra at 1 day PM which gave a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 11.5 N (Null = 13.2) and the squared correlation between observed and cross validated predicted values (R(2)cv) was 0.27. Prediction of SF based on the traditional predictors had smaller R(2) values than using Raman spectra justifying further study on Raman spectroscopy. PMID:24785653

Fowler, Stephanie M; Schmidt, Heinar; van de Ven, Remy; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

2014-08-01

258

Discrimination of human and animal blood traces via Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The characterization of suspected blood stains is an important aspect of forensic science. In particular, determining the origin of a blood stain is a critical, yet overlooked, step in establishing its relevance to the crime. Currently, assays for determining human origin for blood are time consuming and destructive to the sample. The research presented here demonstrates that Raman spectroscopy can be effectively applied as a non-destructive technique for differentiating human blood from a wide survey of animal blood. A Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model was built from a training set of the near infrared Raman spectra from 11 species. Various performance measures, including a blind test and external validation, confirm the discriminatory performance of the chemometric model. The model demonstrated 100% accuracy in its differentiation between human and nonhuman blood. These findings further demonstrate a great potential of Raman spectroscopy to the field of serology, especially for species identification of a suspected blood stain. PMID:24681972

McLaughlin, Gregory; Doty, Kyle C; Lednev, Igor K

2014-05-01

259

Direct characterization of nanocrystal size distribution using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a rigorous analytical approach based on one-particle phonon confinement model to realize direct detection of nanocrystal size distribution and volume fraction by using Raman spectroscopy. For the analysis, we first project the analytical confinement model onto a generic distribution function, and then use this as a fitting function to extract the required parameters from the Raman spectra, i.e., mean size and skewness, to plot the nanocrystal size distribution. Size distributions for silicon nanocrystals are determined by using the analytical confinement model agree well with the one-particle phonon confinement model, and with the results obtained from electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The approach we propose is generally applicable to all nanocrystal systems, which exhibit size-dependent shifts in the Raman spectrum as a result of phonon confinement.

Do?an, ?lker; van de Sanden, Mauritius C. M.

2013-10-01

260

THz-Raman: accessing molecular structure with Raman spectroscopy for enhanced chemical identification, analysis, and monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural analysis via spectroscopic measurement of rotational and vibrational modes is of increasing interest for many applications, since these spectra can reveal unique and important structural and behavioral information about a wide range of materials. However these modes correspond to very low frequency (~5cm-1 - 200cm-1, or 150 GHz-6 THz) emissions, which have been traditionally difficult and/or expensive to access through conventional Raman and Terahertz spectroscopy techniques. We report on a new, inexpensive, and highly efficient approach to gathering ultra-low-frequency Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectra (referred to as "THz-Raman") on a broad range of materials, opening potential new applications and analytical tools for chemical and trace detection, identification, and forensics analysis. Results are presented on explosives, pharmaceuticals, and common elements that show strong THz-Raman spectra, leading to clear discrimination of polymorphs, and improved sensitivity and reliability for chemical identification.

Heyler, Randy A.; Carriere, James T. A.; Havermeyer, Frank

2013-05-01

261

RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF NANOSTRUCTURES POST DOCTORAL POSITION, PHOTONICS GROUP,  

E-print Network

, physics, applied physics, electrical engineering or any related discipline will be considered. The postRAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF NANOSTRUCTURES POST DOCTORAL POSITION, PHOTONICS GROUP, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO A post doctoral position is available at the University of Toronto, Department of Electrical and Computer

262

High-Resolution Stimulated Raman Gain Spectroscopy of Parahydrogen Crystals  

E-print Network

High-Resolution Stimulated Raman Gain Spectroscopy of Parahydrogen Crystals Takamasa Momose1-H2 crystals with varying ortho-H2 concentrations is reported. A crys- tal containing 0.06% of ortho in a para-H2 crystal.5 The sharpness of infrared transition stems from the weak intermolecular interaction

Oka, Takeshi

263

Stress Analysis of SiC MEMS Using Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the fabrication of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), residual stress is often induced in the thin films that are deposited to create these systems. These stresses can cause the device to fail due to buckling, curling, or fracture. Industry is looking for ways to characterize the stress during the deposition of thin films in order to reduce or eliminate device failure. Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been successfully used to characterize poly-Si MEMS devices made with the MUMPS® process. Raman spectroscopy was selected because it is nondestructive, fast and has the potential for in situ stress monitoring. This research attempts to use Raman spectroscopy to analyze the stress in SiC MEMS made with the MUSiC® process. Raman spectroscopy is performed on 1-2-micron-thick SiC thin films deposited on silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon oxide substrates. The most common poly-type of SiC found in thin film MEMS made with the MUSiC® process is 3C-SiC. Research also includes baseline spectra of 6H, 4H, and 15R poly-types of bulk SiC.

Ness, Stanley J.; Marciniak, M. A.; Lott, J. A.; Starman, L. A.; Busbee, J. D.; Melzak, J. M.

2003-03-01

264

Novel Silver Nanostructures for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Si/SiO2 channels filled with Ag clusters have been realized by applying of the swift heavy ion tracks and electroless wet-chemical deposition technologies. Microstructure and morphology have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). An exploitability of silver nanostructures in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been discussed.

Sivakov, V. A.; Zierbock, S.; Cialla, D.; Bochmann, A.; Petrov, A. V.; Kaniukov, E. Yu.; Demyanov, S. E.; Trautmann, C.

2013-05-01

265

Postdoc Position in Microfluidics and Single Cell Raman Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Postdoc Position in Microfluidics and Single Cell Raman Spectroscopy Department of Microbial and Environmental Microfluidics Group (http://web.mit.edu/romanstocker) Department of Civil & Environmental (junior or senior) with strong expertise in microfluidics and an interest in applying it to microbial

Horn, Matthias

266

Differentiation between gems and synthetic minerals by laser Raman microspectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By allowing positive identification of fluid and solid inclusions inside minerals laser Raman microspectrometry has proved to be a perfect technique for discriminating between natural gems or synthetic minerals made for jewellery (sapphire, ruby, emerald).

Dele-Dubois, M. L.; Dhamelincourt, P.; Poirot, J. P.; Schubnel, H. J.

1986-03-01

267

Trace gas detection of molecular hydrogen H(2) by photoacoustic stimulated Raman spectroscopy (PARS).  

PubMed

Photoacoustic stimulated Raman spectroscopy (PARS) has been used for sensitive and selective trace gas detection of molecular hydrogen under ambient conditions. In one experiment, 532 nm output of a seeded pulsed Nd:YAG laser is employed as Raman pump source and a Raman shifter filled with gaseous H(2) to obtain Stokes shifted radiation at 683 nm, suitable to stimulate H(2) Raman detection in a photoacoustic cell. A noise equivalent detection limit of 40 ppm by volume H(2) in 1 atm N(2) is obtained (14 mJ at 532 nm, 18 mJ at 683 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, 58 s measurement time). Another experiment employs a dye laser for stimulating Raman radiation between 681-684 nm, allowing tuneable PARS. A Gaussian spectral fitting procedure has been applied giving a noise equivalent detection limit of 4.6 ppm by volume H(2) in 1 atm N(2) (35 mJ pulse energy at 532 nm, 45 mJ at 681-684 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, 256 s measurement time). Spectroscopic detection offers the advantage of high selectivity along with the ability to obtain temperature and dynamic information from the rotational population and a line shape analysis, and also allows the discrimination between ortho- and para-H(2). PMID:22302187

Spencer, Claire Louise; Watson, Verity; Hippler, Michael

2012-03-21

268

Integrated waveguide and nanostructured sensor platform for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limitations of current sensors include large dimensions, sometimes limited sensitivity and inherent single-parameter measurement capability. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy can be utilized for environment and pharmaceutical applications with the intensity of the Raman scattering enhanced by a factor of 10. By fabricating and characterizing an integrated optical waveguide beneath a nanostructured precious metal coated surface a new surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy sensing arrangement can be achieved. Nanostructured sensors can provide both multiparameter and high-resolution sensing. Using the slab waveguide core to interrogate the nanostructures at the base allows for the emission to reach discrete sensing areas effectively and should provide ideal parameters for maximum Raman interactions. Thin slab waveguide films of silicon oxynitride were etched and gold coated to create localized nanostructured sensing areas of various pitch, diameter, and shape. These were interrogated using a Ti:Sapphire laser tuned to 785-nm end coupled into the slab waveguide. The nanostructured sensors vertically projected a Raman signal, which was used to actively detect a thin layer of benzyl mercaptan attached to the sensors.

Pearce, Stuart J.; Pollard, Michael E.; Oo, SweZin; Chen, Ruiqi; Kalsi, Sumit; Charlton, Martin D. B.

2014-01-01

269

Conjugated polyenes as chemical probes of life signature: use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate polyenic pigments.  

PubMed

Polyenes, which are represented by carotenes, carotenoids and conjugated polyenals, are some of the most important targets for astrobiology, because they can provide strong evidence of the presence of organic compounds in the most extreme environments, such as on Mars. Raman spectroscopy has been used as the main analytical tool in the identification of such compounds, for the greatest variety of living species, from microorganisms to animals and plants. However, using only the position of the characteristic Raman bands can lead to errors in tentatively identifying chemicals. In this work, we present a series of observations that can provide a more complete and robust way to analyse the Raman spectrum of a polyenal, in which the position, the intensity, the use of various laser lines for excitation, and the combination of more than one pigment can be considered in the complete analysis. PMID:25368351

Maia, Lenize F; Fernandes, Rafaella F; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; de Oliveira, Luiz F C

2014-12-13

270

Chemical oxidation of aniline and N-methylaniline: A kinetic study by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, chemical oxidation of aniline and N-methylaniline with dichromate as oxidant has been studied by Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm laser beam excitation, and the suitability of this technique for kinetic study of this process was demonstrated. For both monomers used, a sigmoidal growth of the intensities for most prominent Raman bands was observed, showing a self-accelerating character of this reaction. Self-acceleration appears most clearly expressed for aniline, and for the low oxidant-to-monomer molar ratio used. After reaching their maximum values, the intensities of Raman bands drop almost to zero, most probably due to increase in opacity and optical absorbance of reaction mixture. The kinetics of an increase, and the next following decrease of band intensities depend on the monomer used, and oxidant-to-monomer molar ratio.

Mažeikien?, Regina; Niaura, Gediminas; Malinauskas, Albertas

2013-04-01

271

Looking behind the scenes: Raman spectroscopy of top-gated epitaxial graphene through the substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is frequently used to study the properties of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC). In this work, we present a confocal micro-Raman study of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) in top-down geometry, i.e. in a geometry where both the primary laser light beam as well as the back-scattered light is guided through the SiC substrate. Compared to the conventional top-up configuration, in which confocal micro-Raman spectra are measured from the air side, we observe a significant intensity enhancement in top-down configuration, indicating that most of the Raman-scattered light is emitted into the SiC substrate. The intensity enhancement is explained in terms of dipole radiation at a dielectric surface. The new technique opens the possibility to probe graphene layers in devices where the graphene layer is covered by non-transparent materials. We demonstrate this by measuring gate-modulated Raman spectra of a top-gated epitaxial graphene field effect device. Moreover, we show that these measurements enable us to disentangle the effects of strain and charge on the positions of the prominent Raman lines in epitaxial graphene on SiC.

Fromm, F.; Wehrfritz, P.; Hundhausen, M.; Seyller, Th

2013-11-01

272

Measurement of diabetic sugar concentration in human blood using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study demonstrates the use of Raman spectroscopy for the direct measurement of diabetic sugar in human blood using 532 nm laser system. Raman spectra were collected from whole blood drawn from 21 individuals. We have elicited a reliable glucose signature in diabetic patients, and measured glucose levels in blood serum of normal, healthy diabetic and diabetic patients with other malignancies like cancer and hepatitis. Quantitative predictions of glucose spectra illustrate the predictions based on molecular information carried by the Raman light in highly light-scattering and absorbing media. Raman spectrum peaks for diabetic blood serum are observed at 1168, 1531, 1463, 1021 cm-1 with intensity level 17000 to 18500 pixels attributed to carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, collagen, and skeletal C-C stretch of lipids acyl chains. Raman spectra for normal, diabetic patients having cancer and hepatitis were also recorded. This in vitro glucose monitoring methodology will lead in vivo noninvasive on-line monitoring having painless and at the same time the data will be displayed on-line and in real time. The measured Raman peaks provides detailed bio-chemical fingerprint of the sample and could confer diagnostic benefit in a clinical setting.

Firdous, S.; Nawaz, M.; Ahmed, M.; Anwar, S.; Rehman, A.; Rashid, R.; Mahmood, A.

2012-06-01

273

Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of algal cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy can elucidate fundamental questions about intercellular variability and what governs it. Moreover, knowing the metabolic response on single cell level this can significantly contribute to the study and use of microalgae in systems biology and biofuel technology. Raman spectroscopy is capable to measure nutrient dynamics and metabolism in vivo, in real-time, label free making it possible to monitor/evaluate population variability. Also, degree of unsaturation of the algae oil (iodine value) can be measured using Raman spectra obtained from single microalgae. The iodine value is the determination of the amount of unsaturation contained in fatty acids (in the form of double bonds). Here we demonstrate the capacity of the spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy to determine the effective iodine value in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells. We employed the characteristic peaks in the Raman scattering spectra at 1,656 cm-1 (cis C=C stretching mode) and 1,445 cm-1 (CH2 scissoring mode) as the markers defining the ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated carbon-carbon bonds of the fatty acids in the algal lipids.

Samek, Ota; Jonáš, Alexandr; Pilát, Zden?k; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; T?íska, Jan; Kotas, Petr; Trtílek, Martin

2010-12-01

274

Raman spectroscopy of Bacillus thuringiensis physiology and inactivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect spore contamination and inactivation is relevant to developing and determining decontamination strategy success for food and water safety. This study was conducted to develop a systematic comparison of nondestructive vibrational spectroscopy techniques (Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, SERS, and normal Raman) to determine indicators of Bacillus thuringiensis physiology (spore, vegetative, outgrown, germinated and inactivated spore forms). SERS was found to provide better resolution of commonly utilized signatures of spore physiology (dipicolinic acid at 1006 cm-1 and 1387 cm-1) compared to normal Raman and native fluorescence indigenous to vegetative and outgrown cell samples was quenched in SERS experiment. New features including carotenoid pigments (Raman features at 1142 cm-1, 1512 cm-1) were identified for spore cell forms. Pronounced changes in the low frequency region (300 cm-1 to 500 cm-1) in spore spectra occurred upon germination and inactivation (with both free chlorine and by autoclaving) which is relevant to guiding decontamination and detection strategies using Raman techniques.

Morrow, J. B.; Almeida, J.; Cole, K. D.; Reipa, V.

2012-12-01

275

Exploring Raman spectroscopy for the evaluation of glaucomatous retinal changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells and subsequent loss of visual function. Early detection of glaucoma is critical for the prevention of permanent structural damage and irreversible vision loss. Raman spectroscopy is a technique that provides rapid biochemical characterization of tissues in a nondestructive and noninvasive fashion. In this study, we explored the potential of using Raman spectroscopy for detection of glaucomatous changes in vitro. Raman spectroscopic imaging was conducted on retinal tissues of dogs with hereditary glaucoma and healthy control dogs. The Raman spectra were subjected to multivariate discriminant analysis with a support vector machine algorithm, and a classification model was developed to differentiate disease tissues versus healthy tissues. Spectroscopic analysis of 105 retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from glaucomatous dogs and 267 RGCs from healthy dogs revealed spectroscopic markers that differentiated glaucomatous specimens from healthy controls. Furthermore, the multivariate discriminant model differentiated healthy samples and glaucomatous samples with good accuracy [healthy 89.5% and glaucomatous 97.6% for the same breed (Basset Hounds); and healthy 85.0% and glaucomatous 85.5% for different breeds (Beagles versus Basset Hounds)]. Raman spectroscopic screening can be used for in vitro detection of glaucomatous changes in retinal tissue with a high specificity.

Wang, Qi; Grozdanic, Sinisa D.; Harper, Matthew M.; Hamouche, Nicolas; Kecova, Helga; Lazic, Tatjana; Yu, Chenxu

2011-10-01

276

Albedo and gain threshold of a diffusive Raman random laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse reflectance (albedo) and transmittance of a Raman random gain medium are derived from a diffusion equation with power dependent gain. The results show good agreement with the experimental data for barium nitrate powder. Both the Raman albedo A R and Raman transmittance T R diverge at a critical gain ? c, interpreted as the threshold for diffusive Raman laser generation. The parametric dependence of the albedo and threshold gain on the scattering characteristics of the random medium is analysed and the feedback effect of Fresnel reflection at the gain boundaries evaluated. The addition of external mirrors, particularly at the pumped surface, significantly reduces the generation threshold.

Selden, A. C.

2011-09-01

277

Near-IR Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy in surgery and medicine: detection of renal stones and bladder cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue diagnosis and characterization are critically important to the development and applications of laser-based therapeutic procedures in urology (viz., laser lithotripsy and bladder cancer treatment). Recently, we demonstrated for the first time that the new technique of near-infrared laser excited Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy can readily differentiate various types of renal stones and bladder cancer from normal kidney/bladder tissues. It has thus become possible to develop an FT-Raman-based fiberoptic sensor for clinical use in laser lithotripsy and bladder cancer treatment. The future development of such a diagnostic modality will allow a surgeon/physician to take real-time Raman spectra of urinary calculi or cancerous tissue via a flexible fiberoptic probe.

Nie, Shuming; Redd, Douglas C. B.; Li, Yunzhi; Yu, Nai-Teng

1992-06-01

278

Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Raman spectroscopy is a newly developed, noninvasive preclinical imaging technique that offers picomolar sensitivity and multiplexing capabilities to the field of molecular imaging. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to separate the spectral fingerprints of up to 10 different types of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles in a living mouse after s.c. injection. Based on these spectral results, we simultaneously injected the five most intense and spectrally unique SERS nanoparticles i.v. to image their natural accumulation in the liver. All five types of SERS nanoparticles were successfully identified and spectrally separated using our optimized noninvasive Raman imaging system. In addition, we were able to linearly correlate Raman signal with SERS concentration after injecting four spectrally unique SERS nanoparticles either s.c. (R2 = 0.998) or i.v. (R2 = 0.992). These results show great potential for multiplexed imaging in living subjects in cases in which several targeted SERS probes could offer better detection of multiple biomarkers associated with a specific disease. PMID:19666578

Zavaleta, Cristina L.; Smith, Bryan R.; Walton, Ian; Doering, William; Davis, Glenn; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Natan, Michael J.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

2009-01-01

279

Laser Raman sensor for measurement of trace-hydrogen gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new optical hydrogen sensor based on spontaneous Raman scattering of laser light has been designed and constructed for rugged field use. It provides good sensitivity, rapid response, and the inherent Raman characteristics of linearity and background gas independence of the signal. Efficient light collection and discrimination by using fast optics and a bandpass interference filter compensate for the inefficiency of the Raman-scattering process. A multipass optical cavity with a Herriott-type configuration provides intense illumination from an air-cooled CW gas laser. The observed performance is in good agreement with the theoretical signal and noise level predictions.

Adler-Golden, Steven M.; Goldstein, Neil; Bien, Fritz; Matthew, Michael W.; Gersh, Michael E.; Cheng, Wai K.; Adams, Frederick W.

1992-01-01

280

Raman spectroscopy on simple molecular systems at very high density  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of how Raman spectroscopy is done on simple molecular substances at high pressures. Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools for studying these substances. It is often the quickest means to explore changes in crystal and molecular structures, changes in bond strength, and the formation of new chemical species. Raman measurements have been made at pressures up to 200 GPa (2 Mbar). Even more astonishing is the range of temperatures (4-5200/degree/K) achieved in various static and dynamic (shock-wave) pressure experiments. One point we particularly wish to emphasize is the need for a good theoretical understanding to properly interpret and use experimental results. This is particularly true at ultra-high pressures, where strong crystal field effects can be misinterpreted as incipient insulator-metal transitions. We have tried to point out apparatus, techniques, and results that we feel are particularly noteworthy. We have also included some of the /open quotes/oral tradition/close quotes/ of high pressure Raman spectroscopy -- useful little things that rarely or never appear in print. Because this field is rapidly expanding, we discuss a number of exciting new techniques that have been informally communicated to us, especially those that seem to open new possibilities. 58 refs., 18 figs.

Schiferl, D.; LeSar, R.S.; Moore, D.S.

1988-01-01

281

Quantitative polarized Raman spectroscopy in highly turbid bone tissue  

PubMed Central

Polarized Raman spectroscopy allows measurement of molecular orientation and composition and is widely used in the study of polymer systems. Here, we extend the technique to the extraction of quantitative orientation information from bone tissue, which is optically thick and highly turbid. We discuss multiple scattering effects in tissue and show that repeated measurements using a series of objectives of differing numerical apertures can be employed to assess the contributions of sample turbidity and depth of field on polarized Raman measurements. A high numerical aperture objective minimizes the systematic errors introduced by multiple scattering. We test and validate the use of polarized Raman spectroscopy using wild-type and genetically modified (oim?oim model of osteogenesis imperfecta) murine bones. Mineral orientation distribution functions show that mineral crystallites are not as well aligned (p<0.05) in oim?oim bones (28±3 deg) compared to wild-type bones (22±3 deg), in agreement with small-angle X-ray scattering results. In wild-type mice, backbone carbonyl orientation is 76±2 deg and in oim?oim mice, it is 72±4 deg (p>0.05). We provide evidence that simultaneous quantitative measurements of mineral and collagen orientations on intact bone specimens are possible using polarized Raman spectroscopy. PMID:20615030

Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Wilson, Robert H.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Pleshko, Nancy; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

2010-01-01

282

Quantitative polarized Raman spectroscopy in highly turbid bone tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarized Raman spectroscopy allows measurement of molecular orientation and composition and is widely used in the study of polymer systems. Here, we extend the technique to the extraction of quantitative orientation information from bone tissue, which is optically thick and highly turbid. We discuss multiple scattering effects in tissue and show that repeated measurements using a series of objectives of differing numerical apertures can be employed to assess the contributions of sample turbidity and depth of field on polarized Raman measurements. A high numerical aperture objective minimizes the systematic errors introduced by multiple scattering. We test and validate the use of polarized Raman spectroscopy using wild-type and genetically modified (oim/oim model of osteogenesis imperfecta) murine bones. Mineral orientation distribution functions show that mineral crystallites are not as well aligned (p<0.05) in oim/oim bones (28+/-3 deg) compared to wild-type bones (22+/-3 deg), in agreement with small-angle X-ray scattering results. In wild-type mice, backbone carbonyl orientation is 76+/-2 deg and in oim/oim mice, it is 72+/-4 deg (p>0.05). We provide evidence that simultaneous quantitative measurements of mineral and collagen orientations on intact bone specimens are possible using polarized Raman spectroscopy.

Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Wilson, Robert H.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Pleshko, Nancy; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

2010-05-01

283

Interference-free optical detection for Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An architecture for spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) that utilizes a frame-transfer charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor operating in a subframe burst gating mode to realize time-resolved combustion diagnostics is disclosed. The technique permits all-electronic optical gating with microsecond shutter speeds (<5 .mu.s), without compromising optical throughput or image fidelity. When used in conjunction with a pair of orthogonally-polarized excitation lasers, the technique measures time-resolved vibrational Raman scattering that is minimally contaminated by problematic optical background noise.

Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Fischer, David G (Inventor); Kojima, Jun (Inventor)

2012-01-01

284

Disulfide Bond Dihedral Angles from Raman Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Raman spectra of several compounds containing the CS-SC moiety were obtained (in the solid phase) from 450-800 cm-1 to investigate the S-S and C-S stretching behavior. The S-S stretching frequency varied linearly with the CS-SC dihedral angle (obtained from either x-ray or neutron diffraction or ultraviolet absorption) for compounds whose CC-SS dihedral angles were not very different. The ratio of the intensities of the S-S and C-S stretching bands exhibited no recognizable correlation with either the CS-SC dihedral angle or the CSS bond angle, probably because this ratio is sensitive to the crystalline environment. The linear dependence of the S-S stretching frequency on dihedral angle leads to a dihedral angle for the plant hormone, malformin A, that is in excellent agreement with that estimated from the longest wavelength CS-SC ultraviolet absorption band. PMID:16592108

Van Wart, Harold E.; Lewis, Aaron; Scheraga, Harold A.; Saeva, Frank D.

1973-01-01

285

Characterization of bundled and individual triple-walled carbon nanotubes by resonant Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The optical characterization of bundled and individual triple-walled carbon nanotubes was studied for the first time in detail by using resonant Raman spectroscopy. In our approach, the outer tube of a triple-walled carbon nanotube system protects the two inner tubes (or equivalently the inner double-walled carbon nanotube) from external environment interactions making them a partially isolated system. Following the spectral changes and line-widths of the radial breathing modes and G-band by performing laser energy dependent Raman spectroscopy, it is possible to extract important information as regards to the electronic and vibrational properties, tube diameters, wall-to-wall distances, radial breathing mode, and G-band resonance evolutions as well as high-curvature intertube interactions in isolated double- and triple-walled carbon nanotube systems. PMID:23311296

Hirschmann, Thomas Ch; Araujo, Paulo T; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Xu; Nielsch, Kornelius; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

2013-03-26

286

A tunable line filter polychromator for gas temperature measurements using laser Raman scattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proprietary laser line filter spectrograph (LLFS) was modified to test for improved remote measurement of atmospheric temperature by Raman spectroscopy of the rotational bands of N2 and O2. Both grating scan measurements with fixed PMT and polychromator image plane PMT scans with fixed grating setting were made using HeNe and Ar(+) lasers. The LLFS was found to have a laser line rejection ratio at 6A from the laser line and provides resolved rotational Raman spectral display at the polychromator exit plane. Spectral resolution is adequate to measure and correct for background in the Stokes spectrum. It is anticipated that this system should allow measurement of gas or atmospheric temperature to + or - 1 C.

Grossman, J. J.; Muramoto, M.

1975-01-01

287

Verifying of endocrine disruptor chemical affect to the mouse testes: can raman spectroscopy support histology study?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of suspect environmental endocrine disruptors that affect mouse male reproduction by altering the morphology of Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells is phthalate. The effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), one of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate , on immature mouse testes in vivo were examined. We have recently shown that MEHP induced Sertoli cells necrosis and spermatogenic cells apoptosis in mice by TUNEL method, F-actin staining, and ultrastructural study, but there is no data for biochemical changing of testes due to those methods could not explore. To verify in detail of it, we conducted Raman spectroscopy study with 785 nm wavelength laser line, 50mW of laser power and 3 minutes of exposure time to analysis the MEHP-treated testicular tissue, which has been fixatived by 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA). Five weeks old (5 w.o) male mice were used in this experiment. As the results, the alterations were observed by Raman spectroscopy that there are significantly differences of DNA, actin filament, type IV collagen and amide I between control group (0 ?M MEHP) and treatment group (100 ?M MEHP). These results significantly support histology staining observation (such as the apoptotic spermatogenic cells which is associated with DNA fragmentation and F-actin disruption) and ultrastructural observation (such as mitochondria rupture and disintegration of nucleus membrane). Raman spectroscopy can be used for 4% PFA-fixatived tissue observation. However, we recommend that Raman spectroscopy may be able to be expanded as an armamentarium not just for the clarification of histology staining and ultrastructural study, but furthermore, it may be as a non-invasion assessment for screening animal tissue toxicity of chemical in future.

Andriana, Bibin B.; Oshima, Yusuke; Takanezawa, Sota; Tay, Tat W.; Rosawati Soeratman, Catherine Linda; Alam, Mohammad S.; Mitsuoka, Hiroki; Zhu, Xiao B.; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yuko S.; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Sato, Hidetoshi

2009-02-01

288

Classification for breast cancer diagnosis with Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

In order to promote the development of the portable, low-cost and in vivo cancer diagnosis instrument, a miniature laser Raman spectrometer was employed to acquire the conventional Raman spectra for breast cancer detection in this paper. But it is difficult to achieve high discrimination accuracy. Then a novel method of adaptive weight k-local hyperplane (AWKH) is proposed to increase the classification accuracy. AWKH is an extension and improvement of K-local hyperplane distance nearest-neighbor (HKNN). It considers the features weights of the training data in the nearest neighbor selection and local hyperplane construction stage, which resolve the basic shortcoming of HKNN works well only for small values of the nearest-neighbor. Experimental results on Raman spectra of breast tissues in vitro show the proposed method can realize high classification accuracy. PMID:25071976

Li, Qingbo; Gao, Qishuo; Zhang, Guangjun

2014-07-01

289

Gate dependent Raman spectroscopy of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride.  

PubMed

Raman spectroscopy, a fast and nondestructive imaging method, can be used to monitor the doping level in graphene devices. We fabricated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene on atomically flat hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) flakes and SiO2 substrates. We compared their Raman response as a function of charge carrier density using an ion gel as a top gate. The G peak position, the 2D peak position, the 2D peak width and the ratio of the 2D peak area to the G peak area show a dependence on carrier density that differs for hBN compared to SiO2. Histograms of two-dimensional mapping are used to compare the fluctuations in the Raman peak properties between the two substrates. The hBN substrate has been found to produce fewer fluctuations at the same charge density owing to its atomically flat surface and reduced charged impurities. PMID:24275340

Chattrakun, Kanokporn; Huang, Shengqiang; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Sandhu, A; LeRoy, B J

2013-12-18

290

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of creatinine in silver colloid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technology has already made great progress in bio-molecule detection. It can make the target molecules strongly absorbed onto the surface of metal nanoparticles, and then the Raman signal of its own has been greatly enhanced through physical and chemical enhancement mechanisms. We report the SERS spectra of creatinine in silver colloid, and study the silver colloid enhanced effects on the Raman scattering of creatinine. We can also find that creatinine concentration is linearly related to its SERS peak intensity and the detection limit of creatinine silver sol is found to be 10 mg/dl. In conclusion, we can observe that the silver colloid has very good enhanced effects for the creatinine. The potential applications of SERS in quantitative measurement of the creatinine liquor are demonstrated. The result shows that the SERS approach would provide a unique and fast test method for creatinine detection.

Wang, Yue; Chen, Jiesi; Wu, Yanan; Chen, Yanping; Pan, Jianji; Lei, Jinping; Chen, Yongjian; Sun, Liqing; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

2011-11-01

291

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of creatinine in silver colloid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technology has already made great progress in bio-molecule detection. It can make the target molecules strongly absorbed onto the surface of metal nanoparticles, and then the Raman signal of its own has been greatly enhanced through physical and chemical enhancement mechanisms. We report the SERS spectra of creatinine in silver colloid, and study the silver colloid enhanced effects on the Raman scattering of creatinine. We can also find that creatinine concentration is linearly related to its SERS peak intensity and the detection limit of creatinine silver sol is found to be 10 mg/dl. In conclusion, we can observe that the silver colloid has very good enhanced effects for the creatinine. The potential applications of SERS in quantitative measurement of the creatinine liquor are demonstrated. The result shows that the SERS approach would provide a unique and fast test method for creatinine detection.

Wang, Yue; Chen, Jiesi; Wu, Yanan; Chen, Yanping; Pan, Jianji; Lei, Jinping; Chen, Yongjian; Sun, Liqing; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

2012-03-01

292

rotational Raman spectroscopy methods for probing energy thermalisation processes during spin-exchange optical pumping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) has been widely used to produce enhancements in nuclear spin polarisation for hyperpolarised noble gases. However, some key fundamental physical processes underlying SEOP remain poorly understood, particularly in regards to how pump laser energy absorbed during SEOP is thermalised, distributed and dissipated. This study uses in situ ultra-low frequency Raman spectroscopy to probe rotational temperatures of nitrogen buffer gas during optical pumping under conditions of high resonant laser flux and binary Xe/N2 gas mixtures. We compare two methods of collecting the Raman scattering signal from the SEOP cell: a conventional orthogonal arrangement combining intrinsic spatial filtering with the utilisation of the internal baffles of the Raman spectrometer, eliminating probe laser light and Rayleigh scattering, versus a new in-line modular design that uses ultra-narrowband notch filters to remove such unwanted contributions. We report a ~23-fold improvement in detection sensitivity using the in-line module, which leads to faster data acquisition and more accurate real-time monitoring of energy transport processes during optical pumping. The utility of this approach is demonstrated via measurements of the local internal gas temperature (which can greatly exceed the externally measured temperature) as a function of incident laser power and position within the cell.

Newton, Hayley; Walkup, Laura L.; Whiting, Nicholas; West, Linda; Carriere, James; Havermeyer, Frank; Ho, Lawrence; Morris, Peter; Goodson, Boyd M.; Barlow, Michael J.

2014-05-01

293

Raman Spectroscopy: A Suitable Tool For Planetary Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a fundamental understanding of the origin and evolution of planets information on the surface material is required. Raman spectroscopy represents one possible method for performing mineralogical studies. Raman imaging, delivers information about the identity and the spatial distribution of the various components of the sample. One way of performing this type of measurements is to bring a Raman device on the surface of the remote planet. MIRAS (Mineral Investigation by in situ Raman Spectroscopy) is a running project which deals with such an approach. A way of getting an idea about the mineralogical composition of Mars is to investigate some of the meteorites which are originating from this planet. Spatial distribution of different minerals on the sur- face of Mars meteorite slices have been measured by employing Raman spectroscopy. The method used for imaging the investigated surfaces was point by point scanning. Slices from Zagami and Dar al Gani 735 meteorites have been investigated. Surfaces of approximately 100x100 mum were imaged with a spatial sampling step size of roughly 2.5 mum. The Raman sampling surface was around 1 mum(2) . For the mineralogical assignment, Raman spectra of some well characterized standard mineral samples were recorded for comparison. For the Zagami meteorite, the major miner- als observed are in good agreement with what has been reported in literature. Apart from pyroxene, phosphates (apatite and whitlockite) or glassy materials, organic con- taminants (in this case originating from handling the meteorite slices on earth) were observed. The spatial distribution of these organic contaminants is of great interest as a test for further dealing with structural fossils or chemical traces of extinct or extant life. For Dar al Gani 735 meteorite, pyroxene, olivine, magnetite, calcite and whit- lockite have been identified on the scanned surface. This meteorite is considered to be paired with DaG 476 meteorite. DaG 735 was reported to be less weathered than DaG 476 and without terrestrial carbonate veins. However in our investigation, calcite was found in DaG 735. The spatial distribution on the scanned surface sustains the idea of veins, formed by contamination with water from the soil at the landing place. The first steps have been done for developing a Raman device which might be used as a remote automated mineralogist for in situ planetary investigations. Its name: MIRAS.

Popp, J.; Tarcea, N.; Schmitt, M.; Kiefer, W.; Hochleitner, R.; Simon, G.; Hofer, S.; Schmidt, E.; Stuffler, T.; Hilchenbach, M.

294

Modern Raman Imaging: Vibrational Spectroscopy on the Micrometer and Nanometer Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman microscopes are currently used in various fields of research because they allow for label-free sample investigation. Moreover, the inherently low scattering cross section of Raman spectroscopy, as well as its diffraction-limited lateral resolution, has been overcome by new Raman microscopy techniques. Nonlinear methods such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and stimulated Raman spectroscopy reduce measurement times and improve z resolution, allowing for three-dimensional spectroscopic imaging of biological samples. Moreover, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, a near-field optical technique that combines scanning-probe microscopy with the enhancement offered by surface-enhanced Raman scattering, enables Raman spectroscopic imaging far below the optical diffraction limit. We cover the theoretical and technical aspects of Raman microscopy and related new imaging techniques and review some very recent applications in graphene research and cell biology.

Opilik, Lothar; Schmid, Thomas; Zenobi, Renato

2013-06-01

295

Raman spectra of high- ? dielectric layers investigated with micro-Raman spectroscopy comparison with silicon dioxide.  

PubMed

Three samples with dielectric layers from high- ? dielectrics, hafnium oxide, gadolinium-silicon oxide, and lanthanum-lutetium oxide on silicon substrate were studied by Raman spectroscopy. The results obtained for high- ? dielectrics were compared with spectra recorded for silicon dioxide. Raman spectra suggest the similarity of gadolinium-silicon oxide and lanthanum-lutetium oxide to the bulk nondensified silicon dioxide. The temperature treatment of hafnium oxide shows the evolution of the structure of this material. Raman spectra recorded for as-deposited hafnium oxide are similar to the results obtained for silicon dioxide layer. After thermal treatment especially at higher temperatures (600°C and above), the structure of hafnium oxide becomes similar to the bulk non-densified silicon dioxide. PMID:24072982

Borowicz, P; Taube, A; Rzodkiewicz, W; Latek, M; Giera?towska, S

2013-01-01

296

Fe-Ti-Cr-Oxides in Martian Meteorite EETA79001 Studied by Point-counting Procedure Using Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fe-Ti-Cr-Oxide minerals contain much information about rock petrogenesis and alteration. Among the most important in the petrology of common intrusive and extrusive rocks are those of the FeO-TiO2-Cr2O3 compositional system chromite, ulv spinel-magnetite, and ilmenite-hematite. These minerals retain memories of oxygen fugacity. Their exsolution into companion mineral pairs give constraints on formation temperature and cooling rate. Laser Raman spectroscopy is anticipated to be a powerful technique for characterization of materials on the surface of Mars. A Mars Microbeam Raman Spectrometer (MMRS) is under development. It combines a micro sized laser beam and an automatic point-counting mechanism, and so can detect minor minerals or weak Raman-scattering phases such as Fe- Ti-Cr-oxides in mixtures (rocks & soils), and provide information on grain size and mineral mode. Most Fe-Ti-Cr-oxides produce weaker Raman signals than those from oxyanionic minerals, e.g. carbonates, sulfates, phosphates, and silicates, partly because most of them are intrinsically weaker Raman scatters, and partly because their dark colors limit the penetration depth of the excitation laser beam (visible wavelength) and of the Raman radiation produced. The purpose of this study is to show how well the Fe-Ti-Cr-oxides can be characterized by on-surface planetary exploration using Raman spectroscopy. We studied the basic Raman features of common examples of these minerals using well-characterized individual mineral grains. The knowledge gained was then used to study the Fe-Ti-Cr-oxides in Martian meteorite EETA79001, especially effects of compositional and structural variations on their Raman features.

Wang, Alian; Kuebler, Karla E.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Haskin, Larry A.

2003-01-01

297

Tunable kHz deep ultraviolet (193-210 nm) laser for Raman application.  

PubMed

The performance characteristics of a kilohertz solid-state laser source for ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy are described. Deep ultraviolet (UV) excitation in the 193-210 nm region is provided by mixing of the fundamental and third harmonics of a Ti-sapphire laser, which is pumped by the second harmonic of a Q-Switched Nd-YLF laser. The combination of tunability, narrow linewidth, high average power, good stability, and kilohertz repetition rate makes this laser suitable for deep UV resonance Raman applications. The short pulse duration (approximately 20 ns) permits nanosecond time resolution in pump-probe applications. The low peak power and high data rate provide artifact-free spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio. UV Raman cross-section and Raman excitation profiles are reported for gaseous O2 (relative to N), aqueous ClO4-, tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine, and hemoglobin excited between 193 nm and 210 nm to illustrate laser performance. PMID:16053544

Balakrishnan, Gurusamy; Hu, Ying; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted; Spiro, Thomas G

2005-06-01

298

Change of Damping for Long-Chain Molecules during Solidification and Melting in Scattering Samples Studied by Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the solidification and melting of certain complex scattering substances by laser Raman spectroscopy. We used a modified laser Raman system to study the spectrum of certain long-chain organic substances (paraffin and candlewax) during solidification and melting, and found that there is a significant and discontinuous change in linewidth (by 4-5 times) during these processes. By measuring the linewidth of a certain line during solidification, we show that at a microscopic level, there is a large change in the immediate microscopic environment and damping of the molecular motions. This shows that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a sensitive probe of the change in the immediate environment of the molecular motions in these systems.

Abedin, Kazi Monowar; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Ito, Hiromasa

2008-10-01

299

Chemical and explosives point detection through opaque containers using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) is a novel technique used to identify the chemical Raman signature of threat materials within a few seconds through common non-metallic containers, including those containers which may not yield to inspection by conventional backscatter Raman. In particular, some opaque plastic containers and coloured glass bottles can be difficult to analyze using conventional backscatter Raman because

Paul W. Loeffen; Guy Maskall; Stuart Bonthron; Matthew Bloomfield; Craig Tombling; Pavel Matousek

2011-01-01

300

Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue.  

PubMed

Raman spectroscopy is a molecular vibrational spectroscopic technique that is capable of optically probing the biomolecular changes associated with diseased transformation. The purpose of this study was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for identifying dysplasia from normal gastric mucosa tissue. A rapid-acquisition dispersive-type NIR Raman system was utilised for tissue Raman spectroscopic measurements at 785 nm laser excitation. A total of 76 gastric tissue samples obtained from 44 patients who underwent endoscopy investigation or gastrectomy operation were used in this study. The histopathological examinations showed that 55 tissue specimens were normal and 21 were dysplasia. Both the empirical approach and multivariate statistical techniques, including principal components analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), together with the leave-one-sample-out cross-validation method, were employed to develop effective diagnostic algorithms for classification of Raman spectra between normal and dysplastic gastric tissues. High-quality Raman spectra in the range of 800-1800 cm(-1) can be acquired from gastric tissue within 5 s. There are specific spectral differences in Raman spectra between normal and dysplasia tissue, particularly in the spectral ranges of 1200-1500 cm(-1) and 1600-1800 cm(-1), which contained signals related to amide III and amide I of proteins, CH(3)CH(2) twisting of proteins/nucleic acids, and the C=C stretching mode of phospholipids, respectively. The empirical diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the Raman peak intensity at 875 cm(-1) to the peak intensity at 1450 cm(-1) gave the diagnostic sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 80.0%, whereas the diagnostic algorithms based on PCA-LDA yielded the diagnostic sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity 90.9% for separating dysplasia from normal gastric tissue. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves further confirmed that the most effective diagnostic algorithm can be derived from the PCA-LDA technique. Therefore, NIR Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate statistical technique has potential for rapid diagnosis of dysplasia in the stomach based on the optical evaluation of spectral features of biomolecules. PMID:18195711

Teh, S K; Zheng, W; Ho, K Y; Teh, M; Yeoh, K G; Huang, Z

2008-01-29

301

Laser spectroscopy on a ``shoestring''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of tunable lasers has had a profound influence on both experimental and theoretical physics. Unfortunately, since these laser systems are typically hazardous and expensive, the physics student at the undergraduate or first-year graduate level has no real familiarity with their application in modern physics; and thus cannot fully appreciate their significance. Tunable single mode laser diodes, however, may offer a remedy to this situation. To demonstrate their applicability, we have designed a relatively simple and inexpensive experiment of laser diode spectroscopy in an atomic beam which illustrates the effect of hyperfine structure and the isotope shift in the rubidium D1 transition (52S1/2-52P1/2). Furthermore, this experiment demonstrates the possibility of investigating basic physics without major expenditures for laser systems and laboratory facilities.

Camparo, J. C.; Klimcak, C. M.

1983-12-01

302

Combined micro-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy of Proterozoic acritarchs: A new approach to Palaeobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-scale analytical techniques permit correlation of chemistry with morphology of individual Proterozoic acritarchs (organic-walled microfossils), and thus provide new approaches for elucidating their biological affinities. A combination of micro-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and laser micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the organic structure and composition of individual acritarchs. Well preserved Neoproterozoic acritarchs from the Tanana Formation, Australia (ca. 590–565Ma),

Craig P. Marshall; Emmanuelle J. Javaux; Andrew H. Knoll; Malcolm R. Walter

2005-01-01

303

Breast cancer diagnosis using FT-RAMAN spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study FT-RAMAN spectra of breast tissue from 35 patients were obtained and separated into nine groups for histopathologic analysis, which are as follows: normal breast tissue, fibrocystic condition, in situ ductal carcinoma, in situ ductal carcinoma with necrosis, infiltrate ductal carcinoma, infiltrate inflammatory ductal carcinoma, infiltrate medullar ductal carcinoma, infiltrate colloid ductal carcinoma, and infiltrate lobular carcinoma. Using spectrum averages taken from each group a qualitative analysis was performed to compare these molecular compositions to those known to be present in abnormal concentrations in pathological situations, e.g. the development of desmoplastic lesions with a stroma of dense collagen in tumoral breast tissues which substitute adipose stroma of non-diseased breast tissue. The band identified as amino acids, offered basis for observation in the existence of alterations in the proteins, thus proving Raman Spectroscopic capacity in identification of primary structures of proteins; secondary protein structure was also identified through the peptic links, Amide I and Amide III, which have also been identified by various authors. Alterations were also identified in the peaks and bandwidths of nucleic acids demonstrating the utilization of Raman Spectroscopy in the analysis of the cells nucleus manifestations. All studies involving Raman Spectroscopy and breast cancer have shown excellent result reliability and therefore a basis for the technical theory.

Bitar, Renata A.; Martin, Airton A.; Criollo, Carlos J. T.; Ramalho, Leandra N. Z.

2005-04-01

304

Chapter 14 Treatise on Geochemistry Raman and Nuclear Resonant Spectroscopy in Geosciences  

E-print Network

Chapter 14 Treatise on Geochemistry 1 Raman and Nuclear Resonant Spectroscopy in Geosciences Jung technical advances in Raman and nuclear resonance spectroscopy (both Mössbauer spectroscopy and nuclear. Optical and X-ray spectroscopies probe different momentum and energy transfers caused by interactions

Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

305

Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers.  

PubMed

Ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection holds great potential for early-stage diagnosis of human diseases and for environmental monitoring. In this work, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, single nanoparticle detection by monitoring the beat frequency of split-mode Raman lasers in high-Q optical microcavities. We first demonstrate this method by controllably transferring single 50-nm-radius nanoparticles to and from the cavity surface using a fiber taper. We then realize real-time detection of single nanoparticles in an aqueous environment, with a record low detection limit of 20 nm in radius, without using additional techniques for laser noise suppression. Because Raman scattering occurs in most materials under practically any pump wavelength, this Raman laser-based sensing method not only removes the need for doping the microcavity with a gain medium but also loosens the requirement of specific wavelength bands for the pump lasers, thus representing a significant step toward practical microlaser sensors. PMID:25267618

Li, Bei-Bei; Clements, William R; Yu, Xiao-Chong; Shi, Kebin; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng

2014-10-14

306

Development of intercavitary laser spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the Technique. Among the numerous applications of the techniques and instruments of quantum electronics in science and technology, an important position is assumed by applications in which problems of spectral analysis are solved and the possibilities and the means of modern spectroscopy are enhanced. The tendency to use monochromatic laser radiation for probing in weakly absorbing media has

V. S. Burakov

1981-01-01

307

PZT Microfibre defect structure studied by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman-scattering spectroscopy on the microscale is proposed as a method to study the distribution of defects and existing vacancies in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibres during industrial processes to monitor the volumetric structural order within the fibre and to estimate the spatial phase transition degree from rhombohedral to tetragonal phase. PZT fibres developed in two different sintering atmospheres, PbO and a mixture of PbZrO3 and ZrO2 (PZ+Z), were studied to determine optimal conditions for the production of defect-free PZT fibres. An estimation of defect distribution along the radius of the PZT fibres is presented using Raman spectroscopy and confirmed by x-ray-diffractometry measurements. The degradation of the spatial-mechanical properties is explained by structural changes produced by electrostatic interactions between Zr and Ti ions.

Kozielski, L.; Buixaderas, E.; Clemens, F.; Bujakiewicz-Koro?ska, R.

2010-10-01

308

Carbon Raman Spectroscopy of 36 Inter-Planetary Dust Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool to determine the degree of order of organic material (OM) in extra-terrestrial matter. As shown for meteoritic OM [e.g., 2], peak parameters of D and G bands are a measure of thermal alteration, causing graphitization (order), and amorphization, e.g. during protoplanetary irradiation, causing disorder. Th e most pristine interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) may come from comets. However, their exact provenance is unknown. IDP collection during Earth?s passage through comet Grigg-Skjellerup?s dust stream ("GSC" collectors) may increase the probability of collecting fresh IDPs from a known, cometary source. We used Raman spectroscopy to compare 21 GSC-IDPs with 15 IDPs collected at different periods, and found that the variation among GSC-IDPs is larger than among non-GSC IDPs, with the most primitive IDPs being mostly GSC-IDPs.

Busemann, H.; Nittler, L. R.; Davidson, J.; Franchi, I. A.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Palma, R. L.; Pepin, R. O.

2009-01-01

309

Identification of active fluorescence stained bacteria by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms can be found everywhere e.g. in food both as useful ingredients or harmful contaminations causing food spoilage. Therefore, a fast and easy to handle analysis method is needed to detect bacteria in different kinds of samples like meat, juice or air to decide if the sample is contaminated by harmful microorganisms. Conventional identification methods in microbiology require always cultivation and therefore are time consuming. In this contribution we present an analysis approach to identify fluorescence stained bacteria on strain level by means of Raman spectroscopy. The stained bacteria are highlighted and can be localized easier against a complex sample environment e.g. in food. The use of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrical methods allows the identification of single bacteria within minutes.

Krause, Mario; Beyer, Beatrice; Pietsch, Christian; Radt, Benno; Harz, Michaela; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

2008-04-01

310

Exploitation of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a remote chemical sensor  

SciTech Connect

We have discussed recent experimental results using a resonance-Raman-based LIDAR system as a remote chemical sensor. This spectroscopy has the fundamental advantage that it is based on optical fingerprints that are insensitive to environmental perturbations. By taking advantage of resonance enhancement, which 6 orders-of-magnitude, can be as large as 4 to an increased sensing range for a given chemical concentration or lower detection limit for a given stand-off distance can be realized. The success discussed above can in part be traced back to the use of new state-of-the-art technologies which, only recently, have allowed the phenomenon of resonance-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to be fully exploited as a remote chemical sensor platform. Since many chemicals have electronic transitions in the UV/IS, it is expected that many will have pronounced resonance enhancements.

Sedlacek, A.J.; Chen, C.L.

1995-08-01

311

Crystallographic Transitions in Perovskite Crystals Observed with Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the interaction of carbon dioxide with the surface of ferroelectric oxides such as barium titanate and potassium niobate. The surface chemistry of KNbO3 towards CO2 changes when the oxide particles become smaller than 100 microns. We have used Micro-Raman spectroscopy to determine if the structure of the grains change depending on their size and temperature. We have been able of observing crystallographic transition in small grains of the Perovskite with Raman spectroscopy. Small grains of 50 microns BaTiO3 undergo a transition at 133 degree C and small grains of 50 microns KNbO3 undergo a transition around 224 and 408 degrees C. A correlation between CO2 desorption and crystallographic changes can be observed. References: [1] A. L. Cabrera, F. Vargas and R. Zarate J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 55 (1994) 1303. [2] A. L. Cabrera, F. Vargas and J. J. Albers, Surf. Sci. 336 (1995) 280.

Castillo-Andaeta, F.; Mura-Mardones, J.; Cabrera, G. B.; Cabrera, A. L.; Altamirano-Busschots, L. A.

2001-03-01

312

Raman spectroscopic studies of CO2 laser-irradiated human dental enamel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser radiation on the physical properties of human dental enamel are well characterized, little is known regarding laser-induced chemical changes. In this study, enamel was exposed to CO2 laser radiation to induce fusion and recrystallization, and the Raman spectra recorded using both dispersive and Fourier-transformed (FT) Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were compared to a heat-treated specimen of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and enamel. Laser irradiation induced chemical changes which differed from those induced by heat treatment. Comparing the Raman spectra of lased enamel to HAP and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), it is evident that CO2 laser irradiation of enamel causes the partial conversion of HAP to TCP. The effect of laser irradiation is not merely a simple local heating effect as previously thought, since simple heating of enamel leads to the formation of both TCP and Ca(OH)2, while laser treatment of enamel results in the formation of TCP but not Ca(OH)2.

Aminzadeh, A.; Shahabi, S.; Walsh, L. J.

1999-06-01

313

Doppler Free Laser Spectroscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment you will use a technique known as saturation-absorption spectroscopy to study the hyperfine structure (hfs) of rubidium. This particular method is designed to overcome the limitations imposed by the Doppler-broadening of spectral lines while avoiding the need to work at low temperatures.

2012-01-09

314

Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Agricultural Products and Food Analysis: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman spectroscopy has been gaining popularity as an analytical tool due to advances in development of Raman spectrometry and the power of personal computers. Owing to its narrow and high resolved bands, Raman spectroscopy allows itself for non-destructive extraction of chemical and physical information about samples, and helps inherent rapid analysis on-line without any special sample preparation. In this review,

Danting Yang; Yibin Ying

2011-01-01

315

Stimulated coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) resonances originate from double-slit  

E-print Network

Stimulated coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) resonances originate from double January 21, 2010 (received for review September 3, 2009) Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS with re- spect to pulse parameters. CARS microscopy pulse shaping ultrafast spectroscpy Coherent Raman

Mukamel, Shaul

316

Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to detect the calcification of the annular mitral valve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiac valves are subjected to high repetitive mechanical stresses, particularly at the hinge points of the cusps and leaflets due to the over 40 millions cardiac cycles per year. These delicate structures can suffer cumulative lesions, complicated by the deposition of calcium phosphate mineral, which may lead to clinically important disease. Near Infrared Raman Spectroscopy gives important information about biological tissues composition and it is being used for diagnosis of some pathologies. The aim of this work was to detect trough the use of the Raman Spectroscopy technique the mitral annular calcification. A Ti:sapphire laser operating at the near infrared wavelength of 785 nm was used for the excitation of the valve samples and the Raman radiation was detected by an optical spectrometer with a CCD liquid nitrogen cooled detector. In all, ten samples of normal and pathologic tissues were studied. They were approximately squared with the lateral size of 5 mm. It was observed that the Raman spectrum of the calcified mitral valve showed different behavior, when compared to normal tissues. Results indicate that this technique could be used to detect the deposition of the calcium phosphate mineral over the mitral valve.

Rocha, Rick; Otero, E. P.; Costa, M. S.; Villaverde, Antonio G. J. B.; Pomerarantzeff, P. M.; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.

2004-10-01

317

Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy at multiple wavelengths for in-situ meat species differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two miniaturized Raman measurement heads containing microsystem diode lasers emitting at 783 and 671 nm suitable for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) were applied for the non-invasive in situ differentiation of selected meat species. This allows using the fingerprint characteristics of Raman spectra without a disturbing fluorescence background. At 783 nm, two emission lines with a spectral shift of 0.5 nm (7 cm-1) and optical powers of up to 110 mW were realized. For 671 nm excitation, the spectral shift amounts to 0.6 nm (12 cm-1) and optical powers of up to 40 mW were obtained. In both cases, meat Raman spectra could be recorded with integration times of 10 s. The investigations were carried out using selected cuts from the most commonly consumed meat species in the US and Europe, i.e. beef, pork, chicken, and turkey. A principal components analysis of the SERDS spectra revealed a clear separation of the meat species into four distinct groups for both excitation wavelengths. This classification is based on the myoglobin content and gradual differences of protein Raman band intensities and positions. The results demonstrate the potential of SERDS as rapid and non-destructive screening method for the discrimination of selected meat species.

Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

2012-09-01

318

Quantitative detection of astaxanthin and cantaxanthin in Atlantic salmon by resonance Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major carotenoids species found in salmonids muscle tissues are astaxanthin and cantaxanthin. They are taken up from fish food and are responsible for the attractive red-orange color of salmon filet. Since carotenoids are powerful antioxidants and biomarkers of nutrient consumption, they are thought to indicate fish health and resistance to diseases in fish farm environments. Therefore, a rapid, accurate, quantitative optical technique for measuring carotenoid content in salmon tissues is of economic interest. We demonstrate the possibility of using fast, selective, quantitative detection of astaxanthin and cantaxanthin in salmon muscle tissues, employing resonance Raman spectroscopy. Analyzing strong Raman signals originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of the carotenoid molecules under blue laser excitation, we are able to characterize quantitatively the concentrations of carotenoids in salmon muscle tissue. To validate the technique, we compared Raman data with absorption measurements of carotenoid extracts in acetone. A close correspondence was observed in absorption spectra for tissue extract in acetone and a pure astaxanthin solution. Raman results show a linear dependence between Raman and absorption data. The proposed technique holds promise as a method of rapid screening of carotenoid levels in fish muscle tissues and may be attractive for the fish farm industry to assess the dietary status of salmon, risk for infective diseases, and product quality control.

Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

2006-02-01

319

Detection and characterization of stomach cancer and atrophic gastritis with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we attempt to find a valid method to distinguish gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. Auto-fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy of laser induced (514.5 nm and 488.0 nm) was measured. The serum spectrum is different between normal and cancer. Average value of diagnosis parameter for normal serum, red shift is less than 12 nm and Raman relative intensity of peak C by 514.5 nm excited is stronger than that of 488.0 nm. To gastric cancer, its red shift of average is bigger than 12 nm and relative intensity of Raman peak C by 514.5 nm excited is weaker than that by 488.0 nm. To atrophic gastritis, the distribution state of Raman peaks is similar with normal serum and auto-fluorescence spectrum's shape is similar to that of gastric cancer. Its average Raman peak red shift is bigger than 12 nm and the relative intensity of peak C by 514.5 excited is stronger than that of by 488.0. We considered it as a criterion and got an accuracy of 85.6% for diagnosis of gastric cancer compared with the result of clinical diagnosis.

Li, Xiaozhou; Lin, Junxiu; Jia, Chunde; Wang, Rong

2003-12-01

320

Laser spectroscopy of sputtered atoms  

SciTech Connect

The use of laser radiation to study the sputtering process is of relatively recent origin. Much has been learned from this work about the basic physics of the sputtering process itself through measurements of velocity and excited state distributions of sputtered atoms and the effects of adsorbates on substrate sputtering yields. Furthermore, the identification, characterization, and sensitive detection of sputtered atoms by laser spectroscopy has led to the development of in situ diagnostics for impurity fluxes in the plasma edge regions of tokamaks and of ultrasensitive methods (ppB Fe in Si) for surface analysis with ultralow (picocoulomb) ion fluences. The techniques involved in this work, laser fluorescence and multiphoton resonance ionization spectroscopy, will be described and illustrations given of results achieved up to now. 55 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Gruen, D.M.; Pellin, M.J.; Young, C.E.; Calaway, W.F.

1985-01-01

321

Detection of human serum proteins using Raman and SERS spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of normal Raman (NR) spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to analyze the biochemical information of human serum proteins and hence distinguish between normal and primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) serum samples was investigated. The serum samples were obtained from patients who were clinically diagnosed with PHC (n=20) and healthy volunteers (n=20). All spectra were collected in the spectral range of 400-1800 cm-1 and analyzed through the multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that both NR and SERS combined with PCA had good performance in distinguishing the human serum proteins between PHC patients and healthy volunteers with high sensitivity and specificity of 100%. And we can get more detail information of component and conformation of human serum proteins by considering NR and SERS spectrum. Our results support the concept again that serum protein Raman and SERS spectroscopy combined with PCA analysis both can become noninvasive and rapid diagnostic tools to detect the primary hepatic carcinoma.

Ruan, Qiuyong; Liao, Fadian; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nenrong; Lin, Jinyong; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Rong

2014-09-01

322

Single molecule laser spectroscopy.  

PubMed

In this article, we discussed some single molecule spectroscopy techniques and methods. We have chosen the simplicity in this survey based on our laboratory experience in this field. We concentrated on the imaging by both techniques the wide field and the scanning microscopes. Other imaging enhancements on the technique like extended resolution wide field, the total internal reflection imaging, and its derivatives are also reviewed. In addition to the imaging techniques, some diffusion techniques also are discussed like fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The related methods like Forester resonance transfer, photo-induced electron transfer and anisotropy (steady state and time decay) are also discussed. In addition, we elucidated some simple details about the theory behind the FCS and its resulting curve fitting. This review is preceded by general introduction and ended with the conclusion. PMID:25156641

Atta, Diaa; Okasha, Ali

2015-01-25

323

New Material for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A chemical method of synthesis and application of coating materials that are especially suitable for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been developed. The purpose of this development is to facilitate the utilization of the inherently high sensitivity of SERS to detect chemicals of interest (analytes) in trace amounts, without need for lengthy sample preparation. Up to now, the use of SERS has not become routine because the methods available have not been able to reproduce sampling conditions and provide quantitative measurements. In contrast, the coating materials of the present method enable analysis with minimum preparation of samples, and SERS measurements made using these materials are reproducible and reversible. Moreover, unlike in methods investigated in prior efforts to implement SERS, sampling is not restricted to such specific environments as electrolytes or specific solvents. The coating materials of this method are porous glasses, formed in sol-gel processes, that contain small particles of gold or silver metal. Materials of this type can be applied to the sample-contact surfaces of a variety of sampling and sensing devices, including glass slides, glass vials, fiber-optic probes, and glass tubes. Glass vials with their insides coated according to this method are particularly convenient for SERS to detect trace chemicals in solutions: One simply puts a sample solution containing the analyte(s) into a vial, then puts the vial into a Raman spectrometer for analysis. The chemical ingredients and the physical conditions of the sol-gel process have been selected so that the porous glass formed incorporates particles of the desired metal with size(s) to match the wavelength(s) of the SERS excitation laser in order to optimize the generation of surface plasmons. The ingredients and processing conditions have further been chosen to tailor the porosity and polarity of the glass to optimize the sample flow and the interaction between the analyte(s) and the plasmon field that generates Raman photons. The porous silica network of a sol-gel glass creates a unique environment for stabilizing SERS-active metal particles. Relative to other material structures that could be considered for SERS, the porous silica network offers higher specific surface area and thus greater interaction between analyte molecules and metal particles. Efforts to perform SERS measurements with the help of sampling devices coated by this method have been successful. In tests, numerous organic and inorganic chemicals were analyzed in several solvents, including water. The results of the tests indicate that the SERS measurements were reproducible within 10 percent and linear over five orders of magnitude. One measure of the limits of detectability of chemicals in these tests was found to be a concentration of 300 parts per billion. Further development may eventually make it possible to realize the full potential sensitivity of SERS for detecting some analytes in quantities as small as a single molecule.

Farquharson, Stuart; Nelson, Chad; Lee, Yuan

2004-01-01

324

Stable isotope laser spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in semiconductor laser technology have produced a reliable lightweight device ideally suited for a spacecraft high resolution molecular spectrometer. Lead-salt tunable diode lasers (TDL) emit in several spectral modes, each with a very narrow linewidth of -0.0003/cm. This spectral resolution is much narrower than typical Doppler broadened molecular linewidths in the mid-IR range. Thus it is possible to detect individual rotational lines within the vibrational band and measure their intensity, which can be used to determine gas concentration. The narrow spectral lines of any impurity gas tend to lie between the narrow lines of the gas of interest. This represents a major advantage over the accepted gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) technique for measuring gas concentrations and isotope ratios. The careful and extensive gas purification procedures required to remove impurities for reliable GCMS measurements will not be required for an IR laser gas analysis. The infrared laser gas analysis technique is being developed to measure stable isotopic ratios of gases such as CO2, CH4, N2O, and NH3. This will eventually lead to development of instruments capable of in situ istopic measurements on planets such as Mars. The carbon (C-12, C-13) isotope ratio is indicative of the type of carbon fixation mechanisms (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration) in operation on a planet, while the nitrogen (N-14, N-15) isotope ratio can probably be used to date nitrogen-bearing Martian samples. The absorbance ratio of two adjacent lines of CO2 in the 2300/cm (4.3 micron) region of the spectrum was measured. The precision of the measurement is presently better than 1 percent and significant improvement is anticipated as rapid sweep-integration techniques and computer controlled data acquistion capabilities are incorporated.

Becker, J. F.; Yaldaei, Ramil; Mckay, Christopher P.

1989-01-01

325

A Fourier transform Raman spectrometer with visible laser excitation  

E-print Network

We present the development and performance of a Fourier transformation (FT) based Raman spectrometer working with visible laser (532 nm) excitation. It is generally thought that FT-Raman spectrometers are not viable in the visible range where shot-noise limits the detector performance and therein they are outperformed by grating based, dispersive ones. We show that contrary to this common belief, the recent advances of high-performance interference filters makes the FT-Raman design a valid alternative to dispersive Raman spectrometers for samples which do not luminesce. We critically compare the performance of our spectrometer to two dispersive ones: a home-built single channel and a state-of-the-art CCD based instruments. We demonstrate a similar or even better sensitivity than the CCD based dispersive spectrometer particularly when the laser power density is considered. The instrument possesses all the known advantages of the FT principle of spectral accuracy, high throughput, and economic design. We also d...

Dzsaber, S; Bernáth, B; Gyüre, B; Fehér, T; Kramberger, C; Pichler, T; Simon, F

2014-01-01

326

Remote Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Raman Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants and Toxic Industrial Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the design, assembly, testing and comparison of two Remote Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) systems intended\\u000a for standoff detection of hazardous chemical liquids. Raman spectra of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants (CWAS) and Toxic\\u000a Industrial Compounds (TIC) were measured in the laboratory at a 6.6 m source-target distance using continuous wave (CW) laser\\u000a detection. Standoff distances for pulsed measurements were 35 m

William Ortiz-Rivera; Leonardo C. Pacheco-Londoño; Samuel P. Hernández-Rivera

2010-01-01

327

Electronic Raman scattering from terbium gallium garnet excited with a picosecond laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic Raman (ER) spectrum of terbium gallium garnet, recorded using picosecond radiation from the frequency-doubled output of a Nd:YAG laser is reported. The observed spectral bands with frequency shifts up to 6000 cm-1 are the result of the effect of a strong crystal field which causes J-mixing between the 7F 6,5,....,0 states. The site symmetry of Tb 3+ in the garnet can be confirmed from this spectroscopy.

Koningstein, J. A.; Lemaire, H.; Atkinson, G. H.

1987-09-01

328

1240 nm diamond Raman laser operating near the quantum limit.  

PubMed

An external-cavity diamond Raman laser generating up to 2.0 W at 1240 nm from 3.3 W of 1064 nm pump power is investigated as a function of pump polarization direction. The maximum conversion efficiency was 61%, and the slope efficiency of 84% closely approaches the quantum limit of 85.8%. The lowest threshold for Raman lasing is achieved for pump polarization parallel to the <111> axis, which we show is consistent with theory. PMID:21124550

Sabella, Alexander; Piper, James A; Mildren, Richard P

2010-12-01

329

Reductive unfolding of serum albumins uncovered by Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The reductive unfolding of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) induced by dithiothreitol (DTT) is investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The resolution of the S-S Raman band into both protein and oxidized DTT contributions provides a reliable basis for directly monitoring the S-S bridge exchange reaction. The related changes in the protein secondary structure are identified by analyzing the protein amide I Raman band. For the reduction of one S-S bridge of BSA, a mean Gibbs free energy of -7 kJ mol(-1) is derived by studying the reaction equilibrium. The corresponding value for the HSA S-S bridge reduction is -2 kJ mol(-1). The reaction kinetics observed via the S-S or amide I Raman bands are identical giving a reaction rate constant of (1.02 +/- 0.11) M(-1) s(-1) for BSA. The contribution of the conformational Gibbs free energy to the overall Gibbs free energy of reaction is further estimated by combining experimental data with ab initio calculations. PMID:18322931

David, Catalina; Foley, Sarah; Mavon, Christophe; Enescu, Mironel

2008-07-01

330

TOPICAL REVIEW: Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a spectroscopic technique which combines modern laser spectroscopy with the exciting optical properties of metallic nanostructures, resulting in strongly increased Raman signals when molecules are attached to nanometre-sized gold and silver structures. The effect provides the structural information content of Raman spectroscopy together with ultrasensitive detection limits, allowing Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Since SERS

Katrin Kneipp; Harald Kneipp; Irving Itzkan; Ramachandra R. Dasari; Michael S. Feld

2002-01-01

331

Detection of hazardous chemicals using field-portable Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major challenge confronting emergency response, border control, and other security-related functions is the accurate, rapid, and safe identification of potentially hazardous chemicals outside a laboratory environment. Raman spectroscopy is a rapid, non-intrusive technique that can be used to confidently identify many classes of hazardous and potentially explosive compounds based on molecular vibration information. Advances in instrumentation now allow reliable field - portable measurements to be made. Before the Raman technique can be effectively applied and be accepted within the scientific community, realistic studies must be performed to develop methods, define limitations, and rigorously evaluate its effectiveness. Examples of a variety of chemicals (including neat and diluted chemical warfare [CW] agents, a CW agent precursor, a biological warfare (BW)-related compound, an illicit drug, and explosives) identified using Raman spectroscopy in various types of containers and on surfaces are given, as well as results from a blind field test of 29 unknown samples which included CW agent precursors and/or degradation products, solvents associated with CW agent production, pesticides, explosives, and BW toxins (mostly mycotoxins). Additionally, results of experimental studies to evaluate the analysis of flammable organic solvents, propellants, military explosives, mixtures containing military explosives, shock-sensitive explosives, and gun powders are described with safety guidelines. Spectral masks for screening unknown samples for explosives and nerve agents are given.

Wright, Cherylyn W.; Harvey, Scott D.; Wright, Bob W.

2003-07-01

332

Raman spectroscopy study of calcium oxalate extracted from cacti stems.  

PubMed

To find markers that distinguish the different Cactaceae species, by using near infrared Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we studied the occurrence, in the stem, of solid deposits in five Cactaceae species (Coryphantha clavata, Ferocactus latispinus, Opuntia ficus-indica, O. robusta, and O. strepthacantha) collected from their natural habitats from a region of México. The deposits in the tissues usually occurred as spheroidal aggregates, druses, or prismatic crystals. From the Raman spectra, the crystals were identified either as calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC2O4·H2O) or calcium oxalate dihydrate (CaC2O4·2H2O). Opuntia species (subfamily Opuntioideae) showed the presence of CaC2O4·H2O, and the deposition of CaC2O4·2H2O was present in C. clavata and F. latispinus (subfamily Cactoideae, Cacteae tribe). As a punctual technique, Raman spectroscopy seems to be a useful tool to identify crystal composition. In addition to allowing the analysis of crystal morphology, this spectroscopic technique can be used to identify Cactaceae species and their chemotaxonomy. PMID:25280368

Frausto-Reyes, Claudio; Loza-Cornejo, Sofia; Terrazas, Tania; de la Luz Miranda-Beltrán, María; Aparicio-Fernández, Xóchitl; López-Macías, Brenda M; Morales-Martínez, Sandra E; Ortiz-Morales, Martín

2014-11-01

333

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy as tools for identification of steryl ferulates.  

PubMed

Steryl ferulates are a mixture of minor bioactive compounds, possessing well-established health benefits. However, individual steryl ferulate species show structural differences, which seem to substantially influence their health-promoting potential. In this study, we tested Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, as potential tools in the identification of steryl ferulates. On the basis of our spectral data obtained from various individual steryl ferulates and steryl ferulate mixtures extracted from rice (?-oryzanol), corn bran, and wheat bran, we provide comprehensive peak assignment tables for both FTIR and Raman. With the help of FTIR spectroscopy, structural differences between individual steryl ferulates were possible to identify, such as the presence of the cyclopropane ring and additional differences in the side chain of the sterane skeleton. Data obtained with Raman spectroscopy provided us with a control for FTIR peak assignment and also with some additional information on the samples. However, detecting structural differences between steryl ferulates was not possible with this method. We consider that FTIR spectroscopy alone or combined with Raman provides detailed data on the structures of steryl ferulates. Moreover, thorough peak assignment tables presented in this study could prove to be helpful tools when identifying steryl ferulates, especially as a group, in future studies. PMID:23414293

Mandak, Eszter; Zhu, Dan; Godany, Tamas A; Nyström, Laura

2013-03-13

334

Application of Raman spectroscopy to identification and sorting of post-consumer plastics for recycling  

DOEpatents

A high accuracy rapid system for sorting a plurality of waste products by polymer type. The invention involves the application of Raman spectroscopy and complex identification techniques to identify and sort post-consumer plastics for recycling. The invention reads information unique to the molecular structure of the materials to be sorted to identify their chemical compositions and uses rapid high volume sorting techniques to sort them into product streams at commercially viable throughput rates. The system employs a laser diode (20) for irradiating the material sample (10), a spectrograph (50) is used to determine the Raman spectrum of the material sample (10) and a microprocessor based controller (70) is employed to identify the polymer type of the material sample (10).

Sommer, Edward J. (Nashville, TN); Rich, John T. (Lebanon, TN)

2001-01-01

335

Rapid Classification of Ordinary Chondrites Using Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Classification of ordinary chondrites is typically done through measurements of the composition of olivine and pyroxenes. Historically, this measurement has usually been performed via electron microprobe, oil immersion or other methods which can be costly through lost sample material during thin section preparation. Raman microscopy can perform the same measurements but considerably faster and with much less sample preparation allowing for faster classification. Raman spectroscopy can facilitate more rapid classification of large amounts of chondrites such as those retrieved from North Africa and potentially Antarctica, are present in large collections, or are submitted to a curation facility by the public. With development, this approach may provide a completely automated classification method of all chondrite types.

Fries, M.; Welzenbach, L.

2014-01-01

336

Raman spectroscopy as a diagnostic probe for ancient skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the use of Raman microprobe spectroscopy and Raman imaging to study the chemical composition of fresh, unmounted bone at a microscopic level. A specimen of human cortical bone was analyzed and evidence for the presence of amorphous-type calcium phosphate, a theoretical precursor in the bone formation process, was found. In general the amorphous-type calcium phosphate appears away from osteons, in the interstitial tissue. This finding calls into question the role of amorphous-type calcium phosphate as a precursor to apatitic phosphate, since it was not found in the recently remodeled bone near the osteon center, but rather in older bone tissue. Some reasons for the presence of amorphous calcium phosphate are proposed. Possible relations of the amorphous mineral to bone damage and bone remodeling are discussed.

Edwards, Howell G.

1999-04-01

337

hal-00021689,version2-3Feb2007 Improving Raman velocimetry of laser-cooled  

E-print Network

hal-00021689,version2-3Feb2007 Improving Raman velocimetry of laser-cooled cesium atoms by spin the peformances of Raman velocimetry applied to laser-cooled, spin- polarized, cesium atoms. Atoms are optically: Raman velocimetry, spin polarization, laser-cooled atoms PACS: 42.50.Vk, 32.80.Pj, 32.60.+i 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

338

Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with High Spatial Resolution  

SciTech Connect

The identification of individual molecules and the determination of how these interact with their local environment are critical steps toward a better understanding of complex organic systems. Optical detection techniques have always played a key role in the nondestructive and noninvasive analysis of complex materials. Until recently, however, optical microscopy has lacked the sensitivity to study processes on the molecular scale. This has changed with the recent development of new schemes that limit the optical detection volume, and the advent of new, highly quantum-efficient photon detectors. These inventions have enabled researchers to optically probe biomolecular processes at the single molecule level by observing the fluorescence of specific marker molecules. The requirement to specifically label biomolecules and the fact, that fluorescence emission is prone to photodecomposition of the marker molecules, however, have limited this approach to a few, well-characterized case studies. Raman scattering, is one of few optical techniques that can identify atomic species and in addition determine their chemical bonds by observing their distinct vibrational fingerprints; but it is orders of magnitude weaker than fluorescence. In this project, we have developed new optical probes that allow for the non-destructive characterization and identification of organic and inorganic matter at the single molecule level by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Our approach combines confocal Raman microscopy with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) generated by coating scanning probe microscope (SPM) tips with thin (30-40 nm) gold and silver films. The scanning SERS probe generates an image of the physical structure of a sample together with detailed chemical information about its composition. In a complementary approach, we have also used gold or silver nanoparticles to generate SER spectra from single molecules adsorbed to these particles. This project has led to the development of a new capability at LLNL, i.e. the field of optical single molecule detection.

Huser, T R

2003-02-04

339

Dental Enamel Irradiated with Infrared Diode Laser and Photoabsorbing Cream: Part 1—FT-Raman Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: The aim of this FT-Raman study was to investigate laser-induced compositional changes in enamel after therapy with a low-level infrared diode laser and a photoabsorbing cream, in order to intensify the superficial light absorption before and after cariogenic challenge. Background Data: Dental caries remains the most prevalent disease during childhood and adolescence. Preventive modalities include the use of fluoride, reduction of dietary cariogenic refined carbohydrates, plaque removal and oral hygiene techniques, and antimicrobial prescriptions. A relatively simple and noninvasive caries preventive regimen is treating tooth enamel with laser irradiation, either alone or in combination with topical fluoride treatment, resulting in reduced enamel solubility and dissolution rates. Due to their high cost, high-powered lasers are still not widely employed in private practice in developing countries. Thus, low-power red and near-infrared lasers appear to be an appealing alternative. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four extracted or exfoliated caries-free deciduous molars were divided into six groups: control group (no treatment; n?=?8); infrared laser treatment (L; n?=?8) (810?nm at 100?mW/cm2 for 90?sec); infrared diode laser irradiation (810?nm at 100?mW/cm2 for 90?sec) and photoabsorbing cream (IVL; n?=?8); photoabsorbing cream alone (IV; n?=?8); infrared diode laser irradiation (810?nm at 100?mW/cm2 for 90?sec) and fluorinated photoabsorbing agent (IVLF; n?=?8); and fluorinated photoabsorbing agent alone (IVF; n?=?8). Samples were analyzed using FT-Raman spectroscopy before and after pH cycling cariogenic challenge. Results: There was a significant laser-induced reduction and possible modification of the organic matrix content in enamel treated with the low-level diode laser (the L, IVL, and IVFL groups). Conclusion: The FT-Raman technique may be suitable for detecting compositional and structural changes occurring in mineral phases and organic phases of lased enamel under cariogenic challenge. PMID:19415988

Dos Santos, Edson Aparecido Pereira; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Do Espírito Santo, Ana Maria; Martin, Airton Abrahão; Duarte, Danilo Antônio; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina; Brugnera, Aldo

2009-01-01

340

[Application of depth-analysis of confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy to chirography identification].  

PubMed

Depth analysis of confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied to chirography identification. The result indicated that depth analysis has potential application to forensic science field, especially in longitudinal identification of ink and inkpad. No matter what the spatial distributions of the signature pen and inkpad are, confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy can longitudinally distinguish those spatial differences. All those suggested that confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy is a fast, simple, high sensitive and non-destructive technique. PMID:15852817

Lin, Hai-Bo; Xu, Xiao-Xuan; Wang, Bin; Yang, Yan-Yong; Yu, Gang; Zhang, Cun-Zhou; Li, Jie

2005-01-01

341

FT-Raman, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and theoretical investigations of diclofenac sodium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman and surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectroscopies have been applied to the vibrational characterization of diclofenac sodium (DCF-Na). Theoretical calculations (DFT and ab initio) of two DCF-Na conformers have been performed to find the optimized structure and computed vibrational wavenumbers of the most stable one. SER spectra in silver colloid at different pH values have been also recorded and analyzed. Good SER spectra have been obtained in acidic and neutral environments, proving the chemisorption of the DCF-Na molecule on the silver surface. In the investigated pH range the carboxylate anion has been bonded to the silver surface through the lone pair oxygen electrons. The phenyl rings' orientation with respect to the silver surface changed on passing from acidic to neutral pH from a tilted close to flat to a more perpendicular one.

Iliescu, T.; Baia, M.; Kiefer, W.

2004-03-01

342

Application of micro-Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy to defect and thin film characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications of micro-Raman and micro-Photoluminescence spectroscopy to defect and thin film characterization in semiconductor processing and equipment development are presented. The Raman spectrometer is coupled to a confocal laser Defect Review Tool (DRT). This system locates particles as small as 0.2 ?m, both on 200 mm and 300 mm wafers. Raman spectroscopy is fast, non-destructive, can be performed in ambient, and is capable of providing chemical state and structural (phases, stress) information down to sub-micron dimension. Its application is material specific, however, since some materials do not have Raman-active vibrations or sufficient cross-section, or have a probing depth too long (optically transparent) to be useful. In general, chemical state information is obtainable from vibrational fingerprints of covalently bonded compounds (organic, Si-H, Si-Si, etc.), some ceramics (e.g. Zr-O, Al-O etc.), and ionic species (e.g. ammonium salts). Structural information, such as residual stress (e.g. poly-Si) and phase distinction (e.g. amorphous/diamond carbon; high/low residual phases of silicide) can sometimes also be obtained. Specific examples from Applied Materials development programs are presented. These include identification and distinction of carbon particles from different hardware sources generated by NF3 clean; organic defects on Cu after CMP; identification of the compound causing Br based particles after poly-gate etch; and distinction between ceramic based aluminum particles and anodized based aluminum particles. In the area of thin film characterization we have used micro-Raman to characterize residual build-up on hardware (e.g. residue from showerhead used in the W-CVD process chamber), and the process development of coatings and film products (e.g. diamond, poly-Si).

Conti, Giuseppina; Uritsky, Yuri; Brundle, C. R.

2001-01-01

343

Reproducibility of Raman Spectroscopy Measurements for Carbonaceous Material in Metamorphic Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy shows that that carbonaceous material in metamorphic rocks shows a systematic increase in crystallinity with increasing metamorphic grade. Beyssac et al. (2002) reported a calibration curve for the "Raman spectrum of carbonaceous material" (RSCM) thermometer, from 350 to 650 C. Rahl et al. (2005) extended that calibration down to ~100 C. We report here the results of a comparative study using laser microRaman systems at Yale and Washington University to understand the reproducibility of RSCM measurements. We have started a comparative study using Raman systems at Washington and Yale Universities. Reproducible results are possible but several factors can cause problems. (1) We find that the background for the Raman spectra are commonly curved and that a second-order polynomial is needed to fully remove the background. (2) Operator differences in the peak- fitting process may produce a significant bias in results. The peak-fitting process requires the operator to separately fit for peaks in each of the ~10 spectra collected for a sample. These results are then averaged to get a composite result for the sample. We have found it is better to fit peaks to an integrated spectrum obtained from individual spectra of that particular sample. The F test is used to test for the homogeneity of a sample, and hence eliminating anomalous data. This method also allows a direct comparison of results between different labs and operators, as well as spot homogeneity estimates. (3) Laser-induced heating has been shown to distort peaks in the Raman spectra, hence, producing an upward bias in estimated metamorphic temperatures. This problem is most acute when making measurements on very low-grade metamorphic rocks. We use the Raman spectra to measure in-situ temperatures and found that heating effects can be minimized by using thin sections rather than rock chips and by greatly reducing the laser power. Our inter-lab comparison shows that RSCM measurements can be accurately reproduced, if care is given to the problems above.

Wong, E.; Brandon, M.; Pasteris, J.; Wopenka, B.; Dunn, S.; Karabinos, P.

2007-12-01

344

Near-infrared-excited confocal Raman spectroscopy advances in vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is a unique optical technique that can probe the changes of vibrational modes of biomolecules associated with tissue premalignant transformation. This study evaluates the clinical utility of confocal Raman spectroscopy over near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) spectroscopy and composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy for improving early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo at colposcopy. A rapid NIR Raman system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic confocal Raman probe was utilized for in vivo NIR AF/Raman spectral measurements of the cervix. A total of 1240 in vivo Raman spectra [normal (n=993), dysplasia (n=247)] were acquired from 84 cervical patients. Principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) together with a leave-one-patient-out, cross-validation method were used to extract the diagnostic information associated with distinctive spectroscopic modalities. The diagnostic ability of confocal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated using the PCA-LDA model developed from the significant principal components (PCs) [i.e., PC4, 0.0023% PC5, 0.00095% PC8, 0.00022%, (p<0.05)], representing the primary tissue Raman features (e.g., 854, 937, 1095, 1253, 1311, 1445, and 1654 cm-1). Confocal Raman spectroscopy coupled with PCA-LDA modeling yielded the diagnostic accuracy of 84.1% (a sensitivity of 81.0% and a specificity of 87.1%) for in vivo discrimination of dysplastic cervix. The receiver operating characteristic curves further confirmed that the best classification was achieved using confocal Raman spectroscopy compared to the composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy or NIR AF spectroscopy alone. This study illustrates that confocal Raman spectroscopy has great potential to improve early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo during clinical colposcopy.

Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J. H.; Ilancheran, Arunachalam; Huang, Zhiwei

2013-06-01

345

Spectroscopic characterization of biological agents using FTIR, normal Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) requires a minimum of sample allows fast identification of microorganisms. The use of this technique for characterizing the spectroscopic signatures of these agents and their stimulants has recently gained considerable attention due to the fact that these techniques can be easily adapted for standoff detection from considerable distances. The techniques also show high sensitivity and selectivity and offer near real time detection duty cycles. This research focuses in laying the grounds for the spectroscopic differentiation of Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Salmonella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E. coli, together with identification of their subspecies. In order to achieve the proponed objective, protocols to handle, cultivate and analyze the strains have been developed. Spectroscopic similarities and marked differences have been found for Spontaneous or Normal Raman spectra and for SERS using silver nanoparticles have been found. The use of principal component analysis (PCA), discriminate factor analysis (DFA) and a cluster analysis were used to evaluate the efficacy of identifying potential threat bacterial from their spectra collected on single bacteria. The DFA from the bacteria Raman spectra show a little discrimination between the diverse bacterial species however the results obtained from the SERS demonstrate to be high discrimination technique. The spectroscopic study will be extended to examine the spores produced by selected strains since these are more prone to be used as Biological Warfare Agents due to their increased mobility and possibility of airborne transport. Micro infrared spectroscopy as well as fiber coupled FTIR will also be used as possible sensors of target compounds.

Luna-Pineda, Tatiana; Soto-Feliciano, Kristina; De La Cruz-Montoya, Edwin; Pacheco Londoño, Leonardo C.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

2007-04-01

346

Stimulated Raman scattering of intense laser pulses in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stimulated rotational Raman scattering (SRRS) is known to be one of the processes limiting the propagation of high-power laser beams in the atmosphere. In this paper, SRRS, Kerr nonlinearity effects, and group velocity dispersion of short laser pulses and pulse trains are analyzed and simulated. Fully time-dependent, three-dimensional, nonlinear propagation equations describing the Raman interaction, optical Kerr nonlinearity due to bound electrons, and group velocity dispersion are presented and discussed. The effective time-dependent nonlinear refractive index containing both Kerr and Raman processes is derived. Linear stability analysis is used to obtain growth rates and phase matching conditions for the SRRS, modulational, and filamentation instabilities. Numerical solutions of the propagation equations in three dimensions show the detailed evolution of the Raman scattering instability for various pulse formats. The dependence of the growth rate of SRRS on pulse duration is examined and under certain conditions it is shown that short (˜psec) laser pulses are stable to the SRRS instability. The interaction of pulses in a train through the Raman polarization field is also illustrated.

Peñano, J. R.; Sprangle, P.; Serafim, P.; Hafizi, B.; Ting, A.

2003-11-01

347

Rapid chemical agent identification by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, stockpiling, and use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), the use of these agents persists due to their low cost, simplicity in manufacturing and ease of deployment. These attributes make these weapons especially attractive to low technology countries and terrorists. The military and the public at large require portable, fast, sensitive, and accurate analyzers to provide early warning of the use of chemical weapons. Traditional laboratory analyzers such as the combination of gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy, although sensitive and accurate, are large and require up to an hour per analysis. New, chemical specific analyzers, such as immunoassays and molecular recognition sensors, are portable, fast, and sensitive, but are plagued by false-positives (response to interferents). To overcome these limitations, we have been investigating the potential of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to identify and quantify chemical warfare agents in either the gas or liquid phase. The approach is based on the extreme sensitivity of SERS demonstrated by single molecule detection, a new SERS material that we have developed to allow reproducible and reversible measurements, and the molecular specific information provided by Raman spectroscopy. Here we present SER spectra of chemical agent simulants in both the liquid and gas phase, as well as CWA hydrolysis phase.

Lee, Yuan-Hsiang; Farquharson, Stuart

2001-08-01

348

Remote Sensing of Dissolved Oxygen and Nitrogen in Water using Raman Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The health of an estuarine ecosystem is largely driven by the abundance of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen available for maintenance of plant and animal life. An investigation was conducted to quantify the concentration of dissolved molecular oxygen and nitrogen in water by means of Raman spectroscopy. This technique is proposed for the remote sensing of dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay, which will be utilized by aircraft in order to survey large areas in real-time. A proof of principle experiment has demonstrated the ability to remotely detect dissolved oxygen and nitrogen in pure water (also Chesapeake Bay water) using a 355nm Nd:YAG laser and a simple monochromater to detect the shifted Raman oxygen and nitrogen backscattered signals at 376.2 and 387.5 nm respectively. The theoretical basis for the research, components of the experimental system, and key findings are presented. A 1.3-m water cell had an attached vertical column to house a Troll 9500 dissolved oxygen in-situ monitor (In-Situ Inc Troll 9500). The Raman oxygen signal could be calibrated with this devise. While Raman backscattered water signals are low a potential aircraft remote system was designed and will be presented.

De Young, R.; Ganoe, R.

2013-12-01

349

Mineral-microbe interactions in deep-sea hydrothermal systems: a challenge for Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

In deep-sea hydrothermal environments, steep chemical and thermal gradients, rapid and turbulent mixing and biologic processes produce a multitude of diverse mineral phases and foster the growth of a variety of chemosynthetic micro-organisms. Many of these microbial species are associated with specific mineral phases, and the interaction of mineral and microbial processes are of only recently recognized importance in several areas of hydrothermal research. Many submarine hydrothermal mineral phases form during kinetically limited reactions and are either metastable or are only thermodynamically stable under in situ conditions. Laser Raman spectroscopy is well suited to mineral speciation measurements in the deep sea in many ways, and sea-going Raman systems have been built and used to make a variety of in situ measurements. However, the full potential of this technique for hydrothermal science has yet to be realized. In this focused review, we summarize both the need for in situ mineral speciation measurements in hydrothermal research and the development of sea-going Raman systems to date; we describe the rationale for further development of a small, low-cost sea-going Raman system optimized for mineral identification that incorporates a fluorescence-minimizing design; and we present three experimental applications that such a tool would enable. PMID:20529945

Breier, J A; White, S N; German, C R

2010-07-13

350

Raman chirped adiabatic passage probed by X-ray spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We report a theoretical study of the selective vibrational excitation of a HCl molecule achieved by Raman chirped adiabatic passage (RCAP) and probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is demonstrated that HCl can be prepared in any vibrational level up to ? = 9 with nearly complete population inversion. We explore the effects of both the rotation of the molecule and of the temperature on the RCAP process, which is proved to be very robust. Furthermore, we emphasize that XPS spectra at the chlorine K-shell threshold show characteristic signatures of the populated vibrational level, allowing us to follow the RCAP process. PMID:23550700

Engin, Selma; Sisourat, Nicolas; Selles, Patricia; Taïeb, Richard; Carniato, Stéphane

2013-08-29

351

Raman spectroscopy: development of clinical applications for breast cancer diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently breast cancer diagnosis is made clinically through triple assessment: annual clinical breast examination, x-ray mammography or breast ultrasound imaging, and biopsy. The majority of women with suspicious breast lesions undergo either stereotactic (needle) or surgical (excisional) biopsy. Due to a high incidence of "false positives" at clinical breast diagnosis and "false negatives" at surgery, a large number of women undergo unnecessary and costly breast surgery. We describe our program of development of techniques and instrumentation for clinical application of NIR Raman spectroscopy for improved breast cancer diagnosis.

Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Haka, Abigail A.; Volynskaya, Zoya; Motz, Jason T.; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Nazemi, Jon; Wang, Nancy; Klein, Nina; Shenk, Robert; Woletz, Joan; Hicks, David; Crowe, Joseph P.; Dasari, Ramachnadra R.; Feld, Michael S.

2005-08-01

352

All-fiber ring similariton laser with Raman gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of self-similarity has been predicted theoretically and observed experimentally in an optical fiber amplifier. Recently, self-similar propagation in laser oscillators with normal GVD has also been observed. We report here a new all-fiber ring similariton laser scheme with Raman amplification designed with the aid of a full theoretical model of its operation. The output similariton pulses of the

D. Mechin; V. Kruglov; J. Harvey

2009-01-01

353

Laser ablation of paper: Raman identification of products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Old paper samples are bleached using pulsed laser radiation with a wavelength of 532 nm. The ablation products of five paper samples that differ by composition and production dates are studied using Raman microspectroscopy. Cellulose, protein, calcite, titanium dioxide (anatase, rutile, and brookite), quartz, lazurite, bonattite, and dolomite are identified as ablation products.

Balakhnina, Irina; Brandt, Nikolay; Chikishev, Andrey; Rebrikova, Natalia; Yurchuk, Yuliya

2014-11-01

354

Raman Laser Spectrometer Development for ExoMars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Raman Laser Spectrometer is one of the Pasteur Payload instruments, within the ESA's ExoMars mission. The aim of the work presented here is to provide a summary of the instrument design and performances. For that the instrument current characteristics and performances, and its technological ass assessment program main results are presented and discussed.

Pérez, C.; Colombo, M.; Díaz, C.; Santamaría, P.; Ingley, R.; Parrot, Y.; Maurice, S.; Popp, J.; Tarcea, N.; Edwards, H. G. M.

2013-09-01

355

New Type of Cavity for a Raman Free Electron Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new type of cavity, a distributed feedback cavity from periodically rippled walls is developed. The Raman free electron laser (400 KeV/800 A) with the new cavity is studied. The spectral measurements using a microwave grating spectrometer are presented....

M. C. Wang, Z. Lu L. Zhang, B. Lu H. Zhou, C. Feng, Z. Wang

1994-01-01

356

Studies of Stimulated Raman Scattering in Laser Plasma Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled theoretical and computational work is presented aimed at understanding and modeling stimulated Raman backscattering (SRBS) relevant to laser-plasma interactions (LPIs) in large-scale,nearly homogeneous plasmas. We address the following five observed,nonlinear phenomena associated with SRBS: coupling of SRBS to Langmuir decay interactions (LDIs); cascading of LDI; SRS cascades; and stimulated electron acoustic wave scattering (SEAS).

A. Salcedo; R. J. Focia; A. K. Ram; A. Bers

357

A versatile interaction chamber for laser-based spectroscopic applications, with the emphasis on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical note describes the interaction chamber developed particularly for the laser spectroscopy technique applications, such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Raman Spectroscopy and Laser-Induced Fluorescence. The chamber was designed in order to provide advanced possibilities for the research in mentioned fields and to facilitate routine research procedures. Parameters and the main benefits of the chamber are described, such as the built-in module for automatic 2D chemical mapping and the possibility to set different ambient gas conditions (pressure value and gas type). Together with the chamber description, selected LIBS application examples benefiting from chamber properties are described.

Novotný, J.; Brada, M.; Petrilak, M.; Prochazka, D.; Novotný, K.; Hrdi?ka, A.; Kaiser, J.

2014-11-01

358

Low-Resolution Raman-Spectroscopy Combustion Thermometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of optical thermometry, now undergoing development, involves low-resolution measurement of the spectrum of spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) from N2 and O2 molecules. The method is especially suitable for measuring temperatures in high pressure combustion environments that contain N2, O2, or N2/O2 mixtures (including air). Methods based on SRS (in which scattered light is shifted in wavelength by amounts that depend on vibrational and rotational energy levels of laser-illuminated molecules) have been popular means of probing flames because they are almost the only methods that provide spatially and temporally resolved concentrations and temperatures of multiple molecular species in turbulent combustion. The present SRS-based method differs from prior SRS-based methods that have various drawbacks, a description of which would exceed the scope of this article. Two main differences between this and prior SRS-based methods are that it involves analysis in the frequency (equivalently, wavelength) domain, in contradistinction to analysis in the intensity domain in prior methods; and it involves low-resolution measurement of what amounts to predominantly the rotational Raman spectra of N2 and O2, in contradistinction to higher-resolution measurement of the vibrational Raman spectrum of N2 only in prior methods.

Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Kojima, Jun

2008-01-01

359

In situ solution-phase Raman spectroscopy under forced convection.  

PubMed

In situ Raman spectra of solution-phase electrogenerated species have been recorded in a channel-type electrochemical cell incorporating a flat optically transparent window placed parallel to the channel plane that contains the embedded working electrode. A microscope objective with its main axis (Z) aligned normal to the direction of flow was used to focus the excitation laser beam (lambda exc = 532 nm) in the solution and also to collect the Raman scattered light from species present therein. Judicious adjustment of the cell position along Z allowed the depth of focus to overlap the diffusion boundary layer to achieve maximum detection sensitivity. Measurements were performed using a Au working electrode in iron hexacyanoferrate(II), [Fe(CN)6]4-, and nitrite, NO2-, containing aqueous solutions as a function of the applied potential, E. Linear correlations were found between both the gain and the loss of the integrated Raman intensity, IR, of bands, attributed to [Fe(CN)6]3- and [Fe(CN)6]4-, respectively, recorded downstream from the edge of the working electrode, and the current measured at the Au electrode as a function of E. The same overall trend was found for the gain in the IR of the NO3- band in the nitrite solution. Also included in this work is a ray trace analysis of the optical system. PMID:17914889

Zhu, Huanfeng; Wu, Jun; Shi, Qingfang; Wang, Zhenghao; Scherson, Daniel A

2007-11-01

360

Achieving molecular selectivity in imaging using multiphoton Raman spectroscopy techniques  

SciTech Connect

In the case of most imaging methods, contrast is generated either by physical properties of the sample (Differential Image Contrast, Phase Contrast), or by fluorescent labels that are localized to a particular protein or organelle. Standard Raman and infrared methods for obtaining images are based upon the intrinsic vibrational properties of molecules, and thus obviate the need for attached flurophores. Unfortunately, they have significant limitations for live-cell imaging. However, an active Raman method, called Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS), is well suited for microscopy, and provides a new means for imaging specific molecules. Vibrational imaging techniques, such as CARS, avoid problems associated with photobleaching and photo-induced toxicity often associated with the use of fluorescent labels with live cells. Because the laser configuration needed to implement CARS technology is similar to that used in other multiphoton microscopy methods, such as two -photon fluorescence and harmonic generation, it is possible to combine imaging modalities, thus generating simultaneous CARS and fluorescence images. A particularly powerful aspect of CARS microscopy is its ability to selectively image deuterated compounds, thus allowing the visualization of molecules, such as lipids, that are chemically indistinguishable from the native species.

Holtom, Gary R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thrall, Brian D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Chin, Beek Yoke (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wiley, H Steven (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Colson, Steven D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-12-01

361

In vivo Raman spectroscopy for oral cancers diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is sixth among the major malignancies worldwide. Tobacco habits are known as major causative factor in tumor carcinogenesis in oral cancer. Optical spectroscopy methods, including Raman, are being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant and malignant oral ex-vivo tissues. In the present study we have recorded in vivo spectra from contralateral normal and diseased sites of 50 subjects with pathologically confirmed lesions of buccal mucosa using fiber-optic-probe-coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Spectra were recorded on similar points as per teeth positions with an average acquisition time of 8 seconds. A total of 215 and 225 spectra from normal and tumor sites, respectively, were recorded. Finger print region (1200-1800 cm-1) was utilized for classification using LDA. Standard-model was developed using 125 normal and 139 tumor spectra from 27 subjects. Two separate clusters with an efficiency of ~95% were obtained. Cross-validation with leave-one-out yielded ~90% efficiency. Remaining 90 normal and 86 tumor spectra were used as test data and predication efficiency of model was evaluated. Findings of the study indicate that Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool can be used for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis.

Singh, S. P.; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

2012-01-01

362

Surface-Sensitive Raman Spectroscopy of Collagen I Fibrils  

PubMed Central

Collagen fibrils are the main constituent of the extracellular matrix surrounding eukaryotic cells. Although the assembly and structure of collagen fibrils is well characterized, very little appears to be known about one of the key determinants of their biological function—namely, the physico-chemical properties of their surface. One way to obtain surface-sensitive structural and chemical data is to take advantage of the near-field nature of surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Using Ag and Au nanoparticles bound to Collagen type-I fibrils, as well as tips coated with a thin layer of Ag, we obtained Raman spectra characteristic to the first layer of collagen molecules at the surface of the fibrils. The most frequent Raman peaks were attributed to aromatic residues such as phenylalanine and tyrosine. In several instances, we also observed Amide I bands with a full width at half-maximum of 10–30 cm?1. The assignment of these Amide I band positions suggests the presence of 310-helices as well as ?- and ?-sheets at the fibril's surface. PMID:21463598

Gullekson, Corinne; Lucas, Leanne; Hewitt, Kevin; Kreplak, Laurent

2011-01-01

363

Tackling field-portable Raman spectroscopy of real world samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major challenge confronting first responders, customs authorities and other security-related organisations is the accurate, rapid, and safe identification of potentially hazardous chemicals outside a laboratory environment. Currently, a range of hand portable Raman equipment is commercially available that is low cost and increasingly more sophisticated. These systems are generally based on the 785nm Stokes shifted Raman technique with many using dispersive grating spectrometers. This technique offers a broad range of capabilities including the ability to analyse illicit drugs, explosives, chemical weapons and pre-cursors but still has some fundamental constraints. 'Real world' samples, such as those found at a crime scene, will often not be presented in the most accessible manner. Simple issues such as glass fluorescence can make an otherwise tractable sample impossible to analyse in-situ. A new generation of portable Raman equipment is currently being developed to address these issues. Consideration is given to the use of longer wavelength for fluorescence reduction. Alternative optical designs are being tested to compensate for the signal reduction incurred by moving to longer wavelengths. Furthermore, the use of anti-Stokes spectroscopy is being considered as well as investigating the robustness and portability of traditional Fourier Transform interferometer designs along with future advances in detector technology and ultra small spectrometers.

Shand, Neil C.

2008-10-01

364

Ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy characterizes chemical vapor deposition diamotmd film growth and oxidation  

E-print Network

for publication 6 February 1995) The Raman spectra of diamond and chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) diamond films of fluorescence in the UV-excited Raman spectrum of diamond and CVD diamond films allows Raman spectroscopy to monitor the carbon-hydrogen (C-H) stretching vibrations of the nondiamond components of the CVD film

Asher, Sanford A.

365

Nondestructive Depth Profiling of Polymer Thin Films Using Variable Angle Internal Reflection Raman Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed variable angle internal reflection Raman spectroscopy (VAIRRS) into a practical tool for the nondestructive depth profiling of molecular concentrations, molecular orientations, and bond polarizabilities in thin polymer films. The technique relies on the analysis of Raman spectra obtained during precise control of the electromagnetic field distribution. The approach is closely related to Raman scattering by means of

T. E. Furtak; N. H. Fontaine

1996-01-01

366

Adiabatic Tip-Plasmon Focusing for Nano-Raman Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

True nanoscale optical spectroscopy requires the efficient delivery of light for a spatially nanoconfined excitation. We utilize adiabatic plasmon focusing to concentrate an optical field into the apex of a scanning probe tip of {approx}10 nm in radius. The conical tips with the ability for two-stage optical mode matching of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) grating-coupling and the adiabatic propagating SPP conversion into a localized SPP at the tip apex represent a special optical antenna concept for far-field transduction into nanoscale excitation. The resulting high nanofocusing efficiency and the spatial separation of the plasmonic grating coupling element on the tip shaft from the near-field apex probe region allows for true background-free nanospectroscopy. As an application, we demonstrate tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) of surface molecules with enhanced contrast and its extension into the near-IR with 800 nm excitation.

Berweger, Samuel; Atkin, Joanna M.; Olmon, Robert L.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

2010-12-16

367

Probing non-adiabatic conical intersections using absorption, spontaneous Raman, and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We present the time-frame calculated photoabsorption spectrum (ABS), spontaneous Raman excitation profile (REP), femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) spectrum, and femtosecond stimulated Raman excitation profile (FSREP) results of a two-mode and three-mode, three-electronic-states model Hamiltonians containing conical intersections (CIs) along its two upper diabatic electronic states, e1 (dark) and e2 (bright), with and without coupling (nonadiabatic dynamics) along an asymmetric mode. For every electronic state in each model, there is one coupling mode and the rest of the modes are symmetric tuning modes. The CI appears in the Hamiltonian as off-diagonal entries to the potential term that couple the two upper states, in the form of a linear function of the coupling mode. We show that: (a) the ABS, REP, and FSREP for Stokes and anti-Stokes lines contain similar information about the e1 and e2 vibrational bands, (b) the FSRS spectra feature narrow stationary peaks and broader moving peaks contributed by the different resonant components of the third-order polarization terms from perturbation theory, and (c) a relatively strong and narrow stationary band of the allowed first overtone of the asymmetric coupling mode is observed in the Stokes FSREP in the e1 energy region with coupling to e2. PMID:24359346

Patuwo, Michael Y; Lee, Soo-Y

2013-12-21

368

Raman spectroscopy of pristine, defected and strained graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is the most common and informative characterization technique in graphene science and technology. It is used to determine the number of layers, doping, strain, defects, functional groups, quality and type of edges [1-15]. I will discuss the historical development of the identification of the main Raman bands in graphene, focussing on the 2D" peak around 2450cm-1, and its deep-UV Raman spectrum. I will then discuss the effects of defects, uniaxial and biaxial strain on the Raman spectrum. Combining strain and Raman measurements one can derive the constitutive relation for graphene, and gain insights in the resonant Raman process. The results on graphene are the basis to explain and unify analogous measurements on graphite, carbon fibres and carbon nanotubes reported over the past 30 years. [4pt] [1] A. C. Ferrari et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).[0pt] [2] C. Casiraghi et al. Nano. Lett. 7, 2711 (2007).[0pt] [3] C. Casiraghi et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 233108 (2007).[0pt] [4] S. Pisana et al. Nat. Mater. 6, 198 (2007).[0pt] [5] S. Piscanec et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 185503 (2004).[0pt] [6] C. Casiraghi, et al. Nano Lett. 9, 1433 (2009).[0pt] [7] A. C. Ferrari, Solid State Comm. 143, 47 (2007).[0pt] [8] A. Das et al. Nature Nano. 3, 210 (2008).[0pt] [9] A. Das et al. Phys. Rev. B 79, 155417 (2009).[0pt] [10] T. M. G. Mohiuddin et al. Phys. Rev. B 79, 205433 (2009).[0pt] [11] J. Yan et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 166802 (2007).[0pt] [12] D Graf et al. Nano Lett. 7, 238 (2007).[0pt] [13] A. C Ferrari et al. Phys. Rev. B 61, 14095 (2000); 64, 075414 (2001).[0pt] [14] D. M. Basko et al. Phys Rev B 80, 165413 (2009).[0pt] [15] F. Schedin et al. ACS Nano 4, 5617 (2010)

Ferrari, Andrea

2011-03-01

369

[The investigation of humic acid by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy].  

PubMed

Humic acid (HA), which are organic compounds widely existing in the oceans, rivers and soil, has important significance for the environmental monitoring of soil and water. In this paper, ai ming at the problem of Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) applying for HA detection in water, the characteristics of the humic acid on silver colloids was studied by means of SERS. The influence of laser irradiation time, HA concentrations and pH value on the surface-enhanced effects of HA were investigated. The experimental results show that the SERS spectra of HA is ideal when the laser irradiation time between 20-30 min. The SERS of different HA concentrations was detected. It was found that the relative intensity at 1 379 cm(-1) increased as a linear function of the concentration of HA with correlation coefficient R2 of 0.993. The SERS of HA was found to be very sensitive to pH, the SERS spectra of HA was very weak at neutral pH, but at acidic pH and alkaline pH a remarkable increase of SERS intensity occurred. The SERS of HA in running water was detected too. The experimental results show that it is feasible to detect HA in natural water by means of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. PMID:23905329

Zhang, Wen-Juan; Li, Ying; Guo, Jin-Jia; Xiao, Qiong; Yu, Li

2013-05-01

370

Machine learning methods for quantitative analysis of Raman spectroscopy data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automated identification and quantification of illicit materials using Raman spectroscopy is of significant importance for law enforcement agencies. This paper explores the use of Machine Learning (ML) methods in comparison with standard statistical regression techniques for developing automated identification methods. In this work, the ML task is broken into two sub-tasks, data reduction and prediction. In well-conditioned data, the number of samples should be much larger than the number of attributes per sample, to limit the degrees of freedom in predictive models. In this spectroscopy data, the opposite is normally true. Predictive models based on such data have a high number of degrees of freedom, which increases the risk of models over-fitting to the sample data and having poor predictive power. In the work described here, an approach to data reduction based on Genetic Algorithms is described. For the prediction sub-task, the objective is to estimate the concentration of a component in a mixture, based on its Raman spectrum and the known concentrations of previously seen mixtures. Here, Neural Networks and k-Nearest Neighbours are used for prediction. Preliminary results are presented for the problem of estimating the concentration of cocaine in solid mixtures, and compared with previously published results in which statistical analysis of the same dataset was performed. Finally, this paper demonstrates how more accurate results may be achieved by using an ensemble of prediction techniques.

Madden, Michael G.; Ryder, Alan G.

2003-03-01

371

Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of solid particles.  

PubMed

The heterogeneous interactions of gas molecules on solid particles are crucial in many areas of science, engineering and technology. Such interactions play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and in heterogeneous catalysis, a key technology in the energy and chemical industries. Investigating heterogeneous interactions upon single levitated particles can provide significant insight into these important processes. Various methodologies exist for levitating micron sized particles including: optical, electrical and acoustic techniques. Prior to this study, the optical levitation of solid micron scale particles has proved difficult to achieve over timescales relevant to the above applications. In this work, a new vertically configured counter propagating dual beam optical trap was optimized to levitate a range of solid particles in air. Silica (SiO2), ?-alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2) and polystyrene were stably trapped with a high trapping efficiency (Q = 0.42). The longest stable trapping experiment was conducted continuously for 24 hours, and there are no obvious constraints on trapping time beyond this period. Therefore, the methodology described in this paper should be of major benefit to various research communities. The strength of the new technique is demonstrated by the simultaneous levitation and spectroscopic interrogation of silica particles by Raman spectroscopy. In particular, the adsorption of water upon silica was investigated under controlled relative humidity environments. Furthermore, the collision and coagulation behaviour of silica particles with microdroplets of sulphuric acid was followed using both optical imaging and Raman spectroscopy. PMID:24803083

Rkiouak, L; Tang, M J; Camp, J C J; McGregor, J; Watson, I M; Cox, R A; Kalberer, M; Ward, A D; Pope, F D

2014-06-21

372

A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving optical gain and\\/or lasing in silicon has been one of the most challenging goals in silicon-based photonics because bulk silicon is an indirect bandgap semiconductor and therefore has a very low light emission efficiency. Recently, stimulated Raman scattering has been used to demonstrate light amplification and lasing in silicon. However, because of the nonlinear optical loss associated with two-photon

Haisheng Rong; Richard Jones; Ansheng Liu; Oded Cohen; Dani Hak; Alexander Fang; Mario Paniccia

2005-01-01

373

Multi-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy based on modified multi-energy constrained iterative deconvolution algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is fast and nondestructive, and it is widely used in chemistry, biomedicine, food safety and other areas. However, Raman spectroscopy is often hampered by strong fluorescence background, especially in food additives detection and biomedicine researching. In this paper, one efficient technique was the multi-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (MERDS) which incorporated a series of small wavelength-shift wavelengths as excitation sources. A modified multi-energy constrained iterative deconvolution (MMECID) algorithm was proposed to reconstruct the Raman Spectroscopy. Computer simulation and experiments both demonstrated that the Raman spectrum can be well reconstructed from large fluorescence background. The more excitation sources used, the better signal to noise ratio got. However, many excitation sources were equipped on the Raman spectrometer, which increased the complexity of the experimental system. Thus, a trade-off should be made between the number of excitation frequencies and experimental complexity.

Zou, Wenlong; Cai, Zhijian; Zhou, Hongwu; Wu, Jianhong

2013-12-01

374

Photonic crystals with SiO2Ag ``post-cap'' nanostructure coatings for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that the resonant near fields of a large-area replica molded photonic crystal (PC) slab can efficiently couple light from a laser to SiO2-Ag ``post-cap'' nanostructures deposited on the PC surface by a glancing angle evaporation technique for achieving high surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) enhancement factor. To examine the feasibility of the PC-SERS substrate, the simulated electric field

Seok-Min Kim; Wei Zhang; Brian T. Cunningham

2008-01-01

375

High-Speed Linear Raman Spectroscopy for Instability Analysis of a Bluff Body Flame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report a high-speed laser diagnostics technique based on point-wise linear Raman spectroscopy for measuring the frequency content of a CH4-air premixed flame stabilized behind a circular bluff body. The technique, which primarily employs a Nd:YLF pulsed laser and a fast image-intensified CCD camera, successfully measures the time evolution of scalar parameters (N2, O2, CH4, and H2O) in the vortex-induced flame instability at a data rate of 1 kHz. Oscillation of the V-shaped flame front is quantified through frequency analysis of the combustion species data and their correlations. This technique promises to be a useful diagnostics tool for combustion instability studies.

Kojima, Jun; Fischer, David

2013-01-01

376

Detection of bacterial endospores by means of ultrafast coherent Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is devoted to formulation and development of a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid detection of biohazards, such as Bacillus anthracis spores. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used as an underlying process for active retrieval of species-specific characteristics of an analyte. Vibrational modes of constituent molecules are Raman-excited by a pair of ultrashort, femtosecond laser pulses, and then probed through inelastic scattering of a third, time-delayed laser field. We first employ the already known time-resolved CARS technique. We apply it to the spectroscopy of easy-to-handle methanol-water mixtures, and then continue building our expertise on solutions of dipicolinic acid (DPA) and its salts, which happen to be marker molecules for bacterial spores. Various acquisition schemes are evaluated, and the preference is given to multi-channel frequency-resolved detection, when the whole CARS spectrum is recorded as a function of the probe pulse delay. We demonstrate a simple detection algorithm that manages to differentiate DPA solution from common interferents. We investigate experimentally the advantages and disadvantages of near-resonant probing of the excited molecular coherence, and finally observe the indicative backscattered CARS signal from DPA and NaDPA powders. The possibility of selective Raman excitation via pulse shaping of the preparation pulses is also demonstrated. The analysis of time-resolved CARS experiments on powders and B. subtilis spores, a harmless surrogate for B. anthracis, facilitates the formulation of a new approach, where we take full advantage of the multi-channel frequency-resolved acquisition and spectrally discriminate the Raman-resonant CARS signal from the background due to other instantaneous four-wave mixing (FWM) processes. Using narrowband probing, we decrease the magnitude of the nonresonant FWM, which is further suppressed by the timing of the laser pulses. The devised technique, referred to as hybrid CARS, leads to a single-shot detection of as few as 104 bacterial spores, bringing CARS spectroscopy to the forefront of potential candidates for real-time biohazard detection. It also gives promise to many other applications of CARS, hindered so far by the presence of the overwhelming nonresonant FWM background, mentioned above.

Pestov, Dmitry Sergeyevich

377

An amplified femtosecond laser system for material micro-/nanostructuring with an integrated Raman microscope.  

PubMed

In order to obtain new insights into laser-induced chemical material modifications, we introduce a novel combined approach of femtosecond pulsed laser-direct writing and in situ Raman microscopy within a single experimental apparatus. A newly developed scanning microscope, the first of its kind, provides a powerful tool for micro-/nanomachining and characterization of material properties and allows us to relate materials' functionality with composition. We address the issues of light delivery to the photomodification site and show the versatility of the system using tight focusing. Amplified femtosecond pulses are generated by a Ti:sapphire laser oscillator and a chirped-pulse regenerative amplifier, both pumped by a diode-pumped frequency doubled neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO(4)) laser operating at 532 nm. Results of Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy images of femtosecond laser micro-/nanomachining on the surface and in the bulk of single-crystal diamond obtained from first trials of this instrument are also presented. This effective combination could help to shed light on the influence of the local structure fluctuations on controllability of the laser processing and the role of the irradiation in the ablation processes ruling out possible imprecisions coming from the use of the two independent techniques. PMID:20515154

Zalloum, Othman H Y; Parrish, Matthew; Terekhov, Alexander; Hofmeister, William

2010-05-01

378

TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF FULLERENE AND CARBORANE NANOCAR WHEELS  

E-print Network

TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF FULLERENE AND CARBORANE NANOCAR WHEELS B. Shih1,2 , C investigate the effects of temperature between 10o C and 70o C on fullerene and carborane nanocar wheels-Dependent Raman Spectroscopy of Fullerene Nanocar Wheels Acknowledgement This material is based upon work

Mellor-Crummey, John

379

ForPeerReview Surface Enhanced Raman spectroscopy of tiopronin [N-(2-  

E-print Network

] using colloidal gold and roughened copper/gold coated substrates. Journal: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy) glycine, Colloidal gold, roughened copper/gold substrates John Wiley & Sons Journal of Raman Spectroscopy] using colloidal gold and roughened copper/gold coated substrates J. St. Aubin and K. C. Hewitt

Hewitt, Kevin

380

Raman and FTIR spectroscopy of natural oxalates: Implications for the evidence of life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for the existence of primitive life forms such as lichens and fungi can be based upon the formation of oxalates.\\u000a Oxalates are most readily detected using Raman spectroscopy. A comparative study of a suite of natural oxalates including\\u000a weddellite, whewellite, moolooite, humboldtine, glushinskite, natroxalate and oxammite has been undertaken using Raman spectroscopy.\\u000a The minerals are characterised by the Raman

R. L. Frost; Jing Yang; Zhe Ding

2003-01-01

381

Raman spectroscopy and the search for life signatures in the ExoMars Mission*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The survival strategies of extremophilic organisms in terrestrially stressed locations and habitats are critically dependent on the production of protective chemicals in response to desiccation, low wavelength radiation insolation, temperature and the availability of nutrients. The adaptation of life to these harsh prevailing conditions involves the control of the substratal geology; the interaction between the rock and the organisms is critical and the biological modification of the geological matrix plays a very significant role in the overall survival strategy. Identification of these biological and biogeological chemical molecular signatures in the geological record is necessary for the recognition of the presence of extinct or extant life in terrestrial and extraterrestrial scenarios. Raman spectroscopic techniques have been identified as valuable instrumentation for the detection of life extra-terrestrially because of the use of non-invasive laser-based excitation of organic and inorganic molecules, and molecular ions with high discrimination characteristics; the interactions effected between biological organisms and their environments are detectable through the molecular entities produced at the interfaces, for which the vibrational spectroscopic band signatures are unique. A very important attribute of Raman spectroscopy is the acquisition of molecular experimental data non-destructively without the need for chemical or mechanical pre-treatment of the specimen; this has been a major factor in the proposal for the adoption of Raman instrumentation on robotic landers and rovers for planetary exploration, particularly for the forthcoming European Space Agency (ESA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ExoMars mission. In this paper, the merits of using Raman spectroscopy for the recognition of key molecular biosignatures from several terrestrial extremophile specimens will be illustrated. The data and specimens used in this presentation have been acquired from Arctic and Antarctic cold deserts and a meteorite crater, from which it will be possible to assess spectral data relevant for the detection of extra-terrestrial extremophilic life signatures.

Edwards, Howell G. M.; Hutchinson, Ian B.; Ingley, Richard

2012-10-01

382

Raman spectroscopic differentiation of beef and horse meat using a 671 nm microsystem diode laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-invasive Raman spectroscopic approach for meat species identification and quality detection was successfully demonstrated for the two closely related species beef and horse. Fresh beef and horse muscles were cut and ice-stored at 5 °C, and time-dependent Raman measurements were performed daily up to 12 days postmortem. Applying a 671 nm microsystem diode laser and a laser power of 50 mW, spectra were recorded with integration times of 1-4 s. A pronounced offset of the Raman spectra was observed between horse and beef, with high fluorescence background for horse compared to beef for all days of storage. Principal components analysis was applied for data evaluation revealing a clear distinction between beef and horse meat which can be attributed to differences in the myoglobin content of both species. Furthermore, separations according to aging and spoilage for the two species could be identified simultaneously. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy might be an efficient test method for meat species identification in combination with spoilage detection.

Ebrahim, Halah Al; Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

2013-11-01

383

Identification of anisodamine tablets by Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics.  

PubMed

Vibrational spectroscopy including Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has become an attractive tool for pharmaceutical analysis. In this study, effective calibration models for the identification of anisodamine tablet and its counterfeit and the distinguishment of manufacturing plants, based on Raman and NIR spectroscopy, were built, respectively. Anisodamine counterfeit tablets were identified by Raman spectroscopy with correlation coefficient method, and the results showed that the predictive accuracy was 100%. The genuine anisodamine tablets from 5 different manufacturing plants were distinguished by NIR spectroscopy using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models based on interval principal component analysis (iPCA) method. And the results showed the recognition rate and rejection rate were 100% respectively. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy and NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics are feasible and potential tools for rapid pharmaceutical tablet discrimination. PMID:24632161

Li, Lian; Zang, Hengchang; Li, Jun; Chen, Dejun; Li, Tao; Wang, Fengshan

2014-06-01

384

Regime for a Self-ionizing Raman Laser Amplifier  

SciTech Connect

Backward Raman amplification and compression at high power might occur if a long pumping laser pulse is passed through a plasma to interact resonantly with a counter-propagating short seed pulse [V.M. Malkin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 4448-4451]. One critical issue, however, is that the pump may be unacceptably depleted due to spontaneous Raman backscatter from intrinsic fluctuations in the amplifying plasma medium prior to its useful interaction with the seed. Premature backscatter may be avoided, however, by employing a gaseous medium with pump intensities too low to ionize the medium, and using the intense seed to produce the plasma by rapid photoionization as it is being amplified [V.M. Malkin, et al., Phys. Plasmas (2001)]. In addition to allowing that only rather low power pumps be used, photoionization introduces a damping of the short pulse which must be overcome by the Raman growth rate for net amplification to occur. The parameter space of gas densities, laser wavelengths, and laser intensities is surveyed to identify favorable regimes for this effect. Output laser intensities of 10(superscript ''17'') W/cm(superscript ''2'') for 0.5 mm radiation are found to be feasible for such a scheme using a pump of 10(superscript ''13'') W/cm(superscript ''2'') and an initial seed of 5 x 10(superscript ''14'') W/cm(superscript ''2'') over an amplification length of 5.6 cm in hydrogen gas.

D.S. Clark; N.J. Fisch

2001-10-04

385

A surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy study of aminothiophenol and aminothiophenol-C60 self-assembled monolayers: Evolution of Raman modes with experimental parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

P-aminothiophenol (PATP) is a well-known molecule for the preparation of self-assembled monolayers on gold via its thiol functional group. After adsorption, it has been demonstrated that this molecule is anchored to gold through its thiol group, and standing nearly upright at the surface with the amino functional group on top. This molecule has been extensively studied by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy but its exact SERS spectrum remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that it can be strongly affected by at least two experimental parameters: laser power and layer density. Those features are discussed in terms of a dimerization of the PATP molecules. The free amino group affords the adsorption of other molecules such as C60. In this case, a complex multilayer system is formed and the question of its precise characterisation remains a key point. In this article, we demonstrate that surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with x ray photoelectron spectroscopy can bring very important information about the organization of such a self-assembled multilayer on gold. In our study, the strong evolution of Raman modes after C60 adsorption suggests a change in the organization of aminothiophenol molecules during C60 adsorption. These changes, also observed when the aminothiophenol layer is annealed in toluene, do not prevent the adsorption of C60 molecules.

Delafosse, G.; Merlen, A.; Clair, S.; Patrone, L.

2012-05-01

386

Raman spectroscopy for in situ- evaluation of high-grade malignant gliomas induced in SCID mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each year, more people at younger ages are diagnosed with primary brain tumors. Current histological discrimination between normal and diseased tissue occurs after tissue excision. A reliable optical biopsy for open craniotomy would optimize the amount and types of tissue removal by making an accurate evaluation before excision. The presented work is part of a study investigating the clinical diagnostic potential of Raman spectroscopy for gliomas. It has been shown that the optical properties of in vitro tissue are strongly dependent upon sample preparation. The investigation of the effects of time latency, paraformalin tissue fixation, and tissue perfusion with carbogen-bubbled cortical transport solution on their respective Raman spectra of brain tissue and tumors will be discussed, as well as their implications on the study of neurological tissue. The studies are conducted with in situ tissue samples from scid mice and 785 nm pulsed alexandrite laser excitation. Results illustrating positive qualitative and quantitative variations between Raman spectra of normal and malignant brain tissue will be presented.

Clary, Candace E.; Dergachev, Alex Y.; Mirov, Sergey B.; Gillespie, G. Yancey

1997-05-01

387

Oral pathology diagnosis by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy on biopsies and blood serum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic, autoimmune, blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes with a potentially fatal outcome. In this case micro-Raman spectroscopy (?-RS) can provide a powerful tool for a not invasive analysis of biological tissue for biopsy and in vivo investigation. Based on the evaluation of molecular vibration frequencies, the ?-RS is able to detect the main molecular bonds of protein constituents, as the C-H and C-C ones. Changes in frequency or in the relative intensity of the vibration modes revealed by ?-RS can be related to changes of chemical bond and of protein structure induced by pathology. Quantitative information on the intensity variation of specific Raman lines can be extracted by Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis. ?-RS was performed on some samples of oral tissue and blood serum from informed patients affected by pemphigus vulgaris (an oral pathology) at different pathology stages. The spectra were measured by means of a Raman confocal microspectrometer apparatus using the 633 nm line of a He- Ne laser source. The main protein bonds are clearly detectable in the considered samples giving important information on the integrity and on the state of tissue and blood serum components (lipids and proteins), and consequently on the occurrence of pathology.

Zenone, F.; Lepore, M.; Perna, G.; Carmone, P.; Delfino, I.; Gaeta, G. M.; Capozzi, V.

2007-02-01

388

Excited-state Raman spectroscopy with and without actinic excitation: S1 Raman spectra of trans-azobenzene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy can record excited-state spectra in the absence of actinic excitation, if the Raman pump is in resonance with an electronic transition. The approach is illustrated by recording S1 and S0 spectra of trans-azobenzene in n-hexane. The S1 spectra were also measured conventionally, upon n?* (S0 ? S1) actinic excitation. The results are discussed and compared to earlier reports.

Dobryakov, A. L.; Quick, M.; Ioffe, I. N.; Granovsky, A. A.; Ernsting, N. P.; Kovalenko, S. A.

2014-05-01

389

Raman spectroscopy of plutonium dioxide and related materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence to support the Raman assignments of the 1LO (578 cm-1) and 2LO (1158 cm-1) lattice vibrations for PuO2 material is presented. The T2g signal is established at 476 ± 2 cm-1 in agreement with literature values. An increase of the 1LO band and an increase of the unit cell lattice parameter with ageing in our samples are found not to be a consequence of PuO2+x formation but rather a result of simple lattice defects due to radiation damage. The Raman spectrum of AnO2(OH)2?xH2O (An = Np, Pu) and laser induced decomposition products suggest that the transition to AnO2 involves Np2O5 for neptunium but no such analogue could be detected for Pu. The presence of a band around 1150 ± 10 cm-1 for a range of MO2 fluorite structures (CeO2, ThO2, UO2, NpO2 and PuO2) suggests that this band is not derived from crystal field electronic f-f transitions as proposed previously and supports recent suggestions that it is the first overtone of the 1LO lattice vibration. The spectrum of PuO2 is taken across a wide wavenumber range (200-4000 cm-1) and additional signals (2116 and 2611 cm-1) not previously reported have been observed but are not yet assigned with confidence.

Sarsfield, Mark J.; Taylor, Robin J.; Puxley, Christopher; Steele, Helen M.

2012-08-01

390

Resonance Raman spectroscopy of volatile organics -- Carbon tetrachloride  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic chemicals are a class of pollutants which are regulated at very low levels by the EPA. Consequently a need exists as a part of site remediation efforts within DOE to develop technologies which will allow for the in situ monitoring of these chemicals. Resonance Raman spectroscopy is a potential technique to accomplish this if the resonance enhancement is sufficiently high. Carbon tetrachloride was selected as a test case. Measurements under resonance conditions at 248 nm showed an enhancement factor of 2 {times} 10{sup 4}. Using this value an estimate of the sensitivity for both in situ and remote monitoring of CCl{sup 4} was made. It was concluded that resonance Raman could be used to detect these chemicals at levels of regulatory interest. Future effort directed towards the development of a suitable probe as well as a field-portable system would be desirable. Such effort could be directed towards the solution of a particular monitoring problem within a DOE waste remediation project. Once developed, however, it should be easily generalized to the analysis of other VOC`s in other environments.

Barletta, R.E.; Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

1994-09-01

391

Differentiating bacterial spores from hoax materials by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bioterrorism of October 2001 caused by the distribution of anthrax through the U.S. postal system was compounded by the significant delay associated with positive identification of the Bacillus anthracis spores and the unknown extent of their distribution along the eastern seaboard. In the ensuing two years, literally thousands of hoaxes, letters containing harmless powders, have been mailed creating additional anxiety. Thus, there is a need for instruments and/or methods that can not only identify anthrax-causing spores to save lives, but also identify hoax materials to eliminate costly shutdowns. Here we present Raman spectra of Bacillus cereus spores, an anthrax surrogate, as well as of 30 common substances that might be used as hoax materials. We also examine the choice of laser excitation, 785 nm or 1064 nm, and its impact on the ability to measure visible particles in 5 minutes or less, and to provide a complete answer to the question of suspicious material identity.

Farquharson, Stuart; Smith, Wayne W.

2004-03-01

392

Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been suggested that spectroscopic analysis of the aqueous humor of the eye could be used to indirectly predict blood glucose levels in diabetics noninvasively. We have been investigating this potential using Raman spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) analysis. We have determined that glucose at clinically relevant concentrations can be accurately predicted in human aqueous humor in vitro using a PLS model based on artificial aqueous humor. We have further determined that with proper instrument design, the light energy necessary to achieve clinically acceptable prediction of glucose does not damage the retinas of rabbits and can be delivered at powers below internationally acceptable safety limits. Herein we summarize our current results and address our strategies to improve instrument design. 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

Lambert, James L.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Borchert, Mark

2005-01-01

393

Monitoring the healing process of rat bones using Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The healing effect of BPC 157 on rat femoral head osteonecrosis was monitored by Raman spectroscopy. Three groups of rats were defined: an injured group treated with BPC 157 (10 ?g/kg/daily ip), an injured control group (treated with saline, 5 ml/kg/daily ip), and an uninjured healthy group. The spectra were recorded and the healing effect assessed on samples harvested from animals which were sacrificed 3 and 6 weeks after being injured. The statistical analysis of the recorded spectra showed statistical differences between the BPC 157-treated, control, and healthy groups of animals. In particular, after 6 weeks the spectral resemblance between the healthy and BPC 157 samples indicated a positive BPC 157 influence on the healing process of rat femoral head.

Gamulin, O.; Serec, K.; Bili?, V.; Balarin, M.; Kosovi?, M.; Drmi?, D.; Br?i?, L.; Seiwerth, S.; Sikiri?, P.

2013-07-01

394

Time and neighbor interaction in resonance Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study systems in which the resonance Raman process is fast due to the requirement for phonon involvement in the absorption. The resonance enhancement is found to track the isolated molecule, or vapor phase, absorption since the molecule does not have time to exchange energy with its neighbors. This corroborates with studies of pre-resonance, where Heisenberg's uncertainty principle enforces a rapid process, but differs from resonance on electronically allowed transitions, where the resonance allows a relatively prolonged interaction. High resolution excitation spectroscopy reveals large gains and narrow features usually associated with the isolated molecule. Vibration energies shift as the resonance is approached and the excited state vibration levels are probed. Several multiplets and overtone modes are enhanced along with the strongly coupled ring-breathing mode in aromatic molecules.

Hallen, Hans D.; Niu, Shupeng; Li, Ling

2014-09-01

395

Raman spectroscopy of fluoropolymer conformal coatings on electronic boards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluoropolymer conformal coatings were applied to electronic boards (EBs) and cured at room temperature or 80°C. The coatings were first deposited on model substrate, i.e. aluminium alloy AA 2024 and tested for their anticorrosion properties with a potentiodynamic polarisation technique. The cathodic current densities ranged from 10-9-10-10 A/cm2, approaching the lower current limit after the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles into the formulation. Application of fluoropolymer-based formulation was performed via spray-coating deposition. Examination of the coverage of EBs under UV light, which is commonly used in industry, revealed that some components might not be entirely covered. In the search for other possible analytical tools of coverage with protective coatings, optical microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy were investigated.

Rodošek, Mirjana; Perše, Lidija Slemenik; Mihel?i?, Mohor; Koželj, Matjaž; Orel, Boris; Beng?, Ba?ak; Sunetci, Onder; Pori, Pauli; Vuk, Angela Šurca

2014-09-01

396

An intracavity, frequency-doubled self-Raman vortex laser.  

PubMed

We demonstrate intracavity frequency doubling of the self-Raman field generated within a diode end-pumped, solid state Nd:GdVO(4) vortex laser. A maximum output power of 727 mW is generated at 586 nm with an overall diode-to-yellow conversion efficiency of 4%. Conservation of orbital angular momentum is observed under intracavity frequency doubling, with the topological charge of the yellow beam being twice that of the Stokes beam. PMID:24663879

Lee, Andrew J; Zhang, Chunyu; Omatsu, Takashige; Pask, Helen M

2014-03-10

397

Frame-Transfer Gating Raman Spectroscopy for Time-Resolved Multiscalar Combustion Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate experimental measurement of spatially and temporally resolved variations in chemical composition (species concentrations) and temperature in turbulent flames is vital for characterizing the complex phenomena occurring in most practical combustion systems. These diagnostic measurements are called multiscalar because they are capable of acquiring multiple scalar quantities simultaneously. Multiscalar diagnostics also play a critical role in the area of computational code validation. In order to improve the design of combustion devices, computational codes for modeling turbulent combustion are often used to speed up and optimize the development process. The experimental validation of these codes is a critical step in accepting their predictions for engine performance in the absence of cost-prohibitive testing. One of the most critical aspects of setting up a time-resolved stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) diagnostic system is the temporal optical gating scheme. A short optical gate is necessary in order for weak SRS signals to be detected with a good signal- to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of strong background optical emissions. This time-synchronized optical gating is a classical problem even to other spectroscopic techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Traditionally, experimenters have had basically two options for gating: (1) an electronic means of gating using an image intensifier before the charge-coupled-device (CCD), or (2) a mechanical optical shutter (a rotary chopper/mechanical shutter combination). A new diagnostic technology has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center that utilizes a frame-transfer CCD sensor, in conjunction with a pulsed laser and multiplex optical fiber collection, to realize time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of turbulent flames that is free from optical background noise (interference). The technology permits not only shorter temporal optical gating (down to <1 s, in principle), but also higher optical throughput, thus resulting in a substantial increase in measurement SNR.

Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Fischer, David G.; Kojima, Jun

2011-01-01

398

Safety Report for Raman Spectroscopy: Safety Evaluation and Search Algorithm Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determines safety hazards associated with using a 300-mW 785-nm near-IR Raman laser for sample analysis. Most safety concerns are associated with excessive sample heating resulting from sample illumination. Thermography experiments were designed to quantitatively assess which visible surface colors heat most when exposed to the Raman laser. Temperatures achieved after illuminating 216 color patches with the unfocussed laser

Scott D. Harvey; Bob W. Wright

2002-01-01

399

Catalytic processes monitored at the nanoscale with tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Heterogeneous catalysts play a pivotal role in the chemical industry, but acquiring molecular insights into functioning catalysts remains a significant challenge. Recent advances in micro-spectroscopic approaches have allowed spatiotemporal information to be obtained on the dynamics of single active sites and the diffusion of single molecules. However, these methods lack nanometre-scale spatial resolution and/or require the use of fluorescent labels. Here, we show that time-resolved tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy can monitor photocatalytic reactions at the nanoscale. We use a silver-coated atomic force microscope tip to both enhance the Raman signal and to act as the catalyst. The tip is placed in contact with a self-assembled monolayer of p-nitrothiophenol molecules adsorbed on gold nanoplates. A photocatalytic reduction process is induced at the apex of the tip with green laser light, while red laser light is used to monitor the transformation process during the reaction. This dual-wavelength approach can also be used to observe other molecular effects such as monolayer diffusion. PMID:22902959

van Schrojenstein Lantman, Evelien M; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Mank, Arjan J G; Deckert, Volker; Weckhuysen, Bert M

2012-09-01

400

Catalytic processes monitored at the nanoscale with tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneous catalysts play a pivotal role in the chemical industry, but acquiring molecular insights into functioning catalysts remains a significant challenge. Recent advances in micro-spectroscopic approaches have allowed spatiotemporal information to be obtained on the dynamics of single active sites and the diffusion of single molecules. However, these methods lack nanometre-scale spatial resolution and/or require the use of fluorescent labels. Here, we show that time-resolved tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy can monitor photocatalytic reactions at the nanoscale. We use a silver-coated atomic force microscope tip to both enhance the Raman signal and to act as the catalyst. The tip is placed in contact with a self-assembled monolayer of p-nitrothiophenol molecules adsorbed on gold nanoplates. A photocatalytic reduction process is induced at the apex of the tip with green laser light, while red laser light is used to monitor the transformation process during the reaction. This dual-wavelength approach can also be used to observe other molecular effects such as monolayer diffusion.

van Schrojenstein Lantman, Evelien M.; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Mank, Arjan J. G.; Deckert, Volker; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

2012-09-01

401

Laser spectroscopy at IGISOL IV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line) facility at the University of Jyväskylä accelerator laboratory has been upgraded and relocated to a purpose built laboratory. The new laboratory includes a dedicated MCC30 proton/deuteron cyclotron, which in conjunction with beams from the K130 cyclotron, will greatly increase the beam time available at the facility. Full off-line commissioning of the laser spectroscopy beam-line was achieved in February 2013 and on-line commissioning with radioactive beams was achieved in May 2013. Optical hyperfine resonance spectra were obtained for previously studied radioactive molybdenum isotopes and used to investigate our long term stability, efficiency and ability to successfully reproduce previous results from IGISOL III. A preliminary spectrum for the previously unmeasurable Mo was collected, displaying the improved capabilities of the new facility. Both data-sets show that the laser-line is ready for future experiments. The IGISOL IV beams are cleaner and have a higher radioactive content compared to similar experiments at IGISOL III.

Dicker, A. R.; Campbell, P.; Cheal, B.; Gorelov, D.; Hakala, J.; Johnson, D. J. S.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V.; Koponen, J.; Moore, I. D.; Penttilä, H.; Pohjalainen, I.; Reponen, M.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Voss, A.

2014-06-01

402

Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology  

E-print Network

Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology Ji 11747-3157 USA ABSTRACT Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy with fast., 1990). Duncan et al. constructed the first CARS microscope by use of two dye laser beams

Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

403

A Raman laser system for multi-wavelength satellite laser ranging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a laser system for multi-wavelength satellite laser ranging, the joint group of the Shanghai Astronomical\\u000a Observatory and the Czech Technical University has studied the conversion efficiency of the Raman-shifting beam and its spatial\\u000a characteristics. We adopted a 0.53 ?m laser with pulse width of 35 ps and peak energy of 35 mJ, the second harmonic of

Jingfu Hu; Fumin Yang; Zhongping Zhang; K. Hamal; I. Prochazka; J. Blazej

2004-01-01

404

Raman Spectroscopy for Mineral Identification and Quantification for in situ Planetary Surface Analysis: A Point Count Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of mineral proportions in rocks and soils by Raman spectroscopy on a planetary surface is best done by taking many narrow-beam spectra from different locations on the rock or soil, with each spectrum yielding peaks from only one or two minerals. The proportion of each mineral in the rock or soil can then be determined from the fraction of the spectra that contain its peaks, in analogy with the standard petrographic technique of point counting. The method can also be used for nondestructive laboratory characterization of rock samples. Although Raman peaks for different minerals seldom overlap each other, it is impractical to obtain proportions of constituent minerals by Raman spectroscopy through analysis of peak intensities in a spectrum obtained by broad-beam sensing of a representative area of the target material. That is because the Raman signal strength produced by a mineral in a rock or soil is not related in a simple way through the Raman scattering cross section of that mineral to its proportion in the rock, and the signal-to-noise ratio of a Raman spectrum is poor when a sample is stimulated by a low-power laser beam of broad diameter. Results obtained by the Raman point-count method are demonstrated for a lunar thin section (14161,7062) and a rock fragment (15273,7039). Major minerals (plagioclase and pyroxene), minor minerals (cristobalite and K-feldspar), and accessory minerals (whitlockite, apatite, and baddeleyite) were easily identified. Identification of the rock types, KREEP basalt or melt rock, from the 100-location spectra was straightforward.

Haskin, Larry A.; Wang, Alian; Rockow, Kaylynn M.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Korotev, Randy L.; Viskupic, Karen M.

1997-08-01

405

Raman Spectroscopy for Mineral Identification and Quantification for in situ Planetary Surface Analysis: A Point Count Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantification of mineral proportions in rocks and soils by Raman spectroscopy on a planetary surface is best done by taking many narrow-beam spectra from different locations on the rock or soil, with each spectrum yielding peaks from only one or two minerals. The proportion of each mineral in the rock or soil can then be determined from the fraction of the spectra that contain its peaks, in analogy with the standard petrographic technique of point counting. The method can also be used for nondestructive laboratory characterization of rock samples. Although Raman peaks for different minerals seldom overlap each other, it is impractical to obtain proportions of constituent minerals by Raman spectroscopy through analysis of peak intensities in a spectrum obtained by broad-beam sensing of a representative area of the target material. That is because the Raman signal strength produced by a mineral in a rock or soil is not related in a simple way through the Raman scattering cross section of that mineral to its proportion in the rock, and the signal-to-noise ratio of a Raman spectrum is poor when a sample is stimulated by a low-power laser beam of broad diameter. Results obtained by the Raman point-count method are demonstrated for a lunar thin section (14161,7062) and a rock fragment (15273,7039). Major minerals (plagioclase and pyroxene), minor minerals (cristobalite and K-feldspar), and accessory minerals (whitlockite, apatite, and baddeleyite) were easily identified. Identification