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Sample records for laser raman spectroscopy

  1. Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy of single cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, De

    Raman scattering is an inelastic collision between the vibrating molecules inside the sample and the incident photons. During this process, energy exchange takes place between the photon and the scattering molecule. By measuring the energy change of the photon, the molecular vibration mode can be probed. The vibrational spectrum contains valuable information about the disposition of atomic nuclei and chemical bonds within a molecule, the chemical compositions and the interactions between the molecule and its surroundings. In this dissertation, laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) technique is applied for the analysis of biological cells and human cells at single cell level. In LTRS, an individual cell is trapped in aqueous medium with laser tweezers, and Raman scattering spectra from the trapped cell are recorded in real-time. The Raman spectra of these cells can be used to reveal the dynamical processes of cell growth, cell response to environment changes, and can be used as the finger print for the identification of a bacterial cell species. Several biophysical experiments were carried out using LTRS: (1) the dynamic germination process of individual spores of Bacillus thuringiensis was detected via Ca-DPA, a spore-specific biomarker molecule; (2) inactivation and killing of Bacillus subtilis spores by microwave irradiation and wet heat were studied at single cell level; (3) the heat shock activation process of single B. subtilis spores were analyzed, in which the reversible transition from glass-like state at low temperature to liquid-like state at high temperature in spore was revealed at the molecular level; (4) the kinetic processes of bacterial cell lysis of E. coli by lysozyme and by temperature induction of lambda phage were detected real-time; (5) the fixation and rehydration of human platelets were quantitatively evaluated and characterized with Raman spectroscopy method, which provided a rapid way to quantify the quality of freeze-dried therapeutic platelet products for long term preservation; (6) LTRS based depolarized Raman spectroscopy was developed and used to do bacterial cell identification of similar species. From these experiments, several new findings and conclusions have been obtained. (1) single spore dynamic germination was measured for the first time. The result showed the time-to-germinate of a single spore was stochastic and could be discrete. (2) the thermal nature of spore killing in solution by microwaves was identified, Spores killed directly by microwaves showed death marker in Raman spectrum; (3) The Ca-DPA inside the spore core of a spore would undergo a structure modification during heat shock, which was related to the spores' state transition from a glass-like to a rubbery-like state, this structure modification during heat shock was reversible; (4) the kinetic molecular processes of E. coli cell lysis by lysozyme and by temperature induction of bacterial phage were recorded for the first time. The different cellular processes of the lysis were revealed based on the two different mechanisms; (5) LTRS technique was successfully applied to characterize human platelet fixation; a major procedure for long term preservation of therapeutic human platelet products; (6) A depolarization laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (DLTRS) technique was developed to enhance the ability to discriminate similar bacterial species.

  2. Application of cheap lasers in shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Stefan; Döring, Heinz

    2012-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy has increasing importance in a wide field of applications: particularly in real time monitoring of chemical processes, testing of foodstuffs, identification of ingredients in unknown material mixtures etc. Many materials of interest have resonance wavelength close to the excitation wavelength. Resonant Raman spectroscopy can be used to advantage in these cases. The disadvantage of this technology is the presence of a strong fluorescence background in the Raman spectrum. A combination of the mechanism of resonant Raman spectroscopy with shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy can be used to suppress the fluorescence background. The applicability of inexpensive green lasers for this purpose and their tunability by temperature and current is investigated in this paper. The setup consists of two pigtailed lasers at a wavelength of 532 nm with a small wavelength difference switched by a fiber switch with a frequency up to 50 Hz. Every switching pulse triggers an optical spectrometer to measure the backscattered light. A resonant Raman spectrum with a minimized fluorescence background is obtained by subtraction of the two different spectra. The specific wavelengths of the two lasers were set by thermal tuning. The Raman spectra of Isopropanol and Carbon Tetrachloride have been measured in order to verify the setup.

  3. Remote sensing of subsurface water temperature by laser Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.; Caputo, B.; Guagliardo, J. L.; Hoge, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes experimental remote sensing of subsurface water temperature using the Raman spectroscopic technique. By the use of a pulsed laser and range gating detection techniques, Raman scattering is analyzed as a function of depth in a radar-like echo mode, and thus subsurface profiles of temperature and transmission are obtained. Experiments are described in which Raman data using polarization spectroscopy has been obtained from a ship as a function of depth in ocean water near Grand Bahama Island. A spectral temperature accuracy of + or - 1 C has been obtained from this data in the first two optical attenuation lengths. Raman data obtained from ocean water using the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar is also presented.

  4. Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrard, D.L.; Bowley, H.J.

    1986-04-01

    The period of this review is from late 1983 to late 1985. During this time over 5000 papers have appeared in the scientific literature dealing with many applications of Raman spectroscopy and extending its use to several new areas of study. As in the previous review in this series most of the applications relevant to solids are covered in one or other of the ten categories, which are the same as those used previously. However, aspects relating to solids which are not covered elsewhere include general reviews and the specific field of semiconductors. This is an area of great current interest in terms of Raman spectroscopy and the characterization of semiconductor materials and surfaces has been reported. Raman scattering also provides a new probe for the elucidation of structural properties of microcrystalline silicon and resonance Raman scattering in silicon at elevated temperatures has been studied. Many studies on carbon have also appeared in the literature including that of the various types of carbon, the use of Raman scattering to investigate disorder and crystallite formation in annealed carbon, in situ studies of intercalation kinetics, structural aspects of cokes and coals, and instrumentation for coal gasification. Raman spectroscopy has been applied to such diverse systems as organic crystals, the determination of modifications in layered crystals, the detection of explosives on silica gel or carbon, diagnostics of heterogeneous chemical processes, and a study of tungsten-halogen bulbs. Laser Raman spectroscopy has also been coupled with liquid chromatography and phase-resolved background suppression has been used to enhance Raman spectra. 397 references.

  5. [Identification of Ginseng and its counterfeit by laser Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wan, Qiu-e; Liu, Han-ping; Zhang, He-ming; Liu, Song-hao

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to identify Ginseng and its false sample: Anthriscus sylvestris, Radix glehniae and balloonflower root by Laser Raman spectroscopy, second derivative Raman spectroscopy. The structural information of the samples indicated that Ginseng and its false samples contains a large amount of carbohydrates, since some characteristic vibration peaks of the carbohydrates, such 1 640, 1 432, 1 130, 1 086, 942, 483 cm(-'1) can be observed. The characteristic vibration peak of Radix glehniae which arouse at 2 206 cm(-1) in the aman spectra, totally different from the other three kinds of traditional Chinese medicines. Anthriscus sylvestris appeare the characteristic vibration peak in 1 050 cm(-1) and the corresponding 1 869 cm(-1) because of the chain ester compounds. The characteristic vibration peak of balloonflower root, such as 1 227, 691, 600 cm(-1) can be observed, significantly different from the other three herbs in the Raman spectra. Further more, the previous identification results can be verified again with second derivative Raman spectroscopy. This identification method is more fast, convenient, and keeping the integrity of the samples than the routine spectroscopic method. PMID:22715769

  6. Optimizing the laser-pulse configuration for coherent Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pestov, Dmitry; Murawski, Robert K; Ariunbold, Gombojav O; Wang, Xi; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V; Sautenkov, Vladimir A; Rostovtsev, Yuri V; Dogariu, Arthur; Huang, Yu; Scully, Marlan O

    2007-04-13

    We introduce a hybrid technique that combines the robustness of frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with the advantages of time-resolved CARS spectroscopy. Instantaneous coherent broadband excitation of several characteristic molecular vibrations and the subsequent probing of these vibrations by an optimally shaped time-delayed narrowband laser pulse help to suppress the nonresonant background and to retrieve the species-specific signal. We used this technique for coherent Raman spectroscopy of sodium dipicolinate powder, which is similar to calcium dipicolinate (a marker molecule for bacterial endospores, such as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus anthracis), and we demonstrated a rapid and highly specific detection scheme that works even in the presence of multiple scattering. PMID:17431177

  7. Optimizing the Laser-Pulse Configuration for Coherent Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestov, Dmitry; Murawski, Robert K.; Ariunbold, Gombojav O.; Wang, Xi; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V.; Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Dogariu, Arthur; Huang, Yu; Scully, Marlan O.

    2007-04-01

    We introduce a hybrid technique that combines the robustness of frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with the advantages of time-resolved CARS spectroscopy. Instantaneous coherent broadband excitation of several characteristic molecular vibrations and the subsequent probing of these vibrations by an optimally shaped time-delayed narrowband laser pulse help to suppress the nonresonant background and to retrieve the species-specific signal. We used this technique for coherent Raman spectroscopy of sodium dipicolinate powder, which is similar to calcium dipicolinate (a marker molecule for bacterial endospores, such as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus anthracis), and we demonstrated a rapid and highly specific detection scheme that works even in the presence of multiple scattering.

  8. Laser Raman Spectroscopy in studies of corrosion and electrocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Melendres, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Laser Raman Spectroscopy (LRS) has become an important tool for the in-situ structural study of electrochemical systems and processes in recent years. Following a brief introduction of the experimental techniques involved in applying LRS to electrochemical systems, we survey the literature for examples of studies in the inhibition of electrode reactions by surface films (e.g., corrosion and passivation phenomena) as well as the acceleration of reactions by electro-sorbates (electrocatalysis). We deal mostly with both normal and resonance Raman effects on fairly thick surface films in contrast to surface-enhanced Raman investigations of monolayer adsorbates, which is covered in another lecture. Laser Raman spectroelectrochemical studies of corrosion and film formation on such metals as Pb, Ag, Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, Au, stainless steel, etc. in various solution conditions are discussed. Further extension of the technique to studies in high-temperature and high-pressure aqueous environments is demonstrated. Results of studies of the structure of corrosion inhibitors are also presented. As applications of the LRS technique in the area of electrocatalysis, we cite studies of the structure of transition metal macrocyclic compounds, i.e., phthalocyanines and porphyrins, used for catalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction. 104 refs., 20 figs.

  9. Analysis of dissolved C2H2 in transformer oils using laser Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Somekawa, Toshihiro; Kasaoka, Makoto; Kawachi, Fumio; Nagano, Yoshitomo; Fujita, Masayuki; Izawa, Yasukazu

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a laser Raman spectroscopy technique for assessing the working conditions of transformers by measuring dissolved C2H2 gas concentrations present in transformer oils. A frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) was used as a laser source, and Raman signals at ~1972 cm(-1) originating from C2H2 gas dissolved in oil were detected. The results show that laser Raman spectroscopy is a useful alternative method for detecting transformer faults. PMID:23546252

  10. Femtosecond laser induced nanostructuring for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messaoudi, H.; Das, S. K.; Lange, J.; Heinrich, F.; Schrader, S.; Frohme, M.; Grunwald, R.

    2014-03-01

    The formation of periodical nanostructures with femtosecond laser pulses was used to create highly efficient substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). We report about the structuring of silver and copper substrates and their application to the SERS of DNA (herring sperm) and protein molecules (egg albumen). The maximum enhancement factors were found on Ag substrates processed with the second harmonic generation (SHG) of a 1-kHz Ti:sapphire laser and structure periods near the SHG wavelength. In the case of copper, however, the highest enhancement was obtained with long-period ripples induced with at fundamental wavelength. This is explained by an additional significant influence of nanoparticles on the surface. Nanostructured areas in the range of 1.25 mm2 were obtained in 10 s. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fast Fourier Transform and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the role of the chemical modification of the metal structures is addressed. Thin oxide layers resulting from working in atmosphere which improve the biocompatibility were indicated by vibration spectra. It is expected that the detailed study of the mechanisms of laser-induced nanostructure formation will stimulate further applications of functionalized surfaces like photocatalysis, selective chemistry and nano-biology.

  11. Ring-Down Spectroscopy for Characterizing a CW Raman Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    .A relatively simple technique for characterizing an all-resonant intracavity continuous-wave (CW) solid-state Raman laser involves the use of ring-down spectroscopy. As used here, characterizing signifies determining such parameters as threshold pump power, Raman gain, conversion efficiency, and quality factors (Q values) of the pump and Stokes cavity modes. Heretofore, in order to characterize resonant-cavity-based Raman lasers, it has usually been necessary to manipulate the frequencies and power levels of pump lasers and, in each case, to take several sets of measurements. In cases involving ultra-high-Q resonators, it also has been desirable to lock pump lasers to resonator modes to ensure the quality of measurement data. Simpler techniques could be useful. In the present ring-down spectroscopic technique, one infers the parameters of interest from the decay of the laser out of its steady state. This technique does not require changing the power or frequency of the pump laser or locking the pump laser to the resonator mode. The technique is based on a theoretical analysis of what happens when the pump laser is abruptly switched off after the Raman generation reaches the steady state. The analysis starts with differential equations for the evolution of the amplitudes of the pump and Stokes electric fields, leading to solutions for the power levels of the pump and Stokes fields as functions of time and of the aforementioned parameters. Among other things, these solutions show how the ring-down time depends, to some extent, on the electromagnetic energy accumulated in the cavity. The solutions are readily converted to relatively simple equations for the parameters as functions of quantities that can be determined from measurements of the time-dependent power levels. For example, the steady-state intracavity conversion efficiency is given by G1/G2 1 and the threshold power is given by Pin(G2/G1)2, where Pin is the steady-state input pump power immediately prior to abrupt switch-off, G1 is the initial rate of decay of the pump field, and G2 is the final rate of decay of the pump field. Hence, it is possible to determine all the parameters from a single ring-down scan, provided that the measurements taken in that scan are sufficiently accurate and complete.

  12. [Characterization of the orientation of polymer material by non-polarized raman laser light spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Jie; Xu, Yi-zhuang; Zhao, Ying; Wang, Du-jin; Weng, Shi-fu; Wu, Jin-guang; Xu, Duan-fu

    2005-09-01

    The non-polarized Raman laser light was used to investigate the anisotropic polymers including polypropylene fiber, nylon 6 flat fiber, and polyethylene pipe. The Raman spectra of the same samples with different location relative to the incident direction of laser beam show obvious differences. The present result extends the application of Raman spectroscopy to the characterization of oriented polymers samples. PMID:16379277

  13. Organic semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) laser as excitation source in Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Stefanou, Panagiotis; Wang, Bohui; Woggon, Thomas; Mappes, Timo; Lemmer, Uli

    2013-11-18

    As an application of organic semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers we demonstrate their use as excitation sources in Raman spectroscopy. We employed an efficient small molecule blend, a high quality resonator and a novel encapsulation method resulting in an improved laser output power, a reduced laser line width and an enhanced power stability. Based on theses advances, Raman spectroscopy on selected substances was enabled. Raman spectra of sulfur and cadmium sulfide are presented and compared with the ones excited by a helium-neon laser. We also fabricated a spectrally tunable organic semiconductor DFB laser to optimize the Raman signals for a given optical filter configuration. PMID:24514408

  14. Characterization of Phyllosilicates by LIBS and Laser Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Sobron, P.

    2011-12-01

    NIR spectral signatures of phyllosilicates were recognized on Mars with wide distributions from orbit by OMEGA (on Mars Express orbiter) and CRISM (on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) observations. On the ground, geochemical and spectral features related to phyllosilicates were identified in rocks at two locations on Columbia Hill at Gusev crater using the data obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit. Furthermore, Opportunity rover is currently approaching the Cap of York at Endeavour crater on Meridiani Planum, where the signatures of phyllosilicates (and hydrous sulfates) were seen by CRISM. Laser-Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Raman spectroscopy will be used for the first time in rover missions in ChemCam on the NASA-MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) and in RLS on the ESA-ExoMars, respectively. As demonstrated by our previous studies, they are very powerful tools for characterizing the geochemistry and mineralogy aspects of the secondary minerals from aqueous alterations, especially hydrous sulfates. This study investigates the potential of LIBS and Raman spectroscopy for identifying and characterizing a variety of phyllosilicates, especially clays. Clay standards from the Clay Mineral Society were used. The LIBS measurements were made in a Planetary Environment and Analysis Chamber (PEACh) under Mars atmospheric pressure and composition, using 1064 nm as the excitation laser wavelength, same as ChemCam. The Raman measurements were made in ordinary laboratory environment using 532 nm as the excitation wavelength, same as RLS. The LIBS data were processed using custom automated software. We performed quantitative analysis of the spectra in order to evaluate the effectiveness of our method in: (a) discriminating between phyllosilicates and other silicates; (b) classifying different types of phyllosilicates (i.e., serpentine, chlorites, clays); and (c) correlating the LIBS-derived elemental abundances with the real chemical compositions of phyllosilicates. At this stage, we concentrated on investigating the LIBS peak area ratios of the Si and H emissions at 390.5 and 656.3 nm, respectively. The results from the first set study are encouraging, and we will be able to support the ChemCam investigation on MSL to classify rocks at distances. As for molecular characterization, we found that examining the Raman spectral patterns and spectral peak positions allows to: (1) classify di-octahedral and tri-octahedral phyllosilicates using the position of Si-O-Si peaks near 700 cm-1; (2) identify a variety of phyllosilicates and clays using H2O/OH peaks in 3000-4000 cm-1 and the fundamental vibration modes of polymerized SiO4 in 1150-200 cm-1; (3) characterize the Fe content in phlogopite-biotite-lepidomelane series using the relative intensities of two Raman peaks near 360 cm-1 and 550 cm-1. These results imply that laser spectroscopy (LIBS and Raman) will be powerful tools for identify, classify, and characterize phyllosilicates on Mars.

  15. Raman Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on Raman spectroscopy from late 1981 to late 1983. Topic areas include: instrumentation and sampling; liquids and solutions; gases and matrix isolation; biological molecules; polymers; high-temperature and high-pressure studies; Raman microscopy; thin films and surfaces; resonance-enhanced and surface-enhanced spectroscopy; and…

  16. Raman Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on Raman spectroscopy from late 1981 to late 1983. Topic areas include: instrumentation and sampling; liquids and solutions; gases and matrix isolation; biological molecules; polymers; high-temperature and high-pressure studies; Raman microscopy; thin films and surfaces; resonance-enhanced and surface-enhanced spectroscopy; and

  17. Remote cure monitoring of polymeric resins by laser Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, K.C.; Vess, T.M.; Lyon, R.E.; Myrick, M.L.

    1993-05-01

    The validity of using Raman spectroscopy to monitor the cure chemistries of amine-cured epoxy is demonstrated by correlating NIR absorbance measurements with Raman measurements for a concentration series of bisphenol-A diglycidylether in its own reaction product with diethylamine. The intensity of a normalized Raman peak at 1240 cm{sup {minus}l}, assigned to the epoxide functionality, was found to be linearly related to the concentration of epoxide groups in the resin mixtures. Also, it is shown that the Ciba-Geigy Matrimid 5292 system can be monitored by ex-situ FT-Raman spectroscopy by observing changes in the carbonyl stretching (1773 cm{sup {minus}1}) or the C=C stretching of maleimide (1587 cm{sup {minus}1}) during the cure reaction.

  18. Rayleigh rejection filters for 193-nm ArF laser Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    Selected organic absorbers and their solvents are evaluated as spectral filters for the rejection of 193-nm Rayleigh light associated with the use of an ArF excimer laser for Raman spectroscopy. A simply constructed filter cell filled with 0.5 percent acetone in water and an optical path of 7 mm is shown effectively to eliminate stray Rayleigh light underlying the Raman spectrum from air while transmitting 60 percent of the Raman light scattered by O2.

  19. Tunable excitation source for coherent Raman spectroscopy based on a single fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adany, Peter; Arnett, David C.; Johnson, Carey K.; Hui, Rongqing

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate a wavelength tunable optical excitation source for coherent Raman scattering (CRS) spectroscopy based on a single femtosecond fiber laser. Electrically controlled wavelength tuning of Stokes optical pulses was achieved with soliton self frequency shift in an optical fiber, and linear frequency chirping was applied to both the pump and the Stokes waves to significantly improve the spectral resolution. The coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectrum of cyclohexane was measured and vibrational resonant Raman peaks separated by 70 cm-1 were clearly resolved. Single laser-based tunable excitation may greatly simplify CRS measurements and extend the practicality of CRS microscopy.

  20. Laser Raman Spectroscopy Of Gap Vibration Of Se Impurity In Natural Mineral Cinnabar From Various Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoshia, Sergo V.; Gotoshia, Lamara V.

    2011-09-01

    Natural minerals α-HgS from various mines have been studied by laser Raman-spectroscopy and resonance Raman-spectroscopy. The crystals differ from each other in the content of selenium impurities included in samples from different mines. Based on Raman spectra and factor-group analyze the classification the first order phonons and then the comparison the results with the results from other works are carried out. The Raman spectra analysis of minerals from various mines show the presence of selenium impurity gap vibration at 203 cm-1 and 226 cm-1 frequencies respectively. On the statistical basis of the Raman measurements, one can conclude that the frequencies of impurities of α-HgS generally may be used for identifying mines. Low resonance has been fixed as well in impure minerals at spectral band frequency 203 cm-1 characterizing vibrationgap of isomorphic Se impurity in cinnabar.

  1. Miniaturized diode laser-based light sources for in-situ shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumpf, Bernd; Maiwald, Martin; Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2013-05-01

    Weak Raman bands are often covered by pronounced background signals due to fluorescence or Rayleigh scattering. Several techniques to separate Raman lines from the background are known. In this paper, diode laser based light sources will be presented suitable for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS). The two wavelengths are realized by varying the injection current, by addressing two micro-integrated ECLs or by temperature tuning. Due to the freedom of choice in the wavelengths using diode lasers, the emission wavelength can be selected with respect to the addressed application (e.g. the required penetration depth) or the plasmonic resonances of the substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Devices were developed for the wavelengths 488 nm, 671 nm, and 785 nm. The two emission wavelengths each were selected to have a spectral distance of 10 cm-1 according to the typical width of Raman lines of solid or liquid samples. Output powers between 20 mW for the shorter wavelength devices and 200 mW for the red emitting lasers were achieved at electrical power consumptions below 1 W. With a footprint of only 25 x 25 mm2 including all collimation and filter elements, these devices are well suited for portable applications. The diode lasers were implemented into Raman measurement systems. The SERDS signal-to-background ratio was improved by several orders of magnitude.

  2. Red emitting monolithic dual wavelength DBR diode lasers for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumpf, B.; Maiwald, M.; Müller, A.; Bugge, F.; Fricke, J.; Ressel, P.; Pohl, J.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.

    2014-02-01

    Raman lines are often obscured by background light or fluorescence especially when investigating biological samples or samples containing impurities. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) is a technique to overcome this. By exciting the sample with two slightly shifted wavelengths, it is possible to separate the Raman lines and distortions. In this paper, monolithic dual wavelength DBR diode lasers meeting the demands of Raman spectroscopy and SERDS will be presented. The wavelengths are stabilized and selected by using deeply-etched 10th order surface gratings with different periods manufactured using i-line wafer stepper lithography. Two possible resonator concepts, i.e. a mini-array of two parallel DBR RW-lasers and a Y-branch DBR laser, will be compared. Established excitation wavelengths for Raman spectroscopy at 671 nm and 785 nm are chosen. The total laser length is 3 mm; the ridge width is 2.2 μm for the 785 nm devices and 5 μm for the 671 nm lasers. The length of the DBR gratings is 500 μm. The devices at 671 nm reach output powers up to 100 mW having an emission width smaller than 12 pm (FWHM). The 785 nm lasers show output powers up to 200 mW and a narrow emission below 22 pm. For the dual wavelength lasers the spectral distance between the two excitation lines is about 0.5 nm as targeted. The power consumption at both wavelengths is below 1 W. These data proof that the devices are well suited for their application in portable Raman measurement systems such as handheld devices using SERDS.

  3. Novel probe for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman measurements using an imaging optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Marquardt, B.J.; Stratis, D.N.; Angel, S.M.; Cremers, D.A.

    1998-09-01

    A fiber-optic probe designed for remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Raman spectroscopy, and Raman imaging has been developed for the microanalysis of solid samples. The probe incorporates both single-strand optical fibers and an image guide and allows atomic emission and Raman analysis of any spot on a solid sample within a 5 mm diameter field of view. The real-time sample imaging aspects of the probe are demonstrated by measuring LIBS spectra from different regions of a granite sample and by measuring the Raman spectra of individual TiO{sub 2} and Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} particles on a soil substrate. The ability to obtain remote Raman images of the TiO{sub 2} and Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} particles on the soil substrate is also demonstrated. In this paper we discuss the design and implementation of the fiber-optic probe for obtaining LIBS spectra, Raman spectra, and Raman images. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  4. Detection of Explosives Using Differential Laser-Induced Perturbation Spectroscopy with a Raman-based Probe.

    PubMed

    Oztekin, Erman K; Burton, Dallas J; Hahn, David W

    2016-04-01

    Explosives detection is carried out with a novel spectral analysis technique referred to as differential laser-induced perturbation spectroscopy (DLIPS) on thin films of TNT, RDX, HMX, and PETN. The utility of Raman spectroscopy for detection of explosives is enhanced by inducing deep ultraviolet laser perturbation on molecular structures in combination with a differential Raman sensing scheme. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used to quantify the DLIPS method as benchmarked against a traditional Raman scattering probe, and the related photo-induced effects on the molecular structure of the targeted explosives are discussed in detail. Finally, unique detection is observed with TNT samples deposited on commonly available background substrates of nylon and polyester. Overall, the data support DLIPS as a noninvasive method that is promising for screening explosives in real-world environments and backgrounds. PMID:26865581

  5. Lif and Raman Spectroscopy in Undergraduate Labs Using Green Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-01

    Electronic spectroscopy of molecular iodine vapor has long been studied in undergraduate physical chemistry teaching laboratories, but the effectiveness of emission work has typically been limited by availability of instrumentation. This talk shows how to make inexpensive green diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) lasers easily tunable for efficient, selective excitation of I2. Miniature fiber-optic spectrometers then enable rotationally resolved fluorescence spectroscopy up to v" = 42 near 900 nm with acquisition times of less than one minute. DPSS lasers are also versatile excitation sources for vibrational Raman spectroscopy, which is another common exercise that has been limited by lack of proper instrumentation in the teaching laboratory. This talk shows how to construct a simple accessory for commercial fluorimeters to record vibrational Raman spectra and depolarization ratios for CCl4 and C2Cl4 as part of a lab exercise featuring molecular symmetry.

  6. Investigating Surface Mineralogy, Alteration Processes, and Biomarkers on Mars Using Laser Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Alian; Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information from past and ongoing missions to Mars, the capability to determine the mineralogy of surface materials and to connect mineralogy with lithologic characteristics that are diagnostic of the environment in which those materials formed remains inadequate. The 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) will carry a Mini-TES and a Mossbauer spectrometer, which will provide some detailed mineralogy information. For general characterization of minerals and/or biogenic phases (reduced carbon, PAHs, etc) on the surface of Mars, we have been developing a miniaturized laser Raman spectrometer for in situ analyses -- the Mars Microbeam Raman Spectrometer, MMRS. We are also developing strategies to use Raman spectroscopy as a stand-alone technique and to be used synergistically with other in situ analysis methods in future planetary missions. Through studies of Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogs, we are gaining experience of what compositional and structural information can be obtained on key mineral groups using in-situ Raman measurements. We are developing methods for determining mineral proportions in rocks or soils and identifying rock types from sets of closely spaced, rapidly acquired spectra. We are studying how weathering and alteration affect the Raman and luminescence features of minerals and rocks, and we are investigating the Raman characteristics of biogenic organisms and their remains. These studies form the scientific basis for in-situ planetary Raman spectroscopy, and they are being done in parallel with instrument development towards a flight version of the MMRS.

  7. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of laser processed YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboy, I.; Camerlingo, C.; Bar, I.; Bareli, G.; Jung, G.

    2011-08-01

    The oxygen content and the local oxygen arrangement of laser processed YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) thin films grown on LaAlO3 substrates have been probed by micro-Raman spectroscopy On these films, channels for easy vortex motion have been laser written (LW) into the bridge constrictions by heat-induced, partial depletion of oxygen from the laser-illuminated areas of these films. Raman microscopy has been used to investigate and characterize the oxygen content and structure of the laser written channels. Direct evidence for local micro-structural changes in the film during the LW process is presented and the heat affected zone, surrounding the channel borders, has been mapped.

  8. Simultaneous Raman spectroscopy-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for instant standoff analysis of explosives using a mobile integrated sensor platform.

    PubMed

    Moros, Javier; Lorenzo, Juan Antonio; Lucena, Patricia; Tobaria, Luciano Miguel; Laserna, José Javier

    2010-02-15

    A novel experimental design combining Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a unique integrated sensor is described. The sensor presented herein aims to demonstrate the applicability of a hybrid dual Raman-LIBS system as an analytical tool for the standoff analysis of energetic materials. Frequency-doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG nanosecond laser pulses, first expanded and then focused using a 10x beam expander on targets located at 20 m, allowed simultaneous acquisition of Raman-LIBS spectra for 4-mononitrotoluene (MNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), C4 and H15 (plastic explosives containing 90% and 75% of RDX by weight, respectively), and Goma2-ECO (Spanish denominated dynamite class high explosive mainly composed of ammonium nitrate, nitroglycol, and dinitrotoluene among other compounds), sodium chlorate, and ammonium nitrate. With the use of a Cassegrain telescope, both Raman and LIBS signals from the same laser pulses were collected and conducted through a bifurcated optical fiber into two identical grating spectrographs coupled to intensified charge-coupled device (iCCD) detectors. With the use of the appropriate timing for each detection mode, adjustment of the laser power on the beam focal conditions is not required. The ability of the present single hybrid sensor to simultaneously acquire, in real time, both molecular and multielemental information from the same laser pulses on the same cross section of the sample at standoff distances greatly enhances the information power of this approach. PMID:20085236

  9. Laser Heated High Density Fluids Probed by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, B J; Yoo, C

    2004-05-19

    We describe an integrated experimental method of Coherent Antistoke Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), laser-heating and diamond-anvil cell (DAC) technologies probing molecular vibrations of transparent molecular fluids at the pressure-temperature conditions of energetic detonation and Giant planetary interiors. In this method, we use a microfabricated metal toroid to conductively heat a surrounding transparent sample in a DAC, using a CW Nd:YLF laser. The laser is operated at a TEM{sub 01*} mode to match the shape of the toroid and thus produces a uniform heating area. The CARS probe utilizes two pulsed lasers with similar cavity lengths: a commercial narrow-band mode-locked Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and a home-built broadband dye laser. A strong CARS signal is then produced from the sample in the central region of laser-heated metal toroid where the two laser pulses spatially and temporally coincide. In this paper, we will demonstrate that this technique is capable of producing high quality vibrational spectra from nitrogen fluid above 2000 K and 13 GPa, where the application of spontaneous Raman spectroscopy is limited because of intense thermal radiation.

  10. Planetary geochemical investigations using Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Samuel M; Wiens, Roger; Misra, Anupam K; Sharma, Shiv K; Lambert, James; Bender, Steven; Newell, Raymond; Nowak-Lovato, Kristy; Smrekar, Sue; Dyar, M Darby; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2014-01-01

    An integrated Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument is a valuable geoanalytical tool for future planetary missions to Mars, Venus, and elsewhere. The ChemCam instrument operating on the Mars Curiosity rover includes a remote LIBS instrument. An integrated Raman-LIBS spectrometer (RLS) based on the ChemCam architecture could be used as a reconnaissance tool for other contact instruments as well as a primary science instrument capable of quantitative mineralogical and geochemical analyses. Replacing one of the ChemCam spectrometers with a miniature transmission spectrometer enables a Raman spectroscopy mineralogical analysis to be performed, complementing the LIBS chemical analysis while retaining an overall architecture resembling ChemCam. A prototype transmission spectrometer was used to record Raman spectra under both Martian and Venus conditions. Two different high-pressure and high-temperature cells were used to collect the Raman and LIBS spectra to simulate surface conditions on Venus. The resulting LIBS spectra were used to generate a limited partial least squares Venus calibration model for the major elements. These experiments demonstrate the utility and feasibility of a combined RLS instrument. PMID:25226246

  11. Remote Pulsed Laser Raman Spectroscopy System for Detecting Qater, Ice, and Hydrous Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nuraul; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra; Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani; Sandford, Steve

    2006-01-01

    For exploration of planetary surfaces, detection of water and ice is of great interest in supporting existence of life on other planets. Therefore, a remote Raman spectroscopy system was demonstrated at NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with University of Hawaii for detecting ice-water and hydrous minerals on planetary surfaces. In this study, a 532 nm pulsed laser is utilized as an excitation source to allow detection in high background radiation conditions. The Raman scattered signal is collected by a 4-inch telescope positioned in front of a spectrograph. The Raman spectrum is analyzed using a spectrograph equipped with a holographic super notch filter to eliminate Rayleigh scattering, and a holographic transmission grating that simultaneously disperses two spectral tracks onto the detector for higher spectral range. To view the spectrum, the spectrograph is coupled to an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), which allows detection of very weak Stokes line. The ICCD is operated in gated mode to further suppress effects from background radiation and long-lived fluorescence. The sample is placed at 5.6 m from the telescope, and the laser is mounted on the telescope in a coaxial geometry to achieve maximum performance. The system was calibrated using the spectral lines of a Neon lamp source. To evaluate the system, Raman standard samples such as calcite, naphthalene, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol were analyzed. The Raman evaluation technique was used to analyze water, ice and other hydrous minerals and results from these species are presented.

  12. Application of laser Raman spectroscopy in concentration measurements of multiple analytes in human body fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Jianan Y.; Suria, David; Wilson, Brian C.

    1998-05-01

    The primary goal of these studies was to demonstrate that NIR Raman spectroscopy is feasible as a rapid and reagentless analytic method for clinical diagnostics. Raman spectra were collected on human serum and urine samples using a 785 nm excitation laser and a single-stage holographic spectrometer. A partial east squares method was used to predict the analyte concentrations of interest. The actual concentrations were determined by a standard clinical chemistry. The prediction accuracy of total protein, albumin, triglyceride and glucose in human sera ranged from 1.5 percent to 5 percent which is greatly acceptable for clinical diagnostics. The concentration measurements of acetaminophen, ethanol and codeine inhuman urine have demonstrated the potential of NIR Raman technology in screening of therapeutic drugs and substances of abuse.

  13. Rapid shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy with a distributed feedback diode laser emitting at 785 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwald, M.; Erbert, G.; Klehr, A.; Kronfeldt, H.-D.; Schmidt, H.; Sumpf, B.; Tränkle, G.

    2006-12-01

    A distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode emitting at 785 nm was tested and applied as a light source for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS). Due to the physical properties of the laser diode, it was possible to shift the emission wavelength by 8 cm-1 (0.5 nm) required for our SERDS measurements by simply changing the injection current. The internal grating ensured single mode operation at both wavelength with the frequency stability of ±0.06 cm-1 (0.004 nm) required for high resolution Raman spectroscopic applications. The shifted spectra were used for calculating enhanced Raman spectra being obscured by a strong scattering background. A 16 dB (≈38 fold) improvement of the signal-to-background noise S¯/σB was demonstrated using blackboard chalk as a sample. The tunable DFB laser is a versatile excitation source for SERDS, which could be used in any dispersive Raman system to subtract fluorescence contributions and scattering background.

  14. Time evolution studies of laser induced chemical changes in InAs nanowire using Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Suparna; Aggarwal, R.; Kumari Gupta, Vandna; Ingale, Alka

    2014-07-07

    We report the study of time evolution of chemical changes on the surface of an InAs nanowire (NW) on laser irradiation in different power density regime, using Raman spectroscopy for a time span of 8–16 min. Mixture of metastable oxides like InAsO{sub 4,} As{sub 2}O{sub 3} are formed upon oxidation, which are reflected as sharp Raman peaks at ∼240–254 and 180–200 cm{sup −1}. Evidence of removal of arsenic layer by layer is also observed at higher power density. Position controlled laser induced chemical modification on a nanometer scale, without changing the core of the NW, can be useful for NW based device fabrication.

  15. Characterization of azurite and lazurite based pigments by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicchieri, M.; Nardone, M.; Russo, P. A.; Sodo, A.; Corsi, M.; Cristoforetti, G.; Palleschi, V.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2001-06-01

    The most commonly used blue pigments in medieval manuscripts are azurite and lapis-lazuli. The first one is a copper-based pigment; the coloring compound of the latter is lazurite, a sodium silicoaluminate in a sulfur matrix. Knowledge of the chemical composition of the materials is essential for the study of illuminated manuscripts. In this paper, micro-Raman and LIBS have been used for the study of azurite and lapis-lazuli, as well as different mixtures of these pigments applied to parchment to simulate an illuminated manuscript. The results of our work show the importance of using more than one technique for a good comprehension of a manuscript. In particular, the opportunity of combining elemental information (obtained from laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) and vibrational spectroscopy information (obtained from Raman) will be fully exploited.

  16. Cavity-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Natural Gas with Optical Feedback cw-Diode Lasers.

    PubMed

    Hippler, Michael

    2015-08-01

    We report on improvements made on our previously introduced technique of cavity-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (CERS) with optical feedback cw-diode lasers in the gas phase, including a new mode-matching procedure which keeps the laser in resonance with the optical cavity without inducing long-term frequency shifts of the laser, and using a new CCD camera with improved noise performance. With 10 mW of 636.2 nm diode laser excitation and 30 s integration time, cavity enhancement achieves noise-equivalent detection limits below 1 mbar at 1 bar total pressure, depending on Raman cross sections. Detection limits can be easily improved using higher power diodes. We further demonstrate a relevant analytical application of CERS, the multicomponent analysis of natural gas samples. Several spectroscopic features have been identified and characterized. CERS with low power diode lasers is suitable for online monitoring of natural gas mixtures with sensitivity and spectroscopic selectivity, including monitoring H2, H2S, N2, CO2, and alkanes. PMID:26161683

  17. Raman spectroscopy and microstructure of the pulsed laser-treated silver-anatase thick film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joya, Yasir F.; Joya, K. S.; Bashir, S.; Anwar, A. W.; Rafique, M. S.; Ahmed, Riaz

    2015-09-01

    The present research describes the effect of laser pulses on crystalline titanium dioxide thick film with self-adsorbed silver ions. Anatase film of up to 4 µm thickness was deposited on ITO glass by doctor-blading technique. The film was heated at 450 °C for 60 min and cooled before immersion in silver nitrate aqueous solution. After drying, films were subjected to nanosecond pulses of the excimer laser, and their structural, microstructural and optical properties were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and EDX analysis revealed the formation of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) dispersed in the anatase matrix. There was no significant change in the anatase structure as revealed by Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman signals from pristine anatase film was increased after the laser treatment of silver ions on the film. This observation is associated with the phenomenon of localized surface plasmon resonance conferred by the crystalline SNPs. The results obtained by the UV-visible spectroscopy also support the role of SNPs to enhance the photoabsorption of the anatase film in the visible region.

  18. Raman spectroscopy of ZnMnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, S.; Riascos, H.; Duque, S.

    2016-02-01

    ZnMnO thin films were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique onto Silicon (100) substrates at different growth conditions. Thin films were deposited varying Mn concentration, substrate temperature and oxygen pressure. ZnMnO samples were analysed by using Raman Spectroscopy that shows a red shift for all vibration modes. Raman spectra revealed that nanostructure of thin films was the same of ZnO bulk, wurzite hexagonal structure. The structural disorder was manifested in the line width and shape variations of E2(high) and E2(low) modes located in 99 and 434cm-1 respectively, which may be due to the incorporation of Mn ions inside the ZnO crystal lattice. Around 570cm-1 was found a peak associated to E1(LO) vibration mode of ZnO. 272cm-1 suggest intrinsic host lattice defects. Additional mode centred at about 520cm-1 can be overlap of Si and Mn modes.

  19. First experimental study of self-forming synthetic lipids by confocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bista, Rajan K.; Bruch, Reinhard F.

    2008-06-01

    We present the first experimental study of self-forming synthetic lipids, trademarked as QuSomesTM, using Raman spectroscopy in the spectral range of 500 to 3100 cm-1. Raman spectra of these new artificial lipids composed of 1,2- dimyristoyl-rac-glycerol-3-dodecaethylene glycol (GDM-12) and 1,2-dioleoyl-rac-glycerol-3-dodecaethylene glycol (GDO-12) have been obtained in pure form and in aqueous suspensions with Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) by using an inverted confocal laser-tweezers-Raman-microscopy system. This spectrometer works with an 80 mW diode-pumped solid-state laser, operating at a wavelength of 785 nm in the TEM00 mode. The laser is used both for optical trapping and Raman excitation. The two amphiphiles considered in this study, differ in their hydrophobic chain length and contain similar units of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) head groups. Such synthetic PEG coated lipids exist in liquid form at room temperature and spontaneously form liposomes (nano type vesicles) upon hydration. In this work, we have focused on the band assignments for the spectra of single QuSomesTM nano particles in pure form and in aqueous media acquired by means of Raman spectroscopy. In particular, we have found that the most prominent peaks in the studied spectral region are dominated by vibrational modes arising from C-C and C-H bonds. Furthermore, we have noticed that some of the distinct peaks observed below 1800 cm-1 in pure sample are preserved in aqueous environment. These retained intense bands are located at 1449, 1128, 1079, and 1065 cm-1. This effect might be due to the strong chain-chain interactions, because the chains have to orient themselves and become tightly packed in the vesicles wall rather than adopt random orientations in bulk. This technique has proven to be an excellent tool to establish the fingerprint region revealing the molecular structure and conformation of QuSomesTM particles. The Raman spectroscopic data of these novel lipids and its vesicles formed in suspensions confirm high stability and are therefore considered as potential candidate for varieties of future applications including lipid based novel substances and drug delivery systems.

  20. Raman spectroscopy of organic dyes adsorbed on pulsed laser deposited silver thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, E.; Neri, F.; Valenti, A.; Ossi, P. M.; Trusso, S.; Ponterio, R. C.

    2013-08-01

    The results of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) study performed on representative organic and inorganic dyes adsorbed on silver nanostructured thin films are presented and discussed. Silver thin films were deposited on glass slides by focusing the beam from a KrF excimer laser (wavelength 248 nm, pulse duration 25 ns) on a silver target and performing the deposition in a controlled Ar atmosphere. Clear Raman spectra were acquired for dyes such as carmine lake, garanza lake and brazilwood overcoming their fluorescence and weak Raman scattering drawbacks. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy measurements were not able to discriminate among the different chromophores usually referred as carmine lake (carminic, kermesic and laccaic acid), as brazilwood (brazilin and brazilein) and as garanza lake (alizarin and purpurin). SERS measurements showed that the analyzed samples are composed of a mixture of different chromophores: brazilin and brazilein in brazilwood, kermesic and carminic acid in carmine lake, alizarin and purpurin in garanza lake. Detection at concentration level as low as 10-7 M in aqueous solutions was achieved. Higher Raman intensities were observed using the excitation line of 632.8 nm wavelength with respect to the 785 nm, probably due to a pre-resonant effect with the molecular electronic transitions of the dyes.

  1. Technique of laser confocal and Raman spectroscopy for living cell analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaochen; Zhu, Lianqing

    2013-10-01

    Because of the shortcomings of the main methods used to analysis single cell, the need of single living cell analysis with no damage, unmarked and in situ dynamic multi-parameter measurement is urgent in the life sciences and biomedical advanced research field. And the method of for living cells analysis is proposed. The spectral pretreatment technology of living cell is the key work of laser confocal Raman spectroscopy. To study the spectrum processing methods for Raman spectrum on single living cell and develop the pre-process techniques to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity, and decrease the influence of fluorescence, elimination the cosmic rays was used to improve the spectrum. The classification, average and filtration of spectrum were applied to enhance signal-to-noise ratio. The fluorescence was depressed for quantity analysis or utilized for analysis by comparing the background and the spectrum. The results show that the proposed technique for laser confocal Raman spectrum of single cell can perform the sensitive and weak intensity peaks and reflect the information of molecules structures very well.

  2. Application of laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy techniques to the monitoring of single cell response to stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, James W.; Liu, Rui; Matthews, Dennis L.

    2012-06-01

    Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) combines optical trapping with micro-Raman spectroscopy to enable label-free biochemical analysis of individual cells and small biological particles in suspension. The integration of the two technologies greatly simplifies the sample preparation and handling of suspension cells for spectroscopic analysis in physiologically meaningful conditions. In our group, LTRS has been used to study the effects of external perturbations, both chemical and mechanical, on the biochemistry of the cell. Single cell dynamics can be studied by performing longitudinal studies to continuously monitor the response of the cell as it interacts with its environment. The ability to carry out these measurements in-vitro makes LTRS an attractive tool for many biomedical applications. Here, we discuss the use of LTRS to study the response of cancer cells to chemotherapeutics and bacteria cells to antibiotics and show that the life cycle and apoptosis of the cells can be detected. These results show the promise of LTRS for drug discovery/screening, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and chemotherapy response monitoring applications. In separate experiments, we study the response of red blood cells to the mechanical forces imposed on the cell by the optical tweezers. A laser power dependent deoxygenation of the red blood cell in the single beam trap is reported. Normal, sickle cell, and fetal red blood cells have a different behavior that enables the discrimination of the cell types based on this mechanochemical response. These results show the potential utility of LTRS for diagnosing and studying red blood cell diseases.

  3. Planetary Surface Analysis Using Fast Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Combined Microscopic Raman, LIBS, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacksberg, J.; Rossman, G. R.; Maruyama, Y.; Charbon, E.

    2011-12-01

    In situ exploration of planetary surfaces has to date required multiple techniques that, when used together, yield important information about their formation histories and evolution. We present a time-resolved laser spectroscopic technique that could potentially collect complementary sets of data providing information on mineral structure, composition, and hydration state. Using a picosecond-scale pulsed laser and a fast time-resolved detector we can simultaneously collect spectra from Raman, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and fluorescence emissions that are separated in time due to the unique decay times of each process. The use of a laser with high rep rate (40 KHz) and low pulse energy (1 μJ/pulse) allows us to rapidly collect high signal to noise Raman spectra while minimizing sample damage. Increasing the pulse energy by about an order of magnitude creates a microscopic plasma near the surface and enables the collection of LIBS spectra at an unusually high rep rate and low pulse energy. Simultaneously, broader fluorescence peaks can be detected with lifetimes varying from nanosecond to microsecond. We will present Raman, LIBS, and fluorescence spectra obtained on natural mineral samples such as sulfates, clays, pyroxenes and carbonates that are of interest for Mars mineralogy. We demonstrate this technique using a photocathode-based streak camera detector as well as a newly-developed solid state Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) sensor array based on Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. We will discuss the impact of system design and detector choice on science return of a potential planetary surface mission, with a specific focus on size, weight, power, and complexity. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  4. Quantitative fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for tissue Raman measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Bergholt, Mads; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-03-01

    Molecular profiling of tissue using near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy has shown great promise for in vivo detection and prognostication of cancer. The Raman spectra measured from the tissue generally contain fundamental information about the absolute biomolecular concentrations in tissue and its changes associated with disease transformation. However, producing analogues tissue Raman spectra present a great technical challenge. In this preliminary study, we propose a method to ensure the reproducible tissue Raman measurements and validated with the in vivo Raman spectra (n=150) of inner lip acquired using different laser powers (i.e., 30 and 60 mW). A rapid Raman spectroscopy system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic Raman probe was utilized for tissue Raman measurements. The investigational results showed that the variations between the spectra measured with different laser powers are almost negligible, facilitating the quantitative analysis of tissue Raman measurements in vivo.

  5. Remote Raman - laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) geochemical investigation under Venus atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, Sanuel M; Barefield, James E; Humphries, Seth D; Wiens, Roger C; Vaniman, D. T.; Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Dyar, M. D.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2010-12-13

    The extreme Venus surface temperatures ({approx}740 K) and atmospheric pressures ({approx}93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. and Sharma et al. demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachyandesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to quantitatively determine the major elemental abundance of the remaining samples. PLS analysis suggests that the major element compositions can be determined with root mean square errors ca. 5% (absolute) for SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(total), MgO, and CaO, and ca. 2% or less for TiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnO, K{sub 2}O, and Na{sub 2}O. Finally, the Raman experiments have been conducted under supercritical CO{sub 2} involving single-mineral and mixed-mineral samples containing talc, olivine, pyroxenes, feldspars, anhydrite, barite, and siderite. The Raman data have shown that the individual minerals can easily be identified individually or in mixtures.

  6. Intracavity Raman lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Band, Y.B.; Ackerhalt, J.R.; Krasinski, J.S.; Heller, D.F.

    1989-02-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of intracavity Raman lasers are presented. Advantages of intracavity Raman lasers, particularly for low-emission cross section and broadly tunable vibronic gain media, are described. Experimental studies of a hydrogen gas Raman laser pumped inside the cavity of an alexandrite laser are presented. A theoretical model of the dynamics of a unidirectional intracavity Raman ring laser is developed and solved analytically. This model is adapted to simulate experiments.

  7. Laser flash-Raman spectroscopy method for the measurement of the thermal properties of micro/nano wires.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinhui; Wang, Haidong; Hu, Yudong; Ma, Weigang; Zhang, Xing

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for measuring the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of individual micro/nano wires using Raman spectroscopy. This method uses a focused short pulsed laser and a continuous-wave laser in a Raman spectroscopy system as the local heater, Raman signal excitation source, and temperature sensor. Unsteady and steady thermal conduction models are used to get two independent equations for the thermal diffusivity (α) and laser absorptivity (η). This new method is verified by comparing experimental results for graphite carbon fiber with measurement using the 3ω method. The method was then used to measure the temperature dependent thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes. PMID:25638107

  8. Raman spectroscopy of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudelski, Andrzej

    2009-06-01

    Raman scattering has usually a very low efficiency. Therefore, during the first five decades after its discovery, Raman spectroscopic investigations of adsorbate-covered surfaces (except surfaces of highly porous samples) were out of reach. This changed in 1970s, when for molecules adsorbed on some surfaces, very large increase of the intensity of Raman spectrum (denoted as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy - SERS) was reported. In the past decade, two other very important achievements in surface Raman spectroscopy have been made: observation of SER spectrum of a single molecule and coupling of Raman spectroscope with the scanning probe microscope (STM or AFM) allowing a significant increase in the spatial resolution of Raman measurements in so-called tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). In the latter approach, fine tip made of a metal that supports surface plasmon resonances (such tip may be treated as a very local electromagnetic resonator) is brought at the nanometer distance above the surface, which induces large increase of the Raman scattering from molecules adsorbed at a surface located underneath the tip. This short review presents an overview of the state of the art and further possible applications of Raman spectroscopy in surface analysis. We mainly focus on SERS and TERS. Future prospects in these fields are also discussed.

  9. Evaluation of thermal residual stresses in laser drilled alumina ceramics using Micro-Raman spectroscopy and COMSOL Multiphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharatish, A.; Narasimha Murthy, H. N.; Aditya, G.; Anand, B.; Satyanarayana, B. S.; Krishna, M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents evaluation of thermal residual stresses in the heat affected zone of laser drilled alumina ceramic by using Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The residual stresses were evaluated for the holes corresponding to the optimal parameters of laser power, scanning speed, frequency and hole diameter. Three such cases were considered for the study. Residual stresses were obtained as a function of the Raman shifts. The nature and magnitude of the residual stresses were indicative of the extent of damage caused in the heat affected zone. In cases where the initial tensile residual stresses exceeded the tensile strength of alumina, cracks were initiated. Laser drilling with higher laser power and lower scanning speed induced initially high compressive and cyclic thermal stresses, causing greater damage to the hole. Transient thermal analysis was performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to predict residual thermal stresses and to validate the micro-Raman results. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to confirm the damage caused in the heat affected zone.

  10. The Detection of Biosignatures by Laser Raman Spectroscopy for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J.; Wang, A.; Lu, Y.; Connor, K.; Bradley, A.; Marshall, C.; Steele, A.

    2014-06-01

    Laser Raman spectra of potential biosignature molecules on Mars possess strong bands to distinguish them from each other and from minerals. Tests of the detection limits demonstrated satisfaction of the requirements posted by Mars2020 STD report.

  11. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements in a rocket motor plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. R.; McKeown, D.; Porter, F. M.; Norris, J. O. W.; Baker, C. A.; Rawley, K. M.; Astill, A. G.

    Two laser spectroscopic techniques have been applied to a liquid fueled rocket motor in the field. Nitrogen Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy measurements have been used to map extensively instantaneous temperatures in the exhaust plume. Laser Induced Fluorescence has mapped sodium concentrations (introduced via the oxidant) showing that portions of the plume originate not from oxidized fuel but entrained air. Both sets of measurements indicated a high degree of turbulence within the plume.

  12. Compact Handheld Probe for Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy with Implemented Dual-Wavelength Diode Laser at 785 Nanometers.

    PubMed

    Maiwald, Martin; Eppich, Bernd; Ginolas, Arnim; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2015-10-01

    A compact handheld probe for shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) with an implemented dual-wavelength diode laser with an emission at 785 nm is presented. The probe is milled from aluminum and has dimensions 100 × 28 × 12 mm. The diode laser provides two excitation lines with a spectral distance of 10 cm(-1) (0.62 nm), has a spectral width smaller than 11 pm, and reaches an optical power of 120 mW ex probe. Raman experiments were carried out using polystyrene (PS) as the test sample. During a measurement time of over 1 h, a stable spectral center position of the Raman line at 999 cm(-1) of PS was achieved within a spectral window of 0.1 cm(-1). Here, the Raman intensity of this line was observed with a peak-to-peak variation smaller than ±2%, dominated by shot noise interference. A deviation of the center position of a Raman line with <±1 cm(-1) was observed over the whole excitation power range. Raman investigations of the quartz glass window of the SERDS probe showed minor interference. The results demonstrate the suitability of the developed handheld probe for Raman investigations and the application of in situ SERDS experiments to fields such as food safety control, medical diagnostics, and process control. PMID:26449807

  13. Fiber-coupled laser-induced breakdown and Raman spectroscopy for flexible sample characterization with depth profiling capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaus, Reto; Hahn, David W.

    2014-10-01

    A combined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy system for depth profile analyses is presented. The system incorporates a single 532 nm laser source, which is delivered through an optical fiber to the sample site. The homogenized laser beam results in well-defined cylindrical craters with diameters of 100 μm. LIBS depth profiling analyses of metals was performed applying pulse energies of about 1 mJ. The application of up to 500 pulses allowed to drill through layers of several tens of microns, while observing sharp transitions at the layer interfaces. The capability of the system for Raman spectroscopy was investigated for various polymer samples by reducing the pulse energies below the respective ablation threshold. A combined Raman/LIBS depth profiling was applied to a polymer-coated metal. Additionally, the capability of the system for calibration-free LIBS quantification (CF-LIBS) was evaluated. Quantification of major elements in metallic reference materials showed good agreement with the certified values with relative deviations of less than 30%. Finally, the optimized system was applied for depth profiling and elemental composition analysis of ancient Roman bronze rings. Overall, the presented setup combines the high flexibility of a fiber-coupled system with Raman and micro-LIBS, making the system interesting for depth profiling and elemental quantification in archaeometric as well as industrial applications.

  14. Laser-induced excited-state ligation changes for nickel tetraphenylporphine monitored by Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Spiro, T.G.

    1986-04-16

    Metalloporphyrins offer the interesting possibility of undergoing changes in axial ligation associated with the pumping of excited ligand field states via intersystems crossing from initially populated porphyrin ..pi..-..pi..* states. One example is the extremely rapid and efficient photodissociation of the CO adduct of heme proteins, which has been widely exploited in studying the heme-linked protein dynamics of these O/sub 2/-carrying and -activating macromolecules. Nickel porphyrins offer an attractive system for investigation since they are 4-coordinate and low spin in noncoordinating and weakly coordinating solvents but 6-coordinate and high spin in strongly coordinating solvents. Holten and co-workers have shown with transient optical spectroscopy that the accessible excited state (low spin) of the 6-coordinate species rapidly loses its axial ligands, while the excited state of 4-coordinate nickel porphyrin (high spin) becomes ligated, thanks to the hole created in d/sub z /sup 2// orbital. It should therefore be possible to shift the equilibrium between 4- and 6-coordinate species with photons. In this report the authors demonstrate such pumping with CW laser excitation of stationary samples of NiTPP (nickel tetraphenylporphine) in pyridine and piperidine, using resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy to monitor the ligation changes. The RR spectra also allow assessment of the structural change attendant upon ligation, and they permit identification of a 5-coordinate species in piperidine solution, with a ground state that is probably high spin.

  15. Remote Raman - Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Geochemical Investigation under Venus Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, S. M.; Barefield, J. E.; Humphries, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Dyar, M. D.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    The extreme Venus surface temperatures (~740 K) and atmospheric pressures (~93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. [1] and Sharma et al. [2] demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic [3] with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachy-andesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to quantitatively determine the major elemental abundance of the remaining samples [4]. PLS analysis suggests that the major element compositions can be determined with root mean square errors ca. 5% (absolute) for SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3(total), MgO, and CaO, and ca. 2% or less for TiO2, Cr2O3, MnO, K2O, and Na2O. Finally, the Raman experiments have been conducted under supercritical CO2 involving single-mineral and mixed-mineral samples containing talc, olivine, pyroxenes, feldspars, anhydrite, barite, and siderite. The Raman data have shown that the individual minerals can easily be identified individually or in mixtures. [1] Wiens R.C., et al. (2005) Spect. Acta A 61, 2324; [2] Sharma, S. K. et al. (2007) Spect. Acta A, 68 , 1036 (2007); [3] Barsukov VL (1992) Venusian Igneous Rocks. In Venus Geology, Geochemistry, and Geophysics (eds. VL Barsukov et al.). Univ. Arizona Press, pp. 165-176. [4] Tucker, J.M. et al. (2010) Chem. Geol., in press.

  16. Identification of carotenoids in ancient salt from Death Valley, Saline Valley, and Searles Lake, California, using laser Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Winters, Y D; Lowenstein, T K; Timofeeff, M N

    2013-11-01

    Carotenoids are common components of many photosynthetic organisms and are well known from the red waters of hypersaline ecosystems where they are produced by halophilic algae and prokaryotes. They are also of great interest as biomarkers in extraterrestrial samples. Few laser Raman spectroscopy studies have examined ancient field samples, where pigments and microscopic life are less defined. Here, we have identified carotenoids in ancient halite brine inclusions, 9 ka to 1.44 Ma in age, from borehole cores taken from Death Valley, Saline Valley, and Searles Lake, California, for the first time with laser Raman spectroscopy. Carotenoids occurred in fluid inclusions as colorless to red-brown amorphous and crystalline masses associated with spheroidal algal cells similar in appearance to the common halophilic alga Dunaliella. Spectra from carotenoid standards, including β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein, were compared to microscopically targeted carotenoids in fluid inclusions. Carotenoids produced characteristic bands in the Raman spectrum, 1000-1020 cm⁻¹ (v₃), 1150-1170 cm⁻¹ (v₂), and 1500-1550 cm⁻¹ (v₁), when exposed to visible laser excitation. Laser Raman analyses confirmed the presence of carotenoids with these characteristic peaks in ancient halite. A number of band sets were repeated at various depths (ages), which suggests the stability of this class of organic molecules. Carotenoids appear well preserved in ancient salt, which supports other observations, for example, preserved DNA and live cells, that fluid inclusions in buried halite deposits preserve intact halophilic microbial ecosystems. This work demonstrates the value of laser Raman spectroscopy and carotenoids in extraterrestrial exploration for remnants of microbial life. PMID:24283928

  17. Dual-wavelength Y-branch distributed Bragg reflector diode laser at 785 nanometers for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maiwald, Martin; Eppich, Bernd; Fricke, Jrg; Ginolas, Arnim; Bugge, Frank; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Gtz; Trnkle, Gnther

    2014-01-01

    A dual-wavelength Y-branch distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) diode laser at 785 nm is presented as an excitation light source for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS). The monolithic device was realized with deeply etched surface DBR gratings using one-step epitaxy. An optical output power of 140 mW was obtained in continuous-wave (CW) operation for each laser cavity, with emission wavelengths of the device at 784.50 and 785.12 nm. A spectral width of the laser emission of 30 pm (0.5 cm(-1)), including 95% of optical power, was measured. The mean spectral distance of both excitation lines is 0.63 nm (10.2 cm(-1)) over the whole operating range. Raman experiments using polystyrene as the test sample and ambient light as the interference source were carried out and demonstrate the suitability of the dual-wavelength diode laser for SERDS. PMID:25061785

  18. Classification and Discrimination of Minerals Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Yunfeng; Zhang, Ying; Yan, Jingwen; Wu, Zhongchen; Li, Ying

    2015-11-01

    The classification and discrimination of minerals are important in geological research. The distribution of rocks and minerals may be inferred based on their identification, which is helpful for the investigation of some geological and environmental evolution problems, either on the earth or on other planets. LIBS and Raman spectra techniques have shown great advantages in simultaneous multi-component, in-situ, and non-destructive detection and they play an important role in rock composition analysis. In this presentation, six kinds of minerals (Gypsum, Spodumene, Barite, Haematite, Moonstone, and Labradorite) were detected by first using LIBS and Raman systems, and then several other methods (PCA, PLS-DA, ANN, and SVM) were used to evaluate the LIBS, Raman, and the fused LIBS/Raman data, respectively. The results indicate the superiority of the fused LIBS/Raman data in mineral classification, which stems from their complementary analysis abilities when studying element composition and structural features. supported by Shandong University of China (No. 2014ZQXM004) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41503063)

  19. Assessment of argon ion laser dispersive Raman spectroscopy for hot cell applications

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, B.A.

    1995-02-24

    Characterization of high-level waste tank materials at Hanford is conducted to support safety assessments and waste treatment activities. Raman spectroscopy is expected to give chemical species information which may assist in defining layering in tank waste. This report describes the dispersive Raman system used in this year`s investigation and the methology used to collect and evaluate data taken on tank waste samples. The current argon-ion Raman system was found not to be suitable for screening of tank cores, owing to silica interference, fluorescence interferences, and the extensive time required to collect and treat the data. Recommendations are given for further development.

  20. Laser irradiation of carbon nanotube films: Effects and heat dissipation probed by Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mialichi, J. R.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Iikawa, F.; Verissimo, C.; Moshkalev, S. A.

    2013-07-14

    We investigate the thermal properties of thin films formed by single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes submitted to laser irradiation using Raman scattering as a probe of both the tube morphology and the local temperature. The nanotubes were submitted to heating/cooling cycles attaining high laser intensities ({approx}1.4 MW/cm{sup 2}) under vacuum and in the presence of an atmosphere, with and without oxygen. We investigate the heat diffusion of the irradiated nanotubes to their surroundings and the effect of laser annealing on their properties. The presence of oxygen during laser irradiation gives rise to an irreversible increase of the Raman efficiency of the carbon nanotubes and to a remarkable increase of the thermal conductivity of multi-walled films. The second effect can be applied to design thermal conductive channels in devices based on carbon nanotube films using laser beams.

  1. Evaluation of Residual Strain and Oxygen Vacancy in Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor Using Laser Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Ken; Kishi, Hiroshi; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Hironari; Katoda, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2007-10-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to investigate the residual strain and oxygen vacancies of BaTiO3-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with a Ni internal electrode. Strain was found to accumulate around the internal Ni electrodes layers than at other parts of the MLCCs. In addition, the number of oxygen vacancies near the internal Ni electrode was larger than that at any other parts of the MLCCs. These observations clearly show that Raman spectroscopy is extremely useful for evaluating the residual strain and oxygen vacancies in MLCC devices.

  2. Single nanotube Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, M S; Dresselhaus, G; Jorio, A; Souza Filho, A G; Pimenta, M A; Saito, R

    2002-12-01

    A review is presented on the observation of the resonant Raman spectra from one isolated single wall carbon nanotube, focusing on the important structural information that is provided by single nanotube spectroscopy including the (n, m) determination of the individual tubes. The special sensitivity of the radial breathing mode to the (n, m) determination is emphasized, and the corroboration of this (n, m) assignment by diameter- and chirality-dependent phenomena in other Raman modes, such as the G-band, D-band, and G'-band features is also discussed. The significance of single nanotube spectroscopy for future nanotube research in general is briefly reviewed. PMID:12484795

  3. Complementary analysis of tissue homogenates composition obtained by Vis and NIR laser excitations and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniszewska-Slezak, Emilia; Malek, Kamilla; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2015-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy and four excitation lines in the visible (Vis: 488, 532, 633 nm) and near infrared (NIR: 785 nm) were used for biochemical analysis of rat tissue homogenates, i.e. myocardium, brain, liver, lung, intestine, and kidney. The Vis Raman spectra are very similar for some organs (brain/intestines and kidney/liver) and dominated by heme signals when tissues of lung and myocardium were investigated (especially with 532 nm excitation). On the other hand, the NIR Raman spectra are specific for each tissue and more informative than the corresponding ones collected with the Vis excitations. The spectra analyzed without any special pre-processing clearly illustrate different chemical composition of each tissue and give information about main components e.g. lipids or proteins, but also about the content of some specific compounds such as amino acid residues, nucleotides and nucleobases. However, in order to obtain the whole spectral information about tissues complex composition the spectra of Vis and NIR excitations should be collected and analyzed together. A good agreement of data gathered from Raman spectra of the homogenates and those obtained previously from Raman imaging of the tissue cross-sections indicates that the presented here approach can be a method of choice for an investigation of biochemical variation in animal tissues. Moreover, the Raman spectral profile of tissue homogenates is specific enough to be used for an investigation of potential pathological changes the organism undergoes, in particular when supported by the complementary FTIR spectroscopy.

  4. Complementary analysis of tissue homogenates composition obtained by Vis and NIR laser excitations and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Staniszewska-Slezak, Emilia; Malek, Kamilla; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2015-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy and four excitation lines in the visible (Vis: 488, 532, 633 nm) and near infrared (NIR: 785 nm) were used for biochemical analysis of rat tissue homogenates, i.e. myocardium, brain, liver, lung, intestine, and kidney. The Vis Raman spectra are very similar for some organs (brain/intestines and kidney/liver) and dominated by heme signals when tissues of lung and myocardium were investigated (especially with 532 nm excitation). On the other hand, the NIR Raman spectra are specific for each tissue and more informative than the corresponding ones collected with the Vis excitations. The spectra analyzed without any special pre-processing clearly illustrate different chemical composition of each tissue and give information about main components e.g. lipids or proteins, but also about the content of some specific compounds such as amino acid residues, nucleotides and nucleobases. However, in order to obtain the whole spectral information about tissues complex composition the spectra of Vis and NIR excitations should be collected and analyzed together. A good agreement of data gathered from Raman spectra of the homogenates and those obtained previously from Raman imaging of the tissue cross-sections indicates that the presented here approach can be a method of choice for an investigation of biochemical variation in animal tissues. Moreover, the Raman spectral profile of tissue homogenates is specific enough to be used for an investigation of potential pathological changes the organism undergoes, in particular when supported by the complementary FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:25847786

  5. Laser Raman micro-spectroscopy of Neoproterozoic - Early Palaeozoic organic-walled palynomorphs: palaeobiological interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecoli, Marco; Dhamelincourt, Marie Claire; Mezzetti, Alberto; Cesari, Christian; Versteegh, Gerard

    2010-05-01

    Proterozoic and Palaeozoic organic walled microfossils (palynomorphs) comprise a wide range of organisms (e.g., oceanic photosynthetic microplankton, microzooplankton, and microscopic spores from earliest land plants), which characterize important evolutionary events in Earth's biosphere. For example, the evolutionary patterns and abundance fluctuations of acritarchs in the sedimentary records have been put in relation with changes in ocean chemistry, global glaciations, the diversification of metazoans, and variations in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Palynomorphs also record the transition of life from water (freshwater algae) to land (earliest miospores). Classical morphological comparative analytical methods are limited to those cases in which direct comparisons with extant organisms are available, but in many instances the biological affinities of pre-Devonian palynomorphs remain unknown. Recently, new techniques based on microchemical analysis of individual organic-walled microfossils demonstrated their potential for elucidating the cellular anatomy, composition, and mode of preservation of microfossils, thus offering new insights into their palaeobiology. In this study Laser Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied to a range of exceptionally well-preserved palynomorphs of late Neoproterozoic to early Devonian age, in order to better characterize their chemical composition. Raman spectra were successfully obtained from the studied palynomorphs; all showed characteristic bands attributable to C=C stretching for polycyclic aromatic compounds and contributions from CH2/CH3 bending. As in previously published MicroRaman spectra of organic-walled microfossils of varying age and state of preservation, the spectra reported here are characterized by two main lines at ~1350 and ~1600 cm-1 given by the so-called "D" (disordered) and "G" (graphitic) bands. These spectral features can be attributed to molecular subunits of interlinked aromatic hydrocarbons. It is important of notice that the position and shape of bands can vary between the species within the same sample, showing variability in the exact chemical composition depending on the species studied. For instance, the position of the main peak in the "D" region is placed at 1354 cm-1 in Navifusa majensis and Leiosphaeridia sp., whereas in Valeria lophostriata it is placed at 1375 cm-1. Similarly, the wavenumber of the "G" band is different, being 1600 cm-1 for the first two species and at 1577 cm-1 for Valeria lophostriata. Since these differences are taxon specific we suggest that they relate to the initial chemical and physical differences between the newly synthesised acritarch walls. The differences observed may be the preserved differences in chemistry of the biomacromolecules that comprised the original (not diagenetically modified) acritarch walls. Alternatively, the observed differences may only reflect result from differences between the original wall biomacromolecules, but no longer incorporate them since they have been entirely modified into geomacromolecules over time.

  6. Novel single-cell functional analysis of red blood cells using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy: application for sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Mao, Ziliang; Matthews, Dennis L; Li, Chin-Shang; Chan, James W; Satake, Noriko

    2013-07-01

    Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the oxygenation response of single normal adult, sickle, and cord blood red blood cells (RBCs) to an applied mechanical force. Individual cells were subjected to different forces by varying the laser power of a single-beam optical trap, and the intensities of several oxygenation-specific Raman spectral peaks were monitored to determine the oxygenation state of the cells. For all three cell types, an increase in laser power (or mechanical force) induced a greater deoxygenation of the cell. However, sickle RBCs deoxygenated more readily than normal RBCs when subjected to the same optical forces. Conversely, cord blood RBCs were able to maintain their oxygenation better than normal RBCs. These results suggest that differences in the chemical or mechanical properties of fetal, normal, and sickle cells affect the degree to which applied mechanical forces can deoxygenate the cell. Populations of normal, sickle, and cord RBCs were identified and discriminated based on this mechanochemical phenomenon. This study demonstrates the potential application of laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy as a single-cell, label-free analytical tool to characterize the functional (e.g., mechanical deformability, oxygen binding) properties of normal and diseased RBCs. PMID:23537725

  7. Raman spectroscopy of composites

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.J.; Andrews, M.C.; Yang, X.; Huang, Y.L.; Gu, X.; Day, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    It is demonstrated that Raman Spectroscopy can be used to follow the micromechanics of the deformation of high-performance fibers within composites. The technique can be applied to a wide range of fiber systems including aramids, carbon and ceramic (using fluorescence spectroscopy) fibers. Well-defined Raman spectra are obtained and the position of the Raman bands shift on the application of stress or strain. It is possible to determine the point-to-point variation of strain along an individual fiber inside a transparent matrix under any general state of stress or strain. Examples are given of the use of the technique to study a variety of phenomena in a wide range of composite systems. The phenomena investigated include thermal stresses, fiber/matrix adhesion, matrix yielding for both fragmentation and pull-out tests. The systems studied include aramid/epoxy, carbon/epoxy and ceramic-fiber/glass composites.

  8. Raman spectroscopy in astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Jorge Villar, Susana E; Edwards, Howell G M

    2006-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is proposed as a valuable analytical technique for planetary exploration because it is sensitive to organic and inorganic compounds and able to unambiguously identify key spectral markers in a mixture of biological and geological components; furthermore, sample manipulation is not required and any size of sample can be studied without chemical or mechanical pretreatment. NASA and ESA are considering the adoption of miniaturised Raman spectrometers for inclusion in suites of analytical instrumentation to be placed on robotic landers on Mars in the near future to search for extinct or extant life signals. In this paper we review the advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of complex specimens with relevance to the detection of bio- and geomarkers in extremophilic organisms which are considered to be terrestrial analogues of possible extraterrestial life that could have developed on planetary surfaces. PMID:16456933

  9. [Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy analysis of cold-adapted aromatic hydrocarbons-degradating strains isolated from Antarctic Sea].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Bin; Miao, Jin-Lai; He, Bi-Juan; Liang, Qiang; Liu, Fang-Ming; Zheng, Zhou

    2011-02-01

    Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy can help with observing and studying individual cells or organelles in a natural state for a relatively long period. In the present experiment, Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) was used as a tool to report physiological metabolism such as cells growth and nucleic acid, proteins, lipid and glucose of a single active cold-adapted Aromatic hydrocarbons-degradating strains isolated from Antarctic Sea. After the Raman spectrum was collected and analyzed, the findings are as follows: Raman spectrum identified the components of a single cold-adapted Aromatic hydrocarbons-degradating strain and there were more proteins and carbohydrate produced during the Planococcus sp. NJ41 and Shewanella sp. NJ49 growth and degradation; but there was more lipid than the proteins produced during the Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ289 growth and degradation; the amount of proteins produced by the strains corresponds with the production of degradation rate-limiting enzyme, and was also related to the capacity of low-temperature degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:21510394

  10. Nucleic acid and protein structures and interactions in viruses investigated by laser Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, George J.

    1986-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy may be profitably exploited to determine details of protein and nucleic acid structures and their mutual interactions in viruses and gene regulatory complexes. Present applications use data obtained from model nucleic acid crystals, fibers and solutions to reveal preferred backbone and nucleoside conformations for different morphological states of DNA and RNA in plant (TMV, BDMV) and bacterial viruses (P22, Pfl, Xf, Pf3, fd, Ifl, IKe). Interpretation of the results is enhanced by deconvolution methods which, in favorable cases, permit quantitative conclusions regarding macromolecular structures. Both equilibrium and dynamic Raman applications are described.

  11. Detection of explosives and latent fingerprint residues utilizing laser pointer-based Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malka, Itamar; Petrushansky, Alona; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana

    2013-12-01

    A modular, compact Raman spectrometer, based on a green laser pointer, an air cooled intensified charged coupled device and a x, y motorized translation stage was developed and applied for point detection. Its performance was tested for measurements of Raman spectra of liquids, trace amounts of explosives and individual particles, as well as for locating individual particles of interest and for chemical imaging of residues of latent human fingerprints. This system was found to be highly sensitive, identifying masses as low as ~1 ng in short times. The point and real-time detection capabilities of the spectrometer, together with the portability that it offers, make it a potential candidate for replacing existing Raman microscopes and for field applications.

  12. Ultrashort high repetition rate exposure of dielectric materials: laser bonding of glasses analyzed by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, S.; Zimmermann, F.; Dring, S.; Tnnermann, A.; Nolte, S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the joining of different glass types with dissimilar optical, thermal and mechanical properties by ultrashort laser welding at high repetition rates. Femtosecond laser pulses were focused at the interface of two optically contacted transparent samples. Using nonlinear absorption processes and heat accumulation of successive pulses, we achieved strong bonds between the samples. We used a three-point bending test to determine the breaking strength. With this technique, we achieved for instance for a borosilicate glass a breaking strength of up to 95 % of the bulk material. In addition, we even welded different material combinations. Although the welded glasses exhibit different thermal and mechanical properties, we obtained breaking strengths which are comparable to the utilized bulk materials. Using Raman spectroscopy we mapped the laser-processed material along the welded interface. Thereby, we determined that the welds consist of a mixture of both species, which is formed during the laser induced melting of the materials.

  13. Portable Raman spectroscopy using retina-safe (1550 nm) laser excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouillette, Carl; Smith, Wayne; Donahue, Michael; Huang, Hermes; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Inscore, Frank; Patient, Michael; Farquharson, Stuart

    2012-06-01

    The use of portable Raman analyzers to identify unknown substances in the field has grown dramatically during the past decade. Measurements often require the laser beam to exit the confines of the sample compartment, which increases the potential of eye or skin damage. This is especially true for most commercial analyzers, which use 785 nm laser excitation. To overcome this safety concern, we have built a portable FT-Raman analyzer using a 1550 nm retina-safe excitation laser. Excitation at 1550 nm falls within the 1400 to 2000 nm retina-safe range, so called because the least amount of damage to the eye occurs in this spectral region. In contrast to wavelengths below 1400 nm, the retina-safe wavelengths are not focused by the eye, but are absorbed by the cornea, aqueous and vitreous humor. Here we compare the performance of this system to measurements of explosives at shorter wavelengths, as well as its ability to measure surface-enhanced Raman spectra of several chemicals, including the food contaminant melamine.

  14. Raman cavity dump laser

    SciTech Connect

    Stultz, R.D.; Narhi, D.E.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes an improvement in a laser which includes a lasing medium within a resonant cavity. The improvement comprising: a Q-spoiler provided by a Raman medium which soils the Q of the resonant cavity by absorbing laser photons when the intensity of laser photons exceeds a threshold.

  15. Aperture combined Raman laser

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, C.; Tang, K.; Howton, C.; Muller, D.; Hunter, R.O. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Excimer lasers, while able to produce large powers and energies, are limited to a few discrete wavelengths. Efficient Raman shifting promises the availability of a much broader wavelength range. A method was developed which both Raman shifts and allows for multiple pump beams.

  16. Thermal conductivity of GaAs nanowires studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soini, Martin; Zardo, Ilaria; Uccelli, Emanuele; Funk, Stefan; Koblmüller, Gregor; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna; Abstreiter, Gerhard

    2010-12-01

    The thermal properties of freely suspended GaAs nanowires are investigated by applying a method which relies on laser heating and the determination of the local temperature by Raman spectroscopy. In order to determine the values for the thermal conductivity κ, the fraction of the laser power absorbed inside the GaAs nanowire is estimated by numerical simulations. The thermal conductivity of nanowires with homogeneous diameter is found to lie in the range of 8-36 W m-1 K-1. The change of the temperature profile in the presence of a tapering was investigated. Furthermore, we discuss the influence of laser heating in ambient conditions on the value of κ.

  17. Vicker's hardness and Raman spectroscopy evaluation of a dental composite cured by an argon laser and a halogen lamp.

    PubMed

    Soares, Lus Eduardo Silva; Martin, Airton Abraho; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Pacheco, Marcos T T

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of the Vicker's hardness test and the use of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (RS) to measure in vitro the degree of conversion (DC) of a bis(phenol)-A-glycidyl-dimethacrylate-based composite resin, photoactivated by both a halogen lamp (power density=478 mW/cm(2); 8-mm diameter spot) and an argon laser (power density=625 mW/cm(2); 7-mm diameter spot). The degree of conversion was estimated by analyzing the relative intensities between the aromatic C=C stretching Raman mode at 1610 cm(-1) and the methacrylate C=C stretching Raman mode (1640 cm(-1)) on top and bottom surfaces. For the hardness evaluation, the samples were embedded in polyester resin and three indentations with a 50-g load for 10 s were made on the top surface. The higher relative DC values achieved by the photoactivation of a composite resin by the argon laser suggest a better biocompatibility in the bottom surface. The correlation test showed that the higher Vicker's hardness number (VHN) values were associated with higher DC values. The derivative analysis showed a greater curing rate from 5 to 20 s of exposure. The comparison of VHN and DC values with both light sources at each curing time showed that a small change in conversion is related to a large change in hardness. Raman spectroscopy is more sensitive to changes in the first stages of curing reaction than later ones, and the Vicker's hardness assay is more sensitive to changes in the last stages. PMID:15189099

  18. Unveiling the identity of distant targets through advanced Raman-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data fusion strategies.

    PubMed

    Moros, Javier; Laserna, J Javier

    2015-03-01

    Data fusion is the process of combining data gathered from two or more sensors to produce a more specific, comprehensive and unified dataset of the inspected target. On this basis, much has been said about the possible benefits resulting from the use of molecular and atomic information for the detection of explosives. The orthogonal nature of the spectral and compositional information provided by Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) makes them suitable candidates for an optimal combination of their data, thus achieving inferences that are not feasible using a single sensor. The present manuscript evaluates several architectures for the combination of spectral outputs from these two sensors in order to compare the benefits and drawbacks of data fusion for improving the overall identification performance. From the simple assembling (concatenation or addition) of Raman and LIBS spectra to signals' processing on the basis of linear algebra (either the outer product or the outer sum), different identification patterns of several compounds (explosives, potential confusants and supports) have been built. The efficiency on target differentiation by using each of the architectures has been evaluated by comparing the identification yield obtained for all the inspected targets from correlation and similarity measurements. Additionally, a specific code integrated by several of these patterns to identify each compound has also been evaluated. This approach permits to obtain a better knowledge about the identity of an interrogated target, mainly in those decisive cases in which LIBS or Raman cannot be effective separately to reach a decision. PMID:25618716

  19. Emerging Dental Applications of Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Hewko, Mark; Sowa, Michael G.

    Until recently, the application of Raman spectroscopy to investigate dental tissues has primarily focused on using microspectroscopy to characterize dentin and enamel structures as well as to understand the adhesive interface of various resin and bonding agents used in restorative procedures. With the advent of improved laser, imaging/mapping and fibre optic technologies, the applications have expanded to investigate various biomedical problems ranging from oral cancer, bacterial identification and early dental caries detection. The overall aim of these applications is to develop Raman spectroscopy into a tool for use in the dental clinic. This chapter presents the recent dental applications of Raman spectroscopy as well as discusses the potential, strengths and limitations of the technology in comparison with alternative techniques. In addition, a discussion and rationale about combining Raman spectroscopy with other optical techniques will be included.

  20. Raman spectroscopy of oral bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Andrew J.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Quivey, Robert G.

    2003-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been employed to measure the varying concentrations of two oral bacteria in simple mixtures. Evaporated droplets of centrifuged mixtures of Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans were analyzed via Raman microspectroscopy. The concentration of s. sanguis was determined based upon the measured Raman spectrum, using partial least squares cross-validation, with an r2 value of 0.98.

  1. Laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy in capillary electrophoresis as an possible instrument for extraterrestrial life signs detection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, Gorlenko; Cheptcov, Vladimir; Anton, Maydykovskiy; Eugeniy, Vasilev

    The one of a significant aims in extraterrestrial exploration is a seeking for a life traces in a open space and planetary objects. Complex composition and unknown origin of suspected signs of life required у new analytical approaches and technical solutions. The promising assai here can be Laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy methods. The combined instrument developed by our team reveal the advantage of capillary electrophoresis assays in a junction with laser induced fluorescence detection technology. We optimized excitation configuration of fluorescence in capillary electrophoresis to reduce pumping laser power up to 1 mW and decrease background scattering. The improvement of the device sensitivity at poor sample concentration we achieved by incorporating fluorescence flow-through cuvette into spectrometer. That allows to simplify setup, to minimize weight and increase reproducibility of measurements. The device has been tasted in complex organic chemical mixes and microbial strains differentiation tasks. 3d multinational spectra allow us to increase the spectra information loads in comparison with ordinary capillary electrophoresis approaches. Possible updating the device with Raman approach can even furthermore multiple the differentiation power of the instrument. The analytical module developed using this approach can be potentially effectively used in extraterrestrial researches as a payload of the future spacecraft.

  2. Micro-mirror arrays for Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, W. M.

    2015-03-01

    In this research we study Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies as non-destructive and noninvasive methods for probing biological material and "living systems." Particularly for a living material any probe need be non-destructive and non-invasive, as well as provide real time measurement information and be cost effective to be generally useful. Over the past few years the components needed to measure weak and complex processes such as Raman scattering have evolved substantially with the ready availability of lasers, dichroic filters, low noise and sensitive detectors, digitizers and signal processors. A Raman spectrum consists of a wavelength or frequency spectrum that corresponds to the inelastic (Raman) photon signal that results from irradiating a "Raman active" material. Raman irradiation of a material usually and generally uses a single frequency laser. The Raman fingerprint spectrum that results from a Raman interaction can be determined from the frequencies scattered and received by an appropriate detector. Spectra are usually "digitized" and numerically matched to a reference sample or reference material spectra in performing an analysis. Fortunately today with the many "commercial off-the-shelf" components that are available, weak intensity effects such as Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy can be used for a number of analysis applications. One of the experimental limitations in Raman measurement is the spectrometer itself. The spectrometer is the section of the system that either by interference plus detection or by dispersion plus detection that "signal" amplitude versus energy/frequency signals are measured. Particularly in Raman spectroscopy, optical signals carrying desired "information" about the analyte are extraordinarily weak and require special considerations when measuring. We will discuss here the use of compact spectrometers and a micro-mirror array system (used is the digital micro-mirror device (DMD) supplied by the DLP® Products group of Texas Instruments Incorporated) for analyzing dispersed light as needed in Raman and fluorescent applications.

  3. Raman spectroscopy and laser desorption mass spectrometry for minimal destructive forensic analysis of black and color inkjet printed documents.

    PubMed

    Heudt, Laetitia; Debois, Delphine; Zimmerman, Tyler A; Köhler, Laurent; Bano, Fouzia; Partouche, Franck; Duwez, Anne-Sophie; Gilbert, Bernard; De Pauw, Edwin

    2012-06-10

    Inkjet ink analysis is the best way to discriminate between printed documents, or even though more difficult, to connect an inkjet printed document with a brand or model of printers. Raman spectroscopy and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) have been demonstrated as powerful tools for dyes and pigments analysis, which are ink components. The aim of this work is to evaluate the aforementioned techniques for inkjet inks analysis in terms of discriminating power, information quality, and nondestructive capability. So, we investigated 10 different inkjet ink cartridges (primary colors and black), 7 from the HP manufacturer and one each from Epson, Canon and Lexmark. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of three methods: Raman spectroscopy, LDMS and MALDI-MS. Raman spectroscopy, as it is preferable to try the nondestructive approach first, is successfully adapted to the analysis of color printed documents in most cases. For analysis of color inkjet inks by LDMS, we show that a MALDI matrix (9-aminoacridine, 9AA) is needed to desorb and to ionize dyes from most inkjet inks (except Epson inks). Therefore, a method was developed to apply the 9AA MALDI matrix directly onto the piece of paper while avoiding analyte spreading. The obtained mass spectra are very discriminating and lead to information about ink additives and paper compositions. Discrimination of black inkjet printed documents is more difficult because of the common use of carbon black as the principal pigment. We show for the first time the possibility to discriminate between two black-printed documents coming from different, as well as from the same, manufacturers. Mass spectra recorded from black inks in positive ion mode LDMS detect polyethylene glycol polymers which have characteristic mass distributions and end groups. Moreover, software has been developed for rapid and objective comparison of the low mass range of these positive mode LDMS spectra which have characteristic unknown peaks. PMID:22225847

  4. Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Daniel R; Mathies, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is an ultrafast nonlinear optical technique that provides vibrational structural information with high temporal (sub-50 fs) precision and high spectral (10 cm(-1) ) resolution. Since the first full demonstration of its capabilities ≈15 years ago, FSRS has evolved into a mature technique, giving deep insights into chemical and biochemical reaction dynamics that would be inaccessible with any other technique. It is now being routinely applied to virtually all possible photochemical reactions and systems spanning from single molecules in solution to thin films, bulk crystals and macromolecular proteins. This review starts with an historic overview and discusses the theoretical and experimental concepts behind this technology. Emphasis is put on the current state-of-the-art experimental realization and several variations of FSRS that have been developed. The unique capabilities of FSRS are illustrated through a comprehensive presentation of experiments to date followed by prospects. PMID:26919612

  5. Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy in an Experimental Model of Osteoarthritis in Rats Evaluated Through Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mangueira, Nilton Maciel; Xavier, Murilo; de Souza, Renato Aparecido; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Silveira, Landulfo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This work aimed to investigate the biochemical changes associated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) using 660 and 780 nm, on a well-established experimental model of osteoarthritis (OA) in the knees of rats with induced collagenase, using histomorphometry and Raman spectroscopy. Materials and methods: Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (GCON, n=9), collagenase without treatment (GCOL, n=9), collagenase with LLLT 660 nm treatment (G660, n=8), and collagenase with LLLT 780 nm treatment (G780, n=10). LLLT protocol was: 30 mW power output, 10 sec irradiation time, 0.04 cm2 spot size, 0.3 J energy, 0.75 W/cm2 irradiance, and 7.5 J/cm2 fluence per session per day, during 14 days. Then, knees were withdrawn and submitted to histomorphometry and Raman spectroscopy analysis. Principal components analysis (PCA) and Mahalanobis distance were employed to characterize the spectral findings. Results: Histomorphometry revealed a significant increase in the amount of collagen III for the group irradiated with 660 nm. The Raman bands at 1247, 1273, and 1453 cm−1 (from principal component score PC2), attributed to collagen type II, and 1460 cm−1 (from PC3), attributed to collagen type III, suggested that the LLLT causes acceleration in cellular activity, especially on the cells that repair cartilage, accelerating the breakdown of cartilage destroyed by collagenase and stimulating the fibroblast to synthesize repairing collagen III. Conclusions: LLLT accelerated the initial breakdown of cartilage destroyed by collagenase and stimulated the fibroblast to synthesize the repairing collagen III, suggesting a beneficial effect of LLLT on OA. PMID:25714387

  6. Monolithic diamond Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Sean; Savitski, Vasili G; Liu, Hangyu; Gu, Erdan; Dawson, Martin D; Kemp, Alan J

    2015-03-15

    A monolithic diamond Raman laser is reported. It utilizes a 13-mm radius of curvature lens etched onto the diamond surface and dielectric mirror coatings to form a stable resonator. The performance is compared to that of a monolithic diamond Raman laser operating in a plane-plane cavity. On pumping with a compact Q-switched laser at 532 nm (16 μJ pulse energy; 1.5 ns pulse duration; 10 kHz repetition-rate; M2<1.5), laser action was observed at the first, second, and third Stokes wavelengths (573 nm, 620 nm and 676 nm, respectively) in both cases. For the microlens cavity, a conversion efficiency of 84% was achieved from the pump to the total Raman output power, with a slope efficiency of 88%. This compares to a conversion efficiency of 59% and a slope efficiency of 74% for the plane-plane case. Total Raman output powers of 134 and 96 mW were achieved for the microlens and plane-plane cavities, respectively. PMID:25768149

  7. Applications of high resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Owyoung, A.; Esherick, P.

    1980-01-01

    The use of high-power, narrow-band lasers has significantly improved the resolving power and sensitivity of inverse Raman spectroscopy of gases. In this paper we shall describe this technique, illustrate its capabilities by showing some Q-branch spectra of heavy spherical tops, and survey some possible future applications.

  8. [Research on the Quantitative Analysis for In-Situ Detection of Acid Radical Ions Using Laser Raman Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Li, Ying; Du, Zeng-feng; Gu, Yan-hong; Guo, Jin-jia

    2015-09-01

    Laser Raman spectroscopy as an in situ analytical technology can enable detailed investigation of the ocean environment. It is necessary to set up a quantitative analysis method based on laser Raman spectroscopy to understand the marine status in situ. In the laboratory investigations, varied concentration of HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and coastal waters of Qingdao are taken as the samples, operating 532 nm of laser, using fiber optic probes to simulate detection mode in situ. Raman spectra are analyzed using the method of internal standard normalization, multiple linear regression (MLR), general Partial Least Squares (PLS) and PLS based on dominant factor respectively in data processing. It was found that correlation coefficients of calibration curves are not high in internal standard normalization method and predicted relative errors on the prepared samples are much high, so internal standard normalization method cannot be effectively used in the quantitative analysis of HCO3(-), SO4(2-) in the water. And with the multiple linear regression, the analysis accuracy was improved effectively. The calibration curve of PLS based on dominant factor showed that the SO4(2-) and HCO3(-) of pre-made solution with correlation coefficient R2 of 0.990 and 0.916 respectively. The 30 mmol · L(-1) of SO4(2-) and 20 mmol · L(-1) of HCO3(-) in two target samples were determined with the relative errors lower than 3.262% and 5.267% respectively. SO4(2-) in the coastal waters as the research object was analyzed by above-mentioned methods, comparing with 28.01 mmol · L(-1) by ion chromatography. It was demonstrated that PLS based on dominant factor method is superior to the rest of the three analysis methods, which can be used in situ calibration, with the mean relative error about 1.128%. All the results show that analysis accuracy would be improved by the PLS based on dominant factor method to predict concentration of acid radical ions. PMID:26669165

  9. Communication: two-dimensional gas-phase coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (2D-CARS): simultaneous planar imaging and multiplex spectroscopy in a single laser shot.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J

    2013-06-14

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has been widely used as a powerful tool for chemical sensing, molecular dynamics measurements, and rovibrational spectroscopy since its development over 30 years ago, finding use in fields of study as diverse as combustion diagnostics, cell biology, plasma physics, and the standoff detection of explosives. The capability for acquiring resolved CARS spectra in multiple spatial dimensions within a single laser shot has been a long-standing goal for the study of dynamical processes, but has proven elusive because of both phase-matching and detection considerations. Here, by combining new phase matching and detection schemes with the high efficiency of femtosecond excitation of Raman coherences, we introduce a technique for single-shot two-dimensional (2D) spatial measurements of gas phase CARS spectra. We demonstrate a spectrometer enabling both 2D plane imaging and spectroscopy simultaneously, and present the instantaneous measurement of 15,000 spatially correlated rotational CARS spectra in N2 and air over a 2D field of 40 mm(2). PMID:23781772

  10. Resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Kitagawa, Teizo

    2014-01-01

    Flavin is a general name given to molecules having the heteroaromatic ring system of 7,8-dimethylisoalloxazine but practically means riboflavin (Rfl), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in biological systems, whose structures are illustrated in Fig. 1, together with the atomic numbering scheme and ring numbering of the isoalloxazine moiety. As the isoalloxazine skeleton cannot be synthesized in human cells, it is obtained from diet as Rfl (vitamin B2). FAD and FMN can act as cofactors in flavoenzymes but Rfl does not. Most flavoenzymes catalyze redox reactions of substrates (Miura, Chem Rec 1:183-194, 2001). When O2 serves as the oxidant in the oxidation half cycle of an enzymic reaction, the enzyme is called "flavo-oxidase" but when others do, the enzyme is called "flavo-dehydrogenase." The difference between the two types of oxidative catalysis arises from delicate differences in the ?-electron distributions in the isoalloxazine ring, which can be revealed by Raman spectroscopy (Miura, Chem Rec 1:183-194, 2001). Since a flavin is an extremely versatile molecule, the scientific field including chemistry, biochemistry, and enzymology is collectively called "flavonology." It was found recently, however, that the flavin also acts as a chromophore to initiate light-induced DNA repair and signal transductions (Sancar, Chem Rev 103:2203-2237, 2003). PMID:24764099

  11. Laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, J. M.

    1992-12-01

    The primary purpose of this trip was to present two invited lectures at the Second Venezuelan Workshop on Laser Spectroscopy. This conference included essentially all of the Venezuelan researchers active in this area. In addition, four speakers from outside of Venezuela were invited to this meeting; two from the USA and two from the former Soviet Union (FSU). The primary topics of the meeting were fluorescence spectroscopy, photothermal spectroscopy, and laser - material interactions. Prior to the conference, three institutions in Caracas were visited (IVIC, USB, and UCV) and a presentation was given at UCV. The group of scientists and students attending the conference were interested in establishing collaborations with scientists in the USA.

  12. Raman spectroscopy of silver pertechnetate.

    PubMed

    Sarsfield, Mark J; Sutton, Andrew D; Livens, Francis R; May, Iain; Taylor, Robin J

    2003-06-01

    The title compound, AgTcO4, contains close Ag-O contacts, and Raman spectroscopy shows a reduction in the Tc-O stretching frequencies on changing the pertechnetate counter-cation from K+ to Ag+. PMID:12794316

  13. Analysis of natural and artificial ultramarine blue pigments using laser induced breakdown and pulsed Raman spectroscopy, statistical analysis and light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Osticioli, I; Mendes, N F C; Nevin, A; Gil, Francisco P S C; Becucci, M; Castellucci, E

    2009-08-01

    Pulsed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy were performed using a novel laboratory setup employing the same Nd:YAG laser emission at 532 nm for the analysis of five commercially available pigments collectively known as "ultramarine blue", a sodium silicate material of either mineral origin or an artificially produced glass. LIBS and Raman spectroscopy have provided information regarding the elemental and molecular composition of the samples; additionally, an analytical protocol for the differentiation between natural (lapis lazuli) and artificial ultramarine blue pigments is proposed. In particular LIBS analysis has allowed the discrimination between pigments on the basis of peaks ascribed to calcium. The presence of calcite in the natural blue pigments has been confirmed following Raman spectroscopy in specific areas of the samples, and micro-Raman and optical microscopy have further corroborated the presence of calcite inclusions in the samples of natural origin. Finally multivariate analysis of Laser induced breakdown spectra using principal component analysis (PCA) further enhanced the differentiation between natural and artificial ultramarine blue pigments. PMID:19129003

  14. Analysis of natural and artificial ultramarine blue pigments using laser induced breakdown and pulsed Raman spectroscopy, statistical analysis and light microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osticioli, I.; Mendes, N. F. C.; Nevin, A.; Gil, Francisco P. S. C.; Becucci, M.; Castellucci, E.

    2009-08-01

    Pulsed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy were performed using a novel laboratory setup employing the same Nd:YAG laser emission at 532 nm for the analysis of five commercially available pigments collectively known as "ultramarine blue", a sodium silicate material of either mineral origin or an artificially produced glass. LIBS and Raman spectroscopy have provided information regarding the elemental and molecular composition of the samples; additionally, an analytical protocol for the differentiation between natural (lapis lazuli) and artificial ultramarine blue pigments is proposed. In particular LIBS analysis has allowed the discrimination between pigments on the basis of peaks ascribed to calcium. The presence of calcite in the natural blue pigments has been confirmed following Raman spectroscopy in specific areas of the samples, and micro-Raman and optical microscopy have further corroborated the presence of calcite inclusions in the samples of natural origin. Finally multivariate analysis of Laser induced breakdown spectra using principal component analysis (PCA) further enhanced the differentiation between natural and artificial ultramarine blue pigments.

  15. Blood analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enejder, Annika M. K.; Koo, Tae-Woong; Oh, Jeankun; Hunter, Martin; Sasic, Slobodan; Feld, Michael S.; Horowitz, Gary L.

    2002-11-01

    Concentrations of multiple analytes were simultaneously measured in whole blood with clinical accuracy, without sample processing, using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were acquired with an instrument employing nonimaging optics, designed using Monte Carlo simulations of the influence of light-scattering-absorbing blood cells on the excitation and emission of Raman light in turbid medium. Raman spectra were collected from whole blood drawn from 31 individuals. Quantitative predictions of glucose, urea, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were made by means of partial least-squares (PLS) analysis with clinically relevant precision (r2 values >0.93). The similarity of the features of the PLS calibration spectra to those of the respective analyte spectra illustrates that the predictions are based on molecular information carried by the Raman light. This demonstrates the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for quantitative measurements of biomolecular contents in highly light-scattering and absorbing media.

  16. Raman spectroscopy of white wines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François

    2015-08-15

    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines. PMID:25794745

  17. Evaluating internal maturity of tomatoes using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy technique was investigated for evaluating internal maturity of intact tomatoes. A Raman spectroscopy system was assembled to acquire spatially offset spectra in the wavenumber range of 200–2500 cm–1. A 785-nm laser was used as the excitation source and the measure...

  18. Disposable sheath that facilitates endoscopic Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenbo; Short, Michael; Tai, Isabella T.; Zeng, Haishan

    2016-02-01

    In vivo endoscopic Raman spectroscopy of human tissue using a fiber optic probe has been previously demonstrated. However, there remain several technical challenges, such as a robust control over the laser radiation dose and measurement repeatability during endoscopy. A decrease in the signal to noise was also observed due to aging of Raman probe after repeated cycles of harsh reprocessing procedures. To address these issues, we designed and tested a disposable, biocompatible, and sterile sheath for use with a fiber optic endoscopic Raman probe. The sheath effectively controls contamination of Raman probes between procedures, greatly reduces turnaround time, and slows down the aging of the Raman probes. A small optical window fitted at the sheath cap maintained the measurement distance between Raman probe end and tissue surface. To ensure that the sheath caused a minimal amount of fluorescence and Raman interference, the optical properties of materials for the sheath, optical window, and bonding agent were studied. The easy-to-use sheath can be manufactured at a moderate cost. The sheath strictly enforced a maximum permissible exposure standard of the tissue by the laser and reduced the spectral variability by 1.5 to 8.5 times within the spectral measurement range.

  19. Kerr-gated picosecond Raman spectroscopy and Raman photon migration of equine bone tissue with 400-nm excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Michael D.; Goodship, Allen E.; Draper, Edward R. C.; Matousek, Pavel; Towrie, Michael; Parker, Anthony W.

    2004-07-01

    We show that Raman spectroscopy with visible lasers, even in the deep blue is possible with time-gated Raman spectroscopy. A 4 picosec time gate allows efficient fluorescence rejection, up to 1000X, and provides almost background-free Raman spectra with low incident laser power. The technology enables spectroscopy with better than 10X higher scattering efficiency than is possible with the NIR (785 nm and 830 nm) lasers that are conventionally used. Raman photon migration is shown to allow depth penetration. We show for the first time that Kerr-gated Raman spectra of bone tissue with blue laser excitation enables both fluorescence rejection and depth penetration.

  20. Raman spectroscopy in halophile research

    PubMed Central

    Jehlička, Jan; Oren, Aharon

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy plays a major role in robust detection of biomolecules and mineral signatures in halophile research. An overview of Raman spectroscopic investigations in halophile research of the last decade is given here to show advantages of the approach, progress made as well as limits of the technique. Raman spectroscopy is an excellent tool to monitor and identify microbial pigments and other biomolecules in extant and extinct halophile biomass. Studies of bottom gypsum crusts from salterns, native evaporitic sediments, halite inclusions, and endoliths as well as cultures of halophilic microorganisms permitted to understand the content, distribution, and behavior of important molecular species. The first papers describing Raman spectroscopic detection of microbiological and geochemical key markers using portable instruments are highlighted as well. PMID:24339823

  1. Characterization of Kevlar Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washer, Glenn; Brooks, Thomas; Saulsberry, Regor

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the characterization of Kevlar composite materials using Raman spectroscopy. The goal of the research is to develop and understand the Raman spectrum of Kevlar materials to provide a foundation for the development of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies based on the interaction of laser light with the polymer Kevlar. The paper discusses the fundamental aspects of experimental characterization of the spectrum of Kevlar, including the effects of incident wavelength, polarization and laser power. The effects of environmental exposure of Kevlar materials on certain characteristics of its Raman spectrum are explored, as well as the effects of applied stress. This data may provide a foundation for the development of NDE technologies intended to detect the in-situ deterioration of Kevlar materials used for engineering applications that can later be extended to other materials such as carbon fiber composites.

  2. Proximal Analysis of Regolith Habitats and Protective Biomolecules in Situ by Laser Raman Spectroscopy: Overview of Terrestrial Antarctic Habitats and Mars Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn-Williams, D. D.; Edwards, H. G. M.

    2000-04-01

    Fourier-transform laser Raman spectroscopy in the near infrared (1064 nm) has been used to characterize a variety of key pigments and biomolecules produced by cyanobacteria and other stresstolerant microbes in material from extreme Antarctic cold deserts analogous to martian habitats. These compounds include photosynthetic pigments and sunscreens to protect against harmful UV radiation in the light zone (chlorophyll, scytonemin, ?-carotene) and photoprotective minerals, such as silica containing iron (III) oxide. Calcium oxalate mono- and dihydrate produced as a result of the biological weathering processes and stress-protective compounds, necessary to protect organisms against desiccation, freezing temperatures, and hypersalinity, such as water-replacement molecules (trehalose), are also monitored. From the results obtained using Antarctic samples, it is shown that a laser-based system can be used to characterize biomolecules in their natural state within their mineral microhabitats. Because of the similarities between the Antarctic cold desert ecosystems, which represent some of the most extreme terrestrial environmental habitats, and putative martian analogs, the laser-Raman spectrosocopic approach is proposed for the detection of former life on Mars analogs to terrestrial cyanobacteria under stress, such as stromatolites, evaporites, and endolithic communities. To this end, the spectral database that is being accumulated from laser-Raman studies of these Antarctic communities will provide a resource of potential biomarkers for future remote laser-Raman analysis on future Mars missions.

  3. Measuring Rocket Engine Temperatures with Hydrogen Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.

    2002-01-01

    Laser-based combustion diagnostics, such as single-pulse UV Raman spectroscopy and visible Raman spectroscopy, have been successfully applied to optically-accessible rocket-like test articles. If an independent pressure measurement is available, Raman major species concentration measurements can also provide a temperature measurement. However it is desirable to obtain a Raman-derived temperature measurement without the need for simultaneous pressure measurement, especially when chamber pressure may vary spatially. This report describes Raman temperature measurements obtained by exploiting the variation in shape of the H2 Raman spectrum. Hydrogen is advantageous since it is ubiquitous in H2-O2 systems and its Raman spectrum is simpler than for other diatomics. However the influence of high pressure on the H2 Raman spectrum must be investigated. At moderate pressures, well below those of rocket engines, the Raman spectra of O2 and N2 are known to become featureless due to collisional broadening.

  4. High fidelity nanohole enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Bahns, J. T.; Guo, Q.; Gray, S. K.; Jaeger, H. M.; Chen, L.; Montgomery, J. M.; Univ. of Chicago

    2009-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive technique that can even detect single molecules. However, in many SERS applications, the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of intense local fields makes it very difficult for a quantitive assessment of the fidelity, or reproducibility of the signal, which limits the application of SERS. Herein, we report the development of exceptionally high-fidelity hole-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HERS) from ordered, 2D hexagonal nanohole arrays. We take the fidelity f to be a measure of the percent deviation of the Raman peaks from measurement to measurement. Overall, area averaged fidelities for 12 gold array samples ranged from f {approx} 2-15% for HERS using aqueous R6G molecules. Furthermore, intensity modulations of the enhanced Raman spectra were measured for the first time as a function of polarization angle. The best of these measurements, which focus on static laser spots on the sample, could be consistent with even higher fidelities than the area-averaged results. Nanohole arrays in silver provided supporting polarization measurements and a more complete enhanced Raman fingerprint for phenylalanine molecules. We also carried out finite-difference time-domain calculations to assist in the interpretation of the experiments, identifying the polarization dependence as possibly arising from hole-hole interactions. Our results represent a step toward making quantitative and reproducible enhanced Raman measurements possible and also open new avenues for a large-scale source of highly uniform hot spots.

  5. Determining the Authenticity of Gemstones Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponick, Aaron; Marchozzi, Emedio; Johnston, Cynthia R.; Wigal, Carl T.

    1998-04-01

    The benefits of laser spectroscopy in the undergraduate curriculum have been the focus of several recent articles in this journal. Raman spectroscopy has been of particular interest since the similarities of Raman to conventional infrared spectroscopy make the interpretation of spectral data well within undergraduate comprehension. In addition, the accessibility to this technology is now within the reach of most undergraduate institutions. This paper reports the development of an experiment using Raman spectroscopy which determines the authenticity of both diamonds and pearls. The resulting spectra provide an introduction to vibrational spectroscopy and can be used in a variety of laboratory courses ranging from introductory chemistry to instrumental analysis.

  6. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  7. Femtosecond pulse laser notch shaping via fiber Bragg grating for the excitation source on the coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seung Ryeol; Kwon, Won Sik; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2015-03-01

    Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy is the simplest method among the coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy systems. In recent research, it has been proven that notch-shaped femtosecond pulse laser can be used to collect the coherent anti-Stokes Raman signals. In this study, we applied a fiber Bragg grating to the notch filtering component on the femtosecond pulse lasers. The experiment was performed incorporating a titanium sapphire femtosecond pulse laser source with a 100 mm length of 780-HP fiber which is inscribed 30 mm of Bragg grating. The fiber Bragg grating has 785 nm Bragg wavelength with 0.9 nm bandwidth. We proved that if the pulse lasers have above a certain level of positive group delay dispersion, it is sufficient to propagate in the fiber Bragg grating without any spectral distortion. After passing through the fiber Bragg grating, the pulse laser is reflected on the chirped mirror for 40 times to make the transform-limited pulse. Finally, the pulse time duration was 37 fs, average power was 50mW, and showed an adequate notch shape. Furthermore, the simulation of third order polarization signal is performed using MATLAB tools and the simulation result shows that spectral characteristic and time duration of the pulse is sufficient to use as an excitation source for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. In conclusion, the proposed method is more simple and cost-effective than the methods of previous research which use grating pairs and resonant photonic crystal slab.

  8. Nano-structured surfaces by laser interference lithography and fs-laser direct writing as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Hundertmark, N.; Kullmann, F.; Fleissner, F.; Klotzbücher, T.

    2012-03-01

    Nano-structured surfaces were generated by laser interference lithography and femtosecond-laser direct writing of photo resists that subsequently were metallized by electroless plating or sputter deposition of silver. Laser lithography was performed with a 405 nm coherent diode laser in AZ9260, using two-beam interference with double illumination by 90° rotating of the substrate, leading to 2D periodic surface patterns with smallest features of the order of 200 nm. With fs-laser direct writing using a Ti-sapphire oscillator of 800 nm and 15 fs pulse length, feature sizes down to 100 nm were realized in SU8, even with aspect ratios much larger than 1. Metallization with electroless plating delivered either grainy silver coatings with a grain size around 100 nm or needle-like silver coatings with a needle length around 100 nm and a width of around 10 nm. The metallized substrates were exposed to aqueous solutions of Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) of different concentrations and the corresponding Raman signals were recorded with a Raman micro-probe spectrometer. The nano-structured surfaces lead to formation of Raman bands attributable to Rh6G. In case of the grainy silver coatings, surfaces without nano-structures did not show Raman activity, indicating that grating-coupled surface plasmons play the dominant role for Raman enhancement. In case of substrates coated with the needle-shaped silver crystallites, Raman activity was also seen in regions without laser-generated nano-structures, indicating that localized particle plasmons play the dominant role for Raman enhancement. A comparison with Raman spectra measured with conventional Raman spectrometer showed that the enhancement factor achieved by the laser-generated nano-structures themself, is of the order of 6×104. Raman intensity as a function of Rh6G concentration revealed a regular behaviour, as expected from a Langmuir isotherm.

  9. Healing and evaluating guinea pig skin incision after surgical suture and laser tissue by welding using in vivo Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimova, A.; Sriramoju, V.; Chakraverty, R.; Muthukattil, R.; Alfano, R. R.

    2010-02-01

    Changes in collagen in the wound during the healing process of guinea pig skin following surgical incisions and LTW was evaluated using in vivo, using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy provided information regarding the internal structure of the proteins. After the incisions were closed either by suturing or by LTW the ratio of the Raman peaks of the amide III (1247 cm-1) band to a peak at 1326 cm-1 used to evaluate the progression of collagen deposition. Histopathology was used as the gold standard. LTW skin demonstrated better healing than sutured skin, exhibiting minimal hyperkeratosis, minimal collagen deposition, near-normal surface contour, and minimal loss of dermal appendages. This work is important to plastic surgery.

  10. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrell, Robin L.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the basis for the technique and its experimental requirements. Describes a few examples of the analytical problems to which surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been and can be applied. Provides a perspective on the current limitations and frontiers in developing SERS as an analytical technique. (MVL)

  11. Study of the reaction products of SF6 and C in the laser heated diamond anvil cell by pair distribution function analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rademacher, N.; Bayarjargal, L.; Morgenroth, W.; Bauer, J. D.; Milman, V.; Winkler, B.

    2015-05-01

    The decomposition of SF6 in the presence of glassy carbon was induced in laser heated diamond anvil cells at 10-11 GPa and 2000-2500 K. The reaction products were characterised by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, including high pressure pair distribution function analysis, and micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with atomistic model calculations. The decomposition leads to elemental amorphous helical sulfur and crystalline CF4-III. Two different sulfur phases, namely helical Sμ and crystalline α-S8, were observed after recovering the laser heated samples of different experiments at ambient conditions.

  12. Raman spectroscopy of Alzheimer's diseased tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, Caroline D.; Krasner, Neville

    2004-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common forms of dementia, and causes steady memory loss and mental regression. It is also accompanied by severe atrophy of the brain. However, the pathological biomarkers of the disease can only be confirmed and examined upon the death of the patient. A commercial (Renishaw PLC, UK) Raman system with an 830 nm NIR diode laser was used to analyse brain samples, which were flash frozen at post-mortem. Ethical approval was sought for these samples. The Alzheimer's diseased samples contained a number of biomarkers, including neuritic plaques and tangles. The Raman spectra were examined by order to differentiate between normal and Alzheimer's diseased brain tissues. Preliminary results indicate that Alzheimer's diseased tissues can be differentiated from control tissues using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra differ in terms of peak intensity, and the presence of a stronger amide I band in the 1667 cm-1 region which occurs more prominently in the Alzheimer's diseased tissue. These preliminary results indicate that the beta-amyloid protein originating from neuritic plaques can be identified with Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Design and Calibration of a Raman Spectrometer for use in a Laser Spectroscopy Instrument Intended to Analyze Martian Surface and Atmospheric Characteristics for NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, John F.; Hornef, James

    2016-01-01

    This project's goal is the design of a Raman spectroscopy instrument to be utilized by NASA in an integrated spectroscopy strategy that will include Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Induced Florescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) for molecule and element identification on Mars Europa, and various asteroids. The instrument is to be down scaled from a dedicated rover mounted instrument into a compact unit with the same capabilities and accuracy as the larger instrument. The focus for this design is a spectrometer that utilizes Raman spectroscopy. The spectrometer has a calculated range of 218 nm wavelength spectrum with a resolution of 1.23 nm. To filter out the laser source wavelength of 532 nm the spectrometer design utilizes a 532 nm wavelength dichroic mirror and a 532 nm wavelength notch filter. The remaining scatter signal is concentrated by a 20 x microscopic objective through a 25-micron vertical slit into a 5mm diameter, 1cm focal length double concave focusing lens. The light is then diffracted by a 1600 Lines per Millimeter (L/mm) dual holographic transmission grating. This spectrum signal is captured by a 1-inch diameter double convex 3 cm focal length capture lens. An Intensified Charge Couple Device (ICCD) is placed within the initial focal cone of the capture lens and the Raman signal captured is to be analyzed through spectroscopy imaging software. This combination allows for accurate Raman spectroscopy to be achieved. The components for the spectrometer have been bench tested in a series of prototype developments based on theoretical calculations, alignment, and scaling strategies. The mounting platform is 2.5 cm wide by 8.8 cm long by 7 cm height. This platform has been tested and calibrated with various sources such as a neon light source and ruby crystal. This platform is intended to be enclosed in a ruggedized enclosure for mounting on a rover platform. The size and functionality of the Raman spectrometer allows for the rover to carry other mission critical devices. This project will be continued at NASA until the requirements are met for the expected initial 2020 launch date.

  14. Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe

    DOEpatents

    Schmucker, John E.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Archer, William B.

    1999-01-01

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  15. Combined Raman and LIBS for Planetary Surface Exploration: Enhanced Science Return Enabled by Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacksberg, J.; Maruyama, Y.; Choukroun, M.; Charbon, E.; Rossman, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    We present a mineralogy tool that can potentially perform phase and elemental analysis on rock, soil, and regolith in an undisturbed geological setting. This is made possible by new developments in the field of time-resolved laser spectroscopy.

  16. Heterodyne laser spectroscopy system

    DOEpatents

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A heterodyne laser spectroscopy system utilizes laser heterodyne techniques for purposes of laser isotope separation spectroscopy, vapor diagnostics, processing of precise laser frequency offsets from a reference frequency, and provides spectral analysis of a laser beam.

  17. Heterodyne laser spectroscopy system

    DOEpatents

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A heterodyne laser spectroscopy system utilizes laser heterodyne techniques for purposes of laser isotope separation spectroscopy, vapor diagnostics, processing of precise laser frequency offsets from a reference frequency and the like, and provides spectral analysis of a laser beam.

  18. Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy based on a line-scan hyperspectral Raman system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) is a technique that can obtain subsurface layered information by collecting Raman spectra from a series of surface positions laterally offset from the excitation laser. The current methods of SORS measurement are typically either slow due to mechanical move...

  19. Simultaneous Conoscopic Holography and Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    A new instrument was developed for chemical characterization of surfaces that combines the analytical power of Raman spectroscopy with the three-dimensional topographic information provided by conoscopic holography. The figure schematically depicts the proposed hybrid instrument. The output of the conoscopic holographic portion of the instrument is a topographical map of the surface; the output of the Raman portion of the instrument is hyperspectral Raman data, from which the chemical and/or biological composition of the surface would be deduced. By virtue of the basic principles of design and operation of the instrument, the hyperspectral image data would be inherently spatially registered with the topographical data. In conoscopic holography, the object and reference beams of classical holography are replaced by the ordinary and extraordinary components generated by a single beam traveling through a birefringent, uniaxial crystal. In the basic conoscopic configuration, a laser light is projected onto a specimen and the resulting illuminated spot becomes a point source of diffuse light that propagates in every direction. The laser beam is rasterscanned in two dimensions (x and y) perpendicular to the beam axis (z), and at each x,y location, the pattern of interference between the ordinary and extraordinary rays is recorded. The recorded interferogram constitutes the conoscopic hologram. Of particular significance for the proposed instrument is that the conoscopic hologram contains information on the z coordinate (height) of the illuminated surface spot. Hence, a topographical map of the specimen is constructed point-by-point by rastering the laser beam in the x and y directions and correlating the x and y coordinates with the z information obtained from the interferograms. Conoscopic imaging is an established method, and conoscopic laboratory instruments for surface metrology are commercially available. In Raman spectroscopy of a surface, one measures the spectrum of laser light scattered inelastically from a laser-illuminated spot on the surface. The wavelengths of the inelastically scattered light differ from that of the incident laser beam by amounts that correspond to the energies of molecular vibrations. The resulting vibrational spectrum can be used to identify the molecules. Raman spectroscopy is a standard laboratory technique for identifying mineralogical, biological, and other specific chemical compositions.

  20. Near shot-noise limited hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy using low energy lasers and a fast CMOS array.

    PubMed

    Rock, William; Bonn, Mischa; Parekh, Sapun H

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate near shot-noise limited hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopy using oscillator-only excitation conditions. Using a fast CMOS camera synchronized to an acousto-optic modulator and subtracting subsequent frames acquired at up to 1 MHz frame rates, we demonstrate demodulation and recovery of the SRS spectrum. Surprisingly, we observe that the signal-to-noise of SRS spectra is invariant at modulation frequencies down to 2.5 kHz. Our approach allows for a direct comparison of SRS with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy under identical experimental conditions. Our findings suggest that hyperspectral SRS imaging with shot-noise limited performance at biologically compatible excitation energies is feasible after minor modifications to fast frame-rate CMOS array technology. PMID:23842298

  1. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (λ=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  2. FT-Raman Spectroscopy: A Catalyst for the Raman Explosion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy, which is used to detect and analyze the scattered radiation, are discussed. FT-Raman has served to revitalize a field that was lagging and the presence of Raman instrumentation as a routine analytical tool is established for the foreseeable future.

  3. Comparison of two concepts for dual-wavelength DBR ridge waveguide diode lasers at 785 nm suitable for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumpf, Bernd; Maiwald, Martin; Müller, André; Fricke, Jörg; Ressel, Peter; Bugge, Frank; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2015-08-01

    Two concepts of dual-wavelength 785-nm DBR ridge waveguide (RW) lasers, i.e. RW mini-arrays consisting of two DBR-RW lasers and Y-branch DBR-RW lasers, will be compared with respect to their usability as excitation light sources for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS). For both types of devices for each wavelength, output powers up to 215 mW were measured. A stable spectral distance between the laser emissions of the two resonator branches with the targeted value of 0.6 nm, i.e. 10 cm-1, is observed. In the case of the mini-array up to an output power of about 70 mW, the device shows single-mode operation. Although at higher power levels, mode hops and multi-mode operation occur, the emission width smaller than 0.15 nm still meets the requirements for Raman measurements of solids and liquids. Over the whole working range, the spectral distance between the two wavelengths is approximately constant with 0.62 nm. The near field shows two emission spots according to the dimension of the RW and their processed distance of 20 µm. The Y-branch laser shows single-mode operation up to 150 mW with a narrow spectral emission width. At higher powers also, multi-mode operation with an emission width of 0.15 nm occurs. The nearly diffraction-limited emission comes from one output aperture; the far-field emission shows a pronounced asymmetry between the two branches. Both types of devices fulfil the spectral requirements from Raman spectroscopy and SERDS up to 215 mW output power.

  4. Detection of carbon-fluorine bonds in organofluorine compounds by Raman spectroscopy using a copper-vapor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharts, Clay M.; Gorelik, Vladimir S.; Agoltsov, A. M.; Zlobina, Ludmila I.; Sharts, Olga N.

    1999-02-01

    The Raman spectra of fluoro-organic compounds show specific emission bands for carbon-fluorine bonds in the range 500- 800 wave numbers (cm-1)). With very limited exceptions, biological materials do not contain carbon- fluorine bonds. Fluoro-organic compounds introduced into biological samples can be detected by a Raman emission signal. Normal mode C-F bond bands are observed: (1) at 710- 785 cm -1 for trifluoromethyl groups; (2) at 530-610 cm -1 for aromatic organofluorine bonds; (3) a range centered at 690 cm -1 for difluoromethylene groups. Specific examples of normal mode C-F bond emissions for organofluorine compounds containing trifluoromethyl groups are: 1-bromoperfluorooctane, 726 cm -1; perfluorodecanoic acid, 730 cm -1; triperfluoropropylamine, 750 cm -1; 1,3,5-tris- (trifluoromethyl)-benzene, 730 cm -1; Fluoxetine (Prozac) commercial powdered pill at 782 cm -1. Compounds containing aromatic C-F bonds are: hexafluorobenzene, 569 cm MIN1; pentafluoropyridine, 589 cm -1. Difluoromethylene groups: perfluorodecalin, 692 cm-1; perfluorocyclohexane, 691 cm -1. Raman spectra were observed with a standard single monochromator. The 510.8 nm light source was a copper-vapor laser operated at 3-10 watts with 10-12 nanosecond pulses at 10 kHz repetition rate. Detection was made with a time-gated photomultiplier tube. Resonance Raman spectra were also observed at 255.4 nm, using a frequency doubling crystal. Observed spectra were free of fluorescence with very sharp strong C-F lines.

  5. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Jason R.

    Clinical diagnoses of bone health and fracture risk typically rely upon measurements of bone density or structure, but the strength of a bone is also dependent upon its chemical composition. One technology that has been used extensively in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies to measure the chemical composition of bone is Raman spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique provides chemical information about a sample by probing its molecular vibrations. In the case of bone tissue, Raman spectra provide chemical information about both the inorganic mineral and organic matrix components, which each contribute to bone strength. To explore the relationship between bone strength and chemical composition, our laboratory has contributed to ex vivo, exposed-bone animal studies of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and prolonged lead exposure. All of these studies suggest that Raman-based predictions of biomechanical strength may be more accurate than those produced by the clinically-used parameter of bone mineral density. The utility of Raman spectroscopy in ex vivo, exposed-bone studies has inspired attempts to perform bone spectroscopy transcutaneously. Although the results are promising, further advancements are necessary to make non-invasive, in vivo measurements of bone that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk. In order to separate the signals from bone and soft tissue that contribute to a transcutaneous measurement, we developed an overconstrained extraction algorithm that is based upon fitting with spectral libraries derived from separately-acquired measurements of the underlying tissue components. This approach allows for accurate spectral unmixing despite the fact that similar chemical components (e.g., type I collagen) are present in both soft tissue and bone and was applied to experimental data in order to transcutaneously detect, to our knowledge for the first time, age- and disease-related spectral differences in murine bone.

  6. Time-resolved detection of aromatic compounds on planetary surfaces by ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshelman, E.; Daly, M. G.; Slater, G.; Cloutis, E.

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopic instruments are highly capable in the search for organics on Mars due to the potential to perform rapid and nondestructive measurements on unprepared samples. Upcoming and future Raman instruments are likely to also incorporate laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) capabilities, which can be added for modest cost and complexity. We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain sub-ns fluorescence lifetime measurements of Mars-relevant organics and minerals if a fast time-gating capability is used with an intensified detector and a short ultraviolet laser pulse. This serves a primary purpose of discriminating mineral from short-lived (less than 10 ns) organic fluorescence, considered a potential biosignature. Additionally, lifetime measurements may assist in determining if more than one fluorescing species is present and provide information concerning the molecular structure as well as the local environment. Fast time-gating is also useful at longer visible or near-IR wavelengths, as this approach increases the sensitivity of the instrument to organic material by removing the majority of the fluorescence background from the Raman signal and reducing the effect of ambient light.

  7. Raman Spectroscopy of Ocular Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner

    The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in excised tissue samples and synthetic preparations and thus to identify potential biomarkers for the onset of this disease. Using resonance Raman detection techniques, the concentration and spatial distribution of macular pigment, a protective compound, can be detected in the living human retina Useable in clinical settings for patient screening, the technology is suitable to investigate correlations between pigment concentration levels and risk for macular degeneration and to monitor increases in pigment levels occurring as a result of dietary intervention strategies.

  8. Raman and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy in Mineral Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is particularly useful for rapid identification of minerals and gemstones. Raman spectrometers also allow PL studies for authentication of samples and geological provenance, diamond type screening and detection of HPHT treatments.

  9. In-situ monitoring of laser annealing by micro-Raman spectroscopy for hydrogenated silicon nanoparticles produced in radio frequency glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D.; Jawhari, T.; García Cespedes, J.; Alvarez García, J.; Bertran, E.

    2006-05-01

    Low temperature Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) grown amorphous hydrogenated Si (a-Si:H) thin films form the basis of many photovoltaic and microelectronic devices such as solar cells and TFTs. Amorphous hydrogenated silicon in the form of nanoparticles has been produced by power modulation of the PECVD processes. The stability of these nanoparticles under high temperatures and high power illumination is therefore of interest and to this end we report on combined laser annealing and in-situ monitoring through the use of micro-raman spectroscopy. Interpretation of spectra is done with the help of complementary techniques including scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  10. Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollberg, Leo; Bergquist, James Charles; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    Degenerate gases. Probing vortex pair sizes in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless regime on a two-dimensional lattice of Bose-Einstein condensates / V. Schweikhard ... [et al.]. Interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in random potentials / P. Bouyer ... [et al.]. Towards quantum magnetism with ultracold atoms in optical lattices / I. Bloch -- Precision measurement and fundamental physics. T-violation and the search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the mercury atom / E. N. Fortson -- Quantum information and control I. Quantum information processing and ramsey spectroscopy with trapped ions / C. F. Roos ... [et al.]. Quantum non-demolition counting of photons in a cavity / S. Haroche ... [et al.] -- Ultra-fast control and spectroscopy. Frequency-Comb- assisted mid-infrared spectroscopy / P. de Natale ... [et al.] -- Precision measurement and applications. Precision gravity tests by atom interferometry / G. M. Tino ... [et al.] -- Novel spectroscopic applications. On a variation of the proton-electron mass ratio / W. Ubachs ... [et al.] -- Quantum information and control II. Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles / H. Krauter ... [et al.] -- Degenerate Fermi gases. An atomic Fermi gas near a P-wave Feshbach resonance / D. S. Jin, J. P. Gaebler and J. T. Stewart. Bragg scattering of correlated atoms from a degenerate Fermi gas / R. J. Ballagh, K. J. Challis and C. W. Gardiner -- Spectroscopy and control of atoms and molecules. Stark and Zeeman deceleration of neutral atoms and molecules / S. D. Hogan ... [et al.]. Generation of coherent, broadband and tunable soft x-ray continuum at the leading edge of the driver laser pulse / A. Jullien ... [et al.]. Controlling neural atoms and photons with optical conveyor belts and ultrathin optical fibers / D. Meschede. W. Alt and A. Rauschenbeutel -- Spectroscopy on the small scale. Wide-field cars-microscopy / C. Heinrich ... [et al.]. Atom nano-optics and nano-lithography / V. I. Balykin ... [et al.] -- Pinhead town talk, public lecture and mountainfilm. The quantum revolution - towards a new generation of supercomputers / R. Blatt -- Cold atoms and molecules I. Ultracold & ultrafast: making and manipulating ultracold molecules with time-dependent laser fields / C. P. Koch ... [et al.]. Bose-Einstein condensates on magnetic film microstructures / M. Singh ... [et al.] -- Cold atoms and molecules II. Ultracold metastable Helium-4 and Helium-3 gases / W. Vassen ... [et al.] -- Single atoms and quantum optics I. Recent progress on the manipulation of single atoms in optical tweezers for quantum computing / A. Browaeys ... [et al.]. Progress in atom chips and the integration of optical microcavities / E. A. Hinds ... [et al.] -- Single atoms and quantum optics II. Quantum optics with single atoms and photons / H. J. Kimble -- Optical atomic clocks. Frequency comparison of Al[symbol] and Hg[symbol] optical standards / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Sr optical clock with high stability and accuracy / A. Ludlow ... [et al.].

  11. Raman Spectroscopy of SWNTs in Zeolite Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulman, M.; Li, L.; Tang, Z. K.; Dubay, O.; Kresse, G.; Kuzmany, H.

    2003-10-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes with diameter 0.4 nm grown in the channels of AlPO4-5 crystals were studied by Raman spectroscopy and ab initio density functional calculation. It was found that only two types of nanotubes with different chiralities, (5,0) and (4,2), were responsible for the observed spectra. The frequencies of the radial breathing modes were reliably assigned. A strong response was observed for frequencies around 1250 cm-1. The laser excitation energy of 2.2 eV separates two regions with different line shapes for the G band.

  12. Wavelength dependent resonance Raman band intensity of broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Qiongyan; He, Yuhan; Xu, Mei; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zhaohui

    2015-03-01

    Resonance broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol has been performed. With a tuning picosecond visible laser source and a broadband Raman probe, the Raman gain and loss spectra have been measured simultaneously. By scanning the Raman pump across the first absorption band of the molecule, we found that the resonant Raman bands could be only seen when the pump laser tuned in the range of the red edge of the S1←S0 transition. Dispersive lineshapes of resonant Raman bands have been observed in the Raman loss spectra, while the line shape is normal (same as spontaneous Raman) in the Raman gain spectra. Although, the resonant bands in the loss spectrum are usually stronger than that in the gain spectrum, the band intensities of both loss and gain linearly increase with the pump energy. The relative magnitude of each corresponding resonant band in the Raman loss and gain varies with the pump wavelength. Mode specified Raman excitation profiles have been obtained through broadband stimulated Raman measurement.

  13. Wavelength dependent resonance Raman band intensity of broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol.

    PubMed

    Cen, Qiongyan; He, Yuhan; Xu, Mei; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zhaohui

    2015-03-21

    Resonance broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol has been performed. With a tuning picosecond visible laser source and a broadband Raman probe, the Raman gain and loss spectra have been measured simultaneously. By scanning the Raman pump across the first absorption band of the molecule, we found that the resonant Raman bands could be only seen when the pump laser tuned in the range of the red edge of the S1←S0 transition. Dispersive lineshapes of resonant Raman bands have been observed in the Raman loss spectra, while the line shape is normal (same as spontaneous Raman) in the Raman gain spectra. Although, the resonant bands in the loss spectrum are usually stronger than that in the gain spectrum, the band intensities of both loss and gain linearly increase with the pump energy. The relative magnitude of each corresponding resonant band in the Raman loss and gain varies with the pump wavelength. Mode specified Raman excitation profiles have been obtained through broadband stimulated Raman measurement. PMID:25796242

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of pterins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Ciarán A.; Mirza, Inam; Lunney, James G.; McCabe, Eithne M.

    2012-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a useful technique in the identification and characterisation of compounds, but in terms of sensitivity its application is limited. With respect to this the discovery of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomenon has proved monumental, and much research has been carried out over the past 30 years developing the technique. Pterins are biological compounds that are found in nature in colour pigmentation and in mammalian metabolic pathways. Moreover, they have been identified in abnormal concentrations in cancer patients, suggesting potential applications in cancer diagnostics. SERS is an ideal technique to identify these compounds, and both nanoparticle suspensions and pulsed laser deposited nanoparticle substrates have been used to examine the spectra of xanthopterin, both in aqueous solution and in different pH environments.

  15. Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clary, Candace Elise

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and most fatal malignant brain tumor, is highly infiltrative and incurable. Although improved prognosis has been demonstrated by surgically resecting the bulk tumor, a lack of clear borders at the tumor margins complicates the selection decision during surgery. This dissertation investigates the potential of Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing between normal and malignant brain tissue and sets the groundwork for a surgical diagnostic guide for resection of gross malignant gliomas. These studies revealed that Raman spectroscopy was capable of discriminating between normal scid mouse brain tissue and human xenograft tumors induced in those mice. The spectra of normal and malignant tissue were normalized by dividing by the respective magnitudes of the peaks near 1440 cm -1. Spectral differences include the shape of the broad peaks near 1440 cm-1 and 1660 cm-1 and the relative magnitudes of the peaks at 1264 cm-1, 1287 cm-1, 1297 cm-1, 1556 cm -1, 1586 cm-1, 1614 cm-1, and 1683 cm-1. From these studies emerged questions regarding how to objectively normalize and compare spectra for future automation. Some differences in the Raman spectra were shown to be inherent in the disease states of the cells themselves via differences in the Raman spectra of normal human astrocytes in culture and cultured cells derived from GBM tumors. The spectra of astrocytes and glioma cells were normalized by dividing by the respective magnitudes of the peaks near 1450 cm-1. The differences between the Raman spectra of normal and transformed cells include the ratio of the 1450 cm-1/1650 cm-1 peaks and the relative magnitudes of the peaks at 1181 cm-1, 1191 cm-1, 1225 cm-1, 1263 cm -1, 1300 cm-1, 1336 cm-1, 1477 cm-1, 1494 cm-1, and 1695 cm -1. Previous Raman spectroscopic studies of biological cells have shown that the magnitude of the Raman signal decreases over time, indicating sample damage. Cells exposed to laser excitation at similar power densities were evaluated in terms of mitochondrial oxidative/reductive activity as well as protein, RNA, and DNA syntheses. Although cell death was not significant, the cells' abilities to synthesize DNA, RNA, and protein were profoundly affected by the laser irradiation.

  16. Improved accuracy of quantification of analytes in human body fluids by near-IR laser Raman spectroscopy with new algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Jianan Y.; Yau, On L.; Yau, SzeFong M.

    1999-07-01

    Near infrared Raman spectroscopy has been successfully used to analyze ethanol and acetaminophen in human urine samples quantitatively. The new algorithms incorporating the intrinsic spectrum of the analyte of interest into the multivariate calibration were examined to improve the accuracy of the predicted concentrations. Comparing with commonly used partial least squares calibration, it was found that the methods using the intrinsic spectrum of the analyte of interest always achieved much higher accuracy, particularly when the interference from other undesired chemicals in the samples are severe.

  17. Application of Raman Spectroscopy for Nondestructive Evaluation of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washer, Glenn A.; Brooks, Thomas M. B.; Saulsberry, Regor

    2007-01-01

    This paper will present an overview of efforts to investigate the application of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of Kevlar materials. Raman spectroscopy is a laser technique that is sensitive to molecular interactions in materials such as Kevlar, graphite and carbon used in composite materials. The overall goal of this research reported here is to evaluate Raman spectroscopy as a potential nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tool for the detection of stress rupture in Kevlar composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Characterization of the Raman spectra of Kevlar yarn and strands will be presented and compared with analytical models provided in the literature. Results of testing to investigate the effects of creep and high-temperature aging on the Raman spectra will be presented.

  18. Resonant Raman spectroscopy of graphene grown on copper substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Sara D.; Righi, Ariete; Fantini, Cristiano; Hao, Yufeng; Magnuson, Carl; Colombo, Luigi; Ruoff, Rodney S.; Pimenta, Marcos A.

    2012-08-01

    A study of resonant Raman spectroscopy of the as-grown graphene on copper foils is presented. Different laser energies have been used to excite the sample, in order to obtain the dependence of the Raman features (intensities, frequencies and line widths) on the laser energy. We show that the normalised spectra acquired using green laser lines are more intense, with a maximum around 2.3 eV. Moreover, the results show a broader 2D (or G') band when a UV laser is used to excite the sample, which is explained by the manifestation of the trigonal warping effect in the dispersion of electrons and phonons around the Dirac point.

  19. Raman accumulator as a fusion laser driver

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor; Swingle, James C.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for simultaneous laser pulse amplification and compression, using multiple pass Raman scattering in one Raman cell and pulse switchout from the optical cavity through use of a dichroic device associated with the Raman cell.

  20. Raman accumulator as a fusion laser driver

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Swingle, J.C.

    1982-03-31

    Apparatus for simultaneous laser pulse amplification and compression, using multiple pass Raman scattering in one Raman cell and pulse switchout from the optical cavity through use of a dichroic device associated with the Raman cell.

  1. Anti-Stokes Raman laser

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C.; Henderson, D.

    1982-02-01

    The first observation of nonresonant, stimulated anti-Stokes Raman emission is reported. A metastable T1 (6rho /sup 2/P/sup 0//sub 3/2/) inversion is created by selective photodissociation of TlCl. Raman scattering from the Tl metastable state to ground using 532- and 355-nm pump lasers resulted in stimulated emission at 376 and 278 nm, respectively. Conversion efficiencies up to 10% are reported.

  2. In Vivo Analysis of Laser Preconditioning in Incisional Wound Healing of Wild-Type and HSP70 Knockout Mice With Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, Alexander J.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Jansen, E. Duco

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Laser preconditioning augments incisional wound healing by reducing scar tissue and increasing maximum tensile load of the healed wound [.Wilmink et al. (2009) J Invest Dermatol 129(1): 205–216]. Recent studies have optimized treatments or confirmed results using HSP70 as a biomarker. Under the hypothesis that HSP70 plays a role in reported results and to better understand the downstream effects of laser preconditioning, this study utilized a probe-based Raman spectroscopy (RS) system to achieve an in vivo, spatiotemporal biochemical profile of murine skin incisional wounds as a function of laser preconditioning and the presence of HSP70. Study Design/Materials and Methods A total of 19 wild-type (WT) and HSP70 knockout (HSP70−/−) C57BL/ 6 mice underwent normal and laser preconditioned incisional wounds. Laser thermal preconditioning was conducted via previously established protocol (λ = 1.85 µm, H0 =7.64 mJ/cm2 per pulse, spot diameter = 5 mm, Rep. rate = 50 Hz, τp = 2 milliseconds, exposure time = 10 minutes) with an Aculight Renoir diode laser, with tissue temperature confirmed by real-time infrared camera measurements. Wound-healing progression was quantified by daily collection of a spatial distribution of Raman spectra. The results of RS findings were then qualified using standard histology and polarization microscopy. Results Raman spectra yielded significant differences (t-test; α =0.05) in several known biochemical peaks between WT and HSP70 (−/−) mice on wounds and in adjacent tissue early in the wound-healing process. Analysis of peak ratios implied (i) an increase in protein configuration in and surrounding the wound in WT mice, and (ii) an increased cellular trend in WT mice that was prolonged due to laser treatment. Polarization microscopy confirmed that laser treated WT mice showed increased heterogeneity in collagen orientation. Conclusions The data herein supports the theory that HSP70 is involved in normal skin protein configuration and the cellularity of early wound healing. Laser preconditioning extends cellular trends in the presence of HSP70. Despite study limitations, RS provided a non-invasive method for quantifying temporal trends in altered wound healing, narrowing candidates and design for future studies with clinically applicable instrumentation. PMID:22275297

  3. Proximal and point detection of contaminated surfaces using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicheteau, Jason A.; Christesen, Steven D.; Tripathi, Ashish; Emmons, Erik D.; Wilcox, Phillip G.; Emge, Darren K.; Pardoe, Ian J.; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-11-01

    We are actively investigating the use of Raman spectroscopy for proximal standoff detection of chemicals and explosive materials on surfaces. These studies include Raman Chemical Imaging of contaminated fingerprints for forensic attribution and the assessments of commercial handheld or portable Raman instruments operating with near-infrared (IR) as well as ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation specifically developed for on-the-move reconnaissance of chemical contamination. As part of these efforts, we have measured the Raman cross sections of chemical agents, toxic industrial chemicals, and explosives from the UV to NIR. We have also measured and modeled the effect interrogation angle has on the Raman return from droplets on man-made surfaces. Realistic droplet distributions have been modeled and tested against variations in surface scan patterns and laser spot size for determining the optimum scan characteristics for detection of relevant surface contamination.

  4. Comparison of different kinds of skin using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva-Luna, A. E.; Castro-Ramos, J.; Vazquez-Montiel, S.; Flores Gil, A.; Delgado-Atencio, J. A.

    2010-02-01

    In this work we developed a novel technique to remove the fluorescence background in the Raman spectrum. This technique permit us to obtain better accuracy in the spectrum peaks, it is based in the wavelets theory, using symlets and biothogonals wavelets, therefore it is adapting with the Raman Spectrum. We use a spectral range from 300 to 1800(cm-1), 785 nm laser excitation source and Oceans optics spectrometer was used. The experimental samples were people with different kinds of skin, like brown, black and white. We compare the differences between each Raman spectra, which permitted us to identified persons due to accuracy of Raman spectroscopy. This results shows that Raman spectroscopy has greatly precision in this field of biomedical optics.

  5. Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser.

    PubMed

    Rong, Haisheng; Kuo, Ying-Hao; Xu, Shengbo; Liu, Ansheng; Jones, Richard; Paniccia, Mario; Cohen, Oded; Raday, Omri

    2006-07-24

    We present a monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) rib waveguide race-track ring resonator with an integrated p-i-n diode structure. Under reverse biasing, we achieved stable, single mode, continuous-wave (CW) lasing with output power exceeding 30mW and 10% slope efficiency. The laser emission has high spectral purity with a measured side mode suppression exceeding 70dB and laser linewidth of <100 kHz. This laser architecture allows for on-chip integration with other silicon photonics components to provide a highly integrated and scaleable monolithic device. PMID:19516852

  6. Applications of Raman spectroscopy in life science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Airton A.; T. Soto, Cláudio A.; Ali, Syed M.; Neto, Lázaro P. M.; Canevari, Renata A.; Pereira, Liliane; Fávero, Priscila P.

    2015-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of biological samples for the last 12 years providing detection of changes occurring at the molecular level during the pathological transformation of the tissue. The potential use of this technology in cancer diagnosis has shown encouraging results for the in vivo, real-time and minimally invasive diagnosis. Confocal Raman technics has also been successfully applied in the analysis of skin aging process providing new insights in this field. In this paper it is presented the latest biomedical applications of Raman spectroscopy in our laboratory. It is shown that Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been used for biochemical and molecular characterization of thyroid tissue by micro-Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis. This study aimed to improve the discrimination between different thyroid pathologies by Raman analysis. A total of 35 thyroid tissues samples including normal tissue (n=10), goiter (n=10), papillary (n=10) and follicular carcinomas (n=5) were analyzed. The confocal Raman spectroscopy allowed a maximum discrimination of 91.1% between normal and tumor tissues, 84.8% between benign and malignant pathologies and 84.6% among carcinomas analyzed. It will be also report the application of in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy as an important sensor for detecting advanced glycation products (AGEs) on human skin.

  7. Raman spectroscopy in the analysis of food and pharmaceutical nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Sing; Church, Jeffrey S

    2014-03-01

    Raman scattering is an inelastic phenomenon. Although its cross section is very small, recent advances in electronics, lasers, optics, and nanotechnology have made Raman spectroscopy suitable in many areas of application. The present article reviews the applications of Raman spectroscopy in food and drug analysis and inspection, including those associated with nanomaterials. Brief overviews of basic Raman scattering theory, instrumentation, and statistical data analysis are also given. With the advent of Raman enhancement mechanisms and the progress being made in metal nanomaterials and nanoscale metal surfaces fabrications, surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy has become an extra sensitive method, which is applicable not only for analysis of foods and drugs, but also for intracellular and intercellular imaging. A Raman spectrometer coupled with a fiber optics probe has great potential in applications such as monitoring and quality control in industrial food processing, food safety in agricultural plant production, and convenient inspection of pharmaceutical products, even through different types of packing. A challenge for the routine application of surface enhanced Raman scattering for quantitative analysis is reproducibility. Success in this area can be approached with each or a combination of the following methods: (1) fabrication of nanostructurally regular and uniform substrates; (2) application of statistic data analysis; and (3) isotopic dilution. PMID:24673902

  8. (Luminescence and Raman spectroscopy for biological analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan.

    1990-06-14

    The traveler was invited to present a seminar on Immunofluorescence and Raman Fiberoptic Chemical Sensors'' at the Laboratory FOCAL of CEN-FAR, France. The traveler visited the CEN-FAR laboratories involved in laser-based spectroscopy and remote monitors and conducted scientific discussions with research staff at CEN-FAR. The traveler was also invited to present an invited lecture on Advances in Luminescence and Raman Spectroscopy for Chemical and Biological Analysis'' at the Laboratory of Molecular Photophysics and Photochemistry, University of Bordeaux, Talence, France. The traveler visited the laboratories involved in the development of luminescence techniques for the analysis of polyaromatic pollutants and related biomarkers. The traveler conducted discussions on potential research collaboration with scientists at the University of Bordeaux. The traveler was awarded a North atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Collaborative Grant to conduct joint research with Professor P. Viallet, head of the Laboratory of Quantitative Microfluorimetry, University of Perpignan. The traveler was involved in experimental luminescence studies of bioindicators of polyaromatic pollutants (DNA adducts, metabolites).

  9. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of cervix cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubina, S.; Sathe, Priyanka; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Cervix-cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide. It is the leading cancer among Indian females with more than million new diagnosed cases and 50% mortality, annually. The high mortality rates can be attributed to late diagnosis. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of normal and pathological conditions in cervix cancers on diverse populations has already been demonstrated. Our earlier ex vivo studies have shown the feasibility of classifying normal and cancer cervix tissues as well as responders/non-responders to Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The present study was carried out to explore feasibility of in vivo Raman spectroscopic methods in classifying normal and cancerous conditions in Indian population. A total of 182 normal and 132 tumor in vivo Raman spectra, from 63 subjects, were recorded using a fiberoptic probe coupled HE-785 spectrometer, under clinical supervision. Spectra were acquired for 5 s and averaged over 3 times at 80 mW laser power. Spectra of normal conditions suggest strong collagenous features and abundance of non-collagenous proteins and DNA in case of tumors. Preprocessed spectra were subjected to Principal Component-Linear Discrimination Analysis (PCLDA) followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation. Classification efficiency of ~96.7% and 100% for normal and cancerous conditions respectively, were observed. Findings of the study corroborates earlier studies and suggest applicability of Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis of cervical cancers in Indian population. In view of encouraging results, extensive validation studies will be undertaken to confirm the findings.

  10. Raman spectroscopy: the gateway into tomorrow's virology

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Phelps J; Whitman, Audy G; Dyson, Ossie F; Akula, Shaw M

    2006-01-01

    In the molecular world, researchers act as detectives working hard to unravel the mysteries surrounding cells. One of the researchers' greatest tools in this endeavor has been Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that measures the unique Raman spectra for every type of biological molecule. As such, Raman spectroscopy has the potential to provide scientists with a library of spectra that can be used to unravel the makeup of an unknown molecule. However, this technique is limited in that it is not able to manipulate particular structures without disturbing their unique environment. Recently, a novel technology that combines Raman spectroscopy with optical tweezers, termed Raman tweezers, evades this problem due to its ability to manipulate a sample without physical contact. As such, Raman tweezers has the potential to become an incredibly effective diagnostic tool for differentially distinguishing tissue, and therefore holds great promise in the field of virology for distinguishing between various virally infected cells. This review provides an introduction for a virologist into the world of spectroscopy and explores many of the potential applications of Raman tweezers in virology. PMID:16805914

  11. Raman spectroscopy: the gateway into tomorrow's virology.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Phelps J; Whitman, Audy G; Dyson, Ossie F; Akula, Shaw M

    2006-01-01

    In the molecular world, researchers act as detectives working hard to unravel the mysteries surrounding cells. One of the researchers' greatest tools in this endeavor has been Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that measures the unique Raman spectra for every type of biological molecule. As such, Raman spectroscopy has the potential to provide scientists with a library of spectra that can be used to unravel the makeup of an unknown molecule. However, this technique is limited in that it is not able to manipulate particular structures without disturbing their unique environment. Recently, a novel technology that combines Raman spectroscopy with optical tweezers, termed Raman tweezers, evades this problem due to its ability to manipulate a sample without physical contact. As such, Raman tweezers has the potential to become an incredibly effective diagnostic tool for differentially distinguishing tissue, and therefore holds great promise in the field of virology for distinguishing between various virally infected cells. This review provides an introduction for a virologist into the world of spectroscopy and explores many of the potential applications of Raman tweezers in virology. PMID:16805914

  12. Investigation of the chemical stability of the laser-induced fluorescence tracers acetone, diethylketone, and toluene under IC engine conditions using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Trost, Johannes; Zigan, Lars; Eichmann, Simone C; Seeger, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of the chemical stability of the common laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) tracers acetone, diethylketone, and toluene. Stability is analyzed using linear Raman spectroscopy inside a heated pressure cell with optical access, which is used for the LIF calibration of these tracers. The measurements examine the influence of temperature, pressure, and residence time on tracer oxidation, which occurs without a rise in temperature or pressure inside the cell, highlighting the need for optical detection. A comparison between the three different tracers shows large differences, with diethylketone having the lowest and toluene by far the highest stability. An analysis of the sensitivity of the measurement shows that the detection limit of the oxidized tracer is well below 3% molar fraction, which is typical for LIF applications in combustion devices such as internal combustion (IC) engines. Furthermore, the effect on the LIF signal intensity is examined in an isothermal turbulent mixing study. PMID:24085091

  13. Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy for in situ planetary mineralogy.

    PubMed

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Rossman, George R; Gleckler, Anthony

    2010-09-10

    Planetary mineralogy can be revealed through a variety of remote sensing and in situ investigations that precede any plans for eventual sample return. We briefly review those techniques and focus on the capabilities for on-surface in situ examination of Mars, Venus, the Moon, asteroids, and other bodies. Over the past decade, Raman spectroscopy has continued to develop as a prime candidate for the next generation of in situ planetary instruments, as it provides definitive structural and compositional information of minerals in their natural geological context. Traditional continuous-wave Raman spectroscopy using a green laser suffers from fluorescence interference, which can be large (sometimes saturating the detector), particularly in altered minerals, which are of the greatest geophysical interest. Taking advantage of the fact that fluorescence occurs at a later time than the instantaneous Raman signal, we have developed a time-resolved Raman spectrometer that uses a streak camera and pulsed miniature microchip laser to provide picosecond time resolution. Our ability to observe the complete time evolution of Raman and fluorescence spectra in minerals makes this technique ideal for exploration of diverse planetary environments, some of which are expected to contain strong, if not overwhelming, fluorescence signatures. We discuss performance capability and present time-resolved pulsed Raman spectra collected from several highly fluorescent and Mars-relevant minerals. In particular, we have found that conventional Raman spectra from fine grained clays, sulfates, and phosphates exhibited large fluorescent signatures, but high quality spectra could be obtained using our time-resolved approach. PMID:20830184

  14. Study of virus by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moor, K.; Kitamura, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Sawa, M.; Andriana, B. B.; Ohtani, K.; Yagura, T.; Sato, H.

    2013-02-01

    Problem of viruses is very actual for nowadays. Some viruses, which are responsible for human of all tumors, are about 15 %. Main purposes this study, early detection virus in live cell without labeling and in the real time by Raman spectroscopy. Micro Raman spectroscopy (mRs) is a technique that uses a Raman spectrometer to measure the spectra of microscopic samples. According to the Raman spectroscopy, it becomes possible to study the metabolites of a live cultured cell without labeling. We used mRs to detect the virus via HEK 293 cell line-infected adenovirus. We obtained raman specters of lives cells with viruses in 24 hours and 7 days after the infection. As the result, there is some biochemical changing after the treatment of cell with virus. One of biochemical alteration is at 1081 cm-1. For the clarification result, we use confocal fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  15. Time- and frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy with sub-25 fs laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Lausten, Rune; Smirnova, Olga; Sussman, Benjamin J; Gräfe, Stefanie; Mouritzen, Anders S; Stolow, Albert

    2008-06-28

    In general, many different diagrams can contribute to the signal measured in broadband four-wave mixing experiments. Care must therefore be taken when designing an experiment to be sensitive to only the desired diagram by taking advantage of phase matching, pulse timing, sequence, and the wavelengths employed. We use sub-25 fs pulses to create and monitor vibrational wavepackets in gaseous iodine, bromine, and iodine bromide through time- and frequency-resolved femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. We experimentally illustrate this using iodine, where the broad bandwidths of our pulses, and Boltzmann population in the lower three vibrational levels conspire to make a single diagram dominant in one spectral region of the signal spectrum. In another spectral region, however, the signal is the sum of two almost equally contributing diagrams, making it difficult to directly extract information about the molecular dynamics. We derive simple analytical expressions for the time- and frequency-resolved CARS signal to study the interplay of different diagrams. Expressions are given for all five diagrams which can contribute to the CARS signal in our case. PMID:18601335

  16. Commercial anesthetic-respiratory gas monitor utilizing Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregonis, Donald E.; Van Wagenen, Richard A.; Coleman, D.; Mitchell, John R.

    1990-11-01

    A commercial gas monitor which utilizes Raman Spectroscopy has been developed to monitor anesthetic and respiratory gases in the hospital operating room. The instrument measures all molecular gases administered by the anesthesiologist in real time with fast response of breath waveform. These gases include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, oxygen, nitrogen and various volatile halogenated organic anesthetics, e.g. halothane, isoflurane, enflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane. The key feature of this instrument which allows it to produce adequate Raman signals with a low cost argon ion laser is measuring these gases inside the laser resonant cavity.

  17. Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods

    PubMed Central

    McCamant, David W.; Kukura, Philipp; Yoon, Sangwoon; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The laser, detection system, and methods that enable femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) are presented in detail. FSRS is a unique tool for obtaining high time resolution (<100 fs) vibrational spectra with an instrument response limited frequency resolution of <10 cm–1. A titanium:Sapphire-based laser system produces the three different pulses needed for FSRS: (1) A femtosecond visible actinic pump that initiates the photochemistry, (2) a narrow bandwidth picosecond Raman pump that provides the energy reservoir for amplification of the probe, and (3) a femtosecond continuum probe that is amplified at Raman resonances shifted from the Raman pump. The dependence of the stimulated Raman signal on experimental parameters is explored, demonstrating the expected exponential increase in Raman intensity with concentration, pathlength, and Raman pump power. Raman spectra collected under different electronic resonance conditions using highly fluorescent samples highlight the fluorescence rejection capabilities of FSRS. Data are also presented illustrating our ability: (i) To obtain spectra when there is a large transient absorption change by using a shifted excitation difference technique and (ii) to obtain high time resolution vibrational spectra of transient electronic states. PMID:17183413

  18. Characterization of uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) with Raman spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel; Wellons, Matthew S.

    2016-03-22

    The Raman spectrum of uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) is unambiguously characterized with multiple Raman excitation laser sources for the first time. Across different laser excitation wavelengths, UF4 demonstrates 16 distinct Raman bands within the 50-400 cm-1 region. The observed Raman bands are representative of various F-F vibrational modes. UF4 also shows intense fluorescent bands in the 325 – 750 nm spectral region. Comparison of the UF4 spectrum with the ZrF4 spectrum, its crystalline analog, demonstrates a similar Raman band structure consistent with group theory predictions for expected Raman bands. Additionally, a demonstration of combined scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in situmore » Raman spectroscopy microanalytical measurements of UF4 particulates shows that despite the inherent weak intensity of Raman bands, identification and characterization are possible for micron-sized particulates with modern instrumentation. The published well characterized UF4 spectrum is extremely relevant to nuclear materials and nuclear safeguard applications.« less

  19. NIR-FT/RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY FOR NUTRITIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF CEREAL FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The classification of cereals using near-infrared Fourier transform Raman (NIR-FT/Raman) spectroscopy was accomplished. A total of 120 cereal based food samples were prepared and ground. Samples were scanned on a Nicolet Raman instrument with a 1064 nm (NIR) excitation laser using 500mW of power and...

  20. Sequentially shifted excitation Raman spectroscopy: novel algorithm and instrumentation for fluorescence-free Raman spectroscopy in spectral space.

    PubMed

    Cooper, John B; Abdelkader, Mohamed; Wise, Kent L

    2013-08-01

    A novel Raman spectrometer is presented in a handheld format. The spectrometer utilizes a temperature-controlled, distributed Bragg reflector diode laser, which allows the instrument to operate in a sequentially shifted excitation mode to eliminate fluorescence backgrounds, fixed pattern noise, and room lights, while keeping the Raman data in true spectral space. The cost-efficient design of the instrument allows rapid acquisition of shifted excitation data with a shift time penalty of less than 2 s. The Raman data are extracted from the shifted excitation spectra using a novel algorithm that is typically three orders of magnitude faster than conventional shifted-excitation algorithms operating in spectral space. The superiority of the instrument and algorithm in terms of background removal and signal-to-noise ratio is demonstrated by comparison to FT-Raman, standard deviation spectra, shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS), and conventional multiple-shift excitation methods. PMID:23876736

  1. Occlusal caries detection using polarized Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, I.; Bulou, A.

    2008-02-01

    The tooth enamel, because of its hydroxyapatite composition, must present a Raman spectrum with strong polarization anisotropy. Carious lesions of the enamel will produce an alteration of local symmetry and will increase much more scattering of light. This will reduce the anisotropy of the Raman spectra. Because of the difference between high sensitivity to polarization of the 959 cm -1 Raman peak in sound enamel and low sensitivity in carried enamel, Raman polarized spectroscopy could be a useful method to early detect teeth caries.

  2. Application of infrared and Raman spectroscopy in paint trace examination.

    PubMed

    Zi?ba-Palus, Janina; Trzci?ska, Beata M

    2013-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy has proved to be a promising technique in forensic examinations, where optical microscopy, micro-infrared spectroscopy, and microspectrophotometry in the visible and UV range are used for identification and differentiation between paint traces. Often no organic pigments are detected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, because their content in a trace is usually undetectable. Application of a micro-Raman spectrometer equipped with several excitation lasers helps forensic experts in paint analysis enabling identification of main pigments. Three cases concerning comparative examination of car paint are discussed in detail. The comparison of Raman spectra of paint chips found on clothing of a victim or smears found on body of a damaged car to these of paint chips originated from the suspected car enabled us to identify the car involved in the accident. When no comparative material is available, the method can be useful in establishing the color and make of the car. PMID:23865525

  3. Raman spectroscopy and polarization: Selected case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossikovski, Razvigor; Picardi, Gennaro; Ndong, Gérald; Chaigneau, Marc

    2012-10-01

    We show, through several selected case studies, the potential benefits that can be obtained by controlling the polarization states of the exciting and scattered radiations in a Raman scattering experiment. When coupled with polarization control, Raman spectroscopy is thus capable of providing extra information on the structural properties of the materials under investigation. The experimental examples presented in this work are taken from the area of both conventional, i.e., far-field, as well as from near-field Raman spectroscopy. They cover topics such as the stress tensor measurement in strained semiconductor structures, the vibration mode assignment in pentacene thin films and the Raman scattering tensor determination from near-field measurements on azobenzene monolayers. The basic theory necessary for modelling the far- and near-field polarized Raman responses is also given and the model efficiency is illustrated on the experimental data.

  4. Applications of Raman spectroscopy to gemology.

    PubMed

    Bersani, Danilo; Lottici, Pier Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Being nondestructive and requiring short measurement times, a low amount of material, and no sample preparation, Raman spectroscopy is used for routine investigation in the study of gemstone inclusions and treatments and for the characterization of mounted gems. In this work, a review of the use of laboratory Raman and micro-Raman spectrometers and of portable Raman systems in the gemology field is given, focusing on gem identification and on the evaluation of the composition, provenance, and genesis of gems. Many examples are shown of the use of Raman spectroscopy as a tool for the identification of imitations, synthetic gems, and enhancement treatments in natural gemstones. Some recent developments are described, with particular attention being given to the semiprecious stone jade and to two important organic materials used in jewelry, i.e., pearls and corals. PMID:20419294

  5. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Matthew W.

    2013-03-14

    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  6. [Study on the treatment turquoise using Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan-li; Yuan, Xin-qiang; Chen, Jing-zhong; Qi, Li-jian

    2010-07-01

    Due to a variety of the enhancement and treatment turquoises discovered in gem markets, the identification of turquoise is becoming more and more difficult. By using laser Raman spectroscopy analysis, the characteristics of Raman spectra of the pressed and filled turquoises were studied. The results show that laser Raman spectroscopy is an effective technique to identify the enhancement and treatment turquoises and the natural ones, moreover, it's a non-destructive testing method. The Raman spectra of the enhancement and treatment turquoises are resulted mainly from the vibrational mode and frequency of water, hydroxyl units, PO4 tetrahedron and CH2 units. Besides, they have the characteristic Raman spectra peaks at 2,937, 2,883 and 1,451 cm(-1) which are attributed to the stretching vibration and the bending vibration of CH2, respectively. These characteristic Raman vibration bands, it will help to distinguish the natural turquoises and the treatment ones. The study provides a new train of thought on the rapid, accurate, and non-destructive identification of turquoise. PMID:20827971

  7. Raman spectroscopy at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Schloesser, M.; Bornschein, B.; Fischer, S.; Kassel, F.; Rupp, S.; Sturm, M.; James, T.M.; Telle, H.H.

    2015-03-15

    Raman spectroscopy is employed successfully for analysis of hydrogen isotopologues at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). Raman spectroscopy is based on the inelastic scattering of photons off molecules. Energy is transferred to the molecules as rotational/vibrational excitation being characteristic for each type of molecule. Thus, qualitative analysis is possible from the Raman shifted light, while quantitative information can be obtained from the signal intensities. After years of research and development, the technique is now well-advanced providing fast (< 10 s), precise (< 0.1%) and true (< 3%) compositional analysis of gas mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. In this paper, we summarize the recent achievements in the further development on this technique, and the various applications for which it is used at TLK. Raman spectroscopy has evolved as a versatile, highly accurate key method for quantitative analysis complementing the port-folio of analytic techniques at the TLK.

  8. Nondestructive evaluation of internal maturity of tomatoes using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research explored the use of spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) for nondestructive evaluation of internal maturity of tomatoes. A Raman spectroscopy system using a 785 nm laser was developed to collect spatially-offset spectra in the wavenumber range of 200 – 2500. The SORS measuremen...

  9. Sensitive algorithm for multiple-excitation-wavelength resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellampalle, Balakishore; Wu, Hai-Shan; McCormick, William; Sluch, Mikhail; Martin, Robert; Ice, Robert; Lemoff, Brian E.

    2014-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a widely used spectroscopic technique with a number of applications. During the past few years, we explored the use of simultaneous multiple-excitation-wavelengths (MEW) in resonance Raman spectroscopy. This approach takes advantage of Raman band intensity variations across the Resonance Raman spectra obtained from two or more excitation wavelengths. Amplitude variations occur between corresponding Raman bands in Resonance Raman spectra due to complex interplay of resonant enhancement, self-absorption and laser penetration depth. We have developed a very sensitive algorithm to estimate concentration of an analyte from spectra obtained using the MEW technique. The algorithm uses correlations and least-square minimization approach to calculate an estimate for the concentration. For two or more excitation wavelengths, measured spectra were stacked in a two dimensional matrix. In a simple realization of the algorithm, we approximated peaks in the ideal library spectra as triangles. In this work, we present the performance of the algorithm with measurements obtained from a dual-excitation-wavelength Resonance Raman sensor. The novel sensor, developed at WVHTCF, detects explosives from a standoff distance. The algorithm was able to detect explosives with very high sensitivity even at signal-to-noise ratios as low as ~1.6. Receiver operating characteristics calculated using the algorithm showed a clear benefit in using the dual-excitation-wavelength technique over single-excitation-wavelength techniques. Variants of the algorithm that add more weight to amplitude variation information showed improved specificity to closely resembling spectra.

  10. Standoff detection of explosive molecules using nanosecond gated Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jin Hyuk; Cho, Soo Gyeong

    2013-06-01

    Recently, improvised explosive device (IED) has been a serious threat for many countries. One of the approaches to alleviate this threat is standoff detection of explosive molecules used in IEDs. Raman spectroscopy is a prospective method among many technologies under research to achieve this goal. It provides unique information of the target materials, through which the ingredients used in IEDs can be analyzed and identified. The main problem of standoff Raman spectroscopic detection is the large background noise hindering weak Raman signals from the target samples. Typical background noise comes from both ambient fluorescent lights indoor and sunlight outdoor whose intensities are usually much larger than that of Raman scattering from the sample. Under the proper condition using pulse laser and ICCD camera with nanosecond pulse width and gating technology, we succeed to separate and remove these background noises from Raman signals. For this experiment, we build an optical system for standoff detection of explosive molecules. We use 532 nm, 10 Hz, Q-switching Nd:YAG laser as light source, and ICCD camera triggered by laser Qswitching time with proper gate delay regarding the flight time of Raman from target materials. Our detection system is successfully applied to detect and identify more than 20 ingredients of IEDs including TNT, RDX, and HMX which are located 10 to 54 meters away from the system.

  11. Potential of Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy for Plant Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, H.

    2008-11-01

    Various mid-infrared (MIR) and Raman spectroscopic methods applied to the analysis of valuable plant substances or quality parameters in selected horticultural and agricultural crops are presented. Generally, both spectroscopy techniques allow to identify simultaneously characteristic key bands of individual plant components (e.g. carotenoids, alkaloids, polyacetylenes, fatty acids, amino acids, terpenoids). In contrast to MIR methods Raman spectroscopy mostly does not need any sample pre-treatment; even fresh plant material can be analysed without difficulty because water shows only weak Raman scattering properties. In some cases a significant sensivity enhancement of Raman signals can be achieved if the exciting laser wavelength is adjusted to the absorption range of particular plant chromophores such as carotenoids (Resonance Raman effect). Applying FT-IR or FT Raman micro-spectroscopy the distribution of certain plant constituents in the cell wall can be identified without the need for any physical separation. Furthermore it is also possible to analyse secondary metabolites occurring in the cell vacuoles if significant key bands do not coincide with the spectral background of the plant matrix.

  12. Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials.

    PubMed

    Butler, Holly J; Ashton, Lorna; Bird, Benjamin; Cinque, Gianfelice; Curtis, Kelly; Dorney, Jennifer; Esmonde-White, Karen; Fullwood, Nigel J; Gardner, Benjamin; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Walsh, Michael J; McAinsh, Martin R; Stone, Nicholas; Martin, Francis L

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy can be used to measure the chemical composition of a sample, which can in turn be used to extract biological information. Many materials have characteristic Raman spectra, which means that Raman spectroscopy has proven to be an effective analytical approach in geology, semiconductor, materials and polymer science fields. The application of Raman spectroscopy and microscopy within biology is rapidly increasing because it can provide chemical and compositional information, but it does not typically suffer from interference from water molecules. Analysis does not conventionally require extensive sample preparation; biochemical and structural information can usually be obtained without labeling. In this protocol, we aim to standardize and bring together multiple experimental approaches from key leaders in the field for obtaining Raman spectra using a microspectrometer. As examples of the range of biological samples that can be analyzed, we provide instructions for acquiring Raman spectra, maps and images for fresh plant tissue, formalin-fixed and fresh frozen mammalian tissue, fixed cells and biofluids. We explore a robust approach for sample preparation, instrumentation, acquisition parameters and data processing. By using this approach, we expect that a typical Raman experiment can be performed by a nonspecialist user to generate high-quality data for biological materials analysis. PMID:26963630

  13. Recognition of gastric cancer by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Ma, Jun; Qu, Yefei; Mao, Weizheng; Zheng, Ronger

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing cancer from normal gastric tissue. In our study, a total of 236 Raman spectra of mucosa from 43 gastric cancer patients were obtained by NIR Raman spectroscopy system with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. After pretreatment, a comparison of the Raman spectra between cancer and normal tissues occurred. It was found that the gastric cancerous mucosa showed lower intensities at around 748, 944, and 1520cm-1, while higher at 807 and 1661cm-1, compared with normal tissue. And there was only one peak at 1022cm-1 in the spectra of normal mucosa, while there were two peaks at 1022 and 1052cm-1 in the spectra of cancerous mucosa. Support Vector Machine (SVM) was employed to classify Raman spectra between cancer and normal gastric tissues. A sensitivity of 88.2%, a specificity of 91.9%, and an overall diagnostic accuracy of 90.3% were achieved for discriminating gastric cancer from normal tissues with a Radial Basic Function (RBF) SVM algorithm. The experimental results show that Raman spectra differed significantly between cancerous and normal gastric tissue, which provides the experimental basis for the diagnosis of gastric cancer by Raman spectroscopy technology. And RBF SVM algorithm can give the well generalized classification performance for the samples, which expands the application of mathematical algorithms in the classification.

  14. Raman Under Nitrogen. The High-Resolution Raman Spectroscopy of Crystalline Uranocene, Thorocene, and Ferrocene

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, J S.; Zahardis, James; Pagni, Richard M.; Compton, Robert N.; Li, Jun

    2004-02-08

    The utility of recording Raman spectroscopy under liquid nitrogen, a technique we call Raman Under Nitrogen (RUN), is demonstrated for ferrocene, uranocene and thorocene. Using RUN, low temperature (liquid nitrogen cooled) Raman spectra for these compounds exhibit higher resolution than previous studies and new vibrational features are reported. The first Raman spectra of crystalline uranocene at 77 K are reported using excitation from argon (5145 ) and krypton (6764 ) ion lasers. The spectra obtained showed bands corresponding to vibrational transitions at 212, 236, 259, 379, 753, 897, 1500, and 3042 cm-1 , assigned to ring-metal-ring stretching, ring-metal tilting, out-of-plane CCC bending, in-plane CCC bending, ring-breathing, C-H bending, CC stretching and CH stretching, respectively. The assigned vibrational bands are compared to those of uranocene in THF and thorocene. All vibrational frequencies of the ligands, except the 259 cm-1 out-of-plane CCC bending mode, were found to increase upon coordination. A broad polarizable band centered about {approx}460 cm-1 was also observed. The 460 cm-1 band is greatly enhanced relative to the vibrational Raman transitions with excitation from the krypton ion laser, which is indicative of an electronic resonance Raman process as has been shown previously. The electronic resonance Raman band is observed to split into three distinct bands at 450, 461 and 474 cm-1 with 6764 excitation. Relativistic density functional theory (DFT) is used to provide theoretical interpretations of the measured spectra.

  15. Recent developments in optofluidic-assisted Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Jacky S. W.; Rutledge, Steve A.; Abu-Ghazalah, Rashid M.; Eftekhari, Fatemeh; Irizar, Juan; Tam, Natalie C. M.; Zheng, Gang; Helmy, Amr S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares the different optofluidic techniques for enhancing the retrieved Raman signal in liquids with a focus on aqueous solutions. Recent progress in characterizing different nanostructures and biological molecules utilizing optofluidic fibers such as photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) in Raman spectroscopy are discussed. Techniques and applications to combine surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with optofluidic-assisted Raman spectroscopy are further reviewed. Finally, challenges and future opportunities to advance Raman spectroscopy combined with optofluidics are presented.

  16. Designing of Raman lasers with Bragg mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossakowska-Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Tyszka-Zawadzka, Anna; Mroczyński, Robert; Beck, Romuald B.; Szczepański, Paweł

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a method of designing a Raman laser structures with Bragg mirrors used to coupling pump signal, forming a resonator and lead-out laser signal outside is presented. The Raman laser is SOI waveguide structure (such as "rib," i.e. ridge waveguide) with built-in reverse biased p-i-n diode, wherein the optical gain is generated by stimulated Raman effect in the waveguide. Our way of designing is based on the effective refractive index method. Design of Raman laser with Bragg mirrors consists of two main stages: the first step is the choice of the optimum size and shape of the rib waveguide; the second step is the selection of Bragg gratings parameters. Our method of designing such Raman laser structures is a design tool, which uses analytical dependences and allows specifying optimal geometric parameters of one mode laser.

  17. Pulsed-ultraviolet laser Raman diagnostics of plasma processing discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis P.J. Jr.; Greenberg, K.E.

    1988-11-07

    Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy with pulsed-ultraviolet laser excitation of the Stokes vibrational Raman lines was used to measure the percent dissociation of nitrogen and sulfur hexafluoride in low-pressure radio refrequency discharges of the type used for processing semiconductor materials. Measurements of the percent dissociation of sulfur hexafluoride, at pressures between 200 and 600 mTorr, show a strong pressure dependence which is consistent with recombination playing an important role in sulfur hexafluoride discharge kinetics.

  18. Multiplex coherent raman spectroscopy detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Peter; Joyner, Candace C.; Patrick, Sheena T.; Guyer, Dean R.

    2004-06-08

    A multiplex coherent Raman spectrometer (10) and spectroscopy method rapidly detects and identifies individual components of a chemical mixture separated by a separation technique, such as gas chromatography. The spectrometer (10) and method accurately identify a variety of compounds because they produce the entire gas phase vibrational Raman spectrum of the unknown gas. This is accomplished by tilting a Raman cell (20) to produce a high-intensity, backward-stimulated, coherent Raman beam of 683 nm, which drives a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (28) to produce a broadband beam of 1100-1700 nm covering a range of more than 3000 wavenumber. This broadband beam is combined with a narrowband beam of 532 nm having a bandwidth of 0.003 wavenumbers and focused into a heated windowless cell (38) that receives gases separated by a gas chromatograph (40). The Raman radiation scattered from these gases is filtered and sent to a monochromator (50) with multichannel detection.

  19. Multiplex coherent raman spectroscopy detector and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peter (Inventor); Joyner, Candace C. (Inventor); Patrick, Sheena T. (Inventor); Guyer, Dean R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multiplex coherent Raman spectrometer (10) and spectroscopy method rapidly detects and identifies individual components of a chemical mixture separated by a separation technique, such as gas chromatography. The spectrometer (10) and method accurately identify a variety of compounds because they produce the entire gas phase vibrational Raman spectrum of the unknown gas. This is accomplished by tilting a Raman cell (20) to produce a high-intensity, backward-stimulated, coherent Raman beam of 683 nm, which drives a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (28) to produce a broadband beam of 1100-1700 nm covering a range of more than 3000 wavenumber. This broadband beam is combined with a narrowband beam of 532 nm having a bandwidth of 0.003 wavenumbers and focused into a heated windowless cell (38) that receives gases separated by a gas chromatograph (40). The Raman radiation scattered from these gases is filtered and sent to a monochromator (50) with multichannel detection.

  20. Capability of shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy under ambient daylight.

    PubMed

    Maiwald, Martin; Müller, André; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2015-06-10

    We present the capability of shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) under ambient daylight. A dual-wavelength diode laser emitting at 785 nm is used as the excitation light source. The monolithic diode laser provides more than 110 mW in cw operation. Both excitation lines show an emission width ≤0.2 cm(-1) and a spectral distance of 10 cm(-1) as targeted for SERDS. Polystyrene (PS) is used as the test sample and ambient daylight to generate real-world background interference. Here, a broadband background signal with narrowband absorption lines from water vapor and Fraunhofer lines from singly ionized calcium (Ca II) obscure the Raman lines of PS. SERDS clearly separates the Raman signals from the background signals with a 13-fold improvement in signal-to-background noise. PMID:26192855

  1. Cone penetrometer fiber optic raman spectroscopy probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kyle, Kevin R.; Brown, Steven B.

    2000-01-01

    A chemically and mechanically robust optical Raman spectroscopy probe assembly that can be incorporated in a cone penetrometer (CPT) for subsurface deployment. This assembly consists of an optical Raman probe and a penetrometer compatible optical probe housing. The probe is intended for in-situ chemical analysis of chemical constituents in the surrounding environment. The probe is optically linked via fiber optics to the light source and the detection system at the surface. A built-in broadband light source provides a strobe method for direct measurement of sample optical density. A mechanically stable sapphire window is sealed directly into the side-wall of the housing using a metallic, chemically resistant, hermetic seal design. This window permits transmission of the interrogation light beam and the resultant signal. The spectroscopy probe assembly is capable of accepting Raman, Laser induced Fluorescence, reflectance, and other optical probes with collimated output for CPT deployment.

  2. Experimental demonstration of mode-selective phonon excitation of 6H-SiC by a mid-infrared laser with anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kyohei; Hachiya, Kan; Okumura, Kensuke; Mishima, Kenta; Inukai, Motoharu; Torgasin, Konstantin; Omer, Mohamed; Sonobe, Taro; Zen, Heishun; Negm, Hani; Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2013-10-28

    Mode-selective phonon excitation by a mid-infrared laser (MIR-FEL) is demonstrated via anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements of 6H-silicon carbide (SiC). Irradiation of SiC with MIR-FEL and a Nd-YAG laser at 14 K produced a peak where the Raman shift corresponds to a photon energy of 119 meV (10.4 μm). This phenomenon is induced by mode-selective phonon excitation through the irradiation of MIR-FEL, whose photon energy corresponds to the photon-absorption of a particular phonon mode.

  3. Raman and multichannel Raman spectroscopy of biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoluzza, Alessandro; Caramazza, R.; Fagnano, C.

    1991-05-01

    Raman and multichannel Raman spectroscopy are molecular techniques able to monitor the bulk and surface structure of a biomaterial, in a non destructive and non invasive way, giving therefore useful information on physical and chemical aspects of biocompatibility. The same techniques can also be adequately used for the characterization of the biomaterial-host tissue interface, hence providing structural information on the biochemical aspect of biocompatibility. Moreover, multichannel Raman spectroscopy can also determine "in vivo" and "in situ" the bulk and surface structure of a biomaterial and the molecular interactions between biomaterials and tissues. Useful information at a molecular level on the biomaterial-tissue system can so be deduced. In particular, the application of traditional Paman spectroscopy to bioactive glasses (glasses derived from Hench's bioglass and meta and oligophosphates of calcium by themselves and with the addition of sodium and aluminium) useful in orthopedics and the application to hydrophobic (PMMA) and hydrophilic (PHEMA and PVP) organic polymers useful in ophthalmology are shown. Instead the applications of multichannel Paman spectroscopy are elucidated in the case of intraocular lenses (lOLs) based on PMMA and contact lenses (CLs) based on hydrophi I ic polymers.

  4. Raman Spectroscopy Using a Tilted 2D MOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwolek, Jonathan M.; Knutson, Erin; Narducci, Frank A.

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate Raman spectroscopy using a cold and continuous beam of Rubidium atoms from a vapor-loaded, tilted two-dimensional magneto optical trap (2D MOT). The atoms emerge through a pinhole into an ultra-high vacuum chamber, and form a cold and slow moving beam of atoms with flux 109 atoms/sec with a most probable velocity of 10 m/s. The atoms travel across a set of laser beams which include an on-resonant state preparation beam, a beam tuned to drive a stimulated Raman transition, and another on-resonant readout beam. We observed Raman spectra which can include as many as 11 peaks. The width of the clock transition is consistent with the transit time of the atoms through the Raman fields. The width of the magnetic transitions is determined by laboratory magnetic noise. We have measured Rabi cycling on the clock transition using Raman beams in a co-propagating geometry by varying the laser power rather than pulse duration. Further developments will be made by introducing a momentum kick by using Raman beams in a counter-propagating geometry. Office of Naval Research.

  5. Raman Spectroscopy Study of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Bulk Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devpura, S.; Dai, H.; Thakur, J. S.; Naik, R.; Cao, A.; Pandya, A.; Auner, G. W.; Sarkar, F.; Sakr, W.; Naik, V.

    2009-03-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among men. The mortality rate for this disease can be dramatically reduced if it can be diagnosed in its early stages. Raman spectroscopy is one of the optical techniques which can provide fingerprints of a disease in terms of its molecular composition which changes due to the onset of disease. The aim of this project is to investigate the differences in the Raman spectra to identify benign epithelium (BE), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and adenocarcinoma of various Gleason grades in archived bulk tissues embedded in paraffin wax. For each tissue, two adjacent tissue sections were cut and dewaxed, where one of the sections was stained using haematoxylin and eosin for histological examination and the other unstained adjacent section was used for Raman spectroscopic studies. We have collected Raman spectra from 10 prostatic adenocarcinoma dewaxed tissue sections using Raman microscope (785 nm excitation laser). The data were analyzed using statistical methods of principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis to classify the tissue regions. The results indicate that Raman Spectroscopy can differentiate between BE, PIN and Cancer regions.

  6. Transmission fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceutical tablet cores.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Michael J; Larkin, Peter; Santangelo, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    Transmission Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy of pharmaceutical tablet cores is demonstrated using traditional, unmodified commercial instrumentation. The benefits of improved precision over backscattering Raman spectroscopy due to increased sample volume are demonstrated. Self-absorption effects on analyte band ratios and sample probe volume are apparent, however. A survey of near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectra in the FT-Raman spectral range (approximately 0 to 3500 wavenumber shift from 1064 nm, or 1064 to 1700 nm) of molecules with a wide range of NIR-active functional groups shows that although absorption at the laser wavelength (1064 nm) is relatively small, some regions of the Raman spectrum coincide with NIR absorbances of 0.5 per cm or greater. Fortunately, the pharmaceutically important regions of the Raman shift spectrum from 0 to 600 cm(-1) and from 1400 to 1900 cm(-1) exhibit low self-absorption for most organic materials. A statistical analysis of transmission FT-Raman noise in spectra collected from different regions of a pharmaceutical tablet provides insight into both spectral distortion and reduced sampling volume caused by self-absorption. PMID:22449328

  7. Challenges Analyzing Gypsum on Mars by Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Craig P; Olcott Marshall, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy can provide chemical information about organic and inorganic substances quickly and nondestructively with little to no sample preparation, thus making it an ideal instrument for Mars rover missions. The ESA ExoMars planetary mission scheduled for launch in 2018 will contain a miniaturized Raman spectrometer (RLS) as part of the Pasteur payload operating with a continuous wave (CW) laser emitting at 532 nm. In addition, NASA is independently developing two miniaturized Raman spectrometers for the upcoming Mars 2020 rover mission, one of which is a remote (stand-off) Raman spectrometer that uses a pulse-gated 532 nm excitation system (SuperCam). The other is an in situ Raman spectrometer that employs a CW excitation laser emitting at 248.6 nm (SHERLOC). Recently, it has been shown with analyses by Curiosity that Gale Crater contains significantly elevated concentrations of transition metals such as Cr and Mn. Significantly, these transition metals are known to undergo fluorescence emission in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Consequently, samples containing these metals could be problematic for the successful acquisition of fluorescence-free Raman spectra when using a CW 532 nm excitation source. Here, we investigate one analog environment, with a similar mineralogy and sedimentology to that observed in martian environments, as well as elevated Cr contents, to ascertain the best excitation wavelength to successfully collect fluorescence-free spectra from Mars-like samples. Our results clearly show that CW near-infrared laser excitation emitting at 785 nm is better suited to the collection of fluorescence-free Raman spectra than would be a CW laser emitting at 532 nm. PMID:26317670

  8. Raman spectroscopy of gliomas: an exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, Mahesh; Hole, Arti R.; Shridhar, E.; Moiyadi, Aliasgar V.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Gliomas are extremely infiltrative type of brain cancers, the borders of which are difficult to locate. Gliomas largely consist of tumors of astrocytic or oligodendroglial lineage. Usually stereotactic surgery is performed to obtain tumor tissue sample. Complete excision of these tumors with preservation of uninvolved normal areas is important during brain tumor surgeries. The present study was undertaken to explore feasibility of classifying abnormal and normal glioma tissues with Raman spectroscopy (RS). RS is a nondestructive vibrational spectroscopic technique, which provides information about molecular composition, molecular structures and molecular interactions in tissue. Postoperated 33 (20-abnormal and 13-normal) gliomas tissue samples of different grades were collected under clinical supervision. Five micron section from tissue sample was used for confirmatory histopathological diagnosis while the remaining tissue was placed on CaF2 window and spectra were acquired using a fiberoptic-probe-coupled HE-785 Raman-spectrometer. Spectral acquisition parameters were laser power-80mW, integration-20s and averaged over 3 accumulations. Spectra were pre-processed and subjected to unsupervised Principal-Component Analysis (PCA) to identify trends of classification. Supervised PC-LDA (Principal-Component-Linear-Discriminant Analysis) was used to develop standard-models using spectra of 12 normal and abnormal specimens each. Leave-one-out crossvalidation yielded classification-efficiency of 90% and 80% for normal and abnormal conditions, respectively. Evaluation with an independent-test data-set comprising of 135 spectra of 9 samples provided sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 70%. Findings of this preliminary study may pave way for objective tumor margin assessment during brain surgery.

  9. Coherent Raman spectroscopy for supersonic flow measurments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    She, C. Y.

    1986-01-01

    In collaboration with NASA/Langley Research Center, a truly nonintrusive and nonseeding method for measuring supersonic molecular flow parameters was proposed and developed at Colorado State University. The feasibility of this Raman Doppler Velocimetry (RDV), currently operated in a scanning mode, was demonstrated not only in a laboratory environment at Colorado State University, but also in a major wind tunnel at NASA/Langley Research Center. The research progress of the RDV development is summarized. In addition, methods of coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin spectroscopy and single-pulse coherent Raman spectroscopy are investigated, respectively, for measurements of high-pressure and turbulent flows.

  10. Analytical procedure for characterization of medieval wall-paintings by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syta, Olga; Rozum, Karol; Choińska, Marta; Zielińska, Dobrochna; Żukowska, Grażyna Zofia; Kijowska, Agnieszka; Wagner, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    Analytical procedure for the comprehensive chemical characterization of samples from medieval Nubian wall-paintings by means of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) was proposed in this work. The procedure was used for elemental and molecular investigations of samples from archeological excavations in Nubia (modern southern Egypt and northern Sudan). Numerous remains of churches with painted decorations dated back to the 7th-14th century were excavated in the region of medieval kingdoms of Nubia but many aspects of this art and its technology are still unknown. Samples from the selected archeological sites (Faras, Old Dongola and Banganarti) were analyzed in the form of transfers (n = 26), small fragments collected during the excavations (n = 35) and cross sections (n = 15). XRF was used to collect data about elemental composition, LA-ICPMS allowed mapping of selected elements, while RS was used to get the molecular information about the samples. The preliminary results indicated the usefulness of the proposed analytical procedure for distinguishing the substances, from both the surface and sub-surface domains of the wall-paintings. The possibility to identify raw materials from the wall-paintings will be used in the further systematic, archeometric studies devoted to the detailed comparison of various historic Nubian centers.

  11. Pharmaceutical process applications of Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Gift, Alan; Smith, Wayne

    2004-03-01

    In the past decade Raman spectroscopy (Raman) has moved out of the shadow of infrared spectroscopy (IR) and has become a routine analytical tool and is finding value in pharmaceutical process applications. Raman offers several advantages over IR vibrational information in identifying and quantifying chemicals, such as linear response to concentration independent of path length, ability to measure aqueous solutions without interference from water bands, and ease of sampling provided by fiber optic probes. However, process measurements, such as continuous monitoring or raw materials identification have been slow to develop due to instability of the wavenumber axis. Commercial suppliers of dispersive based Raman systems employ calibration references and software approaches to solve this difficult problem. To overcome this difficulty, just as dispersive IRs have been replaced by FT-IRs, we have developed an industrial hardened FT-Raman system. Furthermore, we have increased sensitivity by 25 times by employing an Si detector instead of an InGaAs detector. Here we present the abilities of this Raman system to address a number of pharmaceutical applications, including identifying raw materials in less than one minute using spectral library matching, process monitoring during early stage optimization, analyzing blended materials, and determining polymorphism.

  12. Measuring Rocket Engine Temperatures with Hydrogen Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Osborne, Robin J.; Trinh, Huu P.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Optically accessible, high pressure, hot fire test articles are available at NASA Marshall for use in development of advanced rocket engine propellant injectors. Single laser-pulse ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy has been used in the past in these devices for analysis of high pressure H2- and CH4-fueled combustion, but relies on an independent pressure measurement in order to provide temperature information. A variation of UV Raman (High Resolution Hydrogen Raman Spectroscopy) is under development and will allow temperature measurement without the need for an independent pressure measurement, useful for flows where local pressure may not be accurately known. The technique involves the use of a spectrometer with good spectral resolution, requiring a small entrance slit for the spectrometer. The H2 Raman spectrum, when created by a narrow linewidth laser source and obtained from a good spectral resolution spectrograph, has a spectral shape related to temperature. By best-fit matching an experimental spectrum to theoretical spectra at various temperatures, a temperature measurement is obtained. The spectral model accounts for collisional narrowing, collisional broadening, Doppler broadening, and collisional line shifting of each Raman line making up the H2 Stokes vibrational Q-branch spectrum. At pressures from atmospheric up to those associated with advanced preburner components (5500 psia), collisional broadening though present does not cause significant overlap of the Raman lines, allowing high resolution H2 Raman to be used for temperature measurements in plumes and in high pressure test articles. Experimental demonstrations of the technique are performed for rich H2-air flames at atmospheric pressure and for high pressure, 300 K H2-He mixtures. Spectrometer imaging quality is identified as being critical for successful implementation of technique.

  13. Raman gain of SiC as a potential medium for Raman lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, Larry D.; Zhang, Jun; Allen, Graham; Dawson, Jay W.; Dubinskii, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated stimulated Raman scattering in the 4H polytype of SiC, due to its excellent thermal conductivity which is of great importance for power scaling of Raman lasers. Spectroscopy verifies the sample's polytype and precludes any significant admixture of other polytypes. Tests indicate the moderate optical quality of this commercially available sample. Using pump-probe measurements around 1030 nm, we find the Raman gain coefficient of the major peak at 777 cm-1 to be 0.46 cm/GW. Although this value is only modest, calculations and experience with other Raman materials indicate that Raman lasing of 4H SiC should be possible with reasonable intensities of 1064-nm pulsed pumping.

  14. Ultrafast second-Stokes diamond Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Michelle; Lin, Jipeng; Trägårdh, Johanna; McConnell, Gail; Spence, David J

    2016-04-18

    We report a synchronously-pumped femtosecond diamond Raman laser operating with a tunable second-Stokes output. Pumped using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser at 840-910 nm with a duration of 165 fs, the second-Stokes wavelength was tuneable from 1082 - 1200 nm with sub-picosecond duration. Our results demonstrate potential for cascaded Raman conversion to extend the wavelength coverage of standard laser sources to new regions. PMID:27137254

  15. Measuring acetone using microstructured optical fiber and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Fenghong; Wu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach using microstructured optical fiber and Raman spectroscopy for identifying acetone is reported. This technique combines the advantage of small sampling volume of microstructured optical fiber and the specificity of Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Prospects of Mid Infrared Silicon Raman Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Bahram

    2006-03-01

    Mid wave infrared (MWIR) lasers in the wavelength range of 2-5?m form an important tool for free space communications, bio-chemical detection and certain medical applications. Most organic chemicals and biological agents have unique signatures in the MWIR and can be detected using these lasers. The strong water absorption peak at 2.9?m renders such a laser attractive for surgery and dentistry. Solid state lasers comprising OPO-based nonlinear frequency converters and Raman lasers have been the popular choice for these applications. However, the low damage threshold, poor thermal conductivity and high cost limit the commercial availability of these sources. The recent demonstration of the first silicon Raman laser in 2004 combined with excellent transmission of silicon in the mid-IR suggests that silicon should be considered as a MWIR Raman crystal. In the near IR, where current silicon Raman lasers operate, free carriers that are generated by two photon absorption (TPA) create severe losses. TPA vanishes in the MWIR regime (? > 2.25?m), hence eliminating the main problem with silicon Raman lasers. This combined with (i) the unsurpassed quality of commercial silicon crystals, (ii) the low cost and wide availability of the material, (iii) extremely high optical damage threshold of 1-4 GW/cm2 (depending on the crystal resistivity), and (iv) excellent thermal conductivity renders silicon a very attractive Raman crystal. Moreover, integrated waveguide and resonator technologies can lead to device miniaturization. This talk discusses the MWIR silicon laser and its applications.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of shocked water

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, N.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Graham, W.B.; Walrafen, G.E.

    1985-08-01

    We describe a new technique for recording spontaneous Raman spectra from molecules during the passage of strong shock waves. We have used this technique to study the OH-stretch band of liquid H/sub 2/O shocked to pressure up to 26 GPa and 1700 K. The shape of the band changes over the range 7.5-26 GPa, and is described well by a two-component mixture model, implying changes in the intermolecular coupling of shock compressed water molecules. We discuss the implications of the spectra on the mechanism responsible for the electrical conductivity of shocked H/sub 2/O. 22 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Planetary surface exploration using Raman spectroscopy for minerals and organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacksberg, J.; Alerstam, E.; Maruyama, Y.; Charbon, E.; Rossman, G. R.; Shkolyar, S.; Farmer, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been identified as one of the primary techniques for planetary surface mineralogy. It is widely used as a laboratory technique since it can identify nearly all crystalline mineral phases. Using a small spot size on the surface (on the order of a micron), mineral phases can be mapped onto microscopic images preserving information about surface morphology. As a result, this technique has been steadily gaining support for in situ exploration of a variety of target bodies, for example Mars, the Moon, Venus, asteroids, and comets. In addition to in situ exploration, Raman spectroscopy has been identified as a feasible means for pre-selection of samples on Mars for subsequent return to Earth. This is in part due to the fact that Raman can detect many organics in addition to minerals. As a result, the most relevant rock samples containing organics (potentially fossil biosignatures) may potentially be selected for return to Earth. We present a next-generation instrument that builds on the widely used 532 nm Raman technique to provide a means for performing Raman spectroscopy without the background noise that is often generated by fluorescence of minerals and organics. We use time-resolved laser spectroscopy to eliminate this fluorescence interference that can often make it difficult or impossible to obtain Raman spectra. We will discuss significant advances leading to the feasibility of a compact time-resolved spectrometer, including the development of a new solid-state detector capable of sub-ns temporal resolution. We will address the challenges of analyzing surface materials, often organics, that exhibit short-lifetime fluorescence. We will present result on planetary analog samples to demonstrate the instrument performance including fluorescence rejection.

  19. Coherent Raman dual-comb spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideguchi, Takuro; Holzner, Simon; Bernhardt, Birgitta; Guelachvili, Guy; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2014-11-01

    The invention of the optical frequency comb technique has revolutionized the field of precision spectroscopy, providing a way to measure the absolute frequency of any optical transition. Since, frequency combs have become common equipment for frequency metrology. In the last decade, novel applications for the optical frequency comb have been demonstrated beyond its original purpose. Broadband molecular spectroscopy is one of those. One such technique of molecular spectroscopy with frequency combs, dual-comb Fourier transform spectroscopy provides short measurement times with resolution and accuracy. Two laser frequency combs with slightly different repetition frequencies generate pairs of pulses with a linearly-scanned delay between pulses in a pair. The system without moving parts mimics a fast scanning Fourier transform interferometer. The measurement speed may be several orders of magnitude faster than that of a Michelson-based Fourier transform spectrometer, which opens up new opportunities for broadband molecular spectroscopy. Recently, dual-comb spectroscopy has been extended to nonlinear phenomena. A broadband Raman spectrum of molecular fingerprints may be measured within a few tens of microseconds with coherent Raman dual-comb spectroscopy. Raster scanning the sample leads to hyperspectral images. This rapid and broadband label-free vibrational spectroscopy and imaging technique might provide new diagnostic methods in a variety of scientific and industrial fields.

  20. Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) for liquid screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffen, Paul W.; Maskall, Guy; Bonthron, Stuart; Bloomfield, Matthew; Tombling, Craig; Matousek, Pavel

    2011-11-01

    Recently, Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) has been discussed as a novel method for the screening of liquids, aerosols and gels (LAGs) at airports and for other security applications. SORS is an optical spectroscopic method which enables the precise chemical identification of substances from a reference list and, due to the rich spectral information, has an inherently high probability of detection and low false alarm rate. The method is generally capable of screening substances inside non-metallic containers such as plastic and glass bottles. SORS is typically successful through opaque plastic and coloured glass, which are often challenging for conventional backscatter Raman spectroscopy. SORS is performed in just a few seconds by shining a laser light onto the container and then measuring the Raman signal at the excitation point but also at one or more offset positions. Each measurement has different relative orthogonal contributions from the container and contents Raman spectra, so that, with no prior knowledge, the pure Raman spectra of both the container and contents can be extracted - either by scaled subtraction or via multivariate statistical methods in an automated process. In this paper, the latest results will be described from a prototype SORS device designed for aviation security and the advantages and limitations of SORS will be discussed.

  1. Bladder cancer diagnosis during cystoscopy using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; Draga, R. O. P.; van Diest, P.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Stone, N.; Bosch, J. H. L. R.

    2009-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that can be used to obtain specific molecular information of biological tissues. It has been used successfully to differentiate normal and pre-malignant tissue in many organs. The goal of this study is to determine the possibility to distinguish normal tissue from bladder cancer using this system. The endoscopic Raman system consists of a 6 Fr endoscopic probe connected to a 785nm diode laser and a spectral recording system. A total of 107 tissue samples were obtained from 54 patients with known bladder cancer during transurethral tumor resection. Immediately after surgical removal the samples were placed under the Raman probe and spectra were collected and stored for further analysis. The collected spectra were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods. In total 2949 Raman spectra were recorded ex vivo from cold cup biopsy samples with 2 seconds integration time. A multivariate algorithm allowed differentiation of normal and malignant tissue with a sensitivity and specificity of 78,5% and 78,9% respectively. The results show the possibility of discerning normal from malignant bladder tissue by means of Raman spectroscopy using a small fiber based system. Despite the low number of samples the results indicate that it might be possible to use this technique to grade identified bladder wall lesions during endoscopy.

  2. Detection Of Biochips By Raman And Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantarovich, Keren; Tsarfati, Inbal; Gheber, Levi A.; Haupt, Karsten; Bar, Ilana

    2010-08-01

    Biochips constitute a rapidly increasing research field driven by the versatility of sensing devices and the importance of their applications in the bioanalytical field, drug development, environmental monitoring, food analysis, etc. Common strategies used for creating biochips and for reading them have extensive limitations, motivating development of miniature biochips and label-free formats. To achieve these goals we combined the nano fountain pen method, for printing microscale features with Raman spectroscopy or surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for reading droplets of synthetic receptors. These receptors include molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), which are obtained by polymerization of suitable functional and cross-linking monomers around molecular templates. MIPs are characterized by higher physical and chemical stability than biomacromolecules, and therefore are potentially very suitable as recognition elements for biosensors, or biochips. The monitored bands in the Raman and SERS spectra could be related to the taken up compound, allowing direct detection of the template, i.e., the β-blocking drug propranolol in the imprinted droplets, as well as imaging of individual and multiple dots in an array. This study shows that the combination of nanolithography techniques with SERS might open the possibility of miniaturized arrayed MIP sensors with label-free, specific and quantitative detection.

  3. Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Takuro; Holzner, Simon; Bernhardt, Birgitta; Guelachvili, Guy; Picqué, Nathalie; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2013-10-17

    Advances in optical spectroscopy and microscopy have had a profound impact throughout the physical, chemical and biological sciences. One example is coherent Raman spectroscopy, a versatile technique interrogating vibrational transitions in molecules. It offers high spatial resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capabilities that make it a label-free tool for the non-destructive and chemically selective probing of complex systems. Indeed, single-colour Raman bands have been imaged in biological tissue at video rates by using ultra-short-pulse lasers. However, identifying multiple, and possibly unknown, molecules requires broad spectral bandwidth and high resolution. Moderate spectral spans combined with high-speed acquisition are now within reach using multichannel detection or frequency-swept laser beams. Laser frequency combs are finding increasing use for broadband molecular linear absorption spectroscopy. Here we show, by exploring their potential for nonlinear spectroscopy, that they can be harnessed for coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and spectro-imaging. The method uses two combs and can simultaneously measure, on the microsecond timescale, all spectral elements over a wide bandwidth and with high resolution on a single photodetector. Although the overall measurement time in our proof-of-principle experiments is limited by the waiting times between successive spectral acquisitions, this limitation can be overcome with further system development. We therefore expect that our approach of using laser frequency combs will not only enable new applications for nonlinear microscopy but also benefit other nonlinear spectroscopic techniques. PMID:24132293

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography and Raman Spectroscopy of the retina

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J W; Zawadzki, R J; Liu, R; Chan, J; Lane, S; Werner, J S

    2009-01-16

    Imaging the structure and correlating it with the biochemical content of the retina holds promise for fundamental research and for clinical applications. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is commonly used to image the 3D structure of the retina and while the added functionality of biochemical analysis afforded by Raman scattering could provide critical molecular signatures for clinicians and researchers, there are many technical challenges to combining these imaging modalities. We present an ex vivo OCT microscope combined with Raman spectroscopy capable of collecting morphological and molecular information about a sample simultaneously. The combined instrument will be used to investigate remaining technical challenges to combine these imaging modalities, such as the laser power levels needed to achieve a Raman signal above the noise level without damaging the sample.

  5. FT-Raman spectroscopy study of human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitar Carter, Renata A.; Martin, Airton A.; Netto, Mario M.; Soares, Fernando A.

    2004-07-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been extensively studied as a potential in vivo diagnostic tool to provide information about the chemical and morphologic structure of tissue. Raman Spectroscpy is an inelastic scattering process that can provide a wealth of spectral features that can be related to the specific molecular structure of the sample. This article reports results of an in vitro study of the FT-Raman human breast tissue spectra. An Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm was used as the excitation source in the FT-Raman Spectrometer. The neoplastic human breast samples, both Fibroadenoma and ICD, were obtained during therapeutical routine medical procedures required by the primary disease, and the non-diseased human tissue was obtained in plastic surgery. No sample preparation was needed for the FT-Raman spectra collection. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded from normal, benign (Fibroadenomas) and malignant (IDC-Intraductal Carcinoma) samples, adding up 51 different areas. The main spectral differences of a typical FT-Raman spectra of a Normal (Non-diseased), Fibroadenoma, and Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) breast tissue at the interval of 600 to 1800cm-1, which may differentiate diagnostically the sample, were found in the bands of 1230 to 1295cm-1, 1440 to 1460 cm-1 and 1650 to 1680 cm-1, assigned to the vibrational bands of the carbohydrate-amide III, proteins and lipids, and carbohydrate-amide I, respectively.

  6. Assessment of bone healing on tibial fractures treated with wire osteosynthesis associated or not with infrared laser light and biphasic ceramic bone graft (HATCP) and guided bone regeneration (GBR): Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Aciole, Gilberth Tadeu S.; Aciole, Jouber Mateus S.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.; Nunes dos Santos, Jean; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, through Raman spectroscopy, the repair of complete tibial fracture in rabbits fixed with wire osteosynthesis - WO, treated or not with infrared laser light (λ 780nm, 50mW, CW) associated or not to the use of HATCP and GBR. Surgical fractures were created under general anesthesia (Ketamine 0.4ml/Kg IP and Xilazine 0.2ml/Kg IP), on the tibia of 15 rabbits that were divided into 5 groups and maintained on individual cages, at day/night cycle, fed with solid laboratory pelted diet and had water ad libidum. On groups II, III, IV and V the fracture was fixed with WO. Animals of groups III and V were grafted with hydroxyapatite + GBR technique. Animals of groups IV and V were irradiated at every other day during two weeks (16J/cm2, 4 x 4J/cm2). Observation time was that of 30 days. After animal death the specimens were kept in liquid nitrogen for further analysis by Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy showed significant differences between groups (p<0.001). It is concluded that IR laser light was able to accelerate fracture healing and the association with HATCP and GBR resulted on increased deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite.

  7. Raman spectroscopy of 'Bisphenol A'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Ramzan; Zheng, Yuxiang

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectra (95 - 3000 cm-1) of 'Bisphenol A' are presented. Absorption peaks have been assigned by Density Functional Theory (DFT) with B3LYP 6 - 311 ++ G (3df, 3pd) and wB97XD 6 - 311 ++ G (3df, 3pd). B3LYP 6 - 311 ++ G (3df, 3pd) gives frequencies which are nearer to experimental frequencies than wB97XD 6 - 311 ++ G (3df, 3pd) which involves empirical dispersion. Scale factor for wB97XD 6 - 311 ++ G (3df, 3pd) is found out to be 0.95008 by least squares fit.

  8. Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in the use of optical diagnostics in cancer detection. Early diagnosis of cancer affords early intervention and greatest chance of cure. Raman spectroscopy is based on the interaction of photons with the target material producing a highly detailed biochemical 'fingerprint' of the sample. It can be appreciated that such a sensitive biochemical detection system could confer diagnostic benefit in a clinical setting. Raman has been used successfully in key health areas such as cardiovascular diseases, and dental care but there is a paucity of literature on Raman spectroscopy in Head and Neck cancer. Following the introduction of health care targets for cancer, and with an ever-aging population the need for rapid cancer detection has never been greater. Raman spectroscopy could confer great patient benefit with early, rapid and accurate diagnosis. This technique is almost labour free without the need for sample preparation. It could reduce the need for whole pathological specimen examination, in theatre it could help to determine margin status, and finally peripheral blood diagnosis may be an achievable target. PMID:20923567

  9. Metallized Capillaries as Probes for Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A class of miniature probes has been proposed to supplant the fiber-optic probes used heretofore in some Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic systems. A probe according to the proposal would include a capillary tube coated with metal on its inside to make it reflective. A microlens would be hermetically sealed onto one end of the tube. A spectroscopic probe head would contain a single such probe, which would both deliver laser light to a sample and collect Raman or fluorescent light emitted by the sample.

  10. Candida parapsilosis Biofilm Identification by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Ota; Mlynariková, Katarina; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Růžička, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Mahelová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Colonies of Candida parapsilosis on culture plates were probed directly in situ using Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of specific strains separated by a given time intervals (up to months apart). To classify the Raman spectra, data analysis was performed using the approach of principal component analysis (PCA). The analysis of the data sets generated during the scans of individual colonies reveals that despite the inhomogeneity of the biological samples unambiguous associations to individual strains (two biofilm-positive and two biofilm-negative) could be made. PMID:25535081

  11. Candida parapsilosis biofilm identification by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Samek, Ota; Mlynariková, Katarina; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Růžička, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Mahelová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Colonies of Candida parapsilosis on culture plates were probed directly in situ using Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of specific strains separated by a given time intervals (up to months apart). To classify the Raman spectra, data analysis was performed using the approach of principal component analysis (PCA). The analysis of the data sets generated during the scans of individual colonies reveals that despite the inhomogeneity of the biological samples unambiguous associations to individual strains (two biofilm-positive and two biofilm-negative) could be made. PMID:25535081

  12. Raman Spectroscopy of Soft Musculoskeletal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Esmonde-White, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Tendon, ligament, and joint tissues are important in maintaining daily function. They can be affected by disease, age, and injury. Slow tissue turnover, hierarchical structure and function, and nonlinear mechanical properties present challenges to diagnosing and treating soft musculoskeletal tissues. Understanding these tissues in health, disease, and injury is important to improving pharmacologic and surgical repair outcomes. Raman spectroscopy is an important tool in the examination of soft musculoskeletal tissues. This article highlights exciting basic science and clinical/translational Raman studies of cartilage, tendon, and ligament. PMID:25286106

  13. In situ quantitative analysis of individual H2O-CO2 fluid inclusions by laser Raman spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Azbej, T.; Severs, M.J.; Rusk, B.G.; Bodnar, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Raman spectral parameters for the Raman ??1 (1285??cm- 1) and 2??2 (1388??cm- 1) bands for CO2 and for the O-H stretching vibration band of H2O (3600??cm- 1) were determined in H2O-CO2 fluid inclusions. Synthetic fluid inclusions containing 2.5 to 50??mol% CO2 were analyzed at temperatures equal to or greater than the homogenization temperature. The results were used to develop an empirical relationship between composition and Raman spectral parameters. The linear peak intensity ratio (IR = ICO2/(ICO2 + IH2O)) is related to the CO2 concentration in the inclusion according to the relation:Mole % C O2 = e- 3.959 IR2 + 8.0734 IRwhere ICO2 is the intensity of the 1388 cm- 1 peak and IH2O is the intensity of the 3600 cm- 1 peak. The relationship between linear peak intensity and composition was established at 350????C for compositions ranging from 2.5 to 50??mol% CO2. The CO2-H2O linear peak intensity ratio (IR) varies with temperature and the relationship between composition and IR is strictly valid only if the inclusions are analyzed at 350????C. The peak area ratio is defined as AR = ACO2/(ACO2 + AH2O), where ACO2 is the integrated area under the 1388??cm- 1 peak and AH2O is the integrated area under the 3600??cm- 1 peak. The relationship between peak area ratio (AR) and the CO2 concentration in the inclusions is given as:Mole % C O2 = 312.5 AR. The equation relating peak area ratio and composition is valid up to 25??mol% CO2 and from 300 to 450????C. The relationship between linear peak intensity ratio and composition should be used for inclusions containing ??? 50??mol% CO2 and which can be analyzed at 350????C. The relationship between composition and peak area ratios should be used when analyzing inclusions at temperatures less than or greater than 350????C (300-450) but can only be used for compositions ??? 25??mol% CO2. Note that this latter relationship has a somewhat larger standard deviation compared to the intensity ratio relationship. Calibration relationships employing peak areas for both members of the Fermi diad (??1 at 1285??cm- 1 and 2??2 at 1388??cm- 1) were slightly poorer than those using only the 2??2 (1388??cm- 1) member owing to interference from quartz peak at approximately 1160??cm- 1. The technique has been applied to natural low-salinity H2O-CO2 inclusions from the Butte, Montana, porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit. Carbon dioxide concentrations obtained range from below detection to 4.2??mol% CO2, and are in good agreement with concentrations determined previously based on microthermometric and petrographic observations. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a drug assay using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, S. M.; Roe, Jeffrey N.; Andresen, Brian D.; Myrick, Michael L.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1990-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been used to detect low levels of several chemical compounds, including the drugs of abuse -cocaine hydrochloride and methamphetamme hydrochloride. Raman spectra of these substances have also been taken over optical fibers using red-wavelength excitation. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of the remote determination of various target chemicals using diode laser excitation and diode array detection.

  15. Noninvasive identification of materials inside USP vials with Raman spectroscopy and a Raman spectral library.

    PubMed

    McCreery, R L; Horn, A J; Spencer, J; Jefferson, E

    1998-01-01

    A commercial dispersive Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm with a CCD detector was used to acquire spectra of USP reference materials inside amber USP vials. The laser and collection beams were directed through the bottom of the vials, resulting in a 60% loss of signal. The Raman shift was calibrated with a 4-acetamidophenol standard, and spectral response was corrected with a luminescent standard. After these corrections, the Raman spectra obtained inside the USP vial and on open powders differed by less than 5%. A spectral library of 309 reference materials was constructed, with spectral acquisition times ranging from 1 to 60 s. Of these, 8% had significant fluorescent background but observable Raman features, while 3% showed only fluorescence. A blind test of 26 unknowns revealed the accuracy of the library search to be 88-96%, depending on search algorithm, and 100% if operator discretion was permitted. The tolerance of the library search to degraded signal-to-noise ratio, resolution, and Raman shift accuracy were tested, and the search was very robust. The results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy provides a rapid, noninvasive technique for compound identification. PMID:9452960

  16. A novel method for the identification of inorganic and organic gunshot residue particles of lead-free ammunitions from the hands of shooters using scanning laser ablation-ICPMS and Raman micro-spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Abrego, Zuriñe; Grijalba, Nagore; Unceta, Nora; Maguregui, Maite; Sanchez, Alicia; Fernández-Isla, Alberto; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2014-12-01

    A method based on scanning laser ablation and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SLA-ICPMS) and Raman micro-spectroscopy for the detection and identification of compounds consistent with gunshot residue particles (GSR) has been developed. The method has been applied to the characterization of particles resulting from the discharge of firearms using lead-free ammunition. Modified tape lifts were used to collect the inorganic and organic residues from skin surfaces in a single sample. Using SLA-ICPMS, aggregates related to the composition of the ammunition, such as Cu-Zn-Sn, Zr-Sr, Cu-Zn, Al-Ti, or Al-Sr-Zr were detected, but this composition is only consistent with GSR from lead-free ammunitions. Additional evidence was provided by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which identified the characteristic organic groups of the particles as centralite, diphenylamine or their nitrated derivatives, which are indicative of GSR. PMID:25303642

  17. Q-switched Raman laser system

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.

    Method and apparatus for use of a Raman or Brillouin switch together with a conventional laser and a saturable absorber that is rapidly bleached at a predeterimined frequency nu = nu/sub O/, to ultimately produce a Raman or Brillouin pulse at frequency nu = nu/sub O/ +- nu /sub Stokes/.

  18. Q-Switched Raman laser system

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for use of a Raman or Brillouin switch together with a conventional laser and a saturable absorber that is rapidly bleached at a predetermined frequency .nu.=.nu..sub.0, to ultimately produce a Raman or Brillouin pulse at frequency .nu.=.nu..sub.0 .+-..nu..sub.Stokes.

  19. Bright emission from a random Raman laser

    PubMed Central

    Hokr, Brett H.; Bixler, Joel N.; Cone, Michael T.; Mason, John D.; Beier, Hope T.; Noojin, Gary D.; Petrov, Georgi I.; Golovan, Leonid A.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Random lasers are a developing class of light sources that utilize a highly disordered gain medium as opposed to a conventional optical cavity. Although traditional random lasers often have a relatively broad emission spectrum, a random laser that utilizes vibration transitions via Raman scattering allows for an extremely narrow bandwidth, on the order of 10 cm−1. Here we demonstrate the first experimental evidence of lasing via a Raman interaction in a bulk three-dimensional random medium, with conversion efficiencies on the order of a few percent. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the complex spatial and temporal dynamics of nonlinear processes in turbid media. In addition to providing a large signal, characteristic of the Raman medium, the random Raman laser offers us an entirely new tool for studying the dynamics of gain in a turbid medium. PMID:25014073

  20. Detection of liquid hazardous molecules using linearly focused Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Soo Gyeong; Chung, Jin Hyuk

    2013-05-01

    In security, it is an important issue to analyze hazardous materials in sealed bottles. Particularly, prompt nondestructive checking of sealed liquid bottles in a very short time at the checkpoints of crowded malls, stadiums, or airports is of particular importance to prevent probable terrorist attack using liquid explosives. Aiming to design and fabricate a detector for liquid explosives, we have used linearly focused Raman spectroscopy to analyze liquid materials in transparent or semi-transparent bottles without opening their caps. Continuous lasers with 532 nm wavelength and 58 mW/130 mW beam energy have been used for the Raman spectroscopy. Various hazardous materials including flammable liquids and explosive materials have successfully been distinguished and identified within a couple of seconds. We believe that our technique will be one of suitable methods for fast screening of liquid materials in sealed bottles.

  1. Uptake of and Resistance to the Antibiotic Berberine by Individual Dormant, Germinating and Outgrowing Bacillus Spores as Monitored by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwei; Yu, Jing; Suvira, Milomir; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, an alkaloid originally extracted from the plant Coptis chinensis and other herb plants, has been used as a pharmacological substance for many years. The therapeutic effect of berberine has been attributed to its interaction with nucleic acids and blocking cell division. However, levels of berberine entering individual microbial cells minimal for growth inhibition and its effects on bacterial spores have not been determined. In this work the kinetics and levels of berberine accumulation by individual dormant and germinated spores were measured by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy and differential interference and fluorescence microscopy, and effects of berberine on spore germination and outgrowth and spore and growing cell viability were determined. The major conclusions from this work are that: (1) colony formation from B. subtilis spores was blocked ~ 99% by 25 μg/mL berberine plus 20 μg/mL INF55 (a multidrug resistance pump inhibitor); (2) 200 μg/mL berberine had no effect on B. subtilis spore germination with L-valine, but spore outgrowth was completely blocked; (3) berberine levels accumulated in single spores germinating with ≥ 25 μg/mL berberine were > 10 mg/mL; (4) fluorescence microscopy showed that germinated spores accumulated high-levels of berberine primarily in the spore core, while dormant spores accumulated very low berberine levels primarily in spore coats; and (5) during germination, uptake of berberine began at the time of commitment (T1) and reached a maximum after the completion of CaDPA release (Trelease) and spore cortex lysis (Tlysis). PMID:26636757

  2. Raman spectroscopy of blood in-vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva-Luna, A. E.; Castro-Ramos, J.; Vazquez-Montiel, S.; Flores-Gil, A.; Ortiz-Lima, C. M.; Delgado-Atencio, J. A.

    2012-03-01

    We present Raman spectra from a sample of 8 volunteers that have different type of blood. The experimental data were carried out using a 785 nm excitation laser and an ocean optics spectrometer of 6 cm-1 resolution, with a used spectral region from 1000 to 1800 cm-1. We find Raman features at 1000 and 1542 cm-1 regarded with hemoglobin and its derivatives. Also we find Raman features at 1248 and 1342 cm-1 that are now regarded with pure fibrin. In this work, we use Principal Component analysis (PCA) to determine all variations of our samples, which allows us to define a classification of the influence of the blood type. Finally, we found vibrational lines of cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides that are reported in literature.

  3. Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy with polarization modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polavarapu, P. L.

    Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy can be performed with either a Martin—Puplett interferometer (MPI) or a Michelson interferometer (MI). With linearly polarized exciting light, the MPI provides information on the Stokes parameters S1, and S3 of the scattered Raman light, from a single measurement. The parameter S1 represents the difference in the scattered intensities with parallel and perpendicular polarizations while S3 represents the difference in the scattered intensities with right and left circular polarizations. A procedure to extract these parameters with a Michelson interferometer is developed in this paper. A comparison of both approaches indicates that the use of the MPI is favored if the objective is to extract the Stokes parameters. Both approaches are equally favored if the objective is to measure the depolarization ratios. For measuring total Raman scattering, the use of a Michelson interferometer appears preferable.

  4. Drug Stability Analysis by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Brouillette, Carl; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical drugs are available to astronauts to help them overcome the deleterious effects of weightlessness, sickness and injuries. Unfortunately, recent studies have shown that some of the drugs currently used may degrade more rapidly in space, losing their potency before their expiration dates. To complicate matters, the degradation products of some drugs can be toxic. Here, we present a preliminary investigation of the ability of Raman spectroscopy to quantify mixtures of four drugs; acetaminophen, azithromycin, epinephrine, and lidocaine, with their primary degradation products. The Raman spectra for the mixtures were replicated by adding the pure spectra of the drug and its degradant to determine the relative percent contributions using classical least squares. This multivariate approach allowed determining concentrations in ~10 min with a limit of detection of ~4% of the degradant. These results suggest that a Raman analyzer could be used to assess drug potency, nondestructively, at the time of use to ensure crewmember safety. PMID:25533308

  5. Drug stability analysis by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Brouillette, Carl; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical drugs are available to astronauts to help them overcome the deleterious effects of weightlessness, sickness and injuries. Unfortunately, recent studies have shown that some of the drugs currently used may degrade more rapidly in space, losing their potency before their expiration dates. To complicate matters, the degradation products of some drugs can be toxic. Here, we present a preliminary investigation of the ability of Raman spectroscopy to quantify mixtures of four drugs; acetaminophen, azithromycin, epinephrine, and lidocaine, with their primary degradation products. The Raman spectra for the mixtures were replicated by adding the pure spectra of the drug and its degradant to determine the relative percent contributions using classical least squares. This multivariate approach allowed determining concentrations in ~10 min with a limit of detection of ~4% of the degradant. These results suggest that a Raman analyzer could be used to assess drug potency, nondestructively, at the time of use to ensure crewmember safety. PMID:25533308

  6. Single bacteria identification by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strola, Samy Andrea; Baritaux, Jean-Charles; Schultz, Emmanuelle; Simon, Anne Catherine; Allier, Cédric; Espagnon, Isabelle; Jary, Dorothée; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2014-11-01

    We report on rapid identification of single bacteria using a low-cost, compact, Raman spectroscope. We demonstrate that a 60-s procedure is sufficient to acquire a comprehensive Raman spectrum in the range of 600 to 3300. This time includes localization of small bacteria aggregates, alignment on a single individual, and spontaneous Raman scattering signal collection. Fast localization of small bacteria aggregates, typically composed of less than a dozen individuals, is achieved by lensfree imaging over a large field of view of 24. The lensfree image also allows precise alignment of a single bacteria with the probing beam without the need for a standard microscope. Raman scattered light from a 34-mW continuous laser at 532 nm was fed to a customized spectrometer (prototype Tornado Spectral Systems). Owing to the high light throughput of this spectrometer, integration times as low as 10 s were found acceptable. We have recorded a total of 1200 spectra over seven bacterial species. Using this database and an optimized preprocessing, classification rates of ˜90% were obtained. The speed and sensitivity of our Raman spectrometer pave the way for high-throughput and nondestructive real-time bacteria identification assays. This compact and low-cost technology can benefit biomedical, clinical diagnostic, and environmental applications.

  7. Detecting changes during pregnancy with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargis, Elizabeth; Robertson, Kesha; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Reese, Jeff; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2010-02-01

    Preterm labor is the second leading cause of neonatal mortality and leads to a myriad of complications like delayed development and cerebral palsy. Currently, there is no way to accurately predict preterm labor, making its prevention and treatment virtually impossible. While there are some at-risk patients, over half of all preterm births do not fall into any high-risk category. This study seeks to predict and prevent preterm labor by using Raman spectroscopy to detect changes in the cervix during pregnancy. Since Raman spectroscopy has been used to detect cancers in vivo in organs like the cervix and skin, it follows that spectra will change over the course of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that fluorescence decreased during pregnancy and increased during post-partum exams to pre-pregnancy levels. We believe significant changes will occur in the Raman spectra obtained during the course of pregnancy. In this study, Raman spectra from the cervix of pregnant mice and women will be acquired. Specific changes that occur due to cervical softening or changes in hormonal levels will be observed to understand the likelihood that a female mouse or a woman will enter labor.

  8. Resonance Raman spectroscopy in twisted bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, A.; Venezuela, P.; Chacham, H.; Costa, S. D.; Fantini, C.; Ruoff, R. S.; Colombo, L.; Bacsa, W. S.; Pimenta, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    In this work we study the Raman spectra of twisted bilayer graphene samples, with different twisting angles, by changing the incident laser energy between 2.54 and 4.14 eV. The spectra exhibit a number of extra peaks, classified in different families, each one associated with bilayer graphenes with different twisting rotational angles. We theoretically analyze the laser energy dependence of these extra peaks considering a set of discrete wavevectors within the interior of the Brillouin zone of graphene, which activate special double-resonance Raman processes. Our result show a nice qualitative agreement between the experimental and simulated spectra, demonstrating that these extra peaks are indeed ascribed to an umklapp double-resonance process in graphene systems.

  9. Raman Spectroscopy of Supercooled Water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiafe-Akenten, John

    1984-06-01

    To study hydrogen-bonding network in liquid water under supercooled conditions and to relate it to any structural changes which perhaps contribute to the anomalous behavior and structural enhancement in water, we have used Raman spectroscopic technique to study supercooled liquid water down to a temperature of -20(DEGREES)C. Our results are consistent with an interpretation in terms of two categories of OH (OD) bonds; namely, those that are strongly hydrogen bonded and those that are weakly bonded. We find that hydrogen bonding in liquid water becomes stronger with decreasing temperature resulting in the formation of tetrabonded (or clusters of) water molecules which results in structural enhancement. Based on our measurements, we propose that the 3200 cm('-1) spectral band component which is absent from the OH vibrational spectrum of HOD but which prominently appears in the OH stretching vibrational spectrum of H(,2)O is a coupling band. The weakly hydrogen-bonded OH (OD) oscillators give rise to a spectral shoulder which increases in intensity with increasing temperature. We found that the spectral shoulder is an integral part of the OD (OH) vibrational spectrum and that it is not due to intermolecular coupling. Intermolecular coupling of OD oscillators from HOD in H(,2)O has also been investigated. The data indicate that at concentrations of HOD greater than 10 mole %, the effects of intermolecular coupling of OD. . . OD pairs become noticeable. Data analysis resulted in difference spectra which show a characteristic derivative like feature with an increase in intensity around 2400 cm('-1) as intermolecular coupling increases. This has led us to propose a model for explaining the major features of D(,2)O (H(,2)O) spectrum in the liquid state. In our low frequency work, we observed a limiting value to the width of the 190 cm('-1) band at temperatures below the equilibrium freezing point. This suggests that possibly the local structure of supercooled water is approaching some limiting structure. This could be that of amorphous solid water, H(,2)O (as).

  10. Biomedical applications of laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Sune

    1999-07-01

    Very soon after the invention of the laser, the use of the thermal effects of the radiation was introduced. Such techniques have been refined and the laser is now routinely used for treatment in many specialities. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-thermal modality employing the combination of a tumor-seeking agent and activating laser light. During the last 15 years laser spectroscopic techniques have also been developed providing powerful means for non-intrusive medical diagnostics of tissue in real time. At the beginning only few groups were involved in exploratory work, but successively the field has developed now to occupy a large number of research teams, which meet at large specialized conferences. We will here consider three aspects of laser diagnostics: fluorescence, Raman and near-IR, and elastic scattering spectroscopy, and we will also briefly discuss PDT. The activity in the field is very extensive, and rather than trying to give a full overview, illustrations from work performed at the Lund University Medical Laser Center will be given.

  11. Near infrared Raman spectroscopy for Alzheimer's disease detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, Caroline D.; Archer, John K. J.; Mann, David

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, the use of Raman spectroscopy for the detection and diagnosis of disease has steadily grown within the research field. However, this research has primarily been restricted to oncology. This research expands the use of Raman spectroscopy as a potential tool for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, which is currently the most prevalent, and fastest growing type of dementia in the Western world. Using a commercial Raman spectrometer (Renishaw PLC ®, UK) flash frozen post-mortem ex vivo brain tissue sections were illuminated using a high power (20mW) 830 nm near infrared diode laser, and subsequently spectra were gained in the region of 2000-200 cm-1 from a 10 second accumulation time. Ethical approval was gained for the examination of 18 individual donors exhibiting varying states of Alzheimer's disease, Huntingdon's disease and their corresponding age-matched healthy controls. Following on from previous preliminary studies, the Raman spectra were found to be highly reproducible, and when examined further, the spectra showed differences relating to the content and structure of the proteins in the individual brain samples, in particular, the beta-amyloid protein structure found in Alzheimer's disease patients. Principle components analysis further determined these protein structural changes, with Alzheimer's disease and Huntingdon's disease samples being defined from the healthy controls, and from each other.

  12. NIR Raman spectroscopy in medicine and biology: results and aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, B.; Dippel, B.; Erb, I.; Keller, S.; Löchte, T.; Schulz, H.; Tatsch, E.; Wessel, S.

    1999-05-01

    Analyses of biomaterial by 'classical' Raman spectroscopy with excitation in the visible range has not been possible since the fluorescence of many essential constituents of all animal and plant cells and tissues overlays the Raman spectra completely. Fluorescence, however, is virtually avoided, when Raman spectra are excited with the Nd : YAG laser line at 1064 nm. Within seven dissertations we explored different fields of potential applications to medical diagnostics. Identification and qualification of tissues and cells is possible. Tumors show small but significant differences to normal tissues; in order to develop a reliable tool for tumor diagnostics more research is necessary, especially a collection of reference spectra in a data bank is needed. Raman spectra of biomineralization structures in teeth and bones show pathological tissues as well as the development of new mineralized structures. NIR Raman spectra of flowers, leaves, and fruit show, without special preparation, their constituents: alkaloids, the essential oils, natural dyes, flavors, spices and drugs. They allow application to taxonomy, optimizing plant breeding and control of food.

  13. The Impact of Array Detectors on Raman Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Stephen C.; Pommier, Carolyn J. S.; Denton, M. Bonner

    2007-01-01

    The impact of array detectors in the field of Raman spectroscopy and all low-light-level spectroscopic techniques is examined. The high sensitivity of array detectors has allowed Raman spectroscopy to be used to detect compounds at part per million concentrations and to perform Raman analyses at advantageous wavelengths.

  14. Raman and photothermal spectroscopies for explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finot, Eric; Brulé, Thibault; Rai, Padmnabh; Griffart, Aurélien; Bouhélier, Alexandre; Thundat, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Detection of explosive residues using portable devices for locating landmine and terrorist weapons must sat- isfy the application criteria of high reproducibility, specificity, sensitivity and fast response time. Vibrational spectroscopies such as Raman and infrared spectroscopies have demonstrated their potential to distinguish the members of the chemical family of more than 30 explosive materials. The characteristic chemical fingerprints in the spectra of these explosives stem from the unique bond structure of each compound. However, these spectroscopies, developed in the early sixties, suffer from a poor sensitivity. On the contrary, MEMS-based chemical sensors have shown to have very high sensitivity lowering the detection limit down to less than 1 picogram, (namely 10 part per trillion) using sensor platforms based on microcantilevers, plasmonics, or surface acoustic waves. The minimum amount of molecules that can be detected depends actually on the transducer size. The selectivity in MEMS sensors is usually realized using chemical modification of the active surface. However, the lack of sufficiently selective receptors that can be immobilized on MEMS sensors remains one of the most critical issues. Microcantilever based sensors offer an excellent opportunity to combine both the infrared photothermal spectroscopy in their static mode and the unique mass sensitivity in their dynamic mode. Optical sensors based on localized plasmon resonance can also take up the challenge of addressing the selectivity by monitoring the Surface Enhanced Raman spectrum down to few molecules. The operating conditions of these promising localized spectroscopies will be discussed in terms of reliability, compactness, data analysis and potential for mass deployment.

  15. Raman Spectroscopy: Incorporating the Chemical Dimension into Dermatological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Sharma, Shruti; Zarrow, Anna; Schwartz, Robert A; Lambert, W Clark

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides chemical analysis of tissue in vivo. By measuring the inelastic interactions of light with matter, Raman spectroscopy can determine the chemical composition of a sample. Diseases that are visually difficult to visually distinguish can be delineated based on differences in chemical composition of the affected tissue. Raman spectroscopy has successfully found spectroscopic signatures for skin cancers and differentiated those of benign skin growths. With current and on-going advances in optics and computing, inexpensive and effective Raman systems may soon be available for clinical use. Raman spectroscopy provides direct analyses of skin lesions, thereby improving both disease diagnosis and management. PMID:26955087

  16. [Research Progress of Raman Spectroscopy on Dyestuff Identification of Ancient Relics and Artifacts].

    PubMed

    He, Qiu-ju; Wang, Li-qin

    2016-02-01

    As the birthplace of Silk Road, China has a long dyeing history. The valuable information about the production time, the source of dyeing material, dyeing process and preservation status were existed in organic dyestuff deriving from cultural relics and artifacts. However, because of the low contents, complex compositions and easily degraded of dyestuff, it is always a challenging task to identify the dyestuff in relics analyzing field. As a finger-print spectrum, Raman spectroscopy owns unique superiorities in dyestuff identification. Thus, the principle, characteristic, limitation, progress and development direction of micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS/µ-Raman), near infrared reflection and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (NIR-FT-Raman), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonance raman spectroscopy (RRS) have been introduced in this paper. Furthermore, the features of Raman spectra of gardenia, curcumin and other natural dyestuffs were classified by MRS technology, and then the fluorescence phenomena of purpurin excitated with different wavelength laser was compared and analyzed. At last, gray green silver colloidal particles were made as the base, then the colorant of madder was identified combining with thin layer chromatography (TLC) separation technology and SERS, the result showed that the surface enhancement effect of silver colloidal particles could significantly reduce fluorescence background of the Raman spectra. It is pointed out that Raman spectroscopy is a rapid and convenient molecular structure qualitative methodology, which has broad application prospect in dyestuff analysis of cultural relics and artifacts. We propose that the combination of multi-Raman spectroscopy, separation technology and long distance transmission technology are the development trends of Raman spectroscopy. PMID:27209739

  17. Raman spectroscopy explores molecular structural signatures of hidden materials in depth: Universal Multiple Angle Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil, Sanchita; Umapathy, Siva

    2014-06-01

    Non-invasive 3D imaging in materials and medical research involves methodologies such as X-ray imaging, MRI, fluorescence and optical coherence tomography, NIR absorption imaging, etc., providing global morphological/density/absorption changes of the hidden components. However, molecular information of such buried materials has been elusive. In this article we demonstrate observation of molecular structural information of materials hidden/buried in depth using Raman scattering. Typically, Raman spectroscopic observations are made at fixed collection angles, such as, 90, 135, and 180, except in spatially offset Raman scattering (SORS) (only back scattering based collection of photons) and transmission techniques. Such specific collection angles restrict the observations of Raman signals either from or near the surface of the materials. Universal Multiple Angle Raman Spectroscopy (UMARS) presented here employs the principle of (a) penetration depth of photons and then diffuse propagation through non-absorbing media by multiple scattering and (b) detection of signals from all the observable angles.

  18. Multi-wavelength quasi-continuous wave all-solid-state system based on Raman lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodchits, Alexander I.; Busko, Dmitry N.; Orlovich, Valentin A.; Lisinetskii, Viktor A.; Grabtchikov, Alexander S.; Apanasevich, Pavel A.; Eichler, Hans J.

    2007-06-01

    High-repetition-pulse-rate nanosecond laser system is developed. It is based on Raman lasers with barium nitrate and KGW crystals. The minimum Raman threshold of laser generation corresponds to only 0.2-0.4 kW of peak pumping power. The laser system generates the radiation at 22 wavelengths in the 280-1600 nm spectral range with average powers from several mW to 1.4 W. The maximum Raman conversion efficiency reaches 40 %. The minimum spectral width of the generated radiation is equal to 0.1 cm -1. This laser system can be used for spectroscopy studies, medicine, and for other applications.

  19. Summary report of FY 1995 Raman spectroscopy technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, J.G.

    1995-11-01

    US DOE is sponsoring development of remote, fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for rapid chemical characterization of Hanford high-level radioactive tank waste. Deployment targets for this technology are analytical hot cells and, via the Light-Duty Utility Arm and cone penetrometer, the waste tanks themselves. Perceived benefits of fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy are (1) rapid generation of tank-waste safety-related data, (2) reduced personnel exposure to highly radioactive waste, (3) reduced tank-waste sampling and analysis costs, and (4) reduced radioactive analytical waste. This document presents the results from the investigation of two dispersive, transmission-grating Raman systems and four fiber-optic Raman probe designs with non-radioactive tank waste simulants. One Raman system used a 532-nm, 400 mW, solid-state laser; the other used a 785-nm, 500 mW, solid-state diode laser. We found (1) the transmission-grating systems had better wavelength stability than previously tried Czerny-Turner-Based systems and (2) the 785-nm system`s specie detection limits in the spectral fingerprint regiion were at least as good as those for the 532-nm system. Based on these results, and the fact that some tank wastes luminesce with 514.5nm excitation, we selected the 785-nm system for hot-cell use. Of the four probes tested, three had a ``six-around-on`` fiber probe design; the fourth probe was a one-fiber-in-one-fiber-out, diffuse-relectance design. Comparison of the four probes` signal-to-noise rations, rations, transmission/collection efficiencies, and probe-silica Raman backgrounds showed that the best probe for use with Hanford-Site tank waste should (1) be filtered as close to the probe tip as possible to reduce the probe-silica Raman background and (2) have multiple collection fibers. The responses of all the probes tested showed a strong dependence on probe-sample distance, and the presence of a probe window appeared to increase the probe`s silica Raman background.

  20. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    González-Solís, JL; Luévano-Colmenero, GH; Vargas-Mancilla, J

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational technique which provides information about the chemical structure. Nevertheless, since many chemicals are present in a cell at very low concentration, the Raman signal observed from a single cell is extremely weak. In surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), Raman signals can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude when nanoparticles are incorporated into the cell. Materials (subjects) and methods: The tumor biopsies were obtained from 5 patients who were clinically diagnosed with breast cancer. Breast cancer cells isolated from the biopsy were washed, centrifuged and seeded out. Cultivation took place in DMEM at 37°C in a humidified of 5% CO2 in air with addition of colloidal silver nanoparticles of 40 nm into the cell by sonication. Immediately, the washed cells were analyzed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7. Raman analysis was carried out on the Jobin-Yvon LabRAM HR800 microscope system, with a NIR 830 nm laser excitation source. Results: The strongly enhanced Raman signals allow Raman measurements of a single cell in the 200–1800 cm−1 range in relatively short collection times (5 second) using 17 mW near-infrared excitation. Observed spectral features differed across the cell, but chemical constituents in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm, such as DNA, RNA, and amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine can be identified. Conclusions: Particularly strong field enhancement can be observed when nanoparticles form colloidal clusters. The results suggest that SERS could be a new technique for the identification of breast cancer cell. PMID:24155548

  1. Applications of Raman Spectroscopy to Virology and Microbial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harz, Michaela; Stöckel, Stephan; Ciobotă, Valerian; Cialla, Dana; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    This chapter reports from the utilization of Raman spectroscopic techniques like Raman microscopy, Raman optical activity (ROA), UV-resonance Raman (UVRR)-spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) for the investigation of viruses and microorganisms, especially bacteria and yeasts for medical and pharmaceutical applications. The application of these Raman techniques allows for the analysis of chemical components of cells and subcellular regions, as well as the monitoring of chemical differences occurring as a result of the growth of microorganisms. In addition, the interaction of microorganisms with active pharmaceutical agents can be investigated. In combination with chemometric methods Raman spectroscopy can also be applied to identify microorganisms both in micro colonies and even on single cells.

  2. Analysis of enzyme-responsive peptide surfaces by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Jugal Kishore; Sirimuthu, Narayana M S; Canning, Anne; Zelzer, Mischa; Graham, Duncan; Ulijn, Rein V

    2016-03-17

    We report on the use of Raman spectroscopy as a tool to characterise model peptide functionalised surfaces. By taking advantage of Raman reporters built into the peptide sequence, the enzymatic hydrolysis of these peptides could be determined. PMID:26953852

  3. Electronic resonances in broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Batignani, G; Pontecorvo, E; Giovannetti, G; Ferrante, C; Fumero, G; Scopigno, T

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy is a formidable tool to probe molecular vibrations. Under electronic resonance conditions, the cross section can be selectively enhanced enabling structural sensitivity to specific chromophores and reaction centers. The addition of an ultrashort, broadband femtosecond pulse to the excitation field allows for coherent stimulation of diverse molecular vibrations. Within such a scheme, vibrational spectra are engraved onto a highly directional field, and can be heterodyne detected overwhelming fluorescence and other incoherent signals. At variance with spontaneous resonance Raman, however, interpreting the spectral information is not straightforward, due to the manifold of field interactions concurring to the third order nonlinear response. Taking as an example vibrational spectra of heme proteins excited in the Soret band, we introduce a general approach to extract the stimulated Raman excitation profiles from complex spectral lineshapes. Specifically, by a quantum treatment of the matter through density matrix description of the third order nonlinear polarization, we identify the contributions which generate the Raman bands, by taking into account for the cross section of each process. PMID:26728791

  4. Electronic resonances in broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Batignani, G.; Pontecorvo, E.; Giovannetti, G.; Ferrante, C.; Fumero, G.; Scopigno, T.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy is a formidable tool to probe molecular vibrations. Under electronic resonance conditions, the cross section can be selectively enhanced enabling structural sensitivity to specific chromophores and reaction centers. The addition of an ultrashort, broadband femtosecond pulse to the excitation field allows for coherent stimulation of diverse molecular vibrations. Within such a scheme, vibrational spectra are engraved onto a highly directional field, and can be heterodyne detected overwhelming fluorescence and other incoherent signals. At variance with spontaneous resonance Raman, however, interpreting the spectral information is not straightforward, due to the manifold of field interactions concurring to the third order nonlinear response. Taking as an example vibrational spectra of heme proteins excited in the Soret band, we introduce a general approach to extract the stimulated Raman excitation profiles from complex spectral lineshapes. Specifically, by a quantum treatment of the matter through density matrix description of the third order nonlinear polarization, we identify the contributions which generate the Raman bands, by taking into account for the cross section of each process. PMID:26728791

  5. Noninvasive glucose sensing by transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wei-Chuan; Bechtel, Kate L.; Rebec, Mihailo V.

    2015-05-01

    We present the development of a transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy system and analysis algorithm for noninvasive glucose sensing. The instrument and algorithm were tested in a preclinical study in which a dog model was used. To achieve a robust glucose test system, the blood levels were clamped for periods of up to 45 min. Glucose clamping and rise/fall patterns have been achieved by injecting glucose and insulin into the ear veins of the dog. Venous blood samples were drawn every 5 min and a plasma glucose concentration was obtained and used to maintain the clamps, to build the calibration model, and to evaluate the performance of the system. We evaluated the utility of the simultaneously acquired Raman spectra to be used to determine the plasma glucose values during the 8-h experiment. We obtained prediction errors in the range of ˜1.5-2 mM. These were in-line with a best-case theoretical estimate considering the limitations of the signal-to-noise ratio estimates. As expected, the transition regions of the clamp study produced larger predictive errors than the stable regions. This is related to the divergence of the interstitial fluid (ISF) and plasma glucose values during those periods. Two key contributors to error beside the ISF/plasma difference were photobleaching and detector drift. The study demonstrated the potential of Raman spectroscopy in noninvasive applications and provides areas where the technology can be improved in future studies.

  6. Noninvasive glucose sensing by transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shih, Wei-Chuan; Bechtel, Kate L; Rebec, Mihailo V

    2015-05-01

    We present the development of a transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy system and analysis algorithm for noninvasive glucose sensing. The instrument and algorithm were tested in a preclinical study in which a dog model was used. To achieve a robust glucose test system, the blood levels were clamped for periods of up to 45 min. Glucose clamping and rise/fall patterns have been achieved by injecting glucose and insulin into the ear veins of the dog. Venous blood samples were drawn every 5 min and a plasma glucose concentration was obtained and used to maintain the clamps, to build the calibration model, and to evaluate the performance of the system. We evaluated the utility of the simultaneously acquired Raman spectra to be used to determine the plasma glucose values during the 8-h experiment. We obtained prediction errors in the range of ~1.5-2  mM. These were in-line with a best-case theoretical estimate considering the limitations of the signal-to-noise ratio estimates. As expected, the transition regions of the clamp study produced larger predictive errors than the stable regions. This is related to the divergence of the interstitial fluid (ISF) and plasma glucose values during those periods. Two key contributors to error beside the ISF/plasma difference were photobleaching and detector drift. The study demonstrated the potential of Raman spectroscopy in noninvasive applications and provides areas where the technology can be improved in future studies. PMID:25688542

  7. Noninvasive glucose sensing by transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Wei-Chuan; Bechtel, Kate L.; Rebec, Mihailo V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We present the development of a transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy system and analysis algorithm for noninvasive glucose sensing. The instrument and algorithm were tested in a preclinical study in which a dog model was used. To achieve a robust glucose test system, the blood levels were clamped for periods of up to 45 min. Glucose clamping and rise/fall patterns have been achieved by injecting glucose and insulin into the ear veins of the dog. Venous blood samples were drawn every 5 min and a plasma glucose concentration was obtained and used to maintain the clamps, to build the calibration model, and to evaluate the performance of the system. We evaluated the utility of the simultaneously acquired Raman spectra to be used to determine the plasma glucose values during the 8-h experiment. We obtained prediction errors in the range of ∼1.5−2  mM. These were in-line with a best-case theoretical estimate considering the limitations of the signal-to-noise ratio estimates. As expected, the transition regions of the clamp study produced larger predictive errors than the stable regions. This is related to the divergence of the interstitial fluid (ISF) and plasma glucose values during those periods. Two key contributors to error beside the ISF/plasma difference were photobleaching and detector drift. The study demonstrated the potential of Raman spectroscopy in noninvasive applications and provides areas where the technology can be improved in future studies. PMID:25688542

  8. Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haka, Abigail S.; Shafer-Peltier, Karen E.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Crowe, Joseph; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2005-08-01

    We employ Raman spectroscopy to diagnose benign and malignant lesions in human breast tissue based on chemical composition. In this study, 130 Raman spectra are acquired from ex vivo samples of human breast tissue (normal, fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and infiltrating carcinoma) from 58 patients. Data are fit by using a linear combination model in which nine basis spectra represent the morphologic and chemical features of breast tissue. The resulting fit coefficients provide insight into the chemical/morphological makeup of the tissue and are used to develop diagnostic algorithms. The fit coefficients for fat and collagen are the key parameters in the resulting diagnostic algorithm, which classifies samples according to their specific pathological diagnoses, attaining 94% sensitivity and 96% specificity for distinguishing cancerous tissues from normal and benign tissues. The excellent results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to be applied in vivo to accurately classify breast lesions, thereby reducing the number of excisional breast biopsies that are performed. Author contributions: M.F., J.C., R.R.D., and M.S.F. designed research; A.S.H. and K.E.S.-P. performed research; A.S.H. and M.F. analyzed data; and A.S.H. wrote the paper.This paper was submitted directly (Track II) to the PNAS office.Abbreviations: DEH, ductal epithelial hyperplasia; ROC, receiver operating characteristic; N/C, nuclear-to-cytoplasm.

  9. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of whole hairs.

    PubMed

    Pudney, Paul D A; Bonnist, Eleanor Y M; Mutch, Kevin J; Nicholls, Rachel; Rieley, Hugh; Stanfield, Samuel

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the application of Raman spectroscopy to whole hair fibers. Previously this has proved difficult because the hairs are relatively opaque, and spatial resolution diminishes with depth because of the change in refractive index. A solution is to couple confocal Raman with multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis, which separates spectral differences with depth despite this reduction in resolution. Initially, it is shown that the cuticle can be separated from the cortex, showing the differences in the proteins, which can then be plotted as a function of depth, with the cuticle factor being seen only at the surface as expected. Hairs that had been treated in different ways, e.g., by bleaching, treatment with the active molecule resorcinol followed by rinsing and treatment with a full hair care product, were also examined. In all cases, changes to the hair are identified and are associated with specific parts of the fiber. Since the hair fiber is kept intact, it can be repeatedly treated and measured, hence multistep treatment processes can be followed. This method expands the potential use of Raman spectroscopy in hair research. PMID:24359655

  10. Off-axis Raman spectroscopy in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lingyun; Menéndez, José

    1998-03-01

    The standard geometry for Raman experiments in semiconductors is the backscattering mode. Due to the large index of refraction in these materials, backscattering selection rules are invoked even in cases when the external angle of incidence of the laser beam is not negligible. Small deviations from the backscattering selection rules, however, provide important structural information. For example, these deviations can be used to determine the stress tensor in stressed silicon.(G.H. Loechelt, N.G. Cave, and J. Menéndez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66), 3639 (1995) We report here a systematic way to enhance the deviations from the backscattering geometry by using high-index of refraction materials as the incident medium. Specifically, we utilize ZnSe crystals to obtain large internal angles of incidence in strained SiGe/Si layers. In addition, we investigate the possibility of observing evanescent field Raman scattering from diamond using total internal reflection conditions at the ZnSe/diamond interface. -------------------------------------------------------------

  11. Lignin analysis by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, U.P.; Obst, J.R.; Cannon, A.B.

    1996-10-01

    Traditional methods of lignin analysis, such as Klason (acid insoluble) lignin determinations, give satisfactory results, are widely accepted, and often are considered as standard analyses. However, the Klason lignin method is laborious and time consuming; it also requires a fairly large-amount of isolated analyte. FT-Raman spectroscopy offers an opportunity to simplify and speed up lignin analyses. FT-Raman data for a number of hardwoods (angiosperms) and softwoods (gymnosperms) are compared with data obtained using other analytical methods, including Klason lignin (with corrections for acid soluble lignin), acetyl bromide, and FT-IR determinations. In addition, 10 different specimens of Nothofagus dombeyii (chosen because of the widely varying syringyl:guaiacyl monomer compositions of their lignins) were also analyzed. Lignin monomer compositions were determined by thioacidolysis of by nitrobenzene oxidation.

  12. Dispersive Raman spectroscopy allows the identification and quantification of melanin types

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Ismael; Jorge, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Melanins are the most prevalent pigments in animals and are involved in visual communication by producing colored traits that often evolve as intraspecific signals of quality. Identifying and quantifying melanins are therefore essential to understand the function and evolution of melanin-based signals. However, the analysis of melanins is difficult due to their insolubility and the lack of simple methods that allow the identification of their chemical forms. We recently proposed the use of Raman spectroscopy as a simple, noninvasive technique that can be used to identify and quantify melanins in feathers and hairs. Contrarily, other authors later stated that melanins are characterized by a lack of defined Raman signals. Here, we use confocal Raman microscopy to confirm previous analyses showing that the two main chemical forms of melanins (eumelanin and pheomelanin) exhibit distinct Raman signal and compare different excitation wavelengths to analyze synthetic pheomelanin and natural melanins in feathers of different species of birds. Our analyses indicate that only laser excitation wavelengths below 1064 nm are useful for the analysis of melanins by Raman spectroscopy, and only 780-nm laser in the case of melanins in feathers. These findings show that the capacity of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish different chemical forms of melanins depends on laser power and integration time. As a consequence, Raman spectroscopy should be applied after preliminar analyses using a range of these parameters, especially in fragile biological tissues such as feathers. PMID:25897382

  13. Raman spectroscopy of small-diameter nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulman, M.; Pfeiffer, R.; Kuzmany, H.

    2004-01-01

    Results based on Raman measurements of small-diameter nanotubes (NTs) are presented and discussed in this paper. The NTs with diameters from 1 nm down to 0.4 nm were produced either as the inner tubes in the double-wall carbon NTs (DWCNTs) or as tubes embedded in the channels of the zeolite crystals. While analysing the Raman spectra attention was paid to the radial breathing mode (RBM), the D line and the G band. For both NT systems the RBM frequency was found to follow the same functional diameter dependence as the tubes with larger diameters. However, in contrast to the latter, the diameters of the thin tubes obtained from density functional theory calculations must be taken into account to explain satisfactorily the observed line positions. The resonance behaviour of the RBM intensities was recorded for the tubes in zeolites. It allows us to ascribe a position of the RBM to a particular NT. This result also demonstrates the breakdown of a simple tight-binding approach to the electronic structure but agrees with predictions from ab initio calculations. The D line of the outer tubes in DWCNTs is dispersive, similar to the single-wall carbon NTs. However, the rate of dispersion is reduced for the inner tubes in DWCNTs. This is attributed to the fact that the inner and outer tubes are probed with the same laser excitation. The linear shift due to the increasing laser energy is compensated by the negative shift due to the NT diameter. The latter is smaller for the inner NTs which leads to a stronger compensation of their dispersive behaviour. This effect is even stronger for the NTs in zeolites. In the extreme case, the strong Raman lines are not dispersive at all. This unexpected behaviour was explained by the detailed ab initio calculation of the phonon structure. The G bands of the inner semiconducting tubes were observed as new features in the Raman spectra of DWCNTs. On the other hand, no lines of metallic inner tubes were found. G bands of semiconducting as well as metallic NTs were detected for the zeolite samples. In either case, Raman lines due to the recently proposed Peierls-like mechanism for the thin metallic tubes were not indentified. This mechanism must therefore cause a significant reduction in Raman intensity. EHPRG Award Lecture.

  14. Evaluation of thyroid tissue by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, C. S. B.; Bitar, R. A.; Santos, A. B. O.; Kulcsar, M. A. V.; Friguglietti, C. U. M.; Martinho, H. S.; da Costa, R. B.; Martin, A. A.

    2010-02-01

    Thyroid gland is a small gland in the neck consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. Thyroid's main function is to produce the hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin. Thyroid disorders can disturb the production of these hormones, which will affect numerous processes within the body such as: regulating metabolism and increasing utilization of cholesterol, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The gland itself can also be injured; for example, neoplasias, which have been considered the most important, causing damage of to the gland and are difficult to diagnose. There are several types of thyroid cancer: Papillary, Follicular, Medullary, and Anaplastic. The occurrence rate, in general is between 4 and 7%; which is on the increase (30%), probably due to new technology that is able to find small thyroid cancers that may not have been found previously. The most common method used for thyroid diagnoses are: anamnesis, ultrasonography, and laboratory exams (Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy- FNAB). However, the sensitivity of those test are rather poor, with a high rate of false-negative results, therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostic techniques. Raman spectroscopy has been presented as a valuable tool for cancer diagnosis in many different tissues. In this work, 27 fragments of the thyroid were collected from 18 patients, comprising the following histologic groups: goitre adjacent tissue, goitre nodular tissue, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma. Spectral collection was done with a commercial FTRaman Spectrometer (Bruker RFS100/S) using a 1064 nm laser excitation and Ge detector. Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis with cross-validation were applied as spectral classification algorithm. Comparing the goitre adjacent tissue with the goitre nodular region, an index of 58.3% of correct classification was obtained. Between goitre (nodular region and adjacent tissue) and papillary carcinoma, the index of correct classification was 64.9%, and the classification between benign tissues (goitre and follicular adenoma) and malignant tissues (papillary and follicular carcinomas), the index was 72.5%.

  15. Raman spectroscopy and electrical properties of InAs nanowires with local oxidation enabled by substrate micro-trenches and laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanta, R.; Madsen, M. H.; Liao, Z.; Krogstrup, P.; Vosch, T.; Nygârd, J.; Jespersen, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal gradients along indium arsenide nanowires were engineered by a combination of fabricated micro-trenches in the supporting substrate and focused laser irradiation. This allowed local spatial control of thermally activated oxidation reactions of the nanowire on the scale of the diffraction limit. The locality of the oxidation was detected by micro-Raman mapping, and the results were found to be consistent with numerical simulations of the temperature profile. Applying the technique to nanowires in electrical devices the locally oxidized nanowires remained conducting with a lower conductance as expected for an effectively thinner conducting core.

  16. Raman spectroscopy and electrical properties of InAs nanowires with local oxidation enabled by substrate micro-trenches and laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanta, R.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygård, J.; Jespersen, T. S.; Madsen, M. H.; Liao, Z.; Vosch, T.

    2015-12-14

    The thermal gradients along indium arsenide nanowires were engineered by a combination of fabricated micro-trenches in the supporting substrate and focused laser irradiation. This allowed local spatial control of thermally activated oxidation reactions of the nanowire on the scale of the diffraction limit. The locality of the oxidation was detected by micro-Raman mapping, and the results were found to be consistent with numerical simulations of the temperature profile. Applying the technique to nanowires in electrical devices the locally oxidized nanowires remained conducting with a lower conductance as expected for an effectively thinner conducting core.

  17. Raman beam combining for laser brightness enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Jay W; Allen, Grahan S; Pax, Paul H; Heebner, John E; Sridharan, Arun K; Rubenchik, Alexander M; Barty, Christopher B.J

    2015-11-05

    An optical source capable of enhanced scaling of pulse energy and brightness utilizes an ensemble of single-aperture fiber lasers as pump sources, with each such fiber laser operating at acceptable pulse energy levels. Beam combining involves stimulated Raman scattering using a Stokes' shifted seed beam, the latter of which is optimized in terms of its temporal and spectral properties. Beams from fiber lasers can thus be combined to attain pulses with peak energies in excess of the fiber laser self-focusing limit of 4 MW while retaining the advantages of a fiber laser system of high average power with good beam quality.

  18. Raman beam combining for laser brightness enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, Jay W.; Allen, Graham S.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Sridharan, Arun K.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Barty, Chrisopher B. J.

    2015-10-27

    An optical source capable of enhanced scaling of pulse energy and brightness utilizes an ensemble of single-aperture fiber lasers as pump sources, with each such fiber laser operating at acceptable pulse energy levels. Beam combining involves stimulated Raman scattering using a Stokes' shifted seed beam, the latter of which is optimized in terms of its temporal and spectral properties. Beams from fiber lasers can thus be combined to attain pulses with peak energies in excess of the fiber laser self-focusing limit of 4 MW while retaining the advantages of a fiber laser system of high average power with good beam quality.

  19. Deep Raman spectroscopy for the non-invasive standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents.

    PubMed

    Izake, Emad L; Cletus, Biju; Olds, William; Sundarajoo, Shankaran; Fredericks, Peter M; Jaatinen, Esa

    2012-05-30

    Deep Raman spectroscopy has been utilized for the standoff detection of concealed chemical threat agents from a distance of 15 m under real life background illumination conditions. By using combined time and space resolved measurements, various explosive precursors hidden in opaque plastic containers were identified non-invasively. Our results confirm that combined time and space resolved Raman spectroscopy leads to higher selectivity towards the sub-layer over the surface layer as well as enhanced rejection of fluorescence from the container surface when compared to standoff spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra that have minimal interference from the packaging material and good signal-to-noise ratio were acquired within 5 s of measurement time. A new combined time and space resolved Raman spectrometer has been designed with nanosecond laser excitation and gated detection, making it of lower cost and complexity than picosecond-based laboratory systems. PMID:22608458

  20. Actively mode-locked Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuezong; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Huawei; Fan, Tingwei; Feng, Yan

    2015-07-27

    Active mode-locking of Raman fiber laser is experimentally investigated for the first time. An all fiber connected and polarization maintaining loop cavity of ~500 m long is pumped by a linearly polarized 1120 nm Yb fiber laser and modulated by an acousto-optic modulator. Stable 2 ns width pulse train at 1178 nm is obtained with modulator opening time of > 50 ns. At higher power, pulses become longer, and second order Raman Stokes could take place, which however can be suppressed by adjusting the open time and modulation frequency. Transient pulse evolution measurement confirms the absence of relaxation oscillation in Raman fiber laser. Tuning of repetition rate from 392 kHz to 31.37 MHz is obtained with harmonic mode locking. PMID:26367642

  1. Raman spectroscopy - in situ characterization of growth and surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, James Robert

    The goal of this thesis is to expand on the usefulness of Raman spectroscopy as an in situ probe to aid in the growth and implementation of electronic, optical, and biodetection materials. We accomplish this goal by developing two diverse optical characterization projects. In the first project, an autoclave similar to those used in solvothermal growth which has been outfitted with an optical window is used to collect vibrational spectra of solvents and mineralizers commonly used in the ammonothermal growth of gallium nitride. Secondly, novel silver nanowires created by ferroelectric lithography are evaluated by surface enhanced micro-Raman spectroscopy for use as surface enhanced substrates for low detection limit or single molecule bio-detectors. Raman spectroscopy is already a widely accepted method to characterize and identify a wide variety of materials. Vibrational spectra can yield much information on the presence of chemical species as well as information regarding the phase and interactive properties. Because Raman spectroscopy is a generally non-intrusive technique it is ideal for analysis of hazardous or far-from-ambient liquids, gases, or solids. This technique is used in situ to characterize crystal growth and surface enhanced photochemistry. The phenomenon of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) has been observed in many systems but some fundamental understanding is still lacking and the technique has been slow to transition from the laboratory to the industry. Aggregated colloids and lithographically created islands have shown the best success as reproducible substrates for SERS detection. These techniques, however, lack control over shape, size, and position of the metal nanoparticles which leave them reliant on hotspots. Because of the potential for control of the position of aggregates, ferroelectric lithographically created silver nanowires are evaluated as a potential SERS substrate using pyridine, benzoic acid, and Rhodamine 6g. Surface enhancement from these samples varies periodically as excitation light is scanned perpendicular to the wires. The periodicity, however, has the frequency of the positive domains where carbon laser damage is preferentially created. There is a current need for homoepitaxial substrates for gallium nitride devices including light emitting diodes, transistors, and laser diodes. Ammonothermal growth is a promising technique for creating bulk single crystalline GaN, but questions remain concerning the intermediates of reactions in supercritical Ammonia. Neat ammonia and water are monitored by Raman spectroscopy from room temperature to 500°C and 20 kpsi with both UV and visible excitation. In both systems, the amount of hydrogen bonding, which can be determined by O-H and N-H stretch frequency shifts, decreases with increasing temperature. In supercritical ammonia, the degree of Fermi resonance between the nu1 and 2nu4 modes decreases linearly with temperature while a minimum in pyramidal height of the NH3 molecule is reached at moderate pressures. Binary solutions of sodium azide and ammonia are investigated to temperatures which allow observation of the breakdown of the azides. The pressure and N2 Raman signal increase as the azide decomposes to sodium amide and N2 and H2 process gasses. The rate of decrease of the Raman signal of the azide increases as the reaction proceeds suggesting that the reaction rate is proportional to the pressure. The Fermi resonance, hydrogen bonding, and pyramidal height parameters were not affected by the presence of the azide.

  2. Cervical cancer detection based on serum sample Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, José Luis; Martínez-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Torres-González, Luis Adolfo; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Palomares-Anda, Pascual

    2014-05-01

    The use of Raman spectroscopy to analyze the biochemical composition of serum samples and hence distinguish between normal and cervical cancer serum samples was investigated. The serum samples were obtained from 19 patients who were clinically diagnosed with cervical cancer, 3 precancer, and 20 healthy volunteer controls. The imprint was put under an Olympus microscope, and around points were chosen for Raman measurement.All spectra were collected at a Horiba Jobin-Yvon LabRAM HR800 Raman Spectrometer with a laser of 830-nm wavelength and 17-mW power irradiation. Raw spectra were processed by carrying out baseline correction, smoothing, and normalization to remove noise, florescence, and shot noise and then analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The control serum spectrum showed the presence of higher amounts of carotenoids indicated by peaks at 1,002, 1,160, and 1,523 cm(-1)and intense peaks associated with protein components at 754, 853, 938, 1,002, 1,300-1,345, 1,447, 1,523, 1,550, 1,620, and 1,654 cm(-1). The Raman bands assigned to glutathione (446, 828, and 1,404 cm(-1)) and tryptophan (509, 1,208, 1,556, 1,603, and 1,620 cm(-1)) in cervical cancer were higher than those of control samples, suggesting that their presence may also play a role in cervical cancer. Furthermore, weak bands in the control samples attributed to tryptophan (545, 760, and 1,174 cm(-1)) and amide III (1,234-1,290 cm(-1)) seem to disappear and decrease in the cervical cancer samples, respectively. It is shown that the serum samples from patients with cervical cancer and from the control group can be discriminated with high sensitivity and specificity when the multivariate statistical methods of PCA is applied to Raman spectra. PCA allowed us to define the wavelength differences between the spectral bands of the control and cervical cancer groups by confirming that the main molecular differences among the control and cervical cancer samples were glutathione, tryptophan, β carotene, and amide III. The preliminary results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a highly effective technique with a strong potential of support for current techniques as Papanicolaou smear by reducing the number of these tests; nevertheless, with the construction of a data library integrated with a large number of cervical cancer and control Raman spectra obtained from a wide range of healthy and cervical cancer population, Raman-PCA technique could be converted into a new technique for noninvasive real-time diagnosis of cervical cancer from serum samples. PMID:24197519

  3. Zeolite-sorbate interactions from Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.G. ); Deckman, H.W.; Witzke, H.; McHenry, J.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been used as a direct structural probe to study sorbate-framework interactions for water sorption into the zeolite potassium-ZK5. Equilibrium adsorbate-induced deformations of intertetrahedral angles are quantitatively measured and analyzed in terms of a structural isotherm for each counterion site. All of the structural changes result from the first molecules sorbed. Kinetic studies of the structural deformation are used to determine a diffusion coefficient for the water molecules deforming the six-membered ring site of {approximately} 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1}.

  4. In vivo Raman spectroscopy for breast cancer: diagnosis in animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitar, R.; Martins, M. A.; Ribeiro, D.; Carvalho, C.; Santos, E. A. P.; Ramalho, L. N. Z.; Ramalho, F.; Martinho, H.; Martin, A. A.

    2008-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been well established as a powerful method for studying biological tissues and diagnosing diseases. In this study we have developed a breast cancer animal model and collected in vivo Raman spectra of mammary glands of 27 Sprague-Dawley female rats treated with DMBA and 5 non-treated used as control group. A dispersive Raman spectrometer with a @785 nm laser excitation coupled a fiber optic probe and a CCD detector was used to obtain the spectra. The obtained in vivo transcutaneous Raman spectra have shown important differences between normal and abnormal tissues when acquired from one side to the other side of the lesion.

  5. Role of Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Cerys A; Lewis, Paul D; Dunstan, Peter R; Harris, Dean A

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer in the United Kingdom and is the second largest cause of cancer related death in the United Kingdom after lung cancer. Currently in the United Kingdom there is not a diagnostic test that has sufficient differentiation between patients with cancer and those without cancer so the current referral system relies on symptomatic presentation in a primary care setting. Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) are forms of vibrational spectroscopy that offer a non-destructive method to gain molecular information about biological samples. The techniques offer a wide range of applications from in vivo or in vitro diagnostics using endoscopic probes, to the use of micro-spectrometers for analysis of biofluids. The techniques have the potential to detect molecular changes prior to any morphological changes occurring in the tissue and therefore could offer many possibilities to aid the detection of CRC. The purpose of this review is to look at the current state of diagnostic technology in the United Kingdom. The development of Raman spectroscopy and SERS in clinical applications relation for CRC will then be discussed. Finally, future areas of research of Raman/SERS as a clinical tool for the diagnosis of CRC are also discussed. PMID:27190582

  6. Raman spectroscopy of PIN hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keya, Kimitaka; Torigoe, Yoshihiro; Toko, Susumu; Yamashita, Daisuke; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Light-induced degradation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a key issue for enhancing competitiveness in solar cell market. A-Si:H films with a lower density of Si-H2 bonds shows higher stability. Here we identified Si-H2 bonds in PIN a-Si:H solar cells fabricated by plasma CVD using Raman spectroscopy. A-Si:H solar cell has a structure of B-doped μc-SiC:H (12.5 nm)/ non-doped a-Si:H (250nm)/ P-doped μc-Si:H (40 nm) on glass substrates (Asahi-VU). By irradiating HeNe laser light from N-layer, peaks correspond to Si-H2 bonds (2100 cm-1) and Si-H bonds (2000 cm-1) have been identified in Raman scattering spectra. The intensity ratio of Si-H2 and Si-H ISiH2/ISiH is found to correlate well to light induced degradation of the cells Therefore, Raman spectroscopy is a promising method for studying origin of light-induced degradation of PIN solar cells.

  7. In vivo lipidomics using single-cell Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huawen; Volponi, Joanne V.; Oliver, Ann E.; Parikh, Atul N.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method for direct, quantitative, in vivo lipid profiling of oil-producing microalgae using single-cell laser-trapping Raman spectroscopy. This approach is demonstrated in the quantitative determination of the degree of unsaturation and transition temperatures of constituent lipids within microalgae. These properties are important markers for determining engine compatibility and performance metrics of algal biodiesel. We show that these factors can be directly measured from a single living microalgal cell held in place with an optical trap while simultaneously collecting Raman data. Cellular response to different growth conditions is monitored in real time. Our approach circumvents the need for lipid extraction and analysis that is both slow and invasive. Furthermore, this technique yields real-time chemical information in a label-free manner, thus eliminating the limitations of impermeability, toxicity, and specificity of the fluorescent probes common in currently used protocols. Although the single-cell Raman spectroscopy demonstrated here is focused on the study of the microalgal lipids with biofuel applications, the analytical capability and quantitation algorithms demonstrated are applicable to many different organisms and should prove useful for a diverse range of applications in lipidomics. PMID:21310969

  8. UTI diagnosis and antibiogram using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastanos, Evdokia; Kyriakides, Alexandros; Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Pitris, Constantinos

    2009-07-01

    Urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram require a 48 hour waiting period using conventional methods. This results in ineffective treatments, increased costs and most importantly in increased resistance to antibiotics. In this work, a novel method for classifying bacteria and determining their sensitivity to an antibiotic using Raman spectroscopy is described. Raman spectra of three species of gram negative Enterobacteria, most commonly responsible for urinary tract infections, were collected. The study included 25 samples each of E.coli, Klebsiella p. and Proteus spp. A novel algorithm based on spectral ratios followed by discriminant analysis resulted in classification with over 94% accuracy. Sensitivity and specificity for the three types of bacteria ranged from 88-100%. For the development of an antibiogram, bacterial samples were treated with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin to which they were all sensitive. Sensitivity to the antibiotic was evident after analysis of the Raman signatures of bacteria treated or not treated with this antibiotic as early as two hours after exposure. This technique can lead to the development of new technology for urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram with same day results, bypassing urine cultures and avoiding all undesirable consequences of current practice.

  9. Raman Spectroscopy and instrumentation for monitoring soil carbon systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, D.L.

    2003-12-08

    This work describes developments in the application of Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) towards the assessment/characterization of carbon in soil. In the past, the nonspecific total carbon mass content of soil samples has generally been determined through mass loss techniques and elemental analysis. However, because of the concern over CO{sub 2} buildup in the atmosphere and its possible role in the ''Greenhouse Effect,'' there is a need for better-defined models of global cycling of carbon. As a means towards this end, there is a need to know more about the structure and functionality of organic materials in soil. Raman spectroscopy may therefore prove to be an exceptional tool in soil carbon analysis. Based on vibrational transitions of irradiated molecules, it provides structural information that is often suitable for sample identification. Furthermore, Raman scattering yields very fine spectral features which offer the potential for multicomponent sample analysis with minimal or no sample pretreatment. Although the intensity of Raman scattering is generally extremely low, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect can greatly enhance Raman signals (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} range) through the adsorption of compounds on specially roughened metal surfaces. In our laboratory, we have investigated copper, gold and silver as possible substrate metals in the fabrication of SERS substrates. These substrates have included metal-coated microparticles, metal island films, and redox-roughened metal foils. We have evaluated several laser excitation sources spanning the 515-785 nm range for both Raman and SERS analysis. For this particular study, we have selected fulvic and humic acids as models for establishing the feasibility of using Raman and SERS in soil carbon analysis. Our studies thus far have demonstrated that copper substrates perform best in the SERS detection of humic and fulvic acids, particularly when coupled to electrochemical processes that enhance adsorption of specific compounds. This effect not only yields a stronger signal, but can also impart selectivity in the analysis of complex samples such as soil.

  10. Raman spectroscopy study of carbon-doped resorcinol-formaldehyde thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleut, D. N.; Markovi, Z. M.; Babi?, B. M.; Holclajtner Antunovi?, I. D.; Milosavljevi?, M. S.; Drami?anin, M. D.; Todorovi? Markovi?, B. M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we investigated the properties of carbon resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) cryogel thin films. RF cryogels were doped by single-wall carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene quantum dots. The structure of the deposited films was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, and optical, transmission electron and atomic force microscopy. Raman spectroscopy was performed using three excitation laser energies in the visible range. The effect of glass substrate on the Raman features of investigated carbon cryogel thin films was determined as well. The particle size of the carbon-doped RF cryogel thin films was determined by atomic force microscopy.

  11. Coronagraphic Notch Filter for Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, David; Stirbl, Robert

    2004-01-01

    A modified coronagraph has been proposed as a prototype of improved notch filters in Raman spectrometers. Coronagraphic notch filters could offer alternatives to both (1) the large and expensive double or triple monochromators in older Raman spectrometers and (2) holographic notch filters, which are less expensive but are subject to environmental degradation as well as to limitations of geometry and spectral range. Measurement of a Raman spectrum is an exercise in measuring and resolving faint spectral lines close to a bright peak: In Raman spectroscopy, a monochromatic beam of light (the pump beam) excites a sample of material that one seeks to analyze. The pump beam generates a small flux of scattered light at wavelengths slightly greater than that of the pump beam. The shift in wavelength of the scattered light from the pump wavelength is known in the art as the Stokes shift. Typically, the flux of scattered light is of the order of 10 7 that of the pump beam and the Stokes shift lies in the wave-number range of 100 to 3,000 cm 1. A notch filter can be used to suppress the pump-beam spectral peak while passing the nearby faint Raman spectral lines. The basic principles of design and operation of a coronagraph offer an opportunity for engineering the spectral transmittance of the optics in a Raman spectrometer. A classical coronagraph may be understood as two imaging systems placed end to end, such that the first system forms an intermediate real image of a nominally infinitely distant object and the second system forms a final real image of the intermediate real image. If the light incident on the first telescope is collimated, then the intermediate image is a point-spread function (PSF). If an appropriately tailored occulting spot (e.g., a Gaussian-apodized spot with maximum absorption on axis) is placed on the intermediate image plane, then the instrument inhibits transmission of light from an on-axis source. However, the PSFs of off-axis light sources are formed off axis - that is, away from the occulting spot - so that they become refocused onto the final image plane.

  12. Characterization and identification of contraband using UV resonant Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Richard J.; Hayward, Ian P.; Sands, H. S.; Batchelder, David N.

    1997-02-01

    A range of explosives and narcotics have been examined using Raman spectroscopy with 244 nm excitation. This wavelength of excitation eliminates the fluorescence problems associated with excitation at visible wavelengths. Comparison with spectra obtained using visible excitation reveals that resonance Raman scattering is occurring. This results in simplified spectra, and enhanced Raman scattering efficiencies.

  13. High purity efficient first Stokes Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaomeng; Liu, Qinyong; Li, Daijun; Du, Keming

    2015-02-01

    The subject of the solid-state Raman frequency conversion to the yellow frequency spectra has been an active topic since the mid 1990's, because of its application in bio-medical and astronomy fields. However, the yellow laser performance is often limited because of the cascade conversion to second or higher Stokes. This cascade conversion not only limits the conversion efficiency and the output power of the first Stokes, but also degrades the pulse and the beam profile of the first Stokes. We present a type of polarization coupled Raman resonator, in which the higher order ( the second Stokes and higher ) laser output can be dramatically suppressed. Our Raman resonator is pumped by a Q-switched and frequency doubled slab laser, and we can get an almost pure (P559/(P559 +P532)>99%) 559 nm yellow light output with an efficiency over 39% from 532 nm to 559 nm. The resonator includes a high reflection rear mirror, a KGW crystal, a polarization coupled input/output element, and a high reflection output coupler of 559 nm (R559 nm = 0.6). Furthermore, we have proposed an improvement of this polarization coupled Raman resonator. The theoretical calculations of the temporal and spatial dependent Raman conversion equations show that the conversion efficiency of the first order Stokes is greatly enhanced with an additionalλ/2 waveplate for 589 nm and the BBO crystal.

  14. Raman spectroscopy in dental research: a short review of recent studies.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, H; Arends, J

    1997-11-01

    The Raman spectroscopic technique enables us to obtain vibrational (IR and far-IR) spectra of minerals by analyzing scattered light caused by (visible or near-visible) monochromatic laser excitation. The method possesses several advantages over IR absorption, including simple sample preparation, easy spectral/band analysis, and linear-response to mineral/chemical concentrations. In micro-Raman spectrometer systems, samples are positioned under an optical microscope, and specimens can be scanned with a lateral resolution (approximately 1 mm). In this paper, recent applications of micro-Raman spectroscopy and near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy in the study of dental hard tissues and of calculus are reviewed. Special attention is given to mineral components in enamel, dentin, and calculus, and to calcium fluoride formed in/on enamel. The results from the use of an Ar(+)-laser/grating-based micro-Raman spectrometer show that: CaF2 formed in/on enamel by APF treatment is detectable and different from pure CaF2; and with the technique, the crystallite orientation in enamel can be determined. A Raman spectrometer based on Fourier transform and a diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser (1.06 mm) can be used to obtain fluorescence-free Raman signals from biological materials, and identification of mineral components present in dental calculus is possible. PMID:9470515

  15. Tunable anti-Stokes Raman laser

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C.

    1984-12-04

    An anti-Stokes Raman laser is disclosed which is tunable over a range of 10-70 cm-/sup 1/. An alkali halide is used as the lasing medium and a metastable halide population inversion is created with respect to the ground state of the halide by selective photodissociation of the alkali halide. A pump laser is then employed to move the population from the metastable state to a region near an intermediate state of the halide. The population subsequently falls back to the initial ground state, thereby creating the anti-Stokes Raman emission. Since the intensity of the photodissociation is directly proportional to the amount of population inversion achieved, and hence, to the region the population may be pumped to, the tuning of the output anti-Stokes Raman lasing is a function of the intensity of the initial photodissoiation.

  16. Raman laser with controllable suppression of parasitics

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.

    Method and apparatus for switching energy out of a Raman laser optical cavity. Coherent radiation at both the pump and first Stokes wave frequencies are introduced into the optical cavity from the same direction, and a second Stokes wave is utilized to switch the energy out of the cavity.

  17. Raman laser with controllable suppression of parasitics

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor

    1986-01-01

    Method and apparatus for switching energy out of a Raman laser optical cavity. Coherent radiation at both the pump and first Stokes wave frequencies are introduced into the optical cavity from the same direction, and a second Stokes wave is utilized to switch the energy out of the cavity.

  18. Remote sensing capacity of Raman spectroscopy in identification of mineral and organic constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Stoker, Carol; Cabrol, Nathalie; McKay, Christopher P.

    2007-09-01

    We present design, integration and test results for a field Raman spectrometer science payload, integrated into the Mars Analog Research and Technology (MARTE) drilling platform. During the drilling operation, the subsurface Raman spectroscopy inspection system has obtained signatures of organic and mineral compositions. We also performed ground truth studies using both this field unit and a laboratory micro Raman spectrometer equipped with multiple laser excitation wavelengths on series of field samples including Mojave rocks, Laguna Verde salty sediment and Rio Tinto topsoil. We have evaluated laser excitation conditions and optical probe designs for further improvement. We have demonstrated promising potential for Raman spectroscopy as a non-destructive in situ, high throughput, subsurface detection technique, as well as a desirable active remote sensing tool for future planetary and space missions.

  19. Stage Determination of Breast Cancer Biopsy Using Raman Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Solís, J. L.; Aguiñaga-Serrano, B. I.; Martínez-Espinosa, J. C.; Oceguera-Villanueva, A.

    2011-08-01

    The use of Raman spectroscopy to analyze biopsy biochemistry and hence distinguish between the breast cancer stages was investigated. The biopsy samples were obtained from 13 patients who were clinically diagnosed with breast cancer. A preliminary diagnosis of some breast cancer patient was realized by pathologist of the Cancer Institute. The biopsies were put under the microscope and several points were chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected at a Jobin-Yvon LabRAM HR800 Raman Spectrometer with a NIR 830 nm laser. It is shown that the breast cancer stages of biopsies can be discriminated when the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is applied to their Raman spectra. Ratios of some band intensities were analyzed and corresponded to proteins, phospholipids, and polysaccharides. The preliminary results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be an excellent technique for stage determination of breast cancer.

  20. Detection of Cervical Cancer Analyzing Blood Samples with Raman Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Solís, J. L.; Rodríguez-López, J.; Martínez-Espinosa, J. C.; Frausto-Reyes, C.; Jave-Suárez, L. F.; Aguilar-Lemarroy, A. C.; Vargas-Rodríguez, H.; Martínez-Cano, E.

    2010-05-01

    The use of Raman spectroscopy to analyze blood biochemistry and hence distinguish between normal and abnormal blood was investigated. The blood samples were obtained from 20 patients who were clinically diagnosed with cervical cancer and 10 healthy volunteer. The imprint was put under the Olympus microscope and several points were chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected at a Jobin-Yvon LabRAM HR800 Raman Spectrometer with NIR 830 nm laser. It is shown that the serum samples from patients with cervical cancer and from the control group can be discriminated when the multivariate statistical methods of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminated Analysis (LDA) is applied to their Raman spectra. The ratios of some band intensities were analyzed and some band ratios were significant and corresponded to proteins, phospholipids, and polysaccharides. The preliminary results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a new technique for the detection using just blood samples.

  1. AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF RAMAN LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTECRYSTAL SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Teague, L.; Duff, M.

    2008-10-07

    High quality CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals have the potential for use in room temperature gamma-ray and X-ray spectrometers. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. The presence of structural heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SPs) can have an impact on the detector performance. There is considerable need for reliable and reproducible characterization methods for the measurement of crystal quality. With improvements in material characterization and synthesis, these crystals may become suitable for widespread use in gamma radiation detection. Characterization techniques currently utilized to test for quality and/or to predict performance of the crystal as a gamma-ray detector include infrared (IR) transmission imaging, synchrotron X-ray topography, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. In some cases, damage caused by characterization methods can have deleterious effects on the crystal performance. The availability of non-destructive analysis techniques is essential to validate a crystal's quality and its ability to be used for either qualitative or quantitative gamma-ray or X-ray detection. The work presented herein discusses the damage that occurs during characterization of the CZT surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy, even at minimal laser powers. Previous Raman studies have shown that the localized annealing from tightly focused, low powered lasers results in areas of higher Te concentration on the CZT surface. This type of laser damage on the surface resulted in decreased detector performance which was most likely due to increased leakage current caused by areas of higher Te concentration. In this study, AFM was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to a Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage and increased conductivity in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam.

  2. Raman spectroscopy of the mineral rhodonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Stuart J.; Frost, Ray L.; Kloprogge, J. Theo; Weier, Matt L.

    2005-11-01

    The mineral rhodonite an orthosilicate has been characterised by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of three rhodonites from Broken Hill, Pachapaqui and Franklin were compared and found to be similar. The spectra are characterised by an intense band at around 1000 cm -1 assigned to the ν1 symmetric stretching mode and three bands at 989, 974 and 936 cm -1 assigned to the ν3 antisymmetric stretching modes of the SiO 4 units. An intense band at around 667 cm -1 was assigned to the ν4 bending mode and showed additional bands exhibiting loss of degeneracy of the SiO 4 units. The low wave number region of rhodonite is complex. A strong band at 421.9 cm -1 is attributed to the ν2 bending mode. The spectra of the three rhodonite mineral samples are similar but subtle differences are observed. It is proposed that these differences depend upon the cationic substitution of Mn by Ca and/or Fe 2+ and Mg.

  3. Raman spectroscopy of the mineral rhodonite.

    PubMed

    Mills, Stuart J; Frost, Ray L; Kloprogge, J Theo; Weier, Matt L

    2005-11-01

    The mineral rhodonite an orthosilicate has been characterised by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of three rhodonites from Broken Hill, Pachapaqui and Franklin were compared and found to be similar. The spectra are characterised by an intense band at around 1000 cm(-1) assigned to the nu(1) symmetric stretching mode and three bands at 989, 974 and 936 cm(-1) assigned to the nu(3) antisymmetric stretching modes of the SiO(4) units. An intense band at around 667 cm(-1) was assigned to the nu(4) bending mode and showed additional bands exhibiting loss of degeneracy of the SiO(4) units. The low wave number region of rhodonite is complex. A strong band at 421.9 cm(-1) is attributed to the nu(2) bending mode. The spectra of the three rhodonite mineral samples are similar but subtle differences are observed. It is proposed that these differences depend upon the cationic substitution of Mn by Ca and/or Fe(2+) and Mg. PMID:16257710

  4. Measurement of clathrate hydrates via Raman spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sum, A.K.; Burruss, R.C.; Sloan, E.D., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Raman spectra of clathrate hydrate guest molecules are presented for three known structures (I (sI), II (sII), and H (sH)) in the following systems: CH4 (sI), CO2 (sI), C3H8 (sII), CH4 + CO2 (sI), CD4 + C3H8 (sII), CH4 + N2 (sI), CH4 + THF-d8 (sII), and CH4 + C7D14 (sH). Relative occupancy of CH4 in the large and small cavities of sI were determined by deconvoluting the ??1 symmetric bands, resulting in hydration numbers of 6.04 ?? 0.03. The frequency of the ??1 bands for CH4 in structures I, II, and H differ statistically, so that Raman spectroscopy is a potential tool to identify hydrate crystal structure. Hydrate guest compositions were also measured for two vapor compositions of the CH4 + CO2 system, and they compared favorably with predictions. The large cavities were measured to be almost fully occupied by CH4 and CO2, whereas only a small fraction of the small cavities are occupied by CH4. No CO2 was found in the small cavities. Hydration numbers from 7.27 to 7.45 were calculated for the mixed hydrate.

  5. Urinalysis by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Lee, Yuan-Hsiang; Kwon, Hyeog; Shahriari, Mahmoud; Rainey, Petrie

    2000-01-01

    The overall objective of this Small Business Technology Transfer Research program is the development of a fiber optic sensor suitable for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy that provides reversible, reproducible, quantitative measurements of trace chemicals. The sensor is intended to benefit NASA and the International Space Station in several areas. For example, the sensor could provide real-time measurements for space-based research in the areas of chemistry and biotechnology, it could provide continuous water quality monitoring in the life support systems, or it could provide astronaut health monitoring through urine and blood chemical analysis. This paper describes the development of the SERS based sensor and its application to astronaut health monitoring through urinalysis. .

  6. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of carotenoids in Photosystem I particles.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Atanaska; Velitchkova, Maya

    2005-04-22

    Low-temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy was used for the first time to study the spectral properties, binding sites and composition of major carotenoids in spinach Photosystem I (PSI) particles. Excitation was provided by an argon ion laser at 457.9, 476.5, 488, 496.5, 502 and 514.5 nm. Raman spectra contained the four known groups of bands characteristic for carotenoids (called from nu(1) to nu4). Upon 514.5, 496.5 and 476.5 nm excitations, the nu(1)-nu(3) frequencies coincided with those established for lutein. Spectrum upon 502-nm excitation could be assigned to originate from violaxanthin, at 488 nm to 9-cis neoxanthin, and at 457.9 nm to beta-carotene and 9-cis neoxanthin. The overall configuration and composition of these bound carotenoid molecules in Photosystem I particles were compared with the composition of pigment extracts from the same PSI particles dissolved in pyridine, as well as to configuration in the main chlorophyll a/b light-harvesting protein complex of photosystem II. The absorption transitions for lutein, violaxanthin and 9-cis neoxanthin in spinach photosystem I particles are characterized, and the binding sites of lutein and neoxanthin are discussed. Resonance Raman data suggest that beta-carotene molecules are also present in all-trans and, probably, in 9-cis configurations. PMID:15829346

  7. Combined fiber probe for fluorescence lifetime and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dochow, Sebastian; Ma, Dinglong; Latka, Ines; Bocklitz, Thomas; Hartl, Brad; Bec, Julien; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marple, Eric; Urmey, Kirk; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Schmitt, Michael; Marcu, Laura; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    In this contribution we present a dual modality fiber optic probe combining fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and Raman spectroscopy for in vivo endoscopic applications. The presented multi-spectroscopy probe enables efficient excitation and collection of fluorescence lifetime signals for FLIm in the UV/visible wavelength region, as well as of Raman spectra in the near-IR for simultaneous Raman/FLIm imaging. The probe was characterized in terms of its lateral resolution and distance dependency of the Raman and FLIm signals. In addition, the feasibility of the probe for in vivo FLIm and Raman spectral characterization of tissue was demonstrated. Graphical Abstract An image comparison between FLIm and Raman spectroscopy acquired with the bimodal probe onseveral tissue samples. PMID:26093843

  8. Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy by Six-Wave Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge of the structural changes that accompany photochemical reactions has motivated the development of a wide variety of time-resolved vibrational spectroscopies. For example, a technique known as femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) has yielded important insights into numerous photochemical processes in the past 10-15 years. Simultaneous probing of all resonances in the fingerprint region of the vibrational spectrum and sensitivity to dynamics on the 100-fs time scale are the primary selling points for the FSRS technique. Despite its utility, FSRS is challenged by a large background of residual laser light and lower-order nonlinearities. In this talk, I will introduce a newly developed FSRS experiment in which five laser beams are used eliminate the background of residual laser light and lower-order nonlinearities present in the traditional three-beam FSRS geometry. Applications to photodissociation reactions in triiodide and heme proteins will be discussed. It is envisioned that this approach will be useful for investigating photoinduced dynamics in a wide variety of condensed phase systems.

  9. REMOTE RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF VARIOUS MIXED AND COMPOSITE MINERAL PHASES AT 7.2 m DISTANCE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, U. N.

    2006-01-01

    Remote Raman [e.g.,1-5] and micro-Raman spectroscopy [e.g., 6-10] are being evaluated on geological samples for their potential applications on Mars rover or lander. The Raman lines of minerals are sharp and distinct. The Raman finger-prints of minerals do not shift appreciably but remain distinct even in sub-micron grains and, therefore, can be used for mineral identification in fine-grained rocks [e.g., 4,7]. In this work we have evaluated the capability of a directly coupled remote Raman system (co-axial configuration) for distinguishing the mineralogy of multiple crystals in the exciting laser beam. We have measured the Raman spectra of minerals in the near vicinity of each other and excited with a laser beam (e.g. -quartz (Qz) and K-feldspar (Feld) plates, each 5 mm thick). The spectra of composite transparent mineral plates of 5 mm thickness of -quartz and gypsum over calcite crystal were measured with the composite samples perpendicular to the exciting laser beam. The measurements of remote Raman spectra of various bulk minerals, and mixed and composite minerals with our portable UH remote Raman system were carried out at the Langley Research Center in a fully illuminated laboratory.

  10. Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Weng, Guo-Xing; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapidly non-invasive technique with great potential for biomedical research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on two groups of saliva samples: one group from patients (n=30) with confirmed AMI and the other group from healthy controls (n=31). The diagnostic performance for differentiating AMI saliva from normal saliva was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. The combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) of the measured Raman spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps, rendering the sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 80.6%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy of human saliva can serve as a potentially clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  11. Raman Spectroscopy of Optically Trapped Single Biological Micro-Particles

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Brandon; Schwab, Mark J.; Pan, Yong-le

    2015-01-01

    The combination of optical trapping with Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful method for the study, characterization, and identification of biological micro-particles. In essence, optical trapping helps to overcome the limitation imposed by the relative inefficiency of the Raman scattering process. This allows Raman spectroscopy to be applied to individual biological particles in air and in liquid, providing the potential for particle identification with high specificity, longitudinal studies of changes in particle composition, and characterization of the heterogeneity of individual particles in a population. In this review, we introduce the techniques used to integrate Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping in order to study individual biological particles in liquid and air. We then provide an overview of some of the most promising applications of this technique, highlighting the unique types of measurements enabled by the combination of Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping. Finally, we present a brief discussion of future research directions in the field. PMID:26247952

  12. Development of a multiplexing fingerprint and high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy technique for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2013-03-01

    We report on the development of a novel multiplexing Raman spectroscopy technique using a single laser light together with a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating that simultaneously acquires both fingerprint (FP) and high wavenumber (HW) tissue Raman spectra at endoscopy. We utilize a customized VPH dual-transmission grating, which disperses the incident Raman scattered light vertically onto two separate segments (i.e., -150 to 1950 cm-1 1750 to 3600 cm-1) of a charge-coupled device camera. We demonstrate that the multiplexing Raman technique can acquire high quality in vivo tissue Raman spectra ranging from 800 to 3600 cm-1 within 1.0 s with a spectral resolution of 3 to 6 cm-1 during clinical endoscopy. The rapid multiplexing Raman spectroscopy technique covering both FP and HW ranges developed in this work has potential for improving in vivo tissue diagnosis and characterization at endoscopy.

  13. Dual Comb Raman Spectroscopy on Cesium Hyperfine Transitions-Toward a Stimulate Raman Spectrum on CF4 Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tze-Wei; Hsu, Yen-Chu; Cheng, Wang-Yau

    2015-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an important spectroscopic technique used in chemistry to provide a fingerprint by which molecules can be identified. It helps us to observe vibration- rotation, and other low-frequency modes in a system. Dual comb Raman spectroscopy allows measuring a wide bandwidth with high resolution in microseconds. The stimulate Raman spectroscopy had been performed in early days where the nonlinear conversion efficiency depended on laser peak power. Hence we propose an approach for rapidly resolving the Raman spectroscopy of CF4 molecule by two Ti:sapphire comb lasers. Our progress on this proposal will be presented in the conference. First, we have realized a compact dual Ti:sapphire comb laser system where the dual Ti:sapphire laser system possesses the specification of 1 GHz repetition rate. In our dual comb system, 1 GHz repetition rate, 100 kHz Δfrep and 2.4 THz optical filter are chosen according to the demands of our future works on spectroscopy. Therefore, the maximum mode number within free spectral range is 5*103, and the widest range of dual-comb based spectra in that each spectrum could be uniquely identified is 5 THz. The actual bandwidth is determined by the employed optical filter and is set to be 2.4 THz here, so that the corresponding data acquisition time is 10 μs. Secondly, since the identification of the tremendous spectral lines of CF4 molecule relies on a stable reference and a reliable data-retrieving system, we propose a first-step experiment on atomic system where the direct 6S-8S 822-nm two-photon absorption and 8S-6P3/2 (794 nm) enhanced stimulate Raman would be realized directly by using Ti:sapphire laser. We have successfully performed direct comb laser two-photon spectroscopy for both with and without middle-level enhanced. For the level enhanced two-photon spectrum, our experimental setup achieves Doppler-free spectrum and a record narrow linewidth (1 MHz). T.-W. Liu, C.-M. Wu, Y.-C. Hsu and W.-Y. Cheng, Appl. Phys. B 117, 699 (2014) P. Fendel, S. D. Bergeson, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 32, 701 (2007)

  14. From Femtosecond Dynamics to Breast Cancer Diagnosis by Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramczyk, H.; Placek, I.; BroŻek-Płuska, B.; Kurczewski, K.; Morawiec, Z.; Tazbir, M.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents new results based on Raman spectroscopy and demonstrates its utilisation as a diagnostic and development tool with the key advantage in breast cancer research. Applications of Raman spectroscopy in cancer research are in the early stages of development. However, research presented here as well as performed in a few other laboratories demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to accurately characterize cancer tissue and distinguish between normal, malignant and benign types. The main goals of bio-Raman spectroscopy at this stage are threefold. Firstly, the aim is to develop the diagnostic ability of Raman spectroscopy so it can be implemented in a clinical environment, producing accurate and rapid diagnoses. Secondly, the aim is to optimize the technique as a diagnostic tool for the non-invasive real time medical applications. Thirdly, the aim is to formulate some hypothesis based on Raman spectroscopy on the molecular mechanism which drives the transformation of normal human cells into highly malignant derivatives. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most statistically reliable report on Raman spectroscopy-based diagnosis of breast cancers among the world women population.

  15. Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy by six-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Moran, Andrew M.

    2015-06-01

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) is motivated by the knowledge of the molecular geometry changes that accompany sub-picosecond chemical reactions. The detection of vibrational resonances throughout the entire fingerprint region of the spectrum with sub-100-fs delay precision is fairly straightforward to accomplish with the FSRS technique. Despite its utility, FSRS must contend with substantial technical challenges that stem from a large background of residual laser light and lower-order nonlinearities when all laser pulses are electronically resonant with the equilibrium system. In this work, a geometry based on five incident laser beams is used to eliminate much of this undesired background in experiments conducted on metmyoglobin. Compared to a three-beam FSRS geometry with all electronically resonant laser pulses, the five-beam approach described here offers major improvements in the data acquisition rate, sensitivity, and background suppression. The susceptibility of the five-beam geometry to experimental artifacts is investigated using control experiments and model calculations. Of particular concern are undesired cascades of third-order nonlinearities, which are known to challenge FSRS measurements carried out on electronically off-resonant systems. It is generally understood that "forbidden" steps in the desired nonlinear optical processes are the origin of the problems encountered under off-resonant conditions. In contrast, the present experiments are carried out under electronically resonant conditions, where such unfortunate selection rules do not apply. Nonetheless, control experiments based on spectroscopic line shapes, signal phases, and sample concentrations are conducted to rule out significant contributions from cascades of third-order processes. Theoretical calculations are further used to estimate the relative intensities of the direct and cascaded responses. Overall, the control experiments and model calculations presented in this work suggest promise for multidimensional resonance Raman investigations of heme proteins.

  16. Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy by six-wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Molesky, Brian P; Guo, Zhenkun; Moran, Andrew M

    2015-06-01

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) is motivated by the knowledge of the molecular geometry changes that accompany sub-picosecond chemical reactions. The detection of vibrational resonances throughout the entire fingerprint region of the spectrum with sub-100-fs delay precision is fairly straightforward to accomplish with the FSRS technique. Despite its utility, FSRS must contend with substantial technical challenges that stem from a large background of residual laser light and lower-order nonlinearities when all laser pulses are electronically resonant with the equilibrium system. In this work, a geometry based on five incident laser beams is used to eliminate much of this undesired background in experiments conducted on metmyoglobin. Compared to a three-beam FSRS geometry with all electronically resonant laser pulses, the five-beam approach described here offers major improvements in the data acquisition rate, sensitivity, and background suppression. The susceptibility of the five-beam geometry to experimental artifacts is investigated using control experiments and model calculations. Of particular concern are undesired cascades of third-order nonlinearities, which are known to challenge FSRS measurements carried out on electronically off-resonant systems. It is generally understood that "forbidden" steps in the desired nonlinear optical processes are the origin of the problems encountered under off-resonant conditions. In contrast, the present experiments are carried out under electronically resonant conditions, where such unfortunate selection rules do not apply. Nonetheless, control experiments based on spectroscopic line shapes, signal phases, and sample concentrations are conducted to rule out significant contributions from cascades of third-order processes. Theoretical calculations are further used to estimate the relative intensities of the direct and cascaded responses. Overall, the control experiments and model calculations presented in this work suggest promise for multidimensional resonance Raman investigations of heme proteins. PMID:26049425

  17. Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy by six-wave mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Moran, Andrew M.

    2015-06-07

    Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) is motivated by the knowledge of the molecular geometry changes that accompany sub-picosecond chemical reactions. The detection of vibrational resonances throughout the entire fingerprint region of the spectrum with sub-100-fs delay precision is fairly straightforward to accomplish with the FSRS technique. Despite its utility, FSRS must contend with substantial technical challenges that stem from a large background of residual laser light and lower-order nonlinearities when all laser pulses are electronically resonant with the equilibrium system. In this work, a geometry based on five incident laser beams is used to eliminate much of this undesired background in experiments conducted on metmyoglobin. Compared to a three-beam FSRS geometry with all electronically resonant laser pulses, the five-beam approach described here offers major improvements in the data acquisition rate, sensitivity, and background suppression. The susceptibility of the five-beam geometry to experimental artifacts is investigated using control experiments and model calculations. Of particular concern are undesired cascades of third-order nonlinearities, which are known to challenge FSRS measurements carried out on electronically off-resonant systems. It is generally understood that “forbidden” steps in the desired nonlinear optical processes are the origin of the problems encountered under off-resonant conditions. In contrast, the present experiments are carried out under electronically resonant conditions, where such unfortunate selection rules do not apply. Nonetheless, control experiments based on spectroscopic line shapes, signal phases, and sample concentrations are conducted to rule out significant contributions from cascades of third-order processes. Theoretical calculations are further used to estimate the relative intensities of the direct and cascaded responses. Overall, the control experiments and model calculations presented in this work suggest promise for multidimensional resonance Raman investigations of heme proteins.

  18. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, M.; Bilal, M.; Anwar, S.; Rehman, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2013-03-01

    We present the optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired from 18 blood serum samples using a laser at 532 nm as the excitation source. A multivariate regression model based on partial least-squares regression is developed that uses Raman spectra to predict dengue infection with leave-one-sample-out cross validation. The prediction of dengue infection by our model yields correlation coefficient r2 values of 0.9998 between the predicted and reference clinical results. The model was tested for six unknown human blood sera and found to be 100% accurate in accordance with the clinical results.

  19. IR spectroscopy vs. Raman scattering by measurement of glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, O.; Hansmann, J.; Bolz, A.; Mertsching, H.

    2010-11-01

    By developing a non-invasive device for glucose concentration measurement, two promising methods were compared for that aim. The Raman scattering using Laser at the wavelength 785 nm and the light scattering in R- and IR-range are demonstrated. An easy accessible and low-cost method for glucose concentration monitoring and management to avoid its complications will be a great help for diabetic patients. Raman Scattering is a promising method for noninvasively measuring of glucose and for the diagnostic of pathological tissue variations. Despite the power and the time of measurement can be reduced using enhanced Raman scattering, it will be difficult to develop a compatible device with low power Laser and low price for a non-invasive method for home monitoring. As using IR-spectroscopy at wavelengths slightly below 10000 nm, the absorption of glucose can be well discriminated from that of water, LED`s or LD's at these wavelengths are very expensive for this purpose. At wavelengths about 6250 and 7700 glucose has a less light absorption than water. Also slightly above 3000 nm glucose has a high absorption. There are also possibilities for the measurement in the NIR at wavelengths between 1400 nm and 1670 nm. Scattering measurements at wavelengths below 900 nm and our measurements with the wavelength about 640 nm give reproducible glucose dependence on the reflected light from a glucose solution at a constant temperature. A multi-sensor with different wavelengths and temperature sensor will be a good choice for in-vivo glucose monitoring.

  20. Coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy system for point temperature and major species concentration measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu

    1993-10-01

    The Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy system (CARS) has been developed as a laser-based, advanced, combustion-diagnostic technique to measure temperature and major species concentration. Principles of operation, description of the system and its capabilities, and operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

  1. Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) As Next Generation Nonlinear LIDAR Spectroscopy and Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2009-07-10

    Nonlinear spectroscopy using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and femtosecond laser pulses has been successfully developed as powerful tools for chemical analysis and biological imaging. Recent developments show promising possibilities of incorporating CARS into LIDAR system for remote detection of molecular species in airborne particles. The corresponding theory is being developed to describe nonlinear scattering of a mesoscopic particle composed of complex molecules by laser pulses with arbitrary shape and spectral content. Microscopic many-body transform theory is used to compute the third order susceptibility for CARS in molecules with known absorption spectrum and vibrational modes. The theory is combined with an integral scattering formula and Mie-Lorentz formulae, giving a rigorous formalism which provides powerful numerical experimentation of CARS spectra, particularly on the variations with the laser parameters and the direction of detection.

  2. Laser biomodulation in bone implants: a Raman spectral study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Cibelle; Sathaiah, Sokki; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Duarte, Janaina; Martin, Airton A.; Cunha, Vicente P. P.; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.

    2002-03-01

    Healing is important for the success of the insertion of implants and for treating traumatic or pathologic injuries of the bone. Lasertherapy has been suggested as a mean of improving bone healing. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the amount of both inorganic and organic components of irradiated and non-irradiated bone around dental implants inserted in to the tibia. Fourteen rabbits received a titanium implant on the tibia, eight of them were irradiated with 830nm laser and six acted as controls. The animals were sacrificed 15, 30 and 45 days after the surgery, and specimens were prepared for Raman spectroscopy, which was collected at every four points from each three thirds of the bone around the implants. The results showed significant differences in the concentration of inorganic components in irradiated specimens between 15 and 30days, 15 and 45; between irradiated and controls 30 and 45 days after surgery. Concentration of organic components was also significantly different between irradiated and controls in periods of 30 to 45 days after surgery. It is concluded that LLLT does improve bone healing and this can be safely assessed by Raman Spectroscopy.

  3. Laser biomodulation in bone implants: a Raman spectral study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa Lopes, Cibelle; Sathaiah, Sokki; Barbosa Pinheiro, Antonio L.; Duarte, Janaina; Martins, Maria C.

    2003-06-01

    Healing is important for the success of the insertion of implants and for treating traumatic or pathologic injuries of the bone. Lasertherapy has been suggested as a mean of improving bone healing. Near infrared Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the amount of both inorganic and organic components of irradiated and control bone around dental implants inserted in to the tibia. Fourteen rabbits received a titanium implant on the tibia; eight of them were irradiated with λ830nm laser (Thera Lase, DMC, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, 21.5 J/cm2, 10mW, spot size 0.60mm) and six acted as controls. The animals were sacrificed 15, 30 and 45 days after the surgery, and specimens were prepared for Raman spectroscopy, which was collected at every four points from each three thirds of the bone around the implants. The results showed significant differences in the concentration of inorganic components in irradiated specimens between 15 and 30days (p < 0.05), 15 and 45 (p < 0.01); between irradiated and controls 30 and 45 days after surgery (p <0.01). Concentration of organic components was also significantly different between irradiated and controls in periods of 30 to 45 days after surgery. It is concluded that LLLT does improve bone healing and Raman Spectroscopy can safely assess this.

  4. Near-field Raman spectroscopy of nanocarbon materials.

    PubMed

    Lapin, Zachary J; Beams, Ryan; Cançado, Luiz Gustavo; Novotny, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Nanocarbon materials, including sp(2) hybridized two-dimensional graphene and one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, and sp(1) hybridized one-dimensional carbyne, are being considered for the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices. The strong electron-phonon coupling present in these nanocarbon materials makes Raman spectroscopy an ideal tool to study and characterize the material and device properties. Near-field Raman spectroscopy combines non-destructive chemical, electrical, and structural specificity with nanoscale spatial resolution, making it an ideal tool for studying nanocarbon systems. Here we use near-field Raman spectroscopy to study strain, defects, and doping in different nanocarbon systems. PMID:26402621

  5. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.

    2013-07-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm-1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

  6. Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy as a tool to detect molecular vibrations in ground and excited electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelin, Maxim F.; Domcke, Wolfgang; Rao, B. Jayachander

    2016-05-01

    We give a detailed theoretical analysis of the simplest variant of femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy, where a picosecond Raman pump pulse and a femtosecond Raman probe pulse are applied resonantly to a chromophore in thermal equilibrium in the ground electronic state. We demonstrate that this technique is capable of the detection of dephasing-free Raman-like lines revealing vibrational modes not only in the electronic ground state but also in the excited electronic state of the chromophore. The analytical results obtained with simplifying assumptions for the shape of the laser pulses are substantiated by numerical simulations with realistic laser pulses, employing the equation-of-motion phase-matching approach.

  7. Investigation of biomineralization by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatscher, Robert William

    Biomineralization is a process in which living organism grow composite materials consisting of inorganic and organic materials. This produces a composite material consisting of both inorganic and organic components, with superior mechanical properties. In the human body bone and dentin are both examples of biominerals. In this research Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize dentin from mice and human teeth, to determine composition. In the mouse tooth samples areas of irregular dentin were found, along the inside of the tooth, to be in the process of mineralization. By analyzing the samples along these areas we were able to determine the composition of dentin and track how it changed in these area. By analysis of the mineral to matrix ratio the areas of irregular dentin were determined to have less mineral present. Observations of other organic components and collagen in increased concentrations in this area suggested these area were in the process of biomineralization. The understanding of the structure of dentin and its biomineralization process is of crucial importance when trying reproduce dentin. Scientists and engineers are able to produce dentin minerals in vitro by culturing various dental stem cells. The ability to create dentin mineral from cells could lead to methods of repairing dentin in patients, or even lead to the creation of a completely engineered tooth. While dentin-like materials can be produced in a laboratory environment, analysis and comparison of the composition of these materials must be performed to ensure the mineral produced is consistent with dentin. Mineralized nodules from six different dental stem cell lines were cultured to produce a mineralized deposit. Utilizing Raman spectroscopy, we were able to determine cell source dependent differences in a variety of dental stem cells, and compare the mineral produced to native dentin. Orthopedic implants are implants used to replace damaged bone, examples include knee, hip and dental implants. These implants are designed to osteointegrate with the native healthy tissues in order to create a functionally stable and structural interface. Biomaterials such as hydroxyapatite and titania are known to increase the rate of bone regeneration in vivo.1 By accelerating the early response of bone forming cells to these implants, better fixation is achieved between the implant and the bone, shortening recovery times and increasing the viability of these implants. In the last part of this research an investigation of osteoblasts cultured at 14 days on five different heat-treated titania substrates was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, in order to observe the initial cellular response to the titania substrates. The heat-treatment of titania changes the amount of oxygen on it's surface which in turn effects the surface energy. A change in the surface energy of a material will affect the cellular response, by culturing cells on various heat-treated titania substrates a relationship between the surface energy and cellular response can be investigated. A faster cellular response would lead to an increased rate of bone regeneration shortening healing times and allowing for better fixation of the implant.

  8. Polymer-capped fiber-optic Raman probe for in-vivo non-invasive Raman tomography and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okagbare, Paul I.; Morris, Michael D.

    2012-02-01

    As advances in fiber optic probe design move Raman spectroscopy into the clinic, there remain important practical problems. Most in-vivo non-invasive applications employ specialized fiber optic probes. Much effort has been devoted to minimizing Raman and fluorescence background from fiber. Less attention has been paid to the need to generate reference Raman signals proportional to delivered laser power without direct measurement of tissue albedo. Knowledge of laser power is needed for quantification of changes in tissue composition. The need is especially acute in diffuse Raman tomography, where accurate modeling of light transport through the tissue is required for accurate reconstruction of subsurface features. We describe a fiber optic probe that incorporates a transparent polymer cap at the end of each excitation fiber. As laser light propagates through the cap it generates Raman bands whose intensity can directly measure power delivered to the tissue of interest. Our first implementation uses a fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer (FEP) cap that is attached to the ferrule at the distal (delivery) end of each excitation fiber. FEP is transparent and functions as a waveguide with only a small insertion loss, about 5%. Importantly, there are few overlaps between the Raman bands of FEP and the bands of tissue constituents. The cap increases the diameter of the structure in contact with the specimen, but with extensive photon diffusion this makes little difference in performance. We present here latest non-invasive bone spectroscopy results with the calibrator. In addition, extensive enhancement of the calibration signal using a fluorocarbon optical fiber is discussed.

  9. Sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy to normal patient variability

    PubMed Central

    Vargis, Elizabeth; Byrd, Teresa; Logan, Quinisha; Khabele, Dineo; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Many groups have used Raman spectroscopy for diagnosing cervical dysplasia; however, there have been few studies looking at the effect of normal physiological variations on Raman spectra. We assess four patient variables that may affect normal Raman spectra: Race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), parity, and socioeconomic status. Raman spectra were acquired from a diverse population of 75 patients undergoing routine screening for cervical dysplasia. Classification of Raman spectra from patients with a normal cervix is performed using sparse multinomial logistic regression (SMLR) to determine if any of these variables has a significant effect. Results suggest that BMI and parity have the greatest impact, whereas race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status have a limited effect. Incorporating BMI and obstetric history into classification algorithms may increase sensitivity and specificity rates of disease classification using Raman spectroscopy. Studies are underway to assess the effect of these variables on disease. PMID:22112136

  10. Sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy to normal patient variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargis, Elizabeth; Byrd, Teresa; Logan, Quinisha; Khabele, Dineo; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2011-11-01

    Many groups have used Raman spectroscopy for diagnosing cervical dysplasia; however, there have been few studies looking at the effect of normal physiological variations on Raman spectra. We assess four patient variables that may affect normal Raman spectra: Race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), parity, and socioeconomic status. Raman spectra were acquired from a diverse population of 75 patients undergoing routine screening for cervical dysplasia. Classification of Raman spectra from patients with a normal cervix is performed using sparse multinomial logistic regression (SMLR) to determine if any of these variables has a significant effect. Results suggest that BMI and parity have the greatest impact, whereas race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status have a limited effect. Incorporating BMI and obstetric history into classification algorithms may increase sensitivity and specificity rates of disease classification using Raman spectroscopy. Studies are underway to assess the effect of these variables on disease.

  11. Passively mode-locked Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Liang, W; Ilchenko, V S; Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2010-10-01

    We report on the observation of a mode-locked laser generated with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator pumped with a continuous wave laser. Optical pumping of the resonator generates an optical frequency comb with phase locked components at the Raman offset of the resonator host material. Phase locking of the modes is confirmed via measurement of the radio-frequency beat note produced by the comb on a fast photodiode. Neither the conventional Kerr comb nor hyperparametric oscillation is observed when the comb is present. We present a theoretical explanation of the effect. PMID:21230831

  12. Fifth-order two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubarych, Kevin J.; Milne, Chris J.; Miller, R. J. Dwayne

    The experimental challenges of performing high-order non-linear spectroscopies have been met using diffractive optics to allow passive phase locking of all six interacting laser fields and true phase-sensitive detection. Improvements in signal to noise, use of phase contrast, as well as geometrical phase matching and polarization have made it possible to isolate systematically the pure nuclear fifth-order Raman response. Using CS2 as a model system of a simple liquid, the two-time correlation of the probed liquid modes or bath memory function is found to decay faster than the free-induction decay associated with one-dimensional spectroscopic probes of the same modes. This observation is in sharp contrast to other two-dimensional spectroscopies and is related to the unique application of a two-quantum transition or Raman overtone for the rephasing pathway. Both theory and experiment have converged on this point, as well as a pronounced ridge along the probe time axis that is related to population decay of the excited modes. Recent advances in theoretical treatments of the correlation function have shown this spectroscopy to contain a wealth of information imbedded in the specific form of the two-dimensional spectrum. The extremely sensitive nature of this experiment stems from the involvement of a Raman overtone that gives the experiment direct access to the all important anharmonic terms in the intermolecular potential. As such, this form of spectroscopy harbours great promise to provide a rigorous benchmark for developing liquid state theories. The experimental details, current state of understanding of the experiment, interpretation and pitfalls, as well as an overview of the various theoretical efforts are given. The area is at a critical cross-road in advancing the spectroscopy to other liquids and associated complex systems. Some speculations on what the future holds are given in this context. The onus is clearly on experimentalists to advance this method and new technologies will be needed to do so--in which directly probing the dynamical structure of liquid water is the ultimate challenge.

  13. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of phase change materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin Mao, Wendy L.; Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 ; Zalden, Peter; Wuttig, Matthias; JARA – Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen ; Lindenberg, Aaron M.; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, PULSE Institute, Menlo Park, California 94025

    2013-11-04

    We used high-pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the evolution of vibrational frequencies of the phase change materials (PCMs) Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}, and SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. We found that the critical pressure for triggering amorphization in the PCMs decreases with increasing vacancy concentration, demonstrating that the presence of vacancies, rather than differences in the atomic covalent radii, is crucial for pressure-induced amorphization in PCMs. Compared to the as-deposited amorphous phase, the pressure-induced amorphous phase has a similar vibrational spectrum but requires much lower laser power to transform into the crystalline phase, suggesting different kinetics of crystallization, which may have implications for applications of PCMs in non-volatile data storage.

  14. Clinical instrumentation and applications of Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pence, Isaac; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2016-03-29

    Clinical diagnostic devices provide new sources of information that give insight about the state of health which can then be used to manage patient care. These tools can be as simple as an otoscope to better visualize the ear canal or as complex as a wireless capsule endoscope to monitor the gastrointestinal tract. It is with tools such as these that medical practitioners can determine when a patient is healthy and to make an appropriate diagnosis when he/she is not. The goal of diagnostic medicine then is to efficiently determine the presence and cause of disease in order to provide the most appropriate intervention. The earliest form of medical diagnostics relied on the eye - direct visual observation of the interaction of light with the sample. This technique was espoused by Hippocrates in his 5th century BCE work Epidemics, in which the pallor of a patient's skin and the coloring of the bodily fluids could be indicative of health. In the last hundred years, medical diagnosis has moved from relying on visual inspection to relying on numerous technological tools that are based on various types of interaction of the sample with different types of energy - light, ultrasound, radio waves, X-rays etc. Modern advances in science and technology have depended on enhancing technologies for the detection of these interactions for improved visualization of human health. Optical methods have been focused on providing this information in the micron to millimeter scale while ultrasound, X-ray, and radio waves have been key in aiding in the millimeter to centimeter scale. While a few optical technologies have achieved the status of medical instruments, many remain in the research and development phase despite persistent efforts by many researchers in the translation of these methods for clinical care. Of these, Raman spectroscopy has been described as a sensitive method that can provide biochemical information about tissue state while maintaining the capability of delivering this information in real-time, non-invasively, and in an automated manner. This review presents the various instrumentation considerations relevant to the clinical implementation of Raman spectroscopy and reviews a subset of interesting applications that have successfully demonstrated the efficacy of this technique for clinical diagnostics and monitoring in large (n ≥ 50) in vivo human studies. PMID:26999370

  15. Clinical instrumentation and applications of Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pence, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnostic devices provide new sources of information that give insight about the state of health which can then be used to manage patient care. These tools can be as simple as an otoscope to better visualize the ear canal or as complex as a wireless capsule endoscope to monitor the gastrointestinal tract. It is with tools such as these that medical practitioners can determine when a patient is healthy and to make an appropriate diagnosis when he/she is not. The goal of diagnostic medicine then is to efficiently determine the presence and cause of disease in order to provide the most appropriate intervention. The earliest form of medical diagnostics relied on the eye – direct visual observation of the interaction of light with the sample. This technique was espoused by Hippocrates in his 5th century BCE work Epidemics, in which the pallor of a patient’s skin and the coloring of the bodily fluids could be indicative of health. In the last hundred years, medical diagnosis has moved from relying on visual inspection to relying on numerous technological tools that are based on various types of interaction of the sample with different types of energy – light, ultrasound, radio waves, X-rays etc. Modern advances in science and technology have depended on enhancing technologies for the detection of these interactions for improved visualization of human health. Optical methods have been focused on providing this information in the micron to millimeter scale while ultrasound, X-ray, and radio waves have been key in aiding in the millimeter to centimeter scale. While a few optical technologies have achieved the status of medical instruments, many remain in the research and development phase despite persistent efforts by many researchers in the translation of these methods for clinical care. Of these, Raman spectroscopy has been described as a sensitive method that can provide biochemical information about tissue state while maintaining the capability of delivering this information in real-time, non-invasively, and in an automated manner. This review presents the various instrumentation considerations relevant to the clinical implementation of Raman spectroscopy and reviews a subset of interesting applications that have successfully demonstrated the efficacy of this technique for clinical diagnostics and monitoring in large (n ≥ 50) in vivo human studies. PMID:26999370

  16. 40-fs hydrogen Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenko, N. V.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Kostryukov, P. V.; Losev, L. L.; Pazyuk, V. S.; Tenyakov, S. Yu; Molchanov, V. Ya; Chizhikov, S. I.; Yushkov, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    40-fs first Stokes pulses at a wavelength of 1.2 μm were generated in a hydrogen SRS-converter pumped by orthogonally polarised double chirped pulses of a Ti : sapphire laser. To obtain a Stokes pulse close to a transform-limited one, a programmed acousto-optic dispersive delay line was placed between the master oscillator and regenerative amplifier. The energy efficiency of Stokes radiation conversion reached 22%.

  17. Structural analysis of unfolded peptides by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Soffer, Jonathan B; Toal, Siobhan; Verbaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has positioned itself as an invaluable tool in the study of complex biological systems, consistently being used to obtain information illustrating a vast array of fundamental properties. Of primary interest, with respect to the focus of this chapter, are conformational changes of peptide backbones. For short peptides to larger biological systems this understanding can be extended to local hydrogen bonding interactions and the probing of other structural or organizational properties. With regard to unfolded peptides Raman spectroscopy can be used as a technique complementary to infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. This chapter describes how high quality polarized Raman spectra of peptide can be recorded with a Raman microspectrometer and how the structure sensitive amide I band profiles of isotropic and anisotropic Raman scattering can be analyzed in conjunction with the respective IR and VCD profiles to obtain conformational distributions of short unfolded peptides. PMID:22760326

  18. Vibronic spectroscopy of amorphous materials using higher order, multiresonant coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Gregory B.; Wright, John C.

    1992-09-01

    Multiresonant coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy is performed with three tunable lasers on perylene doped polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Sharp vibronic features can be observed in vibronic scans at constant energy from the parent electronic transition when resonance is established within the inhomogeneously broadened electronic band. These features are attributed to the nonlinear line narrowing predicted by Ouellette and Denariez-Roberge for a higher order saturated coherent anti-Stokes Raman process since line narrowing should be absent for four wave mixing coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the features are sharply dependent on the presence of a simultaneous vibrational resonance as is also predicted by the higher order coherent anti-Stokes Raman model. Excited state coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy with resonance enhancement from higher singlet states does not contribute to the narrow features since such a process would not have vibrational resonances. Conventional two laser coherent anti-Stokes Raman shows only a weak line at the vibronic transition.

  19. Increased wavelength options in the visible and ultraviolet for Raman lasers operating on dual Raman modes.

    PubMed

    Mildren, R P; Piper, J A

    2008-03-01

    We report increased wavelength options from Raman lasers for Raman media having two Raman modes of similar gain coefficient. For an external-cavity potassium gadolinium tungstate Raman laser pumped at 532 nm, we show that two sets of Stokes orders are generated simultaneously by appropriate orientation of the Raman crystal, and also wavelengths that correspond to sums of the two Raman modes. Up to 14 visible Stokes lines were observed in the wavelength range 555-675 nm. The increase in Stokes wavelengths also enables a much greater selection of wavelengths to be accessed via intracavity nonlinear sum frequency and difference frequency mixing. For example, we demonstrate 30 output wavelength options for a wavelength-selectable 271-321 nm Raman laser with intracavity sum frequency mixing in BBO. We also present a theoretical analysis that enables prediction of wavelength options for dual Raman mode systems. PMID:18542414

  20. Identification of ferroelectric domain structures in BaTiO 3 for Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos L, Patricio; Hermans Z, Rodolfo; Velasco, Nicolás; Tarrach, Guido; Schlaphof, Frank; Loppacher, Christian; Eng, Lukas M.

    2003-06-01

    Conventional Raman spectroscopy on BaTiO 3 determines vibrational modes by integrating over a macroscopic sample volume. In domain-rich materials and to account for microscopic surface domains, an experimental study of the domain distribution is desirable. We applied polarized light microscopy (PLM) and piezo-response force microscopy (PFM) to 40 μm thick BaTiO 3 single crystals in order to get an exact model of the domain distribution, which allows to allocate the laser spot of a micro-Raman spectrograph within a specific domain type. We are able to assign most of the Raman-active normal modes in polarized measurements, which are free of ferroelastic domain walls but not necessarily free of ferroelectric walls. We propose to study the influence of ferroelectric walls on the asymmetric peak shapes by an in situ combination of PFM and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  1. COHERENT ANTI-STOKES RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) was used to obtain Raman spectra of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) composed of between three and seven fused rings. The compounds were pumped in the resonance and preresonance regions to obtain the sensitivity neces...

  2. Electrochemical Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhi-Cong; Huang, Sheng-Chao; Wu, De-Yin; Meng, Ling-Yan; Li, Mao-Hua; Huang, Teng-Xiang; Zhong, Jin-Hui; Wang, Xiang; Yang, Zhi-Lin; Ren, Bin

    2015-09-23

    Interfacial properties are highly important to the performance of some energy-related systems. The in-depth understanding of the interface requires highly sensitive in situ techniques that can provide fingerprint molecular information at nanometer resolution. We developed an electrochemical tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (EC-TERS) by introduction of the light horizontally to the EC-STM cell to minimize the optical distortion and to keep the TERS measurement under a well-controlled condition. We obtained potential-dependent EC-TERS from the adsorbed aromatic molecule on a Au(111) surface and observed a substantial change in the molecule configuration with potential as a result of the protonation and deprotonation of the molecule. Such a change was not observable in EC-SERS (surface-enhanced), indicating EC-TERS can more faithfully reflect the fine interfacial structure than EC-SERS. This work will open a new era for using EC-TERS as an important nanospectroscopy tool for the molecular level and nanoscale analysis of some important electrochemical systems including solar cells, lithium ion batteries, fuel cells, and corrosion. PMID:26351986

  3. [Identification of B jade by Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zu, En-dong; Chen, Da-peng; Zhang, Peng-xiang

    2003-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been found to be a useful tool for identification of bleached and polymer-impregnated jadeites (so-called B jade). The major advantage of this system over classical methods of gem testing is the non-destructive identification of inclusions in gemstones and the determination of organic fracture filling in jade. Fissures in jadeites have been filled with oils and various resins to enhance their clarity, such as paraffin wax, paraffin oil, AB glue and epoxy resins. They show different peaks depending on their chemical composition. The characteristic spectrum ranges from 1,200-1,700 cm-1 to 2,800-3,100 cm-1. The spectra of resins show that they all have four strongest peaks related with phenyl: two C-C stretching modes at 1,116 and 1,609 cm-1, respectively, one C-H stretching mode at 3,069 cm-1, and a in-plane C-H bending mode at 1,189 cm-1. In addition, other two -CH2, -CH3 stretching modes at 2,906 and 2,869 cm-1, respectively, are very similar to paraffin. Therefore, the peaks at 1,116, 1,609, 1,189 and 3,069 cm-1 are important in distinguishing resin from paraffin, and we can identify B jade depending on them. PMID:12939970

  4. Multi-fiber strains measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy: Principles and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhenkun; Wang, Yunfeng; Qin, Fuyong; Qiu, Wei; Bai, Ruixiang; Chen, Xiaogang

    2016-02-01

    Based on widely used axial strain measurement method of Kevlar single fiber, an original theoretical model and measurement principle of application of micro-Raman spectroscopy to multi-fiber strains in a fiber bundle were established. The relationship between the nominal Raman shift of fiber bundle and the multi-fiber strains was deduced. The proposed principle for multi-fiber strains measurement is consistent with two special cases: single fiber deformation and multi-fiber deformation under equal strain. It is found experimentally that the distribution of Raman scattering intensity of a Kevlar 49 fiber as a function of distance between a fiber and the laser spot center follows a Gaussian function. Combining the Raman-shift/strain relationship of the Kevlar 49 single fiber and the uniaxial tension measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy, the Raman shift as a function of strain was obtained. Then the Raman peak at 1610 cm-1 for the Kevlar 49 fiber was fitted to a Lorentzian function and the FWHM showed a quadratic increase with the fiber strain. Finally, a dual-fiber tensile experiment was performed to verify the adequacy of the Raman technique for the measurement of multi-fiber strains.

  5. ExoMars Raman laser spectrometer breadboard overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daz, E.; Moral, A. G.; Canora, C. P.; Ramos, G.; Barcos, O.; Prieto, J. A. R.; Hutchinson, I. B.; Ingley, R.; Colombo, M.; Canchal, R.; Dvila, B.; Manfredi, J. A. R.; Jimnez, A.; Gallego, P.; Pla, J.; Margoills, R.; Rull, F.; Sansano, A.; Lpez, G.; Catal, A.; Tato, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) is one of the Pasteur Payload instruments, within the ESA's Aurora Exploration Programme, ExoMars mission. The RLS Instrument will perform Raman spectroscopy on crushed powdered samples deposited on a small container after crushing the cores obtained by the Rover's drill system. In response to ESA requirements for delta-PDR to be held in mid 2012, an instrument BB programme has been developed, by RLS Assembly Integration and Verification (AIV) Team to achieve the Technology Readiness level 5 (TRL5), during last 2010 and whole 2011. Currently RLS instrument is being developed pending its CoDR (Conceptual Design Revision) with ESA, in October 2011. It is planned to have a fully operative breadboard, conformed from different unit and sub-units breadboards that would demonstrate the end-to-end performance of the flight representative units by 2011 Q4.

  6. Femtosecond measurements of gas temperatures using Raman- induced polarization spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Lukas Erwin

    1997-06-01

    Raman induced polarization spectroscopy (RIPS) is developed as a new technique for the analysis of reactive flow systems such as combustion. RIPS is a time-domain spectroscopy that may be used to measure temperature and concentration of chemical species with sub-picosecond resolution. After a brief overview of the RIPS process, an analytical expression for the signal is derived in the semi-classical limit to determine its temperature dependence. Spectra for nitrogen are presented that were recorded using an oven at temperatures up to 1320 K. Theoretical fits to the spectra are produced and used to extract rotational temperatures. The observed RIPS temperatures agree to within about 5% of values recorded by a thermocouple. Improvements to the current scheme are proposed for increasing the accuracy of the temperature measurements. A homebuilt femtosecond (fs) Ti:sapphire laser system is used to conduct the experiments and its design is discussed in detail. The laser produces 1.4 W of 800 nm output at 3.3 kHz. Pulse durations of 50 fs are obtained routinely. Femtosecond pulses are produced in a self- mode-locked oscillator and amplified using the chirped- pulse amplification technique. A regenerative amplifier is pumped by a homebuilt, intra-cavity doubled Nd:YAG laser that produces 20 W of 532 nm output at 3.3 kHz. Drawings and specifications of the oscillator, pulse stretcher, amplifier, pump laser, and pulse compressor are provided, in addition to the procedure followed to build and operate each of these units.

  7. Multiwavelength ultrafast LiNbO(3) Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Aravindan M; Lin, Jipeng; Pask, Helen M; Lee, Andrew J; Spence, David J

    2015-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength ultrafast Raman laser based on lithium niobate which uses polariton scattering in combination with Raman scattering to selectively generate new wavelengths from a nanojoule-scale picosecond pump laser. Pumped by a 1064 nm pump laser, the system generates 1123 nm by stimulated polariton scattering (SPS) and 1140 nm by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). Cascading of these intracavity fields generates 1155 nm and 1174 nm, as well as generating THz output. PMID:26480074

  8. A combined remote Raman and LIBS instrument for characterizing minerals with 532 nm laser excitation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shiv K; Misra, Anupam K; Lucey, Paul G; Lentz, Rachel C F

    2009-08-01

    The authors have developed an integrated remote Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system for measuring both the Raman and LIBS spectra of minerals with a single 532 nm laser line of 35 mJ/pulse and 20 Hz. The instrument has been used for analyzing both Raman and LIBS spectra of carbonates, sulfates, hydrous and anhydrous silicates, and iron oxide minerals in air. These experiments demonstrate that by focusing a frequency-doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam with a 10x beam expander to a 529-microm diameter spot on a mineral surface located at 9 m, it is possible to measure simultaneously both the remote Raman and LIBS spectra of calcite, gypsum and olivine by adjusting the laser power electronically. The spectra of calcite, gypsum, and olivine contain fingerprint Raman lines; however, it was not possible to measure the remote Raman spectra of magnetite and hematite at 9 m because of strong absorption of 532 nm laser radiation and low intensities of Raman lines from these minerals. The remote LIBS spectra of both magnetite and hematite contain common iron emission lines but show difference in the minor amount of Li present in these two minerals. Remote Raman and LIBS spectra of a number of carbonates, sulfates, feldspars and phyllosilicates at a distance of 9 m were measured with a 532-nm laser operating at 35 mJ/pulse and by changing photon flux density at the sample by varying the spot diameter from 10 mm for Raman to 530 microm for LIBS measurements. The complementary nature of these spectra is highlighted and discussed. The combined Raman and LIBS system can also be re-configured to perform micro-Raman and micro-LIBS analyses, which have applications in trace/residue analysis and analysis of very small samples in the nano-gram range. PMID:19084470

  9. Ultrafast Laser-Based Spectroscopy and Sensing: Applications in LIBS, CARS, and THz Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leahy-Hoppa, Megan R.; Miragliotta, Joseph; Osiander, Robert; Burnett, Jennifer; Dikmelik, Yamac; McEnnis, Caroline; Spicer, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafast pulsed lasers find application in a range of spectroscopy and sensing techniques including laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), coherent Raman spectroscopy, and terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Whether based on absorption or emission processes, the characteristics of these techniques are heavily influenced by the use of ultrafast pulses in the signal generation process. Depending on the energy of the pulses used, the essential laser interaction process can primarily involve lattice vibrations, molecular rotations, or a combination of excited states produced by laser heating. While some of these techniques are currently confined to sensing at close ranges, others can be implemented for remote spectroscopic sensing owing principally to the laser pulse duration. We present a review of ultrafast laser-based spectroscopy techniques and discuss the use of these techniques to current and potential chemical and environmental sensing applications. PMID:22399883

  10. Nd:SrWO4 Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Sulc, Jan; Doroschenko, Maxim E.; Skornyakov, Vadim V.; Kravtsov, Sergey B.; Basiev, Tasoltan T.; Zverev, Peter G.

    2004-09-01

    Properties of the laser operation and simultaneously stimulated Raman scattering in the new SRS-active neodymium doped SrWO4 crystal coherently end-pumped by alexandrite 752 nm laser radiation were investigated. The maximum generated energy 90 mJ from the free-running Nd3+:SrWO4 laser at 1057 nm wavelength was obtained with the output coupler reflectivity 52%. The slope efficiency reached s = 0.52, the beam characteristic parameters M2 and divergence q were 2.5 +/- 0.1, and 1.5 +/- 0.1 mrad, respectively. Maximal output energy of 1.46 mJ for the fundamental wavelength was obtained for Q-switched Nd3+:SrWO4 oscillator with a double Fabry-Perrot as the output coupler (R = 48%), and with the 5% initial transmission of LiF:F2- saturable absorber. Up to 0.74 mJ energy was registered at the first Stokes frequency. The pulse duration was 5 ns and 2.4 ns for the fundamental and Stokes radiation, respectively. The energy of 1.25 mJ at 1170 nm was obtained for closed Raman resonator with special mirrors. For the case of mode-locking, two dye saturable absorbers (ML51 dye in dichlorethan and 3955 dye in ethanol) were used and SRS radiation in the form of pulse train was observed. The influence of the various Raman laser output couplers reflectivity as well as the initial transmissions of passive absorbers were investigated with the goal of the output energy maximization at the Stokes wavelength. In the output, the total measured energy was 1.8 mJ (for ML51 dye) and 2.4 mJ (for 3955 dye). The SRS output at 1170 nm was approximately 20% of total energy.

  11. Atom laser based on Raman transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, G. M.; Hope, J. J.; Savage, C. M.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper we present an atom laser scheme using a Raman transition for the output coupling of atoms. A beam of thermal atoms (bosons) in a metastable atomic state is pumped into a multimode atomic cavity. This cavity is coupled through spontaneous emission to another cavity for the atomic ground state. Above a certain threshold pumping rate a large number of atoms build up in the lowest energy state of the second cavity, while the higher energy states remain unpopulated. Atoms are then coupled to the outside of the cavity with a Raman transition. This changes the internal level of the atom and imparts a momentum kick, allowing the atoms to leave the system. We propose an implementation of our scheme using hollow optical-fiber atom waveguides.

  12. Raman Spectroscopy as an Accurate Probe of Defects in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin; Barros, Eduardo; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Mildred

    2014-03-01

    Raman Spectroscopy has proved to be an invaluable non-destructive technique that allows us to obtain intrinsic information about graphene. Furthermore, defect-induced Raman features, namely the D and D' bands, have previously been used to assess the purity of graphitic samples. However, quantitative studies of the signatures of the different types of defects on the Raman spectra is still an open problem. Experimental results already suggest that the Raman intensity ratio ID /ID' may allow us to identify the nature of the defects. We study from a theoretical point of view the power and limitations of Raman spectroscopy in the study of defects in graphene. We derive an analytic model that describes the Double Resonance Raman process of disordered graphene samples, and which explicitly shows the role played by both the defect-dependent parameters as well as the experimentally-controlled variables. We compare our model with previous Raman experiments, and use it to guide new ways in which defects in graphene can be accurately probed with Raman spectroscopy. We acknowledge support from NSF grant DMR1004147.

  13. Micro-Raman spectroscopy for meat type detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasio, M.; Stampfer, P.; Leitner, R.; Huck, C. W.; Wiedemair, V.; Balthasar, D.

    2015-06-01

    The recent horse meat scandal in Europe increased the demand for optical sensors that can identify meat type. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique for the discrimination of meat types. Here, we present micro-Raman measurements of chicken, pork, turkey, mutton, beef and horse meat test samples. The data was analyzed with different combinations of data normalization and classification approaches. Our results show that Raman spectroscopy can discriminate between different meat types. Red and white meat are easily discriminated, however a sophisticated chemometric model is required to discriminate species within these groups.

  14. Coherent and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy in shocked and unshocked liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, S.C.; Moore, D.S.; Schiferl, D.; Chatelet, M.; Turner, T.P.; Shaner, J.W.; Shampine, D.L.; Holt, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    Coherent and non-coherent Raman spectroscopy is being used to study the structure and energy transfer in molecular liquids at high pressures. Stimulated Raman scattering, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, and Raman induced Kerr effect scattering measurements have been performed in liquid benzene and liquid nitromethane shocked to pressures up to 11 GPa. Frequency shifts were observed for the 992 cm/sup -1/ ring stretching mode of benzene and the 920 cm/sup -1/ CN stretching mode of nitromethane. Results of these dynamic experiments are compared to spontaneous Raman scattering measurements made in a high temperature diamond anvil cell. Also, a picosecond infrared pump/spontaneous anti-Strokes Raman probe experiment is being used to measure CH stretch vibrational relaxation times in liquid halogenated methanes statically compressed to a few tenths GPa. 87 refs., 17 figs.

  15. Characterization of the pigment xanthomonadin in the bacterial genus Xanthomonas using micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paret, Mathews L.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Acosta, Tayro; deSilva, Asoka S.; Vowell, Tomie; Alvarez, Anne M.

    2012-06-01

    We used micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm and 514.5 nm laser excitation, respectively, to characterize a plant pathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae D150. The bacterial genus Xathomonas is closely related to bacterial genus Stenotrophomonas that causes an infection in humans. This study has identified for the first time the unique Raman spectra of the carotenoid-like pigment xanthomonadin of the Xanthomonas strain. Xanthomonadin is a brominated aryl-polyene pigment molecule similar to carotenoids. Further studies were conducted using resonance Raman spectroscopy with 514.5 nm laser excitation on several strains of the bacterial genus Xanthomonas isolated from numerous plants from various geographical locations. The current study revealed that the Raman bands representing the vibrations (v1, v2, v3) of the polyene chain of xanthomonadin are 1003-1005 (v3), 1135-1138 (v2), and 1530 (v1). Overtone bands representing xanthomonadin were identified as 2264-2275 (2v2), and combinational bands at 2653-2662 (v1+ v2). The findings from this study validate our previous finding that the Raman fingerprints of xanthomonadin are unique for the genus Xanthomonas. This facilitates rapid identification (~5 minutes) of Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial culture plates. The xanthomonadin marker is different from Raman markers of many other bacterial genus including Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Clavibacter, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Ralstonia. This study also identified Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial strains isolated from a diseased wheat sample on a culture plate.

  16. Enhanced performance of quantum cascade Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefvand, Hossein Reza; Aahmadi, Vahid

    2015-05-01

    We present a self-consistent numerical approach for quantum cascade Raman laser (QC-RL) with a modified design to improve the device performance. Our modeling approach is based on monolithic integration of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and electrically pumped QC laser. The laser band structure utilizing techniques with both material-dependent effective mass and band nonparabolicity is calculated by solving the Schrodinger-Poisson equations self-consistently. A detailed analysis of output characteristics of the obtained structure is carried out within a simplified 4-level rate equations model taking into account the SRS process. The model accurately explains the operating characteristics found in QCLs, such as damping transient response and non-resonant behavior of modulation frequency response. Furthermore, modification of the structure is focused on improving the SRS in the QC-RL. This leads to an enhancement of the device performance such as threshold current, external quantum efficiency, conversion efficiency, turn-on delay and modulation response. The excellent agreement of the experimental data with the simulated light output-current characteristics confirms the validity of the model.

  17. Ultrafast and nonlinear surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gruenke, Natalie L; Cardinal, M Fernanda; McAnally, Michael O; Frontiera, Renee R; Schatz, George C; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2016-04-21

    Ultrafast surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has the potential to study molecular dynamics near plasmonic surfaces to better understand plasmon-mediated chemical reactions such as plasmonically-enhanced photocatalytic or photovoltaic processes. This review discusses the combination of ultrafast Raman spectroscopic techniques with plasmonic substrates for high temporal resolution, high sensitivity, and high spatial resolution vibrational spectroscopy. First, we introduce background information relevant to ultrafast SERS: the mechanisms of surface enhancement in Raman scattering, the characterization of plasmonic materials with ultrafast techniques, and early complementary techniques to study molecule-plasmon interactions. We then discuss recent advances in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies with ultrafast pulses with a focus on the study of molecule-plasmon coupling and molecular dynamics with high sensitivity. We also highlight the challenges faced by this field by the potential damage caused by concentrated, highly energetic pulsed fields in plasmonic hotspots, and finally the potential for future ultrafast SERS studies. PMID:26848784

  18. Isolation and identification of bacteria by means of Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pahlow, Susanne; Meisel, Susann; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-07-15

    Bacterial detection is a highly topical research area, because various fields of application will benefit from the progress being made. Consequently, new and innovative strategies which enable the investigation of complex samples, like body fluids or food stuff, and improvements regarding the limit of detection are of general interest. Within this review the prospects of Raman spectroscopy as a reliable tool for identifying bacteria in complex samples are discussed. The main emphasis of this work is on important aspects of applying Raman spectroscopy for the detection of bacteria like sample preparation and the identification process. Several approaches for a Raman compatible isolation of bacterial cells have been developed and applied to different matrices. Here, an overview of the limitations and possibilities of these methods is provided. Furthermore, the utilization of Raman spectroscopy for diagnostic purposes, food safety and environmental issues is discussed under a critical view. PMID:25895619

  19. Influence of heat generated by a Raman excitation laser on the structural analysis of thin amorphous silicon film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, P.; Očenášek, J.; Prušáková, L.; Vavruňková, V.; Savková, J.; Rezek, J.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work we investigate thin amorphous silicon film fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. In particular, we analyze changes in the recorded Raman spectra caused by excitation laser irradiation. Solid phase crystallization, hydrogen diffusive outflow and Raman spectra peak shifts have been observed experimentally and analyzed numerically. The role of film thickness on all these features is pointed out. The study involves laser powers between 0.1 mW and 10 mW focused to a spot diameter of ∼1 μm and film thicknesses between 50 and ∼2000 nm. Additionally, the laser induced temperature fields were analyzed by means of numerical simulation and the Raman spectral shift trough Balkanski model. Results are correlated to structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. It was found that the hydrogen content and solid phase fraction identified by Raman spectroscopy are highly sensitive to the applied excitation laser power.

  20. Evaluation of Raman spectroscopy for the trace analysis of biomolecules for Mars exobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehlicka, Jan; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Vitek, Petr; Culka, Adam

    2010-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an ideal technique for the identification of biomolecules and minerals for astrobiological applications. Raman spectroscopic instrumentation has been shown to be potentially valuable for the in-situ detection of spectral biomarkers originating from rock samples containing remnants of terrestrial endolithic colonisation. Within the future payloads designed by ESA and NASA for several missions focussing on life detection on Mars, Raman spectroscopy has been proposed as an important non-destructive analytical tool for the in-situ identification of organic compounds relevant to life detection on planetary and moon surfaces or near sub-surfaces. Portable Raman systems equipped with 785 nm lasers permit the detection of pure organic minerals, aminoacids, carboxylic acids, as well as NH-containing compounds outdoors at -20°C and at an altitude of 3300 m. A potential limitation for the use of Raman spectroscopic techniques is the detection of very low amounts of biomolecules in rock matrices. The detection of beta-carotene and aminoacids has been achieved in the field using a portable Raman system in admixture with crystalline powders of sulphates and halite. Relatively low detection limits less than 1 % for detecting beta-carotene, aminoacids using a portable Raman system were obtained analysing traces of these compounds in crystalline powders of sulphates and halite. Laboratory systems permit the detection of these biomolecules at even lower concentrations at sub-ppm level of the order of 0.1 to 1 mg kg-1. The comparative evaluation of laboratory versus field measurements permits the identification of critical issues for future field applications and directs attention to the improvements needed in the instrumentation . A comparison between systems using different laser excitation wavelengths shows excellent results for 785 nm laser excitation . The results of this study will inform the acquisition parameters necessary for the deployment of robotic miniaturised Raman spectrosocpic instrumentation intended for the detection of spectral signatures of extant or relict life on Mars.

  1. In situ cell cycle phase determination using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Yusuke; Takenaka, Tatsuji; Sato, Hidetoshi; Furihata, Chie

    2010-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for analysis of the chemical composition in living tissue and cells without destructive processes such as fixation, immunostaining, and fluorescence labeling. Raman microspectroscopic technique enables us to obtain a high quality spectrum from a single living cell. We demonstrated in situ cell cycle analysis with Raman microspectroscopy with the excitation wavelength of 532 nm. Cell cycle phases, G0/G1 and G2/M were able to be identified in the present study. The result of in situ Raman analysis was evaluated with flow cytometry analysis. Although the Raman spectra of living cells showed complex patterns during cell cycle, several Raman bands could be useful as markers for the cell cycle identification. A single cell analysis using Raman microspectroscopy predicted a possibility to observe directly molecular dynamics intracellular molecules of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Our current study focused on cytoplasm region and resonant Raman signals of cytochrome c in mitochondrion, and discussed how the Raman signals from cellular components contribute to the Raman spectral changes in cell cycle change in the human living cell (lung cancer cell).

  2. Structure and Composition of Air-Plane Soots and Surrogates Analyzed by Raman Spectroscopy and Laser/Ions Desorption Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ismael; Chazallon, Bertrand; Carpentier, Yvain; Irimiea, Cornelia; Focsa, Cristian; Ouf, François-Xavier; Salm, François; Delhaye, David; Gaffié, Daniel; Yon, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Aviation alters the composition of the atmosphere globally and can thus drive climate change and ozone depletion [1]. An aircraft exhaust plume contains species emitted by the engines, species formed in the plume from the emitted species and atmospheric species that become entrained into the plume. The majority of emitted species (gases and soot particles) are produced by the combustion of kerosene with ambient air in the combustion chamber of the engine. Emissions of soot particles by air-planes produce persistent contrails in the upper troposphere in ice-supersaturated air masses that contribute to cloudiness and impact the radiative properties of the atmosphere. These aerosol-cloud interactions represent one of the largest sources of uncertainty in global climate models [2]. Though the formation of atmospheric ice particles has been studied since many years [3], there are still numerous opened questions on nucleation properties of soot particles [4], as the ice nucleation experiments showed a large spread in results depending on the nucleation mode chosen and origin of the soot produced. Most likely one of the reasons behind these discrepancies resides in the different physico-chemical properties (composition, structure) of soot particles produced in different conditions, e.g. with respect to fuel or combustion techniques. In this work, we use Raman microscopy (266, 514 and 785 nm excitation) and ablation techniques (SIMS, Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry, and Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry) to characterize soot particles produced from air-plane at different engine regimes simulating a landing and taking-off (LTO) cycle. First, the spectral parameters of the first-order Raman band of various soot samples, collected from three different sources in the frame of the MERMOSE project (http://mermose.onera.fr/): PowerJet SaM-146 turbofan (four engine regimes), CAST generator (propane fuel, four different global equivalence ratios), and Kerosene laboratory flame are provided. The spectra are analyzed by performing a de-convolution using the approach described by Sadezky et al. (2005). The soot obtained at different engine regimes presents very similar spectra, with the only exception of the soot obtained at 30% engine regime. In this case, the contribution of D2 band is similar to the contribution of D3 band, while for the samples obtained at 70%, 85% and 100% engine regimes D3 contribution is larger. The results point to a very little impact of engine regime on the generated soot structure. In contrast, surrogate soots show a dependence on the initial combustion parameters and collection conditions. Second, the surface chemical composition of the soot particles with special focus on PAHs are analyzed by two-Step (Desorption/Ionization) Laser Mass Spectrometry (L2MS) and Time of Fight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) techniques. In L2MS, the adsorbed phase is probed by nanosecond laser desorption (λd=532nm), then the ejected molecules are ionized with a second ns laser (λi=266nm) and further mass-separated by ToF-MS. In both techniques the spectra are obtained using positive polarity, which is better suited for detection of PAHs. A good agreement was obtained between the two techniques for the total PAH content of the analyzed samples. Moreover, the total PAH content followed the same trend as the OC/EC ratio measured with a thermo-optic analyzer (Improve protocol): the 30% engine regime soot presents a high concentration of PAHs and a high OC content, while the three other regimes give a relatively low content of PAHs and OC. References [1] Lee et al., Atmos. Env. 44, 4678-4734, 2010 [2] IPCC 2014, Chap7: http://www.ipcc.ch [3] L. Dufour, Ciel et Terre, vol 82, p1-36, 1966 [4] C. Hoose & O. Möhler, Atmos.Chem.Phys. 12, 9817-9854, 2012 [5] Sadezky, et al., Carbon, 43, 1731-1742, 2005

  3. Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Wang, Wubao

    2003-05-06

    A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. A low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively.

  4. Raman spectroscopy in biomedicine – non-invasive in vitro analysis of cells and extracellular matrix components in tissues

    PubMed Central

    Brauchle, Eva; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an established laser-based technology for the quality assurance of pharmaceutical products. Over the past few years, Raman spectroscopy has become a powerful diagnostic tool in the life sciences. Raman spectra allow assessment of the overall molecular constitution of biological samples, based on specific signals from proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, and inorganic crystals. Measurements are non-invasive and do not require sample processing, making Raman spectroscopy a reliable and robust method with numerous applications in biomedicine. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy allows the highly sensitive discrimination of bacteria. Rama spectra retain information on continuous metabolic processes and kinetics such as lipid storage and recombinant protein production. Raman spectra are specific for each cell type and provide additional information on cell viability, differentiation status, and tumorigenicity. In tissues, Raman spectroscopy can detect major extracellular matrix components and their secondary structures. Furthermore, the non-invasive characterization of healthy and pathological tissues as well as quality control and process monitoring of in vitro-engineered matrix is possible. This review provides comprehensive insight to the current progress in expanding the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of living cells and tissues, and serves as a good reference point for those starting in the field. PMID:23161832

  5. On-line content uniformity determination of tablets using low-resolution Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Håkan; Romero-Torres, Saly; Wongweragiat, Sudaratana; Williams, Julie Ann Stuart; Grant, Edward R; Taylor, Lynne S

    2006-06-01

    Analytical techniques for rapid and nondestructive content uniformity determination of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms have been studied for several years in an effort to replace the traditional wet chemistry procedures, which are labor intensive and time consuming. Both Raman spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy have been used for this purpose, and predictability errors are approaching those of the traditional techniques. In this study, a low-resolution Raman spectrometer was utilized to demonstrate the feasibility of both rapid at-line and on-line determination of tablet content uniformity. Additionally, sampling statistics were reviewed in an effort to determine how many tablets should be assayed for specific batch sizes. A good correlation was observed between assay values determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and Raman analysis. Due to rapid acquisition times for the Raman data, it was possible to analyze far more samples than with wet chemistry methods, leading to a better statistical description of variation within the batch. For at-line experiments, the sampling volume was increased by rotating the laser beam during the acquisition period. For the on-line experiments, the sampling volume was increased by sampling from a stream of tablets moving underneath the Raman probe on a conveyor system. Finally, an approach is proposed for monitoring content uniformity immediately following the compaction process. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy has potential as a rapid, nondestructive technique for at- or on-line determination of tablet content uniformity. PMID:16808869

  6. Universal enantioselective discrimination by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina

    2015-03-21

    Distinguishing between the enantiomers of chiral substances and their quantification is an analytical challenge, in particular in the pharmaceutical and biochemical sectors. A Raman spectroscopic method for discrimination of enantiomers is proposed. Advantage is taken of the polarization properties when Raman scattering occurs in an optically active medium. It is shown that a conventional polarization-resolved Raman setup leads to identical spectra of the two enantiomers. However, inserting a half-wave retarder to rotate the signal polarization by a fixed angle enables the efficient and universal enantiomeric discrimination. Hence, the applicability of any polarization-resolved Raman experiment can be improved substantially without significant modification of the setup or the use of chiral labeling or the addition of a substrate for selective plasmonic enhancement. In principle, the proposed technique allows simultaneous speciation, enantiomeric discrimination, as well as structural and quantitative analysis. PMID:25652025

  7. Applications of Raman scattering spectroscopy to halide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendow, B.; Banerjee, P. K.; Drexhage, M. G.

    1983-04-01

    Polarized Raman scattering spectroscopy is a useful tool for investigating fundamental vibrational properties, structure and bonding, origins of IR edge absorption, and dispersion of the IR refractive index. In this paper, the application of Raman spectroscopy to halide glasses and, in particular, heavy metal fluoride glasses, is described. The spectra of the latter differ substantially from those of simple oxide, halide or chalcogenide glasses and, moreover, display a wide range of vibrational characteristics, depending on composition. In combination with infrared spectroscopy, useful guidelines can be developed for tailoring glass compositions for specific applications.

  8. A versatile femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy setup with tunable pulses in the visible to near infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liangdong; Liu, Weimin; Fang, Chong

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate a versatile and efficient setup to perform femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS). Technical innovations are implemented to achieve the wavelength tunability for both the picosecond narrowband Raman pump pulse and femtosecond broadband Raman probe pulse. Using a simplified one-grating scheme in a home-built second harmonic bandwidth compressor followed by a two-stage noncollinear optical parametric amplifier, we tune the Raman pump pulse from ca. 480 to 750 nm. To generate the suitable Raman probe pulse in tandem, we rely on our recently demonstrated broadband up-converted multicolor array technique that readily provides tunable broadband laser sidebands across the visible to near-infrared range. This unique setup has unparalleled flexibility for conducting FSRS. We measure the ground-state Raman spectra of a cyclohexane standard using tunable pump-probe pairs at various wavelengths across the visible region. The best spectral resolution is ∼12 cm{sup −1}. By tuning the pump wavelength closer to the electronic absorption band of a photoacid pyranine in water, we observe the pre-resonantly enhanced Raman signal. The stimulated Raman gain of the 1627 cm{sup −1} mode is increased by over 15 times.

  9. Decoupling of epitaxial graphene via gold intercalation probed by dispersive Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, P. B.; DeSouza, M.; Narula, R.; Reich, S.; Wong, L. Y.; Batten, T.; Pokorny, J.

    2015-05-01

    Signatures of a superlattice structure composed of a quasi periodic arrangement of atomic gold clusters below an epitaxied graphene (EG) layer are examined using dispersive Raman spectroscopy. The gold-graphene system exhibits a laser excitation energy dependant red shift of the 2D mode as compared to pristine epitaxial graphene. The phonon dispersions in both the systems are mapped using the experimentally observed Raman signatures and a third-nearest neighbour tight binding electronic band structure model. Our results reveal that the observed excitation dependent Raman red shift in gold EG primarily arise from the modifications of the phonon dispersion in gold-graphene and shows that the extent of decoupling of graphene from the underlying SiC substrate can be monitored from the dispersive nature of the Raman 2D modes. The intercalated gold atoms restore the phonon band structure of epitaxial graphene towards free standing graphene.

  10. Decoupling of epitaxial graphene via gold intercalation probed by dispersive Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, P. B. E-mail: m.desouza@sheffield.ac.uk; DeSouza, M. E-mail: m.desouza@sheffield.ac.uk; Narula, R.; Reich, S.; Wong, L. Y.; Batten, T.; Pokorny, J.

    2015-05-14

    Signatures of a superlattice structure composed of a quasi periodic arrangement of atomic gold clusters below an epitaxied graphene (EG) layer are examined using dispersive Raman spectroscopy. The gold-graphene system exhibits a laser excitation energy dependant red shift of the 2D mode as compared to pristine epitaxial graphene. The phonon dispersions in both the systems are mapped using the experimentally observed Raman signatures and a third-nearest neighbour tight binding electronic band structure model. Our results reveal that the observed excitation dependent Raman red shift in gold EG primarily arise from the modifications of the phonon dispersion in gold-graphene and shows that the extent of decoupling of graphene from the underlying SiC substrate can be monitored from the dispersive nature of the Raman 2D modes. The intercalated gold atoms restore the phonon band structure of epitaxial graphene towards free standing graphene.

  11. Anisotropic Raman Spectroscopy of Few-Layer Phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yuchen; Wu, Wangran; Maassen, Jesse; Luo, Zhe; Lundstrom, Mark; Xu, Xianfan; Ye, Peide

    Much recent research of black phosphorus (BP) and phosphorene has been focused on their unique anisotropy of this novel 2D material in terms of electrical, optical and thermal properties. Here we report the emerging Raman spectroscopy measurements of BP with respect to its isolation from bulk BP down to single layer phosphorene. The found frequency shift of BP in Raman spectra is to be correlated with atomic motion of modes, which can be explained by applying classical model of coupled harmonic oscillators. Raman intensity of different modes has also been included in our studies, which is confirmed as a solid strategy to quickly determine BP layer thickness. In addition, more information of their mechanical properties can also be obtained from Raman spectroscopy. The work was supported in part by NSF ECCS-1449270, NSF/AFOSR EFRI 2DARE Program, and ARO W911NF-15-1-0574.

  12. Developing fibre optic Raman probes for applications in clinical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Oliver; Iping Petterson, Ingeborg E; Day, John C C; Stone, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been shown by various groups over the last two decades to have significant capability in discriminating disease states in bodily fluids, cells and tissues. Recent development in instrumentation, optics and manufacturing approaches has facilitated the design and demonstration of various novel in vivo probes, which have applicability for myriad of applications. This review focusses on key considerations and recommendations for application specific clinical Raman probe design and construction. Raman probes can be utilised as clinical tools able to provide rapid, non-invasive, real-time molecular analysis of disease specific changes in tissues. Clearly the target tissue location, the significance of spectral changes with disease and the possible access routes to the region of interest will vary for each clinical application considered. This review provides insight into design and construction considerations, including suitable probe designs and manufacturing materials compatible with Raman spectroscopy. PMID:26956027

  13. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and near-field polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yuika; Mino, Toshihiro; Verma, Prabhat

    2015-12-01

    Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is a powerful tool for High-resolution Raman spectroscopy. In this method, a metal coated nano-tip acts as a plasmonic antenna to enhance the originally weak Raman scattering from a nanometric volume of a sample. The technique enables to detect Raman scattering light from nano-scale area and also enhance the light intensity with combination of near-filed light and localized surface plasmon generated at a metallized tip apex. Nowadays TERS is used to investigate various nano-scale samples, for examples, carbon nanotubes, graphenes DNA and biomaterials. As the TERS developed, there is high demand to investigate the properties of near-field light e.g. polarization properties. We have analyzed the polarization properties of near-field light in TERS and successfully realized the quantitative nano-imaging by visible light.

  14. Monitoring the influence of antibiotic exposure using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Ota; Zemanek, Pavel; Bernatova, Silvie; Jezek, Jan; Sery, Mojmir; Jakl, Petr; Siler, Martin; Ruzicka, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Here we report on combination of the data obtained from MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) with infor- mation of microoragnisms fingerprint provided by Raman spectroscopy. In our feasibility study we could follow mechanisms of the bacteriostatic versus bactericidal action on biofilm-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis simply by monitoring Raman bands corresponding to DNA translating the changes introduced by selected antibiotics. The Raman spectra of Staphylococcus epidermidis treated with a bacteriostatic agent show little effect on DNA which is in contrast with the action of a bactericidal agent where decreased in dedicated Raman spectra signal strength suggests DNA fragmentation. Moreover, we demonstrate that Raman tweezers are indeed able to distinguish strains of biofilm-forming (biofilm-positive) and biofilm-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis strains using principal component analysis (PCA).

  15. Deep ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy: A resonance-absorption trade-off illustrated by diluted liquid benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, C. T.; Willitsford, A. H.; Philbrick, C. R.; Hallen, H. D.

    2015-12-01

    The magnitude of resonance Raman intensity, in terms of the real signal level measured on-resonance compared to the signal level measured off-resonance for the same sample, is investigated using a tunable laser source. Resonance Raman enhancements, occurring as the excitation energy is tuned through ultraviolet absorption lines, are used to examine the 1332 cm-1 vibrational mode of diamond and the 992 cm-1 ring-breathing mode of benzene. Competition between the wavelength dependent optical absorption and the magnitude of the resonance enhancement is studied using measured signal levels as a function of wavelength. Two system applications are identified where the resonance Raman significantly increases the real signal levels despite the presence of strong absorption: characterization of trace species in laser remote sensing and spectroscopy of the few molecules in the tiny working volumes of near-field optical microscopy.

  16. Raman Spectroscopy of Lithium Hydride Corrosion: Selection of an Appropriate Excitation Wavelength to Minimize Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, A. C.; Smyrl, N. R.

    2011-05-26

    The recent interest in a hydrogen-based fuel economy has renewed research into metal hydride chemistry. Many of these compounds react readily with water to release hydrogen gas and form a caustic. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFT) has been used to study the hydrolysis reaction. The LiOH stretch appears at 3670 cm{sup -1}. Raman spectroscopy is a complementary technique that employs monochromatic excitation (laser) allowing access to the low energy region of the vibrational spectrum (<600 cm{sup -1}). Weak scattering and fluorescence typically prevent Raman from being used for many compounds. The role of Li{sub 2}O in the moisture reaction has not been fully studied for LiH. Li{sub 2}O can be observed by Raman while being hidden in the Infrared spectrum.

  17. Subframe burst gating for Raman spectroscopy in combustion.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Jun; Fischer, David; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2010-05-01

    We describe an architecture for spontaneous Raman scattering utilizing a frame-transfer CCD sensor operating in a subframe burst-gating mode to realize time-resolved combustion diagnostics. The technique permits all-electronic optical gating with microsecond shutter speeds (<5 micros) without compromising optical throughput or image fidelity. When used in conjunction with a pair of orthogonally polarized excitation lasers, the technique measures single-shot vibrational Raman scattering that is minimally contaminated by problematic optical background noise. PMID:20436556

  18. Subframe Burst Gating for Raman Spectroscopy in Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Fischer, David; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2010-01-01

    We describe an architecture for spontaneous Raman scattering utilizing a frame-transfer CCD sensor operating in a subframe burst-gating mode to realize time-resolved combustion diagnostics. The technique permits all-electronic optical gating with microsecond shutter speeds 5 J.Ls) without compromising optical throughput or image fidelity. When used in conjunction with a pair of orthogonally polarized excitation lasers, the technique measures single-shot vibrational Raman scattering that is minimally contaminated by problematic optical background noise.

  19. Single Molecule Raman Spectroscopy Under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuanxi; Dlott, Dana

    2014-06-01

    Pressure effects on surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of Rhdoamine 6G adsorbed on silver nanoparticle surfaces was studied using a confocal Raman microscope. Colloidal silver nanoparticles were treated with Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and its isotopically substituted partner, R6G-d4. Mixed isotopomers let us identify single-molecule spectra, since multiple-molecule spectra would show vibrational transitions from both species. The nanoparticles were embedded into a poly vinyl alcohol film, and loaded into a diamond anvil cell for the high-pressure Raman scattering measurement. Argon was the pressure medium. Ambient pressure Raman scattering spectra showed few single-molecule spectra. At moderately high pressure ( 1GPa), a surprising effect was observed. The number of sites with observable spectra decreased dramatically, and most of the spectra that could be observed were due to single molecules. The effects of high pressure suppressed the multiple-molecule Raman sites, leaving only the single-molecule sites to be observed.

  20. Remote Raman Spectroscopy of Minerals at Elevated Temperature Relevant to Venus Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    We have used a remote time-resolved telescopic Raman system equipped with 532 nm pulsed laser excitation and a gated intensified CCD (ICCD) detector for measuring Raman spectra of a number of minerals at high temperature to 970 K. Remote Raman measurements were made with samples at 9-meter in side a high-temperature furnace by gating the ICCD detector with 2 micro-sec gate to minimize interference from blackbody emission from mineral surfaces at high temperature as well as interference from ambient light. A comparison of Raman spectra of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), and olivine (Mg2Fe2-xSiO4), as a function of temperature shows that the Raman lines remains sharp and well defined even in the high-temperature spectra. In the case of gypsum, Raman spectral fingerprints of CaSO4.H2O at 518 K were observed due to dehydration of gypsum. In the case of dolomite, partial mineral dissociation was observed at 973 K at ambient pressure indicating that some of the dolomite might survive on Venus surface that is at approximately 750 K and 92 atmospheric pressure. Time-resolved Raman spectra of low clino-enstatite (MgSiO3) measured at 75 mm from the sample in side the high-temperature furnace also show that the Raman lines remains sharp and well defined in the high temperature spectra. These high-temperature remote Raman spectra of minerals show that time-resolved Raman spectroscopy can be used as a potential tool for exploring Venus surface mineralogy at shorter (75 mm) and long (9 m) distances from the samples both during daytime and nighttime. The remote Raman system could also be used for measuring profiles of molecular species in the dense Venus atmosphere during descent as well as on the surface.

  1. Study of minerals, organic, and biogenic materials through time-resolved Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Ismail, Syed; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Nguyen, Trac; Elsayed-Ali, Hani

    2009-05-01

    A compact remote Raman spectroscopy system was developed at NASA Langley Research center and was previously demonstrated for its ability to identify chemical composition of various rocks and minerals. In this study, the Raman sensor was utilized to perform time-resolved Raman studies of various samples such as minerals and rocks, Azalea leaves, and a few fossil samples. The Raman sensor utilizes a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser as excitation source, a 4-inch telescope to collect the Raman-scattered signal from a sample several meters away, a spectrograph equipped with a holographic grating, and a gated intensified CCD (ICCD) camera system. Time resolved Raman measurements were carried out by varying the gate delay with fixed short gate width of the ICCD camera, allowing measurement of both Raman signals and fluorescence signals. Rocks and mineral samples were characterized, including marble, which contains CaCO3. Analysis of the results reveals the short (~10-13 s) lifetime of the Raman process and shows that the Raman spectra of some mineral samples contain fluorescence emission due to organic impurities. Also analyzed were a green (pristine) and a yellow (decayed) sample of Gardenia leaves. It was observed that the fluorescence signals from the green and yellow leaf samples showed stronger signals compared to the Raman lines. It was also observed that the fluorescence of the green leaf was more intense and had a shorter lifetime than that of the yellow leaf. For the fossil samples, Raman shifted lines could not be observed due to the presence of very strong short-lived fluorescence.

  2. Studies of Minerals, Organic and Biogenic Materials through Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Ismail, Syed; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Nyugen, Trac; Elsayed-Ali, hani

    2009-01-01

    A compact remote Raman spectroscopy system was developed at NASA Langley Research center and was previously demonstrated for its ability to identify chemical composition of various rocks and minerals. In this study, the Raman sensor was utilized to perform time-resolved Raman studies of various samples such as minerals and rocks, Azalea leaves and a few fossil samples. The Raman sensor utilizes a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser as excitation source, a 4-inch telescope to collect the Raman-scattered signal from a sample several meters away, a spectrograph equipped with a holographic grating, and a gated intensified CCD (ICCD) camera system. Time resolved Raman measurements were carried out by varying the gate delay with fixed short gate width of the ICCD camera, allowing measurement of both Raman signals and fluorescence signals. Rocks and mineral samples were characterized including marble, which contain CaCO3. Analysis of the results reveals the short (approx.10-13 s) lifetime of the Raman process, and shows that Raman spectra of some mineral samples contain fluorescence emission due to organic impurities. Also analyzed were a green (pristine) and a yellow (decayed) sample of Gardenia leaves. It was observed that the fluorescence signals from the green and yellow leaf samples showed stronger signals compared to the Raman lines. Moreover, it was also observed that the fluorescence of the green leaf was more intense and had a shorter lifetime than that of the yellow leaf. For the fossil samples, Raman shifted lines could not be observed due the presence of very strong short-lived fluorescence.

  3. Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Feng; Huang, Yi Fan; Ding, Yong; Yang, Zhi Lin; Li, Song Bo; Zhou, Xiao Shun; Fan, Feng Ru; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Zhi You; Wu, De Yin; Ren, Bin; Wang, Zhong Lin; Tian, Zhong Qun

    2010-03-18

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful spectroscopy technique that can provide non-destructive and ultra-sensitive characterization down to single molecular level, comparable to single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy. However, generally substrates based on metals such as Ag, Au and Cu, either with roughened surfaces or in the form of nanoparticles, are required to realise a substantial SERS effect, and this has severely limited the breadth of practical applications of SERS. A number of approaches have extended the technique to non-traditional substrates, most notably tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) where the probed substance (molecule or material surface) can be on a generic substrate and where a nanoscale gold tip above the substrate acts as the Raman signal amplifier. The drawback is that the total Raman scattering signal from the tip area is rather weak, thus limiting TERS studies to molecules with large Raman cross-sections. Here, we report an approach, which we name shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, in which the Raman signal amplification is provided by gold nanoparticles with an ultrathin silica or alumina shell. A monolayer of such nanoparticles is spread as 'smart dust' over the surface that is to be probed. The ultrathin coating keeps the nanoparticles from agglomerating, separates them from direct contact with the probed material and allows the nanoparticles to conform to different contours of substrates. High-quality Raman spectra were obtained on various molecules adsorbed at Pt and Au single-crystal surfaces and from Si surfaces with hydrogen monolayers. These measurements and our studies on yeast cells and citrus fruits with pesticide residues illustrate that our method significantly expands the flexibility of SERS for useful applications in the materials and life sciences, as well as for the inspection of food safety, drugs, explosives and environment pollutants. PMID:20237566

  4. Modulated Fourier Transform Raman Fiber-Optic Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Cooper, John B. (Inventor); Wise, Kent L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A modification to a commercial Fourier Transform (FT) Raman spectrometer is presented for the elimination of thermal backgrounds in the FT Raman spectra. The modification involves the use of a mechanical optical chopper to modulate the continuous wave laser, remote collection of the signal via fiber optics, and connection of a dual-phase digital-signal-processor (DSP) lock-in amplifier between the detector and the spectrometer's collection electronics to demodulate and filter the optical signals. The resulting Modulated Fourier Transform Raman Fiber-Optic Spectrometer is capable of completely eliminating thermal backgrounds at temperatures exceeding 300 C.

  5. Raman spectroscopy of HIV-1 antigen and antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinin, Pavel V.; Hu, Ningjie; Kamemoto, Lori E.; Yu, Qigui; Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2011-05-01

    Raman spectra of anti-HIV-1 antibody, HIV-1 antigen (p24), and HIV-1 antibody-antigen complex have been measured in near-infrared and UV regions: 785 nm; 830 nm; and 244 nm laser excitations. The spectrum of the HIV-1 antigen was excited with an infrared laser and contains numerous Raman peaks. The most prominent peaks are broad bands at 1343, 1449, 1609 and 1655 cm-1, which are characteristic of the Raman spectra of biological cells. The UV Raman spectrum of the HIV-1 antigen has a completely different structure. It has two strong peaks at 1613 cm-1 and 1173 cm-1. The peak at 1613 cm-1 is associated with vibrations of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Try). The second strongest peak at 1173 cm-1 is associated with the vibration of Tyr. The Raman peak pattern of the HIV-1 antigen-antibody complex is very similar to that of the HIV-1 antigen. The only difference is that the peak at 1007 cm-1 of the Raman spectrum of the HIV-1 antigen-antibody complex is slightly enhanced compared to that of the HIV-1 antigen. This indicates that the peaks of the HIV-1 antigen dominate the Raman spectrum of the HIV-1 antigen-antibody complex.

  6. Raman spectroscopy of polyhedral carbon nano-onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codorniu Pujals, Daniel; Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia; Desdín García, Luis F.; Cazzanelli, Enzo; Caputi, Lorenzo S.

    2015-09-01

    The Raman spectra of polyhedral carbon nano-onions (PCO), obtained by underwater arc discharge of graphite electrodes, are studied. While the general Raman spectrum of PCO is very similar to those of other carbon nanostructures, including spherical nano-onions, the fine structure of the G and 2D bands gives valuable information that allows using Raman spectroscopy for differentiating the PCO from other carbon structures. The interpretation of the features of the fine structure of the spectra is supported by evidences obtained by TEM.

  7. Raman Spectroscopy Analysis Of Mechanical Stress Near Cu-TSVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wolf, Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses Raman spectroscopy measurements of stress near Cu-TSVs (Through Silicon Vias) used in 3D stacking of thinned chips. It discusses the resolution and penetration depth of the technique and the relation between the measured Raman shift and stress. Using a simple model, the various stress components near TSVs are discussed and the relation between the measured Raman shift and these stress components is analyzed. Results obtained on TSVs with nearby shallow-trench isolation, with different Cu chemistry, with and without SiO2 layer on top, and with different aspect ratio are discussed and analyzed using the simple model.

  8. Internal multiple-scattering hole-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: improved backscattering Fourier transform Raman sampling in pharmaceutical tablets utilizing cylindrical-conical holes.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Peter J; Santangelo, Matthew; Šašiċ, Slobodan

    2012-08-01

    The benefits of Raman signal enhancement and improved measurement precision are demonstrated using 180° backscattering Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy from drilled cylindrical-conical holes within pharmaceutical tablet cores. Multiple scattering of the incident laser light within the holes results in an increased Raman signal due to the larger Raman sampling volume. This is important for overcoming typical sub-sampling issues encountered when employing FT-Raman backscattering of heterogeneous pharmaceutical tablets. Hole depth and diameter were found to be important experimental parameters and were optimized to yield the greatest signal enhancement. The FT-Raman spectra collected using backscattering from cylindrical-conical holes is compared to typical 180° backscattering from flat surfaces using tablet cores of Excedrin® and Vivarin®. Raman chemical images are used to establish a representative sampling area. We observe a three- to five-fold increase in the Raman intensity and a two-fold improvement in the measurement precision when sampling from cylindrical-conical holes rather than classic backscattering from flat tablet cores. Self-absorption effects on analyte band ratios are negligible in the fingerprint region but are more significant at the higher near-infrared (NIR) absorbances found in the C-H/O-H/-N-H stretching region. The sampling technique will facilitate developing quantitative FT-Raman methods for application to pharmaceutical tablets using the fingerprint spectral region. PMID:22800376

  9. The substrate matters in the Raman spectroscopy analysis of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikoliunaite, Lina; Rodriguez, Raul D.; Sheremet, Evgeniya; Kolchuzhin, Vladimir; Mehner, Jan; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.

    2015-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method that allows deposited and/or immobilized cells to be evaluated without complex sample preparation or labeling. However, a main limitation of Raman spectroscopy in cell analysis is the extremely weak Raman intensity that results in low signal to noise ratios. Therefore, it is important to seize any opportunity that increases the intensity of the Raman signal and to understand whether and how the signal enhancement changes with respect to the substrate used. Our experimental results show clear differences in the spectroscopic response from cells on different surfaces. This result is partly due to the difference in spatial distribution of electric field at the substrate/cell interface as shown by numerical simulations. We found that the substrate also changes the spatial location of maximum field enhancement around the cells. Moreover, beyond conventional flat surfaces, we introduce an efficient nanostructured silver substrate that largely enhances the Raman signal intensity from a single yeast cell. This work contributes to the field of vibrational spectroscopy analysis by providing a fresh look at the significance of the substrate for Raman investigations in cell research.

  10. The substrate matters in the Raman spectroscopy analysis of cells

    PubMed Central

    Mikoliunaite, Lina; Rodriguez, Raul D.; Sheremet, Evgeniya; Kolchuzhin, Vladimir; Mehner, Jan; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Zahn, Dietrich R.T.

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method that allows deposited and/or immobilized cells to be evaluated without complex sample preparation or labeling. However, a main limitation of Raman spectroscopy in cell analysis is the extremely weak Raman intensity that results in low signal to noise ratios. Therefore, it is important to seize any opportunity that increases the intensity of the Raman signal and to understand whether and how the signal enhancement changes with respect to the substrate used. Our experimental results show clear differences in the spectroscopic response from cells on different surfaces. This result is partly due to the difference in spatial distribution of electric field at the substrate/cell interface as shown by numerical simulations. We found that the substrate also changes the spatial location of maximum field enhancement around the cells. Moreover, beyond conventional flat surfaces, we introduce an efficient nanostructured silver substrate that largely enhances the Raman signal intensity from a single yeast cell. This work contributes to the field of vibrational spectroscopy analysis by providing a fresh look at the significance of the substrate for Raman investigations in cell research. PMID:26310910

  11. UV Resonant Raman Spectrometer with Multi-Line Laser Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L.; Kohel, James M.; Kirby, James P.; Morookian, John Michael; Pelletier, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    A Raman spectrometer employs two or more UV (ultraviolet) laser wavel engths to generate UV resonant Raman (UVRR) spectra in organic sampl es. Resonant Raman scattering results when the laser excitation is n ear an electronic transition of a molecule, and the enhancement of R aman signals can be several orders of magnitude. In addition, the Ra man cross-section is inversely proportional to the fourth power of t he wavelength, so the UV Raman emission is increased by another fact or of 16, or greater, over visible Raman emissions. The Raman-scatter ed light is collected using a high-resolution broadband spectrograph . Further suppression of the Rayleigh-scattered laser light is provi ded by custom UV notch filters.

  12. Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopy of amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Farwell, D. W.

    1996-08-01

    The FT-Raman spectra of specimens of genuine amber and of those of unknown origin are reported. Vibrational assignments are made for the genuine species and characteristic bands are identified. Comparison with the Raman spectra of samples of modern pine resin has facilitated the vibrational description of the bands; the unknown specimens were identified as being false ambers of acrylate and polyurethane origin. The presence of small amounts of sulphur and succinic acid in the genuine amber samples have provided a guide to the geographical origin of these samples.

  13. A handheld laser scanning confocal reflectance imaging–confocal Raman microspectroscopy system

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chetan A.; Arrasmith, Christopher L.; Mackanos, Mark A.; Dickensheets, David L.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Confocal reflectance microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy have shown potential for non-destructive analysis of samples at micron-scale resolutions. Current studies utilizing these techniques often employ large bench-top microscopes, and are not suited for use outside of laboratory settings. We have developed a microscope which combines laser scanning confocal reflectance imaging and confocal Raman spectroscopy into a compact handheld probe that is capable of high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy in a variety of settings. The compact size of the probe is largely due to the use of a MEMS mirror for beam scanning. The probe is capable of axial resolutions of up to 4 μm for the confocal imaging channel and 10 μm for the confocal Raman spectroscopy channel. Here, we report instrument design, characterize optical performance, and provide images and spectra from normal skin to demonstrate the instrument’s capabilities for clinical diagnostics. PMID:22435097

  14. Continuous-wave solid-state two-Stokes Raman laser

    SciTech Connect

    Grabchikov, A S; Lisinetskii, V A; Orlovich, V A; Schmitt, M; Schluecker, S; Kuestner, B; Kiefer, W

    2009-07-31

    We report an experimental study of the first cw solid-state Raman laser operating simultaneously at the frequencies of the first and second Stokes components. Simultaneous generation is ensured by a cavity with an enhanced finesse at both Stokes frequencies. The threshold pump powers for the first (3.4 W) and second (3.67 W) Stokes components suggest that the second Stokes generation follows a cascade mechanism. We demonstrate for the first time Raman conversion with intensity stability exceeding the pump radiation stability and show that this approach may find application in Raman spectroscopy. (special issue devoted to the 80th birthday of S.A. Akhmanov)

  15. LIGHT INDUCED TELLURIUM ENRICHMENT ON CDZNTE CRYSTALSURFACES DETECTED BY RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Martine Duff, M; Douglas02 Hunter, D

    2007-10-29

    Synthetic CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals can be grown under controlled conditions to produce high quality crystals to be used as room temperature radiation detectors. Even the best crystal growth methods result in defects, such as tellurium secondary phases, that affect the crystal's performance. In this study, CZT crystals were analyzed by micro Raman spectroscopy. The growth of Te rich areas on the surface was induced by low powered lasers. The growth was observed versus time with low power Raman scattering and was observed immediately under higher power conditions. The detector response was also measured after induced Te enrichment.

  16. Raman Spectroscopy of UH3 from the Hydrogen Corrosion of Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Smyrl, N. R.; Stowe, A. C.; Powell, G. L.

    2011-05-31

    Hydrogen reacts with a uranium surface to form a fine, pyrophoric metal power (UH{sub 3}). Few spectroscopic studies have been conducted to study this reaction. Advances in Raman spectroscopy permit the application of the Raman method to formally difficult areas of chemistry such as the hydrogen corrosion of uranium: availability of multiple laser excitation wavelengths; fiber optics delivery and collection systems; upgraded instrumentation and detection techniques; and development of special enclosed in situ reactor cells. UH{sub 3} vibrations are expected to occur at low frequencies due to extended U-H-U structure.

  17. Light-Induced Tellurium Enrichment on CdZnTe Crystal Surfaces Detected by Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, Samantha A.; Villa-Aleman, Eliel; Duff, Martine C.; Hunter, Doug B.; Burger, Arnold; Groza, Michael; Buliga, Vladimir; Black, David R.

    2008-12-08

    CdZnTe (CZT) crystals can be grown under controlled conditions to produce high-quality crystals to be used as room-temperature radiation detectors. Even the best crystal growth methods result in defects, such as tellurium secondary phases, that affect the crystal's performance. In this study, CZT crystals were analyzed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The growth of Te rich areas on the surface was induced by low-power lasers. The growth was observed versus time with low-power Raman scattering and was observed immediately under higher-power conditions. The detector response was also measured after induced Te enrichment.

  18. Depth of penetration of a 785nm laser for Raman spectral measurement in food powders.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raman spectroscopy is a useful, rapid, and non-destructive method for both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of chemical composition. However it is important to measure the depth of penetration of the laser light to ensure that chemical particles at the very bottom of a sample volume are detec...

  19. Characterization of oil-producing microalgae using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, O.; Zemánek, P.; Jonáš, A.; Telle, H. H.

    2011-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy offers a powerful alternative analytical method for the detection and identification of lipids/oil in biological samples, such as algae and fish. Recent research in the authors' groups, and experimental data only very recently published by us and a few other groups suggest that Raman spectroscopy can be exploited in instances where fast and accurate determination of the iodine value (associated with the degree of lipid unsaturation) is required. Here the current status of Raman spectroscopy applications on algae is reviewed, and particular attention is given to the efforts of identifying and selecting oil-rich algal strains for the potential mass production of commercial biofuels and for utilization in the food industry.

  20. Two-dimensional Raman-terahertz spectroscopy of water

    PubMed Central

    Savolainen, Janne; Ahmed, Saima; Hamm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional Raman-terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is presented as a multidimensional spectroscopy directly in the far-IR regime. The method is used to explore the dynamics of the collective intermolecular modes of liquid water at ambient temperatures that emerge from the hydrogen-bond networks water forming. Two-dimensional Raman-THz spectroscopy interrogates these modes twice and as such can elucidate couplings and inhomogeneities of the various degrees of freedoms. An echo in the 2D Raman-THz response is indeed identified, indicating that a heterogeneous distribution of hydrogen-bond networks exists, albeit only on a very short 100-fs timescale. This timescale appears to be too short to be compatible with more extended, persistent structures assumed within a two-state model of water. PMID:24297930

  1. [Raman spectroscopy study on the structure of ginsenoside Rg3].

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiao-Bo; Zhao, Yu; Song, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Bing; Li, Yu-Xin

    2008-03-01

    Ginsenoside Rg3, discovered from Red Panax ginseng, is a new anticancer agent, which shows inhibitive activities of tumor metastasis in mice and in vitro tumor cell invasion. There are two isomers for ginsenoside Rg3: 20-(R)-Rg3 and 20-(S)-Rg3. The research on the Rg3 structure is limitted, with no report on the use of Raman spectroscopy in such molecules. In the present article, the authors employed the Raman spectroscopy to study the structure of ginsenoside Rg3. Compared with 20-(R)-Rg3, the hydrocarbon chain of 20-(S)-Rg3 is located in the inner of molecules. In addition, there are significant differences in band location and relative intensity between the spectra of 20-(R)-Rg3 and 20-(S)-Rg3, and this indicates that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a simple, fast and accurate analytical tool to identify ginsenoside Rg3 isomers. PMID:18536414

  2. Raman Spectroscopy Studies of Normal and Burned Biological Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnani, Faranak; Maass, David; Idris, Ahamed; Glosser, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Burn injuries are a significant medical problem, and need to be treated quickly and precisely. Burned skin needs to be removed early, within hours (less than 24 hrs) of injury, when the margins of the burn are still hard to define. Studies show that treating and excising burn wounds soon after the injury prevents the wound from becoming deeper, reduces the release of proinflammatory mediators, and reduces or prevents the systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome. Also, removing burned skin prepares the affected region for skin grafting. Raman spectroscopy could be used as an objective diagnostic method that will assist burn surgeons in removing burned skin precisely. As a first step in developing a diagnostic tool, we present Raman spectroscopy information from normal and burned ex vivo rat skin, and a comparison of our findings. Raman spectroscopy is explored for its specificity and sensitivity.

  3. Analysis of hydrocarbon fuel properties by means of Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatley, Martin W.

    The project is focused on the determination of Raman spectra of hydrocarbon fuel samples using a spectrometer employing a silicon linear array detector which has a spectral range of 400 nm to 1.1 mum. The spectra are processed using chemometric techniques in order to determine the concentrations of the tracked blend components and analytical values that are used to ensure that desired specifications are achieved. The verification is based on the American Standard Testing Methods procedures for the determination of the motor, research, and road octane numbers, simulated distillation and Reid vapour pressure. Blending is one of the most important steps in the final production of hydrocarbon fuels; as many as ten complex components are mixed to achieve the desired properties of the final product. Traditionally, blending relies on well-established analytical methods such as gas chromatography for component and simulated distillation analysis, knock engines and near infrared spectroscopy for octane analysis. All of these methods are reliable and accurate, but their results are not available in real time but rather with a substantial delay, since it is in the nature of the methods that the sample must be transported from a test site to the site where the instrument is located. Additional time is required for performing the analytical procedure; e.g. the results of a gas chromatography analysis are only available from minutes to hours after the sample has been introduced into the instrument. Consequently, the results, although accurate, become only available after the process of blending has been completed. The thesis describes an implementation of a Raman spectroscopic method, which is novel in the given context, since it allows monitoring and control of the blending process online, in real time. A Raman spectrometer was designed, using a solid state laser for excitation (785 nm, 800 mW), a blazed grating for the diffraction (600 lines-per-millimeter, 750 nm blaze, 635 nm spectral range). The spectrometer was integrated with a silicon, linear array detector, cooled with a Peltier effect stack. In order to make the optical system of the spectrometer suitable for industrial use, the instrument comprised optical fiber conduits that have alleviated the alignment difficulties, eliminated the sample transport delay, and allowed the sample collection via an optical probe. The spectrometer has been tested in an industrial environment and the results obtained compared with the data yielded by the traditional analytical method of gas chromatography, and the contemporary near infrared spectroscopy. For benzene, which was used as a standard, the noise-limited detection limit of the spectrometer was 1600 ppmv for the Raman spectrometer, which compares to the detection limit of 5000 ppmv of the near infrared spectrometer, and the typical value of 10 ppm yielded by a gas chromatograph. The time interval between the sampling and availability of results was from 10 to 30 seconds for the near infrared the Raman instruments, which compared favourably with the approximately 5 to 120 minute interval required in gas chromatography.

  4. Rapid detection of chlorpyrifos pesticide residue concentration in agro-product using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Peng, Yankun; Li, Yongyu; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Zhang, Leilei; Xu, Tianfeng

    2014-05-01

    Different chemicals are sprayed in fruits and vegetables before and after harvest for better yield and longer shelf-life of crops. Cases of pesticide poisoning to human health are regularly reported due to excessive application of such chemicals for greater economic benefit. Different analytical technologies exist to detect trace amount of pesticides in fruits and vegetables, but are expensive, sample destructive, and require longer processing time. This study explores the application of Raman spectroscopy for rapid and non-destructive detection of pesticide residue in agricultural products. Raman spectroscopy with laser module of 785 nm was used to collect Raman spectral information from the surface of Gala apples contaminated with different concentrations of commercially available organophosphorous (48% chlorpyrifos) pesticide. Apples within 15 days of harvest from same orchard were used in this study. The Raman spectral signal was processed by Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter for noise removal, Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC) for drift removal and finally polynomial fitting was used to eliminate the fluorescence background. The Raman spectral peak at 677 cm-1 was recognized as Raman fingerprint of chlorpyrifos. Presence of Raman peak at 677 cm-1 after fluorescence background removal was used to develop classification model (presence and absence of pesticide). The peak intensity was correlated with actual pesticide concentration obtained using Gas Chromatography and MLR prediction model was developed with correlation coefficient of calibration and validation of 0.86 and 0.81 respectively. Result shows that Raman spectroscopy is a promising tool for rapid, real-time and non-destructive detection of pesticide residue in agro-products.

  5. Multidimensional resonance raman spectroscopy by six-wave mixing in the deep UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molesky, Brian P.; Giokas, Paul G.; Guo, Zhenkun; Moran, Andrew M.

    2014-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) resonance Raman spectroscopies hold great potential for uncovering photoinduced relaxation processes in molecules but are not yet widely applied because of technical challenges. Here, we describe a newly developed 2D resonance Raman experiment operational at the third-harmonic of a Titanium-Sapphire laser. High-sensitivity and rapid data acquisition are achieved by combining spectral interferometry with a background-free (six-pulse) laser beam geometry. The third-harmonic laser pulses are generated in a filament produced by the fundamental and second-harmonic pulses in neon gas at pressures up to 35 atm. The capabilities of the setup are demonstrated by probing ground-state wavepacket motions in triiodide. The information provided by the experiment is explored with two different representations of the signal. In one representation, Fourier transforms are carried out with respect to the two experimentally controlled delay times to obtain a 2D Raman spectrum. Further insights are derived in a second representation by dispersing the signal pulse in a spectrometer. It is shown that, as in traditional pump-probe experiments, the six-wave mixing signal spectrum encodes the wavepacket's position by way of the (time-evolving) emission frequency. Anharmonicity additionally induces dynamics in the vibrational resonance frequency. In all cases, the experimental signals are compared to model calculations based on a cumulant expansion approach. This study suggests that multi-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopies conducted on systems with Franck-Condon active modes are fairly immune to many of the technical issues that challenge off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies (e.g., third-order cascades) and photon-echo experiments in the deep UV (e.g., coherence spikes). The development of higher-order nonlinear spectroscopies operational in the deep UV is motivated by studies of biological systems and elementary organic photochemistries.

  6. Multidimensional resonance raman spectroscopy by six-wave mixing in the deep UV

    SciTech Connect

    Molesky, Brian P.; Giokas, Paul G.; Guo, Zhenkun; Moran, Andrew M.

    2014-09-21

    Two-dimensional (2D) resonance Raman spectroscopies hold great potential for uncovering photoinduced relaxation processes in molecules but are not yet widely applied because of technical challenges. Here, we describe a newly developed 2D resonance Raman experiment operational at the third-harmonic of a Titanium-Sapphire laser. High-sensitivity and rapid data acquisition are achieved by combining spectral interferometry with a background-free (six-pulse) laser beam geometry. The third-harmonic laser pulses are generated in a filament produced by the fundamental and second-harmonic pulses in neon gas at pressures up to 35 atm. The capabilities of the setup are demonstrated by probing ground-state wavepacket motions in triiodide. The information provided by the experiment is explored with two different representations of the signal. In one representation, Fourier transforms are carried out with respect to the two experimentally controlled delay times to obtain a 2D Raman spectrum. Further insights are derived in a second representation by dispersing the signal pulse in a spectrometer. It is shown that, as in traditional pump-probe experiments, the six-wave mixing signal spectrum encodes the wavepacket's position by way of the (time-evolving) emission frequency. Anharmonicity additionally induces dynamics in the vibrational resonance frequency. In all cases, the experimental signals are compared to model calculations based on a cumulant expansion approach. This study suggests that multi-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopies conducted on systems with Franck-Condon active modes are fairly immune to many of the technical issues that challenge off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies (e.g., third-order cascades) and photon-echo experiments in the deep UV (e.g., coherence spikes). The development of higher-order nonlinear spectroscopies operational in the deep UV is motivated by studies of biological systems and elementary organic photochemistries.

  7. Multidimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy by six-wave mixing in the deep UV.

    PubMed

    Molesky, Brian P; Giokas, Paul G; Guo, Zhenkun; Moran, Andrew M

    2014-09-21

    Two-dimensional (2D) resonance Raman spectroscopies hold great potential for uncovering photoinduced relaxation processes in molecules but are not yet widely applied because of technical challenges. Here, we describe a newly developed 2D resonance Raman experiment operational at the third-harmonic of a Titanium-Sapphire laser. High-sensitivity and rapid data acquisition are achieved by combining spectral interferometry with a background-free (six-pulse) laser beam geometry. The third-harmonic laser pulses are generated in a filament produced by the fundamental and second-harmonic pulses in neon gas at pressures up to 35 atm. The capabilities of the setup are demonstrated by probing ground-state wavepacket motions in triiodide. The information provided by the experiment is explored with two different representations of the signal. In one representation, Fourier transforms are carried out with respect to the two experimentally controlled delay times to obtain a 2D Raman spectrum. Further insights are derived in a second representation by dispersing the signal pulse in a spectrometer. It is shown that, as in traditional pump-probe experiments, the six-wave mixing signal spectrum encodes the wavepacket's position by way of the (time-evolving) emission frequency. Anharmonicity additionally induces dynamics in the vibrational resonance frequency. In all cases, the experimental signals are compared to model calculations based on a cumulant expansion approach. This study suggests that multi-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopies conducted on systems with Franck-Condon active modes are fairly immune to many of the technical issues that challenge off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies (e.g., third-order cascades) and photon-echo experiments in the deep UV (e.g., coherence spikes). The development of higher-order nonlinear spectroscopies operational in the deep UV is motivated by studies of biological systems and elementary organic photochemistries. PMID:25240351

  8. Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Wang, Wubao

    2000-11-21

    A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. In accordance with the teachings of the invention, a low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic tansaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively. For example, it may also be used to diagnose diseases associated with the concentration of Raman-active constituents in urine, lymph and saliva It may be used to identify cancer in the breast, cervix, uterus, ovaries and the like by measuring the fingerprint excitation Raman spectra of these tissues. It may also be used to reveal the growing of tumors or cancers by measuring the levels of nitric oxide in tissue.

  9. Examination of cellulose textile fibres in historical objects by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavkler, Katja; Demšar, Andrej

    2011-02-01

    The investigation and characterisation of historical objects can be an exacting piece of work because of the small quantity of material that can be investigated and the degradation of the material and its value, which sometimes demands only non-destructive methods. In this study, as one such method, Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the cellulose fibres of painting canvases and linings. Historical samples of fabrics were taken from different paintings and their linings from different locations in Slovenia. Raman spectra were recorded on the fibres of these historical samples. Additionally, a database of the Raman spectra of modern cellulose fibres was created and compared with the literature data. Differences in the Raman spectra of different cellulose fibres were observed, and on this basis fibres of different types were discriminated. The recorded Raman spectra of historical samples were compared with the database spectra of modern cellulose fibres. Strong luminescence effects because of the changes caused by ageing, degradation products and surface contamination caused difficulties in interpreting the Raman spectra of historical fibres. The luminescence effects were partly overcome by prolonged exposition times and previous "signal quenching" with the laser. The Raman spectra of historical cotton showed no luminescence effects, and only slight differences to the reference spectra of modern cotton fibres appeared, whereas the Raman spectra of historical flax fibres were overwhelmed with luminescence and showed changes in spectra through degradation. The research showed that by using Raman spectroscopy the identification and differentiation of different cellulose fibres and materials that accompany cellulose in the fibres are possible and that degraded and aged material can be differentiated.

  10. Examination of cellulose textile fibres in historical objects by micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kavkler, Katja; Demšar, Andrej

    2011-02-01

    The investigation and characterisation of historical objects can be an exacting piece of work because of the small quantity of material that can be investigated and the degradation of the material and its value, which sometimes demands only non-destructive methods. In this study, as one such method, Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the cellulose fibres of painting canvases and linings. Historical samples of fabrics were taken from different paintings and their linings from different locations in Slovenia. Raman spectra were recorded on the fibres of these historical samples. Additionally, a database of the Raman spectra of modern cellulose fibres was created and compared with the literature data. Differences in the Raman spectra of different cellulose fibres were observed, and on this basis fibres of different types were discriminated. The recorded Raman spectra of historical samples were compared with the database spectra of modern cellulose fibres. Strong luminescence effects because of the changes caused by ageing, degradation products and surface contamination caused difficulties in interpreting the Raman spectra of historical fibres. The luminescence effects were partly overcome by prolonged exposition times and previous "signal quenching" with the laser. The Raman spectra of historical cotton showed no luminescence effects, and only slight differences to the reference spectra of modern cotton fibres appeared, whereas the Raman spectra of historical flax fibres were overwhelmed with luminescence and showed changes in spectra through degradation. The research showed that by using Raman spectroscopy the identification and differentiation of different cellulose fibres and materials that accompany cellulose in the fibres are possible and that degraded and aged material can be differentiated. PMID:21190892

  11. Raman spectroscopy of garnet-group minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mingsheng, P.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Dien, L.; Chao, E.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Raman spectra of the natural end members of the garnet-group minerals, which include pyrope, almandine and spessarite of Fe-Al garnet series and grossularite, andradite and uvarovite of Ca-Fe garnet series, have been studied. Measured Raman spectra of these minerals are reasonably and qualitatively assigned to the internal modes, translational and rotatory modes of SiO4 tetrahedra, as well as the translational motion of bivalent cations in the X site. The stretch and rotatory Alg modes for the Fe-Al garnet series show obvious Raman shifts as compared with those for the Ca-Fe garnet series, owing to the cations residing in the X site connected with SiO4 tetrahedra by sharing the two edges. The Raman shifts of all members within either of the series are attributed mainly to the properties of cations in the X site for the Fe-Al garnet series and in the Y site for the Ca-Fe garnet series. ?? 1994 Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Operation of a Raman laser in bulk silicon.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Hanjo; Lux, Oliver; Meister, Stefan; Woggon, Ulrike; Kaminskii, Alexander A; Eichler, Hans Joachim

    2011-05-01

    A Raman laser based on a bulk silicon single crystal with 1.127 ?m emission wavelength is demonstrated. The Si crystal with 30 mm length was placed into an external cavity and pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier system. Strong defocusing of the pump and Raman laser beam by free carriers was compensated by an intracavity lens. Raman laser operation with a pulse duration of 2.5 ns was identified by a Raman laser threshold significantly lower than the single-pass stimulated Raman-scattering threshold. Linear absorption losses of the 1.06415 ?m pump radiation are strongly reduced by cooling the Si crystal to a temperature of 10 K. PMID:21540955

  13. Plasmon-assisted chemical reactions revealed by high-vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shuaicheng; Sheng, Shaoxiang; Zhang, Zhenglong; Xu, Hongxing; Zheng, Hairong

    2014-08-01

    Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is the technique that combines the nanoscale spatial resolution of a scanning probe microscope and the highly sensitive Raman spectroscopy enhanced by the surface plasmons. It is suitable for chemical analysis at nanometer scale. Recently, TERS exhibited powerful potential in analyzing the chemical reactions at nanoscale. The high sensitivity and spatial resolution of TERS enable us to learn the reaction processes more clearly. More importantly, the chemical reaction in TERS is assisted by surface plasmons, which provides us an optical method to manipulate the chemical reactions at nanoscale. Here using our home-built high-vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HV-TERS) setup, we successfully observed the plasmon-assisted molecule dimerization and dissociation reactions. In HV-TERS system, under laser illumination, 4-nitrobenzenethiol (4NBT) molecules can be dimerized to p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB), and dissociation reaction occurs for malachite green (MG) molecules. Using our HV-TERS setup, the dynamic processes of the reactions are clearly revealed. The chemical reactions can be manipulated by controlling the plasmon intensity through changing the power of the incident laser, the tunneling current and the bias voltage. We also investigated the role of plasmonic thermal effect in the reactions by measuring both the Stokes and anti- Stokes Raman peaks. Our findings extend the applications of TERS, which can help to study the chemical reactions and understand the dynamic processes at single molecular level, and even design molecules by the plasmon-assisted chemical reactions.

  14. Feedback-controlled Raman dissipative solitons in a fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Kharenko, Denis S; Bednyakova, Anastasia E; Podivilov, Evgeniy V; Fedoruk, Mikhail P; Apolonski, Alexander; Babin, Sergey A

    2015-01-26

    Energy of chirped dissipative solitons (DS) generated in fiber lasers may exceed a threshold of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) leading to formation of a noisy Raman pulse (RP). As we demonstrated recently, a feedback loop providing re-injection of the Raman pulse into the laser cavity can form a Raman dissipative soliton (RDS) with similar characteristics to those of the main dissipative soliton. Here, we present the results of feedback optimization of the generated RDS spectra. First experimental results of coherent combining of DS and RDS are also shown. PMID:25835939

  15. Raman Spectroscopy: A New Proposal for the Detection of Leukemia Using Blood Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Espinosa, J. C.; Gonzalez-Solis, J. L.; Miranda-Beltran, M. L.; Soria-Fregoso, C.; Medina-Valtierra, J.; Sanchez-Gomez, R.

    2008-08-11

    The use of Raman spectroscopy to analyze blood biochemistry and hence distinguish between normal and abnormal blood was investigated. The blood samples were obtained from 6 patients who were clinically diagnosed with leukemia and 6 healthy volunteer. The imprint was put under the microscope and several points were chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected at confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy (Renishaw) with NIR 830 nm laser. It is shown that the serum samples from patients with leukemia and from the control group can be discriminated when the multivariate statistical methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminated analysis (LDA) is applied to their Raman spectra. The ratios of some band intensities were analyzed and some band ratios were significant and corresponded to proteins, phospholipids, and polysaccharides. In addition, currently the degree of damage to the bone marrow is estimated through biopsies and therefore it is a very procedure painful. The preliminary results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a new technique to study the bone marrow using just blood samples.

  16. Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy for explosives detection through difficult (opaque) containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskall, Guy T.; Bonthron, Stuart; Crawford, David

    2013-10-01

    With the continuing threat to aviation security from homemade explosive devices, the restrictions on taking a volume of liquid greater than 100 ml onto an aircraft remain in place. From January 2014, these restrictions will gradually be reduced via a phased implementation of technological screening of Liquids, Aerosols and Gels (LAGs). Raman spectroscopy offers a highly sensitive, and specific, technique for the detection and identification of chemicals. Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS), in particular, offers significant advantages over conventional Raman spectroscopy for detecting and recognizing contents within optically challenging (Raman active) containers. Containers vary enormously in their composition; glass type, plastic type, thickness, reflectance, and pigmentation are all variable and cause an infinite range of absorbances, fluorescence backgrounds, Rayleigh backscattered laser light, and container Raman bands. In this paper we show that the data processing chain for Cobalt Light Systems' INSIGHT100 bottlescanner is robust to such variability. We discuss issues of model selection for the detection stage and demonstrate an overall detection rate across a wide range of threats and containers of 97% with an associated false alarm rate of 0.1% or lower.

  17. Trace vapour detection at room temperature using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chou, Alison; Radi, Babak; Jaatinen, Esa; Juodkazis, Saulius; Fredericks, Peter M

    2014-04-21

    A miniaturized flow-through system consisting of a gold coated silicon substrate based on enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the detection of vapour from model explosive compounds. The measurements show that the detectability of the vapour molecules at room temperature depends sensitively on the interaction between the molecule and the substrate. The results highlight the capability of a flow system combined with Raman spectroscopy for detecting low vapour pressure compounds with a limit of detection of 0.2 ppb as demonstrated by the detection of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, a common polymer additive emitted from a commercial polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing at room temperature. PMID:24588003

  18. Condition Assessment of Kevlar Composite Materials Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washer, Glenn; Brooks, Thomas; Saulsberry, Regor

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes the following main concepts. Goal: To evaluate Raman spectroscopy as a potential NDE tool for the detection of stress rupture in Kevlar. Objective: Test a series of strand samples that have been aged under various conditions and evaluate differences and trends in the Raman response. Hypothesis: Reduction in strength associated with stress rupture may manifest from changes in the polymer at a molecular level. If so, than these changes may effect the vibrational characteristics of the material, and consequently the Raman spectra produced from the material. Problem Statement: Kevlar composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) on the space shuttles are greater than 25 years old. Stress rupture phenomena is not well understood for COPVs. Other COPVs are planned for hydrogen-fueled vehicles using Carbon composite material. Raman spectroscopy is being explored as an non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique to predict the onset of stress rupture in Kevlar composite materials. Test aged Kevlar strands to discover trends in the Raman response. Strength reduction in Kevlar polymer will manifest itself on the Raman spectra. Conclusions: Raman spectroscopy has shown relative changes in the intensity and FWHM of the 1613 cm(exp -1) peak. Reduction in relative intensity for creep, fleet leader, and SIM specimens compared to the virgin strands. Increase in FWHM has been observed for the creep and fleet leader specimens compared to the virgin strands. Changes in the Raman spectra may result from redistributing loads within the material due to the disruption of hydrogen bonding between crystallites or defects in the crystallites from aging the Kevlar strands. Peak shifting has not been observed to date. Analysis is ongoing. Stress measurements may provide a tool in the short term.

  19. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy: a potential tool for outdoor measurements in precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwald, Martin; Müller, André; Selbeck, Jörn; Käthner, Jana; Zude, Manuela; Fleury, Dominique; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2015-06-01

    In this work we present Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) as a potential spectroscopic tool for outdoor measurements in precision agriculture. A dual-wavelength diode laser at 785 nm is used as an excitation light source which provides an optical power up to 100 mW in cw-operation. Both emission lines for SERDS show single mode operation with a spectral width of <= 11 pm and a spectral distance of about 10 cm-1 over the whole power range. Raman experiments on apples are carried out and show Raman signals from wax layer and β-carotene. Raman investigations under daylight conditions are performed to simulate outdoor measurements. Here, polystyrene (PS) is used as test sample. A broadband signal together with narrow absorption lines of water vapor and Fraunhofer lines of singly ionized calcium (Ca II) mask the Raman lines of PS. Only the strong Raman signal at 999 cm-1 is visible. SERDS efficiently separates the Raman signals of PS from the background signals and a 14-fold improvement of the signal-tobackground noise ratio is achieved.

  20. Cell identification using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical trapping and microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Christoph; Dochow, Sebastian; Beleites, Claudia; Popp, Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    Cell identification by Raman spectroscopy has evolved to be an attractive complement to established optical techniques. Raman activated cell sorting (RACS) offers prospects to complement the widely applied fluorescence activated cell sorting. RACS can be realized by combination with optical traps and microfluidic devices. The progress of RACS is reported for a cellular model system that can be found in peripheral blood of tumor patients. Lymphocytes and erythrocytes were extracted from blood samples. Breast carcinoma derived tumor cells (MCF-7, BT-20) and acute myeloid leukemia cells (OCI-AML3) were grown in cell cultures. First, Raman images were collected from dried cells on calcium fluoride slides. Support vector machines (SVM) classified 99.7% of the spectra to the correct cell type. Second, a 785 nm laser was used for optical trapping of single cells in aqueous buffer and for excitation of the Raman spectrum. SVM distinguished 1210 spectra of tumor and normal cells with a sensitivity of >99.7% and a specificity of >99.5%. Third, a microfluidic glass chip was designed to inject single cells, modify the flow speed, accommodate fibers of an optical trap and sort single cells after Raman based identification with 514 nm for excitation. Forth, the microfluidic chip was fabricated by quartz which improved cell identification results with 785 nm excitation. Here, partial least squares discriminant analysis gave classification rates of 98%. Finally, a Raman-on-chip approach was developed that integrates fibers for trapping, Raman excitation and signal detection in a single compact unit.

  1. Actively Q-switched Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. G.; Podivilov, E. V.; Babin, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    A new scheme providing actively Q-switched operation of a Raman fiber laser (RFL) has been proposed and tested. The RFL consists of a 1 km single-mode fiber with a switchable loop mirror at one end and an angled cleaved output end. An 1080 nm pulse with microsecond duration is generated at the output by means of acousto-optic switching of the mirror at ~30 kHz in the presence of 6 W backward pumping at 1030 nm. In the proposed scheme, the generated pulse energy is defined by the pump energy distributed along the passive fiber, which amounts to 30 μJ in our case. The available pump energy may be increased by means of fiber lengthening. Pulse shortening is also expected.

  2. Statistics of a turbulent Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Pierre; Randoux, Stéphane; Suret, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    We report the experimental study of statistical properties of partially coherent waves emitted by a Raman fiber laser operating in the normal dispersion regime. Using an asynchronous optical sampling technique, we accurately measure the probability density function of the optical power of the Stokes wave that exhibits strong and fast fluctuations. As predicted from numerical simulations presented by Randoux et al. [Opt. Lett.36, 790 (2011)], the statistical distributions of the intracavity Stokes power are found to be very different before and after reflection on the cavity Bragg mirrors. In particular, the Stokes wave incident on fiber Bragg grating mirrors exhibits statistics with tails that are much lower than those defined by the normal law. PMID:26125377

  3. Improvement of the fidelity of molecular DNA computations: control of DNA duplex melting using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenko, T. A.; Burikov, S. A.; Laptinskiy, K. A.; Sarmanova, O. E.

    2016-02-01

    In this study it is demonstrated that use of laser Raman spectroscopy for monitoring biochemical reactions provides the detection and control of the processes of renaturation and denaturation of DNA strands, the determination of state of strands, and also the control of possible mutations in DNA molecules. The obtained results are very promising to improve the fidelity of DNA computations, i.e. to provide the greater convergence of the estimated and exact values.

  4. The use of four-photon Raman spectroscopy for the remote sensing of natural objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunkin, A. F.; Galumyan, A. S.; Zhumanov, Kh. A.; Maltsev, D. V.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the laboratory simulation of optical Kerr effect/Raman spectroscopy for the purpose of remote sensing are presented. The experimental setup is described, and measurements of the vibrational spectra of various liquids obtained. Attention is paid to the possibility of using the proposed method to detect trace hydrocarbons in water, and the spectrum of petroleum is obtained. Full-scale measurements using a laser spectrometer were made on the Black Sea.

  5. Cellular discrimination using in vitro Raman micro spectroscopy: the role of the nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Farhane, Z; Bonnier, F; Casey, A; Maguire, A; O'Neill, L; Byrne, H J

    2015-09-01

    Raman micro spectroscopy has attracted considerable attention over the last few years to explore its possible clinical applications as a non-invasive powerful label-free in vitro screening tool in cancer diagnosis and monitoring, subcellular analysis of biochemical processes, drug uptake, mode of action and mechanisms of interaction as well as toxicity of, for example, chemotherapeutic agents. However, in order to evaluate accurately the potential of Raman micro spectroscopy for such applications it is essential to optimise measurement and data processing protocols associated with subcellular analysis. To this end, in vitro differentiation of cell lines is a basic proof of concept for the potential of the technique, and although many studies have indicated successful differentiation based on Raman micro spectroscopy, it is important, as the measurement and processing techniques are improved, to establish the biochemical and subcellular basis of that discrimination. In this study, Raman micro spectroscopy is used to compare and differentiate normal and cancer cells from human lung origin, A549 adenocarcinoma cell line, Calu-1 epidermoid non-small-cell and BEAS-2B normal immortalized bronchial epithelium cell line. Spectra were taken from the three subcellular compartments, cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus and Principal Components Analysis was used to compare the spectral profiles between the cell lines and, coupled to Linear Discriminant Analysis, to explore the optimum sensitivity and specificity of discrimination. To support the analysis, Raman micro spectroscopy was coupled with Flow Cytometry, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. While all subcellular regions can be employed to differentiate the normal and cancer cell lines, optimum discrimination sensitivity and specificity is achieved using the spectra from the nucleolar region alone. Notably, only the nucleolar spectral profiles differentiate the two cancer cell lines. The results point to the importance of the nucleolar regions in diagnostic applications of Raman microscopy as well as further applications in subcellular analysis of cytological processes. PMID:26207998

  6. Rapid detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by using Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Juan; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Dhakal, Sagar; Xu, Tianfeng

    2015-05-01

    Benzoyl peroxide is a common flour additive that improves the whiteness of flour and the storage properties of flour products. However, benzoyl peroxide adversely affects the nutritional content of flour, and excess consumption causes nausea, dizziness, other poisoning, and serious liver damage. This study was focus on detection of the benzoyl peroxide added in wheat flour. A Raman scattering spectroscopy system was used to acquire spectral signal from sample data and identify benzoyl peroxide based on Raman spectral peak position. The optical devices consisted of Raman spectrometer and CCD camera, 785 nm laser module, optical fiber, prober, and a translation stage to develop a real-time, nondestructive detection system. Pure flour, pure benzoyl peroxide and different concentrations of benzoyl peroxide mixed with flour were prepared as three sets samples to measure the Raman spectrum. These samples were placed in the same type of petri dish to maintain a fixed distance between the Raman CCD and petri dish during spectral collection. The mixed samples were worked by pretreatment of homogenization and collected multiple sets of data of each mixture. The exposure time of this experiment was set at 0.5s. The Savitzky Golay (S-G) algorithm and polynomial curve-fitting method was applied to remove the fluorescence background from the Raman spectrum. The Raman spectral peaks at 619 cm-1, 848 cm-1, 890 cm-1, 1001 cm-1, 1234 cm-1, 1603cm-1, 1777cm-1 were identified as the Raman fingerprint of benzoyl peroxide. Based on the relationship between the Raman intensity of the most prominent peak at around 1001 cm-1 and log values of benzoyl peroxide concentrations, the chemical concentration prediction model was developed. This research demonstrated that Raman detection system could effectively and rapidly identify benzoyl peroxide adulteration in wheat flour. The experimental result is promising and the system with further modification can be applicable for more products in near future.

  7. Monitoring of aqueous humor metabolites using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicksted, James P.; Erckens, Roel J.; Motamedi, Massoud; March, Wayne F.

    1994-05-01

    Laser Raman scattering has been used to monitor glucose and lactate metabolites within aqueous humor specimens obtained from nine human eyes during cataract surgery. Nine postmortem rabbit eyes were also investigated. Raman measurements were obtained using a single grating Raman spectrometer with a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD. A 514.5 nm line from an argon laser was used to illuminate capillaries containing several microliters of aqueous humor. A water background was subtracted from each of the aqueous humor Raman spectra. This experimental system was calibrated so that each metabolite in water could be measured down to 0.1 weight percent. Raman peaks indicative of the stretching vibrations of methylene and methyl groups associated with glucose and lactate, respectively, were observed in the human specimens. A second stretching mode characteristic of lactate between the carbon atom and either the carboxylic acid group or carboxylate ion group was also observed providing a distinguishing feature between the glucose and lactate Raman peaks. Similar structure was observed from the rabbit specimens, but these samples have recently been found to have been contaminated during euthanasia.

  8. Vibrational characterization of pheomelanin and trichochrome F by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván, Ismael; Jorge, Alberto; Solano, Francisco; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-06-01

    We characterize for the first time the vibrational state of natural pheomelanin using Raman spectroscopy and model pigment synthesized from 5-S-cysteinyldopa. The shape of the Raman spectrum was very different from that of eumelanin. Four Raman bands were visible in the 500-2000 cm-1 wavenumber region about 500, 1150, 1490 and 2000 cm-1, which we assigned to the out-of-plane deformation and the stretching vibration of the phenyl rings, to the stretching vibration of C-N bonds or the stretching and wagging vibration of CH2, and to overtone or combination bands. Interestingly, we also show that the Raman spectrum of synthetic trichochrome F, a pigment that may be produced along with pheomelanin during pheomelanogenesis, is different from that of pheomelanin and similar to the spectrum of eumelanin. We could detect Raman signal of both eumelanin and pheomelanin in feathers and hairs where both pigments simultaneously occur without the need of isolating the pigment. This indicates that Raman spectroscopy represents a non-invasive method to detect pheomelanin and distinguish it from other pigments. This may be especially relevant to detect pheomelanin in animal skin including humans, where it has been associated with animal appearance and classification, human phototypes, prevention of skin diseases and cancer risk.

  9. A high efficiency architecture for cascaded Raman fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Supradeepa, V R; Nichsolson, Jeffrey W; Headley, Clifford E; Yan, Man F; Palsdottir, Bera; Jakobsen, Dan

    2013-03-25

    We demonstrate a new high efficiency architecture for cascaded Raman fiber lasers based on a single pass cascaded amplifier configuration. Conversion is seeded at all intermediate Stokes wavelengths using a multi-wavelength seed source. A lower power Raman laser based on the conventional cascaded Raman resonator architecture provides a convenient seed source providing all the necessary wavelengths simultaneously. In this work we demonstrate a 1480nm laser pumped by an 1117nm Yb-doped fiber laser with maximum output power of 204W and conversion efficiency of 65% (quantum-limited efficiency is ~75%). We believe both the output power and conversion efficiency (relative to quantum-limited efficiency) are the highest reported for cascaded Raman fiber lasers. PMID:23546098

  10. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  11. In situ raman spectroscopy studies of VPO catalyst transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Z.Y.; Schrader, G.L.

    1999-11-04

    VPO catalyst transformations were investigated using in situ laser Raman spectroscopy. During reduction-oxidation step changes, (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} was readily converted to {alpha}{sub II}, {delta}-VOPO{sub 4}, and ultimately to {beta}-VOPO{sub 4} in O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}; these V{sup 5+} phases were eliminated in n-butane/N{sub 2}. A wet N{sub 2} feed (5--10% H{sub 2}O in N{sub 2}) transformed (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} and {alpha}{sub 1}-, {alpha}{sub II}-, {beta}-, {delta}-, {gamma}-VOPO{sub 4} to V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at temperatures above 400 C. The presence of water vapor facilitated the loss of oxygen atoms involved in V-O-P bonding, and separated vanadium oxide and phosphorus oxide species were formed. The isolated vanadium oxide species could be transformed to V{sub 2}O{sub 5}; phosphorus species likely diffused from the catalyst lattice in the form of acid phosphates.

  12. Diagnostic Imaging in Flames with Instantaneous Planar Coherent Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, A; Kliewer, C J

    2014-04-01

    Spatial mapping of temperature and molecular species concentrations is vitally important in studies of gaseous chemically reacting flows. Temperature marks the evolution of heat release and energy transfer, while species concentration gradients provide critical information on mixing and chemical reaction. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) was pioneered in measurements of such processes almost 40 years ago and is authoritative in terms of the accuracy and precision it may provide. While a reacting flow is fully characterized in three-dimensional space, a limitation of CARS has been its applicability as a point-wise measurement technique, motivating advancement toward CARS imaging, and attempts have been made considering one-dimensional probing. Here, we report development of two-dimensional CARS, with the first diagnostics of a planar field in a combusting flow within a single laser pulse, resulting in measured isotherms ranging from 450 K up to typical hydrocarbon flame temperatures of about 2000 K with chemical mapping of O2 and N2. PMID:26274479

  13. Spectroscopic ellipsometric and Raman spectroscopic investigations of pulsed laser treated glassy carbon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csontos, J.; Ppa, Z.; Grdin, A.; Fle, M.; Budai, J.; Toth, Z.

    2015-05-01

    In this study spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and Raman spectroscopy are applied to study structural modification of glassy carbon, due to high intensity laser ablation. Two KrF lasers with different pulse durations (480 fs and 18 ns), an ArF (20 ns), and a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (8 ns) were applied to irradiate the surface of glassy carbon targets. The main characteristics of the different laser treatments are compared by introducing the volumetric fluence which takes into account the different absorption values at different wavelengths. SE showed the appearance of a modified layer on the ablated surfaces. In the case of the ns lasers the thickness of this layer was in the range of 10-60 nm, while in the case of fs laser it was less than 20 nm. In all cases the average refractive index (n) of the modified layers slightly decreased compared to the refractive index of glassy carbon. Increase in extinction coefficient (k) was observed in the cases of ArF and fs KrF laser treatment, while the k values decreased significantly in the cases of nanosecond pulse duration KrF and Nd:YAG laser treatments. In the Raman spectra of the ablated areas the characteristic D and G peaks were widened due to appearance of an amorphous phase. Both Raman spectroscopy and SE indicate that the irradiated areas show carbon nanoparticle formation in all cases.

  14. Nd:Glass-Raman laser for water vapor dial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagann, R. H.; Petheram, J. C.; Rosenberg, A.

    1986-08-01

    A tunable solid-state Raman shifted laser which was used in a water vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system at 9400 A is described. The DIAL transmitter is based on a tunable glass laser operating at 1.06 microns, a hydrogen Raman cell to shift the radiation to 1.88 microns, and a frequency doubling crystal. The results of measurements which characterize the output of the laser with respect to optimization of optical configuration and of Raman parameters were reported. The DIAL system was also described and preliminary atmospheric returns shown.

  15. Nd:Glass-Raman laser for water vapor dial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kagann, R. H.; Petheram, J. C.; Rosenberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    A tunable solid-state Raman shifted laser which was used in a water vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system at 9400 A is described. The DIAL transmitter is based on a tunable glass laser operating at 1.06 microns, a hydrogen Raman cell to shift the radiation to 1.88 microns, and a frequency doubling crystal. The results of measurements which characterize the output of the laser with respect to optimization of optical configuration and of Raman parameters were reported. The DIAL system was also described and preliminary atmospheric returns shown.

  16. Raman spectroscopy: Caution when interpreting organic carbon from oxidising environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brolly, Connor; Parnell, John; Bowden, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Oxidation on Mars is primarily caused by the high influx of cosmic and solar radiation which interacts with the Martian surface. The evidence of this can be seen in the ubiquitous red colouration of the Martian sediment. This radiation will destroy most signals of life in the top few metres of the Martian surface. If organic carbon (one of the building blocks of life) is present within the accessible Martian sediments, it is very likely that it will have experienced some oxidation. ESA's ExoMars mission set to fly in 2018, has on board a miniaturised Raman spectrometer. As Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to carbonaceous material and will be primarily used to characterise organics, it is essential that the effect oxidation has on the Raman carbon signal is assessed. Oxidised carbonaceous shales were analysed using Raman spectroscopy to assess this issue. Results show that haematite has a band which occurs in the same frequency as the carbon D band, which cannot be distinguished from each other. This can lead to a misidentification of the carbon D band and a misinterpretation of the carbon order. Consequently, caution must be taken when applying Raman spectroscopy for organic carbon analysis in oxidised terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments, including on Mars.

  17. Background Elimination and Noise Reduction by Mechanical Modulation Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinko, Kathleen; Ibeneche, Chieze; Keidel, Andrea; Bartsch, Tobias; Florin, Ernst-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is widely used by biophysicists for the molecular identification of cellular substructures. However, there are high levels of background and noise associated with Raman spectra from other molecules in the microscopic detection volume. We present two methods of mechanical modulation for background subtraction and noise reduction in a Raman microscope: (1) a three-axis stage modulation for fixed objects and (2) a separate optical trap modulation for objects in solution. With our technique, we completely eliminate the background in our spectra and improve the signal-to-noise ratio by two orders of magnitude. We applied this technique to lipid vesicles and fission yeast cells in solution. Additionally, we obtained mechanical modulation Raman spectra of fission yeast in three dimensions and observed spatial differences in the molecular composition for different metabolic states of a single yeast cell.

  18. Optimal algorithm for fluorescence suppression of modulated Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mazilu, Michael; De Luca, Anna Chiara; Riches, Andrew; Herrington, C Simon; Dholakia, Kishan

    2010-05-24

    Raman spectroscopy permits probing of the molecular and chemical properties of the analyzed sample. However, its applicability has been seriously limited to specific applications by the presence of a strong fluorescence background. In our recent paper [Anal. Chem. 82, 738 (2010)], we reported a new modulation method for separating Raman scattering from fluorescence. By continuously changing the excitation wavelength, we demonstrated that it is possible to continuously shift the Raman peaks while the fluorescence background remains essentially constant. In this way, our method allows separation of the modulated Raman peaks from the static fluorescence background with important advantages when compared to previous work using only two [Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 707 (1992)] or a few shifted excitation wavelengths [Opt. Express 16, 10975 (2008)]. The purpose of the present work is to demonstrate a significant improvement of the efficacy of the modulated method by using different processing algorithms. The merits of each algorithm (Standard Deviation analysis, Fourier Filtering, Least-Squares fitting and Principal Component Analysis) are discussed and the dependence of the modulated Raman signal on several parameters, such as the amplitude and the modulation rate of the Raman excitation wavelength, is analyzed. The results of both simulation and experimental data demonstrate that Principal Component Analysis is the best processing algorithm. It improves the signal-to-noise ratio in the treated Raman spectra, reducing required acquisition times. Additionally, this approach does not require any synchronization procedure, reduces user intervention and renders it suitable for real-time applications. PMID:20588999

  19. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of urine component in the toilet set using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, So Hyun; Park, Kwang Suk; Choi, Jong Min; Lee, Won Jin

    2004-07-01

    As a part of non-invasive and unaware measurement of physiological signal in the house of live-alone person, Raman spectroscopy was applied for urine component analysis in the toilet set. 785nm, 250-300mW output solid state diode laser and 2048 element linear silicon TE cooled CCD array were incorporated for this system. Several tests were performed for setting up Raman spectroscopy in non-constrained situation: toilet set in the house. The effect of dark current, integration time, warming up time of laser, property of probe and interference of water in the toilet were tested and controlled for appropriate measurement in this environment. The spectra were obtained immediately when the subject uses the toilet set, and they can be transmitted to the server though Bluetooth. Those spectra were pre-processed for removing or correcting the effect of undesired light scattering, sample path-length difference and baseline-effect. The preprocessed data were enhanced for more exact result of multivariate analysis. The training data was prepared for predicting unknown component and its concentration by using multivariate methods. Several kinds of multivariate methods: PCA, PCR, PLS were performed to validate what is the fittest method in this environment. Through quantitative and qualitative analysis of Raman spectroscopy"s spectra obtained in the house's toilet set, we could know the component and its concentration of urine which can be index of disease.

  20. Raman-spectroscopy-based biosensing for applications in ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusciano, Giulia; Capriglione, Paola; Pesce, Giuseppe; Zito, Gianluigi; Del Prete, Antonio; Cennamo, Giovanni; Sasso, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    Cell-based biosensors rely on the detection and identification of single cells as well as monitoring of changes induced by interaction with drugs and/or toxic agents. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool to reach this goal, being non-destructive analytical technique, allowing also measurements of samples in aqueous environment. In addition, micro-Raman measurements do not require preliminary sample preparation (as in fluorescence spectroscopy), show a finger-print spectral response, allow a spatial resolution below typical cell sizes, and are relatively fast (few s or even less). All these properties make micro-Raman technique particularly promising for high-throughput on-line analysis integrated in lab-on-a-chip devices. Herein, we demonstrate some applications of Raman analysis in ophthalmology. In particular, we demonstrate that Raman analysis can provide useful information for the therapeutic treatment of keratitis caused by Acanthamoeba Castellanii (A.), an opportunistic protozoan that is widely distributed in the environment and is known to produce blinding keratitis and fatal encephalitis. In particular, by combining Raman analysis with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), we have demonstrated that is possible to distinguish between live and dead cells, enabling, therefore to establish the effectiveness of therapeutic strategies to vanquish the protozoa. As final step, we have analyzed the presence of biochemical differences in the conjunctival epithelial tissues of patients affected by keratitis with respect to healthy people. As a matter of facts, it is possible to speculate some biochemical alterations of the epithelial tissues, rendering more favorable the binding of the protozoan. The epithelial cells were obtained by impression cytology from eyes of both healthy and keratitis-affected individuals. All the samples were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy within a few hours from cells removal from eyes. The results of this analysis are discussed.

  1. Raman spectroscopy for in-situ monitoring of electrode processes

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R; Cook, G M; Yao, N P

    1982-04-01

    The theoretical and experimental applications of Raman spectroscopic techniques to the study of battery electrode processes are described. In particular, the potential of Raman spectroscopy as an in-situ analytical tool for the characterization of the structure and composition of electrode surface layers at electrode-electrolyte interfaces during electrolysis is examined. It is anticipated that this understanding of the battery electrode processes will be helpful in designing battery active material with improved performance. The applications of Raman spectroscopy to the in-situ study of electrode processes has been demonstrated in a few selected areas, including: (1) the anodic corrosion of lead in sulfuric acid and (2) the anodization and sulfation of tetrabasicleadsulfate in sulfuric acid. Preliminary results on the anodization of iron and on the electrochemical behavior of nickel positive-electrode active material in potassium hydroxide electrolytes are presented in the Appendix.

  2. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of aromatic compounds on silver nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleger, Y.; Mastai, Y.; Rosenbluh, M.; Dressler, D. H.

    2009-03-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been used to characterize multilayers of three different aromatic compounds in the proximity of silver nanoclusters. SERS of mercapto benzoic acid (MBA), which adsorbs onto the silver nanoclusters through the sulfur moiety, exhibits frequency shifts in comparison to the Raman spectrum of crystalline MBA. Conversely, benzoic acid and benzophenone that adsorb through the oxygen species lack these frequency shifts, and show only a typical SERS enhancement. We employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to probe the nature of the binding between the silver and the three different aromatic compounds. Thereafter, we assigned the major Raman peaks of all three molecules to specific molecular vibrations. Overall, this enables us to determine the origin of the observed shifts in the SERS spectrum of MBA and similar molecules.

  3. Monitoring lignocellulosic bioethanol production processes using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Jens A; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2014-11-01

    Process control automation in the emerging biorefinery industry may be achieved by applying effective methods for monitoring compound concentrations during the production processes. This study examines the application of Raman spectroscopy with an excitation wavelength of 785nm and an immersion probe for in situ monitoring the progression of pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation processes in the production of lignocellulosic ethanol. Raman signals were attenuated by light scattering cells and lignocellulosic particulates, which the quantification method to some degree could correct for by using an internal standard in the spectra. Allowing particulates to settle by using a slow stirring speed further improved results, suggesting that Raman spectroscopy should be used in combination with continuous separation when used to monitor process mixtures with large amounts of particulates. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSE) of ethanol and glucose measured in real-time was determined to be 0.98g/L and 1.91g/L respectively. PMID:25255187

  4. Temperature profiles of inhibited flames using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. C.; Hastie, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Laser Raman scattering from vibrational and rotational states of N2 and H2 has been used to determine temperature profiles for several H2/O2/N2 flames with and without HBr present. The inhibiting effect of HBr is clearly demonstrated and the derived properties of burning velocity and inhibition index are in good agreement with previous experimental measurements and theoretical calculations.

  5. Optical diagnostic of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) from human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Shahzad; Firdous, Shamaraz

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis is the second most common disease worldwide with half of the cases arising in the developing world. The mortality associated with hepatitis B and C can be reduced if the disease is detected at the early stages of development. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool to detect biochemical changes accompanying hepatitis progression. Raman spectra were acquired from 20 individuals with six hepatitis B infected patients, six hepatitis C infected patients and eight healthy patients in order to gain an insight into the determination of biochemical changes for early diagnostic. The human blood serum was examined at a 532 nm excitation laser source. Raman characteristic peaks were observed in normal sera at 1006, 1157 and 1513 cm-1, while in the case of hepatitis B and C these peaks were found to be blue shifted with decreased intensity. New Raman peaks appeared in HBV and HCV infected sera at 1194, 1302, 844, 905, 1065 and 1303 cm-1 respectively. A Mat lab subroutine and frequency domain filter program is developed and applied to signal processing of Raman scattering data. The algorithms have been successfully applied to remove the signal noise found in experimental scattering signals. The results show that Raman spectroscopy displays a high sensitivity to biochemical changes in blood sera during disease progression resulting in exceptional prediction accuracy when discriminating between normal and malignant. Raman spectroscopy shows enormous clinical potential as a rapid non-invasive diagnostic tool for hepatitis and other infectious diseases.

  6. Analysis of scorpion venom composition by Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Zérega, Brenda E.; González-Solís, José L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the venom of two Centruroides scorpion species using Raman spectroscopy. The spectra analysis allows to determine the venoms chemical composition and to establish the main differences and similarities among the species. It is also shown that the use of Principal Component Analysis may help to tell apart between the scorpion species.

  7. Remote detection of explosives using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, Jack

    2011-05-01

    Stand-off detection of potentially hazardous small molecules at distances that allow the user to be safe has many applications, including explosives and chemical threats. The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, with EYZtek, Inc. of Ohio, developed a prototype stand-off, eye-safe Raman spectrometer. With a stand-off distance greater than twenty meters and scanning optics, this system has the potential of addressing particularly difficult challenges in small molecule detection. An overview of the system design and desired application space is presented.

  8. Raman thermometry: Effective temperature of the nonuniform temperature field induced by a Gaussian laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Očenášek, Jan; Voldřich, Josef

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a widely applied analytical technique with numerous applications that is based on inelastic scattering of monochromatic light, which is typically provided by a laser. Irradiation of a sample by a laser beam is always accompanied by an increase in the sample temperature, which may be unwanted or may be beneficial for studying temperature-related effects and determining thermal parameters. This work reports analyses of the temperature field induced by a Gaussian laser to calculate the Raman scattered intensity related to each temperature value of the nonuniform field present on the sample. The effective temperature of the probed field, calculated as an average weighted by the laser intensity, is demonstrated to be about 70% of the maximum temperature irrespective of the absorption coefficient or the laser focus. Finally, using crystalline silicon as a model material, it is shown that this effective value closely approximates the temperature value identified from the thermally related peak shift.

  9. Ultrasensitive Laser Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliger, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Examines techniques used to make ultrasensitive spectroscopic measurements. They include excitation, thermal lens, photo acoustic, and ionization spectroscopies. Guidelines and methods are provided for each technique; common uses and applications are explained. (DH)

  10. Combining optical trapping in a microfluidic channel with simultaneous micro-Raman spectroscopy and motion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, Penelope F.; Saunter, Christopher D.; Girkin, John M.

    2014-03-01

    Since their invention by Ashkin optical tweezers have demonstrated their ability and versatility as a non-invasive tool for micromanipulation. One of the most useful additions to the basic optical tweezers system is micro-Raman spectroscopy, which permits highly sensitive analysis of single cells or particles. We report on the development of a dual laser system combining two spatial light modulators to holographically manipulate multiple traps (at 1064nm) whilst undertaking Raman spectroscopy using a 532nm laser. We can thus simultaneously trap multiple particles and record their Raman spectra, without perturbing the trapping system. The dual beam system is built around micro-fluidic channels where crystallisation of calcium carbonate occurs on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads. The setup is designed to simulate at a microscopic level the reactions that occur on items in a dishwasher, where permanent filming of calcium carbonate on drinking glasses is a problem. Our system allows us to monitor crystal growth on trapped particles in which the Raman spectrum and changes in movement of the bead are recorded. Due to the expected low level of crystallisation on the bead surfaces this allows us to obtain results quickly and with high sensitivity. The long term goal is to study the development of filming on samples in-situ with the microfl.uidic system acting as a model dishwasher.

  11. Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with a Robust Fibre Laser Source.

    PubMed

    Freudiger, Christian W; Yang, Wenlong; Holtom, Gary R; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Xie, X Sunney; Kieu, Khanh Q

    2014-02-01

    Stimulated Raman Scattering microscopy allows label-free chemical imaging and has enabled exciting applications in biology, material science, and medicine. It provides a major advantage in imaging speed over spontaneous Raman scattering and has improved image contrast and spectral fidelity compared to coherent anti-Stokes Raman. Wider adoption of the technique has, however, been hindered by the need for a costly and environmentally sensitive tunable ultra-fast dual-wavelength source. We present the development of an optimized all-fibre laser system based on the optical synchronization of two picosecond power amplifiers. To circumvent the high-frequency laser noise intrinsic to amplified fibre lasers, we have further developed a high-speed noise cancellation system based on voltage-subtraction autobalanced detection. We demonstrate uncompromised imaging performance of our fibre-laser based stimulated Raman scattering microscope with shot-noise limited sensitivity and an imaging speed up to 1 frame/s. PMID:25313312

  12. Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudiger, Christian W.; Yang, Wenlong; Holtom, Gary R.; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Xie, X. Sunney; Kieu, Khanh Q.

    2014-02-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy allows label-free chemical imaging and has enabled exciting applications in biology, material science and medicine. It provides a major advantage in imaging speed over spontaneous Raman scattering and has improved image contrast and spectral fidelity compared to coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. Wider adoption of the technique has, however, been hindered by the need for a costly and environmentally sensitive tunable ultrafast dual-wavelength source. We present the development of an optimized all-fibre laser system based on the optical synchronization of two picosecond power amplifiers. To circumvent the high-frequency laser noise intrinsic to amplified fibre lasers, we have further developed a high-speed noise cancellation system based on voltage-subtraction autobalanced detection. We demonstrate uncompromised imaging performance of our fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscope with shot-noise-limited sensitivity and an imaging speed up to 1 frame s-1.

  13. Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with a Robust Fibre Laser Source

    PubMed Central

    Freudiger, Christian W.; Yang, Wenlong; Holtom, Gary R.; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Xie, X. Sunney; Kieu, Khanh Q.

    2014-01-01

    Stimulated Raman Scattering microscopy allows label-free chemical imaging and has enabled exciting applications in biology, material science, and medicine. It provides a major advantage in imaging speed over spontaneous Raman scattering and has improved image contrast and spectral fidelity compared to coherent anti-Stokes Raman. Wider adoption of the technique has, however, been hindered by the need for a costly and environmentally sensitive tunable ultra-fast dual-wavelength source. We present the development of an optimized all-fibre laser system based on the optical synchronization of two picosecond power amplifiers. To circumvent the high-frequency laser noise intrinsic to amplified fibre lasers, we have further developed a high-speed noise cancellation system based on voltage-subtraction autobalanced detection. We demonstrate uncompromised imaging performance of our fibre-laser based stimulated Raman scattering microscope with shot-noise limited sensitivity and an imaging speed up to 1 frame/s. PMID:25313312

  14. Differentiation between gems and synthetic minerals by laser Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dele-Dubois, M. L.; Dhamelincourt, P.; Poirot, J. P.; Schubnel, H. J.

    1986-03-01

    By allowing positive identification of fluid and solid inclusions inside minerals laser Raman microspectrometry has proved to be a perfect technique for discriminating between natural gems or synthetic minerals made for jewellery (sapphire, ruby, emerald).

  15. Assessment of thermal coagulation in ex-vivo tissues using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Matthew; Weersink, Robert A.; Whelan, William M.

    2010-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is used to study the effects of heating on specific molecular bonds present in albumen-based coagulation phantoms and ex-vivo tissues. Thermal coagulation is induced by submerging albumen-based phantoms in a 75°C water bath to achieve target temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C. Laser photocoagulation is performed on ex-vivo bovine muscle samples, yielding induced temperatures between 46 and 90°C, as reported by implanted microthermocouples. All phantoms and tissue samples are cooled to room temperature, and Raman spectra are acquired at the microthermocouple locations. Shifts in major Raman bands are observed with laser heating in bovine muscle, specifically from the amide-1 α-helix group (~1655 cm-1), the CH2/CH3 group (~1446 cm-1), the Cα-H stretch group (~1312 cm-1), and the CN stretch group (~1121cm-1). Raman bands at 1334 cm-1 (tryptophan), 1317 cm-1 [ν(Cα-H)], and 1655 cm-1 (amide-1 α-helix) also show a decrease in intensity following heating. The results suggest that Raman band locations and relative intensities are affected by thermal denaturation of proteins, and hence, may be a useful tool for monitoring the onset and progression of coagulation during thermal therapies.

  16. Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of algal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Ota; Jonáš, Alexandr; Pilát, Zdeněk; Zemánek, Pavel; Nedbal, Ladislav; Tříska, Jan; Kotas, Petr; Trtílek, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy can elucidate fundamental questions about intercellular variability and what governs it. Moreover, knowing the metabolic response on single cell level this can significantly contribute to the study and use of microalgae in systems biology and biofuel technology. Raman spectroscopy is capable to measure nutrient dynamics and metabolism in vivo, in real-time, label free making it possible to monitor/evaluate population variability. Also, degree of unsaturation of the algae oil (iodine value) can be measured using Raman spectra obtained from single microalgae. The iodine value is the determination of the amount of unsaturation contained in fatty acids (in the form of double bonds). Here we demonstrate the capacity of the spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy to determine the effective iodine value in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells. We employed the characteristic peaks in the Raman scattering spectra at 1,656 cm-1 (cis C=C stretching mode) and 1,445 cm-1 (CH2 scissoring mode) as the markers defining the ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated carbon-carbon bonds of the fatty acids in the algal lipids.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of Bacillus thuringiensis physiology and inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, J. B.; Almeida, J.; Cole, K. D.; Reipa, V.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to detect spore contamination and inactivation is relevant to developing and determining decontamination strategy success for food and water safety. This study was conducted to develop a systematic comparison of nondestructive vibrational spectroscopy techniques (Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, SERS, and normal Raman) to determine indicators of Bacillus thuringiensis physiology (spore, vegetative, outgrown, germinated and inactivated spore forms). SERS was found to provide better resolution of commonly utilized signatures of spore physiology (dipicolinic acid at 1006 cm-1 and 1387 cm-1) compared to normal Raman and native fluorescence indigenous to vegetative and outgrown cell samples was quenched in SERS experiment. New features including carotenoid pigments (Raman features at 1142 cm-1, 1512 cm-1) were identified for spore cell forms. Pronounced changes in the low frequency region (300 cm-1 to 500 cm-1) in spore spectra occurred upon germination and inactivation (with both free chlorine and by autoclaving) which is relevant to guiding decontamination and detection strategies using Raman techniques.

  18. Exploring Raman spectroscopy for the evaluation of glaucomatous retinal changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Grozdanic, Sinisa D.; Harper, Matthew M.; Hamouche, Nicolas; Kecova, Helga; Lazic, Tatjana; Yu, Chenxu

    2011-10-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells and subsequent loss of visual function. Early detection of glaucoma is critical for the prevention of permanent structural damage and irreversible vision loss. Raman spectroscopy is a technique that provides rapid biochemical characterization of tissues in a nondestructive and noninvasive fashion. In this study, we explored the potential of using Raman spectroscopy for detection of glaucomatous changes in vitro. Raman spectroscopic imaging was conducted on retinal tissues of dogs with hereditary glaucoma and healthy control dogs. The Raman spectra were subjected to multivariate discriminant analysis with a support vector machine algorithm, and a classification model was developed to differentiate disease tissues versus healthy tissues. Spectroscopic analysis of 105 retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from glaucomatous dogs and 267 RGCs from healthy dogs revealed spectroscopic markers that differentiated glaucomatous specimens from healthy controls. Furthermore, the multivariate discriminant model differentiated healthy samples and glaucomatous samples with good accuracy [healthy 89.5% and glaucomatous 97.6% for the same breed (Basset Hounds); and healthy 85.0% and glaucomatous 85.5% for different breeds (Beagles versus Basset Hounds)]. Raman spectroscopic screening can be used for in vitro detection of glaucomatous changes in retinal tissue with a high specificity.

  19. Distinguishing Cancerous Liver Cells Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Liu, Shupeng; Chen, Zhenyi; Chen, Na; Pang, Fufei; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. It possesses great potential for the analysis of biochemical processes in cell studies. In this article, the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of normal and cancerous liver cells incubated with SERS active substrates (gold nanoparticle) was measured using confocal Raman microspectroscopy technology. The chemical components of the cells were analyzed through statistical methods for the SERS spectrum. Both the relative intensity ratio and principal component analysis (PCA) were used for distinguishing the normal liver cells (QSG-7701) from the hepatoma cells (SMMC-7721). The relative intensity ratio of the Raman spectra peaks such as I937/I1209, I1276/I1308, I1342/I1375, and I1402/I1435 was set as the judge boundary, and the sensitivity and the specificity using PCA method were calculated. The results indicated that the surface-enhanced Raman spectrum could provide the chemical information for distinguishing the normal cells from the cancerous liver cells and demonstrated that SERS technology possessed the possible applied potential for the diagnosis of liver cancer. PMID:25432931

  20. Quantitative monitoring of yeast fermentation using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Jens A; Berg, Rolf W; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2014-08-01

    Compared to traditional IR methods, Raman spectroscopy has the advantage of only minimal interference from water when measuring aqueous samples, which makes this method potentially useful for in situ monitoring of important industrial bioprocesses. This study demonstrates real-time monitoring of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation process using a Raman spectroscopy instrument equipped with a robust sapphire ball probe. A method was developed to correct the Raman signal for the attenuation caused by light scattering cell particulate, hence enabling quantification of reaction components and possibly measurement of yeast cell concentrations. Extinction of Raman intensities to more than 50 % during fermentation was normalized with approximated extinction expressions using Raman signal of water around 1,627 cm(-1) as internal standard to correct for the effect of scattering. Complicated standard multi-variant chemometric techniques, such as PLS, were avoided in the quantification model, as an attempt to keep the monitoring method as simple as possible and still get satisfactory estimations. Instead, estimations were made with a two-step approach, where initial scattering correction of attenuated signals was followed by linear regression. In situ quantification measurements of the fermentation resulted in root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.357, 1.611, and 0.633 g/L for glucose, ethanol, and yeast concentrations, respectively. PMID:24996999

  1. Raman spectroscopy of the organic and mineral structure of bone grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Timchenko, E V; Timchenko, P E; Taskina, L A; Volova, L T; Ponomareva, Yu V

    2014-07-31

    We report the results of experimental Raman spectroscopy of donor bone samples (rat, rabbit and human) with varying degrees of mineralisation. Raman spectra are obtained for the Raman bands of 950 – 962 cm{sup -1} (PO{sub 4}){sup 3-}, 1065 – 1070 cm{sup -1} (CO{sub 3}){sup 2-} and 1665 cm{sup -1} (amide I). In demineralised bone, a sharp (98%) decrease in the intensities of 950 – 962 and 1065 – 1070 cm{sup -1} bands is observed, which is accompanied by the emergence of the 1079 – 1090 cm{sup -1} band corresponding to the hydrated amorphous state CO{sub 3}{sup -3}. (laser biophotonics)

  2. Histochemical analysis of human coronary artery using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, James F., III; Roemer, Tjeerd J.; Wang, Yang; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Lees, Robert S.; Kramer, John R., Jr.; Feld, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    We are developing a method to quantitatively analyze the biochemical composition of human coronary artery in situ using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Samples of normal artery (intima/media and adventitia) and noncalcified and calcified plaque from coronary arteries, obtained from explanted recipient hearts during heart transplantation, were illuminated with 830 nm excitation light from a CW Ti:sapphire laser. Raman spectra were collected in seconds using a spectrograph and a cooled, deep-depletion CCD detector, and calibration and background corrections were made. Artery samples in different stages of atherosclerosis exhibited distinct spectral features, providing clear histochemical indicators for characterizing the type and extent of the lesion. Spectra were analyzed by means of a Raman biochemical assay model to determine the relative weight fractions of cholesterols, triacylglycerol, proteins and calcium minerals. Such information, when obtained clinically, promises to be useful in diagnosing and studying human atherosclerosis, its progression and response to drug therapy.

  3. Next generation hazard detection via ultrafast coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, John J.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2013-05-01

    Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (MCARS) is used to detect an explosive precursor material and two chemical warfare simulants. The spectral bandwidth of the femtosecond laser pulse used in these studies is sufficient to coherently and simultaneously drive all the vibrational modes in the molecule of interest. The research performed here demonstrates that MCARS has the capability to detect an explosive precursor (e.g., acetone) and hazardous materials, such as dimethyl methylphosphonate and 2-chloroethyl methyl sulfide (a sarin and a mustard gas chemical warfare simulant, respectively), with high specificity. Evidence shows that MCARS is capable of overcoming common the sensitivity limitations of spontaneous Raman scattering, thus allowing for the detection of the target material in milliseconds with standard USB spectrometers as opposed to seconds with intensified spectrometers. The exponential increase in the number of scattered photons suggests that the MCARS technique may be capable of overcoming range detection challenges common to spontaneous Raman scattering.

  4. Space- and time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for combustion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Marko, K A; Rimai, L

    1979-07-01

    The technique of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy can be used to obtain spectra in or near the reaction zone of combustion systems with spatial resolution on the order of 0.1 mm and time resolution on the order of 10 nsec. The latter is achieved by recording the entire spectrum generated during a single laser pulse by a broadband Stokes beam, simultaneously, on a vidicon, whereas the former is achieved by a simplified variant of the crossedbeam phase-matching technique taking advantage of the radiation intensity distribution from a pump laser using an unstable resonator structure. PMID:19687852

  5. Stimulated Raman side scattering in laser wakefield acceleration.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, T; McGuffey, C; Cummings, P G; Horovitz, Y; Dollar, F; Chvykov, V; Kalintchenko, G; Rousseau, P; Yanovsky, V; Bulanov, S S; Thomas, A G R; Maksimchuk, A; Krushelnick, K

    2010-07-16

    Stimulated Raman side scattering of an ultrashort high power laser pulse is studied in experiments on laser wakefield acceleration. Experiments and simulations reveal that stimulated Raman side scattering occurs at the beginning of the interaction, that it contributes to the evolution of the pulse prior to wakefield formation, and also that it affects the quality of electron beams generated. The relativistic shift of the plasma frequency is measured. PMID:20867770

  6. Stimulated Raman Side Scattering in Laser Wakefield Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, T.; McGuffey, C.; Cummings, P. G.; Horovitz, Y.; Dollar, F.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; Rousseau, P.; Yanovsky, V.; Bulanov, S. S.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Maksimchuk, A.; Krushelnick, K.

    2010-07-16

    Stimulated Raman side scattering of an ultrashort high power laser pulse is studied in experiments on laser wakefield acceleration. Experiments and simulations reveal that stimulated Raman side scattering occurs at the beginning of the interaction, that it contributes to the evolution of the pulse prior to wakefield formation, and also that it affects the quality of electron beams generated. The relativistic shift of the plasma frequency is measured.

  7. Polarized micro Raman scattering spectroscopy for curved edges of epitaxial graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Md. Sherajul Makino, T.; Hashimoto, A.; Bhuiyan, A. G.; Tanaka, S.

    2014-12-15

    This letter performed polarized microscopic laser Raman scattering spectroscopy on the curved edges of transferred epitaxial graphene on SiO{sub 2}/Si. The intensity ratio between the parallel and perpendicular polarized D band is evolved, providing a spectroscopy-based technique to probe the atomic-scale edge structures in graphene. A detailed analysis procedure for non-ideal disordered curved edges of graphene is developed combining the atomic-scale zigzag and armchair edge structures along with some point defects. These results could provide valuable information of the realistic edges of graphene at the atomic-scale that can strongly influence the performance of graphene-based nanodevices.

  8. Looking behind the scenes: Raman spectroscopy of top-gated epitaxial graphene through the substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, F.; Wehrfritz, P.; Hundhausen, M.; Seyller, Th

    2013-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is frequently used to study the properties of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC). In this work, we present a confocal micro-Raman study of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) in top-down geometry, i.e. in a geometry where both the primary laser light beam as well as the back-scattered light is guided through the SiC substrate. Compared to the conventional top-up configuration, in which confocal micro-Raman spectra are measured from the air side, we observe a significant intensity enhancement in top-down configuration, indicating that most of the Raman-scattered light is emitted into the SiC substrate. The intensity enhancement is explained in terms of dipole radiation at a dielectric surface. The new technique opens the possibility to probe graphene layers in devices where the graphene layer is covered by non-transparent materials. We demonstrate this by measuring gate-modulated Raman spectra of a top-gated epitaxial graphene field effect device. Moreover, we show that these measurements enable us to disentangle the effects of strain and charge on the positions of the prominent Raman lines in epitaxial graphene on SiC.

  9. Measurement of diabetic sugar concentration in human blood using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdous, S.; Nawaz, M.; Ahmed, M.; Anwar, S.; Rehman, A.; Rashid, R.; Mahmood, A.

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrates the use of Raman spectroscopy for the direct measurement of diabetic sugar in human blood using 532 nm laser system. Raman spectra were collected from whole blood drawn from 21 individuals. We have elicited a reliable glucose signature in diabetic patients, and measured glucose levels in blood serum of normal, healthy diabetic and diabetic patients with other malignancies like cancer and hepatitis. Quantitative predictions of glucose spectra illustrate the predictions based on molecular information carried by the Raman light in highly light-scattering and absorbing media. Raman spectrum peaks for diabetic blood serum are observed at 1168, 1531, 1463, 1021 cm-1 with intensity level 17000 to 18500 pixels attributed to carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, collagen, and skeletal C-C stretch of lipids acyl chains. Raman spectra for normal, diabetic patients having cancer and hepatitis were also recorded. This in vitro glucose monitoring methodology will lead in vivo noninvasive on-line monitoring having painless and at the same time the data will be displayed on-line and in real time. The measured Raman peaks provides detailed bio-chemical fingerprint of the sample and could confer diagnostic benefit in a clinical setting.

  10. Diagnosis of atherosclerosis in human carotid artery by FT-Raman spectroscopy: Principal Components Analysis algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Grazielle V.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.; Martin, Airton A.; Zangaro, Renato A.; Pacheco, Marcos T.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Zampieri, Marcelo; Pasqualucci, Carlos A. G.

    2004-07-01

    FT- Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) could allow identification and evaluation of human atherosclerotic lesions. A Raman spectrum can provide biochemical information of arteries which can help identifying the disease status and evolution. In this study, it is shown the results of FT-Raman for identification of human carotid arteries in vitro. Fragments of human carotid arteries were analyzed using a FT-Raman spectrometer with a Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm operating at an excitation power of 300mW. Spectra were obtained with 250 scans and spectral resolution of 4 cm-1. Each collection time was approximately 8 min. A total of 75 carotid fragments were spectroscopically scanned and FT-Raman results were compared with histopathology. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to model an algorithm for tissue classification into three categories: normal, atherosclerotic plaque without calcification and atherosclerotic plaque with calcification. Non-atherosclerotic (normal) artery, atherosclerotic plaque and calcified plaque exhibit different spectral signatures related to biochemicals presented in each tissue type, such as, bands of collagen and elastin (proteins), cholesterol and its esters and calcium hydroxyapatite and carbonate apatite respectively. Results show that there is 96% match between classifications based on PCA algorithm and histopathology. The diagnostic applied over all 75 samples had sensitivity and specificity of about 89% and 100%, respectively, for atherosclerotic plaque and 100% and 98% for calcified plaque.

  11. Transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy of murine bone in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schulmerich, Matthew V; Cole, Jacqueline H; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Esmonde-White, Francis; Dooley, Kathryn A; Goldstein, Steven A; Morris, Michael D

    2009-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy can provide valuable information about bone tissue composition in studies of bone development, biomechanics, and health. In order to study the Raman spectra of bone in vivo, instrumentation that enhances the recovery of subsurface spectra must be developed and validated. Five fiber-optic probe configurations were considered for transcutaneous bone Raman spectroscopy of small animals. Measurements were obtained from the tibia of sacrificed mice, and the bone Raman signal was recovered for each probe configuration. The configuration with the optimal combination of bone signal intensity, signal variance, and power distribution was then evaluated under in vivo conditions. Multiple in vivo transcutaneous measurements were obtained from the left tibia of 32 anesthetized mice. After collecting the transcutaneous Raman signal, exposed bone measurements were collected and used as a validation reference. Multivariate analysis was used to recover bone spectra from transcutaneous measurements. To assess the validity of the transcutaneous bone measurements cross-correlations were calculated between standardized spectra from the recovered bone signal and the exposed bone measurements. Additionally, the carbonate-to-phosphate height ratios of the recovered bone signals were compared to the reference exposed bone measurements. The mean cross-correlation coefficient between the recovered and exposed measurements was 0.96, and the carbonate-to-phosphate ratios did not differ significantly between the two sets of spectra (p > 0.05). During these first systematic in vivo Raman measurements, we discovered that probe alignment and animal coat color influenced the results and thus should be considered in future probe and study designs. Nevertheless, our noninvasive Raman spectroscopic probe accurately assessed bone tissue composition through the skin in live mice. PMID:19281644

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity of niobium surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Victor G.; Vlakhov, Emil S.; Stan, George E.; Zamfirescu, Marian; Albu, Catalina; Mihailescu, Natalia; Negut, Irina; Luculescu, Catalin; Socol, Marcela; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion N.

    2015-11-01

    The chemical modification of the niobium (Nb) surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses was investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that the laser treatment results in oxidation of the Nb surface, as well as in the formation of Nb hydrides. Remarkably, after the samples' washing in ethanol, a strong Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) signal originating from the toluene residual traces was evidenced. Further, it was observed that the laser irradiated Nb surface is able to provide a SERS enhancement of ˜1.3 × 103 times for rhodamine 6G solutions. Thus, for the first time it was shown that Nb/Nb oxide surfaces could exhibit SERS functionality, and so one can expect applications in biological/biochemical screening or for sensing of dangerous environmental substances.

  13. High-power synchronously pumped femtosecond Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Churin, D; Olson, J; Norwood, R A; Peyghambarian, N; Kieu, K

    2015-06-01

    We report a high-power synchronously pumped femtosecond Raman fiber laser operating in the normal dispersion regime. The Raman laser is pumped by a picosecond Yb(3+)-doped fiber laser. It produces highly chirped pulses with energy up to 18 nJ, average power of 0.76 W and 88% efficiency. The pulse duration is measured to be 147 fs after external compression. We observed two different regimes of operation of the laser: coherent and noise-like regime. Both regimes were experimentally characterized. Numerical simulations are in a good agreement with experimental results. PMID:26030549

  14. Quantitative polarized Raman spectroscopy in highly turbid bone tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Wilson, Robert H.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Pleshko, Nancy; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2010-05-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy allows measurement of molecular orientation and composition and is widely used in the study of polymer systems. Here, we extend the technique to the extraction of quantitative orientation information from bone tissue, which is optically thick and highly turbid. We discuss multiple scattering effects in tissue and show that repeated measurements using a series of objectives of differing numerical apertures can be employed to assess the contributions of sample turbidity and depth of field on polarized Raman measurements. A high numerical aperture objective minimizes the systematic errors introduced by multiple scattering. We test and validate the use of polarized Raman spectroscopy using wild-type and genetically modified (oim/oim model of osteogenesis imperfecta) murine bones. Mineral orientation distribution functions show that mineral crystallites are not as well aligned (p<0.05) in oim/oim bones (28+/-3 deg) compared to wild-type bones (22+/-3 deg), in agreement with small-angle X-ray scattering results. In wild-type mice, backbone carbonyl orientation is 76+/-2 deg and in oim/oim mice, it is 72+/-4 deg (p>0.05). We provide evidence that simultaneous quantitative measurements of mineral and collagen orientations on intact bone specimens are possible using polarized Raman spectroscopy.

  15. Interference-free optical detection for Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Fischer, David G (Inventor); Kojima, Jun (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An architecture for spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) that utilizes a frame-transfer charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor operating in a subframe burst gating mode to realize time-resolved combustion diagnostics is disclosed. The technique permits all-electronic optical gating with microsecond shutter speeds (<5 .mu.s), without compromising optical throughput or image fidelity. When used in conjunction with a pair of orthogonally-polarized excitation lasers, the technique measures time-resolved vibrational Raman scattering that is minimally contaminated by problematic optical background noise.

  16. Polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy study of pentacene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenger, Ingrid; Frigout, Alexandre; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Ossikovski, Razvigor; Bonnassieux, Yvan

    2009-03-01

    We report on polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy study of two pentacene thin films exhibiting different microstructures: a well-ordered sample and a more disordered one. We have investigated the frequency range of the intramolecular C-H bending modes in the plane of the pentacene molecule and proposed an interpretation of the Raman spectra. The use of symmetry properties of the two intramolecular (uncoupled) modes allowed us to unambiguously identify it among the five main contributions observed in this spectral range. The three other modes were assumed to be resulting from molecular coupling effect owing to their different behavior upon the samples microstructure.

  17. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of Re3N crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaodong; Lei, Li; Hu, Qiwei; Feng, Zhe Chuan; He, Duanwei

    2015-01-01

    Well-crystallized plate-like Re3N crystals were synthesized through a high-pressure solid-state metathesis (HPSSM) reaction in large volume press (LVP) at 14 GPa and 1973 K. The vibrational properties of Re3N crystals were studied by high-pressure Raman spectroscopy in diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to 20 GPa. The mode-Grüneisen parameters for Raman modes of Re3N were determined experimentally, which were found substantially being larger than previously calculated values.

  18. Maturation grade of coals as revealed by Raman spectroscopy: Progress and problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirico, Eric; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël; Bonal, Lydie; Montagnac, Gilles

    2005-08-01

    The present study questions the sensitivity and the accuracy of Raman spectroscopy as a tool for determining the maturity of natural organic matter (NOM). It focuses on the definition of optimized experimental parameters in order to maximize the quality of the Raman signal and control the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements. A series of 11 coals has been investigated, sampling a wide maturity range (2-7% vitrinite reflectance VR). The role of experimental parameters is first investigated. An excitation wavelength of 514.5 nm gives better results than 457.9 and 632.8 nm, minimizing the fluorescence background observed in the spectra of low-rank coals. Both Raman and fluorescence spectra were investigated with time-resolved experiments in air and argon. These data show that fluorescence and Raman spectra are sensitive to acquisition time and laser power parameters, and reveal a physicochemical instability of the samples under laser irradiation, mostly due to photo-oxidation processes. These data clearly show that the experiments, especially in air, should be performed with strictly constant acquisition parameters. In addition, the results of a whole series of coal measurements performed in air under constant experimental conditions show that Raman spectroscopy is definitely sensitive to the maturity of coal samples with VR > ˜1%. The most sensitive spectral maturity tracers are the width of the D-band (FWHM-D), the ratio of the peak intensities of the D- and G-bands ( ID/ IG), the normalized ratio of the band integrated intensities AD/[ AD + AG] for the maturity range VR = 3-7% and the width of the G-band (FWHM-G) for VR = 1-5%. However, the accuracy and reproducibility are definitely weaker in such measurements compared to the standard VR. Future work must solve the problem of sample stability under laser irradiation, and greatly increase the number of samples to improve the statistical significance of the results.

  19. Maturation grade of coals as revealed by Raman spectroscopy: progress and problems.

    PubMed

    Quirico, Eric; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël; Bonal, Lydie; Montagnac, Gilles

    2005-08-01

    The present study questions the sensitivity and the accuracy of Raman spectroscopy as a tool for determining the maturity of natural organic matter (NOM). It focuses on the definition of optimized experimental parameters in order to maximize the quality of the Raman signal and control the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements. A series of 11 coals has been investigated, sampling a wide maturity range (2-7% vitrinite reflectance VR). The role of experimental parameters is first investigated. An excitation wavelength of 514.5 nm gives better results than 457.9 and 632.8 nm, minimizing the fluorescence background observed in the spectra of low-rank coals. Both Raman and fluorescence spectra were investigated with time-resolved experiments in air and argon. These data show that fluorescence and Raman spectra are sensitive to acquisition time and laser power parameters, and reveal a physicochemical instability of the samples under laser irradiation, mostly due to photo-oxidation processes. These data clearly show that the experiments, especially in air, should be performed with strictly constant acquisition parameters. In addition, the results of a whole series of coal measurements performed in air under constant experimental conditions show that Raman spectroscopy is definitely sensitive to the maturity of coal samples with VR> approximately 1%. The most sensitive spectral maturity tracers are the width of the D-band (FWHM-D), the ratio of the peak intensities of the D- and G-bands (I(D)/I(G)), the normalized ratio of the band integrated intensities A(D)/[A(D)+A(G)] for the maturity range VR=3-7% and the width of the G-band (FWHM-G) for VR=1-5%. However, the accuracy and reproducibility are definitely weaker in such measurements compared to the standard VR. Future work must solve the problem of sample stability under laser irradiation, and greatly increase the number of samples to improve the statistical significance of the results. PMID:16029859

  20. First Observation Of The Raman Spectrum Of Isolated Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes By Near-Field Optical Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, J.; Demoisson, F.; Humbert, B.; Louarn, G.; Chauvet, O.; Lefrant, S.

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we report the first observation of the Raman spectrum of isolated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by near field optical Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra have been obtained by using an aperture-based scanning near field optical microscope (SNOM) which is coupled to a T64000 Jobin Yvon spectrometer in collection mode. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) effect is needed in order to amplify the scattered intensity.

  1. Laser Raman sensor for measurement of trace-hydrogen gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler-Golden, Steven M.; Goldstein, Neil; Bien, Fritz; Matthew, Michael W.; Gersh, Michael E.; Cheng, Wai K.; Adams, Frederick W.

    1992-01-01

    A new optical hydrogen sensor based on spontaneous Raman scattering of laser light has been designed and constructed for rugged field use. It provides good sensitivity, rapid response, and the inherent Raman characteristics of linearity and background gas independence of the signal. Efficient light collection and discrimination by using fast optics and a bandpass interference filter compensate for the inefficiency of the Raman-scattering process. A multipass optical cavity with a Herriott-type configuration provides intense illumination from an air-cooled CW gas laser. The observed performance is in good agreement with the theoretical signal and noise level predictions.

  2. Raman-shifted dye laser for water vapor DIAL measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, B. E.; Singh, U. N.; Cotnoir, L. J.; Wilkerson, T. D.; Higdon, N. S.; Browell, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    For improved DIAL measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere, narrowband (about 0.03/cm) laser radiation at 720- and 940-nm wavelengths was generated by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), using the narrow linewidth (about 0.02/cm) output of a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser. For a hydrogen pressure of 350 psi, the first Stokes conversion efficiencies to 940 nm were 20 percent and 35 percent, when using a conventional and waveguide Raman cell, respectively. The linewidth of the first Stokes line at high cell pressures, and the inferred collisional broadening coefficients, agree well with those previously measured in spontaneous Raman scattering.

  3. Combined fluorescence-Raman spectroscopy measurements with an optical fiber probe for the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosci, Alessandro; Cicchi, Riccardo; Rossari, Susanna; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Massi, Daniela; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2012-02-01

    We have designed and developed an optical fiber-probe for spectroscopic measurements on human tissues. The experimental setup combines fluorescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy in a multidimensional approach. Concerning fluorescence spectroscopy, the excitation is provided by two laser diodes, one emitting in the UV (378 nm) and the other emitting in the visible (445 nm). These two lasers are used to selectively excite fluorescence from NADH and FAD, which are among the brightest endogenous fluorophores in human tissues. For Raman and NIR spectroscopy, the excitation is provided by a third laser diode with 785 nm excitation wavelength. Laser light is delivered to the tissue through the central optical fiber of a fiber bundle. The surrounding 48 fibers of the bundle are used for collecting fluorescence and Raman and for delivering light to the spectrograph. Fluorescence and Raman spectra are acquired on a cooled CCD camera. The instrument has been tested on fresh human skin biopsies clinically diagnosed as malignant melanoma, melanocytic nevus, or healthy skin, finding an optimal correlation with the subsequent histological exam. In some cases our examination was not in agreement with the clinical observation, but it was with the histological exam, demonstrating that the system can potentially contribute to improve clinical diagnostic capabilities and hence reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies.

  4. Er:YAG laser irradiation on dentin: FT-Raman and SEM studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Bitar, Renata Andrade; Brugnera, Aldo; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Resende, Erick B. P. S.; Jara, Walter A. A.; Martin, Airton A.

    2007-02-01

    This study evaluated the molecular and morphological changes on dentin elements after the Er:YAG laser irradiation. Six human third molars were selected and the occlusal one-third of the crown was removed. The dentin surface was schematically divided into areas corresponding to four surface treatments groups: Control (Group C): 37% phosphoric acid etching; Group I: Er:YAG laser 80mJ; Group II: Er:YAG laser 120mJ; Group III: Er:YAG laser 180mJ. The characterization was performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-Transformed Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) before and after the treatments. A reduction of the relative intensity for the spectra was observed in the Group II and III samples. The SEM photomicrographies revealed open dentin tubules in the control group specimens. The groups I, II and III presented partially open dentin tubules. SEM images showed that the laser-irradiated dentin surface was not favorable to the diffusion of monomers. The chemical information obtained by Raman spectroscopy showed that higher laser energies (180 mJ) affected more the phosphate, carbonate and the organic components of dentin.

  5. Stable isotope laser spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, J. F.; Yaldaei, Ramil; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor laser technology have produced a reliable lightweight device ideally suited for a spacecraft high resolution molecular spectrometer. Lead-salt tunable diode lasers (TDL) emit in several spectral modes, each with a very narrow linewidth of -0.0003/cm. This spectral resolution is much narrower than typical Doppler broadened molecular linewidths in the mid-IR range. Thus it is possible to detect individual rotational lines within the vibrational band and measure their intensity, which can be used to determine gas concentration. The narrow spectral lines of any impurity gas tend to lie between the narrow lines of the gas of interest. This represents a major advantage over the accepted gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) technique for measuring gas concentrations and isotope ratios. The careful and extensive gas purification procedures required to remove impurities for reliable GCMS measurements will not be required for an IR laser gas analysis. The infrared laser gas analysis technique is being developed to measure stable isotopic ratios of gases such as CO2, CH4, N2O, and NH3. This will eventually lead to development of instruments capable of in situ istopic measurements on planets such as Mars. The carbon (C-12, C-13) isotope ratio is indicative of the type of carbon fixation mechanisms (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration) in operation on a planet, while the nitrogen (N-14, N-15) isotope ratio can probably be used to date nitrogen-bearing Martian samples. The absorbance ratio of two adjacent lines of CO2 in the 2300/cm (4.3 micron) region of the spectrum was measured. The precision of the measurement is presently better than 1 percent and significant improvement is anticipated as rapid sweep-integration techniques and computer controlled data acquistion capabilities are incorporated.

  6. Stable isotope laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. F.; Yaldaei, Ramil; McKay, Christopher P.

    1989-03-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor laser technology have produced a reliable lightweight device ideally suited for a spacecraft high resolution molecular spectrometer. Lead-salt tunable diode lasers (TDL) emit in several spectral modes, each with a very narrow linewidth of -0.0003/cm. This spectral resolution is much narrower than typical Doppler broadened molecular linewidths in the mid-IR range. Thus it is possible to detect individual rotational lines within the vibrational band and measure their intensity, which can be used to determine gas concentration. The narrow spectral lines of any impurity gas tend to lie between the narrow lines of the gas of interest. This represents a major advantage over the accepted gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) technique for measuring gas concentrations and isotope ratios. The careful and extensive gas purification procedures required to remove impurities for reliable GCMS measurements will not be required for an IR laser gas analysis. The infrared laser gas analysis technique is being developed to measure stable isotopic ratios of gases such as CO2, CH4, N2O, and NH3. This will eventually lead to development of instruments capable of in situ istopic measurements on planets such as Mars. The carbon (C-12, C-13) isotope ratio is indicative of the type of carbon fixation mechanisms (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration) in operation on a planet, while the nitrogen (N-14, N-15) isotope ratio can probably be used to date nitrogen-bearing Martian samples. The absorbance ratio of two adjacent lines of CO2 in the 2300/cm (4.3 micron) region of the spectrum was measured. The precision of the measurement is presently better than 1 percent and significant improvement is anticipated as rapid sweep-integration techniques and computer controlled data acquistion capabilities are incorporated.

  7. Single molecule laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta, Diaa; Okasha, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discussed some single molecule spectroscopy techniques and methods. We have chosen the simplicity in this survey based on our laboratory experience in this field. We concentrated on the imaging by both techniques the wide field and the scanning microscopes. Other imaging enhancements on the technique like extended resolution wide field, the total internal reflection imaging, and its derivatives are also reviewed. In addition to the imaging techniques, some diffusion techniques also are discussed like fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The related methods like Forester resonance transfer, photo-induced electron transfer and anisotropy (steady state and time decay) are also discussed. In addition, we elucidated some simple details about the theory behind the FCS and its resulting curve fitting. This review is preceded by general introduction and ended with the conclusion.

  8. [Laser flash photolysis, EPR and Raman studies of liquids at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Eyring, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    The proposed research will solve a number of analytical chemical problems in solutions with measurement techniques that benefit from the use of elevated hydrostatic pressures: stopped-flow spectrophotometry (Gd[sup 3+] + L(ligand), [RuL[sub 5]H[sub 2]O][sup 2+], laser flash photolysis of Mo(CO)[sub 6] + L, flash photolysis of binuclear metalloproteins), EPR spectroscopy (Gd[sup 3+] ion-exchanged into ETS-10 and ETAS-10 molecular sieves), laser flash photolysis kinetic studies of Mo(CO)[sub 6]-2,2'-bipyridine, and electrochemical studies of metalloporphyrins using resonance Raman spectroscopy.

  9. [Laser flash photolysis, EPR and Raman studies of liquids at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Eyring, E.M.

    1992-10-01

    The proposed research will solve a number of analytical chemical problems in solutions with measurement techniques that benefit from the use of elevated hydrostatic pressures: stopped-flow spectrophotometry (Gd{sup 3+} + L(ligand), [RuL{sub 5}H{sub 2}O]{sup 2+}, laser flash photolysis of Mo(CO){sub 6} + L, flash photolysis of binuclear metalloproteins), EPR spectroscopy (Gd{sup 3+} ion-exchanged into ETS-10 and ETAS-10 molecular sieves), laser flash photolysis kinetic studies of Mo(CO){sub 6}-2,2`-bipyridine, and electrochemical studies of metalloporphyrins using resonance Raman spectroscopy.

  10. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Erik D; Fallas, Juan C; Kamisetty, Vamsi K; Chien, Wen-Ming; Covington, Aaron M; Chellappa, Raja S; Gramsch, Stephen A; Hemley, Russell J; Chandra, Dhanesh

    2010-05-01

    High-pressure Raman spectroscopy has been used to study tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (C(CH(2)OH)(3)NH(2), Tris). Molecules with globular shapes such as Tris have been studied thoroughly as a function of temperature and are of fundamental interest because of the presence of thermal transitions from orientational order to disorder. In contrast, relatively little is known about their high-pressure behavior. Diamond anvil cell techniques were used to generate pressures in Tris samples up to approximately 10 GPa. A phase transition was observed at a pressure of approximately 2 GPa that exhibited relatively slow kinetics and considerable hysteresis, indicative of a first-order transition. The Raman spectrum becomes significantly more complex in the high-pressure phase, indicating increased correlation splitting and significant enhancement in the intensity of some weak, low-pressure phase Raman-active modes. PMID:20384383

  11. Influence of Culture Media on Microbial Fingerprints Using Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mlynáriková, Katarína; Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Růžička, Filip; Ježek, Jan; Hároniková, Andrea; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has a broad range of applications across numerous scientific fields, including microbiology. Our work here monitors the influence of culture media on the Raman spectra of clinically important microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans). Choosing an adequate medium may enhance the reproducibility of the method as well as simplifying the data processing and the evaluation. We tested four different media per organism depending on the nutritional requirements and clinical usage directly on a Petri dish. Some of the media have a significant influence on the microbial fingerprint (Roosvelt-Park Institute Medium, CHROMagar) and should not be used for the acquisition of Raman spectra. It was found that the most suitable medium for microbiological experiments regarding these organisms was Mueller-Hinton agar. PMID:26610516

  12. Influence of Culture Media on Microbial Fingerprints Using Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mlynáriková, Katarína; Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Růžička, Filip; Ježek, Jan; Hároniková, Andrea; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has a broad range of applications across numerous scientific fields, including microbiology. Our work here monitors the influence of culture media on the Raman spectra of clinically important microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans). Choosing an adequate medium may enhance the reproducibility of the method as well as simplifying the data processing and the evaluation. We tested four different media per organism depending on the nutritional requirements and clinical usage directly on a Petri dish. Some of the media have a significant influence on the microbial fingerprint (Roosvelt-Park Institute Medium, CHROMagar) and should not be used for the acquisition of Raman spectra. It was found that the most suitable medium for microbiological experiments regarding these organisms was Mueller-Hinton agar. PMID:26610516

  13. Optimally shaped narrowband picosecond pulses for femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, David P; Valley, David; Ellis, Scott R; Creelman, Mark; Mathies, Richard A

    2013-09-01

    A comparison between a Fabry-Pérot etalon filter and a conventional grating filter for producing the picosecond (ps) Raman pump pulses for femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is presented. It is shown that for pulses of equal energy the etalon filter produces Raman signals twice as large as that of the grating filter while suppressing the electronically resonant background signal. The time asymmetric profile of the etalon-generated pulse is shown to be responsible for both of these observations. A theoretical discussion is presented which quantitatively supports this hypothesis. It is concluded that etalons are the ideal method for the generation of narrowband ps pulses for FSRS because of the optical simplicity, efficiency, improved FSRS intensity and reduced backgrounds. PMID:24104042

  14. Carbon: The Material and its Characterization by Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, S. N.

    2008-10-01

    A brief review of the different aspects of carbon will be presented to demonstrate how the physics associated with this material is full of surprises even though it is probably one of the oldest materials known to human civilization. An understanding of the properties of different forms of carbon starting from its commonly known forms to some of its well established stable forms, such as graphite and diamond, and to those of more recent origin, namely the Fullerenes, Carbon Nanotubes, and the Graphene has drawn considerable attention of scientists at the present time. Attempts will be made to high light some of these feature. One of the established methods of characterizing any form of carbon is to take recourse to Raman spectroscopy. With a brief and qualitative outline of the principles of Raman scattering, the Raman data on different forms of carbon will be discussed to demonstrate some of the puzzling aspects of the material.

  15. A tunable line filter polychromator for gas temperature measurements using laser Raman scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, J. J.; Muramoto, M.

    1975-01-01

    A proprietary laser line filter spectrograph (LLFS) was modified to test for improved remote measurement of atmospheric temperature by Raman spectroscopy of the rotational bands of N2 and O2. Both grating scan measurements with fixed PMT and polychromator image plane PMT scans with fixed grating setting were made using HeNe and Ar(+) lasers. The LLFS was found to have a laser line rejection ratio at 6A from the laser line and provides resolved rotational Raman spectral display at the polychromator exit plane. Spectral resolution is adequate to measure and correct for background in the Stokes spectrum. It is anticipated that this system should allow measurement of gas or atmospheric temperature to + or - 1 C.

  16. Verifying of endocrine disruptor chemical affect to the mouse testes: can raman spectroscopy support histology study?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriana, Bibin B.; Oshima, Yusuke; Takanezawa, Sota; Tay, Tat W.; Rosawati Soeratman, Catherine Linda; Alam, Mohammad S.; Mitsuoka, Hiroki; Zhu, Xiao B.; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yuko S.; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2009-02-01

    One of suspect environmental endocrine disruptors that affect mouse male reproduction by altering the morphology of Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells is phthalate. The effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), one of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate , on immature mouse testes in vivo were examined. We have recently shown that MEHP induced Sertoli cells necrosis and spermatogenic cells apoptosis in mice by TUNEL method, F-actin staining, and ultrastructural study, but there is no data for biochemical changing of testes due to those methods could not explore. To verify in detail of it, we conducted Raman spectroscopy study with 785 nm wavelength laser line, 50mW of laser power and 3 minutes of exposure time to analysis the MEHP-treated testicular tissue, which has been fixatived by 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA). Five weeks old (5 w.o) male mice were used in this experiment. As the results, the alterations were observed by Raman spectroscopy that there are significantly differences of DNA, actin filament, type IV collagen and amide I between control group (0 μM MEHP) and treatment group (100 μM MEHP). These results significantly support histology staining observation (such as the apoptotic spermatogenic cells which is associated with DNA fragmentation and F-actin disruption) and ultrastructural observation (such as mitochondria rupture and disintegration of nucleus membrane). Raman spectroscopy can be used for 4% PFA-fixatived tissue observation. However, we recommend that Raman spectroscopy may be able to be expanded as an armamentarium not just for the clarification of histology staining and ultrastructural study, but furthermore, it may be as a non-invasion assessment for screening animal tissue toxicity of chemical in future.

  17. Research of high power and stable laser in portable Raman spectrometer based on SHINERS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yongsheng; Yin, Yu; Wu, Yulin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda; Yan, Huimin

    2013-08-01

    The intensity of Raman light is very weak, which is only from 10-12 to 10-6 of the incident light. In order to obtain the required sensitivity, the traditional Raman spectrometer tends to be heavy weight and large volume, so it is often used as indoor test device. Based on the Shell-Isolated Nanoparticle-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SHINERS) method, Raman optical spectrum signal can be enhanced significantly and the portable Raman spectrometer combined with SHINERS method will be widely used in various fields. The laser source must be stable enough and able to output monochromatic narrow band laser with stable power in the portable Raman spectrometer based on the SHINERS method. When the laser is working, the change of temperature can induce wavelength drift, thus the power stability of excitation light will be affected, so we need to strictly control the working temperature of the laser, In order to ensure the stability of laser power and output current, this paper adopts the WLD3343 laser constant current driver chip of Wavelength Electronics company and MCU P89LPC935 to drive LML - 785.0 BF - XX laser diode(LD). Using this scheme, the Raman spectrometer can be small in size and the drive current can be constant. At the same time, we can achieve functions such as slow start, over-current protection, over-voltage protection, etc. Continuous adjustable output can be realized under control, and the requirement of high power output can be satisfied. Max1968 chip is adopted to realize the accurate control of the laser's temperature. In this way, it can meet the demand of miniaturization. In term of temperature control, integral truncation effect of traditional PID algorithm is big, which is easy to cause static difference. Each output of incremental PID algorithm has nothing to do with the current position, and we can control the output coefficients to avoid full dose output and immoderate adjustment, then the speed of balance will be improved observably. Variable integral incremental digital PID algorithm is used in the TEC temperature control system. The experimental results show that comparing with other schemes, the output power of laser in our scheme is more stable and reliable, moreover the peak value is bigger, and the temperature can be precisely controlled in +/-0.1°C, then the volume of the device is smaller. Using this laser equipment, the ideal Raman spectra of materials can be obtained combined with SHINERS technology and spectrometer equipment.

  18. Advances in Raman spectroscopy for explosive identification in aviation security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillán, Javier D.; Brown, Christopher D.; Jalenak, Wayne

    2007-04-01

    In the operational airport environment, the rapid identification of potentially hazardous materials such as improvised explosive devices, chemical warfare agents and flammable and explosive liquids is increasingly critical. Peroxide-based explosives pose a particularly insidious threat because they can be made from commonly available and relatively innocuous household chemicals, such as bleach and hydrogen peroxide. Raman spectroscopy has been validated as a valuable tool for rapid identification of chemicals, explosives, and narcotics and their precursors while allowing "line-of-sight" interrogation through bottles or other translucent containers. This enables safe identification of both precursor substances, such as acetone, and end-products, such as TATP, without direct sampling, contamination and exposure by security personnel. To date, Raman systems have been laboratory-based, requiring careful operation and maintenance by technology experts. The capital and ongoing expenses of these systems is also significant. Recent advances in Raman component technologies have dramatically reduced the footprint and cost, while improving the reliability and ease of use of Raman spectroscopy systems. Such technologies are not only bringing the lab to the field, but are also protecting civilians and security personnel in the process.

  19. Breast cancer diagnosis using FT-RAMAN spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitar, Renata A.; Martin, Airton A.; Criollo, Carlos J. T.; Ramalho, Leandra N. Z.

    2005-04-01

    In this study FT-RAMAN spectra of breast tissue from 35 patients were obtained and separated into nine groups for histopathologic analysis, which are as follows: normal breast tissue, fibrocystic condition, in situ ductal carcinoma, in situ ductal carcinoma with necrosis, infiltrate ductal carcinoma, infiltrate inflammatory ductal carcinoma, infiltrate medullar ductal carcinoma, infiltrate colloid ductal carcinoma, and infiltrate lobular carcinoma. Using spectrum averages taken from each group a qualitative analysis was performed to compare these molecular compositions to those known to be present in abnormal concentrations in pathological situations, e.g. the development of desmoplastic lesions with a stroma of dense collagen in tumoral breast tissues which substitute adipose stroma of non-diseased breast tissue. The band identified as amino acids, offered basis for observation in the existence of alterations in the proteins, thus proving Raman Spectroscopic capacity in identification of primary structures of proteins; secondary protein structure was also identified through the peptic links, Amide I and Amide III, which have also been identified by various authors. Alterations were also identified in the peaks and bandwidths of nucleic acids demonstrating the utilization of Raman Spectroscopy in the analysis of the cells nucleus manifestations. All studies involving Raman Spectroscopy and breast cancer have shown excellent result reliability and therefore a basis for the technical theory.

  20. Screening and classification of ordinary chondrites by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittarello, Lidia; Baert, Kitty; Debaille, Vinciane; Claeys, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Classification of ordinary chondrite meteorites generally implies (1) determining the chemical group by the composition in endmembers of olivine and pyroxene, and (2) identifying the petrologic group by microstructural features. The composition of olivine and pyroxene is commonly obtained by microprobe analyses or oil immersion of mineral separates. We propose Raman spectroscopy as an alternative technique to determine the endmember content of olivine and pyroxene in ordinary chondrites, by using the link between the wavelength shift of selected characteristic peaks in the spectra of olivine and pyroxene and the Mg/Fe ratio in these phases. The existing correlation curve has been recalculated from the Raman spectrum of reference minerals of known composition and further refined for the range of chondritic compositions. Although the technique is not as accurate as the microprobe for determining the composition of olivine and pyroxene, for most of the samples the chemical group can be easily determined by Raman spectroscopy. Blind tests with ordinary chondrites of different provenance, weathering, and shock stages have confirmed the potential of the method. Therefore, we suggest that a preliminary screening and the classification of most of the equilibrated ordinary chondrites can be carried out using an optical microscope equipped with a Raman spectrometer.

  1. Rapid Identification of Biotherapeutics with Label-Free Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Siddhanta, Soumik; Strouse, Robert; McGivney, James B; Larkin, Christopher; Barman, Ishan

    2016-04-19

    Product identification is a critical and required analysis for biotheraputics. In addition to regulatory requirements for identity testing on final drug products, in-process identity testing is implemented to reduce business risks associated with fill operations and can also be used as a tool against counterfeiting. Biotherapeutics, in particular monoclonal antibodies, represent a challenging cohort for identity determination because of their similarity in chemical structure. Traditional methods used for product identification can be time and labor intensive, creating a need for quick, inexpensive and reliable methods of drug identification. Here, driven by its molecular-specific and nonperturbative nature, we present Raman spectroscopy as an alternate analytical tool for identity testing. By exploiting subtle differences in vibrational modes of the biologics, we have developed partial least-squares-discriminant analysis derived decision algorithms that offer excellent differentiation capability using spontaneous Raman spectra as well as label-free plasmon-enhanced Raman spectra. Coupled with the robustness to spurious correlations due to its high information content, our results highlight the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a powerful method for rapid, on-site biotherapeutic product identification. PMID:27018817

  2. Raman spectroscopy: troubleshooting in the manufacture of Nadolol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Jack; Collazo, Luis; Rodriguez, Christiane; Findlay, Paul

    1999-04-01

    The manufacture of Nadalol at our facilities in Humacao, Puerto Rico, poses a difficult challenge for process analysis because the highly toxic epichlorohydrin makes routine analysis of the chemistry very hazardous. Raman spectroscopy enables us to gather potentially quantifiable and irrefutable data from samples without exposing manufacturing personnel to any hazard. The reaction of epichlorohydrin and sodium (CTA) phenolate monitored by Raman spectroscopy measures both the presence of CTA, epichlorohydrin and tert-butylamine. The Raman shifts of epichlorohydrin at 400-350 cm-1 and sodium at 1630- 1560 cm-1 were easily discernible and useful. On one occasion, the increase of moisture in this mixture alerted plant operators to verify the extent of this unexpected contamination. In a short time, optimization of these three aspects with one technique resulted in reliable performance for this stage of the process. The final stage of the process is isolation of the drug substance by crystallization and we learned that this step is strongly influenced by residual tert-butylamine. Using the Raman technique, the presence of this amine is easily detected and accommodated in real time prior to crystallization.

  3. Raman spectroscopy and imaging of whole functional cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNaughton, Don; Lim, Janelle; Hammer, Larissa; Langford, Steven J.; Collie, Jocelyn; Wood, Bayden R.

    2005-02-01

    With the advent of Raman spectrometers based on CCD array detectors, instruments have been coupled to optical microscopes leading to all the advantages of bright field microscopy with the added advantage of a direct chemical probe. The primary biological solvent, water, is a weak Raman scatterer and so these instruments can now be used to investigate the chemistry of living systems at spatial resolutions of 1 ?m and below. We have developed techniques that allow us to study functional red blood cells and monitor the exchange of ligands and the development and chemistry of disease processes. These techniques take advantage of Aggregated Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, which enables us to use the haem group of the haemoglobins and related haem pigments, such as the malarial pigment haemozoin, as a sensitive probe for changes in oxidation state, spin state and electronic structure. We have used the Raman microprobe to investigate the effect of drugs such as quinoline on the food vacuole of the malarial parasite in vivo. Sickle cell disease affects 1 out of 600 African American births and is caused by a mutant form (?6 glu-->val) of haemoglobin (HbS). HbS polymerizes and forms higher order aggregates under hypoxic conditions, leading to distortion and rigidity of the erythrocyte. These rigid cells can block the microvasculature resulting in tissue ischaemia, organ damage, and ultimately death. The sensitivity of the Raman technique to haem aggregation provides a tool with which we can analyse the changes that occur between normal and sickle cells.

  4. High power, high efficiency diode pumped Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Yaakov; Fromzel, Viktor; Zhang, Jun; Dahan, Asaf; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay; Pattnaik, Radha K.; Dubinskii, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a high power high efficiency Raman fiber laser pumped directly by a laser diode module at 976 nm. 80 Watts of CW power were obtained at a wavelength of 1020 nm with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 53%. When working quasi-CW, at a duty cycle of 30%, 85 W of peak power was produced with an efficiency of 60%. A commercial graded-index (GRIN) core fiber acts as the Raman fiber in a power oscillator configuration, which includes spectral selection to prevent generation of the 2nd Stokes. In addition, significant brightness enhancement of the pump beam is attained due to the Raman gain distribution profile in the GRIN fiber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power Raman fiber laser directly pumped by laser diodes, which also exhibits a record efficiency for such a laser. In addition, it is the highest power Raman fiber laser (regardless of pumping source) demonstrated based on a GRIN fiber.

  5. Investigations of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy /CARS/ for combustion diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckbreth, A. C.; Hall, R. J.; Shirley, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Investigations of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in a variety of flames are presented. Thermometry has received the primary emphasis in these studies, but species spectral and sensitivity studies will also be described. CARS is generated by mixing a 10 pps, frequency-doubled neodymium 'pump' laser with a spectrally broadband, laser-pumped, Stokes-shifted dye laser. This approach obviates the requirement to frequency scan the dye laser and generates the entire CARS spectrum with each pulse permitting, in principle, instantaneous measurements of medium properties. CARS spectra of N2, CO, O2, H2O, CO2 and CH4 in flames will be presented. In general these spectra exhibit very good agreement with computer synthesized spectra and permit measurements of temperature and species concentration. To illustrate the applicability of CARS to practical combustion diagnostics, CARS signatures from N2 have been employed to map the temperature field throughout a small, luminous, highly sooting propane diffusion flame

  6. Carbon Raman Spectroscopy of 36 Inter-Planetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busemann, H.; Nittler, L. R.; Davidson, J.; Franchi, I. A.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Palma, R. L.; Pepin, R. O.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool to determine the degree of order of organic material (OM) in extra-terrestrial matter. As shown for meteoritic OM [e.g., 2], peak parameters of D and G bands are a measure of thermal alteration, causing graphitization (order), and amorphization, e.g. during protoplanetary irradiation, causing disorder. Th e most pristine interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) may come from comets. However, their exact provenance is unknown. IDP collection during Earth?s passage through comet Grigg-Skjellerup?s dust stream ("GSC" collectors) may increase the probability of collecting fresh IDPs from a known, cometary source. We used Raman spectroscopy to compare 21 GSC-IDPs with 15 IDPs collected at different periods, and found that the variation among GSC-IDPs is larger than among non-GSC IDPs, with the most primitive IDPs being mostly GSC-IDPs.

  7. Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H; Monaco, S B; Sanborn, R H; Hirschfeld, T B; Taylor, J R

    1982-08-01

    A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applied to food safety.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ana Paula; Franca, Adriana S; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an advanced Raman technique that enhances the vibrational spectrum of molecules adsorbed on or in the vicinity of metal particles and/or surfaces. Because of its readiness, sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation requirements, SERS is being considered as a powerful technique for food inspection. Key aspects of food-safety assurance, spectroscopy methods, and SERS are briefly discussed in an extended introduction of this review. The recent and potential advances in SERS are highlighted in sections that deal with the (a) detection of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms and (b) the detection of food contaminants and adulteration, concentrated specifically on antibiotics, drugs, hormones, melamine, and pesticides. This review provides an outlook of the work done and a perspective on the future directions of SERS as a reliable tool for food-safety assessment. PMID:23297774

  9. Surface- and Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy in Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Thomas; Wondergem, Caterina S; Kumar, Naresh; van den Berg, Albert; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-04-21

    Surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and TERS) techniques exhibit highly localized chemical sensitivity, making them ideal for studying chemical reactions, including processes at catalytic surfaces. Catalyst structures, adsorbates, and reaction intermediates can be observed in low quantities at hot spots where electromagnetic fields are the strongest, providing ample opportunities to elucidate reaction mechanisms. Moreover, under ideal measurement conditions, it can even be used to trigger chemical reactions. However, factors such as substrate instability and insufficient signal enhancement still limit the applicability of SERS and TERS in the field of catalysis. By the use of sophisticated colloidal synthesis methods and advanced techniques, such as shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, these challenges could be overcome. PMID:27075515

  10. Identification of active fluorescence stained bacteria by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Mario; Beyer, Beatrice; Pietsch, Christian; Radt, Benno; Harz, Michaela; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2008-04-01

    Microorganisms can be found everywhere e.g. in food both as useful ingredients or harmful contaminations causing food spoilage. Therefore, a fast and easy to handle analysis method is needed to detect bacteria in different kinds of samples like meat, juice or air to decide if the sample is contaminated by harmful microorganisms. Conventional identification methods in microbiology require always cultivation and therefore are time consuming. In this contribution we present an analysis approach to identify fluorescence stained bacteria on strain level by means of Raman spectroscopy. The stained bacteria are highlighted and can be localized easier against a complex sample environment e.g. in food. The use of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrical methods allows the identification of single bacteria within minutes.

  11. Raman shifting of Nd:YAP laser radiation with a Brillouin resonator coupled with a Raman half-resonator.

    PubMed

    Chang, do I; Lee, J Y; Kong, H J

    1997-02-20

    We demonstrate the efficient generation of first Stokes Raman radiation using a Brillouin resonator coupled with a Raman half-resonator. A Raman laser at the eye-safe wavelength of 1.575 mum in high-pressure CH(4) gas was generated from a passively Q-switched Nd:YAP laser. Raman conversion efficiencies of as much as 55% were obtained at a pressure of 800 psi. PMID:18250787

  12. Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Teh, S K; Zheng, W; Ho, K Y; Teh, M; Yeoh, K G; Huang, Z

    2008-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a molecular vibrational spectroscopic technique that is capable of optically probing the biomolecular changes associated with diseased transformation. The purpose of this study was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for identifying dysplasia from normal gastric mucosa tissue. A rapid-acquisition dispersive-type NIR Raman system was utilised for tissue Raman spectroscopic measurements at 785 nm laser excitation. A total of 76 gastric tissue samples obtained from 44 patients who underwent endoscopy investigation or gastrectomy operation were used in this study. The histopathological examinations showed that 55 tissue specimens were normal and 21 were dysplasia. Both the empirical approach and multivariate statistical techniques, including principal components analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), together with the leave-one-sample-out cross-validation method, were employed to develop effective diagnostic algorithms for classification of Raman spectra between normal and dysplastic gastric tissues. High-quality Raman spectra in the range of 800–1800 cm−1 can be acquired from gastric tissue within 5 s. There are specific spectral differences in Raman spectra between normal and dysplasia tissue, particularly in the spectral ranges of 1200–1500 cm−1 and 1600–1800 cm−1, which contained signals related to amide III and amide I of proteins, CH3CH2 twisting of proteins/nucleic acids, and the C=C stretching mode of phospholipids, respectively. The empirical diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the Raman peak intensity at 875 cm−1 to the peak intensity at 1450 cm−1 gave the diagnostic sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 80.0%, whereas the diagnostic algorithms based on PCA-LDA yielded the diagnostic sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity 90.9% for separating dysplasia from normal gastric tissue. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves further confirmed that the most effective diagnostic algorithm can be derived from the PCA-LDA technique. Therefore, NIR Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate statistical technique has potential for rapid diagnosis of dysplasia in the stomach based on the optical evaluation of spectral features of biomolecules. PMID:18195711

  13. Fe-Ti-Cr-Oxides in Martian Meteorite EETA79001 Studied by Point-counting Procedure Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Alian; Kuebler, Karla E.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    2003-01-01

    Fe-Ti-Cr-Oxide minerals contain much information about rock petrogenesis and alteration. Among the most important in the petrology of common intrusive and extrusive rocks are those of the FeO-TiO2-Cr2O3 compositional system chromite, ulv spinel-magnetite, and ilmenite-hematite. These minerals retain memories of oxygen fugacity. Their exsolution into companion mineral pairs give constraints on formation temperature and cooling rate. Laser Raman spectroscopy is anticipated to be a powerful technique for characterization of materials on the surface of Mars. A Mars Microbeam Raman Spectrometer (MMRS) is under development. It combines a micro sized laser beam and an automatic point-counting mechanism, and so can detect minor minerals or weak Raman-scattering phases such as Fe- Ti-Cr-oxides in mixtures (rocks & soils), and provide information on grain size and mineral mode. Most Fe-Ti-Cr-oxides produce weaker Raman signals than those from oxyanionic minerals, e.g. carbonates, sulfates, phosphates, and silicates, partly because most of them are intrinsically weaker Raman scatters, and partly because their dark colors limit the penetration depth of the excitation laser beam (visible wavelength) and of the Raman radiation produced. The purpose of this study is to show how well the Fe-Ti-Cr-oxides can be characterized by on-surface planetary exploration using Raman spectroscopy. We studied the basic Raman features of common examples of these minerals using well-characterized individual mineral grains. The knowledge gained was then used to study the Fe-Ti-Cr-oxides in Martian meteorite EETA79001, especially effects of compositional and structural variations on their Raman features.

  14. An Yb-Raman cascaded fiber laser with temporal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenliang, Wang; Jinyong, Leng; Yang, Gao; Shaofeng, Guo; Zongfu, Jiang

    2015-07-01

    We report a new structure of fiber laser, which has the advantages of temporal stability and wavelength agility. An Yb-Raman cascaded fiber oscillator generating 168 mW 1137 nm stable CW signal with 18.2% slope efficiency is demonstrated. In this fiber oscillator, the gain from both Yb ion and SRS effect is utilized. By comparison, the characteristics of the 1137 nm Yb-doped fiber laser are studied. The results show that the serious self-pulsation effect in the Yb-doped fiber laser is suppressed in the Yb-Raman cascaded fiber oscillator.

  15. Modulated Raman Spectroscopy for Enhanced Cancer Diagnosis at the Cellular Level.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Anna Chiara; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is emerging as a promising and novel biophotonics tool for non-invasive, real-time diagnosis of tissue and cell abnormalities. However, the presence of a strong fluorescence background is a key issue that can detract from the use of Raman spectroscopy in routine clinical care. The review summarizes the state-of-the-art methods to remove the fluorescence background and explores recent achievements to address this issue obtained with modulated Raman spectroscopy. This innovative approach can be used to extract the Raman spectral component from the fluorescence background and improve the quality of the Raman signal. We describe the potential of modulated Raman spectroscopy as a rapid, inexpensive and accurate clinical tool to detect the presence of bladder cancer cells. Finally, in a broader context, we show how this approach can greatly enhance the sensitivity of integrated Raman spectroscopy and microfluidic systems, opening new prospects for portable higher throughput Raman cell sorting. PMID:26110401

  16. Modulated Raman Spectroscopy for Enhanced Cancer Diagnosis at the Cellular Level

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Anna Chiara; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is emerging as a promising and novel biophotonics tool for non-invasive, real-time diagnosis of tissue and cell abnormalities. However, the presence of a strong fluorescence background is a key issue that can detract from the use of Raman spectroscopy in routine clinical care. The review summarizes the state-of-the-art methods to remove the fluorescence background and explores recent achievements to address this issue obtained with modulated Raman spectroscopy. This innovative approach can be used to extract the Raman spectral component from the fluorescence background and improve the quality of the Raman signal. We describe the potential of modulated Raman spectroscopy as a rapid, inexpensive and accurate clinical tool to detect the presence of bladder cancer cells. Finally, in a broader context, we show how this approach can greatly enhance the sensitivity of integrated Raman spectroscopy and microfluidic systems, opening new prospects for portable higher throughput Raman cell sorting. PMID:26110401

  17. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of surfactants on silver electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Soncheng; Birke, R.L.; Lombardi, J.R. )

    1990-03-08

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been used to study different kinds of surfactants (cationic, anionic, and nonionic surfactants) adsorbed on a roughened Ag electrode. Spectral assignments are made for the SERS spectrum of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and it is shown that the molecule is oriented with its pyridinium ring end-on at the electrode surface at potentials positive to the point of zero charge (pzc) on Ag.

  18. Assessment of Raman Spectroscopy as a Silicone Pad Production Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Saab, A P; Balazs, G B; Maxwell, R S

    2005-05-05

    Silicone pressure pads are currently deployed in the W80. The mechanical properties of these pads are largely based on the degree of crosslinking between the polymer components that comprise the raw gumstock from which they are formed. Therefore, it is desirable for purposes of both production and systematic study of these materials to have a rapid, reliable means of assaying the extent of crosslinking. The present report describes the evaluation of Raman spectroscopy in this capacity.

  19. Detection of drugs of abuse by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    West, Matthew J; Went, Michael J

    2011-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy can provide rapid, sensitive, non-destructive analysis of a variety of drug types (e.g. amphetamines, alkaloids, designer drugs, and date rape drugs). This review concentrates on developments in the past 15 years. It considers identification and quantification of drugs of abuse in different types of forensic evidence, including bulk street drugs as well as traces found in drinks, on fibres/clothing, in fingerprints, on fingernails, on bank notes, and in body fluids. PMID:21960539

  20. Development of a multiplexing fingerprint and high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy technique for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2013-03-01

    We report on the development of a novel multiplexing Raman spectroscopy technique using a single laser light together with a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating that simultaneously acquires both fingerprint (FP) and high wavenumber (HW) tissue Raman spectra at endoscopy. We utilize a customized VPH dual-transmission grating, which disperses the incident Raman scattered light vertically onto two separate segments (i.e., -150 to 1950  cm⁻¹; 1750 to 3600  cm⁻¹) of a charge-coupled device camera. We demonstrate that the multiplexing Raman technique can acquire high quality in vivo tissue Raman spectra ranging from 800 to 3600  cm⁻¹ within 1.0 s with a spectral resolution of 3 to 6  cm⁻¹ during clinical endoscopy. The rapid multiplexing Raman spectroscopy technique covering both FP and HW ranges developed in this work has potential for improving in vivo tissue diagnosis and characterization at endoscopy. PMID:23450298