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Sample records for laser-based projection lithography

  1. XUV free-electron laser-based projection lithography systems

    SciTech Connect

    Newnam, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    Free-electron laser sources, driven by rf-linear accelerators, have the potential to operate in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range with more than sufficient average power for high-volume projection lithography. For XUV wavelengths from 100 nm to 4 nm, such sources will enable the resolution limit of optical projection lithography to be extended from 0.25 {mu}m to 0.05{mu}m and with an adequate total depth of focus (1 to 2 {mu}m). Recent developments of a photoinjector of very bright electron beams, high-precision magnetic undulators, and ring-resonator cavities raise our confidence that FEL operation below 100 nm is ready for prototype demonstration. We address the motivation for an XUV FEL source for commercial microcircuit production and its integration into a lithographic system, include reflecting reduction masks, reflecting XUV projection optics and alignment systems, and surface-imaging photoresists. 52 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Plasma formed ion beam projection lithography system

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette; Ngo, Vinh; Zahir, Nastaran

    2002-01-01

    A plasma-formed ion-beam projection lithography (IPL) system eliminates the acceleration stage between the ion source and stencil mask of a conventional IPL system. Instead a much thicker mask is used as a beam forming or extraction electrode, positioned next to the plasma in the ion source. Thus the entire beam forming electrode or mask is illuminated uniformly with the source plasma. The extracted beam passes through an acceleration and reduction stage onto the resist coated wafer. Low energy ions, about 30 eV, pass through the mask, minimizing heating, scattering, and sputtering.

  3. Novel electrostatic column for ion projection lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Chalupka, A.; Stengl, G.; Buschbeck, H.; Lammer, G.; Vonach, H.; Fischer, R.; Hammel, E.; Loeschner, H.; Nowak, R.; Wolf, P. ); Finkelstein, W.; Hill, R.W. ); Berry, I.L. ); Harriott, L.R. ); Melngailis, J. ); Randall, J.N. ); Wolfe, J.C. ); Stroh, H.; Wollnik, H. ); Mondelli, A.A.; Petillo, J.J. ); Leung, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of Californi

    1994-11-01

    Ion projection lithography (IPL) is being considered for high volume sub-0.25-[mu]m lithography. A novel ion-optical column has been designed for exposing 20[times]20 mm[sup 2] fields at 3[times] reduction from stencil mask to wafer substrates. A diverging lens is realized by using the stencil mask as the first electrode of the ion-optical column. The second and third electrode form an accelerating field lens. The aberrations of the first two lenses (diverging lens and field lens) are compensated by an asymmetric Einzel lens projecting an ion image of the stencil mask openings onto the wafer substrate with better than 2 mrad telecentricity. Less than 30 nm intrafield distortion was calculated within 20[times]20 mm[sup 2] exposure fields. The calculation uncertainty is estimated to be about 10 nm. The calculation holds for helium ions with [approx]10 keV ion energy at the stencil mask and 150 keV ion energy at the wafer plane. A virtual ion source size of 10 [mu]m has been assumed. The calculated chromatic aberrations are less than 60 nm, assuming 6 eV energy spread of the ions extracted from a duoplasmatron source. Recently a multicusp ion source has been developed for which preliminary results indicate an energy spread of less than 2 eV. Thus, with a multicusp source chromatic aberrations of less than 20 nm are to be expected. The ion energy at the crossover between the field lens and the asymmetric Einzel lens is 200 keV. Therefore, stochastic space charge induced degradations in resolution can be kept sufficiently low. The divergence of the ion image projected to the wafer plane is less than 2 mrad. Thus, the usable'' depth of focus for the novel ion optics is in the order of 10 [mu]m.

  4. Considerations for a free-electron laser-based extreme-ultraviolet lithography program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosler, Erik R.; Wood, Obert R.; Barletta, William A.; Mangat, Pawitter J. S.; Preil, Moshe E.

    2015-03-01

    Recent years have seen great strides in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser-produced plasma sources. Field deployed EUV exposure tools are now capable of facilitating advanced technology node development. Nevertheless, as the required manufacturing exposure dose scales, EUV sources must follow suit and provide 500- 1000 W to maintain production throughputs. A free-electron laser (FEL) offers a cost effective, single-source alternative for powering an entire EUV lithography program. FEL integration into semiconductor fab architecture will require both unique facility considerations as well as a paradigm shift in lithography operations. Critical accelerator configurations relating to energy recovery, multi-turn acceleration, and operational mode are discussed from engineering/scientific, cost-minimization, and safety perspectives. Furthermore, the individual components of a FEL (electron injector, RF systems, undulator, etc.) are examined with respect to both design and cost, considering existing technology as well as prospective innovations. Finally, FEL development and deployment roadmaps are presented, focusing on manufacturer deployment for the 5 nm or 3 nm technology nodes.[1-3

  5. High numerical aperture projection system for extreme ultraviolet projection lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2000-01-01

    An optical system is described that is compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation and comprises five reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The five optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as concave, convex, concave, convex, and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for ring field, step and scan lithography methods. The invention uses aspheric mirrors to minimize static distortion and balance the static distortion across the ring field width which effectively minimizes dynamic distortion. The present invention allows for higher device density because the optical system has improved resolution that results from the high numerical aperture, which is at least 0.14.

  6. Illumination optimization in optical projective lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hai-bo; Xing, Ting-wen; Du, Meng; Chen, An

    2013-08-01

    As lithography still pushing toward to lower K1 imaging, traditional illumination source shapes may perform marginally in resolving complex layouts, freeform source shapes are expected to achieve better image quality. Illumination optimization as one of inverse lithography techniques attempts to synthesize the input source which leads to the desired output wafer pattern by inverting the forward model from mask to wafer. Usually, inverse lithography problem could be solved by standard numerical methods. Recently, a set of gradient-based numerical methods have been developed to solve the mask optimization problem based on Hopkins' approach. In this study, the same method is also applied to resolve the illumination optimization but based on Abbe imaging formulation for partially coherent illumination. Firstly we state a pixel-based source representation, and analyze the constraint condition for source intensity. Secondly, we propose an objective function which includes three aspects: image fidelity, source smoothness and discretization penalty. Image fidelity is to ensure that the image is as close to the given mask as possible. Source smoothness and discretization penalty are to decrease the source complexity. All of the three items could be described mathematically. Thirdly, we describe the detailed optimization flow, and present the advantages of using Abbe imaging formulation as calculation mode of light intensity. Finally, some simulations were done with initial conventional illumination for 90nm isolated, dense and elbow features separately. As a result, we get irregular dipole source shapes for isolated and dense pattern, and irregular quadrupole for elbow pattern. The results also show that our method could provide great improvements in both image fidelity and source complexity.

  7. TECHNICAL NOTE: Micro projection lithography using microlens on a mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Herrault, Florian; Allen, Mark G.

    2009-12-01

    A micro projection lithography process has been implemented using a photomask having arrays of cylindrical or spherical plano-convex microlenses formed by thermal reflow in proximity exposure mode. This approach provides a practical means to generate patterns inside deep cavities without proximity-based pattern size increases. The generated pattern size can be controlled by controlling the focal depth of the microlens. A maximum pattern size reduction of 62% has been achieved at the bottom of a 216 µm deep trench with a cylindrical microlens having a focal length of 254 µm for a 60 µm square pattern. The effect of the microlens on the lithography process, including the relationship between the focal depth, exposure dose and pattern size, has been analyzed.

  8. Advanced laser driver for soft x-ray projection lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, L.E.; Beach, R.J.; Dane, C.B.; Reichert, P.; Honig, J.N.; Hackel, L.A.

    1994-03-01

    A diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser for use as a driver for a soft x-ray projection lithography system is described. The laser will output 0.5 to 1 J per pulse with about 5 ns pulse width at up to 1.5 kHz repetition frequency. The design employs microchannel-cooled diode laser arrays for optical pumping, zigzag slab energy storage, and a single frequency oscillator injected regenerative amplifier cavity using phase conjugator beam correction for near diffraction limited beam quality. The design and initial results of this laser`s activation experiments will be presented.

  9. Critical illumination condenser for extreme ultraviolet projection lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S. J.; Seppala, L. G.

    1995-03-01

    A condenser system couples a radiation source to an imaging system. The authors have designed a critical illumination condenser system which meets the technical challenges of extreme ultraviolet projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The optical system, a three spherical mirror optical design, is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. This type of condenser optical design is sufficiently versatile to be employed with two distinct systems, one from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and one from AT and T/Sandia.

  10. Fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J. S., LLNL

    1998-03-18

    EUV Lithography (EUVL) is a leading candidate as a stepper technology for fabricating the ``0.1 {micro}m generation`` of microelectronic circuits. EUVL is an optical printing technique qualitatively similar to DUV Lithography (DUVL), except that 11-13nm wavelength light is used instead of 193-248nm. The feasibility of creating 0.1{micro}m features has been well-established using small-field EUVL printing tools and development efforts are currently underway to demonstrate that cost-effective production equipment can be engineered to perform full-width ring-field imaging consistent with high wafer throughput rates Ensuring that an industrial supplier base will be available for key components and subsystems is crucial to the success of EUVL. In particular, the projection optics are the heart of the EUVL imaging system, yet they have figure and finish specifications that are beyond the state-of-the-art in optics manufacturing. Thus it is important to demonstrate that industry will be able to fabricate and certify these optics commensurate with EUVL requirements. Indeed, the goal of this paper is to demonstrate that procuring EUVL projection optical substrates is feasible. This conclusion is based on measurements of both commercially-available and developmental substrates. The paper discusses EUVL figure and finish specifications, followed by examples of ultrasmooth and accurate surfaces, and concludes with a discussion of how substrates are measured and evaluated.

  11. Holographic illuminator for synchrotron-based projection lithography systems

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2005-08-09

    The effective coherence of a synchrotron beam line can be tailored to projection lithography requirements by employing a moving holographic diffuser and a stationary low-cost spherical mirror. The invention is particularly suited for use in an illuminator device for an optical image processing system requiring partially coherent illumination. The illuminator includes: (1) a synchrotron source of coherent or partially coherent radiation which has an intrinsic coherence that is higher than the desired coherence, (2) a holographic diffuser having a surface that receives incident radiation from said source, (3) means for translating the surface of the holographic diffuser in two dimensions along a plane that is parallel to the surface of the holographic diffuser wherein the rate of the motion is fast relative to integration time of said image processing system; and (4) a condenser optic that re-images the surface of the holographic diffuser to the entrance plane of said image processing system.

  12. Lithography trends based on projections of the ITRS (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arden, Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    The microelectronic industry has gone through an enormous technical evolution in the last four decades. Both the tech-nological and economic challenges of microelectronics were increasing consistently in the past few years. This paper discusses the future trends in micro- and nano-technologies with special emphasis on lithography. The trends of minia-turization will be sketched with reference to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). After a description of general trends in technology node timing, an overview will be given on the future lithography require-ments and the technical solutions including options for post-optical lithography as, for example, Extreme UV.

  13. Four-mirror extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography projection system

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Simon J; Jeong, Hwan J; Shafer, David R

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a four-mirror catoptric projection system for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to transfer a pattern from a reflective reticle to a wafer substrate. In order along the light path followed by light from the reticle to the wafer substrate, the system includes a dominantly hyperbolic convex mirror, a dominantly elliptical concave mirror, spherical convex mirror, and spherical concave mirror. The reticle and wafer substrate are positioned along the system's optical axis on opposite sides of the mirrors. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are positioned on the same side of the system's optical axis as the reticle, and are relatively large in diameter as they are positioned on the high magnification side of the system. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are relatively far off the optical axis and hence they have significant aspherical components in their curvatures. The convex spherical mirror is positioned on the optical axis, and has a substantially or perfectly spherical shape. The spherical concave mirror is positioned substantially on the opposite side of the optical axis from the hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors. Because it is positioned off-axis to a degree, the spherical concave mirror has some asphericity to counter aberrations. The spherical concave mirror forms a relatively large, uniform field on the wafer substrate. The mirrors can be tilted or decentered slightly to achieve further increase in the field size.

  14. FIB mask repair technology for electron projection lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yoh; Hasuda, Masakatsu; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Sato, Makoto; Takaoka, Osamu; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Noboru; Iwasaki, Kouji; Hagiwara, Ryoji; Suzuki, Katsumi; Ikku, Yutaka; Aita, Kazuo; Kaito, Takashi; Adachi, Tatsuya; Yasaka, Anto; Yamamoto, Jiro; Iwasaki, Teruo; Yamabe, Masaki

    2004-08-01

    We have studied stencil mask repair technology with focused ion beam and developed an advanced mask repair tool for electron projection lithography. There were some challenges in the stencil mask repair, which were mainly due to its 3-dimensional structure with aspect ratio more than 10. In order to solve them, we developed some key technologies with focused ion beam (FIB). The transmitted FIB detection technique is a reliable imaging method for a 3-dimensional stencil mask. This technique makes it easy to observe deep patterns of the stencil mask and to detect the process endpoint. High-aspect processing can be achieved using gas-assisted etching (GAE) for a stencil mask. GAE enables us to repair mask patterns with aspect ratio more than 50 and very steep sidewall angle within 90+/-1°precisely. Edge placement accuracy of the developed tool is about 14nm by manual operation. This tool is capable to achieve less than 10nm by advanced software. It was found that FIB technology had capability to satisfy required specifications for EPL mask repair.

  15. Synchrotron radiation sources and condensers for projection x-ray lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.B.; MacDowell, A.A. ); White, D.L. ); Wood, O.R. II )

    1992-01-01

    The design requirements for a compact electron storage ring that could be used as a soft x-ray source for projection lithography are discussed. The design concepts of the x-ray optics that are required to collect and condition the radiation in divergence, uniformity and direction to properly illuminate the mask and the particular x-ray projection camera used are discussed. Preliminary designs for an entire soft x-ray projection lithography system using an electron storage ring as a soft X-ray source are presented. It is shown that by combining the existing technology of storage rings with large collection angle condensers, a powerful and reliable source of 130[Angstrom] photons for production line projection x-ray lithography is possible.

  16. Synchrotron radiation sources and condensers for projection x-ray lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.B.; MacDowell, A.A.; White, D.L.; Wood, O.R. II

    1992-11-01

    The design requirements for a compact electron storage ring that could be used as a soft x-ray source for projection lithography are discussed. The design concepts of the x-ray optics that are required to collect and condition the radiation in divergence, uniformity and direction to properly illuminate the mask and the particular x-ray projection camera used are discussed. Preliminary designs for an entire soft x-ray projection lithography system using an electron storage ring as a soft X-ray source are presented. It is shown that by combining the existing technology of storage rings with large collection angle condensers, a powerful and reliable source of 130{Angstrom} photons for production line projection x-ray lithography is possible.

  17. Compact multi-bounce projection system for extreme ultraviolet projection lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2002-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four optical elements providing five reflective surfaces for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The five optical surfaces are characterized in order from object to image as concave, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The second and fourth reflective surfaces are part of the same optical element. The optical system is particularly suited for ring field step and scan lithography methods. The invention uses aspheric mirrors to minimize static distortion and balance the static distortion across the ring field width, which effectively minimizes dynamic distortion.

  18. Research progress of wavefront aberration metrology equipment of lithography projection lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Changsong; Xiang, Yang

    2012-10-01

    The wavefront aberration of lithography projection lens is very important performance parameter. High-accuracy interferometer is a cornerstone requirement for the success of projection lithography lens. Recent development of the international high-accuracy wavefront aberration metrology technology of projection lens is described. Several high-accuracy measurement methods based on phase measurement interferometry (PMI) principle of lens wavefront aberrations are analyzed and compared and the merits and demerits of these measurement methods are also discussed. The dominating test technology types of mainstream companies and research organizations as well as their performance parameters are reviewed. Moreover, the performance and key technologies of point diffraction interferometer (PDI) and lateral shearing interferometer (LSI) are emphatically analyzed. Finally, the trend of high-precision system wavefront aberration test technique is described.

  19. New metrology stage for ion projection lithography made of glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse, Stefan; Peschel, Thomas; Damm, Christoph; Kirschstein, Ulf Carsten

    1999-09-01

    In the next few years a new chip-generation with structure sizes well below 100 nm and high complexity will require novel, so-called 'future lithography' processes. One of these new technologies is the Ion Projection Lithography. Within the framework of a large European project lead by SIEMENS, the necessary technologies are developed and the first pilot system will be built. In this system, one of the most important units is a high precision wafer stage. The heart of the stage system is the so-called metrology - plate with integrated electrostatic wafer chuck and handling unit. The design of this novel stage system is described in this contribution. Extensive FEM-simulations from the basis of the present design. All major components are made from glass-ceramics to guarantee the highest possible thermal and mechanical stability. Not only in the field of lithography many modern precision mechanical systems require position tolerances in the sub-micrometer and seconds of arc range. Strong systems solutions can be developed by the effort of glass-ceramics and new and traditional manufacturing processes.

  20. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dongxu; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Chupeng; Yuan, Daocheng; Xi, Jianpu; Zhu, Xueliang; Ban, Xinxing; Dong, Longchao; Gu, Yawen; Jiang, Chunye

    2016-01-01

    A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method's theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m. PMID:27089348

  1. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dongxu; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Chupeng; Yuan, Daocheng; Xi, Jianpu; Zhu, Xueliang; Ban, Xinxing; Dong, Longchao; Gu, Yawen; Jiang, Chunye

    2016-01-01

    A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method’s theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m. PMID:27089348

  2. High-throughput realization of an infrared selective absorber/emitter by DUV microsphere projection lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Dexheimer, Eric; Mohseni, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a low-cost and high-throughput nanofabrication method to realize metasurfaces that have selective absorption/emission in the mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We have developed DUV projection lithography to produce arbitrary patterns with sub-80 nm feature sizes. As examples of practical applications, we experimentally demonstrate structures with single and double spectral absorption/emission features, and in close agreement with numerical simulation. The fundamental mechanism of perfect absorption is discussed as well. Selective infrared absorbers/emitters are critical elements in realizing efficient thermophotovoltaic cells and high-performance biosensors.

  3. High-throughput realization of an infrared selective absorber/emitter by DUV microsphere projection lithography.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Dexheimer, Eric; Mohseni, Hooman

    2016-01-22

    In this paper, we present a low-cost and high-throughput nanofabrication method to realize metasurfaces that have selective absorption/emission in the mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We have developed DUV projection lithography to produce arbitrary patterns with sub-80 nm feature sizes. As examples of practical applications, we experimentally demonstrate structures with single and double spectral absorption/emission features, and in close agreement with numerical simulation. The fundamental mechanism of perfect absorption is discussed as well. Selective infrared absorbers/emitters are critical elements in realizing efficient thermophotovoltaic cells and high-performance biosensors. PMID:26650855

  4. LENS (lithography enhancement toward nano scale): a European project to support double exposure and double patterning technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, Pietro; Baldi, Livio; Piacentini, Paolo; Sytsma, Joost; Le Gratiet, Bertrand; Gaugiran, Stéphanie; Wong, Patrick; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Atzei, Luisa R.; Buch, Xavier; Verkleij, Dick; Toublan, Olivier; Perez-Murano, Francesco; Mecerreyes, David

    2010-04-01

    In 2009 a new European initiative on Double Patterning and Double Exposure lithography process development was started in the framework of the ENIAC Joint Undertaking. The project, named LENS (Lithography Enhancement Towards Nano Scale), involves twelve companies from five different European Countries (Italy, Netherlands, France, Belgium Spain; includes: IC makers (Numonyx and STMicroelectronics), a group of equipment and materials companies (ASML, Lam Research srl, JSR, FEI), a mask maker (Dai Nippon Photomask Europe), an EDA company (Mentor Graphics) and four research and development institutes (CEA-Leti, IMEC, Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, CIDETEC). The LENS project aims to develop and integrate the overall infrastructure required to reach patterning resolutions required by 32nm and 22nm technology nodes through the double patterning and pitch doubling technologies on existing conventional immersion exposure tools, with the purpose to allow the timely development of 32nm and 22nm technology nodes for memories and logic devices, providing a safe alternative to EUV, Higher Refraction Index Fluids Immersion Lithography and maskless lithography, which appear to be still far from maturity. The project will cover the whole lithography supply chain including design, masks, materials, exposure tools, process integration, metrology and its final objective is the demonstration of 22nm node patterning on available 1.35 NA immersion tools on high complexity mask set.

  5. Stitching accuracy measurement system for EB direct writing and electron-beam projection lithography (EPL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Takao; Ema, Takahiro; Nozue, Hiroshi; Sugahara, Tamoya; Sugano, Akio; Nitta, Jun

    2001-08-01

    We have developed a stitching accuracy measurement system for electron beam (EB) direct writing and electron beam projection lithography (EPL). This system calculates the amount of a stitching error between two EB shots from SEM images. It extracts a representative edge line of each pattern from the graphical format files (BMP, JPEG etc.) of SEM images and calculates a distance between each edge line as a stitching error. For obtaining a higher stitching accuracy of EB direct writing or EPL machines, it can analyze the relation of amounts and direction of a stitching error with a field size or a field position of these machines. We could successfully measure about 2.0 nm as a stitching error value in 0.1 micrometers L/S resist patterns on a bare-Si substrate and obtain 1.2 nm (3(sigma) ) as the measurement repeatability. It took 2.5 sec. for this system to measure one stitching region.

  6. Multilayer coatings of 10x projection for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Folta, J A; Montcalm, C; Spiller, E; Wedowski, M

    1999-03-09

    Two new sets of projections optics for the prototype 10X reduction EUV lithography system were coated with Mo/Si multilayers. The coating thickness was graded across the optics by using shadow masks to ensure maximum throughput at all incidence angles in the camera. The overall deviation of the (normalized) wavelength response across the clear aperture of each mirror is below 0.01% RMS. However, the wavelength mismatch between two optics coated in different runs is up to 0.07 nm. Nevertheless, this is still within the allowed tolerances, and the predicted optical throughput loss in the camera due to such wavelength mismatch is about 4%. EUV reflectances of 63-65% were measured around 13.40 nm for the secondary optics, which is in good agreement with the expected reflectance based on the substrate finish as measured with AFM.

  7. Robust Control Design for Vibration Isolation of an Electron Beam Projection Lithography System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fu-Cheng; Hong, Min-Feng; Yen, Jia-Yush

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes vibration control for an electron beam projection lithography (EPL) system. Two kinds of disturbances should be considered for an EPL: load disturbances from the machine and ground disturbances from the environment. However, the suspension settings for insulating these two disturbances conflict with each other. Therefore, we propose a double-layer optical table and apply disturbance response decomposing (DRD) techniques to independently control the disturbances. We use a passive control structure to isolate the ground disturbances, and an active control structure to suppress load disturbances. In addition, symmetric transformation is applied to decouple a full optical table into bounce/pitch and roll/warp half-table models, which can be further decoupled into quarter-table models to simplify controller design. Finally, we apply robust control techniques to design active controllers. From both simulation and experimental results, the designed H∞ robust controllers are proven effective in reducing EPL system vibrations.

  8. A method for compensating the polarization aberration of projection optics in immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yue; Li, Yanqiu; Liu, Lihui; Han, Chunying; Liu, Xiaolin

    2014-08-01

    As the numerical aperture (NA) of 193nm immersion lithography projection optics (PO) increasing, polarization aberration (PA) leads to image quality degradation seriously. PA induced by large incident angle of light, film coatings and intrinsic birefringence of lens materials cannot be ignored. An effective method for PA compensation is to adjust lens position in PO. However, this method is complicated. Therefore, in this paper, an easy and feasible PA compensation method is proposed: for ArF lithographic PO with hyper NA (NA=1.2), which is designed by our laboratory, the PA-induced critical dimension error (CDE) can be effectively reduced by optimizing illumination source partial coherent factor σout. In addition, the basic idea of our method to suppress pattern placement error (PE) is to adopt anti-reflection (AR) multi-layers MgF2/LaF3/MgF2 and calcium fluoride CaF2 of [111] crystal axes. Our simulation results reveal that the proposed method can effectively and quantificationally compensate large PA in the optics. In particular, our method suppresses the dynamic range of CDE from -12.7nm ~ +4.3nm to -1.1nm ~ +1.2nm, while keeping PE at an acceptable level.

  9. VUV lithography

    DOEpatents

    George, Edward V.; Oster, Yale; Mundinger, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Deep UV projection lithography can be performed using an e-beam pumped solid excimer UV source, a mask, and a UV reduction camera. The UV source produces deep UV radiation in the range 1700-1300A using xenon, krypton or argon; shorter wavelengths of 850-650A can be obtained using neon or helium. A thin solid layer of the gas is formed on a cryogenically cooled plate and bombarded with an e-beam to cause fluorescence. The UV reduction camera utilizes multilayer mirrors having high reflectivity at the UV wavelength and images the mask onto a resist coated substrate at a preselected demagnification. The mask can be formed integrally with the source as an emitting mask.

  10. VUV lithography

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Oster, Y.; Mundinger, D.C.

    1990-12-25

    Deep UV projection lithography can be performed using an e-beam pumped solid excimer UV source, a mask, and a UV reduction camera. The UV source produces deep UV radiation in the range 1,700--1,300A using xenon, krypton or argon; shorter wavelengths of 850--650A can be obtained using neon or helium. A thin solid layer of the gas is formed on a cryogenically cooled plate and bombarded with an e-beam to cause fluorescence. The UV reduction camera utilizes multilayer mirrors having high reflectivity at the UV wavelength and images the mask onto a resist coated substrate at a preselected demagnification. The mask can be formed integrally with the source as an emitting mask. 6 figs.

  11. Lithography equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.

    1996-07-01

    Until recently, lithography capability evolved consistently with Moore's law. It appears that semiconductor manufacturers are now deviating from Moore's law, which has implications for lithography equipment. DUV lithography is moving into production in a mix-and-match environment. Step- and-scan technology is the wave of the near-future, as a way to contend with the difficulty of manufacturing wide-field lenses. Resist processing equipment will undergo few fundamental changes, but will often be integrated with steppers, particularly for DUV applications. Metrology is being stretched beyond its limits for technologies below 250 nm. The move is on to 300 m diameter wafers, and 193 nm lithography is under consideration.

  12. Physical Limitations in Lithography for Microelectronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes techniques being used in the production of microelectronics kits which have replaced traditional optical lithography, including contact and optical projection printing, and X-ray and electron beam lithography. Also includes limitations of each technique described. (SK)

  13. Multi-stencil character projection e-beam lithography: a fast and flexible way for high quality optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Uwe; Falkner, Matthias; Zeitner, Uwe D.; Banasch, Michael; Dietrich, Kay; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    In this work we report on the strong improvement of pattern quality and significant write-time reduction using Character Projection with a multi-stencil character stage with more than 2000 apertures for the fabrication of nanomaterials and, in particular, on an optical metamaterial, which is called "Metamaterial Perfect Absorber". The Character Projection ebeam lithography allows the transition from the time-consuming serial to a fast quasi-parallel writing method and opens the way for the fabrication of device areas which are impossible to realize with often in the R&D used SEM based Gaussian electron beam-writers. More than 150.000 times faster than the comparable Gaussian E-beam exposure, 100 times faster and with a factor of 10 improved pattern size homogeneity than the corresponding Variable Shaped E-beam exposure - these are our main results for the fabrication of optical metamaterials using a Variable Shaped E-beam with Character Projection.

  14. Efficient fabrication of complex nano-optical structures by E-beam lithography based on character projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitner, Uwe D.; Harzendorf, Torsten; Fuchs, Frank; Banasch, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard

    2014-03-01

    The fabrication of complex nano-optical structures for plasmonics, photonic-crystals, or meta-materials on application relevant areas by electron-beam lithography requires a highly parallel writing strategy. In case of periodic pattern as they are found in most of the mentioned optical elements this can be achieved by a so called character projection writing principle where complex exposure pattern are coded in a stencil mask and exposed with a single shot. Resulting shotcount and writing time reductions compared to standard Variable-Shaped-Beam exposures can be in the order of 100...10000. The limitation in flexibility by using hard-coded exposure shapes can be overcome by implementing the character projection principle with a highly precise motorized aperture stage capable of carrying several 1000 different apertures. Examples of nano-optical elements fabricated with the new character projection principle are presented.

  15. The DARPA compact superconducting x-ray lithography source features. [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Heese, R. ); Kalsi, S. ); Leung, E. . Space Systems Div.)

    1991-01-01

    Under DARPA sponsorship, a compact Superconducting X-ray Lithography Source (SXLS) is being designed and built by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with industry participation from Grumman Corporation and General Dynamics. This source is optimized for lithography work for sub-micron high density computer chips, and is about the size of a billiard table (1.5 m {times} 4.0 m). The machine has a racetrack configuration with two 180{degree} bending magnets being designed and built by General Dynamics under a subcontract with Grumman Corporation. The machine will have 18 photon ports which would deliver light peaked at a wave length of 10 Angstroms. Grumman is commercializing the SXLS device and plans to book orders for delivery of industrialized SXLS (ISXLS) versions in 1995. This paper will describe the major features of this device. The commercial machine will be equipped with a fully automated user-friendly control systems, major features of which are already working on a compact warm dipole ring at BNL. This ring has normal dipole magnets with dimensions identical to the SXLS device, and has been successfully commissioned. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Performance of beta tool for low-energy electron-beam proximity-projection lithography (LEEPL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Akira; Kasahara, Haruo; Higuchi, Akira; Nozue, Hiroshi; Endo, Akihiro; Shimazu, Nobuo

    2003-06-01

    The two LEEPL beta-tools were completed in earlier 2002 and have been evaluated for the performance. 50nm CH patterns and 70nm L/S patterns are attained and the CD uniformity of 70nm L/S patterns with 37 shots on a 200mm wafer is under 4nm with the LEEPL beta-tools. In addition, it is proven that the fine tuning deflector can correct a mask and a wafer distortion by giving a minute angle to the electron beam. The mask distortion with respect to orthogonality and magnification is decreased on a wafer by 1/5. By means of this fine tuning deflector, Mix & Match accuracy with any other lithography tools will be better and difficulty of 1X stencil mask fabrication wil be easier. Referring to the data which has been obtained with the evaluation of the LEEPL beta-tools, the first LEEPL production tool dubbed "LEEPL-3000" is under construction to realize the satisfactory ability for 65nm node device fabrication. The shipping of the first LEEPL-3000 is scheduled in earlier 2003 and it is earlier than any other Next Generation Lithography technologies.

  17. Electron-beam lithography with character projection exposure for throughput enhancement with line-edge quality optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeno, Rimon; Maruyama, Satoshi; Mita, Yoshio; Ikeda, Makoto; Asada, Kunihiro

    2016-03-01

    Among various electron-beam lithography (EBL) techniques, variable-shaped beam (VSB) and character projection (CP) methods have attracted many EBL users for their high-throughput feature, but they are considered to be more suited to small-featured VLSI fabrication with regularly-arranged layouts like standard-cell logics and memory arrays. On the other hand, non-VLSI applications like photonics, MEMS, MOEMS, and so on, have not been fully utilized the benefit of CP method due to their wide variety of layout patterns. In addition, the stepwise edge shapes by VSB method often causes intolerable edge roughness to degrade device characteristics from its intended performance with smooth edges. We proposed an overall EBL methodology applicable to wade-variety of EBL applications utilizing VSB and CP methods. Its key idea is in our layout data conversion algorithm that decomposes curved or oblique edges of arbitrary layout patterns into CP shots. We expect significant reduction in EB shot count with a CP-bordered exposure data compared to the corresponding VSB-alone conversion result. Several CP conversion parameters are used to optimize EB exposure throughput, edge quality, and resultant device characteristics. We demonstrated out methodology using the leading-edge VSB/CP EBL tool, ADVANTEST F7000S-VD02, with high resolution Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist. Through our experiments of curved and oblique edge lithography under various data conversion conditions, we learned correspondence of the conversion parameters to the resultant edge roughness and other conditions. They will be utilized as the fundamental data for further enhancement of our EBL strategy for optimized EB exposure.

  18. Enhanced defect detection capability using learning system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask inspection tool with projection electron microscope optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Ryoichi; Hatakeyama, Masahiro; Terao, Kenji; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2016-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) patterned mask defect detection is a major issue that must be addressed to realize EUVL-based device fabrication. We have designed projection electron microscope (PEM) optics for integration into a mask inspection system, and the resulting PEM system performs well in half-pitch (hp) 16-nm-node EUVL patterned mask inspection applications. A learning system has been used in this PEM patterned mask inspection tool. The PEM identifies defects using the "defectivity" parameter that is derived from the acquired image characteristics. The learning system has been developed to reduce the labor and the costs associated with adjustment of the PEM's detection capabilities to cope with newly defined mask defects. The concepts behind this learning system and the parameter optimization flow are presented here. The learning system for the PEM is based on a library of registered defects. The learning system then optimizes the detection capability by reconciling previously registered defects with newly registered defects. Functional verification of the learning system is also described, and the system's detection capability is demonstrated by applying it to the inspection of hp 11-nm EUV masks. We can thus provide a user-friendly mask inspection system with reduced cost of ownership.

  19. Multilayer and grazing incidence X-ray/EUV optics for astronomy and projection lithography; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 19-22, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Editor); Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The present volume on multilayer and grazing incidence X-ray/EUV optics for astronomy and projection lithography discusses AXAF grazing incidence mirrors, the theory and high throughput optics of grazing incidence optics, multilayer mirror fabrication and characterization, and multilayer optics for X-ray projection lithography. Attention is given to the VETA-I X-ray detection system, a motion detection system for AXAF X-ray ground testing, image analysis of the AXAF VETA-I X-ray mirror, and optical constants from mirror reflectivities measured at synchrotrons. Topics discussed include the application of aberration theory to calculate encircled energy of Wolter I-II telescopes, W/C multilayers deposited on plastic films, nonspecular X-ray scattering from Si/Mo multilayers, and multilayer thin-film design as FUV polarizers. Also discussed are thin-film filter lifetesting results in the EUV, chromospheric and coronal observations with multilayer optics, present and future requirements of soft X-ray projection lithography, and the imaging Schwarzschild multilayer X-ray microscope.

  20. Soft-x-ray projection lithography experiments using Schwarzschild imaging optics

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, D.A.; Kubiak, G.D.; Malinowski, M.E.; Stulen, R.H.; Haney, S.J.; Berger, K.W.; Brown, L.A. ); Sweatt, W.C. ); Bjorkholm, J.E.; Freeman, R.R.; Himel, M.D.; MacDowell, A.A.; Tennant, D.M.; Wood II, O.R. ); Bokor, J.; Jewell, T.E.; Mansfield, W.M.; Waskiewicz, W.K.; White, D.L.; Windt, D.L. )

    1993-12-01

    Soft-x-ray projection imaging is demonstrated by the use of 14-nm radiation from a laser plasma source and a single-surface multilayer-coated ellipsoidal condenser. Aberrations in the condenser and the Schwarzschild imaging objective are characterized and correlated with imaging performance. A new Schwarzschild housing, designed for improved alignment stability, is described.

  1. Visualization of plasma-induced processes by a projection system with a Cu-laser-based brightness amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A. P.; Buzhinskij, R. O.; Gubskii, K. L.; Savjolov, A. S.; Sarantsev, S. A.; Terekhin, A. N.

    2010-05-15

    A novel method for visualization of the process of interaction of high-power energy fluxes with various surfaces is proposed. The possibility of the dynamic visualization of a surface covered with a {approx}3-cm-thick plasma layer with a linear density of {approx}10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} is demonstrated experimentally. A scheme of intracavity shadowgraphy of phase objects with the use of a laser projection microscope is developed. Shadow images illustrating the development of the plasma torch of an erosion capillary discharge in air are presented.

  2. High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell; Shafer, David

    2001-01-01

    An all-reflective optical system for a projection photolithography camera has a source of EUV radiation, a wafer and a mask to be imaged on the wafer. The optical system includes a first convex mirror, a second mirror, a third convex mirror, a fourth concave mirror, a fifth convex mirror and a sixth concave mirror. The system is configured such that five of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 9.degree., and each of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 14.degree.. Four of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 12 .mu.m. Five of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 12 .mu.m. Each of the six reflecting surfaces has an aspheric departure of less than substantially 16 .mu.m.

  3. High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell

    2001-01-01

    An all-reflective optical system for a projection photolithography camera has a source of EUV radiation, a wafer and a mask to be imaged on the wafer. The optical system includes a first concave mirror, a second mirror, a third convex mirror, a fourth concave mirror, a fifth convex mirror and a sixth concave mirror. The system is configured such that five of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 12.degree., and each of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 15.degree.. Four of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 7 .mu.m. Five of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 14 .mu.m. Each of the six reflecting surfaces has an aspheric departure of less than 16.0 .mu.m.

  4. High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell; Shafer, David R.

    2001-01-01

    An all-reflective optical system for a projection photolithography camera has a source of EUV radiation, a wafer and a mask to be imaged on the wafer. The optical system includes a first convex mirror, a second mirror, a third convex mirror, a fourth concave mirror, a fifth convex mirror and a sixth concave mirror. The system is configured such that five of the six mirrors receive a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 9.degree., and each of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 14.degree.. Four of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 12 .mu.m. Five of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 12 .mu.m. Each of the six reflecting surfaces has an aspheric departure of less than substantially 16 .mu.m.

  5. High numerical aperture ring field projection system for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell

    2000-01-01

    An all-refelctive optical system for a projection photolithography camera has a source of EUV radiation, a wafer and a mask to be imaged on the wafer. The optical system includes a first concave mirror, a second mirror, a third convex mirror, a fourth concave mirror, a fifth convex mirror and a sixth concave mirror. The system is configured such that five of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle less than substantially 12.degree., and each of the six mirrors receives a chief ray at an incidence angle of less than substantially 15.degree.. Four of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 7 .mu.m. Five of the six reflecting surfaces have an aspheric departure of less than substantially 14 .mu.m. Each of the six refelecting surfaces has an aspheric departure of less than 16.0 .mu.m.

  6. Maskless lithography

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Stulen, Richard H.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for maskless lithography. A plurality of individually addressable and rotatable micromirrors together comprise a two-dimensional array of micromirrors. Each micromirror in the two-dimensional array can be envisioned as an individually addressable element in the picture that comprises the circuit pattern desired. As each micromirror is addressed it rotates so as to reflect light from a light source onto a portion of the photoresist coated wafer thereby forming a pixel within the circuit pattern. By electronically addressing a two-dimensional array of these micromirrors in the proper sequence a circuit pattern that is comprised of these individual pixels can be constructed on a microchip. The reflecting surface of the micromirror is configured in such a way as to overcome coherence and diffraction effects in order to produce circuit elements having straight sides.

  7. Membrane projection lithography

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David Bruce; Davids, Paul S; Resnick, Paul J; Draper, Bruce L

    2015-03-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a three dimensional manufacturing technique for application with semiconductor technologies. A membrane layer can be formed over a cavity. An opening can be formed in the membrane such that the membrane can act as a mask layer to the underlying wall surfaces and bottom surface of the cavity. A beam to facilitate an operation comprising any of implantation, etching or deposition can be directed through the opening onto the underlying surface, with the opening acting as a mask to control the area of the underlying surfaces on which any of implantation occurs, material is removed, and/or material is deposited. The membrane can be removed, a new membrane placed over the cavity and a new opening formed to facilitate another implantation, etching, or deposition operation. By changing the direction of the beam different wall/bottom surfaces can be utilized to form a plurality of structures.

  8. EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Kevin; Wurm, Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology and infrastructure development has made excellent progress over the past several years, and tool suppliers are delivering alpha tools to customers. However, requirements in source, mask, optics, and resist are very challenging, and significant development efforts are still needed to support beta and production-level performance. Some of the important advances in the past few years include increased source output power, tool and optics system development and integration, and mask blank defect reduction. For example, source power has increased to levels approaching specification, but reliable source operation at these power levels has yet to be fully demonstrated. Significant efforts are also needed to achieve the resolution, line width roughness, and photospeed requirements for EUV photoresists. Cost of ownership and extendibility to future nodes are key factors in determining the outlook for the manufacturing insertion of EUVL. Since wafer throughput is a critical cost factor, source power, resist sensitivity, and system design all need to be carefully considered. However, if the technical and business challenges can be met, then EUVL will be the likely technology of choice for semiconductor manufacturing at the 32, 22, 16 and 11 nm half-pitch nodes. To cite this article: K. Kemp, S. Wurm, C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

  9. Future trends in high-resolution lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawes, R. A.

    2000-02-01

    A perennial question is "what is the future of high-resolution lithography, a key technology that drives the semiconductor industry"? The dominant technology over the last 30 years has been optical lithography, which by lowering wavelengths to 193 nm (ArF) and 157 nm (F 2) and by using optical "tricks" such as phase shift masks, off-axis illumination and phase filters, should be capable of 100 nm CMOS technology. So where does this leave the competition? The 100-nm lithography used to be the domain of electron beam lithography but only in research laboratories. Significant efforts are being made to increase throughput by electron projection (scattering with angular limitation projection electron beam lithography or SCALPEL). X-ray lithography remains a demonstrated R&D tool waiting to be commercially exploited but the initial expenditure to do so is very high. Ion beam lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) ( λ<12 nm) have also received attention in recent years. This paper will concentrate on some of the key issues and speculate on how and when an alternative to optical lithography will be embraced by industry.

  10. Why bother with x-ray lithography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Henry I.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    1992-07-01

    The manufacture of state-of-the-art integrated circuits uses UV optical projection lithography. Conventional wisdom (i.e., the trade journals) holds that this technology will take the industry to quarter-micrometer minimum features sizes and below. So, why bother with X-ray lithography? The reason is that lithography is a 'system problem', and proximity X-ray lithography is better matched to that system problem than any other technology, once the initial investment is surmounted. X-ray lithography offers the most cost-effective path to the future of ultra-large-scale integrated circuits with feature sizes of tenth micrometer and below (i.e., gigascale electronics and quantum-effect electronics).

  11. Maskless, reticle-free, lithography

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Markle, David A.

    1997-11-25

    A lithography system in which the mask or reticle, which usually carries the pattern to be printed onto a substrate, is replaced by a programmable array of binary (i.e. on/off) light valves or switches which can be programmed to replicate a portion of the pattern each time an illuminating light source is flashed. The pattern of light produced by the programmable array is imaged onto a lithographic substrate which is mounted on a scanning stage as is common in optical lithography. The stage motion and the pattern of light displayed by the programmable array are precisely synchronized with the flashing illumination system so that each flash accurately positions the image of the pattern on the substrate. This is achieved by advancing the pattern held in the programmable array by an amount which corresponds to the travel of the substrate stage each time the light source flashes. In this manner the image is built up of multiple flashes and an isolated defect in the array will only have a small effect on the printed pattern. The method includes projection lithographies using radiation other than optical or ultraviolet light. The programmable array of binary switches would be used to control extreme ultraviolet (EUV), x-ray, or electron, illumination systems, obviating the need for stable, defect free masks for projection EUV, x-ray, or electron, lithographies.

  12. Maskless, reticle-free, lithography

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, N.M.; Markle, D.A.

    1997-11-25

    A lithography system in which the mask or reticle, which usually carries the pattern to be printed onto a substrate, is replaced by a programmable array of binary (i.e. on/off) light valves or switches which can be programmed to replicate a portion of the pattern each time an illuminating light source is flashed. The pattern of light produced by the programmable array is imaged onto a lithographic substrate which is mounted on a scanning stage as is common in optical lithography. The stage motion and the pattern of light displayed by the programmable array are precisely synchronized with the flashing illumination system so that each flash accurately positions the image of the pattern on the substrate. This is achieved by advancing the pattern held in the programmable array by an amount which corresponds to the travel of the substrate stage each time the light source flashes. In this manner the image is built up of multiple flashes and an isolated defect in the array will only have a small effect on the printed pattern. The method includes projection lithographies using radiation other than optical or ultraviolet light. The programmable array of binary switches would be used to control extreme ultraviolet (EUV), x-ray, or electron, illumination systems, obviating the need for stable, defect free masks for projection EUV, x-ray, or electron, lithographies. 7 figs.

  13. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  14. [Laser-based radiometric calibration].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric calibration accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity calibration and characterization of detectors and remote sensing instruments in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric calibrations have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low calibration uncertainty and so on for radiometric calibration applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric calibration facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric calibration facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric calibration measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance calibrations for space remote sensing instruments, and promote the

  15. Optical lithography for nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagello, Donis G.; Arnold, Bill

    2006-09-01

    Optical lithography is continually evolving to meet the ever demanding requirements of the micro - and nano- technology communities. Since the optical exposure systems used in lithography are some of the most advanced and complex optical instruments ever built, they involve ever more complex illuminator designs, nearly aberration free lenses, and hyper numerical apertures approaching unity and beyond. Fortunately, the lithography community has risen to the challenge by devising many inventive optical systems and various methods to use and optimize exposure systems. The recent advancement of water immersion technology into lithography for 193nm wavelengths has allowed the numerical aperture (NA) of lithographic lenses to exceed 1.0 or a hyper-NA region. This allows resolution limits to extend to the 45nm node and beyond with NA>1.3. At these extreme NAs, the imaging within the photoresist is accomplished by not only using water immersion but also using polarized light lithography. This paper will review the current state-of-the-art in immersion, hyper-NA lithography. We show the latest results and discuss the various phenomena that may arise using these systems. Furthermore, we show some of the advanced image optimization techniques that allow lithographic printing at the physical limits of resolution. In addition, we show that the future of optical lithography is likely to go well beyond the 30nm regime using advancements in 193nm double-patterning technology and/or the use of extreme ultra-violet (EUV) optical systems.

  16. Synchronous scan-projection lithography on overall circumference of fine pipes with a diameter of 2 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Toshiyuki; Furuhata, Takahiro; Muro, Hideyuki

    2016-06-01

    The scan-projection exposure of small-diameter pipe surfaces was investigated using a newly developed prototype exposure system. It is necessary to secure a very large depth of focus for printing thick resist patterns on round pipe surfaces with a roughness larger than that of semiconductor wafers. For this reason, a camera lens with a low numerical aperture of 0.089 was used as a projection lens, and the momentary exposure area was limited by a narrow slit with a width of 800 µm. Thus, patterns on a flat reticle were replicated on a pipe surface by linearly moving the reticle and rotating the pipe synchronously. By using a reticle with inclined line-and-space patterns, helical patterns with a width of 30 µm were successfully replicated on stainless-steel pipes with an outer diameter of 2 mm and coated with a 10-µm-thick negative resist. The patterns replicated at the start and stop edges were smoothly stitched seamlessly.

  17. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Qing

    2003-03-10

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O{sub 2}{sup +}, BF{sub 2}{sup +}, P{sup +} etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF{sub 2}{sup +}, over 90% of O{sub 2}{sup +} and P{sup +} have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He{sup +} beam is as high as 440 A/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O{sub 2}{sup +} ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O{sub 2}{sup +} ions with the dose of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The process flow and the experimental results for directly patterned poly-Si features

  18. Advanced Mask Aligner Lithography (AMALITH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna

    2015-03-01

    Mask aligner lithography is very attractive for less-critical lithography layers and is widely used for LED, display, CMOS image sensor, micro-fluidics and MEMS manufacturing. Mask aligner lithography is also a preferred choice the semiconductor back-end for 3D-IC, TSV interconnects, advanced packaging (AdP) and wafer-level-packaging (WLP). Mask aligner lithography is a mature technique based on shadow printing and has not much changed since the 1980s. In shadow printing lithography a geometric pattern is transferred by free-space propagation from a photomask to a photosensitive layer on a wafer. The inherent simplicity of the pattern transfer offers ease of operation, low maintenance, moderate capital expenditure, high wafers-per-hour (WPH) throughput, and attractive cost-of-ownership (COO). Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH) comprises different measures to improve shadow printing lithography beyond current limits. The key enabling technology for AMALITH is a novel light integrator systems, referred to as MO Exposure Optics® (MOEO). MOEO allows to fully control and shape the properties of the illumination light in a mask aligner. Full control is the base for accurate simulation and optimization of the shadow printing process (computational lithography). Now photolithography enhancement techniques like customized illumination, optical proximity correction (OPC), phase masks (AAPSM), half-tone lithography and Talbot lithography could be used in mask aligner lithography. We summarize the recent progress in advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH) and discuss possible measures to further improve shadow printing lithography.

  19. Ion beam lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-08-02

    A maskless plasma-formed ion beam lithography tool provides for patterning of sub-50 nm features on large area flat or curved substrate surfaces. The system is very compact and does not require an accelerator column and electrostatic beam scanning components. The patterns are formed by switching beamlets on or off from a two electrode blanking system with the substrate being scanned mechanically in one dimension. This arrangement can provide a maskless nano-beam lithography tool for economic and high throughput processing.

  20. Thirty years of lithography simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Chris A.

    2005-05-01

    Thirty years ago Rick Dill and his team at IBM published the first account of lithography simulation - the accurate description of semiconductor optical lithography by mathematical equations. Since then, lithography simulation has grown dramatically in importance in four important areas: as a research tool, as a development tool, as a manufacturing tool, and as a learning tool. In this paper, the history of lithography simulations is traced from its roots to today"s indispensable tools for lithographic technology development. Along the way, an attempt will be made to define the true value of lithography simulation to the semiconductor industry.

  1. An ice lithography instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  2. Beam pen lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Fengwei; Zheng, Gengfeng; Liao, Xing; Giam, Louise R.; Chai, Jinan; Chen, Xiaodong; Shim, Wooyoung; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-09-01

    Lithography techniques are currently being developed to fabricate nanoscale components for integrated circuits, medical diagnostics and optoelectronics. In conventional far-field optical lithography, lateral feature resolution is diffraction-limited. Approaches that overcome the diffraction limit have been developed, but these are difficult to implement or they preclude arbitrary pattern formation. Techniques based on near-field scanning optical microscopy can overcome the diffraction limit, but they suffer from inherently low throughput and restricted scan areas. Highly parallel two-dimensional, silicon-based, near-field scanning optical microscopy aperture arrays have been fabricated, but aligning a non-deformable aperture array to a large-area substrate with near-field proximity remains challenging. However, recent advances in lithographies based on scanning probe microscopy have made use of transparent two-dimensional arrays of pyramid-shaped elastomeric tips (or `pens') for large-area, high-throughput patterning of ink molecules. Here, we report a massively parallel scanning probe microscopy-based approach that can generate arbitrary patterns by passing 400-nm light through nanoscopic apertures at each tip in the array. The technique, termed beam pen lithography, can toggle between near- and far-field distances, allowing both sub-diffraction limit (100 nm) and larger features to be generated.

  3. An ice lithography instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-15

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  4. An ice lithography instrument.

    PubMed

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J A

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines. PMID:21721733

  5. An ice lithography instrument

    PubMed Central

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines. PMID:21721733

  6. Optimization of X-ray sources from a high-average-power ND:Glass laser-produced plasma for proximity lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Celliers, P.; Da Silva, L.B.; Dane, C.B.

    1996-06-01

    The concept of a laser-based proximity lithography system for electronic microcircuit production has advanced to the point where a detailed design of a prototype system capable of exposing wafers at 40 wafer levels per hr is technically feasible with high-average-power laser technology. In proximity x-ray lithography, a photoresist composed of polymethyl- methacrylate (PMMA) or similar material is exposed to x rays transmitted through a mask placed near the photoresist, a procedure which is similar to making a photographic contact print. The mask contains a pattern of opaque metal features, with line widths as small as 0.12 {mu}m, placed on a thin (1-{mu}m thick) Si membrane. During the exposure, the shadow of the mask projected onto the resist produces in the physical and chemical properties of the resist a pattern of variation with the same size and shape as the features contained in the metal mask. This pattern can be further processed to produce microscopic structures in the Si substrate. The main application envisioned for this technology is the production of electronic microcircuits with spatial features significantly smaller than currently achievable with conventional optical lithographic techniques (0.12 {micro}m vs 0.25 {micro}m). This article describes work on optimizing a laser-produced plasma x-ray source intended for microcircuit production by proximity lithography.

  7. Neutral particle lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craver, Barry Paul

    Neutral particle lithography (NPL) is a high resolution, proximity exposure technique where a broad beam of energetic neutral particles floods a stencil mask and transmitted beamlets transfer the mask pattern to resist on a substrate, such that each feature is printed in parallel, rather than in the serial manner of electron beam lithography. It preserves the advantages of ion beam lithography (IBL), including extremely large depth-of-field, sub-5 nm resist scattering, and the near absence of diffraction, yet is intrinsically immune to charge-related artifacts including line-edge roughness and pattern placement errors due to charge accumulation on the mask and substrate. In our experiments, a neutral particle beam is formed by passing an ion beam (e.g., 30 keV He+) through a high pressure helium gas cell (e.g., 100 mTorr) to convert the ions to energetic neutrals through charge transfer scattering. The resolution of NPL is generally superior to that of IBL for applications involving insulating substrates, large proximity gaps, and ultra-small features. High accuracy stepped exposures with energetic neutral particles, where magnetic or electrostatic deflection is impossible, have been obtained by clamping the mask to the wafer, setting the proximity gap with a suitable spacer, and mechanically inclining the mask/wafer stack relative to the beam. This approach is remarkably insensitive to vibration and thermal drift; nanometer scale image offsets have been obtained with +/-2 nm placement accuracy for experiments lasting over one hour. Using this nanostepping technique, linewidth versus dose curves were obtained, from which the NPL lithographic blur was determined as 4.4+/-1.4 nm (1sigma), which is 2-3 times smaller than the blur of electron beam lithography. Neutral particle lithography has the potential to form high density, periodic patterns with sub-10 nm resolution.

  8. Workshop on compact storage ring technology: applications to lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-30

    Project planning in the area of x-ray lithography is discussed. Three technologies that are emphasized are the light source, the lithographic technology, and masking technology. The needs of the semiconductor industry in the lithography area during the next decade are discussed, particularly as regards large scale production of high density dynamic random access memory devices. Storage ring parameters and an overall exposure tool for x-ray lithography are addressed. Competition in this area of technology from Germany and Japan is discussed briefly. The design of a storage ring is considered, including lattice design, magnets, and beam injection systems. (LEW)

  9. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  10. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, Glenn D.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  11. Immersion lithography bevel solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Len; Tamada, Osamu; Sanada, Masakazu; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of Immersion lithography, combined with the desire to maximize the number of potential yielding devices per wafer, has brought wafer edge engineering to the forefront for advanced semiconductor manufactures. Bevel cleanliness, the position accuracy of the lithography films, and quality of the EBR cut has become more critical. In this paper, the effectiveness of wafer track based solutions to enable state-of-art bevel schemes is explored. This includes an integrated bevel cleaner and new bevel rinse nozzles. The bevel rinse nozzles are used in the coating process to ensure a precise, clean film edge on or near the bevel. The bevel cleaner is used immediately before the wafer is loaded into the scanner after the coating process. The bevel cleaner shows promise in driving down defectivity levels, specifically printing particles, while not damaging films on the bevel.

  12. Colloidal pen lithography.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqi; Cai, Xiaojing; Chen, Ghenfu

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal pen lithography, a low-cost, high-throughput scanning probe contact printing method, has been developed, which is based on self-assembled colloidal arrays embedded in a soft elastomeric stamp. Patterned protein arrays are demonstrated using this method, with a feature size ranging from 100 nm to several micrometers. A brief study into the specificity reorganization of protein gives evidence for the feasibility of this method for writing protein chips. PMID:25288364

  13. Industrial strength lithography APC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Barker, Brian; Muth, William A.; Postiglione, Marc; Walentosky, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Fully automated semiconductor manufacturing, becoming a reality with the ramping of 300mm fabricators throughout the world, demands the integration of advanced process control (APC). APC is particularly critical for the lithography sector, whose performance correlates to yield and whose productivity often gates the line. We describe the implementation of a comprehensive lithography APC system at the IBM Center for Nanoelectronics, a 300mm manufacturing and development facility. The base lithography APC function encompasses closed-loop run-to-run control of exposure tool inputs to sustain the overlay and critical dimension outputs consistent with product specifications. Automation demands that no decision regarding the appropriate exposure tool run-time settings be left to human judgment. For each lot, the APC system provides optimum settings based on existing data derived from pertinent process streams. In the case where insufficient prior data exists, the APC system either invokes the appropriate combination of send ahead processing and/or pre-determined defaults. We give specific examples of the application of APC to stitched field and dose control, and quantify its technical benefits. Field matching < 0.1 ppm and critical dimension control < 2.5% is achieved among multiple exposure tools and masks.

  14. Microfluidic Applications of Soft Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A; Krulevitch, P; Hamilton, J

    2001-04-10

    The soft lithography fabrication technique was applied to three microfluidic devices. The method was used to create an original micropump design and retrofit to existing designs for a DNA manipulation device and a counter biological warfare sample preparation device. Each device presented unique and original challenges to the soft lithography application. AI1 design constraints of the retrofit devices were satisfied using PDMS devices created through variation of soft lithography methods. The micropump utilized the versatility of PDMS, creating design options not available with other materials. In all cases, the rapid processing of soft lithography reduced the fabrication time, creating faster turnaround for design modifications.

  15. Laser-based capillary polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Swinney, K; Hankins, J; Bornhop, D J

    1999-01-01

    A laser-based capillary polarimeter has been configured to allow for the detection of optically active molecules in capillary tubes with a characteristic inner diameter of 250 microm and a 39-nL (10(-9)) sample volume. The simple optical configuration consists of a HeNe laser, polarizing optic, fused-silica capillary, and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera in communication with a laser beam analyzer. The capillary scale polarimeter is based on the interaction between a polarized laser beam and a capillary tube, which results in a 360 degree fan of scattered light. This array of scattered light contains a set of interference fringe, which respond in a reproducible manner to changes in solute optical activity. The polarimetric utility of the instrument will be demonstrated by the analysis of two optically active solutes, R-mandelic acid and D-glucose, in addition to the nonoptically active control, glycerol. The polarimetric response of the system is quantifiable with detection limits facilitating 1.7 x 10(-3) M or 68 x 10(-12) nmol (7 psi 10(-9) g) sensitivity. PMID:11315158

  16. Bubble-Pen Lithography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Linhan; Peng, Xiaolei; Mao, Zhangming; Li, Wei; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; Rajeeva, Bharath Bangalore; Perillo, Evan P; Dunn, Andrew K; Akinwande, Deji; Zheng, Yuebing

    2016-01-13

    Current lithography techniques, which employ photon, electron, or ion beams to induce chemical or physical reactions for micro/nano-fabrication, have remained challenging in patterning chemically synthesized colloidal particles, which are emerging as building blocks for functional devices. Herein, we develop a new technique - bubble-pen lithography (BPL) - to pattern colloidal particles on substrates using optically controlled microbubbles. Briefly, a single laser beam generates a microbubble at the interface of colloidal suspension and a plasmonic substrate via plasmon-enhanced photothermal effects. The microbubble captures and immobilizes the colloidal particles on the substrate through coordinated actions of Marangoni convection, surface tension, gas pressure, and substrate adhesion. Through directing the laser beam to move the microbubble, we create arbitrary single-particle patterns and particle assemblies with different resolutions and architectures. Furthermore, we have applied BPL to pattern CdSe/ZnS quantum dots on plasmonic substrates and polystyrene (PS) microparticles on two-dimensional (2D) atomic-layer materials. With the low-power operation, arbitrary patterning and applicability to general colloidal particles, BPL will find a wide range of applications in microelectronics, nanophotonics, and nanomedicine. PMID:26678845

  17. Diamond nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Jun; Tokano, Yuji; Miyamoto, Iwao; Komuro, Masanori; Hiroshima, Hiroshi

    2002-10-01

    Electron beam (EB) lithography using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and oxygen gas reactive ion etching (RIE) were used to fabricate fine patterns in a diamond mould. To prevent charge-up during EB lithography, thin conductive polymer was spin-coated over the PMMA resist, yielding dented line patterns 2 μ m wide and 270 nm deep. The diamond mould was pressed into PMMA on a silicon substrate heated to 130, 150 and 170ºC at 43.6, 65.4 and 87.2 MPa. All transferred PMMA convex line patterns were 2 μ m wide. Imprinted pattern depth increased with rising temperature and pressure. PMMA patterns on diamond were transferred by the diamond mould at 150ºC and 65.4 MPa, yielding convex line patterns 2 μ m wide and 200 nm high. Direct aluminium and copper patterns were obtained using the diamond mould at room temperature and 130.8 MPa. The diamond mould is thus useful for replicating patterns on PMMA and metals.

  18. Current Status and Perspective of EUV Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Iwao

    The EUV lithography (EUVL) utilizes 13-nm photons as a light source. Because of the short wavelength, it provides a very high resolution and is applicable to the fabrication of multiple generations of semiconductor devices from 45 nm hp down to 32 and even 22 nm hp. This makes EUVL the most promising next-generation lithography, which will follow ArF immersion lithography. However, because the wavelength is so short, bringing EUVL to the level of a practical production tool involves many difficult challenges, such as the development of a high-power light source, high-precision reflective optics, low-defect multilayer masks, a high-resolution high-sensitivity resist, and so on. To overcome the technical difficulties and accelerate the development of EUVL, various projects have been launched and are currently running under the management of SEMATECH (US), NEDEA+ (Europe), and ASET and EUVA (Japan). These activities have produced great advances in EUVL technology in the past several years. A full-field exposure tool for process development (α tool) will be delivered in 2006, and an exposure tool for mass production (γ tool) will be delivered two or three years after that. This presentation gives an overview of recent progress in EUVL.

  19. Neon Ion Beam Lithography (NIBL).

    PubMed

    Winston, Donald; Manfrinato, Vitor R; Nicaise, Samuel M; Cheong, Lin Lee; Duan, Huigao; Ferranti, David; Marshman, Jeff; McVey, Shawn; Stern, Lewis; Notte, John; Berggren, Karl K

    2011-10-12

    Existing techniques for electron- and ion-beam lithography, routinely employed for nanoscale device fabrication and mask/mold prototyping, do not simultaneously achieve efficient (low fluence) exposure and high resolution. We report lithography using neon ions with fluence <1 ion/nm(2), ∼1000× more efficient than using 30 keV electrons, and resolution down to 7 nm half-pitch. This combination of resolution and exposure efficiency is expected to impact a wide array of fields that are dependent on beam-based lithography. PMID:21899279

  20. Advances in Nanoimprint Lithography.

    PubMed

    Traub, Matthew C; Longsine, Whitney; Truskett, Van N

    2016-06-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), a molding process, can replicate features <10 nm over large areas with long-range order. We describe the early development and fundamental principles underlying the two most commonly used types of NIL, thermal and UV, and contrast them with conventional photolithography methods used in the semiconductor industry. We then describe current advances toward full commercial industrialization of UV-curable NIL (UV-NIL) technology for integrated circuit production. We conclude with brief overviews of some emerging areas of research, from photonics to biotechnology, in which the ability of NIL to fabricate structures of arbitrary geometry is providing new paths for development. As with previous innovations, the increasing availability of tools and techniques from the semiconductor industry is poised to provide a path to bring these innovations from the lab to everyday life. PMID:27070763

  1. Programmable imprint lithography template

    DOEpatents

    Cardinale, Gregory F.; Talin, Albert A.

    2006-10-31

    A template for imprint lithography (IL) that reduces significantly template production costs by allowing the same template to be re-used for several technology generations. The template is composed of an array of spaced-apart moveable and individually addressable rods or plungers. Thus, the template can be configured to provide a desired pattern by programming the array of plungers such that certain of the plungers are in an "up" or actuated configuration. This arrangement of "up" and "down" plungers forms a pattern composed of protruding and recessed features which can then be impressed onto a polymer film coated substrate by applying a pressure to the template impressing the programmed configuration into the polymer film. The pattern impressed into the polymer film will be reproduced on the substrate by subsequent processing.

  2. Extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Shafer, David; McGuire, James

    2001-01-01

    Condenser system for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography where the condenser includes a series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a quasi-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ringfield have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ringfield camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ringfield radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ringfield. The condenser has a set of correcting mirrors with one of the correcting mirrors of each set, or a mirror that is common to said sets of mirrors, from which the radiation emanates, is a concave mirror that is positioned to shape a beam segment having a chord angle of about 25 to 85 degrees into a second beam segment having a chord angle of about 0 to 60 degrees.

  3. Nanowire lithography on silicon.

    PubMed

    Colli, Alan; Fasoli, Andrea; Pisana, Simone; Fu, Yongqing; Beecher, Paul; Milne, William I; Ferrari, Andrea C

    2008-05-01

    Nanowire lithography (NWL) uses nanowires (NWs), grown and assembled by chemical methods, as etch masks to transfer their one-dimensional morphology to an underlying substrate. Here, we show that SiO2 NWs are a simple and compatible system to implement NWL on crystalline silicon and fabricate a wide range of architectures and devices. Planar field-effect transistors made of a single SOI-NW channel exhibit a contact resistance below 20 kOmega and scale with the channel width. Further, we assess the electrical response of NW networks obtained using a mask of SiO2 NWs ink-jetted from solution. The resulting conformal network etched into the underlying wafer is monolithic, with single-crystalline bulk junctions; thus no difference in conductivity is seen between a direct NW bridge and a percolating network. We also extend the potential of NWL into the third dimension, by using a periodic undercutting that produces an array of vertically stacked NWs from a single NW mask. PMID:18386934

  4. Scanning probe nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinelli, F.; Menozzi, C.; Baschieri, P.; Facci, P.; Pingue, P.

    2010-02-01

    The present paper reports on a novel lithographic approach at the nanoscale level, which is based on scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The experimental set-up consists of an atomic force microscope (AFM) operated via software specifically developed for the purpose. In particular, this software allows one to apply a predefined external load for a given lapse of time while monitoring in real-time the relative distance between the tip and the sample as well as the normal and lateral force during the embossing process. Additionally, we have employed AFM tips sculptured by means of focused ion beam in order to create indenting tools of the desired shape. Anti-sticking layers can also be used to functionalize the tips if one needs to investigate the effects of different treatments on the indentation and de-molding processes. The lithographic capabilities of this set-up are demonstrated on a polystyrene NIL-patterned sample, where imprinted features have been obtained upon using different normal load values for increasing time intervals, and on a thermoplastic polymer film, where the imprint process has been monitored in real-time.

  5. Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit

    2001-01-01

    Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

  6. Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Ray-Chaudhurl, Avijit K.

    2000-01-01

    Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

  7. Condenser for extreme-UV lithography with discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Kubiak, Glenn D.

    2001-01-01

    Condenser system, for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography, employs quasi grazing-incidence collector mirrors that are coated with a suitable reflective metal such as ruthenium to collect radiation from a discharge source to minimize the effect of contaminant accumulation on the collecting mirrors.

  8. Holographic lithography for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankevicius, E.; Balciunas, E.; Malinauskas, M.; Raciukaitis, G.; Baltriukiene, D.; Bukelskiene, V.

    2012-06-01

    Fabrication of scaffolds for cell growth with appropriate mechanical characteristics is top-most important for successful creation of tissue. Due to ability of fast fabrication of periodic structures with a different period, the holographic lithography technique is a suitable tool for scaffolds fabrication. The scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography can be used in various biomedical investigations such as the cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. These investigations allow selection of the suitable material and geometry of scaffolds which can be used in creation of tissue. Scaffolds fabricated from di-acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-DA-258) over a large area by holographic lithography technique are presented in this paper. The PEG-DA scaffolds fabricated by holographic lithography showed good cytocompatibility for rabbit myogenic stem cells. It was observed that adult rabbit muscle-derived myogenic stem cells grew onto PEG-DA scaffolds. They were attached to the pillars and formed cell-cell interactions. It demonstrates that the fabricated structures have potential to be an interconnection channel network for cell-to-cell interactions, flow transport of nutrients and metabolic waste as well as vascular capillary ingrowth. These results are encouraging for further development of holographic lithography by improving its efficiency for microstructuring three-dimensional scaffolds out of biodegradable hydrogels

  9. Photoinhibition superresolution lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Darren Lawrence

    While the prospect of nanoscale manufacturing has generated tremendous excitement, arbitrary patterning at nanometer length scales cannot be brought about with current photolithography---the technology that for decades has driven electronics miniaturization and enabled mass production of digital logic, memory, MEMS and flat-panel displays. This is due to the relatively long wavelength of light and diffraction, which imposes a physical not technological limit on the resolution of a far-field optical pattern. Photoinhibited superresolution (PInSR) lithography is a new scheme designed to beat the diffraction limit through two-color confinement of photopolymerization and, via efficient single-photon absorption kinetics, also be high-throughput capable. This thesis describes development of an integrated optical and materials system for investigating spatiotemporal dynamics of photoinhibited superresolution lithography, with a demonstrated 3x superresolution beyond the diffraction limit. The two-color response, arising from orthogonal photogeneration of species that participate in competing reactions, is shown to be highly complex. This is both a direct and indirect consequence of mobility. Interesting trade-offs arise: thin-film resins (necessitated by single-photon absorption kinetics) require high viscosity for film stability, but the photoinhibition effect is suppressed in viscous resins. Despite this apparent suppression, which can be overcome with high excitation of the photoinhibition system, the low mobility afforded by viscous materials is beneficial for confinement of active species. Diffusion-induced blurring of patterned photoinhibition is problematic in a resin with viscosity = 1,000 cP, and overcome in a resin with viscosity eta = 500,000 cP. Superresolution of factor 3x beyond the diffraction limit is demonstrated at 0.2 NA, with additional results indicating superresolution ability at 1.2 NA. Investigating the effect of diminished photoinhibition efficacy

  10. Laser- based Insect Tracker (LIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesquita, Leonardo; Sinha, Shiva; van Steveninck, Rob De Ruyter

    2011-03-01

    Insects are excellent model systems for studying learning and behavior, and the potential for genetic manipulation makes the fruitfly especially attractive. Many aspects of fruitfly behavior have been studied through video based tracking methods. However, to our knowledge no current system incorporates signals for behavioral conditioning in freely moving flies. We introduce a non-video based method that enables tracking of single insects over large volumes (> 8000cm3 at high spatial (<1mm) and temporal (<1ms) resolution for extended periods (>1 hour). The system uses a set of moveable mirrors that steer a tracking laser beam. Tracking is based on feedback from a four-quadrant sensor, sampling the beam after it bounces back from a retro reflector. Through the same mirrors we couple a high speed camera for flight dynamics analysis and an IR laser for aversive heat conditioning. Such heat shocks, combined with visual stimuli projected on a screen surrounding the flight arena, enable studies of learning and memory. By sampling the long term statistics of behavior, the system augments quantitative studies of behavioral phenotypes. Preliminary results of such studies will be presented.

  11. Porphyrin-Based Photocatalytic Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, J; Stone, G; Christian, A; Dugan, L; Hiddessen, A; Wu, K J; Wu, L; Hamilton, J; Stockton, C; Hubbell, J

    2007-10-15

    Photocatalytic lithography is an emerging technique that couples light with coated mask materials in order to pattern surface chemistry. We excite porphyrins to create radical species that photocatalytically oxidize, and thereby pattern, chemistries in the local vicinity. The technique advantageously does not necessitate mass transport or specified substrates, it is fast and robust and the wavelength of light does not limit the resolution of patterned features. We have patterned proteins and cells in order to demonstrate the utility of photocatalytic lithography in life science applications.

  12. Polymer nanofibers by soft lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisignano, Dario; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Mele, Elisa; Persano, Luana; Di Benedetto, Francesca; Cingolani, Roberto

    2005-09-01

    The fabrication of polymeric fibers by soft lithography is demonstrated. Polyurethane, patterned by capillarity-induced molding with high-resolution elastomeric templates, forms mm-long fibers with a diameter below 0.3μm. The Young's modulus of the fabricated structures, evaluated by force-distance scanning probe spectroscopy, has a value of 0.8MPa. This is an excellent example of nanostructures feasible by the combination of soft nanopatterning and high-resolution fabrication approaches for master templates, and particularly electron-beam lithography.

  13. Microfabrication using soft lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiao-Mei

    Soft Lithography is a group of non-photolithographic techniques currently being explored in our group. Four such techniques-microcontact printing (μCP), replica molding (REM), micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC), and microtransfer molding (μTM)-have been demonstrated for fabricating micro- and nanostructures of a variety of materials with dimension >=30 nm. Part I (Chapters 1-5) reviews several aspects of the three molding techniques REM, MIMIC, and μTM. Chapters 1-3 describe μTM and MIMIC, and the use of these techniques in the fabrication of functional devices. μTM is capable of generating μm-scale structures over large areas, on both planar and contoured surfaces, and is able to make 3-dimensional structures layer by layer. The capability of μTM and MIMIC has been demonstrated in the fabrication of single-mode waveguides, waveguide couplers and interferometers. The coupling between waveguides can be tailored by waveguide spacing or the differential in curing time between the waveguides and the cladding. Chapters 4-5 demonstrate the combination of REM and shrinkable polystyrene (PS) films to reduce the feature size of microstructures and to generate microstructures with high aspect ratios on both planar and curved surfaces. A shrinkable PS film is patterned with relief structures, and then heated and shrinks. Thermal shrinkage results in a 100-fold increase in the aspect ratio of the patterned microstructures in the PS film. The microstructures in the shrunken PS films can be transferred to many other materials by REM. Part II (Chapters 6-7) focuses on two issues in the microfabrication using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as ultrathin resists. Chapter 6 describes a selective etching solution for transferring patterns of SAMs of alkanethiolates into the underlying layers (e.g., gold, silver, and copper). This etching solution uses thiosulfate as the ligand that coordinates to the metal ions, and ferricyanide as the oxidant. It has been demonstrated to be

  14. SEM metrology for advanced lithographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Allgair, John; Rice, Bryan J.; Byers, Jeff; Avitan, Yohanan; Peltinov, Ram; Bar-zvi, Maayan; Adan, Ofer; Swyers, John; Shneck, Roni Z.

    2007-03-01

    For many years, lithographic resolution has been the main obstacle for keeping the pace of transistor densification to meet Moore's Law. The industry standard lithographic wavelength has evolved many times, from G-line to I-line, deep ultraviolet (DUV) based on KrF, and 193nm based on ArF. At each of these steps, new photoresist materials have been used. For the 45nm node and beyond, new lithography techniques are being considered, including immersion ArF lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. As in the past, these techniques will use new types of photoresists with the capability of printing 45nm node (and beyond) feature widths and pitches. This paper will show results of an evaluation of the critical dimension-scanning electron microscopy (CD-SEM)-based metrology capabilities and limitations for the 193nm immersion and EUV lithography techniques that are suggested in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. In this study, we will print wafers with these emerging technologies and evaluate the performance of SEM-based metrology on these features. We will conclude with preliminary findings on the readiness of SEM metrology for these new challenges.

  15. ITRS lithography roadmap: 2015 challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neisser, Mark; Wurm, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    In the past few years, novel methods of patterning have made considerable progress. In 2011, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography was the front runner to succeed optical lithography. However, although EUV tools for pilot production capability have been installed, its high volume manufacturing (HVM) readiness continues to be gated by productivity and availability improvements taking longer than expected. In the same time frame, alternative and/or complementary technologies to EUV have made progress. Directed self-assembly (DSA) has demonstrated improved defectivity and progress in integration with design and pattern process flows. Nanoimprint improved performance considerably and is pilot production capable for memory products. Maskless lithography has made progress in tool development and could have an α tool ready in the late 2015 or early 2016. But they all have to compete with multiple patterning. Quadruple patterning is already demonstrated and can pattern lines and spaces down to close to 10-nm half pitch. The other techniques have to do something better than quadruple patterning does to be chosen for implementation. DSA and NIL promise a lower cost. EUV promises a simpler and shorter process and the creation of 2-D patterns more easily with much reduced complexity compared to multiple patterning. Maskless lithography promises to make chip personalization easy and to be particularly cost effective for low-volume chip designs. Decision dates for all of the technologies are this year or next year.

  16. Biomolecular Patterning via Photocatalytic Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, J P; Hiddessen, A L; Wu, K J; Christian, A T; Dugan, L C; Stone, G; Camarero, J; Hinz, A K; Hubbell, J A

    2005-02-18

    We have developed a novel method for patterning surface chemistry: Photocatalytic Lithography. This technique relies on inexpensive stamp materials and light; it does not necessitate mass transport or specified substrates, and the wavelength of light should not limit feature resolution. We have demonstrated the utility of this technique through the patterning of proteins, single cells and bacteria.

  17. Graphic Arts/Offset Lithography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoisington, James; Metcalf, Joseph

    This revised curriculum for graphic arts is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary students with entry-level skills and an understanding of current printing technology. It contains lesson plans based on entry-level competencies for offset lithography as identified by educators and industry representatives. The guide is divided into 15…

  18. Dynamic maskless holographic lithography and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdams, Daniel R.

    The purpose of this research is to improve the resolution of dynamic maskless holographic lithography (DMHL) by using two-photon absorption, to provide a more thorough characterization of the process, and to expand the functionality of the process by adding previously undemonstrated patterning modes. Two-photon DMHL will be performed in both 2D and 3D configurations with specific characterization relating to process resolution and repeatability. The physical limits of DMHL will be discussed and ways to circumvent them will be proposed and tested. DMHL eliminates the need for a separate mask for every different pattern exposure and allows for real-time shaping of the exposure pattern. It uses an electrically addressable spatial light modulator (SLM) to create an arbitrary intensity pattern at the specimen plane. The SLM is a phase mask that displays a hologram. An algorithm is used to find an appropriate phase hologram for each desired intensity pattern. Each pixel of the SLM shapes the wavefront of the incoming laser light so that the natural Fourier transforming property of a lens causes the desired image to appear in the specimen plane. The process enables one-off projects to be done without the cost of fabricating a mask, and makes it possible to perform lithography with fewer (or even no) moving parts.

  19. Pattern-integrated interference lithography instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrow, G. M.; Leibovici, M. C. R.; Kummer, J. W.; Gaylord, T. K.

    2012-06-01

    Multi-beam interference (MBI) provides the ability to form a wide range of sub-micron periodic optical-intensity distributions with applications to a variety of areas, including photonic crystals (PCs), nanoelectronics, biomedical structures, optical trapping, metamaterials, and numerous subwavelength structures. Recently, pattern-integrated interference lithography (PIIL) was presented as a new lithographic method that integrates superposed pattern imaging with interference lithography in a single-exposure step. In the present work, the basic design and systematic implementation of a pattern-integrated interference exposure system (PIIES) is presented to realize PIIL by incorporating a projection imaging capability in a novel three-beam interference configuration. A fundamental optimization methodology is presented to model the system and predict MBI-patterning performance. To demonstrate the PIIL method, a prototype PIIES experimental configuration is presented, including detailed alignment techniques and experimental procedures. Examples of well-defined PC structures, fabricated with a PIIES prototype, are presented to demonstrate the potential of PIIL for fabricating dense integrated optical circuits, as well as numerous other subwavelength structures.

  20. Mask and lithography techniques for FPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandstrom, T.; Wahlsten, M.; Sundelin, E.; Hansson, G.; Svensson, A.

    2015-09-01

    Large-field projection lithography for FPDs has developed gradually since the 90s. The LCD screen technology has remained largely unchanged and incremental development has given us better image quality, larger screen sizes, and above all lower cost per area. Recently new types of mobile devices with very high pixel density and/or OLED displays have given rise to dramatically higher requirem ents on photomask technology. Devices with 600 ppi or m ore need lithography with higher optical resolution and better linewidth control. OLED di splays pose new challenges with high sensitivity to transistor parameters and to capacitive cross-talk. New mask requirements leads to new maskwriter requirements and Mycronic has developed a new generation of large -area mask writers with significantly improved properties. This paper discusses and shows data for the improved writers. Mask production to high er quality stan dards also need metrology to verify the quality and Mycronic has introduced a 2D metrology tool with accuracy adequate for current and future masks. New printing or additive methods of producing disp lays on plastic or metal foil will make low-cost disp lays available. This inexpensive type of disp lays will exist side by side with the photographic quality displays of TVs and mobile devices, which will continue to be a challenge in terms of mask and production quality.

  1. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  2. Throughput enhancement technique for MAPPER maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, M. J.; Derks, H.; Gupta, H.; van de Peut, T.; Postma, F. M.; van Veen, A. H. V.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-03-01

    MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing in combination with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. With 13,000 electron beams each delivering a current of 13nA on the wafer, a throughput of 10 wph is realized for 22nm node lithography. By clustering several of these systems together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive alternative to double patterning and EUV. The most mature and reliable electron source currently available that combines a high brightness, a high emission current and uniform emission is the dispenser cathode. For this electron source a reduced brightness of 106 A/m2SrV has been measured, with no restrictions on emission current. With this brightness however it is possible to realize a beam current of 0.3nA (@ 25nm spotsize), which is almost a factor 50 lower than the 13nA that is required for 10 wph. Three methods can be distinguished to increase the throughput: 1. Use an electron source with a 50× higher brightness 2. Increase the number of beams and lenses 50× 3. Patterned beams: Image multiple sub-beams with each projection lens MAPPER has selected option 3) 'Patterned beams' as the method to increase the beam current to 13nA. This because an electron source with a 50x higher brightness is simply not available at this time, and increasing the number of beams and lenses 50× leads to undesirable engineering issues. During the past years MAPPER has been developing the concept of 'Patterned beams'. By imaging 7×7 sub-beams per projection lens the beam current is increased to the required 13nA level. This technique will also be used to maintain throughput at 10 wph for smaller technology nodes by further increasing the number of sub-beams per projection lens. In this paper we will describe the electron optical design used to image these multiple sub-beams per lens, as well as

  3. Gain-coupled distributed feedback laser based on periodic surface anode canals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongyi; Jia, Peng; Zhang, Jian; Qin, Li; Chen, Hong; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Xing; Shan, Xiaonan; Ning, Yongqiang; Wang, Lijun

    2015-10-20

    A single-longitude-mode, broad-stripe, gain-coupled, distributed-feedback laser based on periodic surface anode canals (PSACs) is demonstrated. The PSACs, produced by i-line lithography, enhance the contrast of periodic current density in the active layer without introducing effective photon coupling; calculated grating κL is only 0.026. Power of 144.6 mW at 968.8 nm, with spectrum linewidth less than 0.04 nm on every uncoated cleavage facet, is obtained at a current of 1.2 A with a side-mode suppression ratio >29  dB. PMID:26560371

  4. OPC modeling and correction solutions for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Word, James; Zuniga, Christian; Lam, Michael; Habib, Mohamed; Adam, Kostas; Oliver, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of EUV lithography into the semiconductor fabrication process will enable a continuation of Moore's law below the 22nm technology node. EUV lithography will, however, introduce new sources of patterning distortions which must be accurately modeled and corrected with software. Flare caused by scattered light in the projection optics result in pattern density-dependent imaging errors. The combination of non-telecentric reflective optics with reflective reticles results in mask shadowing effects. Reticle absorber materials are likely to have non-zero reflectivity due to a need to balance absorber stack height with minimization of mask shadowing effects. Depending upon placement of adjacent fields on the wafer, reflectivity along their border can result in inter-field imaging effects near the edge of neighboring exposure fields. Finally, there exists the ever-present optical proximity effects caused by diffractionlimited imaging and resist and etch process effects. To enable EUV lithography in production, it is expected that OPC will be called-upon to compensate for most of these effects. With the anticipated small imaging error budgets at sub-22nm nodes it is highly likely that only full model-based OPC solutions will have the required accuracy. The authors will explore the current capabilities of model-based OPC software to model and correct for each of the EUV imaging effects. Modeling, simulation, and correction methodologies will be defined, and experimental results of a full model-based OPC flow for EUV lithography will be presented.

  5. Photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods. A photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet radiation of boron carbide polymers, hydrochlorocarbons and mixtures thereof.

  6. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  7. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  8. Mask technology for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujak, M.; Burkhart, Scott C.; Cerjan, Charles J.; Kearney, Patrick A.; Moore, Craig E.; Prisbrey, Shon T.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Tong, William M.; Vernon, Stephen P.; Walton, Christopher C.; Warrick, Abbie L.; Weber, Frank J.; Wedowski, Marco; Wilhelmsen, Karl C.; Bokor, Jeffrey; Jeong, Sungho; Cardinale, Gregory F.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Stivers, Alan R.; Tejnil, Edita; Yan, Pei-yang; Hector, Scott D.; Nguyen, Khanh B.

    1999-04-01

    Extreme UV Lithography (EUVL) is one of the leading candidates for the next generation lithography, which will decrease critical feature size to below 100 nm within 5 years. EUVL uses 10-14 nm light as envisioned by the EUV Limited Liability Company, a consortium formed by Intel and supported by Motorola and AMD to perform R and D work at three national laboratories. Much work has already taken place, with the first prototypical cameras operational at 13.4 nm using low energy laser plasma EUV light sources to investigate issues including the source, camera, electro- mechanical and system issues, photoresists, and of course the masks. EUV lithograph masks are fundamentally different than conventional photolithographic masks as they are reflective instead of transmissive. EUV light at 13.4 nm is rapidly absorbed by most materials, thus all light transmission within the EUVL system from source to silicon wafer, including EUV reflected from the mask, is performed by multilayer mirrors in vacuum.

  9. Laser-based display technology development at the Naval Ocean Systems Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Thomas E.; Trias, John A.; Lasher, Mark E.; Poirier, Peter M.; Dahlke, Weldon J.; Robinson, Waldo R.

    1991-02-01

    For several years, the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC) has been working on the development of laser-based display systems with the goal of upgrading the image quality and ruggedness of shipboard displays. In this paper the authors report work on the major task of developing a full-color laser-addressed liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) projection system.

  10. Laser-based display technology development at the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Thomas; Trias, John; Lasher, Mark; Poirier, Peter; Dahlke, Weldon

    1991-05-01

    For several years, the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC) has been working on the development of laser-based display systems with the goal of upgrading the image quality and ruggedness of shipboard displays. In this paper we report work on our major task of developing a full-color laser-addressed liquid crystal light value (LCLV) projection system.

  11. Nanoimprint lithography for microfluidics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreindl, Gerald; Matthias, Thorsten

    2013-12-01

    The history of imprint technology as lithography method for pattern replication can be traced back to 1970's but the most significant progress has been made by the research group of S. Chou in the 1990's. Since then, it has become a popular technique with a rapidly growing interest from both research and industrial sides and a variety of new approaches have been proposed along the mainstream scientific advances. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a novel method for the fabrication of micro/nanometer scale patterns with low cost, high throughput and high resolution. Unlike traditional optical lithographic approaches, which create pattern through the use of photons or electrons to modify the chemical and physical properties of the resist, NIL relies on direct mechanical deformation of the resist and can therefore achieve resolutions beyond the limitations set by light diffraction or beam scattering that are encountered in conventional lithographic techniques. The ability to fabricate structures from the micro- to the nanoscale with high precision in a wide variety of materials is of crucial importance to the advancement of micro- and nanotechnology and the biotech- sciences as a whole and will be discussed in this paper. Nanoimprinting can not only create resist patterns, as in lithography, but can also imprint functional device structures in various polymers, which can lead to a wide range of applications in electronics, photonics, data storage, and biotechnology.

  12. The Brookhaven Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.B.; Blumberg, L.N.; Bozoki, E.; Desmond, E.; Galayda, J.; Halama, H.; Heese, R.; Hsieh, H.; Keane, J.; Kramer, S.; Mortazavi, P.; Schuchman, J.; Sharma, S.; Singh, O.; Solomon, L.; Thomas, M.; Wang, J.M. ); Kalsi, S.; Reusch, M.; Rose, J. ); Moser, H.O. )

    1990-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation from dipole magnets in electron storage rings has emerged as a useful source of x-rays for lithography. The goal of the SXLS Project at BNL is to design and construct a compact storage ring of circumference, C = 8.503 meters. It will use superconducting dipoles with a field of B{sub 0} = 3.87 Tesla and bending radius of {rho} = .6037 meters along with 700 MeV electrons to produce 10 angstrom x-rays for lithography. The project is proceeding in two phases: in Phase I low field iron dipoles are being used; in Phase II the low field dipoles will be replaced with superconducting dipoles. An overview of the design and status report are presented.

  13. Commercialization plan laser-based decoating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    F2 Associates Inc. (F2) is a small, high-technology firm focused on developing and commercializing environmentally friendly laser ablation systems for industrial-rate removal of surface coatings from metals, concrete, and delicate substrates such as composites. F2 has a contract with the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to develop and test a laser-based technology for removing contaminated paint and other contaminants from concrete and metal surfaces. Task 4.1 in Phase 2 of the Statement of Work for this DOE contract requires that F2 ``document its plans for commercializing and marketing the stationary laser ablation system. This document shall include a discussion of prospects for commercial customers and partners and may require periodic update to reflect changing strategy. This document shall be submitted to the DOE for review.`` This report is being prepared and submitted in fulfillment of that requirement. This report describes the laser-based technology for cleaning and coatings removal, the types of laser-based systems that have been developed by F2 based on this technology, and the various markets that are emerging for this technology. F2`s commercialization and marketing plans are described, including how F2`s organization is structured to meet the needs of technology commercialization, F2`s strategy and marketing approach, and the necessary steps to receive certification for removing paint from aircraft and DOE certification for D and D applications. The future use of the equipment built for the DOE contract is also discussed.

  14. Maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Barletta, William A.; Patterson, David O.; Gough, Richard A.

    2005-05-03

    A maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography system is a system for projecting patterns onto a resist layer on a wafer with feature size down to below 100 nm. The MMRL system operates without a stencil mask. The patterns are generated by switching beamlets on and off from a two electrode blanking system or pattern generator. The pattern generator controllably extracts the beamlet pattern from an ion source and is followed by a beam reduction and acceleration column.

  15. Metrology of 13-nm optics for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, J.F.; Patterson, S.R.; Thompson, D.C.; Badami, V.; Smith, S.

    1997-02-03

    This report documents activities carried in support of the design and construction of an ultra-high precision measuring machine intended for the support of Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography development (for semiconductor fabrication). At the outset, this project was aimed at the overall fabrication of such a measuring machine. Shortly after initiation, however, the scope of activities was reduced and effort was concentrated on the key technical advances necessary to support such machine development: high accuracy surface sensing and highly linear distance interferometry.

  16. Charting CEBL's role in mainstream semiconductor lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, David K.

    2013-09-01

    historically kept it out of mainstream fabs. Thanks to continuing EBDW advances combined with the industry's move to unidirectional (1D) gridded layout style, EBDW promises to cost-efficiently complement 193nm ArF immersion (193i) optical lithography in high volume manufacturing (HVM). Patterning conventional 2D design layouts with 193i is a major roadblock in device scaling: the resolution limitations of optical lithography equipment have led to higher mask cost and increased lithography complexity. To overcome the challenge, IC designers have used 1D layouts with "lines and cuts" in critical layers.1 Leading logic and memory chipmakers have been producing advanced designs with lines-and-cuts in HVM for several technology nodes in recent years. However, cut masks in multiple optical patterning are getting extremely costly. Borodovsky proposes Complementary Lithography in which another lithography technology is used to pattern line-cuts in critical layers to complement optical lithography.2 Complementary E-Beam Lithography (CEBL) is a candidate to pattern the Cuts of optically printed Lines. The concept of CEBL is gaining acceptance. However, challenges in throughput, scaling, and data preparation rate are threatening to deny CEBL's role in solving industry's lithography problem. This paper will examine the following issues: The challenges of massively parallel pixel writing The solutions of multiple mini-column design/architecture in: Boosting CEBL throughput Resolving issues of CD control, CDU, LER, data rate, higher resolution, and 450mm wafers The role of CEBL in next-generation solution of semiconductor lithography

  17. Protein assay structured on paper by using lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, E.; Nargang, T. M.; Al Bitar, W.; Waterkotte, B.; Rapp, B. E.

    2015-03-01

    There are two main challenges in producing a robust, paper-based analytical device. The first one is to create a hydrophobic barrier which unlike the commonly used wax barriers does not break if the paper is bent. The second one is the creation of the (bio-)specific sensing layer. For this proteins have to be immobilized without diminishing their activity. We solve both problems using light-based fabrication methods that enable fast, efficient manufacturing of paper-based analytical devices. The first technique relies on silanization by which we create a flexible hydrophobic barrier made of dimethoxydimethylsilane. The second technique demonstrated within this paper uses photobleaching to immobilize proteins by means of maskless projection lithography. Both techniques have been tested on a classical lithography setup using printed toner masks and on a lithography system for maskless lithography. Using these setups we could demonstrate that the proposed manufacturing techniques can be carried out at low costs. The resolution of the paper-based analytical devices obtained with static masks was lower due to the lower mask resolution. Better results were obtained using advanced lithography equipment. By doing so we demonstrated, that our technique enables fabrication of effective hydrophobic boundary layers with a thickness of only 342 μm. Furthermore we showed that flourescine-5-biotin can be immobilized on the non-structured paper and be employed for the detection of streptavidinalkaline phosphatase. By carrying out this assay on a paper-based analytical device which had been structured using the silanization technique we proofed biological compatibility of the suggested patterning technique.

  18. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  19. Laser-based detection of chemical contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmer, Robert G.; Kelly, James F.; Martin, Steven W.; Mong, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    1997-02-01

    The goal of our work is tow fold; 1) develop a portable and rapid laser based air sampler for detection of specific chemical contraband and 2) compile a spectral data base in both the near- and mid-IR of sufficiently high quality to be useful for gas phase spectroscopic identification of chemical contraband. During the synthesis or 'cooking' of many illicit chemical substances, relatively high concentrations of volatile solvents, chemical precursors and byproducts are unavoidably released to the atmosphere. In some instances, the final product may have sufficient vapor pressure to be detectable in the surrounding air. The detection of a single high-value effluent or the simultaneous detection of two or more low-value effluents can be used as reliable indicators of a nearby clandestine cooking operation. The designation of high- versus low-value effluent reflects both the commercial availability and legitimate usage of a specific chemical. This paper will describe PNNL's progress and efforts towards the development of a portable laser based air sampling system for the detection of clandestine manufacturing of methamphetamine. Although our current efforts ar focused on methamphetamine, we see no fundamental limitations on detection of other forms of chemical contraband manufacturing. This also includes the synthesis of certain classes of chemical weapons that have recently been deployed by terrorist groups.

  20. Ultrastable lasers based on vibration insensitive cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Millo, J.; Magalhaes, D. V.; Mandache, C.; Le Coq, Y.; English, E. M. L.; Westergaard, P. G.; Lodewyck, J.; Bize, S.; Lemonde, P.; Santarelli, G.

    2009-05-15

    We present two ultrastable lasers based on two vibration insensitive cavity designs, one with vertical optical axis geometry, the other horizontal. Ultrastable cavities are constructed with fused silica mirror substrates, shown to decrease the thermal noise limit, in order to improve the frequency stability over previous designs. Vibration sensitivity components measured are equal to or better than 1.5x10{sup -11}/m s{sup -2} for each spatial direction, which shows significant improvement over previous studies. We have tested the very low dependence on the position of the cavity support points, in order to establish that our designs eliminate the need for fine tuning to achieve extremely low vibration sensitivity. Relative frequency measurements show that at least one of the stabilized lasers has a stability better than 5.6x10{sup -16} at 1 s, which is the best result obtained for this length of cavity.

  1. Mask lithography for display manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandstrom, T.; Ekberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    The last ten years have seen flat displays conquer our briefcases, desktops, and living rooms. There has been an enormous development in production technology, not least in lithography and photomasks. Current masks for large displays are more than 2 m2 and make 4-6 1X prints on glass substrates that are 9 m2. One of the most challenging aspects of photomasks for displays is the so called mura, stripes or blemishes which cause visible defects in the finished display. For the future new and even tighter maskwriter specifications are driven by faster transistors and more complex pixel layouts made necessary by the market's wish for still better image quality, multi-touch panels, 3D TVs, and the next wave of e-book readers. Large OLED screens will pose new challenges. Many new types of displays will be lowcost and use simple lithography, but anything which can show video and high quality photographic images needs a transistor backplane and sophisticated masks for its production.

  2. Direct write electron beam lithography: a historical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Hans C.

    2010-09-01

    Maskless pattern generation capability in combination with practically limitless resolution made probe-forming electron beam systems attractive tools in the semiconductor fabrication process. However, serial exposure of pattern elements with a scanning beam is a slow process and throughput presented a key challenge in electron beam lithography from the beginning. To meet this challenge imaging concepts with increasing exposure efficiency have been developed projecting ever larger number of pixels in parallel. This evolution started in the 1960s with the SEM-type Gaussian beam systems writing one pixel at a time directly on wafers. During the 1970s IBM pioneered the concept of shaped beams containing multiple pixels which led to higher throughput and an early success of e-beam direct write (EBDW) in large scale manufacturing of semiconductor chips. EBDW in a mix-and match approach with optical lithography provided unique flexibility in part number management and cycle time reduction and proved extremely cost effective in IBM's Quick-Turn-Around-Time (QTAT) facilities. But shaped beams did not keep pace with Moore's law because of limitations imposed by the physics of charged particles: Coulomb interactions between beam electrons cause image blur and consequently limit beam current and throughput. A new technology approach was needed. Physically separating beam electrons into multiple beamlets to reduce Coulomb interaction led to the development of massively parallel projection of pixels. Electron projection lithography (EPL) - a mask based imaging technique emulating optical steppers - was pursued during the 1990s by Bell Labs with SCALPEL and by IBM with PREVAIL in partnership with Nikon. In 2003 Nikon shipped the first NCR-EB1A e-beam stepper based on the PREVAIL technology to Selete. It exposed pattern segments containing 10 million pixels in single shot and represented the first successful demonstration of massively parallel pixel projection. However the window

  3. Directed Self-assembly for Lithography Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Joy

    2010-03-01

    Economics dictated that semiconductor devices need to be scaled approximately to 70 percent linearly in order to follow the pace of Moore's law and maintain cost effectiveness. Optical lithography has been the driving force for scaling; however, it approaches its physical limit to print patterns beyond 22nm node. Directed self-assembly (DSA), which combines ``bottom-up'' self-assembled polymers and ``top-down'' lithographically defined substrates, has been considered as a potential candidate to extend optical lithography. Benefit from nanometer-scale self-assembly features and the registration precision of advanced lithography, DSA provides precise and programmable nanopatterns beyond the resolution limit of conventional lithography. We have demonstrated DSA concepts including frequency multiplication and pattern rectification using guiding prepattern with proper chemical and topographical information generated by e-beam lithography. In addition, we seek to integrate DSA with 193 nm optical lithography in a straightforward manner in order to move DSA from the research stage to a viable manufacturing technology. Recently, we implemented various integration strategies using photolithography to produce guiding patterns for DSA. This new ability enables DSA to be applied to large areas with state-of-the-art lithography facilities.

  4. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Applications in Advanced Lithography Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synowicki, R. A.; Pribil, Greg K.; Hilfiker, James N.; Edwards, Kevin

    2005-09-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is an optical metrology technique widely used in the semiconductor industry. For lithography applications SE is routinely used for measurement of film thickness and refractive index of polymer photoresist and antireflective coatings. While this remains a primary use of SE, applications are now expanding into other areas of advanced lithography research. New applications include immersion lithography, phase-shift photomasks, transparent pellicles, 193 and 157 nm lithography, stepper optical coatings, imprint lithography, and even real-time monitoring of etch development rate in liquid ambients. Of recent interest are studies of immersion fluids where knowledge of the fluid refractive index and absorption are critical to their use in immersion lithography. Phase-shift photomasks are also of interest as the thickness and index of the phase-shift and absorber layers must be critically controlled for accurate intensity and phase transmission. Thin transparent pellicles to protect these masks must be also characterized for thickness and refractive index. Infrared ellipsometry is sensitive to chemical composition, film thickness, and how film chemistry changes with processing. Real-time monitoring of polymer film thickness during etching in a liquid developer allows etch rate and endpoint determination with monolayer sensitivity. This work considers these emerging applications to survey the current status of spectroscopic ellipsometry as a characterization technique in advanced lithography applications.

  5. Photomask design method for pattern-integrated interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibovici, Matthieu C. R.; Gaylord, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Pattern-integrated interference lithography (PIIL) combines multibeam interference lithography and projection lithography simultaneously to produce two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) periodic-lattice-based microstructures in a rapid, single-exposure step. Using a comprehensive PIIL vector model and realistic photolithographic conditions, PIIL exposures for a representative photonic-crystal (PhC) 90 deg bend waveguide are simulated in the volume of the photoresist film. The etched structures in the underlying substrate are estimated as well. Due to the imperfect integration of the photomask within the interference pattern, the interference pattern is locally distorted, thereby impacting the PhC periodic lattice and potentially the device performance. To mitigate these distortions, a photomask optimization method for PIIL is presented in this work. With an improved photomask, pillar-area and pillar-displacement errors in the vicinity of the waveguide are reduced by factors of 3.3 and 2.7, respectively. Furthermore, calculated transmission spectra show that the performance of the PIIL-produced PhC device is as good as that of its idealized equivalent.

  6. EUV lithography development in Europe: present status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccotti, Tiberio

    2004-01-01

    According to the ISMT roadmap, Extreme Ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the most promising technology to reach the 45-nm node for industrial production and to satisfy the famous law of Moore beyond 2007. Already in 1998 the first European EUVL project (EUCLIDES) has been launched under the leadership of ASM Lithography. Shortly after that in 1999, the national R&D program PREUVE started in France to improve EUVL related technologies and to build the first experimental lithography bench (BEL) in Europe. Finally, in 2001, the main European industrial companies as well as academic and national laboratories have federated within the important MEDEA+ effort to overcome the main technological challenges and to industrialize EUVL in time. Indeed, one of the most important challenges of EUVL concerns the achievement of very powerful, clean and reliable sources. The present paper will give the current state of European EUVL source technology and an overview of the different approaches. Main results are reviewed and the remaining challenges are discussed.

  7. Defect tolerant transmission lithography mask

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    A transmission lithography mask that utilizes a transparent substrate or a partially transparent membrane as the active region of the mask. A reflective single layer or multilayer coating is deposited on the membrane surface facing the illumination system. The coating is selectively patterned (removed) to form transmissive (bright) regions. Structural imperfections and defects in the coating have negligible effect on the aerial image of the mask master pattern since the coating is used to reflect radiation out of the entrance pupil of the imaging system. Similarly, structural imperfections in the clear regions of the membrane have little influence on the amplitude or phase of the transmitted electromagnetic fields. Since the mask "discards," rather than absorbs, unwanted radiation, it has reduced optical absorption and reduced thermal loading as compared to conventional designs. For EUV applications, the mask circumvents the phase defect problem, and is independent of the thermal load during exposure.

  8. Miniature electron microscopes for lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinerman, Alan D.; Crewe, David A.; Perng, Dung-Ching; Spindt, Capp A.; Schwoebel, Paul R.; Crewe, Albert V.

    1994-05-01

    Two inexpensive and extremely accurate methods for fabricating miniature 10 - 50 kV and 0.5 - 10 kV electron beam columns have been developed: `slicing,' and `stacking.' Two or three miniature columns could be used to perform a 20 nm or better alignment of an x-ray mask to a substrate. An array of miniature columns could be used for rapid wafer inspection and high throughput electron beam lithography. The column fabrication methods combine the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies to create macroscopic structures consisting of charged particle sources, deflecting and focusing electrodes, and detectors. The overall performance of the miniature column also depends on the emission characteristics of the micromachined electron source which is currently being investigated.

  9. Scaling behavior in interference lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Agayan, R.R.; Banyai, W.C.; Fernandez, A.

    1998-02-27

    Interference lithography is an emerging, technology that provides a means for achieving high resolution over large exposure areas (approximately 1 m{sup 2}) with virtually unlimited depth of field. One- and two-dimensional arrays of deep submicron structures can be created using near i-line wavelengths and standard resist processing. In this paper, we report on recent advances in the development of this technology, focusing, in particular, on how exposure latitude and resist profile scale with interference period We present structure width vs dose curves for periods ranging from 200 nm to 1 um, demonstrating that deep submicron structures can be generated with exposure latitudes exceeding 30%. Our experimental results are compared to simulations based on PROLITIV2.

  10. Local area mask patterning of extreme ultraviolet lithography reticles for native defect analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Adam

    Understanding the nature and behavior of native defects on EUV reticles, particularly their printability, is of critical importance to the successful implementation of EUV lithography for high volume manufacturing, as will be demonstrated in the upcoming chapters. Previous defect characterization work has focused on the examination of programmed defects, native defects on blank reticles, and unaligned native defects on patterned reticles. Each of these approaches has drawbacks, which will be discussed in detail, and the aim of this research is to address these deficiencies by developing a method to pattern features of interest over native defects, enabling the direct observation of their effect on lithography. The development of this Local Area Mask Patterning, or LAMP process, posed significant challenges, each of which are discussed in detail in the following chapters. Chapter 1 describes the history of semiconductor lithography and how EUV lithography came to be the leading candidate for the manufacture of future technology nodes. Chapter 2 describes EUV technology in more detail, presenting some of the major challenges facing its implementation, and how the LAMP project can contribute to their solution. Since electron beam lithography is used to create reticles for the LAMP project, an overview of this technology is provided in Chapter 3 below. After the reticle has been patterned using EBL, the pattern must be transferred to the absorber layer, and Chapter 4 describes a method developed for absorber patterning using a bench-top lift-off lithography technique. The major disadvantage of using lift-off lithography is the tendency of the process to re-deposit absorber particles across the reticle surface, and there is no tool available at CNSE to perform patterned reticle defect inspection. To address this need the functionality of the VB300 was extended to allow the inspection of the patterned reticle using the VB300 backscatter electron SEM imaging capability

  11. Lithography of choice for the 45-nm node: new medium, new wavelength, or new beam?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesawa, Fumikatsu; Katsumata, Mikio; Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Takeuchi, Koichi; Omori, Shinji; Yoshizawa, Masaki; Kawahira, Hiroichi

    2004-05-01

    In order to clarify the direction of the lithography for the 45 nm node, the feasibilities of various lithographic techniques for gate, metal, and contact layers are studied by using experimental data and aerial image simulations. The focus and exposure budget have been determined from the actual data and the realistic estimation such as the focus distributions across a wafer measured by the phase shift focus monitor (PSFM), the focus and exposure reproducibility of the latest exposure tools, and the anticipated 45 nm device topography, etc. 193 nm lithography with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.93 achieves the half pitch of 70 nm (hp70) by using an attenuated phase shift mask (att-PSM) and annular illumination. 193 nm immersion lithography has the possibility to achieve the hp60 without an alternative PSM (alt-PSM). For a gate layer, 50-nm/130-nm line-and-space (L/S) patterns as well as 50 nm isolated lines can be fabricated by an alt-PSM. Although specific aberrations degrade the critical dimension (CD) variation of an alt-PSM, +/-2.6 nm CD uniformity (CDU) is demonstrated by choosing the well-controlled projection lens and using a high flatness wafer. For a contact layers, printing 90 nm contacts is very critical by optical lithography even if the aggressive resolution enhancement technique (RET) is used. Especially for dense contact, the mask error factor (MEF) increases to around 10 and practical process margin is not available at all. On the other hand, low-energy electron-beam proximity-projection lithography (LEEPL) can fabricate 80 nm contact with large process margin. As a lithography tool for the contact layers of the 45 nm node devices, LEEPL is expected to replace 193 nm lithography.

  12. Evolution of light source technology to support immersion and EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenstock, Gerry M.; Meinert, Christine; Farrar, Nigel R.; Yen, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Since the early 1980's, the resolution of optical projection lithography has improved dramatically primarily due to three factors: increases in projection lens numerical aperture, reduction of the imaging source wavelength, and continued reduction of the k1 factor. These three factors have been enabled by the concurrent improvements in lens making technology, DUV light sources, photoresist technology, and resolution enhancement techniques. The DUV light source, excimer KrF and ArF lasers, has entered main stream production and now images more than 50% of the critical layers in today's leading edge devices. Looking forward to both immersion lithography and beyond to EUV lithography, new light source technologies must be created to enable the continued progression of shrinking feature sizes embodied by Moore's law.

  13. MAGIC: a European program to push the insertion of maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, L.; Icard, B.; Tedesco, S.; Kampherbeek, B.; Gross, G.; Klein, C.; Loeschner, H.; Platzgummer, E.; Morgan, R.; Manakli, S.; Kretz, J.; Holhe, C.; Choi, K.-H.; Thrum, F.; Kassel, E.; Pilz, W.; Keil, K.; Butschke, J.; Irmscher, M.; Letzkus, F.; Hudek, P.; Paraskevopoulos, A.; Ramm, P.; Weber, J.

    2008-03-01

    With the willingness of the semiconductor industry to push manufacturing costs down, the mask less lithography solution represents a promising option to deal with the cost and complexity concerns about the optical lithography solution. Though a real interest, the development of multi beam tools still remains in laboratory environment. In the frame of the seventh European Framework Program (FP7), a new project, MAGIC, started January 1st 2008 with the objective to strengthen the development of the mask less technology. The aim of the program is to develop multi beam systems from MAPPER and IMS nanofabrication technologies and the associated infrastructure for the future tool usage. This paper draws the present status of multi beam lithography and details the content and the objectives of the MAGIC project.

  14. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOEpatents

    Howells, Malcolm R.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

  15. Development of a computational lithography roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. Fung; Liu, Hua-Yu; Laidig, Thomas; Zuniga, Christian; Cao, Yu; Socha, Robert

    2008-03-01

    While lithography R&D community at large has already gotten the mind set for 32nm, all eyes are on 22nm node. Current consensus is to employ computational lithography to meet wafer CD uniformity (CDU) requirement. Resolution enhancement technologies (RET) and model OPC are the two fundamental components for computational lithography. Today's full-chip CDU specifications are already pushing physical limits at extreme lithography k I factor. While increasingly aggressive RET either by double exposure or double patterning are enabling imaging performance, for CDU control we need ever more accurate OPC at a greater computational efficiency. In this report, we discuss the desire for wanting more robust and accurate OPC models. One important trend is to have predictive OPC models allowing accurate OPC results to be obtained much faster, shortening the qualification process for exposure tools. We investigate several key parameters constitute to accuracy achievable in computational lithography. Such as the choice of image pixel size, numbers of terms needed for transmission cross coefficients (TCC), and "safe" ambit radius for assuring accurate CD prediction. Selections of image pixel size and "safe" ambit radius together determine % utilization for 2D fast Fourier transformation (FFT) for efficient full-chip OPC computation. For IC manufacturing beyond ArF, we made initial observations and estimations on EUV computational lithography. These discussions pave the way for developing a computational lithography roadmap extends to the end of Moore's Law. This computational lithography roadmap aims to be a complement for the current ITRS roadmap on what does it take to achieve CD correction accuracy.

  16. ITRS lithography roadmap: status and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neisser, Mark; Wurm, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Recent ITRS lithography roadmaps show a big technology decision approaching the semiconductor industry about how to do leading edge lithography. The need is rapidly approaching for the industry to select an option for the 22-nm half pitch, but no decision has been made yet. The main options for the 22-nm half pitch are extreme ultraviolet (EUV), ArF immersion lithography with multiple patterning, and maskless lithography. For the 16-nm half pitch, directed self-assembly (DSA) is also an option. The EUV has the most industry investment and is the closest to current lithography in the way it works but still faces challenges in tool productivity and defect-free masks. The nanoimprint needs to overcome the defect, contamination, and overlay challenges before it can be applied to the semiconductor production. Maskless lithography may be used first for prototyping and small volume products where mask costs per chip produced would be very high. Double patterning could be extended to multiple pattering, but would give tremendous process complexity and exponentially rising mask costs due to the many exposures needed per level. The DSA, which only recently has emerged from the research stage, has the potential for very high resolution but represents a huge change in how critical dimensions are formed and controlled.

  17. Speckle disturbance limit in laser-based cinema projection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Roelandt, Stijn; Meuret, Youri; van den Broeck, Wendy; Kilpi, Katriina; Lievens, Bram; Jacobs, An; Janssens, Peter; Thienpont, Hugo

    2015-09-01

    In a multi-disciplinary effort, we investigate the level of speckle that can be tolerated in a laser cinema projector based on a quality of experience experiment with movie clips shown to a test audience in a real-life movie theatre setting. We identify a speckle disturbance threshold by statistically analyzing the observers’ responses for different values of the amount of speckle, which was monitored using a well-defined speckle measurement method. The analysis shows that the speckle perception of a human observer is not only dependent on the objectively measured amount of speckle, but it is also strongly influenced by the image content. The speckle disturbance limit for movies turns out to be substantially larger than that for still images, and hence is easier to attain.

  18. Speckle disturbance limit in laser-based cinema projection systems.

    PubMed

    Verschaffelt, Guy; Roelandt, Stijn; Meuret, Youri; Van den Broeck, Wendy; Kilpi, Katriina; Lievens, Bram; Jacobs, An; Janssens, Peter; Thienpont, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    In a multi-disciplinary effort, we investigate the level of speckle that can be tolerated in a laser cinema projector based on a quality of experience experiment with movie clips shown to a test audience in a real-life movie theatre setting. We identify a speckle disturbance threshold by statistically analyzing the observers' responses for different values of the amount of speckle, which was monitored using a well-defined speckle measurement method. The analysis shows that the speckle perception of a human observer is not only dependent on the objectively measured amount of speckle, but it is also strongly influenced by the image content. The speckle disturbance limit for movies turns out to be substantially larger than that for still images, and hence is easier to attain. PMID:26370531

  19. Magnetic nanostructures by colloidal lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Frank Qing

    Structural, magnetic and in some cases magneto-transport properties of (1) symmetric and asymmetric ferromagnetic nanorings and (2) single layer, multilayer, and exchange biased ferromagnetic nanodots prepared by colloidal lithography are presented. A fast, reliable and cost effective method has been developed to fabricate large number (˜ 109) of magnetic nanorings over macroscopic areas (˜ cm2) with large areal densities (up to 45 rings/mum 2). Cobalt nanorings with diameters ranging from 100 nm to 500 nm have been fabricated by sputtering Co onto nanosphere-coated substrates followed by ion beam etching. X-ray diffraction verifies that the Co nanorings still have hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the cross-section of the symmetric nanoring is tapered and uniform along the circumference, and the cross-section of the asymmetric nanoring changes progressively along the circumference. Two magnetic reversal processes have been found in magnetic nanorings---the vortex formation process and the onion rotation process. The co-existence of these two processes is the manifestation of the competition between the exchange energy and the magnetostatic energy in the nanorings. Micromagnetics simulations have been carried out to reveal the details of the magnetic reversals. The experimental and the computed hysteresis loops agree both qualitatively and quantitatively. For the 100 nm symmetric Co nanorings, the vortex formation process has a probability of about 40%, while the onion rotation process has 60% chances. To increase the probability of vortex formation process, a desirable process for application, asymmetric nanorings have been fabricated by ion beam etching at oblique angles. Unlike the symmetric nanorings, the probability of the vortex formation process in asymmetric nanorings can be controlled by the direction of the external field. For the 100 nm asymmetric nanorings, the fraction of the vortex formation process

  20. Beam shaping for laser-based adaptive optics in astronomy.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Clémentine; Guesalaga, Andrés; Neichel, Benoit; Fesquet, Vincent; González-Núñez, Héctor; Zúñiga, Sebastián; Escarate, Pedro; Guzman, Dani

    2014-06-01

    The availability and performance of laser-based adaptive optics (AO) systems are strongly dependent on the power and quality of the laser beam before being projected to the sky. Frequent and time-consuming alignment procedures are usually required in the laser systems with free-space optics to optimize the beam. Despite these procedures, significant distortions of the laser beam have been observed during the first two years of operation of the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics system (GeMS). A beam shaping concept with two deformable mirrors is investigated in order to provide automated optimization of the laser quality for astronomical AO. This study aims at demonstrating the correction of quasi-static aberrations of the laser, in both amplitude and phase, testing a prototype of this two-deformable mirror concept on GeMS. The paper presents the results of the preparatory study before the experimental phase. An algorithm to control amplitude and phase correction, based on phase retrieval techniques, is presented with a novel unwrapping method. Its performance is assessed via numerical simulations, using aberrations measured at GeMS as reference. The results predict effective amplitude and phase correction of the laser distortions with about 120 actuators per mirror and a separation of 1.4 m between the mirrors. The spot size is estimated to be reduced by up to 15% thanks to the correction. In terms of AO noise level, this has the same benefit as increasing the photon flux by 40%. PMID:24921496

  1. Nanometer x-ray lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Khan Malek, Chantal G.

    1999-10-01

    New developments for x-ray nanomachining include pattern transfer onto non-planar surfaces coated with electrodeposited resists using synchrotron radiation x-rays through extremely high-resolution mask made by chemically assisted focused ion beam lithography. Standard UV photolithographic processes cannot maintain sub-micron definitions over large variation in feature topography. The ability of x-ray printing to pattern thin or thick layers of photoresist with high resolution on non-planar surfaces of large and complex topographies with limited diffraction and scattering effects and no substrate reflection is known and can be exploited for patterning microsystems with non-planar 3D geometries as well as multisided and multilayered substrates. Thin conformal coatings of electro-deposited positive and negative tone photoresist have been shown to be x-ray sensitive and accommodate sub-micro pattern transfer over surface of extreme topographical variations. Chemically assisted focused ion beam selective anisotropic erosion was used to fabricate x-ray masks directly. Masks with feature sizes less than 20 nm through 7 microns of gold were made on bulk silicon substrates and x-ray mask membranes. The technique is also applicable to other high density materials. Such masks enable the primary and secondary patterning and/or 3D machining of Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems over large depths or complex relief and the patterning of large surface areas with sub-optically dimensioned features.

  2. Secondary Electrons in EUV Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Torok, Justin; Re, Ryan Del; Herbol, Henry; Das, Sanjana; Bocharova, Irina; Paolucci, Angela; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Ventrice Jr., Carl; Lifshin, Eric; Denbeaux, Greg; Brainard, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary electrons play critical roles in several imaging technologies, including extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. At longer wavelengths of light (e.g. 193 and 248 nm), the photons are directly involved in the photochemistry occurring during photolysis. EUV light (13.5 nm, 92 eV), however, first creates a photoelectron, and this electron, or its subsequent daughter electrons create most of the chemical changes that occur during exposure. Despite the importance of these electrons, the details surrounding the chemical events leading to acid production remain poorly understood. Previously reported experimental results using high PAG-loaded resists have demonstrated that up to five or six photoacids can be generated per incident photon. Until recently, only electron recombination events were thought to play a role in acid generation, requiring that at least as many secondary electrons are produced to yield a given number of acid molecules. However, the initial results we have obtained using a Monte Carlo-based modeling program, LESiS, demonstrate that only two to three secondary electrons are made per absorbed EUV photon. A more comprehensive understanding of EUV-induced acid generation is therefore needed for the development of higher performance resists

  3. Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y

    1998-09-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed.

  4. Semiconductor foundry, lithography, and partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Burn J.

    2002-07-01

    The semiconductor foundry took off in 1990 with an annual capacity of less than 0.1M 8-inch-equivalent wafers at the 2-mm node. In 2000, the annual capacity rose to more than 10M. Initially, the technology practiced at foundries was 1 to 2 generations behind that at integrated device manufacturers (IDMs). Presently, the progress in 0.13-mm manufacturing goes hand-in-hand with any of the IDMs. There is a two-order of magnitude rise in output and the progress of technology development outpaces IDMs. What are the reasons of the success? Is it possible to sustain the pace? This paper shows the quick rise of foundries in capacity, sales, and market share. It discusses the their uniqueness which gives rise to advantages in conjunction with challenges. It also shows the role foundries take with their customer partners and supplier partners, their mutual dependencies, as well as expectations. What role then does lithography play in the foundries? What are the lithographic challenges to sustain the pace of technology? The experience of technology development and transfer, at one of the major foundries, is used to illustrate the difficulties and progresses made. Looking into the future, as semiconductor manufacturing will become even more expensive and capital investment more prohibitive, we will make an attempt to suggest possible solutions.

  5. Laser-Based Measurement Of Torsional Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, P. G.; Halliwell, N. A.

    1986-07-01

    Investigations of the torsional vibration characteristics of shaft systems which transmit pulsating torques are an important part of a machinery designer's responsibility. Satisfactory operation of such systems depends to a large extent on successful treatment of this vibration problem, since incorrectly or insufficiently controlled torsional oscillations can lead to fatigue failure, rapid bearing wear, gear hammer etc. The problem is particularly severe in engine crankshaft design where numerous failures have been traced to abnormal vibration at "critical" speeds. Traditionally, the monitoring of torsional oscillation has been performed using strain gauges, slip rings and a variety of mechanical and electrical "torsiographs". More recently systems employing slotted discs or toothed wheels together with proximity transducers have been preferred, but a disadvantage arises from all these methods in that they require contact with the rotating component which necessitates "downtime" for transducer attachment. Moreover, physical access to the rotating surface is often restricted thus making the use of such methods impractical. The "cross-beam" laser velocimeter provides a means of measuring torsional vibration by a non-contact method, thus effectively overcoming the disadvantages of previous measurement systems. This well established laser-based instrument provides a time-resolved voltage analogue of shaft tangential surface velocity and laboratory and field tests have shown it to be both accurate and reliable. The versatility of this instrument, however, is restricted by the need for accurate positioning, since the velocimeter must be arranged so that the rotating surface always traverses the beam intersection region, which is typically only a fraction of a millimetre in length. As a consequence use is restricted to components of circular cross section. This paper compares and contrasts the "cross-beam" system with a new laser instrument, the laser torsional vibrometer

  6. Vacuum-free self-powered parallel electron lithography with sub-35-nm resolution.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuerui; Lal, Amit

    2010-06-01

    The critical dimension, throughput, and cost of nanolithography are central to developing commercially viable high-performance nanodevices. Available top-down lithography approaches to fabricate large-area nanostructures at low cost, such as controllable nanowire (NW) array fabrication for solar cells applications, are challenging due to the requirement of both high lithography resolution and high throughput. Here, a minimum 35 nm resolution is experimentally demonstrated by using a new mask fabrication technique in our demonstrated vacuum-free high-throughput self-powered parallel electron lithography (SPEL) system, which uses large-area planar radioactive beta-electron thin film emitters to parallel expose e-beam resist through a stencil mask. SPEL is the first-time demonstrated vacuum-free electron lithography, which overcomes the membrane mask distortion challenge that was shown to be the Achilles heel of previous attempts at electron projection lithography in vacuum. Monte Carlo simulations show that by using beryllium tritide thin film source in SPEL system, the exposure time can be reduced down to 2 min for each large-area (10000 cm(2) or more) parallel exposure, with resolution not larger than 20 nm. Moreover, experimental demonstration of large-area diameter-and-density controllable vertical NW arrays fabricated by SPEL shows its promising utility for an application requiring large-area nanostructure definition. PMID:20481509

  7. Lithography aware overlay metrology target design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myungjun; Smith, Mark D.; Lee, Joonseuk; Jung, Mirim; Lee, Honggoo; Kim, Youngsik; Han, Sangjun; Adel, Michael E.; Lee, Kangsan; Lee, Dohwa; Choi, Dongsub; Liu, Zephyr; Itzkovich, Tal; Levinski, Vladimir; Levy, Ady

    2016-03-01

    We present a metrology target design (MTD) framework based on co-optimizing lithography and metrology performance. The overlay metrology performance is strongly related to the target design and optimizing the target under different process variations in a high NA optical lithography tool and measurement conditions in a metrology tool becomes critical for sub-20nm nodes. The lithography performance can be quantified by device matching and printability metrics, while accuracy and precision metrics are used to quantify the metrology performance. Based on using these metrics, we demonstrate how the optimized target can improve target printability while maintaining the good metrology performance for rotated dipole illumination used for printing a sub-100nm diagonal feature in a memory active layer. The remaining challenges and the existing tradeoff between metrology and lithography performance are explored with the metrology target designer's perspective. The proposed target design framework is completely general and can be used to optimize targets for different lithography conditions. The results from our analysis are both physically sensible and in good agreement with experimental results.

  8. Soft Lithography Using Nectar Droplets.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saheli; Chakrabarti, Aditi; Chateauminois, Antoine; Wandersman, Elie; Prevost, Alexis M; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2015-12-01

    In spite of significant advances in replication technologies, methods to produce well-defined three-dimensional structures are still at its infancy. Such a limitation would be evident if we were to produce a large array of simple and, especially, compound convex lenses, also guaranteeing that their surfaces would be molecularly smooth. Here, we report a novel method to produce such structures by cloning the 3D shape of nectar drops, found widely in nature, using conventional soft lithography.The elementary process involves transfer of a thin patch of the sugar solution coated on a glass slide onto a hydrophobic substrate on which this patch evolves into a microdroplet. Upon the absorption of water vapor, such a microdroplet grows linearly with time, and its final size can be controlled by varying its exposure time to water vapor. At any stage of the evolution of the size of the drop, its shape can be cloned onto a soft elastomer by following the well-known methods of molding and cross-linking the same. A unique new science that emerges in our attempt to understand the transfer of the sugar patch and its evolution to a spherical drop is the elucidation of the mechanics underlying the contact of a deformable sphere against a solid support intervening a thin liquid film. A unique aspect of this work is to demonstrate that higher level structures can also be generated by transferring even smaller nucleation sites on the surface of the primary lenses and then allowing them to grow by absorption of water vapor. What results at the end is either a well-controlled distribution of smooth hemispherical lenses or compound structures that could have potential applications in the fundamental studies of contact mechanics, wettability, and even in optics. PMID:26563988

  9. High-n immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Harry; Mulkens, Jan; Graeupner, Paul; McCafferty, Diane; Markoya, Louis; Donders, Sjoerd; Cortie, Rogier; Meijers, Ralph; Evangelista, Fabrizio; Samarakone, Nandarisi

    2008-03-01

    A two-year study on the feasibility of High-n Immersion Lithography shows very promising results. This paper reports the findings of the study. The evaluation shows the tremendous progress made in the development of second-generation immersion fluid technology. Candidate fluids from several suppliers have been evaluated. All the commercial fluids evaluated are viable, so there are a number of options. Life tests have been conducted on bench top fluid-handling systems and the results referenced to full-scale systems. Parameters such as Dose per Laser Pulse, Pulse Rate, Fluid Flow Rate, and Fluid Absorbency at 193nm, and Oxygen/Air Contamination Levels were explored. A detailed evaluation of phenomena such as Last Lens Element (LLE) contamination has been conducted. Lens cleaning has been evaluated. A comparison of High-n fluid-based technology and water-based immersion technology shows interesting advantages of High-n fluid in the areas of Defect and Resist Interaction. Droplet Drying tests, Resist Staining evaluations, and Resist Contrast impact studies have all been run. Defect-generating mechanisms have been identified and are being eliminated. The lower evaporation rate of the High-n fluids compared with water shows the advantages of High-n Immersion. The core issue for the technology, the availability of High-n optical material for use as the final lens element, is updated. Samples of LuAG material have been received from development partners and have been evaluated. The latest status of optical materials and the technology timelines are reported. The potential impact of the availability of the technology is discussed. Synergy with technologies such as Double Patterning is discussed. The prospects for <22nm (hp) are evaluated.

  10. Hybrid lithography for triple patterning decomposition and E-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Haitong; Zhang, Hongbo; Xiao, Zigang; Wong, Martin D. F.

    2014-03-01

    As we advances into 14/10nm technology node, single patterning technology is far from enough to fabricate the features with shrinking feature size. According to International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors in 2011,1 double patterning lithography is already available for massive productions in industry for sub-32nm half pitch technology node. For 14/10nm technology node, double patterning begins to show its limitations as it uses too many stitches to resolve the native coloring conflicts. Stitches will increase the manufacturing cost, lead to potential functional errors of the chip, and cause the yield lost. Triple patterning lithography and E-Beam lithography are two emerging techniques to beat the diffraction limit for current optical lithography system. In this paper, we investigate combining the merits of triple patterning lithography and E-Beam lithography for standard cell based designs. We devise an approach to compute a stitch free decomposition with the optimal number of E-Beam shots for row structure layout. The approach is expected to highlight the necessity and advantages of using hybrid lithography for advanced technology node.

  11. Advanced mask aligner lithography: new illumination system.

    PubMed

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Vogler, Uwe; Bich, Andreas; Pernet, Pascal; Weible, Kenneth J; Hornung, Michael; Zoberbier, Ralph; Cullmann, Elmar; Stuerzebecher, Lorenz; Harzendorf, Torsten; Zeitner, Uwe D

    2010-09-27

    A new illumination system for mask aligner lithography is presented. The illumination system uses two subsequent microlens-based Köhler integrators. The second Köhler integrator is located in the Fourier plane of the first. The new illumination system uncouples the illumination light from the light source and provides excellent uniformity of the light irradiance and the angular spectrum. Spatial filtering allows to freely shape the angular spectrum to minimize diffraction effects in contact and proximity lithography. Telecentric illumination and ability to precisely control the illumination light allows to introduce resolution enhancement technologies (RET) like customized illumination, optical proximity correction (OPC) and source-mask optimization (SMO) in mask aligner lithography. PMID:20940992

  12. Lithography and design in partnership: a new roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahng, Andrew B.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss the notion of a 'shared technology roadmap' between lithography and design from several perspectives. First, we examine cultural gaps and other intrinsic barriers to a shared roadmap. Second, we discuss how lithography technology can change the design technology roadmap. Third, we discuss how design technology can change the lithography technology roadmap. We conclude with an example of the 'flavor' of technology roadmapping activity that can truly bridge lithography and design.

  13. LAVA: lithography analysis using virtual access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chang; Yang, Rona; Cheng, Jeffery; Chien, Peter; Wen, Victor; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    1998-06-01

    A web site allowing remote operation of the SPLAT, SAMPLE, TEMPEST and SIMPL simulators has been developed to promote collaborative work on lithography and in particular on EUV technology. Based on the extensive use of platform independent programming languages, LAVA is accessible from all modern computing platforms. The software supporting the web site is available to others in creating similar web site sites and in making simulators such as those from other universities 'play' together. The web site explores new paradigms in remote operation of lithography simulators and introduces more application-oriented modes of interaction with technologists. The LAVA web site URL is http://cuervo.eecs.berkeley.edu/Volcano/

  14. Lithography light source fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Pantel, Erica; Nelissen, Patrick; Moen, Jeffrey; Tincu, Eduard; Dunstan, Wayne; Brown, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    High productivity is a key requirement for today's advanced lithography exposure tools. Achieving targets for wafers per day output requires consistently high throughput and availability. One of the keys to high availability is minimizing unscheduled downtime of the litho cell, including the scanner, track and light source. From the earliest eximer laser light sources, Cymer has collected extensive performance data during operation of the source, and this data has been used to identify the root causes of downtime and failures on the system. Recently, new techniques have been developed for more extensive analysis of this data to characterize the onset of typical end-of-life behavior of components within the light source and allow greater predictive capability for identifying both the type of upcoming service that will be required and when it will be required. The new techniques described in this paper are based on two core elements of Cymer's light source data management architecture. The first is enhanced performance logging features added to newer-generation light source software that captures detailed performance data; and the second is Cymer OnLine (COL) which facilitates collection and transmission of light source data. Extensive analysis of the performance data collected using this architecture has demonstrated that many light source issues exhibit recognizable patterns in their symptoms. These patterns are amenable to automated identification using a Cymer-developed model-based fault detection system, thereby alleviating the need for detailed manual review of all light source performance information. Automated recognition of these patterns also augments our ability to predict the performance trending of light sources. Such automated analysis provides several efficiency improvements for light source troubleshooting by providing more content-rich standardized summaries of light source performance, along with reduced time-to-identification for previously

  15. SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS FOR MASKLESS LITHOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Joy, David; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Clonts, Lloyd G

    2004-01-01

    Lithographic processes for printing device structures on integrated circuits (ICs) are the fundamental technology behind Moore's law. Next-generation techniques like maskless lithography or ML2 have the advantage that the long, tedious and expensive process of fabricating a unique mask for the manufactured chip is not necessary. However, there are some rather daunting problems with establishing ML2 as a viable commercial technology. The data rate necessary for ML2 to be competitive in manufacturing is not feasible with technology in the near future. There is also doubt that the competing technologies for the writing mechanisms and corresponding photoresist (or analogous medium) will be able to accurately produce the desired patterns necessary to produce multi-layer semiconductor devices. In this work, we model the maskless printing system from a signal processing point of view, utilizing image processing algorithms and concepts to study the effects of various real-world constraints and their implications for a ML2 system. The ML2 elements are discrete devices, and it is doubtful that their motion can be controlled to the level where a one-for-one element to exposed pixel relationship is allowable. Some level of sub-element resolution can be achieved with gray scale levels, but with the highly integrated manufacturing practices required to achieve massive parallelism, the most effective elements will be simple on-off switches that fire a fixed level of energy at the target medium. Consequently gray-scale level devices are likely not an option. Another problem with highly integrated manufacturing methods is device uniformity. Consequently, we analyze the redundant scanning array concept (RSA) conceived by Berglund et al. which can defeat many of these problems. We determine some basic equations governing its application and we focus on applying the technique to an array of low-energy electron emitters. Using the results of Monte Carlo simulations on electron beam

  16. System considerations for maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnowski, Thomas; Joy, David; Allard, Larry; Clonts, Lloyd

    2004-05-01

    Lithographic processes for printing device structures on integrated circuits (ICs) are the fundamental technology behind Moore's law. Next-generation techniques like maskless lithography or ML2 have the advantage that the long, tedious and expensive process of fabricating a unique mask for the manufactured chip is not necessary. However, there are some rather daunting prblems with establishing ML2 as a viable commercial technology. The data rate necessary for ML2 to be competitive in manufacturing is not feasible with technology in the near future. There is also doubt that the competing technologies for the writing mechanisms and corresponding photoresist (or analogous medium) will be able to accurately produce the desired patterns necessary to produce multi-layer semiconductor devices. In this work, we model the maskless printing system from a signal processing point of view, utilizing image processing algorithms and concepts to study the effects of various real-world constraints and their implications for a ML2 system. The ML2 elements are discrete devices, and it is doubtful that their motion can be controlled to the level where a one-for-one element to exposed pixel relationship is allowable. Some level of sub-element resolution can be achieved with gray scale levels, but with the highly integrated manufacturing practices required to achieve massive parallelism, the most effective elements will be simple on-ofrf switches that fire a fixed level of energy at the target medium. Consequently gray-scale level devidces are likely not an option. Another problem with highly integrated manufacturing methods is device uniformity. Consequently, we analyze the redundant scanning array concept (RSA) conceived by Berglund et al. which can defeat many of these problems. We determine some basic equations governing its application and we focus on applying the technique to an array of low-energy electron emitters. Using the results of Monte Carlo simulations on electron beam

  17. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

    1991-03-26

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

  18. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1991-01-01

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

  19. Polymer-based optical interconnects using nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, Arjen; Wiegersma, Sjoukje; Offrein, Bert J.; Duis, Jeroen; Delis, Jos; Ortsiefer, Markus; van Steenberge, Geert; Karpinen, Mikko; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Corbett, Brian

    2013-02-01

    The increasing request for higher data speeds in the information and communication technology leads to continuously increasing performance of microprocessors. This has led to the introduction of optical data transmission as a replacement of electronic data transmission in most transmission applications longer than 10 meters. However, a need remains for optical data transmission for shorter distances inside the computer. This paper gives an overview of the Joint European project FIREFLY, in which new polymer based single mode waveguides are developed for integration with VCSELs, splitters and fibers that will be manufactured using multi-layer nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Innovative polymers, new applications of nano-technology, new methods for optical coupling between components, and the integration of all these new components are the technical ingredients of this ambitious project.

  20. Development of MOEMS technology in maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Klenk, Dieter

    2009-02-01

    Micro-opto-electro-mechanical-systems (MOEMS) have proven to be a facilitating technology in the lithography industry. Recently, there have been significant advancements in digital micromirror device (DMD) based maskless lithography. These advancements have been in the areas of throughput, resolution, accuracy, and cost reduction. This progression in digital micromirror evolution provides considerable opportunities to displace existing lithographic techniques. Precise control of the individual mircormirrors, including scrolling, and full utilization of the FPGA, have allowed DMD-based lithography systems to reach new levels of throughput and repeatability, while reducing production and warranty costs. Throughput levels have far surpassed scanning laser techniques. Chip level cooling technologies allow for higher incident power to be reliably distributed over larger areas of the substrate. Resolution roadmaps are in place to migrate from the current 2400dpi (11μm) to 4800dpi (5.3μm). Without the constraints of mask requirements, mask alignment, storage, and defect analysis are not required, thus increasing accuracy and reducing cost. This contribution will examine the advancements in and benefits of DMD based maskless lithography.

  1. Recent Progress On Submicron Electron Beam Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigawa, Tadahiro; Shimazaki, Kuniya; Kusui, Naoki

    1986-06-01

    In order to fabricate submicron pattern, total electron beam (EB) lithography system has been developed. Upper submicron pattern will be realized by optical lithography, which requires reticle with high accuracy. An EB writing system, EBM-130/40, has the performance of drawing capability of 4 M bit DRAM reticle pattern in about 40 minutes. The EB system incorporated with peripheral technologies including data compaction conversion software, reticle inspection system, APC-130R, and EBR-9 resist process can produce advanced reticles of number of about 600 per month. For lower submicron pattern formation, next generation lithography system is required. The EBM-130V is the variable shaped EB system with high acceleration voltage of 50 kV and high dosage of 50 μC/cm2 for direct writing and X-ray mask fabrication for development of the high bit density VLSI pattern. This system makes possible EB/optical combined lithography. Its metrology function allows it to measure X-ray mask distortion.

  2. Femtosecond Fiber Lasers Based on Dissipative Processes for Nonlinear Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wise, Frank W

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of femtosecond-pulse fiber lasers with parameters appropriate for nonlinear microscopy is reviewed. Pulse-shaping in lasers with only normal-dispersion components is briefly described, and the performance of the resulting lasers is summarized. Fiber lasers based on the formation of dissipative solitons now offer performance competitive with that of solid-state lasers, but with the benefits of the fiber medium. Lasers based on self-similar pulse evolution in the gain section of a laser also offer a combination of short pulse duration and high pulse energy that will be attractive for applications in nonlinear bioimaging. PMID:23869163

  3. Femtosecond Fiber Lasers Based on Dissipative Processes for Nonlinear Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of femtosecond-pulse fiber lasers with parameters appropriate for nonlinear microscopy is reviewed. Pulse-shaping in lasers with only normal-dispersion components is briefly described, and the performance of the resulting lasers is summarized. Fiber lasers based on the formation of dissipative solitons now offer performance competitive with that of solid-state lasers, but with the benefits of the fiber medium. Lasers based on self-similar pulse evolution in the gain section of a laser also offer a combination of short pulse duration and high pulse energy that will be attractive for applications in nonlinear bioimaging. PMID:23869163

  4. Neutral Atom Lithography Using a Bright Metastable Helium Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shean, Claire; Reeves, Jason; Metcalf, Harold

    2008-05-01

    We have performed neutral atom lithography using a bright beam of metastable Helium (He*) that is collimated with the bichromatic force followed by two Doppler molasses velocity compression stages. We have previously demonstrated this lithography method using a metal grid to project its image on a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of nonanethiol. The open areas of the grid allow incident He* to damage the SAM molecules by depositing their 20 eV of internal energy on the surface. The undisturbed SAM regions then protect a gold coated Silicon wafer from a wet chemical etch. Samples created with this method have an edge resolution of 63 nm that was observed using an atomic force microscope. We have now achieved focusing of the He* beam into lines by the dipole force that the atoms experience while traversing a standing wave of λ = 1083 nm light tuned 500 MHz above the 2^3S1-->2^3P2 transition. The lines are separated by λ/2 and their length is comparable to the laser beam waist. Because bichromatic collimation makes such an intense He* beam, our exposure time can be as short as 10 minutes.

  5. Laser based micro forming and assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    MacCallum, Danny O'Neill; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Steyskal, Michele D.; Lehecka, Tom; Scherzinger, William Mark; Palmer, Jeremy Andrew

    2006-11-01

    It has been shown that thermal energy imparted to a metallic substrate by laser heating induces a transient temperature gradient through the thickness of the sample. In favorable conditions of laser fluence and absorptivity, the resulting inhomogeneous thermal strain leads to a measurable permanent deflection. This project established parameters for laser micro forming of thin materials that are relevant to MESA generation weapon system components and confirmed methods for producing micrometer displacements with repeatable bend direction and magnitude. Precise micro forming vectors were realized through computational finite element analysis (FEA) of laser-induced transient heating that indicated the optimal combination of laser heat input relative to the material being heated and its thermal mass. Precise laser micro forming was demonstrated in two practical manufacturing operations of importance to the DOE complex: micrometer gap adjustments of precious metal alloy contacts and forming of meso scale cones.

  6. Laser-based Measurement Systems for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plattner, Markus

    2012-03-01

    Measurement systems based on laser technology are widely used in laboratories, metrology institutes and industry. Measurement applications like optical sensing and optical spectroscopy are state of the art. For space applications, however, laser systems are rarely used due to the sensitivity of optical components to the harsh environmental conditions. The focus of this work lies on further development of laser technologies for the applications optical frequency comb generation and fiber-optic sensing. In order to identify suitable laser technologies, the conditions for systems that shall be operated in space are analyzed thoroughly. The influences due to the space environment are considered and the radiation and temperature effects on laser optics are determined. Commercially available femtosecond fiber lasers based on mode-locking technologies non-linear polarization rotation and quasi-soliton generation are functionally tested in order to verify the theoretical analysis. Thermal-vacuum and Gamma radiation test series are carried out and the performance of the lasers is measured online. Evaluation of measurement data, assessment of laser setups in terms of robustness and their behaviors during tests allow concluding an optimized femtosecond laser design. This design serves as baseline for further development and will yield a system that can cope with the requirements for an application in space. In order to demonstrate the functionality of fiber-optic sensing based on a tunable laser diode, an interrogator system is built and tested in the frame of this work. This technology, based on a monolithic laser, enables an all-in-fiber setup without any free-space optics. The laser wavelength is tuned by feeding in three control currents. Thereby, the connected fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors are sampled spectrally. Newly developed algorithms enhance the measurement performance, evaluate the back reflected sensor responses and determine the measurement value. This

  7. Diode-laser-based lidars: the next generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujkovic-Cvijin, Pajo; Cooper, David E.; Van der Laan, Jan E.; Warren, Russell E.

    1999-10-01

    The work on the development of compact diode laser-based lidar systems at SRI International is reviewed. Two systems, a pseudorandom modulation lidar, and a mobile remote sensor for natural gas pipeline leak detection are described in detail, and experimental results are presented. Methods to enhance signal detection by digital filtering are also reviewed.

  8. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T; Huang, Yong; Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie, Yubing; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location (±5 μm) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. PMID:20814088

  9. Rethinking ASIC design with next generation lithography and process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Kaushik; Liu, Renzhi; Liebmann, Lars; Lai, Kafai; Strojwas, Andrzej; Pileggi, Larry

    2013-03-01

    Given the deployment delays for EUV, several next generation lithography (NGL) options are being actively researched. Several cost-effective NGL solutions, such as self-aligned double patterning through sidewall image transfer (SIT) and directed self-assembly (DSA), in conjunction with process integration challenges, mandate grating-like pattern design. As part of the GRATEdd project, we have evaluated the design cost of grating-based design for ASICs (application specific ICs). Based on our observations we have engineered fundamental changes to the primary ASIC design components to make scaling affordable and useful in deeply scaled sub-20 nm technologies: unidirectional-M1 based standard cells, application-specific smart SRAM synthesis, and statistical and self-healing analog design.

  10. Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Simon J.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1998-01-01

    A critical illumination condenser system, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 .mu.m source and requires a magnification of 26.times.. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth.

  11. Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.J.; Seppala, L.G.

    1998-04-07

    A critical illumination condenser system is disclosed, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 {micro}m source and requires a magnification of 26. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth. 6 figs.

  12. Precision manufacturing using advanced optical interference lithography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A.; Hawryluk, A.M.

    1997-04-03

    Goal was to develop interference lithography (IL) as a reliable process for patterning large-area, deep-submicron scale field emission arrays for field emission display (FED) applications. We have developed a system based on IL which can easily produce an array of 0.2-0.5 micron emitters over large area (up to 400 sq. in. to date) with better than 5% height and spacing uniformity. Process development as a result of this LDRD project represents a significant advance over the current state of the art for FED manufacturing and is applicable to all types of FEDs, independent of the emitter material. Ability of IL to pattern such structures simultaneously and uniformly on a large format has application to other technology areas, such as dynamic random access memory (DRAM) production and magnetic media recording.

  13. Nanoimprint lithography using IR laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigaliūnas, V.; Tamulevičius, S.; Muehlberger, M.; Jucius, D.; Guobienė, A.; Kopustinskas, V.; Gudonytė, A.

    2006-11-01

    A new technique called "infrared laser-assisted nanoimprint lithography" was utilised to soften the thermoplastic polymer material mR-I 8020 during nanoimprint lithography. A laser setup and a sample holder with pressure and temperature control were designed for the imprint experiments. The polymer was spin coated onto crystalline Si <1 1 1> substrates. A prepatterned Si <1 1 1> substrate, which is transparent for the CO 2 laser irradiation, was used as an imprint stamp as well. It was shown, that the thermoplastic resist mR-I 8020 could be successfully imprinted using the infrared CW CO 2 laser irradiation ( λ = 10.6 μm). The etching rate of the CO 2 laser beam irradiated mR-I 8020 resist film under O 2 RF (13.56 MHz) plasma treatment and during O 2 reactive ion beam etching was investigated as well.

  14. Synchrotron beamlines for x-ray lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippe, Anthony P.; Pearce, W. J.

    1994-02-01

    Louisiana State University established the J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD). Designed and constructed by the Brobeck Division of Maxwell Laboratories, the CAMD synchrotron light source is the first electron storage ring to be built by a commercial company in the United States. The synchrotron x-ray radiation generated at CAMD is an extremely useful exposure source for both thin and thick film lithography. Passing through a beamline containing two plane mirrors, the synchrotron light is used to expose thin resists for lithography of patterns with feature sizes of 0.25 micron and smaller. Two thick-resist beamlines, one using a single aspheric (collimating) mirror and one using a plane mirror, provide the higher flux photons required for miniaturization in silicon to produce microscopic mechanical devices including gears, motors, filters, and valves.

  15. Optimization criteria for SRAM design: lithography contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Daniel C.; Bula, Orest; Conrad, Edward W.; Coops, Daniel S.; Leipold, William C.; Mann, Randy W.; Oppold, Jeffrey H.

    1999-07-01

    Here we discuss the use of well calibrated resist and etch bias models, in conjunction with a fast microlithography aerial image simulator, to predict and 'optimize' the printed shapes through all critical levels in a dense SRAM design. Our key emphasis here is on 'optimization criteria', namely, having achieved good predictability for printability with lithography models, how to use this capability in conjunction of best electrical performance, yield, and density. The key lithography/design optimization issues discussed here are: (1) tightening of gate width variation by reducing spatial curvature in the source and drain regions, (2) achieving sufficient contact areas, (3) maximizing process window for overlay, (4) reducing leakage mechanisms by reducing contributions of stress and strain due to the printed shape of oxide isolation regions, (5) examining topological differences in design during the optimization process, (6) accounting for mask corner rounding, and (7) designing for scalability to smaller dimensions to achieve optical design reusability issues without hardware.

  16. Implementation of assist features in EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fan; Burkhardt, Martin; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Torres, Andres; Gupta, Rachit; Word, James

    2015-03-01

    The introduction of EUV lithography will happen at a critical feature pitch which corresponds to a k1 factor of roughly 0.45. While this number seems not very aggressive compared to recent ArF lithography nodes, the number is sufficiently low that the introduction of assist features has to be considered. While the small NA makes the k1 factor larger, the depth of focus still needs to be scaled down with wavelength. However the exposure tool's focus control is not greatly improved over the ArF tools, so other solutions to improve the depth of focus, e.g. SRAFs, are needed. On the other hand, sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) require very small mask dimensions, which make masks more costly to write and inspect. Another disadvantage of SRAFs is the fact that they may cause pattern-dependent best focus shift due to thick mask effects. Those effects can be predicted, but the shift of best focus and the associated tilt of Bossung curves make the process more difficult to control. We investigate the impact of SRAFs on printing in EUV lithography and evaluate advantages and disadvantages. By using image quality parameters such as best focus (BF), and depth of focus (DOF), respectively with and without SRAFs, we will answer the question if we can gain a net benefit for 1D and 2D patterns by adding SRAFs. SRAFs will only be introduced if any net improvement in process variation (PV) outweighs the additional expense of assist patterning on the mask. In this paper, we investigate the difference in printing behavior of symmetric and asymmetric SRAF placement and whether through slit effect needs to be considered in SRAF placement for EUV lithography.

  17. Formation of Magnetic Anisotropy by Lithography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Nyeon; Nam, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yang Doo; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Artificial interface anisotropy is demonstrated in alternating Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns, providing a means of forming magnetic anisotropy using lithography. In-plane hysteresis loops measured along two principal directions are explained in depth by two competing shape and interface anisotropies, thus confirming the formation of interface anisotropy at the Co/Pt and Co/Pd interfaces of the stripe patterns. The measured interface anisotropy energies, which are in the range of 0.2-0.3 erg/cm(2) for both stripes, are smaller than those observed in conventional multilayers, indicating a decrease in smoothness of the interfaces when formed by lithography. The demonstration of interface anisotropy in the Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns is of significant practical importance, because this setup makes it possible to form anisotropy using lithography and to modulate its strength by controlling the pattern width. Furthermore, this makes it possible to form more complex interface anisotropy by fabricating two-dimensional patterns. These artificial anisotropies are expected to open up new device applications such as multilevel bits using in-plane magnetoresistive thin-film structures. PMID:27216420

  18. Formation of Magnetic Anisotropy by Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si Nyeon; Nam, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yang Doo; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Artificial interface anisotropy is demonstrated in alternating Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns, providing a means of forming magnetic anisotropy using lithography. In-plane hysteresis loops measured along two principal directions are explained in depth by two competing shape and interface anisotropies, thus confirming the formation of interface anisotropy at the Co/Pt and Co/Pd interfaces of the stripe patterns. The measured interface anisotropy energies, which are in the range of 0.2–0.3 erg/cm2 for both stripes, are smaller than those observed in conventional multilayers, indicating a decrease in smoothness of the interfaces when formed by lithography. The demonstration of interface anisotropy in the Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns is of significant practical importance, because this setup makes it possible to form anisotropy using lithography and to modulate its strength by controlling the pattern width. Furthermore, this makes it possible to form more complex interface anisotropy by fabricating two-dimensional patterns. These artificial anisotropies are expected to open up new device applications such as multilevel bits using in-plane magnetoresistive thin-film structures. PMID:27216420

  19. Metallic resist for phase-change lithography

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Bi Jian; Huang, Jun Zhu; Ni, Ri Wen; Yu, Nian Nian; Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang Zhi; Li, Zhen; Miao, Xiang Shui

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the most widely used photoresists in optical lithography are organic-based resists. The major limitations of such resists include the photon accumulation severely affects the quality of photolithography patterns and the size of the pattern is constrained by the diffraction limit. Phase-change lithography, which uses semiconductor-based resists such as chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 films, was developed to overcome these limitations. Here, instead of chalcogenide, we propose a metallic resist composed of Mg58Cu29Y13 alloy films, which exhibits a considerable difference in etching rate between amorphous and crystalline states. Furthermore, the heat distribution in Mg58Cu29Y13 thin film is better and can be more easily controlled than that in Ge2Sb2Te5 during exposure. We succeeded in fabricating both continuous and discrete patterns on Mg58Cu29Y13 thin films via laser irradiation and wet etching. Our results demonstrate that a metallic resist of Mg58Cu29Y13 is suitable for phase change lithography, and this type of resist has potential due to its outstanding characteristics. PMID:24931505

  20. REBL nanowriter: Reflective Electron Beam Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petric, Paul; Bevis, Chris; Brodie, Alan; Carroll, Allen; Cheung, Anthony; Grella, Luca; McCord, Mark; Percy, Henry; Standiford, Keith; Zywno, Marek

    2009-03-01

    REBL (Reflective Electron Beam Lithography) is being developed for high throughput electron beam direct write maskless lithography. The system is specifically targeting 5 to 7 wafer levels per hour throughput on average at the 45 nm node, with extendibility to the 32 nm node and beyond. REBL incorporates a number of novel technologies to generate and expose lithographic patterns at estimated throughputs considerably higher than electron beam lithography has been able to achieve as yet. A patented reflective electron optic concept enables the unique approach utilized for the Digital Pattern Generator (DPG). The DPG is a CMOS ASIC chip with an array of small, independently controllable cells or pixels, which act as an array of electron mirrors. In this way, the system is capable of generating the pattern to be written using massively parallel exposure by ~1 million beams at extremely high data rates (~ 1Tbps). A rotary stage concept using a rotating platen carrying multiple wafers optimizes the writing strategy of the DPG to achieve the capability of high throughput for sparse pattern wafer levels. The exposure method utilized by the DPG was emulated on a Vistec VB-6 in order to validate the gray level exposure method used in REBL. Results of these exposure tests are discussed.

  1. Hard-tip, soft-spring lithography.

    PubMed

    Shim, Wooyoung; Braunschweig, Adam B; Liao, Xing; Chai, Jinan; Lim, Jong Kuk; Zheng, Gengfeng; Mirkin, Chad A

    2011-01-27

    Nanofabrication strategies are becoming increasingly expensive and equipment-intensive, and consequently less accessible to researchers. As an alternative, scanning probe lithography has become a popular means of preparing nanoscale structures, in part owing to its relatively low cost and high resolution, and a registration accuracy that exceeds most existing technologies. However, increasing the throughput of cantilever-based scanning probe systems while maintaining their resolution and registration advantages has from the outset been a significant challenge. Even with impressive recent advances in cantilever array design, such arrays tend to be highly specialized for a given application, expensive, and often difficult to implement. It is therefore difficult to imagine commercially viable production methods based on scanning probe systems that rely on conventional cantilevers. Here we describe a low-cost and scalable cantilever-free tip-based nanopatterning method that uses an array of hard silicon tips mounted onto an elastomeric backing. This method-which we term hard-tip, soft-spring lithography-overcomes the throughput problems of cantilever-based scanning probe systems and the resolution limits imposed by the use of elastomeric stamps and tips: it is capable of delivering materials or energy to a surface to create arbitrary patterns of features with sub-50-nm resolution over centimetre-scale areas. We argue that hard-tip, soft-spring lithography is a versatile nanolithography strategy that should be widely adopted by academic and industrial researchers for rapid prototyping applications. PMID:21270890

  2. Metallic resist for phase-change lithography.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bi Jian; Huang, Jun Zhu; Ni, Ri Wen; Yu, Nian Nian; Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang Zhi; Li, Zhen; Miao, Xiang Shui

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the most widely used photoresists in optical lithography are organic-based resists. The major limitations of such resists include the photon accumulation severely affects the quality of photolithography patterns and the size of the pattern is constrained by the diffraction limit. Phase-change lithography, which uses semiconductor-based resists such as chalcogenide Ge₂Sb₂Te₅ films, was developed to overcome these limitations. Here, instead of chalcogenide, we propose a metallic resist composed of Mg₅₈Cu₂₉Y₁₃ alloy films, which exhibits a considerable difference in etching rate between amorphous and crystalline states. Furthermore, the heat distribution in Mg₅₈Cu₂₉Y₁₃ thin film is better and can be more easily controlled than that in Ge₂Sb₂Te₅ during exposure. We succeeded in fabricating both continuous and discrete patterns on Mg₅₈Cu₂₉Y₁₃ thin films via laser irradiation and wet etching. Our results demonstrate that a metallic resist of Mg₅₈Cu₂₉Y₁₃ is suitable for phase change lithography, and this type of resist has potential due to its outstanding characteristics. PMID:24931505

  3. Self-segregating materials for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Daniel P.; Sundberg, Linda K.; Brock, Phillip J.; Ito, Hiroshi; Truong, Hoa D.; Allen, Robert D.; McIntyre, Gregory R.; Goldfarb, Dario L.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we employ the self-segregating materials approach used in topcoat-free resists for water immersion lithography to extend the performance of topcoat materials for water immersion and to increase the contact angles of organic fluids on topcoat-free resists for high index immersion lithography. By tailoring polymers that segregate to the air and resist interfaces of the topcoat, high contact angle topcoats with relatively low fluorine content are achieved. While graded topcoats may extend the performance and/or reduce the cost of topcoat materials, the large amount of unprotected acidic groups necessary for TMAH development prevent them from achieving the high contact angles and low hysteresis exhibited by topcoat-free resists. Another application of this self-segregating approach is tailoring resist surfaces for high index immersion. Due to the low surface tension and higher viscosities of organic fluids relative to water and their lower contact angles on most surfaces, film pulling cannot be prevented without dramatically reducing wafer scan rates; however, tuning the surface energy of the resist may be important to control stain morphology and facilitate fluid removal from the wafer. By tailoring fluoropolymer additives for high contact angles with second generation organic high index immersion fluids, we show herein that topcoat-free resists can be developed specifically for high index immersion lithography with good contact angles and lithographic imaging performance.

  4. Advanced lithography for micro-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitner, U. D.; Kley, E.-B.

    2006-08-01

    Since the beginning of micro-optics fabrication most of the used technologies have been adapted from or are related to semiconductor fabrication techniques. These are widely known and the special microelectronics fabrication tools, especially lithography machines, are available at numerous places. Besides the fact that therefore micro-optics was able to took advantage of the steady development of semiconductor technology this tight linkage has also a lot of drawbacks. The adaptation of element properties to the fabrication limits given by the available technologies is very often connected with compromises in optical performance. In nowadays micro-optics fabrication has reached a level which justifies the development of fabrication tools specialized to its own demands. In the article the special demands of optical microstructures on the fabrication technologies are discussed and newly developed mico-optics fabrication tools are introduced. The first one is an electron-beam lithography machine for use with up substrates up to 300mm large and 15mm thick achieving a very high overlay accuracy and writing speed. The second one is a laser-lithography system capable to expose micro-optical structures onto non-planar substrates.

  5. A mask manufacturer's perspective on maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Peter; Biechler, Charles; Kalk, Franklin

    2005-11-01

    Maskless Lithography (ML2) is again being considered for use in mainstream CMOS IC manufacturing. Sessions at technical conferences are being devoted to ML2. A multitude of new companies have been formed in the last several years to apply new concepts to breaking the throughput barrier that has in the past prevented ML2 from achieving the cost and cycle time performance necessary to become economically viable, except in rare cases. Has Maskless Lithography's (we used to call it "Direct Write Lithography") time really come? If so, what is the expected impact on the mask manufacturer and does it matter? The lithography tools used today in mask manufacturing are similar in concept to ML2 except for scale, both in throughput and feature size. These mask tools produce highly accurate lithographic images directly from electronic pattern files, perform multi-layer overlay, and mix-n-match across multiple tools, tool types and sites. Mask manufacturers are already accustomed to the ultimate low volume - one substrate per design layer. In order to achieve the economically required throughput, proposed ML2 systems eliminate or greatly reduce some of the functions that are the source of the mask writer's accuracy. Can these ML2 systems meet the demanding lithographic requirements without these functions? ML2 may eliminate the reticle but many of the processes and procedures performed today by the mask manufacturer are still required. Examples include the increasingly complex mask data preparation step and the verification performed to ensure that the pattern on the reticle is accurately representing the design intent. The error sources that are fixed on a reticle are variable with time on an ML2 system. It has been proposed that if ML2 is successful it will become uneconomical to be in the mask business - that ML2, by taking the high profit masks will take all profitability out of mask manufacturing and thereby endanger the entire semiconductor industry. Others suggest that a

  6. Deep-UV interference lithography combined with masked contact lithography for pixel wiregrid patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, David; Shah, Piyush; Guo, Pengfei; Sarangan, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Pixelated wiregrids are of great interest in polarimetric imagers, but there are no straightforward methods available for combining the uniform exposures of laser interference with a masking system to achieve pixels at different rotational angles. In this work we demonstrate a 266nm deep-UV interference lithography combined with a traditional i-line contact lithography to create such pixels. Aluminum wiregrids are first made, following by etching to create the pixels, and then a planarizing molybdenum film is used before patterning subsequent pixel arrays. The etch contrast between the molybdenum and the aluminum enables the release of the planarizing layer.

  7. Defectivity reduction by optimization of 193-nm immersion lithography using an interfaced exposure-track system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcasi, Michael; Hatakeyama, Shinichi; Nafus, Kathleen; Moerman, Richard; van Dommelen, Youri; Huisman, Peter; Hooge, Joshua; Scheer, Steven; Foubert, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    As the integration of semiconductor devices continues, pattern sizes required in lithography get smaller and smaller. To achieve even more scaling down of these patterns without changing the basic infrastructure technology of current cutting-edge 193-nm lithography, 193-nm immersion lithography is being viewed as a powerful technique that can accommodate next-generation mass productions needs. Therefore this technology has been seriously considered and after proof of concept it is currently entering the stage of practical application. In the case of 193-nm immersion lithography, however, because liquid fills the area between the projection optics and the silicon wafer, several causes of concern have been raised - namely, diffusion of moisture into the resist film due to direct resist-water interaction during exposure, dissolution of internal components of the resist into the de-ionized water, and the influence of residual moisture generated during exposure on post-exposure processing. To prevent these unwanted effects, optimization of the three main components of the lithography system: materials, track and scanner, is required. For the materials, 193nm resist formulation improvements specifically for immersion processing have reduced the leaching and the sensitivity to water related defects, further benefits can be seen by the application of protective top coat materials. For the track component, optimization of the processing conditions and immersion specific modules are proven to advance the progress made by the material suppliers. Finally, by optimizing conditions on the 3 rd generation immersion scanner with the latest hardware configuration, defectivity levels comparable to dry processing can be achieved. In this evaluation, we detail the improvements that can be realized with new immersion specific track rinse modules and formulate a hypothesis for the improvements seen with the rinsing process. Additionally, we show the current status of water induced

  8. 75 FR 44015 - Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing... importation of certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography techniques and products containing... certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography techniques or products containing same...

  9. Mitigation of ion and particulate emission from laser-produced plasmas used for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lazzaro, Paolo; Bollanti, Sarah; Flora, Francesco; Mezi, Luca; Murra, Daniele; Torre, Amalia

    2013-05-01

    While developing a laboratory-scale micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography which uses a laser-produced plasma emitting EUV pulsed radiation, we faced the problem of suppressing the various debris (ions, neutrals, particulate, clusters, droplets) emitted by the plasma target. The suppression of debris is a crucial task in the frame of EUV projection lithography, mainly because debris seriously limit both lifetime and performance of the expensive optics and filters put close to the plasma source. In this paper we present the experimental measurements of main debris characteristics (velocity, size, charge, momentum, spectral energy, spatial distribution). Then, we present the operating results of a patented debris mitigation systems (DMS) specifically designed to suppress debris with the measured characteristics. We achieved reduction factors ˜800 for atoms and nm-size clusters, and ˜1600 for particles larger than 500 nm. These results are at the forefront in this field. The excellent performance of our DMS was a breakthrough to achieve a 90-nm patterning on commercial resists by our micro-exposure tool EUV projection lithography.

  10. EUV lithography scanner for sub-8nm resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Schoot, Jan; van Ingen Schenau, Koen; Valentin, Chris; Migura, Sascha

    2015-03-01

    EUV lithography for resolutions below 8 nm half pitch requires the numerical aperture (NA) of the projection lens to be significantly larger than the current state-of-the-art 0.33NA. In order to be economically viable, a throughput in the range of 100 wafers per hour is needed. As a result of the increased NA, the incidence angles of the light rays at the mask increase significantly. Consequently the shadowing deteriorates the aerial image contrast to unacceptably low values at the current 4x magnification. The only solution to reduce the angular range at the mask is to increase the magnification. Simulations show that we have to double the magnification to 8x in order to overcome the shadowing effects. Assuming that the mask infrastructure will not change the mask form factor, this would inevitably lead to a field size that is a quarter of the field size of current 0.33NA step and scan systems. This would reduce the throughput of the high-NA scanner to a value significantly below 100 wafers per hour unless additional measures are taken. This paper presents an anamorphic step and scan system capable to print fields that are half the field size of the current full field. The anamorphic system has the potential to achieve a throughput in excess of 150 wafers per hour by increasing the transmission of the optics as well as increasing the acceleration of the wafer- and mask stage. This makes it an economically viable lithography solution. Furthermore, the simulated imaging behavior of the system is demonstrated and its impact on the rest of the lithographic system is discussed.

  11. Fabrication of metallic nanowires and nanoribbons using laser interference lithography and shadow lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joong- Mok; Nalwa, Kanwar Singh; Leung, Wai; Constant, Kristen; Chaudhary, Sumit; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2010-04-30

    Ordered and free-standing metallic nanowires were fabricated by e-beam deposition on patterned polymer templates made by interference lithography. The dimensions of the nanowires can be controlled through adjustment of deposition conditions and polymer templates. Grain size, polarized optical transmission and electrical resistivity were measured with ordered and free-standing nanowires.

  12. Materials Design for Block Copolymer Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweat, Daniel Patrick

    Block copolymers (BCPs) have attracted a great deal of scientific and technological interest due to their ability to spontaneously self-assemble into dense periodic nanostructures with a typical length scale of 5 to 50 nm. The use of self-assembled BCP thin-films as templates to form nanopatterns over large-area is referred to as BCP lithography. Directed self-assembly of BCPs is now viewed as a viable candidate for sub-20 nm lithography by the semiconductor industry. However, there are multiple aspects of assembly and materials design that need to be addressed in order for BCP lithography to be successful. These include substrate modification with polymer brushes or mats, tailoring of the block copolymer chemistry, understanding thin-film assembly and developing epitaxial like methods to control long range alignment. The rational design, synthesis and self-assembly of block copolymers with large interaction parameters (chi) is described in the first part of this dissertation. Two main blocks were chosen for introducing polarity into the BCP system, namely poly(4-hydroxystyrene) and poly(2-vinylpyridine). Each of these blocks are capable of ligating Lewis acids which can increase the etch contrast between the blocks allowing for facile pattern transfer to the underlying substrate. These BCPs were synthesized by living anionic polymerization and showed excellent control over molecular weight and dispersity, providing access to sub 5-nm domain sizes. Polymer brushes consist of a polymer chain with one end tethered to the surface and have wide applicability in tuning surface energy, forming responsive surfaces and increasing biocompatibility. In the second part of the dissertation, we present a universal method to grow dense polymer brushes on a wide range of substrates and combine this chemistry with BCP assembly to fabricate nanopatterned polymer brushes. This is the first demonstration of introducing additional functionality into a BCP directing layer and opens up

  13. EUV lithography imaging using novel pellicle membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollentier, Ivan; Vanpaemel, Johannes; Lee, Jae Uk; Adelmann, Christoph; Zahedmanesh, Houman; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Gallagher, Emily E.

    2016-03-01

    EUV mask protection against defects during use remains a challenge for EUV lithography. A stand-off protective membrane - a pellicle - is targeted to prevent yield losses in high volume manufacturing during handling and exposure, just as it is for 193nm lithography. The pellicle is thin enough to transmit EUV exposure light, yet strong enough to remain intact and hold any particles out of focus during exposure. The development of pellicles for EUV is much more challenging than for 193nm lithography for multiple reasons including: high absorption of most materials at EUV wavelength, pump-down sequences in the EUV vacuum system, and exposure to high intensity EUV light. To solve the problems of transmission and film durability, various options have been explored. In most cases a thin core film is considered, since the deposition process for this is well established and because it is the simplest option. The transmission specification typically dictates that membranes are very thin (~50nm or less), which makes both fabrication and film mechanical integrity difficult. As an alternative, low density films (e.g. including porosity) will allow thicker membranes for a given transmission specification, which is likely to improve film durability. The risk is that the porosity could influence the imaging. At imec, two cases of pellicle concepts based on reducing density have been assessed : (1) 3D-patterned SiN by directed self-assembly (DSA), and (2) carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanosheets (CNS). The first case is based on SiN membranes that are 3D-patterned by Directed Self Assembly (DSA). The materials are tested relative to the primary specifications: EUV transmission and film durability. A risk assessment of printing performance is provided based on simulations of scattered energy. General conclusions on the efficacy of various approaches will provided.

  14. Molecular resists for EUV and EB lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Ichiki; Ando, Nobuo; Edamatsu, Kunishige; Lee, Youngjoon; Takashima, Masayuki; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography at a wavelength of 13.5 nm has been prepared for next generation lithography for several years. Of primary concern in EUV lithography is line edge roughness as well as high sensitivity. In recent years, various types of resist, such as protected PHS resin resist and molecular resist, have been investigated. In order to reduce LER, we have studied novel molecular resists which are promising alternative to polymeric photoresists for use as imaging materials with improved resolution and line edge roughness. The work reported in this paper has focused on the development of a new class of chemically amplified molecular resists that are composed of a single molecule which contains all of the different functionalities desired in a chemically amplified resists. For the purpose of improvement of the resist performance, we have designed the resist material of a protected polyphenol derivative (protected Compound A). PAG moiety is bonded to Compound A to achieve uniform PAG density and to control the acid diffusion length in a resist film. We analyzed uniformity of PAG density in a resist film by using gradient shaving preparation and TOF-SIMS analysis. From the TOF-SIMS spectra, the ions intensities of the PAG moiety are almost constant from the surface to the bottom of the film. Therefore, we can conclude that PAG is distributed homogeneously. Under e-beam exposure, a 100nm thick film of the PAG bonded molecular resist resolved lines down to 100nm. We also discussed the new design for molecular resists, their synthesis and lithographic performance.

  15. Wave and Particle in Molecular Interference Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Juffmann, Thomas; Truppe, Stefan; Geyer, Philipp; Major, Andras G.; Arndt, Markus; Deachapunya, Sarayut; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2009-12-31

    The wave-particle duality of massive objects is a cornerstone of quantum physics and a key property of many modern tools such as electron microscopy, neutron diffraction or atom interferometry. Here we report on the first experimental demonstration of quantum interference lithography with complex molecules. Molecular matter-wave interference patterns are deposited onto a reconstructed Si(111) 7x7 surface and imaged using scanning tunneling microscopy. Thereby both the particle and the quantum wave character of the molecules can be visualized in one and the same image. This new approach to nanolithography therefore also represents a sensitive new detection scheme for quantum interference experiments.

  16. Wave and particle in molecular interference lithography.

    PubMed

    Juffmann, Thomas; Truppe, Stefan; Geyer, Philipp; Major, András G; Deachapunya, Sarayut; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Arndt, Markus

    2009-12-31

    The wave-particle duality of massive objects is a cornerstone of quantum physics and a key property of many modern tools such as electron microscopy, neutron diffraction or atom interferometry. Here we report on the first experimental demonstration of quantum interference lithography with complex molecules. Molecular matter-wave interference patterns are deposited onto a reconstructed Si(111) 7x7 surface and imaged using scanning tunneling microscopy. Thereby both the particle and the quantum wave character of the molecules can be visualized in one and the same image. This new approach to nanolithography therefore also represents a sensitive new detection scheme for quantum interference experiments. PMID:20366311

  17. Nanoimprint lithography: an enabling technology for nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuhan; Liu, He; Wang, Yifei; Li, Yuanrui; Song, Boxiang; Bratkovsk, Alexandre; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Wu, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is an indispensable tool to realize a fast and accurate nanoscale patterning in nanophotonics due to high resolution and high yield. The number of publication on NIL has increased from less than a hundred per year to over three thousand per year. In this paper, the most recent developments on NIL patterning transfer processes and its applications on nanophotonics are discussed and reviewed. NIL has been opening up new opportunities for nanophotonics, especially in fabricating optical meta-materials. With more researches on this low-cost high-throughput fabrication technology, we should anticipate a brighter future for nanophotonics and NIL.

  18. EUV lithography: progress, challenges, and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurm, S.

    2014-10-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) has been in the making for more than a quarter century. The first EUVL production tools have been delivered over the past year and chip manufacturers and suppliers are maturing the technology in pilot line mode to prepare for high volume manufacturing (HVM). While excellent progress has been made in many technical and business areas to prepare EUVL for HVM introduction, there are still critical technical and business challenges to be addressed before the industry will be able to use EUVL in HVM.

  19. Atom Lithography with a Holographic Light Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mützel, M.; Tandler, S.; Haubrich, D.; Meschede, D.; Peithmann, K.; Flaspöhler, M.; Buse, K.

    2002-02-01

    In atom lithography with optical masks, deposition of an atomic beam on a given substrate is controlled by a standing light-wave field. The lateral intensity distribution of the light field is transferred to the substrate with nanometer scale. We have tailored a complex pattern of this intensity distribution through diffraction of a laser beam from a hologram that is stored in a photorefractive crystal. This method can be extended to superpose 1000 or more laser beams. The method is furthermore applicable during growth processes and thus allows full 3D structuring of suitable materials with periodic and nonperiodic patterns at nanometer scales.

  20. Antiadhesion considerations for UV nanoimprint lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Houle, F. A.; Rettner, C. T.; Miller, D. C.; Sooriyakumaran, R.

    2007-05-21

    Low surface energy fluorosilane layers are widely used as release coatings for quartz templates in UV nanoimprint lithography, yet they are generally found to degrade with use. It is found that these layers are chemically attacked when used with UV cured methacrylate and vinyl ether resists, as found previously for acrylate resists, leading to the conclusion that low reactivity and not low surface energy is of importance for effective release layers. It is shown that an ion-beam deposited diamondlike carbon release coating is a useful alternative, having both stability in a reactive environment and lower adhesion despite its higher surface energy.

  1. Film stacking architecture for immersion lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tomohiro; Sanada, Masakazu; Miyagi, Tadashi; Shigemori, Kazuhito; Kanaoka, Masashi; Yasuda, Shuichi; Tamada, Osamu; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    In immersion lithography process, film stacking architecture will be necessary due to film peeling. However, the architecture will restrict lithographic area within a wafer due to top side EBR accuracy In this paper, we report an effective film stacking architecture that also allows maximum lithographic area. This study used a new bevel rinse system on RF3 for all materials to make suitable film stacking on the top side bevel. This evaluation showed that the new bevel rinse system allows the maximum lithographic area and a clean wafer edge. Patterning defects were improved with suitable film stacking.

  2. Exposure tool control for advanced semiconductor lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Tomoyuki

    2015-08-01

    This is a review paper to show how we control exposure tool parameters in order to satisfy patterning performance and productivity requirements for advanced semiconductor lithography. In this paper, we will discuss how we control illumination source shape to satisfy required imaging performance, heat-induced lens aberration during exposure to minimize the aberration impact on imaging, dose and focus control to realize uniform patterning performance across the wafer and patterning position of circuit patterns on different layers. The contents are mainly about current Nikon immersion exposure tools.

  3. Laser lithography by photon scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, I.; Warmack, R.J.; Ferrell, T.L.

    1993-06-01

    We have investigated the possibility of using a photon scanning tunneling microscope (PSTM) for laser lithography. A contrast enhancement material (CEM) is coated onto a sample slide and coupled to the prism of a PSTM. The CEM becomes transparent above a laser (HeCd at a wavelength of 442 nm) intensity threshold attained due to the proximity of the probe tip. The same surface can then be inspected using the given experimental configuration by replacing the HeCd laser line with a non-exposing 633-nm HeNe laser line. Direct patterns can be produced by varying the exposure time and the shape of the probe tip.

  4. A review of roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1995, nanoimprint lithography has been demonstrated in many researches as a simple, low-cost, and high-throughput process for replicating micro- and nanoscale patterns. Due to its advantages, the nanoimprint lithography method has been rapidly developed over the years as a promising alternative to conventional nanolithography processes to fulfill the demands generated from the recent developments in the semiconductor and flexible electronics industries, which results in variations of the process. Roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is the most demanded technique due to its high-throughput fulfilling industrial-scale application. In the present work, a general literature review on the various types of nanoimprint lithography processes especially R2R NIL and the methods commonly adapted to fabricate imprint molds are presented to provide a clear view and understanding on the nanoimprint lithography technique as well as its recent developments. PACS 81.16.Nd PMID:25024682

  5. Laser-based sample preparation for electronic package failure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Brandon M.; Mathews, Scott A.; Duignan, Michael T.; Skoglund, Lars D.; Wang, Zhiyong; Dias, Rajen C.

    2002-06-01

    Failure analysis has come to play a key role in ensuring quality and reliability in semiconductor devices, associated packaging and printed wiring boards. Tools are increasingly available to those investigating high-density integrated circuits at the die level, particularly for edit and repair operations. Until recently however, this capability has been limited by the inherent low-resolution mechanical/manual processes used for destructive analysis on electronics packaging. A laser-based tool has been developed to selectively and locally enable access to traces and layers within packages and provide a way to perform edits to an area of interest.

  6. A laser based reusable microjet injector for transdermal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tae-hee; Yoh, Jack J.

    2010-05-01

    A laser based needle-free liquid drug injection device has been developed. A laser beam is focused inside the liquid contained in the rubber chamber of microscale. The focused laser beam causes explosive bubble growth, and the sudden volume increase in a sealed chamber drives a microjet of liquid drug through the micronozzle. The exit diameter of a nozzle is 125 μm and the injected microjet reaches an average velocity of 264 m/s. This device adds the time-varying feature of microjet to the current state of liquid injection for drug delivery.

  7. Wavelength-tunable laser based on electro-optic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pengfei; Tang, Suning

    2015-03-01

    Currently available wavelength-tunable lasers have technical difficulty in combining high-speed, continuous and wide wavelength tunability with high output power. We demonstrated a high-speed wavelength-tunable laser based on a fast electro-optic effect. We observed that the wavelength-swept speed exceeds 107 nm/s at center wavelength of 1550 nm with continuous wavelength tunability. Moreover, the maximum output power is over 100 mW and the wavelength tuning range is near 100 nm with a full width at half maximum of less than 0.5 nm.

  8. Laser-Based Diagnostic Measurements of Low Emissions Combustor Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides a summary of primarily laser-based measurement techniques we use at NASA Glenn Research Center to characterize fuel injection, fuel/air mixing, and combustion. The report highlights using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence, Particle Image Velocimetry, and Phase Doppler Interferometry to obtain fuel injector patternation, fuel and air velocities, and fuel drop sizes and turbulence intensities during combustion. We also present a brief comparison between combustors burning standard JP-8 Jet fuel and an alternative fuels. For this comparison, we used flame chemiluminescence and high speed imaging.

  9. Absolute dosimetry for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Kurt W.; Campiotti, Richard H.

    2000-06-01

    The accurate measurement of an exposure dose reaching the wafer on an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic system has been a technical challenge directly applicable to the evaluation of candidate EUV resist materials and calculating lithography system throughputs. We have developed a dose monitoring sensor system that can directly measure EUV intensities at the wafer plane of a prototype EUV lithographic system. This sensor system, located on the wafer stage adjacent to the electrostatic chuck used to grip wafers, operates by translating the sensor into the aerial image, typically illuminating an 'open' (unpatterned) area on the reticle. The absolute signal strength can be related to energy density at the wafer, and thus used to determine resist sensitivity, and the signal as a function of position can be used to determine illumination uniformity at the wafer plane. Spectral filtering to enhance the detection of 13.4 nm radiation was incorporated into the sensor. Other critical design parameters include the packaging and amplification technologies required to place this device into the space and vacuum constraints of a EUV lithography environment. We describe two approaches used to determine the absolute calibration of this sensor. The first conventional approach requires separate characterization of each element of the sensor. A second novel approach uses x-ray emission from a mildly radioactive iron source to calibrate the absolute response of the entire sensor system (detector and electronics) in a single measurement.

  10. Hard Transparent Arrays for Polymer Pen Lithography.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, James L; Brown, Keith A; Kluender, Edward J; Cabezas, Maria D; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-03-22

    Patterning nanoscale features across macroscopic areas is challenging due to the vast range of length scales that must be addressed. With polymer pen lithography, arrays of thousands of elastomeric pyramidal pens can be used to write features across centimeter-scales, but deformation of the soft pens limits resolution and minimum feature pitch, especially with polymeric inks. Here, we show that by coating polymer pen arrays with a ∼175 nm silica layer, the resulting hard transparent arrays exhibit a force-independent contact area that improves their patterning capability by reducing the minimum feature size (∼40 nm), minimum feature pitch (<200 nm for polymers), and pen to pen variation. With these new arrays, patterns with as many as 5.9 billion features in a 14.5 cm(2) area were written using a four hundred thousand pyramid pen array. Furthermore, a new method is demonstrated for patterning macroscopic feature size gradients that vary in feature diameter by a factor of 4. Ultimately, this form of polymer pen lithography allows for patterning with the resolution of dip-pen nanolithography across centimeter scales using simple and inexpensive pen arrays. The high resolution and density afforded by this technique position it as a broad-based discovery tool for the field of nanocombinatorics. PMID:26928012

  11. Mask cost of ownership for advanced lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzio, Edward G.; Seidel, Philip K.

    2000-07-01

    As technology advances, becoming more difficult and more expensive, the cost of ownership (CoO) metric becomes increasingly important in evaluating technical strategies. The International SEMATECH CoC analysis has steadily gained visibility over the past year, as it attempts to level the playing field between technology choices, and create a fair relative comparison. In order to predict mask cots for advanced lithography, mask process flows are modeled using bets-known processing strategies, equipment cost, and yields. Using a newly revised yield mode, and updated mask manufacture flows, representative mask flows can be built. These flows are then used to calculate mask costs for advanced lithography down to the 50 nm node. It is never the goal of this type of work to provide absolute cost estimates for business planning purposes. However, the combination of a quantifiable yield model with a clearly defined set of mask processing flows and a cost model based upon them serves as an excellent starting point for cost driver analysis and process flow discussion.

  12. Development of cleaning process for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching Yu; Yu, D. C.; Lin, John C.; Lin, Burn J.

    2006-03-01

    In immersion lithography, DI water fills the space between the resist surface and the last lens element. However water is also a good solvent for most of the leaching compounds from resists. The leaching materials from the resist and the original impurities in the water from pipelines pose a significant risk on bottom lens deterioration, wafer surface particles, and facility contamination. If the bottom lens surface deteriorates, it can cause flare and reduce transparency. Particles on the wafer surface can degrade image formation. In addition to contaminating the facility, the impurity inside the water can cause stains or defects after the water is evaporated from the wafer surface. In order to reduce the impact of such contamination, we have evaluated many chemicals for removing organic contamination as well as particles. We have collected and characterized immersion-induced particles from cleaning studies on bare silicon wafers. We have also used oxide wafers to simulate the lens damage caused by the cleaning chemicals. In case, a mega sonic power is not suitable for scanners last lens element in production FABs, the emulsion concept has also been adopted to remove the lens organic contaminants. We have studied many chemical and mechanical methods for tool cleaning, and identified those that possess good organic solubility and particle removal efficiency. These cleaning methods will be used in periodic maintenance procedures to ensure freedom from defects in immersion lithography.

  13. Economic consequences of high throughput maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, John G.; Govindaraju, Lakshmi

    2005-11-01

    Many people in the semiconductor industry bemoan the high costs of masks and view mask cost as one of the significant barriers to bringing new chip designs to market. All that is needed is a viable maskless technology and the problem will go away. Numerous sites around the world are working on maskless lithography but inevitably, the question asked is "Wouldn't a one wafer per hour maskless tool make a really good mask writer?" Of course, the answer is yes, the hesitation you hear in the answer isn't based on technology concerns, it's financial. The industry needs maskless lithography because mask costs are too high. Mask costs are too high because mask pattern generators (PG's) are slow and expensive. If mask PG's become much faster, mask costs go down, the maskless market goes away and the PG supplier is faced with an even smaller tool demand from the mask shops. Technical success becomes financial suicide - or does it? In this paper we will present the results of a model that examines some of the consequences of introducing high throughput maskless pattern generation. Specific features in the model include tool throughput for masks and wafers, market segmentation by node for masks and wafers and mask cost as an entry barrier to new chip designs. How does the availability of low cost masks and maskless tools affect the industries tool makeup and what is the ultimate potential market for high throughput maskless pattern generators?

  14. Benchtop Micromolding of Polystyrene by Soft Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuli; Balowski, Joseph; Phillips, Colleen; Phillips, Ryan; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS), a standard material for cell culture consumable labware, was molded into microstructures with high fidelity of replication by an elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. The process was a simple, benchtop method based on soft lithography using readily available materials. The key to successful replica molding by this simple procedure relies on the use of a solvent, for example, gamma-butyrolactone, which dissolves PS without swelling the PDMS mold. PS solution was added to the PDMS mold, and evaporation of solvent was accomplished by baking the mold on a hotplate. Microstructures with feature sizes as small as 3 µm and aspect ratios as large as 7 were readily molded. Prototypes of microfluidic chips made from PS were prepared by thermal bonding of a microchannel molded in PS with a flat PS substrate. The PS microfluidic chip displayed much lower adsorption and absorption of hydrophobic molecules (e.g. rhodamine B) compared to a comparable chip created from PDMS. The molded PS surface exhibited stable surface properties after plasma oxidation as assessed by contact angle measurement. The molded, oxidized PS surface remained an excellent surface for cell culture based on cell adhesion and proliferation. The micromolded PS possessed properties that were ideal for biological and bioanalytical needs, thus making it an alternative material to PDMS and suitable for building lab-on-a-chip devices by soft lithography methods. PMID:21811715

  15. A laser-based ice shape profilometer for use in icing wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovenac, Edward A.; Vargas, Mario

    1995-01-01

    A laser-based profilometer was developed to measure the thickness and shape of ice accretions on the leading edge of airfoils and other models in icing wind tunnels. The instrument is a hand held device that is connected to a desk top computer with a 10 meter cable. It projects a laser line onto an ice shape and used solid state cameras to detect the light scattered by the ice. The instrument corrects the image for camera angle distortions, displays an outline of the ice shape on the computer screen, saves the data on a disk, and can print a full scale drawing of the ice shape. The profilometer has undergone extensive testing in the laboratory and in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Results of the tests show very good agreement between profilometer measurements and known simulated ice shapes and fair agreement between profilometer measurements and hand tracing techniques.

  16. Final Report - ADVANCED LASER-BASED SENSORS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this work is to capture the potential of real-time monitoring and overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments, Los Gatos Research (LGR) is fabricating, deploying, and commercializing advanced laser-based gas sensors for process control monitoring in industrial furnaces (e.g. electric arc furnaces). These sensors can achieve improvements in process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improved product quality, and reduced energy consumption and emissions. The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and associated temperatures in the furnace off-gas. The second sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases. During the course of this DOE project, Los Gatos Research (LGR) fabricated, tested, and deployed both in-situ tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) analyzers and extractive Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) analyzers.

  17. Laser based diagnostics - from cultural heritage to human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, S.

    2008-09-01

    An overview of applied laser-based diagnostics as pursued at the Division of Atomic Physics, Lund University, is given. The fields of application range from environmental monitoring including cultural heritage assessment, to biomedical applications. General aspects of laser-based methods are non-intrusiveness, high spectral- and spatial resolution, and data production in real-time. Different applications are frequently generically very similar irrespective of the particular context, which, however, decides the spatial and temporal scales as well as the size of the optics employed. Thus, volcanic plume mapping by lidar, and optical mammography are two manifestations of the same principle, as is fluorescence imaging of a human bronchus by an endoscope, and the scanning of a cathedral using a fluorescence lidar system. Recent applications include remote laser-induced break-down spectroscopy (LIBS) and gas monitoring in scattering media (GASMAS). In particular, a powerful method for diagnostics of human sinus cavities was developed, where free oxygen and water molecules are monitored simultaneously.

  18. Non-Contact Laser Based Ultrasound Evaluation of Canned Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, David

    2005-03-01

    Laser-Based Ultrasound detection was used to measure the velocity of compression waves transmitted through canned foods. Condensed broth, canned pasta, and non-condensed soup were evaluated in these experiments. Homodyne adaptive optics resulted in measurements that were more accurate than the traditional heterodyne method, as well as yielding a 10 dB gain in signal to noise. A-Scans measured the velocity of ultrasound sent through the center of the can and were able to distinguish the quantity of food stuff in its path, as well as distinguish between meat and potato. B-Scans investigated the heterogeneity of the sample’s contents. The evaluation of canned foods was completely non-contact and would be suitable for continuous monitoring in production. These results were verified by conducting the same experiments with a contact piezo transducer. Although the contact method yields a higher signal to noise ratio than the non-contact method, Laser-Based Ultrasound was able to detect surface waves the contact transducer could not.

  19. Trace gas monitoring with infrared laser-based detection schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigrist, M. W.; Bartlome, R.; Marinov, D.; Rey, J. M.; Vogler, D. E.; Wächter, H.

    2008-02-01

    The success of laser-based trace gas sensing techniques crucially depends on the availability and performance of tunable laser sources combined with appropriate detection schemes. Besides near-infrared diode lasers, continuously tunable midinfrared quantum cascade lasers and nonlinear optical laser sources are preferentially employed today. Detection schemes are based on sensitive absorption measurements and comprise direct absorption in multi-pass cells as well as photoacoustic and cavity ringdown techniques in various configurations. We illustrate the performance of several systems implemented in our laboratory. These include time-resolved multicomponent traffic emission measurements with a mobile CO2-laser photoacoustic system, a diode-laser based cavity ringdown device for measurements of impurities in industrial process control, isotope ratio measurements with a difference frequency (DFG) laser source combined with balanced path length detection, detection of methylamines for breath analysis with both a near-IR diode laser and a DFG source, and finally, acetone measurements with a heatable multipass cell intended for vapor phase studies on doping agents in urine samples.

  20. Liftoff lithography of metals for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask absorber layer patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Adam; Teki, Ranganath; Hartley, John

    2012-03-01

    The authors present a process for patterning Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) mask absorber metal using electron beam evaporation and bi-layer liftoff lithography. The Line Edge Roughness (LER) and Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) of patterned chrome absorber are determined for various chrome thicknesses on silicon substrates, and the viability of the method for use with nickel absorber and on EUVL masks is demonstrated. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) data is used with SuMMIT software to determine the absorber LER and CDU. The Lawrence Berkeley National Labs Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is used to verify the printability of the pattern down to 24nm half pitch. The effect of processing on the integrity of the mask multilayer is measured using an actinic reflectometer at the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering.

  1. Scanner performance predictor and optimizer in further low-k1 lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hajime; Nakashima, Toshiharu; Ogata, Taro; Kudo, Shintaro; Kita, Naonori; Ikeda, Junji; Matsui, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hajime; Sukegawa, Ayako; Makino, Katsushi; Murayama, Masayuki; Masaki, Kazuo; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki

    2014-03-01

    Due to the importance of errors in lithography scanners, masks, and computational lithography in low-k1 lithography, application software is used to simultaneously reduce them. We have developed "Masters" application software, which is all-inclusive term of critical dimension uniformity (CDU), optical proximity effect (OPE), overlay (OVL), lens control (LNS), tool maintenance (MNT) and source optimization for wide process window (SO), for compensation of the issues on imaging and overlay. In this paper, we describe the more accurate and comprehensive solution of OPE-Master, LNS-Master and SO-Master with functions of analysis, prediction and optimization. Since OPE-Master employed a rigorous simulation, a root cause of error in OPE matching was found out. From the analysis, we had developed an additional knob and evaluated a proof-of- concept for the improvement. Influence of thermal issues on projection optics is evaluated with a heating prediction, and an optimization with scanner knobs on an optimized source taken into account mask 3D effect for obtaining usable process window. Furthermore, we discuss a possibility of correction for reticle expansion by heating comparing calculation and measurement.

  2. Practical resolution enhancement effect by new complete antireflective layer in KrF excimer laser lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Tohru; Kimura, Mitsumori; Gocho, Tetsuo; Tomo, Yoichi; Tsumori, Toshiro

    1993-08-01

    A new complete anti-reflective layer (ARL) for KrF excimer laser lithography, which becomes an excimer laser lithography to a practical mass production tool beyond 0.35 micrometers rule devices, is developed. This new ARL, whose material is a type of hydro silicon oxynitride film (SiOxNy:H), can be applied to tungsten silicide (W-Si) and even to aluminum silicon (Al- Si) substrates by controlling deposition conditions in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition systems. Using this SiOxNy:H film with 30 nm and 25 nm thicknesses on W-Si and Al-Si substrates respectively, critical dimension variations for both substrates are drastically reduced to within 0.02 micrometers for 0.30 micrometers imaging. On actual device structures, with these SiOxNy:H film as an ARL, notching effects by halation are completely reduced. Moreover, these SiOxNy:H film can not only be deposited with topographical uniformity but also etched with conventional SiO2 etching conditions. Another advantage with ARL is a depth of focus enhancement effect. With a SiOxNy:H film depth of focus for the critical dimension is enlarged more than 23% for 0.35 micrometers line and space patterns. Accordingly, practical resolution is enhanced. From the above effect, the limitations of KrF excimer laser lithography for ideal substrate conditions are considered from the point of view of optimal projection lens NA for various feature sizes.

  3. Direct three-dimensional patterning using nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingtao; Chen, Lei; Chou, Stephen Y.

    2001-05-01

    We demonstrated that nanoimprint lithography (NIL) can create three-dimensional patterns, sub-40 nm T-gates, and air-bridge structures, in a single step imprint in polymer and metal by lift-off. A method based on electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching was developed to fabricate NIL molds with three-dimensional protrusions. The low-cost and high-throughput nanoimprint lithography for three-dimensional nanostructures has many significant applications such as monolithic microwave integrated circuits and nanoelectromechanical system.

  4. High resolution fabrication of nanostructures using controlled proximity nanostencil lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, T.; Aernecke, M.; Liberman, V.; Karnik, R.

    2014-02-01

    Nanostencil lithography has a number of distinct benefits that make it an attractive nanofabrication processes, but the inability to fabricate features with nanometer precision has significantly limited its utility. In this paper, we describe a nanostencil lithography process that provides sub-15 nm resolution even for 40-nm thick structures by using a sacrificial layer to control the proximity between the stencil and substrate, thereby enhancing the correspondence between nanostencil patterns and fabricated nanostructures. We anticipate that controlled proximity nanostencil lithography will provide an environmentally stable, clean, and positive-tone candidate for fabrication of nanostructures with high resolution.

  5. Resolution considerations in MeV ion microscopy and lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norarat, Rattanaporn; Whitlow, Harry J.

    2015-04-01

    There a disparity between the way the resolution is specified in microscopy and lithography using light compared to MeV ion microscopy and lithography. In this work we explore the implications of the way the resolution is defined with a view to answering the questions; how are the resolving powers in MeV ion microscopy and lithography relate to their optical counterparts? and how do different forms of point spread function affect the modulation transfer function and the sharpness of the edge profile?

  6. Thermoplastic microcantilevers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Anders; Keller, Stephan; Vig, Asger L.; Kristensen, Anders; Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn M.; Cerruti, Marta; Majumdar, Arunava; Boisen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography has been exploited to fabricate micrometre-sized cantilevers in thermoplastic. This technique allows for very well defined microcantilevers and gives the possibility of embedding structures into the cantilever surface. The microcantilevers are fabricated in TOPAS and are up to 500 µm long, 100 µm wide, and 4.5 µm thick. Some of the cantilevers have built-in ripple surface structures with heights of 800 nm and pitches of 4 µm. The yield for the cantilever fabrication is 95% and the initial out-of-plane bending is below 10 µm. The stiffness of the cantilevers is measured by deflecting the cantilever with a well-characterized AFM probe. An average stiffness of 61.3 mN m-1 is found. Preliminary tests with water vapour indicate that the microcantilevers can be used directly for vapour sensing applications and illustrate the influence of surface structuring of the cantilevers.

  7. Nanoscale plasmonic stamp lithography on silicon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenglin; Luber, Erik J; Huck, Lawrence A; Olsen, Brian C; Buriak, Jillian M

    2015-02-24

    Nanoscale lithography on silicon is of interest for applications ranging from computer chip design to tissue interfacing. Block copolymer-based self-assembly, also called directed self-assembly (DSA) within the semiconductor industry, can produce a variety of complex nanopatterns on silicon, but these polymeric films typically require transformation into functional materials. Here we demonstrate how gold nanopatterns, produced via block copolymer self-assembly, can be incorporated into an optically transparent flexible PDMS stamp, termed a plasmonic stamp, and used to directly functionalize silicon surfaces on a sub-100 nm scale. We propose that the high intensity electric fields that result from the localized surface plasmons of the gold nanoparticles in the plasmonic stamps upon illumination with low intensity green light, lead to generation of electron-hole pairs in the silicon that drive spatially localized hydrosilylation. This approach demonstrates how localized surface plasmons can be used to enable functionalization of technologically relevant surfaces with nanoscale control. PMID:25654172

  8. Lithography process window analysis with calibrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenzhan; Yu, Jin; Lo, James; Liu, Johnson

    2004-05-01

    As critical-dimension shrink below 0.13 μm, the SPC (Statistical Process Control) based on CD (Critical Dimension) control in lithography process becomes more difficult. Increasing requirements of a shrinking process window have called on the need for more accurate decision of process window center. However in practical fabrication, we found that systematic error introduced by metrology and/or resist process can significantly impact the process window analysis result. Especially, when the simple polynomial functions are used to fit the lithographic data from focus exposure matrix (FEM), the model will fit these systematic errors rather than filter them out. This will definitely impact the process window analysis and determination of the best process condition. In this paper, we proposed to use a calibrated first principle model to do process window analysis. With this method, the systematic metrology error can be filtered out efficiently and give a more reasonable window analysis result.

  9. Nanoimprint lithography using disposable biomass template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanabata, Makoto; Takei, Satoshi; Sugahara, Kigen; Nakajima, Shinya; Sugino, Naoto; Kameda, Takao; Fukushima, Jiro; Matsumoto, Yoko; Sekiguchi, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    A novel nanoimprint lithography process using disposable biomass template having gas permeability was investigated. It was found that a disposable biomass template derived from cellulose materials shows an excellent gas permeability and decreases transcriptional defects in conventional templates such as quartz, PMDS, DLC that have no gas permeability. We believe that outgasses from imprinted materials are easily removed through the template. The approach to use a cellulose for template material is suitable as the next generation of clean separation technology. It is expected to be one of the defect-less thermal nanoimprint lithographic technologies. It is also expected that volatile materials and solvent including materials become available that often create defects and peelings in conventional temples that have no gas permeability.

  10. Integrating nanosphere lithography in device fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurvick, Tod V.; Coutu, Ronald A.; Lake, Robert A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the integration of nanosphere lithography (NSL) with other fabrication techniques, allowing for nano-scaled features to be realized within larger microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based devices. Nanosphere self-patterning methods have been researched for over three decades, but typically not for use as a lithography process. Only recently has progress been made towards integrating many of the best practices from these publications and determining a process that yields large areas of coverage, with repeatability and enabled a process for precise placement of nanospheres relative to other features. Discussed are two of the more common self-patterning methods used in NSL (i.e. spin-coating and dip coating) as well as a more recently conceived variation of dip coating. Recent work has suggested the repeatability of any method depends on a number of variables, so to better understand how these variables affect the process a series of test vessels were developed and fabricated. Commercially available 3-D printing technology was used to incrementally alter the test vessels allowing for each variable to be investigated individually. With these deposition vessels, NSL can now be used in conjunction with other fabrication steps to integrate features otherwise unattainable through current methods, within the overall fabrication process of larger MEMS devices. Patterned regions in 1800 series photoresist with a thickness of ~700nm are used to capture regions of self-assembled nanospheres. These regions are roughly 2-5 microns in width, and are able to control the placement of 500nm polystyrene spheres by controlling where monolayer self-assembly occurs. The resulting combination of photoresist and nanospheres can then be used with traditional deposition or etch methods to utilize these fine scale features in the overall design.

  11. Micro-optics and lithography simulation are key enabling technologies for shadow printing lithography in mask aligners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna; Noell, Wilfried

    2015-02-01

    Mask aligners are lithographic tools used to transfer a pattern of microstructures by shadow printing lithography onto a planar wafer. Contact lithography allows us to print large mask fields with sub-micron resolution, but requires frequent mask cleaning. Thus, contact lithography is used for small series of wafer production. Proximity lithography, where the mask is located at a distance of typically 30-100 μm above the wafer, provides a resolution of approximately 3-5 μm, limited by diffraction effects. Proximity lithography in mask aligners is a very cost-efficient method widely used in semiconductor, packaging and MEMS manufacturing industry for high-volume production. Micro-optics plays a key role in improving the performance of shadow printing lithography in mask aligners. Refractive or diffractive micro-optics allows us to efficiently collect the light from the light source and to precisely shape the illumination light (customized illumination). Optical proximity correction and phase shift mask technology allow us to influence the diffraction effects in the aerial image and to enhance resolution and critical dimension. The paper describes the status and future trends of shadow printing lithography in mask aligners and the decisive role of micro-optics as key enabling technology.

  12. Laser-based instrumentation for the detection of chemical agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hartford, A. Jr.; Sander, R.K.; Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being evaluated for the remote, point, and surface detection of chemical agents. Among the methods under investigation are optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). Optoacoustic detection has already been shown to be capable of extremely sensitive point detection. Its application to remote sensing of chemical agents is currently being evaluated. Atomic emission from the region of a laser-generated plasma has been used to identify the characteristic elements contained in nerve (P and F) and blister (S and Cl) agents. Employing this LIBS approach, detection of chemical agent simulants dispersed in air and adsorbed on a variety of surfaces has been achieved. Synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence provides an attractive alternative to conventional LIF, in that an artificial narrowing of the fluorescence emission is obtained. The application of this technique to chemical agent simulants has been successfully demonstrated. 19 figures.

  13. Laser-based profilometry -- Ever-expanding applications

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past ten years, laser-based profilometry has evolved from a near-novelty to a reliable and cost-effective NDE technology. Employing miniature optics, high-speed digital signal processing electronics, and computer-graphic data presentation, systems have been developed for a broad spectrum of NDE and QC applications. These tools are not only capable of providing a high-resolution three-dimensional profile of the test surface but also a monochrome laser-video image of the surface. These devices are now being used for the inspection of tubular goods less than 5 mm in diameter, rifled gun tubes, and process piping. In addition, the technology has been extended to operation underwater and to the profiling of complex surfaces such as nuclear recirculation nozzles and solid rocket motors. This paper presents an overview of this rapidly growing NDE method and provides examples of recent industrial applications.

  14. Diode laser based water vapor DIAL using modulated pulse technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Phong Le Hoai; Abo, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a diode laser based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for measuring lower-tropospheric water vapor profile using the modulated pulse technique. The transmitter is based on single-mode diode laser and tapered semiconductor optical amplifier with a peak power of 10W around 800nm absorption band, and the receiver telescope diameter is 35cm. The selected wavelengths are compared to referenced wavelengths in terms of random error and systematic errors. The key component of modulated pulse technique, a macropulse, is generated with a repetition rate of 10 kHz, and the modulation within the macropulse is coded according to a pseudorandom sequence with 100ns chip width. As a result, we evaluate both single pulse modulation and pseudorandom coded pulse modulation technique. The water vapor profiles conducted from these modulation techniques are compared to the real observation data in summer in Japan.

  15. Laser-Based Hot-Melt Bonding of Thermosetting GFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, P.; Pillach, B.; Frick, T.; Schmidt, M.

    In the future the use of tailored multi-material components will increase because of lightweight constructions. However for an optimal integration of different materials suitable joining techniques are necessary. This paper presents results of joining thermosetting composites to thermoplastics by means of laser-based hot-melt bonding. First the joining process of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) to thermoplastics is analyzed with regard to appropriate material selection of the thermoplastic joining partner. Then experiments are performed to join two thermosetting GFRP composites using a thermoplastic interlayer. All joined specimens are characterized by tensile shear tests whereby the influences of the used peel ply and the thermoplastic joining partner on the tensile shear strength are analyzed. Finally climate tests are performed to investigate the long-term durability of the joint connections.

  16. A Laser-Based Vision System for Weld Quality Inspection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2011-01-01

    Welding is a very complex process in which the final weld quality can be affected by many process parameters. In order to inspect the weld quality and detect the presence of various weld defects, different methods and systems are studied and developed. In this paper, a laser-based vision system is developed for non-destructive weld quality inspection. The vision sensor is designed based on the principle of laser triangulation. By processing the images acquired from the vision sensor, the geometrical features of the weld can be obtained. Through the visual analysis of the acquired 3D profiles of the weld, the presences as well as the positions and sizes of the weld defects can be accurately identified and therefore, the non-destructive weld quality inspection can be achieved. PMID:22344308

  17. Determination of glass thickness using laser-based ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Frank J.; Pouet, Bruno F.; Klein, Marvin B.; McKie, Andrew D. W.

    2001-04-01

    Thickness measurements of glass plates and glass bottles using laser-based ultrasound (LBU) are described. Ultrasound in the glass specimens was generated thermoelastically with either a pulsed CO2 laser, or a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in the case of colored glass filters. The detection of ultrasound was accomplished by one of the following methods; a spherical Fabry-Pérot interferometer system or a photo-refractive interferometer based on two-wave mixing. A self-interference effect, utilizing the partial reflection from the front and back faces of a glass plate was also demonstrated to have sufficient sensitivity under certain conditions. The thickness of the glass plates and colored glass bottles was determined using the fundamental reverberation frequency obtained from the time-domain waveform data. LBU results were compared to physical thickness measurements and showed excellent agreement.

  18. Modeling and laser-based sensing of pulsed detonation engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Ethan A.

    This work is concerned with two major aspects of pulse detonation engines (PDE) research: modeling and laser-based sensing. The modeling addresses both ideal and real considerations relevant to PDE design. First, an ideal nozzle model is developed which provides a tool for choosing area ratios for fixed-geometry converging, diverging, or converging-diverging nozzles. Next, losses associated with finite-rate chemistry are investigated. It was found that PDEs can experience up to 10% reduction in specific impulse from this effect if 02 is used as the oxidizer, whereas the losses are negligible for air-breathing applications. Next, heat transfer and friction losses were investigated and found to be greater than the losses from simple straight-tube PDEs. These losses are most pronounced (˜15%) when converging nozzles are used. The second portion of this work focuses on laser-based absorption sensing for PDEs. The mid-infrared was chosen as the best way to address the challenges of signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity, robustness, and sensor bandwidth. A water vapor sensor was developed and applied to the PDE at the Naval Postgraduate School. This sensor provided improvements in temperature accuracy, and it revealed that water (generated by the vitiator) inhibited performance of the engine. Next, a JP-10 absorption sensor was developed and applied to the same engine. This sensor provided thermometry data at a higher temporal resolution than the water sensor. The sensor also provided crucial information on equivalence ratio and fuel arrival time which enabled the engine to be successfully operated on JP-10 and air for the first time.

  19. Impacts of cost functions on inverse lithography patterning.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jue-Chin; Yu, Peichen

    2010-10-25

    For advanced CMOS processes, inverse lithography promises better patterning fidelity than conventional mask correction techniques due to a more complete exploration of the solution space. However, the success of inverse lithography relies highly on customized cost functions whose design and know-how have rarely been discussed. In this paper, we investigate the impacts of various objective functions and their superposition for inverse lithography patterning using a generic gradient descent approach. We investigate the most commonly used objective functions, which are the resist and aerial images, and also present a derivation for the aerial image contrast. We then discuss the resulting pattern fidelity and final mask characteristics for simple layouts with a single isolated contact and two nested contacts. We show that a cost function composed of a dominant resist-image component and a minor aerial-image or image-contrast component can achieve a good mask correction and contour targets when using inverse lithography patterning. PMID:21164674

  20. The economic impact of EUV lithography on critical process modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Arindam; Horiguchi, Naoto; Bömmels, Jürgen; Thean, Aaron; Barla, Kathy; Vandenberghe, Geert; Ronse, Kurt; Ryckaert, Julien; Mercha, Abdelkarim; Altimime, Laith; Verkest, Diederik; Steegen, An

    2014-04-01

    Traditionally, semiconductor density scaling has been supported by optical lithography. The ability of the exposure tools to provide shorter exposure wavelengths or higher numerical apertures have allowed optical lithography be on the forefront of dimensional scaling for the semiconductor industry. Unfortunately, the roadmap for lithography is currently at a juncture of a major paradigm shift. EUV Lithography is steadily maturing but not fully ready to be inserted into HVM. Unfortunately, there are no alternative litho candidates on the horizon that can take over from 193nm. As a result, it is important to look into the insertion point of EUV that would be ideal for the industry from an economical perspective. This paper details the benefit observed by such a transition. Furthermore, it looks into such detail with an EUV throughput sensitivity study.

  1. Lithography imaging control by enhanced monitoring of light source performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagna, Paolo; Zurita, Omar; Lalovic, Ivan; Seong, Nakgeuon; Rechsteiner, Gregory; Thornes, Joshua; D'havé, Koen; Van Look, Lieve; Bekaert, Joost

    2013-04-01

    Reducing lithography pattern variability has become a critical enabler of ArF immersion scaling and is required to ensure consistent lithography process yield for sub-30nm device technologies. As DUV multi-patterning requirements continue to shrink, it is imperative that all sources of lithography variability are controlled throughout the product life-cycle, from technology development to high volume manufacturing. Recent developments of new ArF light-source metrology and monitoring capabilities have been introduced in order to improve lithography patterning control.[1] These technologies enable performance monitoring of new light-source properties, relating to illumination stability, and enable new reporting and analysis of in-line performance.

  2. First results from AIMS beta tool for 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, Silvio; Higashikawa, Iwao; Urbach, Jan-Peter; Schilz, Christof M.; Koehle, Roderick; Zibold, Axel M.

    2004-05-01

    In modern mask manufacturing, a successful defect mitigation strategy has been become crucial to achieve defect free masks for high-end lithography. The basic steps of such a strategy include inspection, repair, and subsequent post-repair qualification of repair sites. For the latter task, actinic aerial image measurements have been proven to be the technique of choice to assess the printability of a repaired site. In the last three years, International SEMATECH in cooperation with Infineon/AMTC-Dresden and SELETE, funded a joint development project at Carl Zeiss to develop an AIMS tool operating at the 157nm wavelength. The three beta tools were shipped in 2003 to the three beta customer sites. In this paper are presented the first results obtained with these beta tools, including measurements on binary as well as alternating phase shift masks. The technical properties of the tool were discussed with regards to the capability of the tool for defect qualification on photomasks. Additionally, preliminary results of the evaluation of alternating phase shift masks will be discussed, including measurements performed on dense lines-and-spaces structures with various pitch sizes.

  3. Fundamentals of embossing nanoimprint lithography in polymer substrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; King, William P.

    2011-02-01

    The convergence of micro-/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and biomedical industries is creating a need for innovation and discovery around materials, particularly in miniaturized systems that use polymers as the primary substrate. Polymers are ubiquitous in the microelectronics industry and are used as sensing materials, lithography tools, replication molds, microfluidics, nanofluidics, and biomedical devices. This diverse set of operational requirements dictates that the materials employed must possess different properties in order to reduce the cost of production, decrease the scale of devices to the appropriate degree, and generate engineered devices with new functional properties at cost-competitive levels of production. Nanoscale control of polymer deformation at a massive scale would enable breakthroughs in all of the aforementioned applications, but is currently beyond the current capabilities of mass manufacturing. This project was focused on developing a fundamental understanding of how polymers behave under different loads and environments at the nanoscale in terms of performance and fidelity in order to fill the most critical gaps in our current knowledgebase on this topic.

  4. Manipulation of heat-diffusion channel in laser thermal lithography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jingsong; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yiqun

    2014-12-29

    Laser thermal lithography is a good alternative method for forming small pattern feature size by taking advantage of the structural-change threshold effect of thermal lithography materials. In this work, the heat-diffusion channels of laser thermal lithography are first analyzed, and then we propose to manipulate the heat-diffusion channels by inserting thermal conduction layers in between channels. Heat-flow direction can be changed from the in-plane to the out-of-plane of the thermal lithography layer, which causes the size of the structural-change threshold region to become much smaller than the focused laser spot itself; thus, nanoscale marks can be obtained. Samples designated as "glass substrate/thermal conduction layer/thermal lithography layer (100 nm)/thermal conduction layer" are designed and prepared. Chalcogenide phase-change materials are used as thermal lithography layer, and Si is used as thermal conduction layer to manipulate heat-diffusion channels. Laser thermal lithography experiments are conducted on a home-made high-speed rotation direct laser writing setup with 488 nm laser wavelength and 0.90 numerical aperture of converging lens. The writing marks with 50-60 nm size are successfully obtained. The mark size is only about 1/13 of the focused laser spot, which is far smaller than that of the light diffraction limit spot of the direct laser writing setup. This work is useful for nanoscale fabrication and lithography by exploiting the far-field focusing light system. PMID:25607209

  5. Scatterometry for EUV lithography at the 22-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor; Ren, Liping; Huang, George; Montgomery, Cecilia; Montgomery, Warren; Elia, Alex; Liu, Xiaoping

    2011-03-01

    Moore's Law continues to drive improvements to lithographic resolution to increase integrated circuit transistor density, improve performance, and reduce cost. For the 22 nm node and beyond, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is a promising technology with λ=13.5 nm, a larger k1 value and lower cost of ownership than other available technologies. For small feature sizes, process control will be increasingly challenging, as small features will create measurement uncertainties, yet with tighter specifications. Optical scatterometry is a primary candidate metrology for EUV lithography process control. Using simulation and experimental data, this work will explore scatterometry's application to a typical lithography process being used for EUV development, which should be representative of lithography processes that will be utilized for EUV High Volume manufacturing (HVM). EUV lithography will be performed using much thinner photoresist thicknesses than were used at the 248nm or 193nm lithography generations, and will probably include underlayers for adhesion improvement; these new processes conditions were investigated in this metrological study.

  6. Application of optical CD metrology for alternative lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Masafumi; Kawamoto, Akiko; Matsuki, Kazuto; Godny, Stephane; Lin, Tingsheng; Wakamoto, Koichi

    2013-04-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) and nanoimprint lithography (NIL) have been widely developed for low-cost nanoscale patterning. Although they are currently regarded as "alternative lithography," some papers show their potential to be candidates for next-generation lithography (NGL). To actualize the potential, the contribution of metrology engineers is necessary. Since the characteristics of the lithography techniques are different from those of conventional lithography, new metrology schemes correlated with each characteristic are required. In DSA of block copolymer (BCP), a guide is needed to control the direction and position of BCP. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the relationship between the guide and the BCP pattern. Since the depth of guide or the coating thickness variation of BCP over guide influences the behavior of phase separation of BCP, 3D metrology becomes increasingly important. In NIL, residual resist thickness (RLT) underneath the pattern should be measured because its variation affects the CD variation of transferred pattern. 3D metrology is also important in NIL. Optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology will be a powerful tool for 3D metrology. In this work, some applications of OCD for alternative lithography have been studied. For DSA, we have tried to simultaneously monitor the guide and BCP pattern in a DSA-based contact hole shrinking process. Sufficient measurement accuracy for CD and shapes for guide and BCP patterns was achievable. For NIL, sufficient sensitivity to RLT measurement was obtained.

  7. Successful demonstration of a comprehensive lithography defect monitoring strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ingrid B.; Breaux, Louis H.; Cross, Andrew; von den Hoff, Michael

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the validation of the methodology, the model and the impact of an optimized Lithography Defect Monitoring Strategy at two different semiconductor manufacturing factories. The lithography defect inspection optimization was implemented for the Gate Module at both factories running 0.13-0.15μm technologies on 200mm wafers, one running microprocessor and the other memory devices. As minimum dimensions and process windows decrease in the lithography area, new technologies and technological advances with resists and resist systems are being implemented to meet the demands. Along with these new technological advances in the lithography area comes potentially unforeseen defect issues. The latest lithography processes involve new resists in extremely thin, uniform films, exposing the films under conditions of highly optimized focus and illumination, and finally removing the resist completely and cleanly. The lithography cell is defined as the cluster of process equipment that accomplishes the coating process (surface prep, resist spin, edge-bead removal and soft bake), the alignment and exposure, and the developing process (post-exposure bake, develop, rinse) of the resist. Often the resist spinning process involves multiple materials such as BARC (bottom ARC) and / or TARC (top ARC) materials in addition to the resist itself. The introduction of these new materials with the multiple materials interfaces and the tightness of the process windows leads to an increased variety of defect mechanisms in the lithography area. Defect management in the lithography area has become critical to successful product introduction and yield ramp. The semiconductor process itself contributes the largest number and variety of defects, and a significant portion of the total defects originate within the lithography cell. From a defect management perspective, the lithography cell has some unique characteristics. First, defects in the lithography process module have the

  8. Projection lithography with distortion compensation using reticle chuck contouring

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.

    2001-01-01

    A chuck for holding a reflective reticle where the chuck has an insulator block with a non-planer surface contoured to cause distortion correction of EUV radiation is provided. Upon being placed on the chuck, a thin, pliable reflective reticle will conform to the contour of the chuck's non-planer surface. When employed in a scanning photolithography system, distortion in the scanned direction is corrected.

  9. Polarization aberration compensation method by adjusting illumination partial coherent factors in immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yue; Li, Yanqiu; Liu, Lihui; Han, Chunying; Liu, Xiaolin

    2014-11-01

    As the numerical aperture (NA) increasing and process factor k1 decreasing in 193nm immersion lithography, polarization aberration (PA) of projection optics leads to image quality degradation seriously. Therefore, this work proposes a new scheme for compensating polarization aberration. By simulating we found that adjusting the illumination source partial coherent factors σout is an effective method for decreasing the PA induced pattern critical dimension (CD) error while keeping placement error (PE) within an acceptable range. Our simulation results reveal that the proposed method can effectively compensate large PA in actual optics.

  10. EUV micro-exposure tool at 0.5 NA for sub-16 nm lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Michael; Hudyma, Russ; Naulleau, Patrick; Wurm, Stefan

    2008-09-26

    The resolution limit of present 0.3 NA 13.5 nm wavelength micro-exposure tools is compared to next generation lithography research requirements. Findings suggest that a successor design is needed for patterning starting at the 16 nm semiconductor process technology node. A two-mirror 0.5 NA optical design is presented, and performance expectations are established from detailed optical and lithographic simulation. Here, we report on the results from a SEMATECH program to fabricate a projection optic with an ultimate resolution limit of approximately 11 nm.

  11. Diffraction spectral filter for use in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Tichenor, Daniel A.; Bernardez, Luis J.

    2002-01-01

    A condenser system for generating a beam of radiation includes a source of radiation light that generates a continuous spectrum of radiation light; a condenser comprising one or more first optical elements for collecting radiation from the source of radiation light and for generating a beam of radiation; and a diffractive spectral filter for separating first radiation light having a particular wavelength from the continuous spectrum of radiation light. Cooling devices can be employed to remove heat generated. The condenser system can be used with a ringfield camera in projection lithography.

  12. Characterization of 'metal resist' for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriumi, Minoru; Sato, Yuta; Kumai, Reiji; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Tsukiyama, Koichi; Itani, Toshiro

    2016-03-01

    We characterized EIDEC metal resist for EUV lithography by various measurement methods. The low-voltage aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy showed the morphology of metal resists in nanometer regions and enabled studying the distribution of resist component in the resist film. The zirconium oxide metal resist kept the core-shell structure in the resist films and the titanium oxide metal resist showed the aggregation in the film. X-ray diffractometry and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation showed the amorphous structure with short-range order of the zirconium oxide metal resist. X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy of the zirconium oxide-methacrylic acid metal resist showed the decomposition of the shell molecules and the increase of electron density at zirconium atoms after the EUV exposure. Infrared (IR) spectra indicated that the shell molecules made the various bindings to the metal core and the specific vibrational mode of shell molecules showed the divergent responsivity to the irradiation wavenumber of the IR Free electron laser.

  13. Metal hierarchical patterning by direct nanoimprint lithography

    PubMed Central

    Radha, Boya; Lim, Su Hui; Saifullah, Mohammad S. M.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional hierarchical patterning of metals is of paramount importance in diverse fields involving photonics, controlling surface wettability and wearable electronics. Conventionally, this type of structuring is tedious and usually involves layer-by-layer lithographic patterning. Here, we describe a simple process of direct nanoimprint lithography using palladium benzylthiolate, a versatile metal-organic ink, which not only leads to the formation of hierarchical patterns but also is amenable to layer-by-layer stacking of the metal over large areas. The key to achieving such multi-faceted patterning is hysteretic melting of ink, enabling its shaping. It undergoes transformation to metallic palladium under gentle thermal conditions without affecting the integrity of the hierarchical patterns on micro- as well as nanoscale. A metallic rice leaf structure showing anisotropic wetting behavior and woodpile-like structures were thus fabricated. Furthermore, this method is extendable for transferring imprinted structures to a flexible substrate to make them robust enough to sustain numerous bending cycles. PMID:23446801

  14. Smartphone sensors for stone lithography authentication.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Giuseppe Schirripa; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to "authenticate" non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the "not original artwork" is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  15. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    PubMed Central

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  16. Lithography optics: its present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Mori, Takashi

    1998-09-01

    Firstly, various technical aspects of ArF optics are surveyed. At present, the ArF excimer laser is regarded as one of the most promising candidates as a next-generation light source for optical lithography. Discussions are ranging over some critical issues of ArF optics. The lifetime of ArF optics supposedly limited by the radiation compaction of silica glass is estimated in comparison with KrF optics. Availability of calcium fluoride (CaF2) is also discussed. As a designing issue, a comparative study is made about the optical configuration, dioptric or catadioptric. In the end, our resist-based performance is shown. Secondly, estimated are the future trend regarding minimum geometry and the optical parameters, such as numerical aperture and wavelength. For the estimation, simulations based on aerial images are performed, where in the resolution limit is defined as a minimum feature size which retains practical depth of focus. Pattern geometry is classified into two categories, which are dense lines and isolated lines. Available wavelengths are assumed to be KrF excimer laser ((λ =248 nm), ArF excimer laser (λ =193 nm) and F2 excimer laser (λ =157 nm). Based upon the simulation results, the resolution limit is estimated for each geometry and each wavelength.

  17. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao

    1994-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 {mu}m wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  18. Materials for future lithography (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seung Wook; Yang, Da; Dai, Junyan; Felix, Nelson; Bratton, Daniel; Tsuchiya, Kousuke; Kwark, Young-Je; Bravo-Vasquez, Juan-Pablo; Ober, Christopher K.; Cao, Heidi B.; Deng, Hai

    2005-05-01

    The demands for high resolution and issues of line edge roughness require a reconsideration of current resist design strategies. In particular, EUV lithography will provide an opportunity to examine new resist concepts including new elemental compositions and low molar mass resists or molecular resists. In the former case, resist compositions incorporating elements such as silicon and boron have been explored for EUV resists and will be described. In an example of the latter case, molecular glass resists have been designed using synthetic architectures in globular and core-arm forms ranging from one to multiple arms. Moreover, our studies include a series of ring and irregularly shaped small molecules modified to give imaging performance. These materials have been explored to improve line edge roughness (LER) compared to common polymer resists. Several examples of polymeric and molecular glass resists will be described. Several compositions showed high glass transition temperatures (Tg) of ~ 120°C and possessed no crystallinity as seen from XRD studies. Negative-tone molecular glass resists with a T-shaped phenolic core structure, 4-[4-[1,1-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl

  19. Resist profile simulation with fast lithography model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan-Ying; Chou, Chih-Shiang; Tang, Yu-Po; Huang, Wen-Chun; Liu, Ru-Gun; Gau, Tsai-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    A traditional approach to construct a fast lithographic model is to match wafer top-down SEM images, contours and/or gauge CDs with a TCC model plus some simple resist representation. This modeling method has been proven and is extensively used for OPC modeling. As the technology moves forward, this traditional approach has become insufficient in regard to lithography weak point detection, etching bias prediction, etc. The drawback of this approach is from metrology and simulation. First, top-down SEM is only good for acquiring planar CD information. Some 3D metrology such as cross-section SEM or AFM is necessary to obtain the true resist profile. Second, the TCC modeling approach is only suitable for planar image simulation. In order to model the resist profile, full 3D image simulation is needed. Even though there are many rigorous simulators capable of catching the resist profile very well, none of them is feasible for full-chip application due to the tremendous consumption of computational resource. The authors have proposed a quasi-3D image simulation method in the previous study [1], which is suitable for full-chip simulation with the consideration of sidewall angles, to improve the model accuracy of planar models. In this paper, the quasi-3D image simulation is extended to directly model the resist profile with AFM and/or cross-section SEM data. Resist weak points detected by the model generated with this 3D approach are verified on the wafer.

  20. Plasmonic nanostructures fabricated using nanosphere-lithography, soft-lithography and plasma etching

    PubMed Central

    Makaryan, Taron; Enderle, Fabian; Wiedemann, Stefan; Plettl, Alfred; Marti, Othmar; Ziemann, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Summary We present two routes for the fabrication of plasmonic structures based on nanosphere lithography templates. One route makes use of soft-lithography to obtain arrays of epoxy resin hemispheres, which, in a second step, can be coated by metal films. The second uses the hexagonal array of triangular structures, obtained by evaporation of a metal film on top of colloidal crystals, as a mask for reactive ion etching (RIE) of the substrate. In this way, the triangular patterns of the mask are transferred to the substrate through etched triangular pillars. Making an epoxy resin cast of the pillars, coated with metal films, allows us to invert the structure and obtain arrays of triangular holes within the metal. Both fabrication methods illustrate the preparation of large arrays of nanocavities within metal films at low cost. Gold films of different thicknesses were evaporated on top of hemispherical structures of epoxy resin with different radii, and the reflectance and transmittance were measured for optical wavelengths. Experimental results show that the reflectivity of coated hemispheres is lower than that of coated polystyrene spheres of the same size, for certain wavelength bands. The spectral position of these bands correlates with the size of the hemispheres. In contrast, etched structures on quartz coated with gold films exhibit low reflectance and transmittance values for all wavelengths measured. Low transmittance and reflectance indicate high absorbance, which can be utilized in experiments requiring light confinement. PMID:22003451

  1. Detecting Molecular Properties by Various Laser-Based Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hsin, Tse-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Four different laser-based techniques were applied to study physical and chemical characteristics of biomolecules and dye molecules. These techniques are liole burning spectroscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence microscopy. Results from hole burning and single molecule spectroscopy suggested that two antenna states (C708 & C714) of photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 are connected by effective energy transfer and the corresponding energy transfer time is ~6 ps. In addition, results from hole burning spectroscopy indicated that the chlorophyll dimer of the C714 state has a large distribution of the dimer geometry. Direct observation of vibrational peaks and evolution of coumarin 153 in the electronic excited state was demonstrated by using the fs/ps CARS, a variation of time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. In three different solvents, methanol, acetonitrile, and butanol, a vibration peak related to the stretch of the carbonyl group exhibits different relaxation dynamics. Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy, along with the biomimetic containers-liposomes, allows the measurement of the enzymatic activity of individual alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestinal mucosa without potential interferences from glass surfaces. The result showed a wide distribution of the enzyme reactivity. Protein structural variation is one of the major reasons that are responsible for this highly heterogeneous behavior.

  2. Residual stress determination from a laser-based curvature measurement

    SciTech Connect

    W. D. Swank; R. A. Gavalya; J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2000-05-08

    Thermally sprayed coating characteristics and mechanical properties are in part a result of the residual stress developed during the fabrication process. The total stress state in a coating/substrate is comprised of the quench stress and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch stress. The quench stress is developed when molten particles impact the substrate and rapidly cool and solidify. The CTE mismatch stress results from a large difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of the coating and substrate material. It comes into effect when the substrate/coating combination cools from the equilibrated deposit temperature to room temperature. This paper describes a laser-based technique for measuring the curvature of a coated substrate and the analysis required to determine residual stress from curvature measurements. Quench stresses were determined by heating the specimen back to the deposit temperature thus removing the CTE mismatch stress. By subtracting the quench stress from the total residual stress at room temperature, the CTE mismatch stress was estimated. Residual stress measurements for thick (>1mm) spinel coatings with a Ni-Al bond coat on 304 stainless steel substrates were made. It was determined that a significant portion of the residual stress results from the quenching stress of the bond coat and that the spinel coating produces a larger CTE mismatch stress than quench stress.

  3. Residual Stress Determination from a Laser-Based Curvature Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Swank, William David; Gavalya, Rick Allen; Wright, Julie Knibloe; Wright, Richard Neil

    2000-05-01

    Thermally sprayed coating characteristics and mechanical properties are in part a result of the residual stress developed during the fabrication process. The total stress state in a coating/substrate is comprised of the quench stress and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch stress. The quench stress is developed when molten particles impact the substrate and rapidly cool and solidify. The CTE mismatch stress results from a large difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of the coating and substrate material. It comes into effect when the substrate/coating combination cools from the equilibrated deposit temperature to room temperature. This paper describes a laser-based technique for measuring the curvature of a coated substrate and the analysis required to determine residual stress from curvature measurements. Quench stresses were determined by heating the specimen back to the deposit temperature thus removing the CTE mismatch stress. By subtracting the quench stress from the total residual stress at room temperature, the CTE mismatch stress was estimated. Residual stress measurements for thick (>1mm) spinel coatings with a Ni-Al bond coat on 304 stainless steel substrates were made. It was determined that a significant portion of the residual stress results from the quenching stress of the bond coat and that the spinel coating produces a larger CTE mismatch stress than quench stress.

  4. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-02-18

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  5. Ceramic Coating Inspection Using Laser-Based Ultrasonics and Nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, T. L.; Murray, T. W.; Basu, S. N.; Sarin, V. K.

    2007-03-21

    A combination of laser-based ultrasonic (LBU) inspection and nanoindentation testing is used to evaluate the thickness uniformity and through-thickness mechanical property distributions in 5-20 {mu}m thick CVD environmental barrier coatings. Mullite (3Al2O3{center_dot}2SiO2) coatings grown on silicon carbide substrates are studied in order to provide feedback on the growth process under a range of operating conditions. Nanoindentation tests are performed on polished coating cross sections, and the depth dependence of the elastic modulus of each coating is found. In the LBU experiments, a modulated continuous wave (CW) source is used for surface wave generation. The source is held at a fixed temporal frequency as it is scanned over the surface of the coating. At each temporal frequency of interest, the spatial frequencies of the acoustic modes are found, allowing for phase velocities to be determined. The mean values of elastic moduli found using the LBU approach compare well with the nanoindentation results.

  6. Virtual environment assessment for laser-based vision surface profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElSoussi, Adnane; Al Alami, Abed ElRahman; Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.

    2015-03-01

    Oil and gas businesses have been raising the demand from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to implement a reliable metrology method in assessing surface profiles of welds before and after grinding. This certainly mandates the deviation from the commonly used surface measurement gauges, which are not only operator dependent, but also limited to discrete measurements along the weld. Due to its potential accuracy and speed, the use of laser-based vision surface profiling systems have been progressively rising as part of manufacturing quality control. This effort presents a virtual environment that lends itself for developing and evaluating existing laser vision sensor (LVS) calibration and measurement techniques. A combination of two known calibration techniques is implemented to deliver a calibrated LVS system. System calibration is implemented virtually and experimentally to scan simulated and 3D printed features of known profiles, respectively. Scanned data is inverted and compared with the input profiles to validate the virtual environment capability for LVS surface profiling and preliminary assess the measurement technique for weld profiling applications. Moreover, this effort brings 3D scanning capability a step closer towards robust quality control applications in a manufacturing environment.

  7. Dental hard tissue characterization using laser-based ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, David W.; Massey, Ward L.

    2003-07-01

    Dental health care and research workers require a means of imaging the structures within teeth in vivo. One critical need is the detection of tooth decay in its early stages. If decay can be detected early enough, the process can be monitored and interventional procedures, such as fluoride washes and controlled diet, can be initiated to help re-mineralize the tooth. Currently employed x-ray imaging is limited in its ability to visualize interfaces and incapable of detecting decay at a stage early enough to avoid invasive cavity preparation followed by a restoration. To this end, non-destructive and non-contact in vitro measurements on extracted human molars using laser-based ultrasonics are presented. Broadband ultrasonic waves are excited in the extracted sections by using a pulsed carbon-dioxide (CO2) laser operating in a region of high optical absorption in the dental hard tissues. Optical interferometric detection of the ultrasonic wave surface displacements in accomplished with a path-stabilized Michelson-type interferometer. Results for bulk and surface in-vitro characterization of caries are presented on extracted molars with pre-existing caries.

  8. Diode-Laser-Based Spectrometer for Sensing Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Joel A.

    2005-01-01

    A diode-laser-based spectrometer has been developed for measuring concentrations of gases and is intended particularly for use in analyzing and monitoring combustion processes under microgravitational conditions in a drop tower or a spacecraft. This instrument is also well suited for use on Earth in combustion experiments and for such related purposes as fire-safety monitoring and monitoring toxic and flammable gases in industrial settings. Of the gas-sensing spectrometers available prior to the development of this instrument, those that were sensitive enough for measuring the combustion gases of interest were too large, required critical optical alignments, used far too much electrical power, and were insufficiently rugged for use under the severe conditions of spacecraft launch and space flight. In contrast, the present instrument is compact, consumes relatively little power, and is rugged enough to withstand launch vibrations and space flight. In addition, this instrument is characterized by long-term stability, accuracy, and reliability. The diode laser in this spectrometer is operated in a wavelength-modulation mode. Different gases to be measured can be selected by changing modular laser units. The operation of the laser is controlled by customized, low-power electronic circuitry built around a digital signal-processor board. This customized circuitry also performs acquisition and analysis of data, controls communications, and manages errors.

  9. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-02-01

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  10. Laser-based patterning for fluidic devices in nitrocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Katis, Ioannis N.; Eason, Robert W.; Sones, Collin L.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate a simple and low cost method that can be reproducibly used for fabrication of microfluidic devices in nitrocellulose. The fluidic patterns are created via a laser-based direct-write technique that induces polymerisation of a photo-polymer previously impregnated in the nitrocellulose. The resulting structures form hydrophobic barriers that extend through the thickness of the nitrocellulose and define an interconnected hydrophilic fluidic-flow pattern. Our experimental results show that using this method it is possible to achieve microfluidic channels with lateral dimensions of ∼100 μm using hydrophobic barriers that form the channel walls with dimensions of ∼60 μm; both of these values are considerably smaller than those that can be achieved with other current techniques used in the fabrication of nitrocellulose-based fluidic devices. A simple grid patterned nitrocellulose device was then used for the detection of C-reactive protein via a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which served as a useful proof-of-principle experiment. PMID:26015836

  11. Laser-based micro/nanoengineering for biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratakis, E.; Ranella, A.; Farsari, M.; Fotakis, C.

    2009-09-01

    Controlling the interactions of light with matter is crucial for the success and scalability for materials processing applications at micro and nano-scales. The use of ultrafast pulsed lasers (i.e. lasers emitting pulses of duration shorter than 10 -12 s) for the micro/nano engineering of biomaterials or materials relevant to biological applications opens up several exciting possibilities in this respect. These possibilities rely on several attractive features of ultrafast laser-matter interaction processes which allow nanoscale spatial resolution, non-thermal and non-destructive engineering to take place. This article presents a review of novel laser-based techniques for the printing and micro- and nano- scale surface modification of materials for biological applications. Emphasis is placed on techniques appropriate for biochip and tissue engineering applications, for which there is an increasing demand over the last years. Besides presenting recent advances achieved by these techniques, this work also delineates existing limitations and highlights emerging possibilities and future prospects in this field.

  12. Low-cost lithography for fabrication of one-dimensional diffraction gratings by using laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghui; Zhu, Xiangwen; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Huanhuan; Ni, Kai

    2015-08-01

    A low-cost lithography technology is presented in this paper for fabrication of sub-micron order one-dimensional diffraction gratings. A Lloyd's mirror interferometer which can generate stable interference fringes is used as fabrication tool. The Lloyd's mirror interferometer is composed of a mirror and a substrate coated by photoresist, which are placed by nighty degrees. A plane wave is projected onto the Lloyd's mirror and divided into two halves, one of which is directly projected onto the substrate and the other one reaches the substrate after being reflected by the mirror. These two beam interfere with each other and generate interference fringes, which are exposed onto the photoresist. After being developed, the exposed photoresist shows a one-dimensional surface-relief grating structures. In conventional lithography system based on the principle mentioned above, gas lasers, such as He-Cd laser are widely employed. The cost and footprint of such laser sources, however, are always high and bulky. A low-cost system by using cost-efficient 405 nm laser diodes is then proposed for solving these problems. A key parameter, coherence length that determines one-dimensional grating width is systematically studied. A fabrication system based on the interference lithography principle and 405 nm laser diodes is constructed for evaluation of the feasibility of using laser didoes as laser source. Gratings with 570 nm pitch are fabricated and evaluated by an atomic force microscope. Experiments results show that low-cost 405 nm laser diode is an effective laser source for one-dimensional grating fabrication.

  13. Intelligent control system based on ARM for lithography tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changlong; Tang, Xiaoping; Hu, Song; Wang, Nan

    2014-08-01

    The control system of traditional lithography tool is based on PC and MCU. The PC handles the complex algorithm, human-computer interaction, and communicates with MCU via serial port; The MCU controls motors and electromagnetic valves, etc. This mode has shortcomings like big volume, high power consumption, and wasting of PC resource. In this paper, an embedded intelligent control system of lithography tool, based on ARM, is provided. The control system used S5PV210 as processor, completing the functions of PC in traditional lithography tool, and provided a good human-computer interaction by using LCD and capacitive touch screen. Using Android4.0.3 as operating system, the equipment provided a cool and easy UI which made the control more user-friendly, and implemented remote control and debug, pushing video information of product by network programming. As a result, it's convenient for equipment vendor to provide technical support for users. Finally, compared with traditional lithography tool, this design reduced the PC part, making the hardware resources efficiently used and reducing the cost and volume. Introducing embedded OS and the concepts in "The Internet of things" into the design of lithography tool can be a development trend.

  14. Antireflective surface patterned by rolling mask lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Oliver; Geddes, Joseph B.; Aryal, Mukti; Perez, Joseph; Wassei, Jonathan; McMackin, Ian; Kobrin, Boris

    2014-03-01

    A growing number of commercial products such as displays, solar panels, light emitting diodes (LEDs and OLEDs), automotive and architectural glass are driving demand for glass with high performance surfaces that offer anti-reflective, self-cleaning, and other advanced functions. State-of-the-art coatings do not meet the desired performance characteristics or cannot be applied over large areas in a cost-effective manner. "Rolling Mask Lithography" (RML™) enables highresolution lithographic nano-patterning over large-areas at low-cost and high-throughput. RML is a photolithographic process performed using ultraviolet (UV) illumination transmitted through a soft cylindrical mask as it rolls across a substrate. Subsequent transfer of photoresist patterns into the substrate is achieved using an etching process, which creates a nanostructured surface. The current generation exposure tool is capable of patterning one-meter long substrates with a width of 300 mm. High-throughput and low-cost are achieved using continuous exposure of the resist by the cylindrical photomask. Here, we report on significant improvements in the application of RML™ to fabricate anti-reflective surfaces. Briefly, an optical surface can be made antireflective by "texturing" it with a nano-scale pattern to reduce the discontinuity in the index of refraction between the air and the bulk optical material. An array of cones, similar to the structure of a moth's eye, performs this way. Substrates are patterned using RML™ and etched to produce an array of cones with an aspect ratio of 3:1, which decreases the reflectivity below 0.1%.

  15. Neutral atom lithography with metastable helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Claire Shean

    In this dissertation we describe our performance of resist assisted neutral atom lithography using a bright beam of metastable 23S1 Helium (He*). Metastable Helium atoms have 20 eV of internal energy making them easy to detect and able to destroy a resist. The He* is produced by a reverse flow DC discharge source and then collimated with the bichromatic force, followed by three optical molasses velocity compression stages. The atoms in the resulting beam have a mean longitudinal velocity of 1125 m/s and a divergence of 1.1 mrad. The typical beam flux is 2 x 109 atoms/mm2s through a 0.1mm diameter aperture 70 cm away from the source. The internal energy of the atoms damages the molecules of a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of nonanethiol. The undisturbed SAM protects a 200 A layer of gold that has been evaporated onto a prepared Silicon wafer from a wet chemical etch. Two methods are used to pattern the He* atoms before they destroy the SAM. First, a Nickel micro mesh was used to protect the SAM. These experiments established an appropriate dosage and etch time for patterning. The samples were analyzed with an atomic force microscope and found to have an edge resolution of 63 nm. Then, patterning was accomplished using the dipole force the atoms experience while traversing a standing wave of lambda = 1083nm light tuned 500MHz below the 23S 1 → 23P2 transition. Depending on the intensity of the light, the He* atoms are focused or channeled into lines separated by lambda/2. The lines cover the entire exposed length of the substrate, about 3 mm. They are about 3 mm long, corresponding to about twice the beam waist of the laser standing wave. Thus there are 6 x 10 3 lines of length 5500lambda. These results agree with our numerical simulations of the experiment.

  16. Submicrometer Pattern Correction For Optical Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Tetsuo; Kadota, Kazuya; Fukui, Hiroshi; Nagao, Masaki; Sugimoto, Aritoshi; Nozaki, Masahiro; Kato, Takeshi

    1988-01-01

    To realize higher CD controls of submicrometer devices, the submicrometer pattern corrections were investigated in optical reduction steppers considering the primary residual aberrations. The optical pattern fidelities on the reduction pattern transfer were estimated at first using the three-dimensional photoresist image simulator RESPROT (Resist Process Three-Dimensional Simulator), which is examined the Seidel's primary aberrations, i.e. spherical aberration, astigmatism, field curvature, distortion and coma. From RESPROT calculations it was known that astigmatism affects pattern shape depending on image height, coma and distortion make position shifts in exposure field, and image contrast is influenced by field curvature. These results were reflected to device design rules, process latitude enhancements and lens manufacturings. To use premature high NA g-line lenses and minimize the diffraction limit for submicrometer area, reticle pattern corrections are very useful for sub-space patterns writing in contact holes, "tailoring" of W/L for MOS-gate patterns, and sub-field position control for distortion correction on ER writing. For almost of this investigation, 5-10nm order corrections were required from original design on wafer. In order to make good use of higher NA lenses, focus latitude enhancement are required because field curvature control is very severe. For these demand, multi-step superpositions of focus and exposure, FLEX -method, is useful to enhance the depth of focus effectively. These simulated and examined results are covenient to realize submicrometer devices on advantageous optical lithography using more shorter wavelength, i.e. i-line or excirner laser steppers.

  17. Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography - Reflective Mask Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, C.C.; Kearney, P.A.; Mirkarimi, P.B.; Bowers, J.M.; Cerjan, C.; Warrick, A.L.; Wilhelmsen, K.; Fought, E.; Moore, C.; Larson, C.; Baker, S.; Burkhart, S.C.; Hector, S.D.

    2000-05-09

    EUVL mask blanks consist of a distributed Bragg reflector made of 6.7nm-pitch bi-layers of MO and Si deposited upon a precision Si or glass substrate. The layer deposition process has been optimized for low defects, by application of a vendor-supplied but highly modified ion-beam sputter deposition system. This system is fully automated using SMIF technology to obtain the lowest possible environmental- and handling-added defect levels. Originally designed to coat 150mm substrates, it was upgraded in July, 1999 to 200 mm and has coated runs of over 50 substrates at a time with median added defects >100nm below 0.05/cm{sup 2}. These improvements have resulted from a number of ion-beam sputter deposition system modifications, upgrades, and operational changes, which will be discussed. Success in defect reduction is highly dependent upon defect detection, characterization, and cross-platform positional registration. We have made significant progress in adapting and extending commercial tools to this purpose, and have identified the surface scanner detection limits for different defect classes, and the signatures of false counts and non-printable scattering anomalies on the mask blank. We will present key results and how they have helped reduce added defects. The physics of defect reduction and mitigation is being investigated by a program on multilayer growth over deliberately placed perturbations (defects) of varying size. This program includes modeling of multilayer growth and modeling of defect printability. We developed a technique for depositing uniformly sized gold spheres on EUVL substrates, and have studied the suppression of the perturbations during multilayer growth under varying conditions. This work is key to determining the lower limit of critical defect size for EUV Lithography. We present key aspects of this work. We will summarize progress in all aspects of EUVL mask blank development, and present detailed results on defect reduction and mask blank

  18. Fluorinated dissolution inhibitors for 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Alyssandrea H.; Bae, Young C.; Liu, Xiang-Qian; Ober, Christopher K.; Houlihan, Francis M.; Dabbagh, Gary; Novembre, Anthony E.

    2002-07-01

    Fluorinated dissolution inhibitors (DIs) for 157 nm lithography were designed and synthesized as part of an ongoing study on the structure/property relationships of photoresist additives. The problem of volatilization of small DI candidates was observed from matrices such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(hexafluorohydroxy-isopropyl styrene) (PHFHIPS) during post-apply bake cycles using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). To avoid this problem, low volatility fluorinated inhibitors were designed and synthesized. Three fluorinated DIs, perfluorosuberic acid bis-(2,2,2,-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1-trifluoromethyl-ethyl) ester (PFSE1), perfluorosuberic acid bis-[1-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-ethyl] ester (PFSE2) and a fluorinated phenylmethanediol diester (FPMD1), largely remained in a PHFHIPS film during the post-apply bake. The dissolution behavior of the two fluorinated diesters was studied and found to slow down the dissolution rate of PHFHIPS with inhibition factors of 1.9 and 1.6, respectively. The absorbance of PHFHIPS films containing 10 wt% of the diester inhibitors is 3.6 AU/micron compared with an absorbance of 3.3 AU/micron for the polymer itself. The absorbance of 10% FPMD1 in PHFHIPS was measured as 3.5 AU/micron compared with an absorbance of 3.4 AU/micron for the polymer itself. Thus, the non-volatility and transparency of the fluorinated inhibitors at 157 nm as well as their ability to reduce the development rate of fluorinated polymers make them suitable for use in a 157 nm resist system.

  19. Low-defect reflective mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, S C; Cerjarn, C; Kearney, P; Mirkarimi, P; Walton, C; Ray-Chaudhuri, A

    1999-03-11

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithgraphy (EUVL) is an emerging technology for fabrication of sub-100 nm feature sizes on silicon, following the SIA roadmap well into the 21st century. The specific EUVL system described is a scanned, projection lithography system with a 4:1 reduction, using a laser plasma EUV source. The mask and all of the system optics are reflective, multilayer mirrors which function in the extreme ultraviolet at 13.4 nm wavelength. Since the masks are imaged to the wafer exposure plane, mask defects greater than 80% of the exposure plane CD (for 4:1 reduction) will in many cases render the mask useless, whereas intervening optics can have defects which are not a printing problem. For the 100 nm node, we must reduce defects to less than 0.01/cm² @ 80nm or larger to obtain acceptable mask production yields. We have succeeded in reducing the defects to less than 0.1/cm² for defects larger than 130 nm detected by visible light inspection tools, however our program goal is to achieve 0.01/cm² in the near future. More importantly though, we plan to have a detailed understanding of defect origination and the effect on multilayer growth in order to mitigate defects below the 10-2/cm² level on the next generation of mask blank deposition systems. In this paper we will discuss issues and results from the ion-beam multilayer deposition tool, details of the defect detection and characterization facility, and progress on defect printability modeling.

  20. Laser-based gluing of diamond-tipped saw blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennigs, Christian; Lahdo, Rabi; Springer, André; Kaierle, Stefan; Hustedt, Michael; Brand, Helmut; Wloka, Richard; Zobel, Frank; Dültgen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    To process natural stone such as marble or granite, saw blades equipped with wear-resistant diamond grinding segments are used, typically joined to the blade by brazing. In case of damage or wear, they must be exchanged. Due to the large energy input during thermal loosening and subsequent brazing, the repair causes extended heat-affected zones with serious microstructure changes, resulting in shape distortions and disadvantageous stress distributions. Consequently, axial run-out deviations and cutting losses increase. In this work, a new near-infrared laser-based process chain is presented to overcome the deficits of conventional brazing-based repair of diamond-tipped steel saw blades. Thus, additional tensioning and straightening steps can be avoided. The process chain starts with thermal debonding of the worn grinding segments, using a continuous-wave laser to heat the segments gently and to exceed the adhesive's decomposition temperature. Afterwards, short-pulsed laser radiation removes remaining adhesive from the blade in order to achieve clean joining surfaces. The third step is roughening and activation of the joining surfaces, again using short-pulsed laser radiation. Finally, the grinding segments are glued onto the blade with a defined adhesive layer, using continuous-wave laser radiation. Here, the adhesive is heated to its curing temperature by irradiating the respective grinding segment, ensuring minimal thermal influence on the blade. For demonstration, a prototype unit was constructed to perform the different steps of the process chain on-site at the saw-blade user's facilities. This unit was used to re-equip a saw blade with a complete set of grinding segments. This saw blade was used successfully to cut different materials, amongst others granite.

  1. Micro-optics: enabling technology for illumination shaping in optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard

    2014-03-01

    Optical lithography has been the engine that has empowered semiconductor industry to continually reduce the half-pitch for over 50 years. In early mask aligners a simple movie lamp was enough to illuminate the photomask. Illumination started to play a more decisive role when proximity mask aligners appeared in the mid-1970s. Off-axis illumination was introduced to reduce diffraction effects. For early projection lithography systems (wafer steppers), the only challenge was to collect the light efficiently to ensure short exposure time. When projection optics reached highest level of perfection, further improvement was achieved by optimizing illumination. Shaping the illumination light, also referred as pupil shaping, allows the optical path from reticle to wafer to be optimized and thus has a major impact on aberrations and diffraction effects. Highly-efficient micro-optical components are perfectly suited for this task. Micro-optics for illumination evolved from simple flat-top (fly's-eye) to annular, dipole, quadrupole, multipole and freeform illumination. Today, programmable micro-mirror arrays allow illumination to be changed on the fly. The impact of refractive, diffractive and reflective microoptics for photolithography will be discussed.

  2. Predefined planar structures in semiconductor surfaces patterned by NSOM lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettrichova, Ivana; Pudis, Dusan; Laurencikova, Agata; Hasenohrl, Stanislav; Novak, Jozef; Skriniarova, Jaroslava; Kovac, Jaroslav

    2013-09-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) lithography is one of optical technologies for planar structure fabrication, where exposure process is performed by optical near field produced at tip of fiber probe. Maskless exposure of defined regions is performed so that different periodic and predefined arrangement can be achieved. In this contribution, NSOM lithography is presented as effective tool for semiconductor device surface patterning. Non-contact mode of NSOM lithography was used to pattern planar predefined structures in GaAs, AlGaAs and GaP surfaces. In this way, GaAs/AlGaAs-based LED with patterned structure in the emitting surface was prepared, where patterned air holes show enhancement of radiation in comparison with the surrounding surface. Furthermore, NSOM in combination with lift-off technique was used to prepare metal-catalyst particles on GaP substrate for subsequent growth of GaP nanowires which can be used in photovoltaic applications.

  3. Graphene nanoribbon superlattices fabricated via He ion lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Archanjo, Braulio S.; Fragneaud, Benjamin; Gustavo Cançado, Luiz; Winston, Donald; Miao, Feng; Alberto Achete, Carlos; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto

    2014-05-12

    Single-step nano-lithography was performed on graphene sheets using a helium ion microscope. Parallel “defect” lines of ∼1 μm length and ≈5 nm width were written to form nanoribbon gratings down to 20 nm pitch. Polarized Raman spectroscopy shows that crystallographic orientation of the nanoribbons was partially maintained at their lateral edges, indicating a high-fidelity lithography process. Furthermore, Raman analysis of large exposure areas with different ion doses reveals that He ions produce point defects with radii ∼ 2× smaller than do Ga ions, demonstrating that scanning-He{sup +}-beam lithography can texture graphene with less damage.

  4. Advanced low-complexity compression for maskless lithography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Vito; Zakhor, Avideh

    2004-05-01

    A direct-write maskless lithography system using 25nm for 50nm feature sizes requires data rates of about 10 Tb/s to maintain a throughput of one wafer per minute per layer achieved by today"s optical lithography systems. In a previous paper, we presented an architecture that achieves this data rate contingent on 25 to 1 compression of lithography data, and on implementation of a real-time decompressor fabricated on the same chip as a massively parallel array of lithography writers for 50 nm feature sizes. A number of compression techniques, including JBIG, ZIP, the novel 2D-LZ, and BZIP2 were demonstrated to achieve sufficiently high compression ratios on lithography data to make the architecture feasible, although no single technique could achieve this for all test layouts. In this paper we present a novel lossless compression algorithm called Context Copy Combinatorial Code (C4) specifically tailored for lithography data. It successfully combines the advantages of context-based modeling in JBIG and copying in ZIP to achieve higher compression ratios across all test layouts. As part of C4, we have developed a low-complexity binary entropy coding technique called combinatorial coding which is simultaneously as efficient as arithmetic coding and as fast as Huffman coding. Compression results show C4 outperforms JBIG, ZIP, BZIP2, and 2D-LZ, and achieves lossless compression ratios greater than 22 for binary layout image data, and greater than 14 for grey-pixel image data. The tradeoff between decoder buffer size, which directly affects implementation complexity and compression ratio is examined. For the same buffer size, C4 achieves higher compression than LZ77, ZIP, and BZIP2.

  5. Lithography for enabling advances in integrated circuits and devices.

    PubMed

    Garner, C Michael

    2012-08-28

    Because the transistor was fabricated in volume, lithography has enabled the increase in density of devices and integrated circuits. With the invention of the integrated circuit, lithography enabled the integration of higher densities of field-effect transistors through evolutionary applications of optical lithography. In 1994, the semiconductor industry determined that continuing the increase in density transistors was increasingly difficult and required coordinated development of lithography and process capabilities. It established the US National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors and this was expanded in 1999 to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors to align multiple industries to provide the complex capabilities to continue increasing the density of integrated circuits to nanometre scales. Since the 1960s, lithography has become increasingly complex with the evolution from contact printers, to steppers, pattern reduction technology at i-line, 248 nm and 193 nm wavelengths, which required dramatic improvements of mask-making technology, photolithography printing and alignment capabilities and photoresist capabilities. At the same time, pattern transfer has evolved from wet etching of features, to plasma etch and more complex etching capabilities to fabricate features that are currently 32 nm in high-volume production. To continue increasing the density of devices and interconnects, new pattern transfer technologies will be needed with options for the future including extreme ultraviolet lithography, imprint technology and directed self-assembly. While complementary metal oxide semiconductors will continue to be extended for many years, these advanced pattern transfer technologies may enable development of novel memory and logic technologies based on different physical phenomena in the future to enhance and extend information processing. PMID:22802500

  6. Mix-and-match lithography for half-micron technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.; Dameron, David H.

    1991-08-01

    Half-micron lithography for a production environment is not considered realistic with currently available lithography tools. While optical steppers have high wafer throughputs, they do not have sufficient process latitude at half-micron geometries. In contrast, advanced technologies with sufficient capabilities for half-micron processing such as direct-write e-beam and x-ray lithography are extremely expensive and have low effective throughputs. A mix-and- match lithography approach can take advantage of the best features of both types of systems by sing an optical stepper for noncritical levels and an advanced lithography system for critical levels. In order to facilitate processing of a triple level metal half-micron CMOS technology, a mix-and-match scheme has been developed between a Hitachi HL-700 D e-beam direct write system and an Ultratech 1500 wide-field 1x stepper. The Hitachi is used to pattern an accurate zero or registration level. All critical levels are exposed on the Hitachi and aligned back to this zero level. The Ultratech is used to align all other process levels which do not have critical targets that are placed on subsequent process levels. The mix-and-match approach is discussed, and optical to e-beam as well as e-beam to optical alignment results from seven production lots are presented. The linear alignment error components X translation, Y translation, rotation and magnification are extracted and analyzed to determine their source. It was found that a simple adjustment improved the registration capabilities of these two lithography tools by reducing the X translation, Y translation and rotation standard deviations by a factor of two or more, while greatly reducing the magnification errors between the two tools.

  7. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ali Ozhan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-11-21

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75°. The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin. PMID:21730473

  8. Towards Using DNAzyme in Sub-20 nm Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirar, Qassim

    DNAzyme is a unique molecule with applications ranging from gene regulation to molecular machines. Another attractive venue for the use of DNAzyme is next generation lithography, sub-20 nm lithography, harnessing the unique features of specific recognition and self-assembly. Tools to achieve that goal are discussed and experimental procedures were presented. Loading DNAzyme on gold nanoparticles, depositing self-assembled monolayers and DNA patterning using soft lithographic techniques are tools that are explored. To support the findings, different characterization techniques are employed.

  9. Optimization of high average power FEL beam for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Akira

    2015-05-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is entering into high volume manufacturing (HVM) stage, with high average power (250W) EUV source from laser produced plasma at 13.5nm. Semiconductor industry road map indicates a scaling of the source technology more than 1kW average power by high repetition rate FEL. This paper discusses on the lowest risk approach to construct a prototype based on superconducting linac and normal conducting undulator, to demonstrate a high average power 13.5nm FEL equipped with optimized optical components and solid state lasers, to study FEL application in EUV lithography.

  10. RET masks for the final frontier of optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. F.; van den Broeke, Douglas; Hsu, Stephen; Hsu, Michael C. W.; Laidig, Tom; Shi, Xuelong; Chen, Ting; Socha, Robert J.; Hollerbach, Uwe; Wampler, Kurt E.; Park, Jungchul; Park, Sangbong; Gronlund, Keith

    2005-06-01

    With immersion and hyper numerical aperture (NA>1) optics apply to the ITRS 2003/4 roadmap scenario (Figure 1); it is very clear that the IC manufacturing has already stepped into the final frontier of optical lithography. Today"s advanced lithography for DRAM/Flash is operating at k1 close to 0.3. The manufacturing for leading edge logic devices does not follow too far behind. Patterning at near theoretical lithography imaging limit (k1=0.25) even with hyper NA optics, the attainable aerial image contrast is marginal at best for the critical feature. Thus, one of the key objectives for low k1 lithography is to ensure the printing performance of critical features for manufacturing. Resolution enhancement technology (RET) mask in combination with hyper NA and illumination optimization is one primary candidate to enable lithography manufacturing at very low k1 factor. The use of rule-based Scattering Bars (SB) for all types of phase-shifting masks has become the de facto OPC standard since 180nm node. Model-based SB OPC method derives from interference mapping lithography (IML) has shown impressive printing result for both clear (gate) and dark field (contact and via) mask types. There are four basic types of RET mask candidates for 65nm node, namely, alternating phase-shifting mask (altPSM), attenuated PSM (attPSM), chromeless phase lithography (CPL) PSM, and double dipole lithography (DDL) using binary chrome mask. The wafer printing performances from CPL and DDL have proven both are strong candidates for 45nm nodes. One concern for using RET masks to target 45 nm nodes is likely to be the scaling for SB dimension for 4X mask. To assist imaging effectively with high NA, SB cannot be too small in width. However, for SB to be larger than sub-resolution, they can easily cause unwanted SB printing. The other major concern is the unwanted side lobe printing. This may occur for semi-dense pitch ranges under high NA and strong off-axis-illumination (OAI). Looking ahead

  11. The Introduction and Early Use of Lithography in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhill, Georgia B.

    This paper discusses the use of lithography in the United States in the early 1800s. Highlights include: the development of lithography in Germany between 1796 and 1798; early expectations for lithography; competition against the existing technology for the production of images--relief prints and copper-plate engravings; examples of 18th-century…

  12. Defect inspection for imprint lithography using a die-to-database electron beam verification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myron, L. Jeff; Thompson, Ecron; McMackin, Ian; Resnick, Douglas J.; Kitamura, Tadashi; Hasebe, Toshiaki; Nakazawa, Shinichi; Tokumoto, Toshifumi; Ainley, Eric; Nordquist, Kevin; Dauksher, William J.

    2006-03-01

    Imprint lithography has been included on the ITRS Lithography Roadmap at the 32 and 22 nm nodes. Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL TM) is a unique method for printing sub-100nm geometries. Relative to other imprinting processes S-FIL has the advantage that the template is transparent, thereby facilitating conventional overlay techniques. Further, S-FIL provides sub-100nm feature resolution without the significant expense of multielement, high quality projection optics or advanced illumination sources. However, since the technology is 1X, it is critical to address the infrastructure associated with the fabrication of templates. With respect to inspection, although defects as small as 70nm have been detected using optical techniques, it is clear that it will be necessary to take advantage of the resolution capabilities of electron beam inspection techniques. This paper reports the first systematic study of die-to-database electron beam inspection of patterns that were imprinted using an Imprio 250 system. The die-to-database inspection of the wafers was performed on an NGR2100 inspection system. Ultimately, the most desirable solution is to directly inspect the fused silica template. This paper also reports the results on the first initial experiments of direct inspection fused silica substrates at data rates of 200 MHz. Three different experiments were performed. In the first study, large (350-400nm) Metal 1 and contact features were imprinted and inspected as described above. Using a 12 nm pixel address grid, 24 nm defects were readily detected. The second experiment examined imprinted Metal 1 and Logic patterns with dimensions as small as 70nm. Using a pixel address of 3nm, and a defect threshold of 20 nm, a systematic study of the patterned arrays identified problem areas in the design of the pattern layout. Finally, initial inspection of 200mm fused silica patterned substrates has established proof of concept for direct inspection of imprint templates.

  13. Performance capabilities and utilization of MICOM's diode-laser-based infrared scene projector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, D. Brett; Cooper, John B.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the current design characteristics and performance capabilities of the US Army Missile Command's diode laser based infrared scene projector technology. The projector is now operational at the US Army Missile Command's Research, Development, and Engineering Center and is being integrated into several HWIL simulation facilities. The projector is based upon a linear array of Pb-salt diode lasers coupled with a high-speed optical scanning system, drive electronics and synchronization electronics. The projector design has been upgraded to generate 256 X 256 resolution scenes at 4 KHz frame rates, and the fabrication of a 544 X 544 projector is in progress. The projector system now includes real-time non-uniformity correction electronics and is interfaced with a real-time scene generation computer. In addition, a closed-cycle cryogenic cooling system has been added for increased dynamic range and maintenance-free operation. The system's modularity provides upgradability to meet specific performance requirements such as increased spatial resolution, different emission wavelengths, or dual-band scene projections. The projector's upgraded design and performance characteristics are presented in this paper, as well as sample images generated with the projector and captured by an InSb FPA sensor.

  14. Nanoimprint lithography for functional polymer patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Dehu

    2011-07-01

    Organic semiconductors have generated huge interested in recent years for low-cost and flexible electronics. Current and future device applications for semiconducting polymers include light-emitting diodes, thin-film transistors, photovoltaic cells, photodetectors, lasers, and memories. The performance of conjugated polymer devices depends on two major factors: the chain conformation in polymer film and the device architecture. Highly ordered chain structure usually leads to much improved performance by enhancing interchain interaction to facilitate carrier transport. The goal of this research is to improve the performance of organic devices with the nanoimprint lithography. The work begins with the controlling of polymer chain orientation in patterned nanostructures through nanoimprint mold design and process parameter manipulation, and studying the effect of chain ordering on material properties. Then, step-and-repeat thermal nanoimprint technique for large-scale continuous manufacturing of conjugated polymer nanostructures is developed. After that, Systematic investigation of polymer chain configuration by Raman spectroscopy is carried out to understand how nanoimprint process parameters, such as mold pattern size, temperature, and polymer molecular weight, affects polymer chain configuration. The results indicate that chain orientation in nanoimprinted polymer micro- and nanostructures is highly related to the nanoimprint temperature and the dimensions of the mold structures. The ability to create nanoscale polymer micro- and nanostructures and manipulate their internal chain conformation establishes an original experimental platform that enables studying the properties of functional polymers at the micro- and nanoscale and understanding their fundamental structure-property relationships. In addition to the impact on basic research, the techniques developed in this work are important in applied research and development. Large-area conjugated polymer micro- and

  15. Capillary force lithography for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Macadangdang, Jesse; Lee, Hyun Jung; Carson, Daniel; Jiao, Alex; Fugate, James; Pabon, Lil; Regnier, Michael; Murry, Charles; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide(1). Cardiac tissue engineering holds much promise to deliver groundbreaking medical discoveries with the aims of developing functional tissues for cardiac regeneration as well as in vitro screening assays. However, the ability to create high-fidelity models of heart tissue has proven difficult. The heart's extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex structure consisting of both biochemical and biomechanical signals ranging from the micro- to the nanometer scale(2). Local mechanical loading conditions and cell-ECM interactions have recently been recognized as vital components in cardiac tissue engineering(3-5). A large portion of the cardiac ECM is composed of aligned collagen fibers with nano-scale diameters that significantly influences tissue architecture and electromechanical coupling(2). Unfortunately, few methods have been able to mimic the organization of ECM fibers down to the nanometer scale. Recent advancements in nanofabrication techniques, however, have enabled the design and fabrication of scalable scaffolds that mimic the in vivo structural and substrate stiffness cues of the ECM in the heart(6-9). Here we present the development of two reproducible, cost-effective, and scalable nanopatterning processes for the functional alignment of cardiac cells using the biocompatible polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)(8) and a polyurethane (PU) based polymer. These anisotropically nanofabricated substrata (ANFS) mimic the underlying ECM of well-organized, aligned tissues and can be used to investigate the role of nanotopography on cell morphology and function(10-14). Using a nanopatterned (NP) silicon master as a template, a polyurethane acrylate (PUA) mold is fabricated. This PUA mold is then used to pattern the PU or PLGA hydrogel via UV-assisted or solvent-mediated capillary force lithography (CFL), respectively(15,16). Briefly, PU or PLGA pre-polymer is drop dispensed onto a glass coverslip

  16. Comparison study for sub-0.13-μm lithography between ArF and KrF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seok-Kyun; Kim, YoungSik; Kim, Jin-Soo; Bok, Cheol-Kyu; Ham, Young-Mog; Baik, Ki-Ho

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we investigated the feasibility of printing sub-0.13 micrometers device patterns with ArF and KrF lithography by using experiment and simulation. To do this we evaluated various cell structures with different sizes from 0.26 micrometers to 0.20 micrometers pitch. In experiment 0.60NA ArF and 0.70NA KrF exposure tools, commercial and in house resists and bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) materials are used. To predict and compare with experimental data we also used our developed simulation tool HOST base don diffused aerial iamge model. We found that ArF lithography performance is a little bit better than KrF and therefore 0.70NA KrF lithography can be used up to 0.12 micrometers design rule device and 0.60NA ArF lithography can be used up to 0.11 micrometers . But to get more than 10 percent expose latitude, 0.13 micrometers with KrF and 0.12 micrometers with ArF are the minimum design rule size. However to obtain process margin we had to use extreme off-axis illumination (OAI) which results in large isolated- dense bias and poor linearity including isolated pattern. Using higher NA can reduce ID bias and mask error factor. For contact hole it is more effective to use KrF lithography because resist thermal flow process can be used to shrink C/H size. Our developed ArF resist and BARC shows good performance and we can reduce k1 value up to 0.34. Through this study we verified again that ArF lithography can be applied for sub-0.13 micrometers device through sub-0.10 micrometers with high contrast resist and 0.75NA exposure tool.

  17. Development and testing of a laser-based decontamination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthofer, A.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2013-06-01

    Decontamination of radioactive concrete surfaces may be necessary during operation or decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Usually only the upper layers of the concrete structure are contaminated and are removed using labor-intensive mechanical milling processes. Production of a large amount of dust, which can lead to secondary contamination, is inherent to these processes. Improvements in high-energy laser technology have now made it possible for laser radiation to be used in decontamination technologies for the removal of concrete layers. A decontamination unit comprising a diode laser with a beam power of 10 kW in continuous wave (CW) mode in combination with an autonomous manipulator was developed for use in nuclear plants. The laser beam melts the concrete surface to a depth of approximately 5 mm. Compressed air jets then detach the molten layer from the concrete surface and convey it to a suction system, with which it is transported to a collection container. Most of the radionuclides are trapped in the solidifying melt particles, which form an extremely stable effluent well suited to long-term storage. A relatively small amount of dust is generated in the process. Because there is no backlash during energy transfer, the laser device carrier can be designed to be lightweight and flexible. A specially developed manipulator that can move freely along walls and ceilings by means of suction plates is used for the carrier unit. This results in short setup times for preparing for use of the device and minimal personnel exposure to the radiation. Experiments were conducted on a concrete wall to demonstrate the functionality of the overall system in realistic conditions. An optimal ablation rate of 2.16 m²/h at an ablation depth of 1-5 mm was achieved. Today's commercially available diode lasers with powers higher than 50 kW enable ablation rates of >10 m²/h to be achieved and hence make these laser-based systems competitive alternatives to mechanical systems.

  18. Waveguide effect in high-NA EUV lithography: The key to extending EUV lithography to the 4-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Michael; Barouch, Eytan; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2015-06-01

    One of the main concerns about EUV lithography is whether or not it can be extended to very high numerical aperture. In this paper, rigorous electromagnetic simulation is first used to show that there is an interesting waveguide effect occurring in the 4-nm feature size regime. An exact mathematical analysis is then presented to explain the effect observed in the simulation. This waveguide effect is applied to simulate the printing of 4-nm lines and spaces with excellent aerial-image contrast and peak intensity. The feasibility of EUV lithography for printing logic circuits containing general two-dimensional patterns with 4-nm feature size is also demonstrated.

  19. Technology of alignment mark in electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Min; Xu, Tang; Chen, Baoqin; Niu, Jiebin

    2014-08-01

    Electron beam direct wring lithography has been an indispensable approach by which all sorts of novel nano-scale devices include many kinds optical devices can be fabricated. Alignment accuracy is a key factor especially to those devices which need multi-level lithography. In addition to electron beam lithography system itself the quality of alignment mark directly influences alignment accuracy. This paper introduces fundamental of alignment mark detection and discusses some techniques of alignment mark fabrication along with considerations for obtaining highly accurate alignment taking JBX5000LS and JBX6300FS e-beam lithography systems for example. The fundamental of alignment mark detection is expounded first. Many kinds of factors which can impact on the quality of alignment mark are analyzed including mark materials, depth of mark groove and influence of multi-channel process. It has been proved from experiments that material used as metal mark with higher average atomic number is better beneficial for getting high alignment accuracy. Depth of mark groove is required to 1.5~5 μm on our experience. The more process steps alignment mark must pass through, the more probability of being damaged there will be. So the compatibility of alignment mark fabrication with the whole device process and the protection of alignment mark are both need to be considered in advance.

  20. Vertical Flow Lithography for Fabrication of 3D Anisotropic Particles.

    PubMed

    Habasaki, Shohei; Lee, Won Chul; Yoshida, Shotaro; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-12-22

    A microfluidics-based method for the 3D fabrication of anisotropic particles is reported. The method uses a vertical microchannel where tunable light patterns solidify photocurable resins for stacking multiple layers of the resins, thus enabling an application of stereolithography concepts to conventional flow lithography. Multilayered, tapered, and angular compartmental microparticles are demonstrated. PMID:26551590

  1. Lithography develop process electrostatic discharge effect mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaosong; Ye, Yi Zhou; Zou, Yongxiang; Zhu, XiaoZheng

    2015-03-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) problem resulting from charges on wafers is a serious concern in IC manufacturing. As is discovered in our paper, three types of defect, AA (active area) damage, IMD (Inter Metal Dielectric) crack and Via hole W corrosion that are confirmed to be induced by lithography process related ESD charging effect. We carefully studied the mechanism of these ESD charging effect by DOE splits and succeeded to dig out that these electric charge major comes from the lithography develop process. In the lithography coating and developing wafer process, the wafer will be at high spin speed at many of the steps which will easy help to store the electric charge on the wafer. In our study, the rinse step in developing process is the most key factor to store the electric charge on wafer. In generally, the higher rinse speed, the higher positive electric charge. Furthermore, we also discovered that the different step in develop rinse process have different impact on charge level, in which the acceleration and deceleration step has the highest charge voltage. As to minimize and eliminate the ESD damage in lithography process, we finally carry out the simplified recipe optimization solution which only need optimize for the develop rinse speed with different in-coming surface charge level and process application, so that can be easy implemented in the worldwide fabs.

  2. Mask defect printing mechanisms for future lithography generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Andreas; Graf, Thomas; Bubke, Karsten; Höllein, Ingo; Teuber, Silvio

    2006-03-01

    Mask defects are of increasing concern for future lithography generations. The improved resolution capabilities of immersion and EUV systems increase also the sensitivity of these systems with respect to small imperfections of the mask. Advanced mask technologies such as alternating phase shift masks (AltPSM), chromeless phase shift lithography (CPL), or "thick" absorbers on EUV masks introduce new defect types. The paper presents an application of rigorous electromagnetic field modeling for the study of typical defect printing mechanisms in ArF immersion lithography and in EUV lithography. For standard imaging and mask technologies, such as binary masks or attenuated phase shift masks, small defects usually print as linewidth or critical dimension (CD) errors with the largest effect at best focus. For AltPSM, CPL masks, and EUV masks this is not always the case. Several unusual printing scenarios were observed: placement errors due to defects can become more critical than CD-errors, defects may print more critical at defocus positions different from the center of the process window, the defect printing may become asymmetric through focus, and the risk of defect printing depends on the polarization of the used light source. Several simulation examples will demonstrate these effects. Rigorous EMF simulations in combination with vector imaging simulations are very useful to understand the origins of the observed defect printing mechanisms.

  3. Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Montcalm, C., LLNL

    1998-03-10

    Multilayer mirror coatings which reflect extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation are a key enabling technology for EUV lithography. Mo/Si multilayers with reflectances of 67.5% at 13.4 nm are now routinely achieved and reflectances of 70 2% at 11.4 nm were obtained with MO/Be multilayers. High reflectance is achieved with careful control of substrate quality, layer thicknesses, multilayer materials, interface quality, and surface termination. Reflectance and film stress were found to be stable relative to the requirements for application to EUV lithography. The run-to-run reproducibility of the reflectance peak position was characterized to be better than 0.2%, providing the required wavelength matching among the seven multilayer-coated mirrors used in the present lithography system design. Uniformity of coating was improved to better than 0.5% across 150 mm diameter substrates. These improvements in EUV multilayer mirror technology will enable us to meet the stringent specifications for coating the large optical substrates for our next-generation EUV lithography system.

  4. Beyond EUV lithography: a comparative study of efficient photoresists' performance

    PubMed Central

    Mojarad, Nassir; Gobrecht, Jens; Ekinci, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at 13.5 nm is the main candidate for patterning integrated circuits and reaching sub-10-nm resolution within the next decade. Should photon-based lithography still be used for patterning smaller feature sizes, beyond EUV (BEUV) lithography at 6.x nm wavelength is an option that could potentially meet the rigid demands of the semiconductor industry. We demonstrate simultaneous characterization of the resolution, line-edge roughness, and sensitivity of distinct photoresists at BEUV and compare their properties when exposed to EUV under the same conditions. By using interference lithography at these wavelengths, we show the possibility for patterning beyond 22 nm resolution and characterize the impact of using higher energy photons on the line-edge roughness and exposure latitude. We observe high sensitivity of the photoresist performance on its chemical content and compare their overall performance using the Z-parameter criterion. Interestingly, inorganic photoresists have much better performance at BEUV, while organic chemically-amplified photoresists would need serious adaptations for being used at such wavelength. Our results have immediate implications for deeper understanding of the radiation chemistry of novel photoresists at the EUV and soft X-ray spectra. PMID:25783209

  5. Fabrication of Robust Protein Films Using Nanoimprint Lithography.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Eunhee; Duncan, Bradley; Wang, Li-Sheng; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Wang, Peijian; Yeh, Yi-Cheun; Kushida, Takashi; Engel, Yoni; Barnes, Michael D; Rotello, Vincent M

    2015-10-28

    A nanoimprint-lithography-based fabrication method to generate stable protein films is described. The process is environmentally friendly and generalizable with respect to the protein building blocks. These non-fouling surfaces are readily patternable, incorporate intrinsic protein charge into the film, and able to control cellular adhesion. PMID:26390179

  6. Defectivity reduction studies for ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Kentaro; Kondoh, Takehiro; Kato, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Yuuji; Hayasaki, Kei; Ito, Shinichi; Yoshida, Akira; Shimura, Satoru; Kawasaki, Tetsu; Kyoda, Hideharu

    2007-03-01

    Immersion lithography is widely expected to meet the manufacturing requirements of future device nodes. A critical development in immersion lithography has been the construction of a defect-free process. Two years ago, the authors evaluated the impact of water droplets made experimentally on exposed resist films and /or topcoat. (1) The results showed that the marks of drying water droplet called watermarks became pattern defects with T-top profile. In the case that water droplets were removed by drying them, formation of the defects was prevented. Post-exposure rinse process to remove water droplets also prevented formation of the defects. In the present work, the authors evaluated the effect of pre- and post-exposure rinse processes on hp 55nm line and space pattern with Spin Rinse Process Station (SRS) and Post Immersion Rinse Process Station (PIR) modules on an inline lithography cluster with the Tokyo Electron Ltd. CLEAN TRACK TM LITHIUS TM i+ and ASML TWINSCAN XT:1700Fi , 193nm immersion scanner. It was found that total defectivity is decreased by pre- and post-exposure rinse. In particular, bridge defects and large bridge defects were decreased by pre- and post-exposure rinse. Pre- and post-exposure rinse processes are very effective to reduce the bridge and large bridge defects of immersion lithography.

  7. Photonic crystal fibre-based light source for STED lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Glubokov, D A; Sychev, V V; Vitukhnovsky, Alexey G; Korol'kov, A E

    2013-06-30

    A light source having a relative noise level in the order of 10{sup -6} and sufficient stability for application in STED lithography has been obtained using the generation of Cherenkov peaks in a supercontinuum spectrum. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  8. Switching behavior of Nb/Exchange spring magnet/Nb Josephson Junctions fabricated by Nanosphere Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiyeong; Arias, Gilbert; Hedges, Samuel

    Superconductor(S)/ferromagnet(F)/superconductor Josephson junction was fabricated by nanosphere lithography method. Samarium-Cobalt (SmCo)/Permalloy(Py) exchange spring magnet system was used to generate an inhomogeneous magnetic structure in Niobium(Nb)-based Josephson junctions. We introduced nanosphere lithography in our device fabrication in order to decrease the lateral size of junctions and improve the quality of our devices. A bigger size junctions (tens of microns) were fabricated by optical photolithography using a mask.* Materials were deposited through DC magnetron sputtering. Base structure of devices was patterned through photolithography. Modulations of the critical current and IV-curve characteristics of the junction were used to search for direct evidence of the odd-triplet component. In addition, to investigate the switching behavior of S/F/S junction for memory application junction critical current was measured as a function of magnetic field and the angle between an easy axis of ferromagnetic layer and the external magnetic field by rotating the sample under magnetic field. Magnetic switching behavior of the ferromagnetic layers in our junction was also characterized based on this observation. * Junction fabrication in this research by an optical photolithography using a mask was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (CNMS User Project CNMS2014-257).

  9. Fabrication of superconducting NbN meander nanowires by nano-imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yang; Li-Hua, Liu; Lu-Hui, Ning; Yi-Rong, Jin; Hui, Deng; Jie, Li; Yang, Li; Dong-Ning, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD), as a new type of superconducting single photon detector (SPD), has a broad application prospect in quantum communication and other fields. In order to prepare SNSPD with high performance, it is necessary to fabricate a large area of uniform meander nanowires, which is the core of the SNSPD. In this paper, we demonstrate a process of patterning ultra-thin NbN films into meander-type nanowires by using the nano-imprint technology. In this process, a combination of hot embossing nano-imprint lithography (HE-NIL) and ultraviolet nano-imprint lithography (UV-NIL) is used to transfer the meander nanowire structure from the NIL Si hard mold to the NbN film. We have successfully obtained a NbN nanowire device with uniform line width. The critical temperature (Tc) of the superconducting NbN meander nanowires is about 5 K and the critical current (Ic) is about 3.5 μA at 2.5 K. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CBA00106 and 2009CB929102) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11104333 and 10974243).

  10. Lithographic process window optimization for mask aligner proximity lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna; Erdmann, Andreas; Ünal, Nezih; Hofmann, Ulrich; Hennemeyer, Marc; Zoberbier, Ralph; Nguyen, David; Brugger, Juergen

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a complete methodology for process window optimization in proximity mask aligner lithography. The commercially available lithography simulation software LAB from GenISys GmbH was used for simulation of light propagation and 3D resist development. The methodology was tested for the practical example of lines and spaces, 5 micron half-pitch, printed in a 1 micron thick layer of AZ® 1512HS1 positive photoresist on a silicon wafer. A SUSS MicroTec MA8 mask aligner, equipped with MO Exposure Optics® was used in simulation and experiment. MO Exposure Optics® is the latest generation of illumination systems for mask aligners. MO Exposure Optics® provides telecentric illumination and excellent light uniformity over the full mask field. MO Exposure Optics® allows the lithography engineer to freely shape the angular spectrum of the illumination light (customized illumination), which is a mandatory requirement for process window optimization. Three different illumination settings have been tested for 0 to 100 micron proximity gap. The results obtained prove, that the introduced process window methodology is a major step forward to obtain more robust processes in mask aligner lithography. The most remarkable outcome of the presented study is that a smaller exposure gap does not automatically lead to better print results in proximity lithography - what the "good instinct" of a lithographer would expect. With more than 5'000 mask aligners installed in research and industry worldwide, the proposed process window methodology might have significant impact on yield improvement and cost saving in industry.

  11. Defect reduction progress in step and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selenidis, K.; Maltabes, J.; McMackin, I.; Perez, J.; Martin, W.; Resnick, D. J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2007-10-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective method for the replication of nanometer-scale structures from a template mold. Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL ®) is unique in its ability to address both resolution and alignment. Recently overlay across a 200 mm wafer of less than 20nm, 3σ has been demonstrated. Current S-FIL resolution and alignment performance motivates the consideration of nano-imprint lithography as Next Generation Lithography (NGL) solution for IC production. During the S-FIL process, a transferable image, an imprint, is produced by mechanically molding a liquid UV-curable resist on a wafer. The novelty of this process immediately raises questions about the overall defectivity level of S-FIL. Acceptance of imprint lithography for CMOS manufacturing will require demonstration that it can attain defect levels commensurate with the requirements of cost-effective device production. This report specifically focuses on this challenge and presents the current status of defect reduction in S-FIL technology and will summarize the result of defect inspections of wafers patterned using S-FIL. Wafer inspections were performed with a KLA Tencor- 2132 (KT-2132) automated patterned wafer inspection tool. Recent results show wafer defectivity to be less 5 cm -2. Mask fabrication and inspection techniques used to obtain low defect template will be described. The templates used to imprint wafers for this study were designed specifically to facilitate automated defect inspection and were made by employing CMOS industry standard materials and exposure tools. A KT-576 tool was used for template defect inspection.

  12. Status of fabrication of square-format masks for extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) at the MCoC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racette, Kenneth C.; Williams, Carey T.; Fisch, Emily; Kindt, Louis; Lawliss, Mark; Ackel, Robin; Lercel, Michael J.

    2002-07-01

    Fabricating masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography is challenging. The high absorption of most materials at 13.4 nm and the small critical dimension (45 nm) at the target insertion node force many new features, including reflective mask design, new film choices, and stringent defect specifications. Fabrication of these masks requires the formation and patterning of both a repair buffer layer and an EUV absorber layer on top of a molybdenum/silicon multi-layer substrate. IBM and Photronics have been engaged in developing mask processing technology for x-ray, electron beam projection and extreme ultraviolet lithographies at the Next Generation Lithography Mask Center of Competency (NGL-MCoC) within IBM's mask facility at Essex Junction, Vermont. This paper describes recent results of mask fabrication on 6 x 6 x 1/4 inch EUVL substrates (quartz with molybdenum silicon multi-layers) at the MCoC. Masks fabricated with high and low-stress chromium and externally deposited chromium absorber films are compared. In particular, etch characteristics, image size, image placement, line edge roughness, and defect levels are presented and compared. Understanding the influence of the absorber film characteristics on these parameters will enable us to optimize the effectiveness of a given absorber film or to select acceptable alternatives.

  13. Solutions with precise prediction for thermal aberration error in low-k1 immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Kazuya; Mimotogi, Akiko; Kono, Takuya; Aoyama, Hajime; Ogata, Taro; Kita, Naonori; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki

    2013-04-01

    Thermal aberration becomes a serious problem in the production of semiconductors for which low-k1 immersion lithography with a strong off-axis illumination, such as dipole setting, is used. The illumination setting localizes energy of the light in the projection lens, bringing about localized temperature rise. The temperature change varies lens refractive index and thus generates aberrations. The phenomenon is called thermal aberration. For realizing manufacturability of fine patterns with high productivity, thermal aberration control is important. Since heating areas in the projection lens are determined by source shape and distribution of diffracted light by a mask, the diffracted pupilgram convolving illumination source shape with diffraction distribution can be calculated using mask layout data for the thermal aberration prediction. Thermal aberration is calculated as a function of accumulated irradiation power. We have evaluated the thermal aberration computational prediction and control technology "Thermal Aberration Optimizer" (ThAO) on a Nikon immersion system. The thermal aberration prediction consists of two steps. The first step is prediction of the diffraction map on the projection pupil. The second step is computing thermal aberration from the diffraction map using a lens thermal model and an aberration correction function. We performed a verification test for ThAO using a mask of 1x-nm memory and strong off-axis illumination. We clarified the current performance of thermal aberration prediction, and also confirmed that the impacts of thermal aberration of NSR-S621D on CD and overlay for our 1x-nm memory pattern are very small. Accurate thermal aberration prediction with ThAO will enable thermal aberration risk-free lithography for semiconductor chip production.

  14. Next-generation lithography mask inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareket, Noah; Biellak, Steve; Pettibone, Donald W.; Stokowski, Stanley E.

    2000-07-01

    KLA-Tencor and industry partners are collaborating on a project for developing early capabilities of inspecting NGL masks. The project, partially funded by NIST as part of the ATP program, is focusing on building a research tool that will provide experimental data for development of a production capable tool. Some of the key technical issues include contrast in transmission and reflection, defect sources and types, and maintaining mask cleanliness in the absence of pellicles. The masks need to be inspected at multiple process stages, starting with unpatterned substrates, and ending with the pattern inspection. System issues include defect sensitivity and inspection time, which need to be balanced.

  15. Fabricating Blazed Diffraction Gratings by X-Ray Lithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Hartley, Frank; Wilson, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Gray-scale x-ray lithography is undergoing development as a technique for fabricating blazed diffraction gratings. As such, gray-scale x-ray lithography now complements such other grating-fabrication techniques as mechanical ruling, holography, ion etching, laser ablation, laser writing, and electron-beam lithography. Each of these techniques offers advantages and disadvantages for implementing specific grating designs; no single one of these techniques can satisfy the design requirements for all applications. Gray-scale x-ray lithography is expected to be advantageous for making gratings on steeper substrates than those that can be made by electron-beam lithography. This technique is not limited to sawtooth groove profiles and flat substrates: various groove profiles can be generated on arbitrarily shaped (including highly curved) substrates with the same ease as sawtooth profiles can be generated on flat substrates. Moreover, the gratings fabricated by this technique can be made free of ghosts (spurious diffraction components attributable to small spurious periodicities in the locations of grooves). The first step in gray-scale x-ray lithography is to conformally coat a substrate with a suitable photoresist. An x-ray mask (see Figure 1) is generated, placed between the substrate and a source of collimated x-rays, and scanned over the substrate so as to create a spatial modulation in the exposure of the photoresist. Development of the exposed photoresist results in a surface corrugation that corresponds to the spatial modulation and that defines the grating surface. The grating pattern is generated by scanning an appropriately shaped x-ray area mask along the substrate. The mask example of Figure 1 would generate a blazed grating profile when scanned in the perpendicular direction at constant speed, assuming the photoresist responds linearly to incident radiation. If the resist response is nonlinear, then the mask shape can be modified to account for the

  16. Reflective electron-beam lithography performance for the 10nm logic node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Regina; Gubiotti, Thomas; Sun, Jeff; Cheung, Anthony; Yang, Jason; McCord, Mark; Petric, Paul; Carroll, Allen; Ummethala, Upendra; Hale, Layton; Hench, John; Kojima, Shinichi; Mieher, Walter; Bevis, Chris F.

    2012-11-01

    Maskless electron beam lithography has the potential to extend semiconductor manufacturing to the sub-10 nm technology node. KLA-Tencor is currently developing Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) for high-volume 10 nm logic (16 nm HP). This paper reviews progress in the development of the REBL system towards its goal of 100 wph throughput for High Volume Lithography (HVL) at the 2X and 1X nm nodes. In this paper we introduce the Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) with integrated CMOS and MEMs lenslets that was manufactured at TSMC and IMEC. For REBL, the DPG is integrated to KLA-Tencor pattern generating software that can be programmed to produce complex, gray-scaled lithography patterns. Additionally, we show printing results for a range of interesting lithography patterns using Time Domain Imaging (TDI). Previously, KLA-Tencor reported on the development of a Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) tool for maskless lithography at and below the 22 nm technology node1. Since that time, the REBL team and its partners (TSMC, IMEC) have made good progress towards developing the REBL system and Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) for direct write lithography. Traditionally, e-beam direct write lithography has been too slow for most lithography applications. Ebeam direct write lithography has been used for mask writing rather than wafer processing since the maximum blur requirements limit column beam current - which drives e-beam throughput. To print small features and a fine pitch with an e-beam tool requires a sacrifice in processing time unless one significantly increases the total number of beams on a single writing tool. Because of the continued uncertainty with regards to the optical lithography roadmap beyond the 22 nm technology node, the semiconductor equipment industry is in the process of designing and testing e-beam lithography tools with the potential for HVL.

  17. Analysis of feature stability for laser-based determination of tissue thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Floris; Schweikard, Achim; Stüber, Patrick; Bruder, Ralf; Wagner, Benjamin; Wissel, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Localisation of the cranium is necessary for accurate stereotactic radiotherapy of malign lesions in the brain. This is achieved by immobilizing the patient's head (typically by using thermoplastic masks, bite blocks or combinations thereof) and x-ray imaging to determine the actual position of the patient with respect to the treatment device. In previous work we have developed a novel method for marker-less and non-invasive tracking of the skull using a combination of laser-based surface triangulation and the analysis of backscattered feature patterns of a tightly collimated NIR laser beam scanned over the patient's forehead. An HDR camera is coupled into the beam path of the laser scanning system to acquire one image per projected laser point. We have demonstrated that this setup is capable of accurately determining the tissue thickness for each triangulation point and consequently allows detecting the surface of the cranial bone with sub-millimetre accuracy. Typical clinical settings (treatment times of 15-90 min) require feature stability over time, since the determination of tissue thickness is achieved by machine learning methods trained on initial feature scans. We have collected initial scans of the forehead as well as long-term backscatter data (20 images per seconds over 30 min) from five subjects and extracted the relevant tissue features from the image streams. Based on the knowledge of the relationship between the tissue feature values and the tissue thickness, the analysis of the long-term data showed that the noise level is low enough to allow robust discrimination of tissue thicknesses of 0.5 mm.

  18. Carbon dioxide sequestration monitoring and verification via laser based detection system in the 2 mum band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, Seth David

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a known contributor to the green house gas effect. Emissions of CO2 are rising as the global demand for inexpensive energy is placated through the consumption and combustion of fossil fuels. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) may provide a method to prevent CO2 from being exhausted to the atmosphere. The carbon may be captured after fossil fuel combustion in a power plant and then stored in a long term facility such as a deep geologic feature. The ability to verify the integrity of carbon storage at a location is key to the success of all CCS projects. A laser-based instrument has been built and tested at Montana State University (MSU) to measure CO2 concentrations above a carbon storage location. The CO2 Detection by Differential Absorption (CODDA) Instrument uses a temperature-tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode that is capable of accessing a spectral region, 2.0027 to 2.0042 mum, that contains three CO2 absorption lines and a water vapor absorption line. This instrument laser is aimed over an open-air, two-way path of about 100 m, allowing measurements of CO2 concentrations to be made directly above a carbon dioxide release test site. The performance of the instrument for carbon sequestration site monitoring is studied using a newly developed CO2 controlled release facility. The field and CO2 releases are managed by the Zero Emissions Research Technology (ZERT) group at MSU. Two test injections were carried out through vertical wells simulating seepage up well paths. Three test injections were done as CO2 escaped up through a slotted horizontal pipe simulating seepage up through geologic fault zones. The results from these 5 separate controlled release experiments over the course of three summers show that the CODDA Instrument is clearly capable of verifying the integrity of full-scale CO2 storage operations.

  19. IR LASER BASED CHEMICAL SENSOR FOR THE COOPERATIVE MONITORING PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A Whitaker

    2005-08-08

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the device properties of the quantum cascade laser (QCL), a type of laser invented at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies in the device physics research lab of Dr. Federico Capasso and more specifically to determine the remote sensing capability of this device. The PI and Stevens Institute of Technology collaborated with Dr. Capasso and Bell Laboratories to carry out this research project. The QCL is a unique laser source capable of generating laser radiation in the middle-infrared spectral region that overlaps the most important molecular absorption bands. With appropriate modulation techniques it is possible to use the laser to measure the concentration of many molecules of interest to the remote sensing community. In addition, the mid-IR emission wavelength is well suited to atmospheric transmission as mid-IR experiences much less scattering due to dust and fog. At the onset of this project little was known about several key device performance parameters of this family of lasers and the NNSA supported research enabled them to determine values of several of these characteristics.

  20. Design and testing of planar magnetic micromotors fabricated by deep x-ray lithography and electroplating

    SciTech Connect

    Guckel, H.; Christenson, T.R.; Skrobis, K.J.; Klein, J.; Karnowsky, M.

    1993-05-01

    The successful design and testing of a three-phase planar integrated magnetic micromotor is presented. Fabrication is based on a modified deep X-ray lithography and electroplating or LIGA process. Maximum rotational speeds of 33,000 rpm are obtained in air with a rotor diameter of 285 {mu}m and do not change when operated in vacuum. Real time rotor response is obtained with an integrated shaft encoder. Long lifetime is evidenced by testing to over 5(10){sup 7} ration cycles without changes in performance. Projected speeds of the present motor configuration are in the vicinity of 100 krpm and are limited by torque ripple. Higher speeds, which are attractive for sensor applications. require constant torque characteristic excitation as is evidenced by ultracentrifuge and gyroscope design. Further understanding of electroplated magnetic material properties will drive these performance improvements.

  1. Metallic nanodot arrays by stencil lithography for plasmonic biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Sannomiya, Takumi; Villanueva, Luis G; Voros, Janos; Brugger, Juergen

    2011-02-22

    The fabrication of gold nanodots by stencil lithography and its application for optical biosensing based on localized surface plasmon resonance are presented. Arrays of 50-200 nm wide nanodots with different spacing of 50-300 nm are fabricated without any resist, etching, or lift-off process. The dimensions and morphology of the nanodots were characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The fabricated nanodots showed localized surface plasmon resonance in their extinction spectra in the visible range. The resonance wavelength depends on the periodicity and dimensions of the nanodots. Bulk refractive index measurements and model biosensing of streptavidin were successfully performed based on the plasmon resonance shift induced by local refractive index change when biomolecules are adsorbed on the nanodots. These results demonstrate the potential of stencil lithography for the realization of plasmon-based biosensing devices. PMID:21192666

  2. The design and fabrication of common optical components lithography lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiun-Woei

    2015-07-01

    The design and fabrication of common optical components lithography Lens has been carried out for a 1 to 1 stepper. The specification of lens is fulfilled the 3-D lithography system as 2 micron in resolution for 1 inch x 2.8 inches system. The lens has been sophistically designed by dual path in a triplet to reduce the number of components. A single aspherical surface has been applied to reduce the aberration to diffraction limit in lens. The well-made shapes of lens have been suggested. Then, the fabrication of lens has been in the process. Finally, the optical axis of tolerance optical mechanical mountings for lens system in assembly has been analyzed, and valuable for assembly and fabrication.

  3. DNA Origami Mask for Sub-Ten-Nanometer Lithography.

    PubMed

    Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane; Brun, Christophe; Gasparutto, Didier; Baillin, Xavier; Tiron, Raluca

    2016-07-26

    DNA nanotechnology is currently widely explored and especially shows promises for advanced lithography due to its ability to define nanometer scale features. We demonstrate a 9 × 14 nm(2) hole pattern transfer from DNA origami into an SiO2 layer with a sub-10-nm resolution using anhydrous HF vapor in a semiconductor etching machine. We show that the resulting SiO2 pattern inherits its shape from the DNA structure within a process time ranging from 30 to 60 s at an etching rate of 0.2 nm/s. At 600 s of etching, the SiO2 pattern meets corrosion and the overall etching reaction is blocked. These results, in addition to the entire surface coverage by magnesium occurring on the substrate at a density of 1.1 × 10(15) atom/cm(2), define a process window, fabrication rules, and limits for DNA-based lithography. PMID:27281227

  4. Nanostructure patterning on flexible substrates using electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, K. S.; Sangeeth, K.; Hegde, G. M.

    2014-06-01

    Patterning nanostructures on flexible substrates plays a key role in the emerging flexible electronics technology. The flexible electronic devices are inexpensive and can be conformed to any shape. The potential applications for such devices are sensors, displays, solar cells, RFID, high-density biochips, optoelectronics etc. E-beam lithography is established as a powerful tool for nanoscale fabrication, but its applicability on insulating flexible substrates is often limited because of surface charging effects. This paper presents the fabrication of nanostructures on insulating flexible substrates using low energy E-beam lithography along with metallic layers for charge dissipation. Nano Structures are patterned on different substrates of materials such as acetate and PET foils. The fabrication process parameters such as the proximity gap of exposure, the exposure dosage and developing conditions have been optimized for each substrate.

  5. Feasibility of Air Levitated Surface Stage for Lithography Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi

    The application of light-weight drive technology into the lithography stage has been the current state of art because of minimization of power loss. The purpose of this article is to point out the so-called, "surface stage" which is composed of Lorentz forced 3 DOF (Degree Of Freedom) planar motor (x, y and theta z), air levitation (bearing) system and motor cooling system, is the most balanced concept for the next generation lithography through the verification of each component by manufacturing simple parts and test stand. This paper presents the design method and procedure, and experimental results of the air levitated surface stage which was conducted several years ago, however the author is convinced that the results are enough to adapt various developments of precision machining tool.

  6. Optimized antireflective silicon nanostructure arrays using nanosphere lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dohaeng; Bae, Jiwoong; Hong, Soonwook; Yang, Hwichul; Kim, Young-Beom

    2016-05-01

    Broadband optical antireflective arrays of sub-wavelength structures were fabricated on silicon substrates using colloidal nanosphere lithography in conjunction with reactive ion etching. The morphology of the nanostructures, including the shape, base diameter and height, was precisely controlled by modifying the conventional process of nanosphere lithography. We investigated their effects on the optical characteristics based on experimentally measured reflectance performance. The Si nanostructure arrays demonstrated optical antireflection performance with an average reflectance of about 1% across the spectral range from 300 to 800 nm, i.e. near-ultraviolet to visible wavelengths. This fabrication method can be used to create a large surface area and offers a promising approach for antireflective applications.

  7. Super-resolved optical lithography with phase controlled source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Peilong; Zhang, Guoquan

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that second-order subwavelength interference could be realized in an optical lithography scheme with an effective entangled source [P. Hong and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 043838 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.043838]. In this paper, by considering the correlation function in both the source plane and observation plane, we show how the coherence property of such a source is controlled via introduction of random-phase correlation, which finally affects the two-photon interference effect observed in the far-field plane. Furthermore, by introducing different but similar random-phase correlations, we generalize the phase controlled source with particular high-order coherence properties to obtain higher-order subwavelength interference, i.e., high-order super-resolved optical lithography. These results show the importance of phase control in generating a light field with particular high-order coherence properties.

  8. Imprint/Photo Hybrid Lithography Using Conventional Contact Aligner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Hiroaki; Hirai, Yoshihiko; Kikuta, Hisao

    2004-06-01

    Fine patterns were fabricated by a combination of imprint lithography and photo-lithography using a conventional contact aligner. A resist film was pressed at an atmospheric pressure. Since it was difficult to press the mold mask onto the resist film completely, the residual resist was removed by a photolithography process. An image reversal process is used. It was important that the press was carried out on an unbaked resist. Patterns were exposed to a mercury lamp without a monochromatic filter during the atmospheric pressure press. After the photolithography no residual resist could be found. Good patterns can be obtained up to approximately 0.5 μm. A 0.35 μm line and 0.65 μm space pattern can also be fabricated, but the resist thickness of the fabricated pattern is less than the initial resist thickness.

  9. Optimized antireflective silicon nanostructure arrays using nanosphere lithography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dohaeng; Bae, Jiwoong; Hong, Soonwook; Yang, Hwichul; Kim, Young-Beom

    2016-05-27

    Broadband optical antireflective arrays of sub-wavelength structures were fabricated on silicon substrates using colloidal nanosphere lithography in conjunction with reactive ion etching. The morphology of the nanostructures, including the shape, base diameter and height, was precisely controlled by modifying the conventional process of nanosphere lithography. We investigated their effects on the optical characteristics based on experimentally measured reflectance performance. The Si nanostructure arrays demonstrated optical antireflection performance with an average reflectance of about 1% across the spectral range from 300 to 800 nm, i.e. near-ultraviolet to visible wavelengths. This fabrication method can be used to create a large surface area and offers a promising approach for antireflective applications. PMID:27087196

  10. Lithography of diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films for use as masters in soft-lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Gregory S.; Myhra, Sverre; Watson, Jolanta A.

    2006-01-01

    Micron sized structures/components are commonly employed in a variety of devices (e.g., biosensors, array devices). At present such devices are based on macroscopic technologies. Future applications of differentiated structures/surfaces are expected to place considerable demands on down-sizing technologies, i.e. enable meso/nanoscopic manipulation. An emerging set of methods known collectively as soft lithography is now being utilised for a large variety of applications including micromolding, microfluidic networks and microcontact printing. In particular stamps and elastomeric elements can be formed by transfer of a pattern to a polymer by a master. The 'master' can be fabricated by a variety of techniques capable of producing well-defined surface topographies. Established lithographic techniques used in the microelectronic industry, such as photolithography, are generally used to fabricate such master templates at the micron scale. A number of polymers can be used to transfer patterns. One of the most widely used polymers for pattern transfer has been polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The elastomer is chemically resistant, has a low surface energy and readily conforms to different surface topographies. Obtaining a master is the limiting factor in the production of PDMS replicas. In this study we demonstrate the use of Diamond-Like-Carbon (DLC) as a master template for producing PDMS micro/nano stamps and 3 dimensional PDMS structures. Intricate surface relief patterns were formed on the DLC surface from lithographic techniques by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) operated in the electrical conductivity mode. Attributes of the technique include: -Features with line widths less than 20 nm can be formed on the DLC. -The radius of curvature at edges can be less than 10 nm. -The slope of the features is limited by the aspect ratio of the tip. -Highly complex shapes can be fashioned. -Feature depth can be controlled by DLC film thickness and/or by the bias voltage applied. -The

  11. 3D nanostructures fabricated by advanced stencil lithography.

    PubMed

    Yesilkoy, F; Flauraud, V; Rüegg, M; Kim, B J; Brugger, J

    2016-03-01

    This letter reports on a novel fabrication method for 3D metal nanostructures using high-throughput nanostencil lithography. Aperture clogging, which occurs on the stencil membranes during physical vapor deposition, is leveraged to create complex topographies on the nanoscale. The precision of the 3D nanofabrication method is studied in terms of geometric parameters and material types. The versatility of the technique is demonstrated by various symmetric and chiral patterns made of Al and Au. PMID:26884085

  12. 3D nanostructures fabricated by advanced stencil lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilkoy, F.; Flauraud, V.; Rüegg, M.; Kim, B. J.; Brugger, J.

    2016-02-01

    This letter reports on a novel fabrication method for 3D metal nanostructures using high-throughput nanostencil lithography. Aperture clogging, which occurs on the stencil membranes during physical vapor deposition, is leveraged to create complex topographies on the nanoscale. The precision of the 3D nanofabrication method is studied in terms of geometric parameters and material types. The versatility of the technique is demonstrated by various symmetric and chiral patterns made of Al and Au.

  13. Fabrication of Micro Lens Array by UV-LED Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Yoshinori

    High curvature micro lens array of 240-570 μm diameters and 110-270 μm heights has been fabricated by using UV-LED lithography and imprinting technique. Curved SU-8 structures were fabricated by backside exposure through thin glass substrate because UV-LED array light source has wide directivity characteristics of UV dose. The structure was transferred to Polydimethylsiloxsane (PDMS) mold. Micro lens array of photosensitive acrylic resin was fabricated by using the mold.

  14. Etched-multilayer phase shifting masks for EUV lithography

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Taylor, John S.

    2005-04-05

    A method is disclosed for the implementation of phase shifting masks for EUV lithography. The method involves directly etching material away from the multilayer coating of the mask, to cause a refractive phase shift in the mask. By etching into the multilayer (for example, by reactive ion etching), rather than depositing extra material on the top of the multilayer, there will be minimal absorption loss associated with the phase shift.

  15. 32 nm logic patterning options with immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, K.; Burns, S.; Halle, S.; Zhuang, L.; Colburn, M.; Allen, S.; Babcock, C.; Baum, Z.; Burkhardt, M.; Dai, V.; Dunn, D.; Geiss, E.; Haffner, H.; Han, G.; Lawson, P.; Mansfield, S.; Meiring, J.; Morgenfeld, B.; Tabery, C.; Zou, Y.; Sarma, C.; Tsou, L.; Yan, W.; Zhuang, H.; Gil, D.; Medeiros, D.

    2008-03-01

    The semiconductor industry faces a lithographic scaling limit as the industry completes the transition to 1.35 NA immersion lithography. Both high-index immersion lithography and EUV lithography are facing technical challenges and commercial timing issues. Consequently, the industry has focused on enabling double patterning technology (DPT) as a means to circumvent the limitations of Rayleigh scaling. Here, the IBM development alliance demonstrate a series of double patterning solutions that enable scaling of logic constructs by decoupling the pattern spatially through mask design or temporally through innovative processes. These techniques have been successfully employed for early 32nm node development using 45nm generation tooling. Four different double patterning techniques were implemented. The first process illustrates local RET optimization through the use of a split reticle design. In this approach, a layout is decomposed into a series of regions with similar imaging properties and the illumination conditions for each are independently optimized. These regions are then printed separately into the same resist film in a multiple exposure process. The result is a singly developed pattern that could not be printed with a single illumination-mask combination. The second approach addresses 2D imaging with particular focus on both line-end dimension and linewidth control [1]. A double exposure-double etch (DE2) approach is used in conjunction with a pitch-filling sacrificial feature strategy. The third double exposure process, optimized for via patterns also utilizes DE2. In this method, a design is split between two separate masks such that the minimum pitch between any two vias is larger than the minimum metal pitch. This allows for final structures with vias at pitches beyond the capability of a single exposure. In the fourth method,, dark field double dipole lithography (DDL) has been successfully applied to BEOL metal structures and has been shown to be

  16. Design and fabrication of diverse metamaterial structures by holographic lithography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Li, Qiuze; Wang, Guo Ping

    2008-07-21

    We demonstrate a holographic lithography for the fabrication of diverse metamaterial structures by using an optical prism. Cylindrical nanoshells, U-shaped resonator arrays, and double-split ring arrays are obtained experimentally by real time modulating the phase relation of the interference beams. This easy-to-use method may provide a roadway for the design and fabrication of future metamaterials requiring diverse structures for effectively manipulating electromagnetic properties at optical frequencies. PMID:18648445

  17. 450mm wafer patterning with jet and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Ecron; Hellebrekers, Paul; Hofemann, Paul; LaBrake, Dwayne L.; Resnick, Douglas J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    The next step in the evolution of wafer size is 450mm. Any transition in sizing is an enormous task that must account for fabrication space, environmental health and safety concerns, wafer standards, metrology capability, individual process module development and device integration. For 450mm, an aggressive goal of 2018 has been set, with pilot line operation as early as 2016. To address these goals, consortiums have been formed to establish the infrastructure necessary to the transition, with a focus on the development of both process and metrology tools. Central to any process module development, which includes deposition, etch and chemical mechanical polishing is the lithography tool. In order to address the need for early learning and advance process module development, Molecular Imprints Inc. has provided the industry with the first advanced lithography platform, the Imprio® 450, capable of patterning a full 450mm wafer. The Imprio 450 was accepted by Intel at the end of 2012 and is now being used to support the 450mm wafer process development demands as part of a multi-year wafer services contract to facilitate the semiconductor industry's transition to lower cost 450mm wafer production. The Imprio 450 uses a Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FILTM) process that employs drop dispensing of UV curable resists to assist high resolution patterning for subsequent dry etch pattern transfer. The technology is actively being used to develop solutions for markets including NAND Flash memory, patterned media for hard disk drives and displays. This paper reviews the recent performance of the J-FIL technology (including overlay, throughput and defectivity), mask development improvements provided by Dai Nippon Printing, and the application of the technology to a 450mm lithography platform.

  18. Effect of wafer geometry on lithography chucking processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Kevin T.; Sinha, Jaydeep K.

    2015-03-01

    Wafer flatness during exposure in lithography tools is critical and is becoming more important as feature sizes in devices shrink. While chucks are used to support and flatten the wafer during exposure, it is essential that wafer geometry be controlled as well. Thickness variations of the wafer and high-frequency wafer shape components can lead to poor flatness of the chucked wafer and ultimately patterning problems, such as defocus errors. The objective of this work is to understand how process-induced wafer geometry, resulting from deposited films with non-uniform stress, can lead to high-frequency wafer shape variations that prevent complete chucking in lithography scanners. In this paper, we discuss both the acceptable limits of wafer shape that permit complete chucking to be achieved, and how non-uniform residual stresses in films, either due to patterning or process non-uniformity, can induce high spatial frequency wafer shape components that prevent chucking. This paper describes mechanics models that relate non-uniform film stress to wafer shape and presents results for two example cases. The models and results can be used as a basis for establishing control strategies for managing process-induced wafer geometry in order to avoid wafer flatness-induced errors in lithography processes.

  19. Fabrication of 70nm split ring resonators by nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Graham J.; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the fabrication of 70 nm wide, high resolution rectangular U-shaped split ring resonators (SRRs) using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The fabrication method for the nanoimprint stamp does not require dry etching. The stamp is used to pattern SRRs in a thin PMMA layer followed by metal deposition and lift-off. Nanoimprinting in this way allows high resolution patterns with a minimum feature size of 20 nm. This fabrication technique yields a much higher throughput than conventional e-beam lithography and each stamp can be used numerous times to imprint patterns. Reflectance measurements of fabricated aluminium SRRs on silicon substrates show a so-called an LC resonance peak in the visible spectrum under transverse electric polarisation. Fabricating the SRRs by NIL rather than electron beam lithography allows them to be scaled to smaller dimensions without any significant loss in resolution, partly because pattern expansion caused by backscattered electrons and the proximity effect are not present with NIL. This in turn helps to shift the magnetic response to short wavelengths while still retaining a distinct LC peak.

  20. Feasibility study of optical/e-beam complementary lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohle, Christoph; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Freitag, Martin; Gutsch, Manuela; Jaschinsky, Philipp; Kahlenberg, Frank; Klein, Christof; Klikovits, Jan; Paul, Jan; Rudolph, Matthias; Thrun, Xaver

    2012-03-01

    Using electron beam direct write (EBDW) as a complementary approach together with standard optical lithography at 193nm or EUV wavelength has been proposed only lately and might be a reasonable solution for low volume CMOS manufacturing and special applications as well as design rule restrictions. Here, the high throughput of the optical litho can be combined with the high resolution and the high flexibility of the e-beam by using a mix & match approach (Litho- Etch-Litho-Etch, LELE). Complementary Lithography is mainly driven by special design requirements for unidirectional (1-D gridded) Manhattan type design layouts that enable scaling of advanced logic chips. This requires significant data prep efforts such as layout splitting. In this paper we will show recent results of Complementary Lithography using 193nm immersion generated 50nm lines/space pattern addressing the 32nm logic technology node that were cut with electron beam direct write. Regular lines and space arrays were patterned at GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden and have been cut in predefined areas using a VISTEC SB3050DW e-beam direct writer (50KV Variable Shaped Beam) at Fraunhofer Center Nanoelectronic Technologies (CNT), Dresden, as well as on the PML2 tool at IMS Nanofabrication, Vienna. Two types of e-beam resists were used for the cut exposure. Integration issues as well as overlay requirements and performance improvements necessary for this mix & match approach will be discussed.

  1. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films via block copolymer lithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.; Sumant, A. V.; Auciello, O.

    2010-07-01

    Nanopatterning of diamond surfaces is critical for the development of diamond-based microelectromechanical system/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS), such as resonators or switches. Micro-/nanopatterning of diamond materials is typically done using photolithography or electron beam lithography combined with reactive ion etching (RIE). In this work, we demonstrate a simple process, block copolymer (BCP) lithography, for nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films to produce nanostructures suitable for the fabrication of NEMS based on UNCD. In BCP lithography, nanoscale self-assembled polymeric domains serve as an etch mask for pattern transfer. The authors used thin films of a cylinder-forming organic-inorganic BCP, poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane), PS-b-PFS, as an etch mask on the surface of UNCD films. Orientational control of the etch masking cylindrical PFS blocks is achieved by manipulating the polymer film thickness in concert with the annealing treatment. We have observed that the surface roughness of UNCD layers plays an important role in transferring the pattern. Oxygen RIE was used to etch the exposed areas of the UNCD film underneath the BCP. Arrays of both UNCD posts and wirelike structures have been created using the same starting polymeric materials as the etch mask.

  2. A Submicron Lithography Process Using Philips I-Line Stepper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Looij, Guido; Nagaswami, Venkat; Baltussen, Peter; Hartog, Peter; Vervoordeldonk, Rene; Moonen, Joost

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in lens design have pushed optical lithography well into the submicron domain which was once considered to belong to X-ray or E-beam lithography. Realisation of submicron design rules of a 1 Mbit memory has been possible at PHILIPS using an i-line lens (Zeiss 10-78-48) incorporated in internally developed stepper (Sire-3) using a single layer resist technology. This paper will give a schematic description of the stepper and describe the lens characteristics of the two in house systems. The stability of the steppers will be illustrated by means of system parameters which were monitored during a prolonged period. The resist process was characterised on accelerated pathfinder lots which were used to detect lithography related problems in an earlier phase and to determine machine and process latitudes. The results of this characterisation and implementation activity will be reported. Special attention was given to focus determination which proved to be very critical due to the lens characteristics and large chip-size. Finally the results obtained on the 1M SRAM device with 0.7 ium minimum geometry will be presented. Based on this work it appears that with proper planarization procedures for minimizing the topography problems, a 0.7 μm design rule is practical using single layer resist on this stepper.

  3. The use of EUV lithography to produce demonstration devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFontaine, Bruno; Deng, Yunfei; Kim, Ryoung-Han; Levinson, Harry J.; McGowan, Sarah; Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Seltmann, Rolf; Tabery, Cyrus; Tchikoulaeva, Anna; Wallow, Tom; Wood, Obert; Arnold, John; Canaperi, Don; Colburn, Matthew; Kimmel, Kurt; Koay, Chiew-Seng; Mclellan, Erin; Medeiros, Dave; Rao, Satyavolu Papa; Petrillo, Karen; Yin, Yunpeng; Mizuno, Hiroyuki; Bouten, Sander; Crouse, Michael; van Dijk, Andre; van Dommelen, Youri; Galloway, Judy; Han, Sang-In; Kessels, Bart; Lee, Brian; Lok, Sjoerd; Niekrewicz, Brian; Pierson, Bill; Routh, Robert; Schmit-Weaver, Emil; Cummings, Kevin; Word, James

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the integration of EUV lithography into a standard semiconductor manufacturing flow to produce demonstration devices. 45 nm logic test chips with functional transistors were fabricated using EUV lithography to pattern the first interconnect level (metal 1). This device fabrication exercise required the development of rule-based 'OPC' to correct for flare and mask shadowing effects. These corrections were applied to the fabrication of a full-field mask. The resulting mask and the 0.25-NA fullfield EUV scanner were found to provide more than adequate performance for this 45 nm logic node demonstration. The CD uniformity across the field and through a lot of wafers was 6.6% (3σ) and the measured overlay on the test-chip (product) wafers was well below 20 nm (mean + 3σ). A resist process was developed and performed well at a sensitivity of 3.8 mJ/cm2, providing ample process latitude and etch selectivity for pattern transfer. The etch recipes provided good CD control, profiles and end-point discrimination, allowing for good electrical connection to the underlying levels, as evidenced by electrical test results. Many transistors connected with Cu-metal lines defined using EUV lithography were tested electrically and found to have characteristics very similar to 45 nm node transistors fabricated using more traditional methods.

  4. Considerations for cost of ownership in EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, Anthony; Bailey, Christopher; Donders, Jos; Condon, Neil

    2011-04-01

    The cost of ownership of semiconductor manufacturing equipment is typically addressed in terms of raw utility consumption. Focusing on energy, the average consumption of a typical semiconductor fabrication plant has doubled over a recent 10 year period, with approximately 30% of this energy currently attributed to vacuum equipment. Compared to conventional optical lithography, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) requires the adoption of a vacuum subsystem to enable the technology, bringing an additional vacuum requirement to semiconductor fabs. With this trend it is increasingly important to focus on more efficient ways of operating semiconductor manufacturing tools and their supporting equipment. Clever operation through employment of 'GREEN' modes can provide significant utility savings. However, in semiconductor lithography, tool uptime is a critical parameter to be considered in any cost of ownership model, and the facility vacuum equipment plays an intimate role here, so including redundancy in pumping equipment can be a key enabler to maintaining tool uptime. Consequently optimizing the design of the vacuum subsystem will help to reduce the overall footprint, utility consumption and energy costs associated with this process.

  5. Ray tracing homogenizing mirrors for synchrotron x-ray lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homer, Michael; Rosser, Roy J.; Speer, R. J.

    1991-12-01

    Saddle toroid array mirrors (STAMs) are novel grazing-incidence mirrors. They have been proposed as the optical component that most efficiently matches synchrotron orbital radiation (SOR) to the needs of proximity x-ray lithography. However, STAMs have yet to be accepted by the synchrotron lithography community because of the lack of detailed data on their expected performance, due primarily to the difficulty of raytracing such mirrors using existing optical raytrace programs. A raytracing package written especially to study the design and optimization of these unusually shaped mirrors and the very encouraging results obtained with the package to date are described. The optimum STAM designs turn out to be the most effective way of homogeneously illuminating a rectangular proximity x-ray lithography mask, improving on existing scanning mirror systems by at least a factor of four. They have the added advantage of being stationary, which should lead to greater reliability--a quality of considerable value in the production environment these mirrors are intended for, namely the ultra-high vacuum of a synchrotron beamline. Based on the results of the raytracing, a prototype STAM has been constructed, and preparations are being made for an x-ray test of the device.

  6. Tailored molecular glass resists for scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuber, Christian; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Strohriegl, Peter; Ringk, Andreas; Kolb, Tristan; Schedl, Andreas; Fokkema, Vincent; van Veghel, Marijn G. A.; Cooke, Mike; Rawlings, Colin; Dürig, Urs; Knoll, Armin; de Marneffe, Jean-François; el Otell, Ziad; Kaestner, Marcus; Krivoshapkina, Yana; Budden, Matthias; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2015-03-01

    In the presented work solvent-free film preparation from tailored molecular glass resists, their thermal analysis, the characterization of etch resistance for plasma etching transfer processes, and the evaluation of the patterning performance using scanning probe lithography (SPL) tools, in particular electric field and thermal based SPL, are demonstrated. Therefore a series of fully aromatic spiro-based and tris-substituted twisted resist materials were systematically investigated. The materials feature very high glass transition temperatures of up to 173 °C, which allows solvent-free thin film preparation by physical vapor deposition (PVD) due to their high thermal stability. The PVD prepared films offer distinct advantages compared to spin coated films such as no pinholes, defects, or residual solvent domains, which can locally affect the film properties. In addition, PVD prepared films do not need a post apply bake (PAB) and can be precisely prepared in the nanometer range layer thickness. An observed sufficient plasma etching resistance is promising for an efficient pattern transfer even by utilizing only 10 nm thin resist films. Their lithographic resolution potential is demonstrated by a positive and a negative tone patterning using electric field, current controlled scanning probe lithography (EF-CC-SPL) at the Technical University of Ilmenau or thermal scanning probe lithography (tSPL) investigations at the IBM Research - Zurich. High resolution tSPL prepared patterns of 11 nm half pitch and at 4 nm patterning depth are demonstrated.

  7. Scanning probe lithography approach for beyond CMOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Zahid; Jones, Mervyn; Kaestner, Marcus; Hofer, Manuel; Guliyev, Elshad; Ahmad, Ahmad; Ivanov, Tzvetan; Zoellner, Jens-Peter; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2013-03-01

    As present CMOS devices approach technological and physical limits at the sub-10 nm scale, a `beyond CMOS' information-processing technology is necessary for timescales beyond the semiconductor technology roadmap. This requires new approaches to logic and memory devices, and to associated lithographic processes. At the sub-5 nm scale, a technology platform based on a combination of high-resolution scanning probe lithography (SPL) and nano-imprint lithography (NIL) is regarded as a promising candidate for both resolution and high throughput production. The practical application of quantum-effect devices, such as room temperature single-electron and quantum-dot devices, then becomes feasible. This paper considers lithographic and device approaches to such a `single nanometer manufacturing' technology. We consider the application of scanning probes, capable of imaging, probing of material properties and lithography at the single nanometer scale. Modified scanning probes are used to pattern molecular glass based resist materials, where the small particle size (<1 nm) and mono-disperse nature leads to more uniform and smaller lithographic pixel size. We also review the current status of single-electron and quantum dot devices capable of room-temperature operation, and discuss the requirements for these devices with regards to practical application.

  8. Inorganic immersion fluids for ultrahigh numerical aperture 193 nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianming; Fan, Yongfa; Bourov, Anatoly; Smith, Bruce W.

    2006-05-01

    Immersion lithography has become attractive since it can reduce critical dimensions by increasing numerical aperture (NA) beyond unity. Among all the candidates for immersion fluids, those with higher refractive indices and low absorbance are desired. Characterization of the refractive indices and absorbance of various inorganic fluid candidates has been performed. To measure the refractive indices of these fluids, a prism deviation angle method was developed. Several candidates have been identified for 193 nm application with refractive indices near 1.55, which is approximately 0.1 higher than that of water at this wavelength. Cauchy parameters of these fluids were generated and approaches were investigated to tailor the fluid absorption edges to be close to 193 nm. The effects of these fluids on photoresist performance were also examined with 193 nm immersion lithography exposure at various NAs. Half-pitch 32 nm lines were obtained with phosphoric acid as the immersion medium at 1.5 NA. These fluids are potential candidates for immersion lithography technology.

  9. Lithography process of micropore array pattern in Si microchannel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Linlin; Han, Jun; Liu, Huan; Wang, Yawei

    2015-02-01

    Microchannel plates - MCPs - are the key component of the image intensifier. Compared with the traditional MCPs, the Si MCPs which are fabricated by micro-nanofabrication technologies have a high gain, low noise and high resolution etc. In this paper, the lithography process is studied in the process of fabricating periodic micropore array with 10 um pores and 5 um pitch on Si. The effects of exposure time, reversal bake temperature and development time on the lithography quality are focused. By doing a series of experiments the better result is got: the photoresist film is obtained at a low speed 500/15(rpm/s) and a high speed 4500/50(rpm/s); the soft bake time is 10min at 100°; the exposure time is 10s; the reversal bake time is 80s at 115°; the development time is 55s. By microscope observation and measurement, the pattern is complete and the size of the pattern is accure, it meets the requirement of lithography process for fabricating Si-MCP.

  10. High-index nanocomposite photoresist for 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Woo Jin; Trikeriotis, Makros; Rodriguez, Robert; Zettel, Michael F.; Piscani, Emil; Ober, Christopher K.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Zimmerman, Paul

    2009-03-01

    In immersion lithography, high index fluids are used to increase the numerical aperture (NA) of the imaging system and decrease the minimum printable feature size. Water has been used in first generation immersion lithography at 193 nm to reach the 45 nm node, but to reach the 38 and 32 nm nodes, fluids and resists with a higher index than water are needed. A critical issue hindering the implementation of 193i at the 32 nm node is the availability of high refractive index (n > 1.8) and low optical absorption fluids and resists. It is critical to note that high index resists are necessary only when a high refractive index fluid is in use. High index resist improves the depth of focus (DOF) even without high index fluids. In this study, high refractive index nanoparticles have been synthesized and introduced into a resist matrix to increase the overall refractive index. The strategy followed is to synthesize PGMEA-soluble nanoparticles and then disperse them into a 193 nm resist. High index nanoparticles 1-2 nm in diameter were synthesized by a combination of hydrolysis and sol-gel methods. A ligand exchange method was used, allowing the surface of the nanoparticles to be modified with photoresist-friendly moieties to help them disperse uniformly in the resist matrix. The refractive index and ultraviolet absorbance were measured to evaluate the quality of next generation immersion lithography resist materials.

  11. Highly Stable Nanolattice Structures using Nonlinear Laser Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Ozgun; Tokel, Onur; Ergecen, Emre; Pavlov, Ihor; Makey, Ghaith; Ilday, Fatih Omer

    Periodic nanopatterning is crucial for multiple technologies, including photovoltaics and display technologies. Conventional optical lithography techniques require complex masks, while e-beam and ion-beam lithography require expensive equipment. With the Nonlinear Laser Lithography (NLL) technique, we had recently shown that various surfaces can be covered with extremely periodic nanopatterns with ultrafast lasers through a single-step, maskless and inexpensive method. Here, we expand NLL nanopatterns to flexible materials, and also present a fully predictive model for the formation of NLL nanostructures as confirmed with experiments. In NLL, a nonlocal positive feedback mechanism (dipole scattering) competes with a rate limiting negative feedback mechanism. Here, we show that judicious use of the laser polarisation can constrain the lattice symmetry, while the nonlinearities regulate periodicity. We experimentally demonstrate that in addition to one dimensional periodic stripes, two dimensional lattices can be produced on surfaces. In particular, hexagonal and square lattices were produced, which are highly desired for display technologies. Notably, with this approach, we can tile flexible substrates, which can find applications in next generation display technologies.

  12. Large-Area Zone Plate Fabrication with Optical Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Denbeaux, G.

    2011-09-09

    Zone plates as condenser optics for x-ray microscopes offer simple optical designs for both illumination and spectral resolution when used as a linear monochromator. However, due to the long write times for electron beam lithography, both the availability and the size of zone plates for condensers have been limited. Since the resolution provided by the linear monochromator scales almost linearly with the diameter of the zone plate, the full potential for zone plate monochromators as illumination systems for x-ray microscopes has not been achieved. For example, the 10-mm-diameter zone plate has demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/{Delta}E = 700[1], but with a 26-mm-diameter zone plate, the calculated spectral resolution is higher than E/{Delta}E = 3000. These large-area zone plates are possible to fabricate with the leading edge semiconductor lithography tools such as those available at the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the University at Albany. One of the lithography tools available is the ASML TWINSCAN XT: 1950i with 37-nm resolution [2]. A single 300-mm wafer can contain more than 60 fields, each with a large area condenser, and the throughput of the tool can be more than one wafer every minute.

  13. Inverse Tomo-Lithography for Making Microscopic 3D Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Victor; Wiberg, Dean

    2003-01-01

    According to a proposal, basic x-ray lithography would be extended to incorporate a technique, called inverse tomography, that would enable the fabrication of microscopic three-dimensional (3D) objects. The proposed inverse tomo-lithographic process would make it possible to produce complex shaped, submillimeter-sized parts that would be difficult or impossible to make in any other way. Examples of such shapes or parts include tapered helices, paraboloids with axes of different lengths, and even Archimedean screws that could serve as rotors in microturbines. The proposed inverse tomo-lithographic process would be based partly on a prior microfabrication process known by the German acronym LIGA (lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, which means lithography, electroforming, molding). In LIGA, one generates a precise, high-aspect ratio pattern by exposing a thick, x-ray-sensitive resist material to an x-ray beam through a mask that contains the pattern. One can electrodeposit metal into the developed resist pattern to form a precise metal part, then dissolve the resist to free the metal. Aspect ratios of 100:1 and patterns into resist thicknesses of several millimeters are possible.

  14. Infrared laser-based monitoring of the silane dissociation during deposition of silicon thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlome, R.; Feltrin, A.; Ballif, C.

    2009-05-18

    The silane dissociation efficiency, or depletion fraction, is an important plasma parameter by means of which the film growth rate and the amorphous-to-microcrystalline silicon transition regime can be monitored in situ. In this letter we implement a homebuilt quantum cascade laser-based absorption spectrometer to measure the silane dissociation efficiency in an industrial plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. This infrared laser-based diagnostic technique is compact, sensitive, and nonintrusive. Its resolution is good enough to resolve Doppler-broadened rotovibrational absorption lines of silane. The latter feature various absorption strengths, thereby enabling depletion measurements over a wide range of process conditions.

  15. Welding technology transfer task/laser based weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looney, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Sensors to control and monitor welding operations are currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The laser based weld bead profiler/torch rotation sensor was modified to provide a weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds. The tracking system features a precision laser based vision sensor, automated two-axis machine motion, and an industrial PC controller. The system benefits are elimination of weld repairs caused by joint tracking errors which reduces manufacturing costs and increases production output, simplification of tooling, and free costly manufacturing floor space.

  16. Advances in Diode-Laser-Based Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuler, Scott; Repasky, Kevin; Morley, Bruce; Moen, Drew; Weckwerth, Tammy; Hayman, Matt; Nehrir, Amin

    2016-06-01

    An advanced diode-laser-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (WV-DIAL) has been developed. The next generation design was built on the success of previous diode-laser-based prototypes and enables accurate measurement of water vapor closer to the ground surface, in rapidly changing atmospheric conditions, and in daytime cloudy conditions up to cloud base. The lidar provides up to 1 min resolution, 150 m range resolved measurements of water vapor in a broad range of atmospheric conditions. A description of the instrument and results from its initial field test in 2014 are discussed.

  17. Understanding Lithography Technology Issues through Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neureuther, Andrew W.

    1993-12-01

    Simulation has become a very effective means of understanding tradeoffs which arise in implementing innovation in optical projection printing. A number of examples associated with current concerns in image formation under investigation at Berkeley using the SPLAT, SAMPLE and TEMPEST simulators are described. The examples include diffusion effects in chemically amplified resists, imaging in thin films with high numerical aperture lenses, image quality in an exploratory extreme ultra violent (X-ray) system developed by Wood et al. [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 7 (1989) 1613] of AT & T, printability of out-of-focus phase-shift defects, edge effects in phase-shift masks, and scattering from underlying topography.

  18. Production integrated laser-based measurement system for railway sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanke, Gerd; Kessler, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    Deutsche Bahn (German Railways) requires its suppliers to deliver concrete sleepers with high precision dimensions for critical sections. To meet these demands suppliers have to continuously monitor the production process. Critical dimensions are the track width and the widths of both rail supporting planes. Also their orientation must not exceed given tolerances. That demands measurements with a precision of 0.2 mm or better. The contactless measurement system developed uses the triangulation approach based on laser plane projection. It consists of two CCD-cameras and four lasers projecting planes under 45° each. A third camera serves for the recognition of the mould numbers. Software detects if a sleeper is in a measuring position, the camera images are frozen and the measurements are done using line approximation and subpixel accuracy. Additionally the measurement of the positions of peg holes is integrated, these data serve for the control of a screw-in robot. The system is added to the running production line in a harsh industrial environment. It works fully automatically. All measured data are transferred to the production monitoring for evaluation and archiving. The system has been working now for two years, more than half a million sleepers have been reliably monitored.

  19. Microfield exposure tool enables advances in EUV lithography development

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2009-09-07

    , with EUV not expected in production before the 22-nm half pitch node even finer resolution capabilities are now required from development tools. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET's custom-coherence illuminator allows it to be used with aggressive modified illumination enabling kJ factors as low as 0.25. Noting that the lithographic resolution of an exposure tool is defined as k{sub 1}{lambda}/NA, yielding an ultimate resolution limit of 11 nm. To achieve sub-20-nm aerial-image resolution while avoiding forbidden pitches on Manhattan-geometry features with the centrally-obscured MET optic, a 45-degree oriented dipole pupil fill is used. Figure 1 shows the computed aerial-image contrast as a function of half pitch for a dipole pupil fill optimized to print down to the 19-nm half pitch level. This is achieved with relatively uniform performance at larger dimensions. Using this illumination, printing down to the 20-nm half pitch level has been demonstrated in chemically amplified resists as shown in Fig. 2. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET tool plays a crucial role in the advancement of EUV resists. The unique programmable coherence properties of this tool enable it to achieve higher resolution than other EUV projection tools. As presented here, over the past year the tool has been used to demonstrate resist resolutions of 20 half pitch. Although not discussed here, because the Berkeley MET tool is a true projection lithography tool, it also plays a crucial role in advanced EUV mask research. Examples of the work done in this area include defect printability, mask architecture, and phase shift masks.

  20. Research of infrared laser based pavement imaging and crack detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hanyu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Xiuhua; Jing, Genqiang

    2013-08-01

    Road crack detection is seriously affected by many factors in actual applications, such as some shadows, road signs, oil stains, high frequency noise and so on. Due to these factors, the current crack detection methods can not distinguish the cracks in complex scenes. In order to solve this problem, a novel method based on infrared laser pavement imaging is proposed. Firstly, single sensor laser pavement imaging system is adopted to obtain pavement images, high power laser line projector is well used to resist various shadows. Secondly, the crack extraction algorithm which has merged multiple features intelligently is proposed to extract crack information. In this step, the non-negative feature and contrast feature are used to extract the basic crack information, and circular projection based on linearity feature is applied to enhance the crack area and eliminate noise. A series of experiments have been performed to test the proposed method, which shows that the proposed automatic extraction method is effective and advanced.

  1. Lithography alternatives meet design style reality: How do they "line" up?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayling, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Optical lithography resolution scaling has stalled, giving innovative alternatives a window of opportunity. One important factor that impacts these lithographic approaches is the transition in design style from 2D to 1D for advanced CMOS logic. Just as the transition from 3D circuits to 2D fabrication 50 years ago created an opportunity for a new breed of electronics companies, the transition today presents exciting and challenging time for lithographers. Today, we are looking at a range of non-optical lithography processes. Those considered here can be broadly categorized: self-aligned lithography, self-assembled lithography, deposition lithography, nano-imprint lithography, pixelated e-beam lithography, shot-based e-beam lithography .Do any of these alternatives benefit from or take advantage of 1D layout? Yes, for example SAPD + CL (Self Aligned Pitch Division combined with Complementary Lithography). This is a widely adopted process for CMOS nodes at 22nm and below. Can there be additional design / process co-optimization? In spite of the simple-looking nature of 1D layout, the placement of "cut" in the lines and "holes" for interlayer connections can be tuned for a given process capability. Examples of such optimization have been presented at this conference, typically showing a reduction of at least one in the number of cut or hole patterns needed.[1,2] Can any of the alternatives complement each other or optical lithography? Yes.[3] For example, DSA (Directed Self Assembly) combines optical lithography with self-assembly. CEBL (Complementary e-Beam Lithography) combines optical lithography with SAPD for lines with shot-based e-beam lithography for cuts and holes. Does one (shrinking) size fit all? No, that's why we have many alternatives. For example NIL (Nano-imprint Lithography) has been introduced for NAND Flash patterning where the (trending lower) defectivity is acceptable for the product. Deposition lithography has been introduced in 3D NAND Flash to

  2. On the origin of contact resistances in graphene devices fabricated by optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavarin, Carlos Alvarado; Sagade, Abhay A.; Neumaier, Daniel; Bacher, Gerd; Mertin, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    The contact resistance is a key bottleneck limiting the performance of graphene-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. Using a combined approach of atomic force microscopy patterning, Kelvin probe force microscopy and micro-Raman mapping, we study the influence of optical lithography resists on the contact resistance in graphene devices. We find that devices fabricated by optical lithography show a significantly larger contact resistance compared to devices produced by electron beam lithography using polymethylmethacrylate as resist. This difference is attributed to a 3-4-nm-thick residual layer remaining in between the contact metal and the graphene after optical lithography.

  3. Speckle reduction methods in laser-based picture projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, M. Nadeem; Chen, Xuyuan

    2016-02-01

    Laser sources have been promised for many years to be better light sources as compared to traditional lamps or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for projectors, which enable projectors having wide colour gamut for vivid image, super brightness and high contrast for the best picture quality, long lifetime for maintain free operation, mercury free, and low power consumption for green environment. A major technology obstacle in using lasers for projection has been the speckle noise caused by to the coherent nature of the lasers. For speckle reduction, current state of the art solutions apply moving parts with large physical space demand. Solutions beyond the state of the art need to be developed such as integrated optical components, hybrid MOEMS devices, and active phase modulators for compact speckle reduction. In this article, major methods reported in the literature for the speckle reduction in laser projectors are presented and explained. With the advancement in semiconductor lasers with largely reduced cost for the red, green and the blue primary colours, and the developed methods for their speckle reduction, it is hoped that the lasers will be widely utilized in different projector applications in the near future.

  4. Laser-based instrumentation for detection of chemical-warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Sander, R.K.; Hartford, A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being developed for remote, point, and surface contamination detection of chemical warfare agents. These techniques include optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. Detection limits in the part-per-million to part-per-billion regime have been demonstrated.

  5. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOEpatents

    Howells, Malcolm S.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1997-01-01

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 .mu.m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holgraphic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required.

  6. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOEpatents

    Howells, M.S.; Jacobsen, C.

    1997-03-18

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 {micro}m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holographic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required. 15 figs.

  7. Laser-based study of geometrical optics at school level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Amit; Dhingra, Vishal; Sharma, Reena; Mittal, Ankit; Tiwadi, Raman; Chakravarty, Pratik

    2011-10-01

    Students at the school level from grade 7 to 12 are taught various concepts of geometrical optics but with little hands-on activities. Light propagation through different media, image formation using lenses and mirrors under different conditions and application of basic principles to characterization of lenses, mirrors and other instruments has been a subject which although fascinates students but due to lack of suitable demonstrating setups, students find difficulty in understanding these concepts and hence unable to appreciate the importance of such concepts in various useful scientific apparatus, day to day life, instruments and devices. Therefore, students tend to cram various concepts related to geometrical optics instead of understanding them. As part of the extension activity in the University Grants Commission major research project "Investigating science hands-on to promote innovation and research at undergraduate level" and University of Delhi at Acharya Narendra Dev College SPIE student chapter, students working under this optics outreach programme have demonstrated various experiments on geometrical optics using a five beam laser ray box and various optical components like different types of mirrors, lenses, prisms, optical fibers etc. The various hands-on activities includes demonstrations on laws of reflection, image formation using plane, concave and convex mirrors, mirror formula, total internal reflection, light propagation in an optical fiber, laws of refraction, image formation using concave and convex lenses and combination of these lenses, lens formula, light propagation through prisms, dispersion in prism, defects in eye- Myopia and hypermetropia. Subjects have been evaluated through pre and post tests in order to measure the improvement in their level of understanding.

  8. 76 FR 81518 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Laser-Based Multi-Function Office Machines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...This document provides notice that U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') has issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of laser-based multi-function office machines. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that the assembly and programming operations together convey the essential character of the laser-based multi-function office......

  9. 77 FR 14838 - General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC, Commercial Laser-Based Uranium Enrichment... considering the issuance of a license to General Electric-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE or the applicant) to authorize construction of a laser-based uranium enrichment facility and possession and use...

  10. Double-Sided Opportunities Using Chemical Lift-Off Lithography.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Anne M; Liao, Wei-Ssu; Weiss, Paul S

    2016-08-16

    We discuss the origins, motivation, invention, development, applications, and future of chemical lift-off lithography, in which a specified pattern of a self-assembled monolayer is removed, i.e., lifted off, using a reactive, patterned stamp that is brought into contact with the monolayer. For Au substrates, this process produces a supported, patterned monolayer of Au on the stamp in addition to the negative pattern in the original molecular monolayer. Both the patterned molecular monolayer on the original substrate and the patterned supported metal monolayer on the stamp are useful as materials and for further applications in sensing and other areas. Chemical lift-off lithography effectively lowers the barriers to and costs of high-resolution, large-area nanopatterning. On the patterned monolayer side, features in the single-nanometer range can be produced across large (square millimeter or larger) areas. Patterns smaller than the original stamp feature sizes can be produced by controlling the degree of contact between the stamp and the lifted-off monolayer. We note that this process is different than conventional lift-off processes in lithography in that chemical lift-off lithography removes material, whereas conventional lift-off is a positive-tone patterning method. Chemical lift-off lithography is in some ways similar to microtransfer printing. Chemical lift-off lithography has critical advantages in the preparation of biocapture surfaces because the molecules left behind are exploited to space and to orient functional(ized) molecules. On the supported metal monolayer side, a new two-dimensional material has been produced. The useful important chemical properties of Au (vis-à-vis functionalization with thiols) are retained, but the electronic and optical properties of bulk Au or even Au nanoparticles are not. These metal monolayers do not quench excitation and may be useful in optical measurements, particularly in combination with selective binding due to

  11. Overlay progress in EUV lithography towards adoption for manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, Jan V.; Laidler, David; Pigneret, Charles; van Dijk, Andre; Voznyi, Oleg; Dusa, Mircea; Hendrickx, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) lithography is a candidate for semiconductor manufacturing for the 16nm technology node and beyond. Due to the very short wavelength of 13.5nm, EUV lithography provides the capability to continue single exposure scaling with improved resolution and higher pattern fidelity compared to 193nm immersion lithography. However, reducing the wavelength brings new equipment and process challenges. To enable EUV photon transmission through the optical system, the entire optical path of an EUV exposure tool operates under vacuum, and in addition reticle and optics are reflective. To obtain the required CD and overlay performance, both wafer and reticle front surfaces need to have near-perfect flatness, as non-flatness directly contributes to focus and image placement errors, in the case of the reticle due to non-telecentricity. Traditional vacuum chucks, both for reticle and wafer, cannot be used and are replaced by electrostatic chucks. Any contribution of this new clamping method on CD and overlay control therefore needs to be investigated, including avoidance of particle contamination over time. This work was performed on ASML's EUV Alpha Demo Tool (ADT). We investigated the different, non-conventional contributions to overlay control on the ADT, with particular attention to the wafer clamping performance of the exposure chuck. We demonstrate that we were able to improve the overlay performance by compensating for the wafer clamping error during the wafer alignment sequence. The impact of different wafer types on overlay was also evaluated. In addition to clamping effects, thermal effects have also been shown to impact overlay and were evaluated by monitoring the thermal behavior of a wafer during exposure on the ADT and correlating to the resulting overlay.

  12. Application of SMIF isolation to lithography processes for contamination control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Sheng-Bai

    2001-08-01

    Contamination control is particularly important in lithography processes because pattern defects are converted to wafers after each exposure. Contamination, by definition, is undesired matter or energy, which causes product defects or process instabilities, and, consequently, reduces yield and reliability. In lithography processes, particles, condensable hydrocarbosn, base molecules, moisture, and static electricity are examples of contaminants. Particles are inert minute objects, which interfere with the proper formation of circuit features. Condensable hydrocarbosn may cause optics hazing which reduces image homogeneity and energy transmission. Some Chemically Amplified Resists (CAR) are susceptible to molecular base contamination, resulting in image degradation such as T-topping. Moisture can affect the characteristics of photoresist, destabilizing photo-exposure and development processes. In combination with water, amine containing photoresist strippers can form hydroxyl ions that can attack aluminum and aluminum-copper alloys. Charged surfaces can tract and hold contaminants of opposite polarity. In case the electrical field exceeds the dielectric strength, ESD event occurs, often accompanied with damage of reticles, masks, or wafer circuits. With SMIF isolation technologies, yield loss due to defects and/or instabilities is minimized. Reticles, masks, and wafers are isolated form contamination sources through hermetic seal, in conjunction with particle/chemical filtration, and static shielding. Pressurization, inert gas purge, chemical absorbents, and electric grounding or air ionization are techniques of removing contaminants from the critical areas. For best performance, adequate selection of construction materials is critical. This paper discusses impacts of contamination on lithography processes and the possibility of solving such problems using SMIF isolation techniques. Theoretical models are developed and experimental data are presented.

  13. Sources for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography and water window imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Gerry; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; Hayden, Paddy; Kilbane, Deirdre; Lokasani, Ragava; Long, Elaine; Ohashi, Hayato; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sheil, John; Sheridan, Paul; Sokell, Emma; Suzuki, Chihiro; White, Elgiva; Higashiguchi, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Lithography tools are being built and shipped to semiconductor manufacturers for high volume manufacturing using extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. This wavelength is based on the availability of Mo/Si multilayer mirrors (MLMs) with a reflectivity of ˜70% at this wavelength. Moreover, the primary lithography tool manufacturer, ASML, has identified 6.x nm, where x˜7, as the wavelength of choice for so-called Beyond EUVL, based on the availability of La/B4C MLMs, with theoretical reflectance approaching 80% at this wavelength. The optimum sources have been identified as laser produced plasmas of Gd and Tb, as n = 4-n = 4 transitions in their ions emit strongly near this wavelength. However, to date, the highest conversion efficiency obtained, for laser to EUV energy emitted within the 0.6% wavelength bandwidth of the mirror is only 0.8%, pointing to the need to identify other potential sources or consider the selection of other wavelengths. At the same time, sources for other applications are being developed. Conventional sources for soft x-ray microscopy use H-like line emission from liquid nitrogen or carbon containing liquid jets which can be focused using zone plates. Recently the possibility of using MLMs with n = 4-n = 4 emission from a highly charged Bi plasma was proposed and subsequently the possibility of using Δn = 1 transitions in 3rd row transition elements was identified. All of these studies seek to identify spectral features that coincide with the reflectance characteristics of available MLMs, determine the conditions under which they are optimized and establish the maximum conversion efficiencies obtainable. Thus, there is a need for systematic studies of laser produced plasmas of a wide range of elements as some of the challenges are similar for all of these sources and some recent results will be presented.

  14. Durable diamond-like carbon templates for UV nanoimprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Ramachandran, S; Nelson, C T; Lin, M; Overzet, L J; Goeckner, M; Lee, G; Willson, C G; Wu, W; Hu, W

    2008-03-12

    The interaction between resist and template during the separation process after nanoimprint lithography (NIL) can cause the formation of defects and damage to the templates and resist patterns. To alleviate these problems, fluorinated self-assembled monolayers (F-SAMs, i.e. tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2,tetrahydrooctyl trichlorosilane or FDTS) have been employed as template release coatings. However, we find that the FDTS coating undergoes irreversible degradation after only 10 cycles of UV nanoimprint processes with SU-8 resist. The degradation includes a 28% reduction in surface F atoms and significant increases in the surface roughness. In this paper, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were investigated as an alternative material not only for coating but also for direct fabrication of nanoimprint templates. DLC films deposited on quartz templates in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system are shown to have better chemical and physical stability than FDTS. After the same 10 cycles of UV nanoimprints, the surface composition as well as the roughness of DLC films were found to be unchanged. The adhesion energy between the DLC surface and SU-8 is found to be smaller than that of FDTS despite the slightly higher total surface energy of DLC. DLC templates with 40 nm features were fabricated using e-beam lithography followed by Cr lift-off and reactive ion etching. UV nanoimprinting using the directly patterned DLC templates in SU-8 resist demonstrates good pattern transfer fidelity and easy template-resist separation. These results indicate that DLC is a promising material for fabricating durable templates for UV nanoimprint lithography. PMID:21817695

  15. Step and flash imprint lithography for sub-100-nm patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colburn, Matthew; Grot, Annette; Amistoso, Marie N.; Choi, Byung J.; Bailey, Todd C.; Ekerdt, John G.; Sreenivasan, S. V.; Hollenhorst, James; Willson, C. Grant

    2000-07-01

    Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (SFIL) is an alternative to photolithography that efficiently generates high aspect-ratio, sub-micron patterns in resist materials. Other imprint lithography techniques based on physical deformation of a polymer to generate surface relief structures have produced features in PMMA as small as 10 nm, but it is very difficult to imprint large depressed features or to imprint a thick films of resist with high aspect-ratio features by these techniques. SFIL overcomes these difficulties by exploiting the selectivity and anisotropy of reactive ion etch (RIE). First, a thick organic 'transfer' layer (0.3 micrometer to 1.1 micrometer) is spin coated to planarize the wafer surface. A low viscosity, liquid organosilicon photopolymer precursor is then applied to the substrate and a quartz template applied at 2 psi. Once the master is in contact with the organosilicon solution, a crosslinking photopolymerization is initiated via backside illumination with broadband UV light. When the layer is cured the template is removed. This process relies on being able to imprint the photopolymer while leaving the minimal residual material in the depressed areas. Any excess material is etched away using a CHF3/He/O2 RIE. The exposed transfer layer is then etched with O2 RIE. The silicon incorporated in the photopolymer allows amplification of the low aspect ratio relief structure in the silylated resist into a high aspect ratio feature in the transfer layer. The aspect ratio is limited only by the mechanical stability of the transfer layer material and the O2 RIE selectivity and anisotropy. This method has produced 60 nm features with 6:1 aspect ratios. This lithography process was also used to fabricate alternating arrays of 100 nm Ti lines on a 200 nm pitch that function as efficient micropolarizers. Several types of optical devices including gratings, polarizers, and sub-wavelength structures can be easily patterned by SFIL.

  16. Study of the impact of gas temperature and pressure on image quality of lithography objective lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Xing, Tingwen

    2013-08-01

    The aim of present work is to estimate the impact of gas refractive index shift on the image quality of projection lens caused by the change of environment condition. This work in the paper consists of two parts: a)when temperature rises or reduces, how gas refractive index changes and the wave front error comes up; b)when gas pressure changes. The model objective lens developed for simulation is a US patent lens whose NA <1 and wave front RMS < 5nm in all fields. This paper includes an illustration of the impact of gas refractive index shift on optical system data, wave front, and aberration. According to the analysis, wave front RMS of projection lens will increase about 10nm if the temperature changed by 0.1K or the gas pressure by 100 Pa. Comparing to origin wave front RMS of the patent lens, 5nm, the change caused by gas temperature and pressure can't be neglected. It proves the necessary of compensating or controlling the optical path change resulted from gas refractive index shift during the lithography projection lens work process.

  17. Sub-100 nm patterning of supported bilayers by nanoshaving lithography.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinjun; Chen, Jixin; Cremer, Paul S

    2008-03-01

    Sub-100 nm wide supported phospholipid bilayers (SLBs) were patterned on a planar borosilicate substrate by AFM-based nanoshaving lithography. First, a bovine serum albumin monolayer was coated on the glass and then selectively removed in long strips by an AFM tip. The width of vacant strips could be controlled down to 15 nm. Bilayer lines could be formed within the vacant strips by vesicle fusion. It was found that stable bilayers formed by this method had a lower size limit of approximately 55 nm in width. This size limit stems from a balance between a favorable bilayer adhesion energy and an unfavorable bilayer edge energy. PMID:18257567

  18. Nanostructures Enabled by On-Wire Lithography (OWL)

    PubMed Central

    Braunschweig, Adam B.; Schmucker, Abrin L.; Wei, Wei David; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructures fabricated by a novel technique, termed On-Wire-Lithography (OWL), can be combined with organic and biological molecules to create systems with emergent and highly functional properties. OWL is a template-based, electrochemical process for forming gapped cylindrical structures on a solid support, with feature sizes (both gap and segment length) that can be controlled on the sub-100 nm length scale. Structures prepared by this method have provided valuable insight into the plasmonic properties of noble metal nanomaterials and have formed the basis for novel molecular electronic, encoding, and biological detection devices. PMID:20396668

  19. Nanoimprint Lithography of Al Nanovoids for Deep-UV SERS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Deep-ultraviolet surface-enhanced Raman scattering (UV-SERS) is a promising technique for bioimaging and detection because many biological molecules possess UV absorption lines leading to strongly resonant Raman scattering. Here, Al nanovoid substrates are developed by combining nanoimprint lithography of etched polymer/silica opal films with electron beam evaporation, to give a high-performance sensing platform for UV-SERS. Enhancement by more than 3 orders of magnitude in the UV-SERS performance was obtained from the DNA base adenine, matching well the UV plasmonic optical signatures and simulations, demonstrating its suitability for biodetection. PMID:25291629

  20. Self-cleaning optic for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Stulen, Richard H.

    2003-12-16

    A multilayer reflective optic or mirror for lithographic applications, and particularly extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, having a surface or "capping" layer which in combination with incident radiation and gaseous molecular species such as O.sub.2, H.sub.2, H.sub.2 O provides for continuous cleaning of carbon deposits from the optic surface. The metal capping layer is required to be oxidation resistant and capable of transmitting at least 90% of incident EUV radiation. Materials for the capping layer include Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Au and combinations thereof.

  1. Optical laue diffraction on photonic structures designed by laser lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samusev, K. B.; Rybin, M. V.; Lukashenko, S. Yu.; Limonov, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals with square symmetry C 4v were obtained using the laser lithography method. The structure of these samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Optical Laue diffraction for monochromatic light was studied experimentally depending on the incidence angle of laser beam and lattice constant. Interpretation of the observed diffraction patterns is given in the framework of the Laue diffraction mechanism for an one-dimensional chain of scattering elements. Red thresholds for different diffraction orders were determined experimentally and theoretically. The results of calculations are in an excellent agreement with experiment.

  2. Low-cost method for producing extreme ultraviolet lithography optics

    DOEpatents

    Folta, James A.; Montcalm, Claude; Taylor, John S.; Spiller, Eberhard A.

    2003-11-21

    Spherical and non-spherical optical elements produced by standard optical figuring and polishing techniques are extremely expensive. Such surfaces can be cheaply produced by diamond turning; however, the roughness in the diamond turned surface prevent their use for EUV lithography. These ripples are smoothed with a coating of polyimide before applying a 60 period Mo/Si multilayer to reflect a wavelength of 134 .ANG. and have obtained peak reflectivities close to 63%. The savings in cost are about a factor of 100.

  3. Nanoimprint lithography of Al nanovoids for deep-UV SERS.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Sigle, Daniel O; Herrmann, Lars O; Wolverson, Daniel; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2014-10-22

    Deep-ultraviolet surface-enhanced Raman scattering (UV-SERS) is a promising technique for bioimaging and detection because many biological molecules possess UV absorption lines leading to strongly resonant Raman scattering. Here, Al nanovoid substrates are developed by combining nanoimprint lithography of etched polymer/silica opal films with electron beam evaporation, to give a high-performance sensing platform for UV-SERS. Enhancement by more than 3 orders of magnitude in the UV-SERS performance was obtained from the DNA base adenine, matching well the UV plasmonic optical signatures and simulations, demonstrating its suitability for biodetection. PMID:25291629

  4. Surface force measurement of ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Jun; Hasegawa, Masayuki; Amemiya, Hironao; Kobayashi, Hayato

    2016-02-01

    Ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) has advantages such as room-temperature operation, high through-put, and high resolution. In the UV-NIL process, the mold needs a release coating material to prevent adhesion of the transfer resin. Usually, fluorinated silane coupling agents are used as release coating materials. To evaluate the release property, surface force analyzer equipment was used. This equipment can measure the surface forces between release-coated or noncoated mold material surfaces and UV-cured resin surfaces in the solid state. Lower surface forces were measured when a release coating was used on the mold material surface.

  5. Development of a laboratory extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, D.A.; Kubiak, G.D.; Malinowski, M.E.; Stulen, R.H.; Haney, S.J.; Berger, K.W.; Nissen, R.P.; Wilkerson, G.A.; Paul, P.H.; Birtola, S.R.; Jin, P.S.; Arling, R.W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Sweatt, W.C.; Chow, W.W.; Bjorkholm, J.E.; Freeman, R.R.; Himel, M.D.; MacDowell, A.A.; Tennant, D.M.; Fetter, L.A.; Wood, O.R. II; Waskiewicz, W.K.; White, D.L.; Windt, D.L.; Jewell, T.E.

    1994-04-01

    The development of a laboratory EUV lithography tool based on a laser plasma source, a 10x Schwarzchild camera, and a magnetically levitated wafer stage is presented. Interferometric measurements of the camera aberrations are incorporated into physical-optics simulations to estimate the EUV imaging performance of the camera. Experimental results demonstrate the successful matching of five multilayer reflecting surfaces, coated to specification for a wide range of figure and incidence angle requirements. High-resolution, 10x-reduction images of a reflection mask are shown.

  6. Masks for high aspect ratio x-ray lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Malek, C.K.; Jackson, K.H.; Bonivert, W.D.; Hruby, J.

    1997-04-01

    Fabrication of very high aspect ratio microstructures, as well as ultra-high precision manufacturing is of increasing interest in a multitude of applications. Fields as diverse as micromechanics, robotics, integrated optics, and sensors benefit from this technology. The scale-length of this spatial regime is between what can be achieved using classical machine tool operations and that which is used in microelectronics. This requires new manufacturing techniques, such as the LIGA process, which combines x-ray lithography, electroforming, and plastic molding.

  7. Passively Q-switched dual-wavelength Yb:LSO laser based on tungsten disulphide saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing-Hui, Liu; Jin-Rong, Tian; He-Yang, Guoyu; Run-Qin, Xu; Ke-Xuan, Li; Yan-Rong, Song; Xin-Ping, Zhang; Liang-Bi, Su; Jun, Xu

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a passively Q-switched Yb:LSO laser based on tungsten disulphide (WS2) saturable absorber operating at 1034 nm and 1056 nm simultaneously. The saturable absorbers were fabricated by spin coating method. With low speed, the WS2 nanoplatelets embedded in polyvinyl alcohol could be coated on a BK7 glass substrate coated with high-refractive-index thin polymer. The shortest pulse width of 1.6 μs with a repetition rate of 76.9 kHz is obtained. As the pump power increases to 9 W, the maximum output power is measured to be 250 mW, corresponding to a single pulse energy of 3.25 μJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to obtain dual-wavelength Q-switched solid-state laser using few-layer WS2 nanoplatelets. Project supported by the National Scientific Research Project of China (Grant No. 61177047), Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 1102005), and the Basic Research Foundation of Beijing University of Technology, China (Grant No. X3006111201501).

  8. Optimization from design rules, source and mask, to full chip with a single computational lithography framework: level-set-methods-based inverse lithography technology (ILT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Linyong; Peng, Danping; Hu, Peter; Chen, Dongxue; Cecil, Tom; He, Lin; Xiao, Guangming; Tolani, Vikram; Dam, Thuc; Baik, Ki-Ho; Gleason, Bob

    2010-04-01

    For semiconductor manufacturers moving toward advanced technology nodes -32nm, 22nm and below - lithography presents a great challenge, because it is fundamentally constrained by basic principles of optical physics. Because no major lithography hardware improvements are expected over the next couple years, Computational Lithography has been recognized by the industry as the key technology needed to drive lithographic performance. This implies not only simultaneous co-optimization of all the lithographic enhancement tricks that have been learned over the years, but that they also be pushed to the limit by powerful computational techniques and systems. In this paper a single computational lithography framework for design, mask, and source co-optimization will be explained in non-mathematical language. A number of memory and logic device results at the 32nm node and below are presented to demonstrate the benefits of Level-Set-Method-based ILT in applications covering design rule optimization, SMO, and full-chip correction.

  9. Analysis of laser durability of CaF2 for optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabosch, Guenter; Parthier, Lutz; Natura, Ute; Poehl, Karin; Letz, Martin; Muehlig, Christian; Knapp, Konrad

    2005-02-01

    Photolithography is a key technolgoy for the production of semiconductor devices. It supports the continuing trend towards higher integration density of microelectronic devices. The material used in the optics of lithography tools has to be of extremely high quality to ensure the high demand of the imaging. Due to its properties CaF2 is a material of choice for the application in lithography systems. Because of the compexity of the lithography tools single lenses or lens system modules cannot be replaced. Therefore the lens material has to last the full lifetime of the tool without major degradation. According to the roadmap for next generation of optical lithography tools, like immersion lithography, the requirements of CaF2 for radiation hardness are increasing considerably. We will present a detailed analysis of the key factors influencing the laser hardness covering the complete production chain. Some aspects of the evaluation methods for testing CaF2 laser durability will be presented.

  10. Computer numerical control (CNC) lithography: light-motion synchronized UV-LED lithography for 3D microfabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungkwun; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Allen, Mark G.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a computer-numerical-controlled ultraviolet light-emitting diode (CNC UV-LED) lithography scheme for three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication. The CNC lithography scheme utilizes sequential multi-angled UV light exposures along with a synchronized switchable UV light source to create arbitrary 3D light traces, which are transferred into the photosensitive resist. The system comprises a switchable, movable UV-LED array as a light source, a motorized tilt-rotational sample holder, and a computer-control unit. System operation is such that the tilt-rotational sample holder moves in a pre-programmed routine, and the UV-LED is illuminated only at desired positions of the sample holder during the desired time period, enabling the formation of complex 3D microstructures. This facilitates easy fabrication of complex 3D structures, which otherwise would have required multiple manual exposure steps as in the previous multidirectional 3D UV lithography approach. Since it is batch processed, processing time is far less than that of the 3D printing approach at the expense of some reduction in the degree of achievable 3D structure complexity. In order to produce uniform light intensity from the arrayed LED light source, the UV-LED array stage has been kept rotating during exposure. UV-LED 3D fabrication capability was demonstrated through a plurality of complex structures such as V-shaped micropillars, micropanels, a micro-‘hi’ structure, a micro-‘cat’s claw,’ a micro-‘horn,’ a micro-‘calla lily,’ a micro-‘cowboy’s hat,’ and a micro-‘table napkin’ array.

  11. Direct modification of silicon surface by nanosecond laser interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Yue, Yong; Li, Dayou; Maple, Carsten

    2013-10-01

    Periodic and quasi-periodic structures on silicon surface have numerous significant applications in photoelectronics and surface engineering. A number of technologies have been developed to fabricate the structures in various research fields. In this work, we take the strategy of direct nanosecond laser interference lithography technology, and focus on the silicon material to create different well-defined surface structures based on theoretical analysis of the formation of laser interference patterns. Two, three and four-beam laser interference systems were set up to fabricate the grating, regular triangle and square structures on silicon surfaces, respectively. From the AFM micrographs, the critical features of structures have a dependence on laser fluences. For a relative low laser fluence, grating and dot structures formed with bumps due to the Marangoni Effect. With the increase of laser fluences, melt and evaporation behaviors can be responsible for the laser modification. By properly selecting the process parameters, well-defined grating and dot structures can been achieved. It can be demonstrated that direct laser interference lithography is a facile and efficient technology with the advantage of a single process procedure over macroscale areas for the fabrication of micro and nano structures.

  12. Wafer-scale fabrication of nanoapertures using corner lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burouni, Narges; Berenschot, Erwin; Elwenspoek, Miko; Sarajlic, Edin; Leussink, Pele; Jansen, Henri; Tas, Niels

    2013-07-01

    Several submicron probe technologies require the use of apertures to serve as electrical, optical or fluidic probes; for example, writing precisely using an atomic force microscope or near-field sensing of light reflecting from a biological surface. Controlling the size of such apertures below 100 nm is a challenge in fabrication. One way to accomplish this scale is to use high resolution tools such as deep UV or e-beam. However, these tools are wafer-scale and expensive, or only provide series fabrication. For this reason, in this study a versatile method adapted from conventional micromachining is investigated to fabricate protruding apertures on wafer-scale. This approach is called corner lithography and offers control of the size of the aperture with diameter less than 50 nm using a low-budget lithography tool. For example, by tuning the process parameters, an estimated mean size of 44.5 nm and an estimated standard deviation of 2.3 nm are found. The technique is demonstrated—based on a theoretical foundation including a statistical analysis—with the nanofabrication of apertures at the apexes of micromachined pyramids. Besides apertures, the technique enables the construction of wires, slits and dots into versatile three-dimensional structures.

  13. Design and fabrication of micromirror arrays for UV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakner, Hubert K.; Duerr, Peter; Dauderstaedt, Ulrike; Doleschal, Wolfgang; Amelung, Joerg

    2001-10-01

    Modern UV-lithography is searching for new highly parallel writing concepts. Spatial light modulation (SLM) offers such possibilities but special emphasis must be put on the ability of SLM devices to handle ultraviolet light (UV). We designed and fabricated micromirror arrays which fulfill these requirements. Possible applications for such UV-SLMs are direct writing systems for semiconductor and printing, and UV-stimulated biochemistry. For deep UV laser pattern generation (248 nm) e.g. we designed and fabricated a 2048x512 pixel UV-SLM with individually addressable aluminum micromirrors. They are illuminated by an excimer laser pulse and imaged onto a photomask substrate. A complete pattern is stitched together at a rate of 1 kHz. The minimum feature size is 320 nm and analog modulation of the pixels allows to realize an address grid of only 1.6 nm. The design of the array is modular so that other array sizes can be tailor made to customers needs. Design and fabrication aspects for a CMOS compatible realization of these micromirror arrays are addressed as well as their performance in lithography applications.

  14. Fabrication of circular sawtooth gratings using focused UV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Wujun; Karlsson, Staffan; Holmberg, Anders; Danielsson, Mats; Nillius, Peter

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel micro-fabrication method using focused ultraviolet (UV) light to manufacture three-dimensional sawtooth structures in ultra-thick negative photoresist to fabricate a novel multi-prism x-ray lens. The method uses a lens to shape the UV beam instead of the photomask conventionally used in UV lithography. Benefits of this method include the ability to manufacture sawtooth structures in free form, for example in circular shapes as well as arrays of these shapes, and in resist that is up to 76 μm thick. To verify the method, initially a simple simulation based on Fourier optics was done to predict the exposure energy distribution in the photoresist. Furthermore, circular sawtooth gratings were manufactured in a 76 μm SU-8 resist. The UV lens was fabricated using electron beam lithography and then used to expose the SU-8 with UV light. This paper details the complete developed process, including pre-exposure with an e-beam and cold development, which creates stable sawtooth structures. The measured profile was compared to the ideal sawtooth and the simulation. The main discrepancy was in the smallest feature size, the sawtooth tips, which were wider than the desired structures, as would be expected by simulation.

  15. Recent progress in source development for extreme UV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Gerry; Kilbane, Deirdre; D'Arcy, Rebekah

    2012-06-01

    The continuation of Moore's law for semiconductor fabrication envisages the introduction of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) based on a source wavelength of 13.5 nm for high-volume manufacturing within the next few years. While exposure tools have already been developed and the feasibility of the technology well demonstrated, the key source requirement in terms of power output remains to be achieved. Currently, sources based on laser-produced plasmas from tin droplet targets appear to be the most promising and are being deployed in manufacturing tools. Progress in CO2 laser design aimed at increasing conversion efficiency to close to 5% should make possible the attainment of greater than 200 W of in-band optical power. Recently, research has commenced on the development of sources operating at a wavelength near 6.7 nm for beyond 13.5 nm lithography and gadolinium has been identified as the fuel of choice. The results of these experiments are described and show many similarities to the behavior of tin plasmas as essentially the same atomic and plasma processes are involved, albeit at an electron temperature close to a factor of three higher.

  16. Scalable, high performance, enzymatic cathodes based on nanoimprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Dmitry; Sundberg, Richard; Sotres, Javier; Suyatin, Dmitry B; Maximov, Ivan; Shleev, Sergey; Montelius, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Here we detail high performance, enzymatic electrodes for oxygen bio-electroreduction, which can be easily and reproducibly fabricated with industry-scale throughput. Planar and nanostructured electrodes were built on biocompatible, flexible polymer sheets, while nanoimprint lithography was used for electrode nanostructuring. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first reports concerning the usage of nanoimprint lithography for amperometric bioelectronic devices. The enzyme (Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase) was immobilised on planar (control) and artificially nanostructured, gold electrodes by direct physical adsorption. The detailed electrochemical investigation of bioelectrodes was performed and the following parameters were obtained: open circuit voltage of approximately 0.75 V, and maximum bio-electrocatalytic current densities of 18 µA/cm(2) and 58 µA/cm(2) in air-saturated buffers versus 48 µA/cm(2) and 186 µA/cm(2) in oxygen-saturated buffers for planar and nanostructured electrodes, respectively. The half-deactivation times of planar and nanostructured biocathodes were measured to be 2 h and 14 h, respectively. The comparison of standard heterogeneous and bio-electrocatalytic rate constants showed that the improved bio-electrocatalytic performance of the nanostructured biocathodes compared to planar biodevices is due to the increased surface area of the nanostructured electrodes, whereas their improved operational stability is attributed to stabilisation of the enzyme inside nanocavities. PMID:26199841

  17. Nanocomposite liquids for 193 nm immersion lithography: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumanov, George; Evanoff, David D., Jr.; Luzinov, Igor; Klep, Viktor; Zdryko, Bogdan; Conley, Will; Zimmerman, Paul

    2005-05-01

    Immersion lithography is a new promising approach capable of further increasing the resolution of semiconductor devices. This technology requires the development of new immersion media that satisfy the following conditions: the media should have high refractive index, be transparent and photochemically stable in DUV spectral range. They should also be inert towards photoresists and optics and be liquid to permit rapid scanning. Here we propose and explore a novel strategy in which high refractive index medium is made of small solid particles suspended in liquid phases (nanocomposite liquids). The dielectric particles have high refractive index and the refractive index of nanocomposite liquids becomes volume weighted average between refractive indices of nanoparticles and the liquid phase. We investigate aluminum oxide (alumina) nanoparticles suspended in water. Alumina is known to have high (1.95) refractive index and low absorption coefficient at 193 nm. Alumina nanoparticles were prepared by chemical methods followed by removal of organic molecules left after hydrolysis reactions. Measurements of optical and reological properties of the nanocomposite liquid demonstrated potential advantage of this approach for 193 nm immersion lithography.

  18. Integration of plant viruses in electron beam lithography nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Jose M.; Ondarçuhu, Thierry; Bittner, Alexander M.

    2013-03-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is the textbook example of a virus, and also of a self-assembling nanoscale structure. This tubular RNA/protein architecture has also found applications as biotemplate for the synthesis of nanomaterials such as wires, as tubes, or as nanoparticle assemblies. Although TMV is, being a biological structure, quite resilient to environmental conditions (temperature, chemicals), it cannot be processed in electron beam lithography (eBL) fabrication, which is the most important and most versatile method of nanoscale structuring. Here we present adjusted eBL-compatible processes that allow the incorporation of TMV in nanostructures made of positive and negative tone eBL resists. The key steps are covering TMV by polymer resists, which are only heated to 50 °C, and development (selective dissolution) in carefully selected organic solvents. We demonstrate the post-lithography biochemical functionality of TMV by selective immunocoating of the viral particles, and the use of immobilized TMV as direct immunosensor. Our modified eBL process should be applicable to incorporate a wide range of sensitive materials in nanofabrication schemes.

  19. Roll-to-Roll Nanoimprint Lithography Simulations for Flexible Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, Andrew; Jain, Akhilesh; Bonnecaze, Roger

    2015-11-01

    UV roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography enables the patterning of features onto a flexible substrate for bendable electronics in a continuous process. One of the most important design goals in this process is to make the residual layer thickness of the photoresist in unpatterned regions as thin and uniform as possible. Another important goal is to minimize the imprint time to maximize throughput. We develop a multi-scale model to simulate the spreading of photoresist drops as the template is pressed against the substrate. We include the effect of capillary pressure on the bending of the substrate and show how this distorts uniformity in the residual thickness layer. Our simulation code is parallelized and can simulate the flow and merging of thousands of drops. We investigate the effect of substrate tension and the initial arrangement of drops on the residual layer thickness and imprint time. We find that for a given volume of photoresist, distributing that volume to more drops initially decreases the imprint time. We conclude with recommendations for scale-up and optimal operations of roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography systems. The authors acknowledge the Texas Advanced Computing Center at The University of Texas at Austin for providing high performance computing resources.

  20. Massively Multiplexed Cantilever-free Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Keith A.; Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J.; Shim, Wooyoung; Boya, Radha; Schmucker, Abrin L.; Liu, Guoliang; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2013-03-01

    Cantilever-free scanning probe lithography has emerged as a low-cost technique for rapidly patterning nanoscale materials. In this architecture, an array of probes is fabricated on a soft backing layer that provides mechanical compliance to each probe while an underlying hard surface maintains the structural integrity of the array. One drawback of this technique is that each probe in the array acts simultaneously and thus generates a copy of the same pattern. Here, we discuss recent efforts to incorporate heaters into these probe arrays so that when a given heater is activated, the thermal expansion of the elastomer actuates a single tip. We find thermal actuation to be powerful enough to actuate individual tips over 4 μm with minimal crosstalk, fast enough to actuate on relevant time scales (20 ms), and scalable by virtue of being electrically addressable. Furthermore, tuning the individual heaters allows for variability in the arrays to be compensated for precisely, resulting in high quality nanopatterning. The addition of tunable actuators transforms cantilever-free scanning probe lithography into a technique capable of true desktop nanofabrication.

  1. Masks for high aspect ratio x-ray lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Chantal Khan; Jackson, Keith H.; Bonivert, William D.; Hruby, Jill

    1996-06-01

    The requirements for deep x-ray lithography (DXRL) masks are reviewed and a recently developed cost effective mask fabrication process is described. The review includes a summary of tabulated properties for materials used in the fabrication of DXRL masks. X-ray transparency and mask contrast are calculated for material combinations using simulations of exposure at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley, and compared to the requirements for standard x-ray lithography (XRL) mask technology. Guided by the requirements, a cost-effective fabrication process for manufacturing high contrast masks for DXRL has been developed. Thick absorber patterns (0960-1317/6/2/004/img7) on a thin silicon wafer (0960-1317/6/2/004/img8m) were made using contact printing in thick positive (Hoechst 4620) and negative (OCG 7020) photoresist and subsequent gold electrodeposition. Gold was deposited using a commercially available gold sulphite bath with low current density and good agitation. The resultant gold films were fine-grained and stress-free. Replication of such masks into 0960-1317/6/2/004/img9 thick acrylic sheets was performed at the ALS.

  2. Nanoimprint lithography: 2D or not 2D? A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schift, Helmut

    2015-11-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is more than a planar high-end technology for the patterning of wafer-like substrates. It is essentially a 3D process, because it replicates various stamp topographies by 3D displacement of material and takes advantage of the bending of stamps while the mold cavities are filled. But at the same time, it keeps all assets of a 2D technique being able to pattern thin masking layers like in photon- and electron-based traditional lithography. This review reports about 20 years of development of replication techniques at Paul Scherrer Institut, with a focus on 3D aspects of molding, which enable NIL to stay 2D, but at the same time enable 3D applications which are "more than Moore." As an example, the manufacturing of a demonstrator for backlighting applications based on thermally activated selective topography equilibration will be presented. This technique allows generating almost arbitrary sloped, convex and concave profiles in the same polymer film with dimensions in micro- and nanometer scale.

  3. Dr.LiTHO: a development and research lithography simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fühner, Tim; Schnattinger, Thomas; Ardelean, Gheorghe; Erdmann, Andreas

    2007-03-01

    This paper introduces Dr.LiTHO, a research and development oriented lithography simulation environment developed at Fraunhofer IISB to flexibly integrate our simulation models into one coherent platform. We propose a light-weight approach to a lithography simulation environment: The use of a scripting (batch) language as an integration platform. Out of the great variety of different scripting languages, Python proved superior in many ways: It exhibits a good-natured learning-curve, it is efficient, available on virtually any platform, and provides sophisticated integration mechanisms for existing programs. In this paper, we will describe the steps, required to provide Python bindings for existing programs and to finally generate an integrated simulation environment. In addition, we will give a short introduction into selected software design demands associated with the development of such a framework. We will especially focus on testing and (both technical and user-oriented) documentation issues. Dr.LiTHO Python files contain not only all simulation parameter settings but also the simulation flow, providing maximum flexibility. In addition to relatively simple batch jobs, repetitive tasks can be pooled in libraries. And as Python is a full-blown programming language, users can add virtually any functionality, which is especially useful in the scope of simulation studies or optimization tasks, that often require masses of evaluations. Furthermore, we will give a short overview of the numerous existing Python packages. Several examples demonstrate the feasibility and productiveness of integrating Python packages into custom Dr.LiTHO scripts.

  4. Thermal management of masks for deep x-ray lithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Khounsary, A.; Chojnowski, D.; Mancini, D.C.; Lai, B.; Dejus, R.

    1997-11-18

    This paper addresses some options and techniques in the thermal management of masks used in deep x-ray lithography. The x-ray masks are thin plates made of low-atomic-number materials on which a patterned thin film of a high-atomic-number metal has been deposited. When they are exposed to an x-ray beam, part of the radiation is transmitted to replicate the pattern on a downstream photoresist, and the remainder is absorbed in the mask in the form of heat. This heat load can cause deformation of the mask and thus image distortion in the lithography process. The mask geometry considered in the present study is 100 mm x 100 mm in area, and about 0.1 to 2 mm thick. The incident radiation is a bending magnet x-ray beam having a footprint of 60 mm x 4 mm at the mask. The mask is scanned vertically about {+-} 30 mm so that a 60 mm x 60 mm area is exposed. the maximum absorbed heat load in the mask is 80 W, which is significantly greater than a few watts encountered in previous systems. In this paper, cooling techniques, substrate material selection, transient and steady state thermal and structural behavior, and other thermo-mechanical aspects of mask design are discussed. It is shown that, while diamond and graphite remain attractive candidates, at present beryllium is a more suitable material for this purpose and, when properly cooled, can provide the necessary dimensional tolerance.

  5. Synthesis of triphenylsulfonium triflate bound copolymer for electron beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ojung; Sagar, Ashok D; Kang, Ha Na; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Ki-Bum; Lee, Haiwon

    2014-08-01

    Photoacid generator (PAG) has been widely used as a key component in photoresist for high-resolution patterning with high sensitivity. A novel acrylic monomer, triphenylsulfonium salt methyl methacrylate (TPSMA), was synthesized and includes triphenylsulfonium triflate as a PAG. The poly(MMA-co-TPSMA) (PMT) as a polymer-bound PAG was synthesized with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and TPSMA for electron beam lithography. Characterization of PMT was carried out by NMR and FTIR. The molecular weight was analyzed by GPC. Thermal properties were studied using TGA and DSC. Thecharacterization results were in good agreement with corresponding chemical compositions and thermal stability. PMT was subsequently employed in electron beam lithography and its lithographic performance was confirmed by FE-SEM. This PMT was accomplished to improve the lithographic performance including sensitivity, line width roughness (LWR) and resolution. We found that PMT was capable of 20 nm negative tone patterns with better sensitivity than hydrogensilsesquioxane (HSQ) which is a conventional negative tone resist. PMID:25936102

  6. Femtosecond laser based enucleation of porcine oocytes for somatic cell nuclear transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kütemeyer, K.; Lucas-Hahn, A.; Petersen, B.; Hassel, P.; Lemme, E.; Niemann, H.; Heisterkamp, A.

    2009-07-01

    Cloning of several mammalian species has been achieved by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in recent years. However, this method still results in very low efficiencies around 1% which originate from suboptimal culture conditions and highly invasive techniques for oocyte enucleation and injection of the donor cell using micromanipulators. In this paper, we present a new minimal invasive method for oocyte imaging and enucleation based on the application of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. After imaging of the oocyte with multiphoton microscopy, ultrashort pulses are focused onto the metaphase plate of MII-oocytes in order to ablate the DNA molecules. We show that fs laser based enucleation of porcine oocytes completely inhibits the first mitotic cleavage after parthenogenetic activation while maintaining intact oocyte morphology in most cases. In contrast, control groups without previous irradiation of the metaphase plate are able to develop to the blastocyst stage. Further experiments have to clarify the suitability of fs laser based enucleated oocytes for SCNT.

  7. Comparison of laser-based and monochromator-based thermodynamic temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Yoon, H. W.; Gibson, C. E.; Smith, A. W.; Neira, J.; Khromchenko, V. B.

    2013-09-11

    In this work, we describe comparisons between a laser-based and a monochromator-based radiance responsivity calibration of a radiation thermometer. The spectral selection of the radiation thermometer is performed using a spectrally broad photopic-response filter which was selected to minimize effects of convolution differences due to the spectral width of the laser-and the monochromator-based sources. The photopic-response filter is physically thick, which should also reduce possible interference fringes which can be problematic in the laser-based calibrations. We compare the radiance responsivities obtained using the two approaches and also compare the blackbody temperatures determined using the detector/monochromator based and the gold-point based calibration methods.

  8. Investigation of Plant-Pathogen Interaction by Laser-Based Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puiu, A.; Giubileo, G.; Lai, A.

    2014-12-01

    The laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy apparatus, constructed at ENEA Frascati (Italy), was applied to monitor trace amounts of ethylene emitted by plants in a stress condition. More specifically, in the present work, the biotic stress response of tomato mutant plants after inoculation with Phthorimaea operculella larvae ( Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) was investigated. The principle of the method, the photoacoustic setup, the experimental work, and the results are being reported.

  9. Tomographic Imaging of Glass/Epoxy Composite with a Laser Based Ultrasonics Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, N.; Raghuram, V.; Munshi, P.; Kishore, N. N.; Arnold, W.

    2008-09-26

    The present work is an attempt to augment the classical laser-based-ultrasonics setup for tomographic imaging purposes. A Glass/epoxy composite with steel insert is the test specimen and time-of-flight data has been used for tomographic reconstruction. Multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique is used for this limited-view experiment. The resulting image is able to bring out the strong metal features.

  10. Status of Real-Time Laser Based Ion Engine Diagnostics at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domonkos, Matthew T.; Williams, George J., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The development status of laser based erosion diagnostics for ion engines at the NASA Glenn Research Center is discussed. The diagnostics are being developed to enhance component life-prediction capabilities. A direct measurement of the erosion product density using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is described. Erosion diagnostics based upon evaluation of the ion dynamics are also under development, and the basic approach is presented. The planned implementation of the diagnostics is discussed.

  11. Laser-based methods for the analysis of low molecular weight compounds in biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Kiss, András; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2016-07-15

    Laser-based desorption and/or ionization methods play an important role in the field of the analysis of low molecular-weight compounds (LMWCs) because they allow direct analysis with high-throughput capabilities. In the recent years there were several new improvements in ionization methods with the emergence of novel atmospheric ion sources such as laser ablation electrospray ionization or laser diode thermal desorption and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and in sample preparation methods with the development of new matrix compounds for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Also, the combination of ion mobility separation with laser-based ionization methods starts to gain popularity with access to commercial systems. These developments have been driven mainly by the emergence of new application fields such as MS imaging and non-chromatographic analytical approaches for quantification. This review aims to present these new developments in laser-based methods for the analysis of low-molecular weight compounds by MS and several potential applications. PMID:27107904

  12. Demonstration of electronic pattern switching and 10x pattern demagnification in a maskless micro-ion beam reduction lithography system

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, V.V.; Akker, B.; Leung, K.N.; Noh, I.; Scott, K.L.; Wilde, S.

    2002-05-31

    A proof-of-principle ion projection lithography (IPL) system called Maskless Micro-ion beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL) has been developed and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for future integrated circuits (ICs) manufacturing and thin film media patterning [1]. This MMRL system is aimed at completely eliminating the first stage of the conventional IPL system [2] that contains the complicated beam optics design in front of the stencil mask and the mask itself. It consists of a multicusp RF plasma generator, a multi-beamlet pattern generator, and an all-electrostatic ion optical column. Results from ion beam exposures on PMMA and Shipley UVII-HS resists using 75 keV H+ are presented in this paper. Proof-of-principle electronic pattern switching together with 10x reduction ion optics (using a pattern generator made of nine 50-{micro}m switchable apertures) has been performed and is reported in this paper. In addition, the fabrication of a micro-fabricated pattern generator [3] on an SOI membrane is also presented.

  13. Demonstration of electronic pattern switching and 10x pattern demagnification in a maskless micro-ion beam reduction lithography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, V. V.; Akker, B.; Leung, K. N.; Noh, I.; Scott, K. L.

    2002-05-01

    A proof-of-principle ion projection lithography (IPL) system called Maskless Micro-ion beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL) has been developed and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for future integrated circuits (ICs) manufacturing and thin film media patterning. This MMRL system is aimed at completely eliminating the first stage of the conventional IPL system that contains the complicated beam optics design in front of the stencil mask and the mask itself. It consists of a multicusp RF plasma generator, a multi-beamlet pattern generator, and an all-electrostatic ion optical column. Results from ion beam exposures on PMMA and Shipley UVII-HS resists using 75 keV H+ are presented in this paper. Proof-of-principle electronic pattern switching together with 10x reduction ion optics (using a pattern generator made of nine 50-(micro)m switchable apertures) has been performed and is reported in this paper. In addition, the fabrication of a micro-fabricated pattern generator on an SOI membrane is also presented.

  14. Advantages of a new subnanometer aspheric profiling technique with respect to the unique requirements of EUV lithography mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Paul E.

    2001-12-01

    We have developed a new noncontacting approach for obtaining the full aperture, absolute aspheric profile of optical surfaces. The approach has many advantages for a wide range of optics, including self-referencing and motion-insensitive operation; extremely high accuracy; compact size; and the ability to test concave, flat and convex optics over a wide range of spatial frequencies. In a separate paper, we describe the underlying theory of operation, a prototype instrument, preliminary measurement results, and projected accuracies. In this paper, we discuss the specific advantages that are especially relevant for Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) lithography components. These mirrors are responsible for the fabulously accurate imaging of the reticle onto the wafer. They therefore have typical surface accuracy requirements of a fraction of a nanometer, with the need to characterize the errors over an enormous range of spatial frequencies. The need to provide diffraction-limited imaging at EUV wavelengths over large Fields Of View (FOVs) and Numerical Apertures (NAs) puts a premium on freedom in the optical design. Specifically, the use of aspheres and convex mirrors can be of great help. Therefore, performance, FOV, and NA all benefit from the most accurate and flexible metrology. All of these factors make this new profiling technique well suited to the unique requirements of EUV lithography mirrors.

  15. Electron roles in extreme ultraviolet lithography mirror contamination and flashover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalfano, Mark

    The purpose of this study was to characterize and study the contamination behavior of residual hydrocarbons and water vapor in a vacuum environment similar to that suited to the performance of EUV Lithography devices. A 50nm ruthenium film deposited on a silicon surface which served to simulate the Ru coated mirrors in a typical lithography setup was bombarded with 13.5 nm wavelength light at a grazing angle. We then studied in real-time the contamination effect by using extreme ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (EUPS). This allowed us to examine the behavior of the contaminants as they formed dipoles. By monitoring X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) as a function of angle, we determined that carbon species may be more prevalent in the normal directions, while water and related species tend to be at grazing angles. While characterizing the contamination is certainly important for finding ways of mitigating it, we also attempted to prove that the electrons from a typical EUV source are just as important in terms of causing contamination if not more so than the light itself. By monitoring the contamination with both AES and XPS together, we were able to prove that in the absence of electrons the carbon buildup was far reduced. Similar results were found while studying the grazing angle reflectivity of the ruthenium sample. Electrons also proved to be important in surface flashover, a phenomenon in which the polarity on the surface can suddenly switch from negative to positive over a course of seconds. We saw this effect on gold and examined it in real-time with the help of secondary electron spectroscopy (SES). The flashover effect seemed to be defect driven. Interestingly, there was a dependence on energy change: when changing electrons from a lower to higher energy a flashover was observed, but not while changing from a high to a low energy. While we observed this on gold, silicon, and carbon it could certainly be extended to occurring on the photoresist

  16. In vivo X-ray elemental imaging of single cell model organisms manipulated by laser-based optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; De Rijcke, Maarten; Bauters, Stephen; Deruytter, David; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Janssen, Colin; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    We report on a radically new elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural, in vivo state. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact, laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time. The main objective of this work is to establish a new method for in vivo elemental imaging in a two-dimensional (2D) projection mode in free-standing biological microorganisms or single cells, present in their aqueous environment. Using the model organism Scrippsiella trochoidea, a first proof of principle experiment at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) demonstrates the feasibility of the OT XRF methodology, which is applied to study mixture toxicity of Cu-Ni and Cu-Zn as a result of elevated exposure. We expect that the new OT XRF methodology will significantly contribute to the new trend of investigating microorganisms at the cellular level with added in vivo capability. PMID:25762511

  17. Reflective electron-beam lithography: progress toward high-throughput production capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Regina; Gubiotti, Thomas; Sun, Jeff; Kidwingira, Francoise; Yang, Jason; Ummethala, Upendra; Hale, Layton C.; Hench, John J.; Kojima, Shinichi; Mieher, Walter D.; Bevis, Chris F.; Lin, Shy-Jay; Wang, Wen-Chuan

    2012-03-01

    Maskless electron beam lithography can potentially extend semiconductor manufacturing to the 16 nm technology node and beyond. KLA-Tencor is developing Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) targeting high-volume 16 nm half pitch (HP) production. This paper reviews progress in the development of the REBL system towards its goal of 100 wph throughput for High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) at the 2X and 1X nm nodes. We will demonstrate the ability to print TSMC test patterns with the integrated system in photoresist on silicon wafers at 45 nm resolution. Additionally, we present simulation and experimental results that demonstrate that the system meets performance targets for a typical foundry product mix. Previously, KLA-Tencor reported on the development of a REBL tool for maskless lithography at and below the 16 nm HP technology node1. Since that time, the REBL team and its partners (TSMC, IMEC) have made good progress towards developing the REBL system and Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) for direct write lithography. Traditionally, e-beam direct write lithography has been too slow for most lithography applications. E-beam direct write lithography has been used for mask writing rather than wafer processing since the maximum blur requirements limit column beam current - which drives e-beam throughput. To print small features and a fine pitch with an e-beam tool requires a sacrifice in processing time unless one significantly increases the total number of beams on a single writing tool. Because of the continued uncertainty with regards to the optical lithography roadmap beyond the 16 nm HP technology node, the semiconductor equipment industry is in the process of designing and testing e-beam lithography tools with the potential for HVM.

  18. Transparent masks for aligned deep x-ray lithography/LIGA: low-cost high-performance alternative using glass membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupka, Roland K.; Megtert, Stephan; Roulliay, Marc; Bouamrane, Faycal

    1998-09-01

    Deep x-ray lithography/LIGA has proven to be a well established framework of x-ray based technologies for the fabrication of microstructures and pseudo three-dimensional objects. Inherently, x-ray lithography/LIGA is not fully three-dimensional because of the principle of simple shadow printing onto resists of constant thickness. Thus, it would be impossible to obtain 3D spheres, but series of stacked monolithic 2D cylinders. Hence, until recently, LIGA was mainly concerned with simple uni-level (1D) monolithic structures, using optically opaque mask-membranes like Be, Si or Ti with grown-on Au absorbers. In the course for mastering pseudo three-dimensional microstructures like micro-coils or electromagnetic applications, an alignment in between the lithographic steps becomes necessary which requires optically transparent membrane materials, if optical alignment is chosen. Diamond or SiC membranes are the actual suitable materials for such purposes, but their pricing and/or process robustness inhibit their frequent use in simple projects. We would like to report on a new promising material: a glued-on thin glass membrane. The advantages are incomparably lower costs compared to Diamond or SiC technologies, a considerable ease of fabrication, handling, quite favorable mechanical/optical properties, sufficient for lithographic purposes and multi-level deep x-ray lithography/LIGA activities.

  19. Fabrication of three-dimensional millimeter-height structures using direct ultraviolet lithography on liquid-state photoresist for simple and fast manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungkwun; Yoon, Yong-Kyu

    2015-07-01

    A rapid three-dimensional (3-D) ultraviolet (UV) lithography process for the fabrication of millimeter-tall high aspect ratio complex structures is presented. The liquid-state negative-tone photosensitive polyurethane, LF55GN, has been directly photopatterned using multidirectionally projected UV light for 3-D micropattern formation. The proposed lithographic scheme enabled us to overcome the maximum height obtained with a photopatternable epoxy, SU8, which has been conventionally most commonly used for the fabrication of tall and high aspect ratio microstructures. Also, the fabrication process time has been significantly reduced by eliminating photoresist-baking steps. Computer-controlled multidirectional UV lithography has been employed to fabricate 3-D structures, where the UV-exposure substrate is dynamically tilt-rotating during UV exposure to create various 3-D ray traces in the polyurethane layer. LF55GN has been characterized to provide feasible fabrication conditions for the multidirectional UV lithography. Very tall structures including a 6-mm tall triangular slab and a 5-mm tall hexablaze have been successfully fabricated. A 4.5-mm tall air-lifted polymer-core bowtie monopole antenna, which is the tallest monopole structure fabricated by photolithography and subsequent metallization, has been successfully demonstrated. The antenna shows a resonant radiation frequency of 12.34 GHz, a return loss of 36 dB, and a 10 dB bandwidth of 7%.

  20. Design of electrostatic microcolumn for nanoscale photoemission source in massively parallel electron-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ye; Du, Zhidong; Pan, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Microcolumns are widely used for parallel electron-beam lithography because of their compactness and the ability to achieve high spatial resolution. A design of an electrostatic microcolumn for our recent nanoscale photoemission sources is presented. We proposed a compact column structure (as short as several microns in length) for the ease of microcolumn fabrication and lithography operation. We numerically studied the influence of several design parameters on the optical performance such as microcolumn diameter, electrode thickness, beam current, working voltages, and working distance. We also examined the effect of fringing field between adjacent microcolumns during parallel lithography operations.

  1. Design and fabrication of electrostatic microcolumn in multiple electron-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhidong; Wen, Ye; Traverso, Luis; Datta, Anurup; Chen, Chen; Xu, Xianfan; Pan, Liang

    2016-03-01

    Microcolumns are widely used for parallel electron-beam lithography because of their compactness and the ability to achieve high spatial resolution. A design of an electrostatic microcolumn for our recent nanoscale photoemission sources is presented. We proposed a compact column structure (as short as several microns in length) for the ease of microcolumn fabrication and lithography operation. We numerically studied the influence of several design parameters on the optical performance such as microcolumn diameter, electrode thickness, beam current, working voltages, and working distance. We also examined the effect of fringing field between adjacent microcolumns during parallel lithography operations. The microcolumns were also fabricated to show the possibility.

  2. The New X-Ray Lithography Beamline BL1 At DELTA

    SciTech Connect

    Lietz, D.; Paulus, M.; Sternemann, C.; Berges, U.; Hippert, B.; Tolan, M.

    2010-06-23

    Lithography using synchrotron radiation in the x-ray regime provides a powerful method to produce mechanical components of sub-millimeter size with a very good quality for microtechnological applications. In recent years the demand for x-ray lithography beamtime for industrial production of microparts increased rapidly resulting in the development of new experimental endstations at synchrotron radiation sources dedicated for the production of micromechanical devices. We present in this work the layout of the new x-ray lithography beamline BL1 at the synchrotron radiation source DELTA in Dortmund and discuss first results of exposure tests.

  3. A physical resist shrinkage model for full-chip lithography simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Zheng, Leiwu; Ma, Maggie; Zhao, Qian; Fan, Yongfa; Zhang, Qiang; Feng, Mu; Guo, Xin; Wallow, Tom; Gronlund, Keith; Goossens, Ronald; Zhang, Gary; Lu, Yenwen

    2016-03-01

    Strong resist shrinkage effects have been widely observed in resist profiles after negative tone development (NTD) and therefore must be taken into account in computational lithography applications. However, existing lithography simulation tools, especially those designed for full-chip applications, lack resist shrinkage modeling capabilities because they are not needed until only recently when NTD processes begin to replace the conventional positive tone development (PTD) processes where resist shrinkage effects are negligible. In this work we describe the development of a physical resist shrinkage (PRS) model for full-chip lithography simulations and present its accuracy evaluation against experimental data.

  4. Demonstration of lithography patterns using reflective e-beam direct write

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Regina; Sun, Jeff; Brodie, Alan; Petric, Paul; McCord, Mark; Ronse, Kurt; Haspeslagh, Luc; Vereecke, Bart

    2011-04-01

    Traditionally, e-beam direct write lithography has been too slow for most lithography applications. E-beam direct write lithography has been used for mask writing rather than wafer processing since the maximum blur requirements limit column beam current - which drives e-beam throughput. To print small features and a fine pitch with an e-beam tool requires a sacrifice in processing time unless one significantly increases the total number of beams on a single writing tool. Because of the uncertainty with regards to the optical lithography roadmap beyond the 22 nm technology node, the semiconductor equipment industry is in the process of designing and testing e-beam lithography tools with the potential for high volume wafer processing. For this work, we report on the development and current status of a new maskless, direct write e-beam lithography tool which has the potential for high volume lithography at and below the 22 nm technology node. A Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) tool is being developed for high throughput electron beam direct write maskless lithography. The system is targeting critical patterning steps at the 22 nm node and beyond at a capital cost equivalent to conventional lithography. Reflective Electron Beam Lithography incorporates a number of novel technologies to generate and expose lithographic patterns with a throughput and footprint comparable to current 193 nm immersion lithography systems. A patented, reflective electron optic or Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) enables the unique approach. The Digital Pattern Generator is a CMOS ASIC chip with an array of small, independently controllable lens elements (lenslets), which act as an array of electron mirrors. In this way, the REBL system is capable of generating the pattern to be written using massively parallel exposure by ~1 million beams at extremely high data rates (~ 1Tbps). A rotary stage concept using a rotating platen carrying multiple wafers optimizes the writing strategy of

  5. Fabrication of III-V compound nanowires via hot embossing nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, An-Chieh; He, Shi-Yuan; Lee, Ming-Kwei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technique used to fabricate III-V compound nanowires was investigated. A silicon mold and thermoplastic polymer mr-I 7010R were used for hot embossing nanoimprint lithography. The mold was patterned by e-beam lithography with two masks exposed with different dosages to reduce the proximity effect. The filling capability and residual layer thickness of the thermoplastic polymer were optimized at the embossing temperature of 125 °C. A 73 nm GaAs nanowire was obtained by the mold coated with an antisticking layer.

  6. Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography

    DOEpatents

    Aigeldinger, Georg; Skala, Dawn M.; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Talin, Albert Alec; Losey, Matthew W.; Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter

    2009-10-27

    The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

  7. Fabrication of infrared antennas using electron-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritz, Michael A.; Gonzalez, Francisco J.; Boreman, Glenn D.

    2003-01-01

    The methods of fabricating infrared antennas using electron beam lithography will be investigated. For this purpose, a process using a bi-layer lift off process and a single layer of resist has been developed. The bi-layer lift off process used allowed for antenna arm resolution of 200nm. The single layer resist process enhanced the resolution of the antenna arms to 90nm by using a Chlorine based reactive ion etcher with Chrome as an etch mask. An alignment scheme using a set of global and local marks allowed for an overlay accuracy of 25nm. An improved process was developed to further improve device yield and uniformity of the infrared detectors by sputtering the bolometer and using an oxygen descum to remove residual resist between antenna and bolometer. Two separate methods of fabrication of air-bridge microstrip antenna-coupled microbolometers using both a critical point dryer and an isotropic reactive ion etcher will also be introduced.

  8. "Sketch and Peel" Lithography for High-Resolution Multiscale Patterning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqin; Xiang, Quan; Li, Zhiqin; Wang, Yasi; Meng, Yuhan; Duan, Huigao

    2016-05-11

    We report a unique lithographic process, termed "Sketch and Peel" lithography (SPL), for fast, clean, and reliable patterning of metallic structures from tens of nanometers to submillimeter scale using direct writing technology. The key idea of SPL process is to define structures using their presketched outlines as the templates for subsequent selective peeling of evaporated metallic layer. With reduced exposure area, SPL process enables significantly improved patterning efficiency up to hundreds of times higher and greatly mitigated proximity effect compared to current direct writing strategy. We demonstrate that multiscale hierarchical metallic structures with arbitrary shapes and minimal feature size of ∼15 nm could be defined with high fidelity using SPL process for potential nanoelectronic and nano-optical applications. PMID:27074130

  9. Stimulated Emission Depletion Lithography with Mercapto-Functional Polymers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Surface reactive nanostructures were fabricated using stimulated emission depletion (STED) lithography. The functionalization of the nanostructures was realized by copolymerization of a bifunctional metal oxo cluster in the presence of a triacrylate monomer. Ligands of the cluster surface cross-link to the monomer during the lithographic process, whereas unreacted mercapto functionalized ligands are transferred to the polymer and remain reactive after polymer formation of the surface of the nanostructure. The depletion efficiency in dependence of the cluster loading was investigated and full depletion of the STED effect was observed with a cluster loading exceeding 4 wt %. A feature size by λ/11 was achieved by using a donut-shaped depletion beam. The reactivity of the mercapto groups on the surface of the nanostructure was tested by incubation with mercapto-reactive fluorophores. PMID:26816204

  10. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography-based 3D nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhan; Bucknall, David G.; Allen, Mark G.

    2011-06-01

    We report a 'top-down' 3D nanofabrication approach combining non-conventional inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL) with reactive ion etching (RIE), contact molding and 3D metal nanotransfer printing (nTP). This integration of processes enables the production and conformal transfer of 3D polymer nanostructures of varying heights to a variety of other materials including a silicon-based substrate, a silicone stamp and a metal gold (Au) thin film. The process demonstrates the potential of reduced fabrication cost and complexity compared to existing methods. Various 3D nanostructures in technologically useful materials have been fabricated, including symmetric and asymmetric nanolines, nanocircles and nanosquares. Such 3D nanostructures have potential applications such as angle-resolved photonic crystals, plasmonic crystals and biomimicking anisotropic surfaces. This integrated INIL-based strategy shows great promise for 3D nanofabrication in the fields of photonics, plasmonics and surface tribology.

  11. Fabrication of Protein Dot Arrays via Particle Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zachary R.; Patel, Krupa; Spain, Travis; Keay, Joel C.; Jernigen, Jeremy D.; Sanchez, Ernest S.; Grady, Brian P.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Schmidtke, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to pattern a surface with proteins on both the nanometer and micrometer scale has attracted considerable interest due to its applications in the fields of biomaterials, biosensors, and cell adhesion. Here we describe a simple particle lithography technique to fabricate substrates with hexagonally patterned dots of protein surrounded by a protein-repellant layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Using this bottom-up approach, dot arrays of three different proteins (fibrinogen, P-selectin, and human serum albumin) were fabricated. The size of the protein dots (450 nm - 1.1 μm) was independent of the protein immobilized, but could be varied by changing the size of the latex spheres (diameter = 2 - 10 μm) utilized in assembling the lithographic bead monolayer. These results suggest that this technique can be extended to other biomolecules and will be useful in applications where arrays of protein dots are desired. PMID:19670836

  12. Method for the protection of extreme ultraviolet lithography optics

    DOEpatents

    Grunow, Philip A.; Clift, Wayne M.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2010-06-22

    A coating for the protection of optical surfaces exposed to a high energy erosive plasma. A gas that can be decomposed by the high energy plasma, such as the xenon plasma used for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), is injected into the EUVL machine. The decomposition products coat the optical surfaces with a protective coating maintained at less than about 100 .ANG. thick by periodic injections of the gas. Gases that can be used include hydrocarbon gases, particularly methane, PH.sub.3 and H.sub.2S. The use of PH.sub.3 and H.sub.2S is particularly advantageous since films of the plasma-induced decomposition products S and P cannot grow to greater than 10 .ANG. thick in a vacuum atmosphere such as found in an EUVL machine.

  13. High speed hydraulic scanner for deep x-ray lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, J.C.; Johnson, E.D.

    1997-07-01

    From their research and development in hard x-ray lithography, the authors have found that the conventional leadscrew driven scanner stages do not provide adequate scan speed or travel. These considerations have led the authors to develop a scanning system based on a long stroke hydraulic drive with 635 mm of travel and closed loop feedback to position the stage to better than 100 micrometers. The control of the device is through a PC with a custom LabView interface coupled to simple x-ray beam diagnostics. This configuration allows one to set a variety of scan parameters, including target dose, scan range, scan rates, and dose rate. Results from the prototype system at beamline X-27B are described as well as progress on a production version for the X-14B beamline.

  14. Novel resist for replica preparation of mold for imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukawa, Daisaku; Wakayama, Hiroyuki; Mitsukura, Kazuyuki; Okamura, Haruyuki; Hirai, Yoshihiko; Shirai, Masamitsu

    2009-03-01

    Two types of dimethacrylate which have hemiacetal ester moiety in a molecule were synthesized from difunctional vinyl ethers and methacrylic acid. UV curing of the monomers and photo-induced degradation of the UV cured resins were investigated. On UV irradiation at 365 nm under N2 atmosphere, these dimethacrylates containing 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone and triphenylsulfonium triflate became insoluble in methanol. The UV cured resins degraded if acids were generated in the system. Present resins were applied to make a plastic replica of mold for imprint lithography and the plastic replica was prepared in good form. The effect of imprint conditions on volume shrinkage of methacrylates was investigated. Dimethacrylate that has adamantyl unit showed a low-shrinkage property.

  15. Tuning and Freezing Disorder in Photonic Crystals using Percolation Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Ian B.; Abedzadeh, Navid; Kay, Theresa M.; Shneidman, Anna V.; Cranshaw, Derek J.; Lončar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Although common in biological systems, synthetic self-assembly routes to complex 3D photonic structures with tailored degrees of disorder remain elusive. Here we show how liquids can be used to finely control disorder in porous 3D photonic crystals, leading to complex and hierarchical geometries. In these optofluidic crystals, dynamically tunable disorder is superimposed onto the periodic optical structure through partial wetting or evaporation. In both cases, macroscopic symmetry breaking is driven by subtle sub-wavelength variations in the pore geometry. These variations direct site-selective infiltration of liquids through capillary interactions. Incorporating cross-linkable resins into our liquids, we developed methods to freeze in place the filling patterns at arbitrary degrees of partial wetting and intermediate stages of drying. These percolation lithography techniques produced permanent photonic structures with adjustable disorder. By coupling strong changes in optical properties to subtle differences in fluid behavior, optofluidic crystals may also prove useful in rapid analysis of liquids.

  16. Novel high refractive index fluids for 193nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, Julius; Otoguro, Akihiko; Itani, Toshiro; Fujii, Kiyoshi; Kagayama, Akifumi; Nakano, Takashi; Nakayama, Norio; Tamatani, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Shin

    2006-03-01

    Despite the early skepticism towards the use of 193-nm immersion lithography as the next step in satisfying Moore's law, it continuous to meet expectations on its feasibility in achieving 65-nm nodes and possibly beyond. And with implementation underway, interest in extending its capability for smaller pattern sizes such as the 32-nm node continues to grow. In this paper, we will discuss the optical, physical and lithographic properties of newly developed high index fluids of low absorption coefficient, 'Babylon' and 'Delphi'. As evaluated in a spectroscopic ellipsometer in the 193.39nm wavelength, the 'Babylon' and 'Delphi' high index fluids were evaluated to have a refractive index of 1.64 and 1.63 with an absorption coefficient of 0.05/cm and 0.08/cm, respectively. Lithographic evaluation results using a 193-nm 2-beam interferometric exposure tool show the imaging capability of both high index fluids to be 32-nm half pitch lines and spaces.

  17. Stimulated Emission Depletion Lithography with Mercapto-Functional Polymers.

    PubMed

    Buchegger, Bianca; Kreutzer, Johannes; Plochberger, Birgit; Wollhofen, Richard; Sivun, Dmitry; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Schütz, Gerhard J; Schubert, Ulrich; Klar, Thomas A

    2016-02-23

    Surface reactive nanostructures were fabricated using stimulated emission depletion (STED) lithography. The functionalization of the nanostructures was realized by copolymerization of a bifunctional metal oxo cluster in the presence of a triacrylate monomer. Ligands of the cluster surface cross-link to the monomer during the lithographic process, whereas unreacted mercapto functionalized ligands are transferred to the polymer and remain reactive after polymer formation of the surface of the nanostructure. The depletion efficiency in dependence of the cluster loading was investigated and full depletion of the STED effect was observed with a cluster loading exceeding 4 wt %. A feature size by λ/11 was achieved by using a donut-shaped depletion beam. The reactivity of the mercapto groups on the surface of the nanostructure was tested by incubation with mercapto-reactive fluorophores. PMID:26816204

  18. Graphene nano-objects tailored by interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alireza; He, Xiang; Ghasemi, Javad; Alaie, Seyed H.; Dawson, Noel M.; Klein, Brianna; Kiesow, Karissa; Wozniak, Douglas; Habteyes, Terefe; Brueck, Steven R. J.; Krishna, Sanjay

    2014-09-01

    We propose a facile approach to fabricate graphene nano-objects (GNOs) using interference lithography (IL) and direct self-assembly of nanoparticles. Uniformly spaced parallel photoresist (PR) lines and periodic hole arrays are proposed as an etch mask for producing graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), and graphene nanomesh (GNM), respectively. In a different experiment, the PR line arrays are transferred to uniform oxide channels, and silica nanoparticle dispersions with an average size of 10 nm are spun on the patterned surface, leaving a monolayer uniform nanoparticle assembly on the graphene. Following the particle deposition, the graphene is removed in the narrow spacing between the particles, using the O2 plasma etch, leaving ordered graphene quantum dot (GQD) arrays. The IL technique and etch process enables tuning the GNOs dimensions.

  19. Towards High Accuracy Reflectometry for Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Tarrio, Charles; Grantham, Steven; Squires, Matthew B.; Vest, Robert E.; Lucatorto, Thomas B.

    2003-01-01

    Currently the most demanding application of extreme ultraviolet optics is connected with the development of extreme ultraviolet lithography. Not only does each of the Mo/Si multilayer extreme-ultraviolet stepper mirrors require the highest attainable reflectivity at 13 nm (nearly 70 %), but the central wavelength of the reflectivity of these mirrors must be measured with a wavelength repeatability of 0.001 nm and the peak reflectivity of the reflective masks with a repeatability of 0.12 %. We report on two upgrades of our NIST/DARPA Reflectometry Facility that have given us the ability to achieve 0.1 % repeatability and 0.3 % absolute uncertainty in our reflectivity measurements. A third upgrade, a monochromator with thermal and mechanical stability for improved wavelength repeatability, is currently in the design phase.

  20. Micro stereo lithography and fabrication of 3D microdevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1999-08-01

    Micro Stereo Lithography (MSL) is a poor man's LIGA for fabricating high aspect ratio MEMS devices in UV curable semiconducting polymers using either two computer-controlled low inertia galvanometric mirrors with the aid of focusing lens or an array of optical fibers. For 3D MEMS devices, the polymers need to have conductive and possibly piezoelectric or ferroelectric properties. Such polymers are being developed at Penn State resulting in microdevices for fluid and drug delivery. Applications may include implanted medical delivery systems, chemical and biological instruments, fluid delivery in engines, pump coolants and refrigerants for local cooling of electronic components. With the invention of organic thin film transistor, now it is possible to fabricate 3D polymeric MEMS devices with built-in-electronics similar to silicon based microelectronics. In this paper, a brief introduction of MSL system is presented followed by a detailed design and development of micro pumps using this approach.

  1. EUV mask surface cleaning effects on lithography process performance

    SciTech Connect

    George, Simi; Baclea-an, Lorie Mae; Naulleau, Patrick; Chen, Robert J.; Liang, Ted

    2010-06-18

    The reflective, multilayer based, mask architectures for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography are highly susceptible to surface oxidation and contamination. As a result, EUV masks are expected to undergo cleaning processes in order to maintain the lifetimes necessary for high volume manufacturing. For this study, the impact of repetitive cleaning of EUV masks on imaging performance was evaluated. Two, high quality industry standard, EUV masks are used for this study with one of the masks undergoing repeated cleaning and the other one kept as a reference. Lithographic performance, in terms of process window analysis and line edge roughness, was monitored after every two cleans and compared to the reference mask performance. After 8x clean, minimal degradation is observed. The cleaning cycles will be continued until significant loss imaging fidelity is found.

  2. Nanofluidic devices for dielectrophoretic mobility shift assays by soft lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viefhues, M.; Regtmeier, J.; Anselmetti, D.

    2012-11-01

    We report development and application of 3D structured nano-microfluidic devices that were produced via soft lithography with poly(dimethylsiloxane). The procedure does not rely on hazardous or time-consuming production steps. Here, the nanochannels were created by channel-spanning ridges that reduce the flow height of the microchannel. Several realizations of the ridge layout and nanochannel height are demonstrated, depicting the high potential of this technique. The nanochannels proved to be stable even for width-to-height aspect ratios of 873:1. Additionally, an application of these submicrometer structures is presented with a new technique of a dielectrophoretic mobility shift assay (DEMSA). The DEMSA was used to detect different DNA variants, e.g. protein-DNA-complexes, via a shift in (dielectrophoretically retarded) migration velocities within an array of nanoslits.

  3. Novel chemical amplification positive-resist material for EB lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihara, Naoko; Ushirogouchi, Tohru; Tada, Tsukasa; Naito, Takuya; Saito, Satoshi; Sasaki, Osamu

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports on a novel three-component chemical amplification positive resist system for EB lithography composed of a novolak resin, an acid generator, and a newly synthesized dissolution inhibitor. We synthesized a novel dissolution inhibitor named CP-TBOC (1), which contains a tert-butoxycarbonyl (t-BOC) group and a lactone ring, to obtain resist materials with high sensitivity and high contrast. The t-BOC group of this dissolution inhibitor effectively decomposed by an acid catalyzed thermal reaction as the other conventional dissolution inhibitors. In addition to this decomposition, the lactone ring of the decomposed product was spontaneously cleft in an aqueous base to generate carboxylic acid, further enhancing the solubility to alkaline developers. The subsequent cleavage in an aqueous developer was investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The highest EB sensitivity was obtained at a CP-TBOC concentration of approximately 4.7 X 10-4 mol/g.

  4. X-ray lithography source (SXLS) vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchman, J.C.; Aloia, J.; Hsieh, H.; Kim, T.; Pjerov, S.

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was awarded a contract to design and construct a compact light source for x-ray lithography. This award is part of a technology transfer-to-American-industry program. The contract is for an electron storage ring designed for 690 MeV-500 ma operations. It has a racetrack configuration with a circumference to 8.5 meters. The machine is to be constructed in two phases. Phase I (200 MeV-500ma) will primarily be for low energy injection studies and will incorporate all room temperature magnets. For Phase II the two room temperature dipole magnets will be replaced with (4T) superconducting magnets and operation will be at 690 MeV. This paper describes the vacuum system for this machine. 9 refs.

  5. Extreme ultraviolet mask substrate surface roughness effects on lithography patterning

    SciTech Connect

    George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Salmassi, Farhad; Mochi, Iacopo; Gullikson, Eric; Goldberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Erik

    2010-06-21

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography exposure systems, mask substrate roughness induced scatter contributes to LER at the image plane. In this paper, the impact of mask substrate roughness on image plane speckle is explicitly evaluated. A programmed roughness mask was used to study the correlation between mask roughness metrics and wafer plane aerial image inspection. We find that the roughness measurements by top surface topography profile do not provide complete information on the scatter related speckle that leads to LER at the image plane. We suggest at wavelength characterization by imaging and/or scatter measurements into different frequencies as an alternative for a more comprehensive metrology of the mask substrate/multilayer roughness effects.

  6. Flexible mask illumination setup for serial multipatterning in Talbot lithography.

    PubMed

    Thomae, Daniel; Maaß, Jacqueline; Sandfuchs, Oliver; Gatto, Alexandre; Brunner, Robert

    2014-03-20

    A flexible illumination system for Talbot lithography is presented, in which the Talbot mask is illuminated by discrete but variable incidence angles. Changing the illumination angle stepwise in combination with different exposure doses for different angles offers the possibility to generate periodic continuous surface relief structures. To demonstrate the capability of this approach, two exemplary micro-optical structures were manufactured. The first example is a blazed grating with a stepsize of 1.5 μm. The second element is a specific beam splitter with parabolic-shaped grating grooves. The quality of the manufacturing process is evaluated on the basis of the optical performance of the resulting micro-optical elements. PMID:24663453

  7. Solvent immersion nanoimprint lithography of fluorescent conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, G. L.; Zhang, S.; Stevenson, J. R. Y.; Ebenhoch, B.; Samuel, I. D. W.; Turnbull, G. A.

    2015-10-19

    Solvent immersion imprint lithography (SIIL) was used to directly nanostructure conjugated polymer films. The technique was used to create light-emitting diffractive optical elements and organic semiconductor lasers. Gratings with lateral features as small as 70 nm and depths of ∼25 nm were achieved in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl). The angular emission from the patterned films was studied, comparing measurement to theoretical predictions. Organic distributed feedback lasers fabricated with SIIL exhibited thresholds for lasing of ∼40 kW/cm{sup 2}, similar to those made with established nanoimprint processes. The results show that SIIL is a quick, convenient and practical technique for nanopatterning of polymer photonic devices.

  8. Step and flash imprint lithography for manufacturing patterned media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Cynthia; Schmid, Gerard M.; Miller, Mike; Johnson, Steve; Khusnatdinov, Niyaz; LaBrake, Dwayne; Resnick, Douglas J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2009-03-01

    The ever-growing demand for hard drives with greater storage density has motivated a technology shift from continuous magnetic media to patterned media hard disks, which are expected to be implemented in future generations of hard disk drives to provide data storage at densities exceeding 1012 bits per square inch. Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL) technology has been employed to pattern the hard disk substrates. This paper discusses the infrastructure required to enable S-FIL in high-volume manufacturing; namely, fabrication of master templates, template replication, high-volume imprinting with precisely controlled residual layers, and dual-sided imprinting. Imprinting of disks is demonstrated with substrate throughput currently as high as 180 disks/hour (dualsided). These processes are applied to patterning hard disk substrates with both discrete tracks and bit-patterned designs.

  9. Designing Responsive Buckled Surfaces by Halftone Gel Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungwook; Hanna, James A.; Byun, Myunghwan; Santangelo, Christian D.; Hayward, Ryan C.

    2012-03-01

    Self-actuating materials capable of transforming between three-dimensional shapes have applications in areas as diverse as biomedicine, robotics, and tunable micro-optics. We introduce a method of photopatterning polymer films that yields temperature-responsive gel sheets that can transform between a flat state and a prescribed three-dimensional shape. Our approach is based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) copolymers containing pendent benzophenone units that allow cross-linking to be tuned by irradiation dose. We describe a simple method of halftone gel lithography using only two photomasks, wherein highly cross-linked dots embedded in a lightly cross-linked matrix provide access to nearly continuous, and fully two-dimensional, patterns of swelling. This method is used to fabricate surfaces with constant Gaussian curvature (spherical caps, saddles, and cones) or zero mean curvature (Enneper’s surfaces), as well as more complex and nearly closed shapes.

  10. Modular Polymer Biosensors by Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Jayven S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Grate, Jay W.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Gratton, Enrico; Vasdekis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography (SIIL), a rapid benchtop microsystem prototyping technique, including polymer functionalization, imprinting and bonding. Here, we focus on the realization of planar polymer sensors using SIIL through simple solvent immersion without imprinting. We describe SIIL’s impregnation characteristics, including an inherent mechanism that not only achieves practical doping concentrations, but their unexpected 4-fold enhancement compared to the immersion solution. Subsequently, we developed and characterized optical sensors for detecting molecular O2. To this end, a high dynamic range is reported, including its control through the immersion duration, a manifestation of SIIL’s modularity. Overall, SIIL exhibits the potential of improving the operating characteristics of polymer sensors, while significantly accelerating their prototyping, as it requires a few seconds of processing and no need for substrates or dedicated instrumentation. These are critical for O2 sensing as probed by way of example here, as well as any polymer permeable reactant.

  11. Interpreting cost of ownership for mix-and-match lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Alan L.; Bergendahl, Albert S.

    1994-05-01

    Cost of ownership modeling is a critical and emerging tool that provides significant insight into the ways to optimize device manufacturing costs. The development of a model to deal with a particular application, mix-and-match lithography, was performed in order to determine the level of cost savings and the optimum ways to create these savings. The use of sensitivity analysis with cost of ownership allows the user to make accurate trade-offs between technology and cost. The use and interpretation of the model results are described in this paper. Parameters analyzed include several manufacturing considerations -- depreciation, maintenance, engineering and operator labor, floorspace, resist, consumables and reticles. Inherent in this study is the ability to customize this analysis for a particular operating environment. Results demonstrate the clear advantages of a mix-and-match approach for three different operating environments. These case studies also demonstrate various methods to efficiently optimize cost savings strategies.

  12. High-index optical materials for 193nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, John H.; Kaplan, Simon G.; Shirley, Eric L.; Horowitz, Deane; Clauss, Wilfried; Grenville, Andrew; Van Peski, Chris

    2006-03-01

    We report on our comprehensive survey of high-index UV optical materials that may enable extension of immersion lithography beyond a numerical aperture of 1.45. Band edge, refractive index, and intrinsic birefringence (IBR) at 193 nm determine basic viability. Our measurements of these properties have reduced the list of potential candidates to: ceramic spinel, lutetium aluminum garnet, and a class of germanium garnets. We discuss our measurements of the intrinsic properties of these materials and assess the present status of their material quality relative to requirements. Ceramic spinel has no significant IBR, but transmission and scatter for the best samples remain at least two orders of magnitude from specifications. Improving these would require a major development effort. Presently available lutetium aluminum garnet has material quality much closer to the specifications. However, the IBR is about three times the required value. The germanium garnets offer the possibility of a lower IBR, but a suitable candidate material has yet to be established.

  13. Field Emitter Arrays and Displays Produced by Ion Tracking Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Felter, T E; Musket, R G; Bernhardt, A F

    2004-12-28

    When ions of sufficient electronic energy loss traverse a dielectric film or foil, they alter the chemical bonding along their nominally straight path within the material. A suitable etchant can quickly dissolve these so-called latent tracks leaving holes of small diameter ({approx}10nm) but long length - several microns. Continuing the etching process gradually increases the diameter reproducibly and uniformly. The trackable medium can be applied as a uniform film onto large substrates. The small, monodisperse holes produced by this track etching can be used in conjunction with additional thin film processing to create functional structures attached to the substrate. For example, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Candescent Technologies Corporation (CTC) co-developed a process to make arrays of gated field emitters ({approx}100nm diameter electron guns) for CTC's ThinCRT{trademark} displays, which have been fabricated to diagonal dimensions > 13. Additional technological applications of ion tracking lithography will be briefly covered.

  14. Toward a universal resist dissolution model for lithography simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Stewart A.; Mack, Chris A.; Maslow, Mark J.

    2001-04-01

    In lithography simulation dissolution rate equations are used to map development rate to the resist latent image. This work examines the quality of fit of four rate equations to experimental dissolution data for a wide variety of different resists ranging from medium contrast i-line novolak/DNQ materials to the state-of-the-art 248nm and 193nm chemically amplified photoresists. Three of the rate equations are routinely used for modeling: the Mack rate equation, the Enhanced Mack rate equation, and the Notch rate equation. The fourth is the recently developed Enhanced Notch model. Although each class of photoresist can be fitted reasonably well by one of the conventional rate equations, the Enhanced Notch model yields the best fit to the experimental data in all cases.

  15. Swords to plowshares: Shock wave applications to advanced lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Trucano, T.G.; Grady, D.E.; Kubiak, G.D.; Kipp, M.E.; Olson, R.E.; Farnsworth, A.

    1995-03-01

    Extreme UltraViolet Lithography (EUVL) seeks to apply radiation in a wavelength region centered near 13 nm to produce microcircuits having features sizes 0.1 micron or less. A critical requirement for the commercial application of this technology is the development of an economical, compact source of this radiation which is suitable for lithographic applications. A good candidate is a laser-plasma source, which is generated by the interaction of an intermediate intensity laser pulse (up to 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}) with a metallic target. While such a source has radiative characteristics which satisfy the needs of an EUVL source, the debris generated during the laser-target interaction strikes at the economy of the source. Here, the authors review the use of concepts and computer modeling, originally developed for hypervelocity impact analysis, to study this problem.

  16. Tuning and Freezing Disorder in Photonic Crystals using Percolation Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian B.; Abedzadeh, Navid; Kay, Theresa M.; Shneidman, Anna V.; Cranshaw, Derek J.; Lončar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Although common in biological systems, synthetic self-assembly routes to complex 3D photonic structures with tailored degrees of disorder remain elusive. Here we show how liquids can be used to finely control disorder in porous 3D photonic crystals, leading to complex and hierarchical geometries. In these optofluidic crystals, dynamically tunable disorder is superimposed onto the periodic optical structure through partial wetting or evaporation. In both cases, macroscopic symmetry breaking is driven by subtle sub-wavelength variations in the pore geometry. These variations direct site-selective infiltration of liquids through capillary interactions. Incorporating cross-linkable resins into our liquids, we developed methods to freeze in place the filling patterns at arbitrary degrees of partial wetting and intermediate stages of drying. These percolation lithography techniques produced permanent photonic structures with adjustable disorder. By coupling strong changes in optical properties to subtle differences in fluid behavior, optofluidic crystals may also prove useful in rapid analysis of liquids. PMID:26790372

  17. Direct surface structuring of organometallic resists using nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acikgoz, Canet; Hempenius, Mark A.; Julius Vancso, G.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2009-04-01

    The availability of suitable resist materials is essential for nanoimprint lithography (NIL). In this work, the application of poly(ferrocenylmethylphenylsilane) (PFMPS) as a new type of imprint resist is reported. As PFMPS contains iron and silicon in the main chain, it possesses a very high resistance to reactive ion etching. Polymer patterns formed after imprinting were transferred into silicon substrates owing to the high etch resistivity of PFMPS. The parameters for imprinting, such as polymer molar mass and initial film thickness, were investigated. A decrease in the initial film thickness facilitated the residual layer removal, as well as the pattern transfer. Only upon complete removal of the residual layer with argon plasma did pattern transfer result in aspect ratios up to 4:1 and less surface roughness.

  18. Nanoimprint Lithography on curved surfaces prepared by fused deposition modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köpplmayr, Thomas; Häusler, Lukas; Bergmair, Iris; Mühlberger, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology commonly used for modelling, prototyping and production applications. The achievable surface roughness is one of its most limiting aspects. It is however of great interest to create well-defined (nanosized) patterns on the surface for functional applications such as optical effects, electronics or bio-medical devices. We used UV-curable polymers of different viscosities and flexible stamps made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to perform Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) on FDM-printed curved parts. Substrates with different roughness and curvature were prepared using a commercially available 3D printer. The nanoimprint results were characterized by optical light microscopy, profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our experiments show promising results in creating well-defined microstructures on the 3D-printed parts.

  19. Simulation of exposure and alignment for nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yunfei; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2002-07-01

    Rigorous electromagnetic simulation with TEMPEST is used to examine the exposure and alignment processes for nano-imprint lithography with attenuating thin-film molds. Parameters in the design of topographical features of the nano-imprint system and material choices of the components are analyzed. The small feature size limits light transmission through the feature. While little can be done with auxiliary structures to attract light into small holes, the use of an absorbing material with a low real part of the refractive index such as silver helps mitigates the problem. Results on complementary alignment marks shows that the small transmission through the metal layer and the vertical separation of two alignment marks create the leakage equivalent to 1 nm misalignment but satisfactory alignment can be obtained by measuring alignment signals over a +/- 30 nm range.

  20. Micropump and venous valve by micro stereo lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    2000-06-01

    Micro Stereo Lithography (MSL) is a poor man's LIGA for fabricating high aspect ratio MEMS devices in UV curable semiconducting polymers using either two computer-controlled low inertia galvanometric mirrors with the aid of focusing lens or an array of optical fibers. For 3D MEMS devices, the polymers need to have conductive and possibly piezoelectric or ferroelectric properties. Such polymers are being developed at Penn State resulting in microdevices for fluid and drug delivery. Applications may include implanted medical delivery system, artificial heart valves, chemical and biological instruments, fluid delivery in engines, pump coolants and refrigerants for local cooling of electronic components. With the invention of organic thin film transistor, now it is possible to fabricate 3D polymeric MEMS devices with built-in-electronics similar to silicon based microelectronics.

  1. Sub-Optical Lithography With Nanometer Definition Masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Malek, Chantal Khan; Neogi, Jayant

    2000-01-01

    Nanometer feature size lithography represents a major paradigm shift for the electronics and micro-electro-mechanical industries. In this paper, we discuss the capacity of dynamic focused reactive ion beam (FIB) etching systems to undertake direct and highly anisotropic erosion of thick evaporated gold coatings on boron-doped silicon X-ray mask membranes. FIB offers a new level of flexibility in micro fabrication, allowing for fast fabrication of X-ray masks, where pattern definition and surface alteration are combined in the same step which eliminates the whole lithographic process, in particular resist, resist development, electro-deposition and resist removal. Focused ion beam diameters as small as 7 nm can be obtained enabling fabrication well into the sub-20 nm regime. In preliminary demonstrations of this X-ray mask fabrication technique 22 nm width lines were milled directly through 0.9 microns of gold and a miniature mass spectrometer pattern was milled through over 0.5 microns of gold. Also presented are the results of the shadow printing, using the large depth of field of synchrotron high energy parallel X-ray beam, of these and other sub-optical defined patterns in photoresist conformally coated over surfaces of extreme topographical variation. Assuming that electronic circuits and/or micro devices scale proportionally, the surface area of devices processed with X-ray lithography and 20 nm critical dimension X-ray masks would be 0.5% that of contemporary devices (350 nm CD). The 20 CD mask fabrication represents an initial effort - a further factor of three reduction is anticipated which represents a further order-of-magnitude reduction in die area.

  2. Novel organosilicone materials and patterning techniques for nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, Carlos Alberto

    Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) is a high-throughput patterning technique that allows the fabrication of nanostructures with great precision. It has been listed on the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) as a candidate technology for future generation Si chip manufacturing. In nanoimprint Lithography a resist material, e.g. a thermoplastic polymer, is placed in contact with a mold and then mechanically deformed under an applied load to transfer the nano-features on the mold surface into the resist. The success of NIL relies heavily in the capability of fabricating nanostructures on different types of materials. Thus, a key factor for NIL implementation in industrial settings is the development of advanced materials suitable as the nanoimprint resist. This dissertation focuses on the engineering of new polymer materials suitable as NIL resist. A variety of silicone-based polymer precursors were synthesized and formulated for NIL applications. High throughput and high yield nanopatterning was successfully achieved. Furthermore, additional capabilities of the developed materials were explored for a range of NIL applications such as their use as flexible, UV-transparent stamps and silicon compatible etching layers. Finally, new strategies were investigated to expand the NIL potentiality. High throughput, non-residual layer imprinting was achieved with the newly developed resist materials. In addition, several strategies were designed for the precise control of nanoscale size patterned structures with multifunctional resist systems by post-imprinting modification of the pattern size. These developments provide NIL with a new set of tools for a variety of additional important applications.

  3. Conductive polycrystalline diamond probes for local anodic oxidation lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, A. J.; Radadia, A. D.

    2015-11-01

    This is the first report characterizing local anodic oxidation (LAO) lithography performed using conductive monolithic polycrystalline diamond (MD) and conductive polycrystalline diamond-coated (DC) tips and comparing it to the diamond-like carbon-coated and metal-coated silicon tips. The range and the rate of increase in the lithographic linewidth and height with tip bias (dw/dV and dh/dV) differed based on the tip material. The DC tips resulted in wider and taller lines and a higher dw/dV and dh/dV compared to metal-coated tips with a similar force constant (k Avg). The metal-coated and the DC tips with comparable k Avg showed comparable threshold voltages, whereas the MD tips with similar k Avg showed a higher threshold voltage. The MD tips exhibited less than half the height and nearly half the dw/dV and dh/dV obtained with the metal-coated tips with similar k Avg, thus also resulting in a smaller width at -10 V. The linewidths were found to be proportional to the inverse of the log of write speed (v) for all the tips; however, the proportionality constant varied with tip material; the DC tips had larger values, and the MD and the metal-coated tips had comparable values. When varying the speed, the height was found to be a sigmoidal function of width, with the MD probes achieving lower height compared to the metal-coated and the DC tips with comparable k Avg. This study expands the application of monolithic conductive polycrystalline diamond (PCD) probes with outstanding wear resistance to fine LAO lithography.

  4. Conductive polycrystalline diamond probes for local anodic oxidation lithography.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, A J; Radadia, A D

    2015-11-20

    This is the first report characterizing local anodic oxidation (LAO) lithography performed using conductive monolithic polycrystalline diamond (MD) and conductive polycrystalline diamond-coated (DC) tips and comparing it to the diamond-like carbon-coated and metal-coated silicon tips. The range and the rate of increase in the lithographic linewidth and height with tip bias (dw/dV and dh/dV) differed based on the tip material. The DC tips resulted in wider and taller lines and a higher dw/dV and dh/dV compared to metal-coated tips with a similar force constant (k(Avg)). The metal-coated and the DC tips with comparable k(Avg) showed comparable threshold voltages, whereas the MD tips with similar k(Avg) showed a higher threshold voltage. The MD tips exhibited less than half the height and nearly half the dw/dV and dh/dV obtained with the metal-coated tips with similar k Avg, thus also resulting in a smaller width at -10 V. The linewidths were found to be proportional to the inverse of the log of write speed(v) for all the tips; however, the proportionality constant varied with tip material; the DC tips had larger values, and the MD and the metal-coated tips had comparable values. When varying the speed, the height was found to be a sigmoidal function of width, with the MD probes achieving lower height compared to the metal-coated and the DC tips with comparable k(Avg). This study expands the application of monolithic conductive polycrystalline diamond (PCD) probes with outstanding wear resistance to fine LAO lithography. PMID:26501841

  5. 28nm node process optimization: a lithography centric view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltmann, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Many experts claim that the 28nm technology node will be the most cost effective technology node forever. This results from primarily from the cost of manufacturing due to the fact that 28nm is the last true Single Patterning (SP) node. It is also affected by the dramatic increase of design costs and the limited shrink factor of the next following nodes. Thus, it is assumed that this technology still will be alive still for many years. To be cost competitive, high yields are mandatory. Meanwhile, leading edge foundries have optimized the yield of the 28nm node to such a level that that it is nearly exclusively defined by random defectivity. However, it was a long way to go to come to that level. In my talk I will concentrate on the contribution of lithography to this yield learning curve. I will choose a critical metal patterning application. I will show what was needed to optimize the process window to a level beyond the usual OPC model work that was common on previous nodes. Reducing the process (in particular focus) variability is a complementary need. It will be shown which improvements were needed in tooling, process control and design-mask-wafer interaction to remove all systematic yield detractors. Over the last couple of years new scanner platforms were introduced that were targeted for both better productivity and better parametric performance. But this was not a clear run-path. It needed some extra affords of the tool suppliers together with the Fab to bring the tool variability down to the necessary level. Another important topic to reduce variability is the interaction of wafer none-planarity and lithography optimization. Having an accurate knowledge of within die topography is essential for optimum patterning. By completing both the variability reduction work and the process window enhancement work we were able to transfer the original marginal process budget to a robust positive budget and thus ensuring high yield and low costs.

  6. Lithography-induced limits to scaling of design quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahng, Andrew B.

    2014-03-01

    Quality and value of an IC product are functions of power, performance, area, cost and reliability. The forthcoming 2013 ITRS roadmap observes that while manufacturers continue to enable potential Moore's Law scaling of layout densities, the "realizable" scaling in competitive products has for some years been significantly less. In this paper, we consider aspects of the question, "To what extent should this scaling gap be blamed on lithography?" Non-ideal scaling of layout densities has been attributed to (i) layout restrictions associated with multi-patterning technologies (SADP, LELE, LELELE), as well as (ii) various ground rule and layout style choices that stem from misalignment, reliability, variability, device architecture, and electrical performance vs. power constraints. Certain impacts seem obvious, e.g., loss of 2D flexibility and new line-end placement constraints with SADP, or algorithmically intractable layout stitching and mask coloring formulations with LELELE. However, these impacts may well be outweighed by weaknesses in design methodology and tooling. Arguably, the industry has entered a new era in which many new factors - (i) standard-cell library architecture, and layout guardbanding for automated place-and-route: (ii) performance model guardbanding and signoff analyses: (iii) physical design and manufacturing handoff algorithms spanning detailed placement and routing, stitching and RET; and (iv) reliability guardbanding - all contribute, hand in hand with lithography, to a newly-identified "design capability gap". How specific aspects of process and design enablements limit the scaling of design quality is a fundamental question whose answer must guide future RandD investment at the design-manufacturing interface. terface.

  7. Inorganic antireflective coating process for deep-UV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qizhi; Lee, Wei W.; Hanratty, Maureen A.; Rogers, Daty; Xing, Guoqiang; Singh, Abha; Zielinski, Eden

    1998-06-01

    Antireflective coatings (ARCs) have been used to enhance IC lithography for years, however, many conventional bottom ARCs can no longer maintain acceptable linewidth control, cannot meet stringent deep-UV (DUV) photoresist processing requirements, and increase the etch complexity. In this paper, we report the development of an inorganic ARC for DUV lithography in sub-0.25 micrometer advanced device applications. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is employed to deposit a dielectric film silicon oxynitride (SixOyNz) with specific optical properties. The three optical parameters of the SixOyNz film: refractive index n, extinction coefficient k, and thickness d are specifically designed to ensure that the reflection light that passes through the ARC/substrate is equal in amplitude and opposite in phase to the reflected light from the resist/ARC interface. The reflection light is canceled by destructive interference and therefore photoresist receives the minimum substrate reflection wave. Using this technique, we have successfully patterned features at 0.25 micrometer and below. The dielectric film can not only function as an ARC layer, but also serve as a hardmask for the pattern transfer etch process. With an aggressive etch bias process, linewidths down to 0.60 micrometer poly-Si gate are achieved with good linewidth control (3(sigma) less than 12 nm) and a near perfect linearity. For the marginal metal etch resistance of DUV photoresist, the designed SixOyNz is effective in imparting more etch resistance and suppressing metal substrate reflection. Excellent optical uniformity of the n, k and thickness d of the SixOyNz ARC is obtained with a manufacturable PECVD deposition process.

  8. The Dawn of Nuclear Photonics with Laser-based Gamma-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C J

    2011-03-17

    A renaissance in nuclear physics is occurring around the world because of a new kind of incredibly bright, gamma-ray light source that can be created with short pulse lasers and energetic electron beams. These highly Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) sources produce narrow, laser-like beams of incoherent, tunable gamma-rays and are enabling access and manipulation of the nucleus of the atom with photons or so called 'Nuclear Photonics'. Just as in the early days of the laser when photon manipulation of the valence electron structure of the atom became possible and enabling to new applications and science, nuclear photonics with laser-based gamma-ray sources promises both to open up wide areas of practical isotope-related, materials applications and to enable new discovery-class nuclear science. In the United States, the development of high brightness and high flux MEGa-ray sources is being actively pursued at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore (LLNL), California near San Francisco. The LLNL work aims to create by 2013 a machine that will advance the state of the art with respect to source the peak brightness by 6 orders of magnitude. This machine will create beams of 1 to 2.3 MeV photons with color purity matching that of common lasers. In Europe a similar but higher photon energy gamma source has been included as part of the core capability that will be established at the Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility in Magurele, Romania outside of Bucharest. This machine is expected to have an end point gamma energy in the range of 13 MeV. The machine will be co-located with two world-class, 10 Petawatt laser systems thus allowing combined intense-laser and gamma-ray interaction experiments. Such capability will be unique in the world. In this talk, Dr. Chris Barty from LLNL will review the state of the art with respect to MEGa-ray source design, construction and experiments and will describe both the ongoing projects

  9. Fabrication of a negative PMMA master mold for soft-lithography by MeV ion beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puttaraksa, Nitipon; Unai, Somrit; Rhodes, Michael W.; Singkarat, Kanda; Whitlow, Harry J.; Singkarat, Somsorn

    2012-02-01

    In this study, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was investigated as a negative resist by irradiation with a high-fluence 2 MeV proton beam. The beam from a 1.7 MV Tandetron accelerator at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility (PBP) of Chiang Mai University is shaped by a pair of computer-controlled L-shaped apertures which are used to expose rectangular pattern elements with 1-1000 μm side length. Repeated exposure of rectangular pattern elements allows a complex pattern to be built up. After subsequent development, the negative PMMA microstructure was used as a master mold for casting poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) following a standard soft-lithography process. The PDMS chip fabricated by this technique was demonstrated to be a microfluidic device.

  10. Ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography using cyclodextrin-based porous template for pattern failure reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    An approach to ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprint lithography using a cyclodextrin-based porous template was investigated for the reduction of air trapping and template damage caused by gases such as nitrogen and oxygen generated from UV cross-linked materials. The accuracy of the printed pattern using UV nanoimprint lithography with the porous transparent template was improved because of enhanced material adsorption and increased permeability to gaseous species. The use of volatile solvents in the UV cross-linked materials for nanoimprint lithography has been limited because of high pattern failure rates. However, using the cyclodextrin-based porous template, the UV cross-linked materials with a 5 wt. % volatile solvent exhibited well-defined nanoscale patterns. Based on this study, acceptable chemistries for the UV cross-linked materials have been expanded, which will be beneficial for future device applications using UV nanoimprint lithography.

  11. High aspect ratio tungsten grating on ultrathin Si membranes for extreme UV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xinsheng; Ying, Yulong

    2016-09-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography is one of the modern lithography tools for high-volume manufacturing with 22 nm resolution and beyond. But critical challenges exist to the design and fabrication of large-scale and highly efficient diffraction transmission gratings, significantly reducing the feature sizes down to 22 nm and beyond. To achieve such a grating, the surface flatness, the line edge roughness, the transmission efficiency and aspect ratio should be improved significantly. Delachat et al (2015 Nanotechnology 26 108262) develop a full process to fabricate a tungsten diffraction grating on an ultrathin silicon membrane with higher aspect ratio up to 8.75 that met all the aforementioned requirements for extreme ultraviolet lithography. This process is fully compatible with standard industrial extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  12. High aspect ratio tungsten grating on ultrathin Si membranes for extreme UV lithography.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinsheng; Ying, Yulong

    2016-09-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography is one of the modern lithography tools for high-volume manufacturing with 22 nm resolution and beyond. But critical challenges exist to the design and fabrication of large-scale and highly efficient diffraction transmission gratings, significantly reducing the feature sizes down to 22 nm and beyond. To achieve such a grating, the surface flatness, the line edge roughness, the transmission efficiency and aspect ratio should be improved significantly. Delachat et al (2015 Nanotechnology 26 108262) develop a full process to fabricate a tungsten diffraction grating on an ultrathin silicon membrane with higher aspect ratio up to 8.75 that met all the aforementioned requirements for extreme ultraviolet lithography. This process is fully compatible with standard industrial extreme ultraviolet lithography. PMID:27458188

  13. Mussel-inspired block copolymer lithography for low surface energy materials of teflon, graphene, and gold.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong Hoon; Lee, Duck Hyun; Kim, Ju Young; Shin, Dong Ok; Jeong, Hu Young; Hong, Seonki; Yun, Je Moon; Koo, Chong Min; Lee, Haeshin; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2011-12-15

    Mussel-inspired interfacial engineering is synergistically integrated with block copolymer (BCP) lithography for the surface nanopatterning of low surface energy substrate materials, including, Teflon, graphene, and gold. The image shows the Teflon nanowires and their excellent superhydrophobicity. PMID:22021119

  14. The application of variable universe fuzzy PID controller in computer-aided alignment of lithography projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mei; Zheng, Meng; Li, Yanqiu

    2013-12-01

    A variable universe fuzzy PID algorithm is designed to control the misalignment of the lithography projection optics to meet the requirement of high image quality. This paper first simulates the alignment of Schwarzschild objective designed by us. Secondly, the variable universe fuzzy PID control is introduced to feed back the misalignment of Schwarzschild objective to the control system to drive the stage which holds the objective. So the position can be adjusted automatically. This feedback scheme can adjust the variables' universe self-adaptively by using fuzzy rules so that the concrete function and parameters of the contraction-expansion factor are not necessary. Finally, the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulations. The results show that, variable universe fuzzy PID method exhibits better performance in both improving response speed and decreasing overshoot compared to conventional PID and fuzzy PID control methods. In addition, the interference signal can be effectively restrained. It is concluded that this method can improve the dynamic and static properties of system and meet the requirement of fast response.

  15. Determination of mask induced polarization effects occurring in hyper NA immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, Silvio; Bubke, Karsten; Hollein, Ingo; Ziebold, Ralf; Peters, Jan H.

    2005-05-01

    As the lithographic projection technology of the future will require higher numerical aperture (NA) values, new physical effects will have to be taken into consideration. Immersion lithography will result in NA values of up to 1.2 and above. New optical effects like 3D shadowing, effects from oblique incident angles, mask-induced polarization of the transmitted light and birefringence from the substrate should be considered when the masks optical performance is evaluated. This paper addresses mask induced polarization effects from dense lines-and-space structures of standard production masks. On a binary and on an attenuated phase-shifting mask, which were manufactured at the Advanced Mask Technology Center (AMTC) transmission experimental investigations were performed. Measurements of diffraction efficiencies for TE- and TM-polarized light using three different incident angles are presented for all considered mask types and compared to simulations. The structures under investigation include line-space-pattern with varying pitches as well as varying duty cycles. Experimental results show good agreement with simulations.

  16. Large-solid-angle illuminators for extreme ultraviolet lithography with laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, G.D.; Tichenor, D.A.; Sweatt, W.C.; Chow, W.W.

    1995-06-01

    Laser Plasma Sources (LPSS) of extreme ultraviolet radiation are an attractive alternative to synchrotron radiation sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) due to their modularity, brightness, and modest size and cost. To fully exploit the extreme ultraviolet power emitted by such sources, it is necessary to capture the largest possible fraction of the source emission half-sphere while simultaneously optimizing the illumination stationarity and uniformity on the object mask. In this LDRD project, laser plasma source illumination systems for EUVL have been designed and then theoretically and experimentally characterized. Ellipsoidal condensers have been found to be simple yet extremely efficient condensers for small-field EUVL imaging systems. The effects of aberrations in such condensers on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging have been studied with physical optics modeling. Lastly, the design of an efficient large-solid-angle condenser has been completed. It collects 50% of the available laser plasma source power at 14 nm and delivers it properly to the object mask in a wide-arc-field camera.

  17. Step and flash imprint lithography: a new approach to high-resolution patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colburn, Matthew; Johnson, Stephen C.; Stewart, Michael D.; Damle, S.; Bailey, Todd C.; Choi, Bernard; Wedlake, M.; Michaelson, Timothy B.; Sreenivasan, S. V.; Ekerdt, John G.; Willson, C. Grant

    1999-06-01

    An alternative approach to lithography is being developed based on a dual-layer imprint scheme. This process has the potential to become a high-throughput means of producing high aspect ratio, high-resolution patterns without projection optics. In this process, a template is created on a standard mask blank by using the patterned chromium as an etch mask to produce high-resolution relief images in the quartz. The etched template and a substrate that has been coated with an organic planarization layer are brought into close proximity. A low-viscosity, photopolymerizable formulation containing organosilicon precursors is introduced into the gap between the two surfaces. The template is then brought into contact with the substrate. The solution that is trapped in the relief structures of the template is photopolymerized by exposure through the backside of the quartz template. The template is separated from the substrate, leaving a UV-curved replica of the relief structure on the planarization layer. Features smaller than 60 nm in size have been reliably produced using this imprinting process. The resolution silicon polymer images are transferred through the planarization layer by anisotropic oxygen reactive ion etching. This paper provides a progress report on our efforts to evaluate the potential of this process.

  18. A New Femtosecond Laser-Based Three-Dimensional Tomography Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echlin, McLean P.

    2011-12-01

    Tomographic imaging has dramatically changed science, most notably in the fields of medicine and biology, by producing 3D views of structures which are too complex to understand in any other way. Current tomographic techniques require extensive time both for post-processing and data collection. Femtosecond laser based tomographic techniques have been developed in both standard atmosphere (femtosecond laser-based serial sectioning technique - FSLSS) and in vacuum (Tri-Beam System) for the fast collection (10 5mum3/s) of mm3 sized 3D datasets. Both techniques use femtosecond laser pulses to selectively remove layer-by-layer areas of material with low collateral damage and a negligible heat affected zone. To the authors knowledge, femtosecond lasers have never been used to serial section and these techniques have been entirely and uniquely developed by the author and his collaborators at the University of Michigan and University of California Santa Barbara. The FSLSS was applied to measure the 3D distribution of TiN particles in a 4330 steel. Single pulse ablation morphologies and rates were measured and collected from literature. Simultaneous two-phase ablation of TiN and steel matrix was shown to occur at fluences of 0.9-2 J/cm2. Laser scanning protocols were developed minimizing surface roughness to 0.1-0.4 mum for laser-based sectioning. The FSLSS technique was used to section and 3D reconstruct titanium nitride (TiN) containing 4330 steel. Statistical analysis of 3D TiN particle sizes, distribution parameters, and particle density were measured. A methodology was developed to use the 3D datasets to produce statistical volume elements (SVEs) for toughness modeling. Six FSLSS TiN datasets were sub-sampled into 48 SVEs for statistical analysis and toughness modeling using the Rice-Tracey and Garrison-Moody models. A two-parameter Weibull analysis was performed and variability in the toughness data agreed well with Ruggieri et al. bulk toughness measurements. The Tri

  19. Real-time quantum cascade laser-based infrared microspectroscopy in-vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger-Lui, N.; Haase, K.; Pucci, A.; Schönhals, A.; Petrich, W.

    2016-03-01

    Infrared microscopy can be performed to observe dynamic processes on a microscopic scale. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-based microscopes are bound to limitations regarding time resolution, which hampers their potential for imaging fast moving systems. In this manuscript we present a quantum cascade laser-based infrared microscope which overcomes these limitations and readily achieves standard video frame rates. The capabilities of our setup are demonstrated by observing dynamical processes at their specific time scales: fermentation, slow moving Amoeba Proteus and fast moving Caenorhabditis elegans. Mid-infrared sampling rates between 30 min and 20 ms are demonstrated.

  20. All-fiber amplifier similariton laser based on a fiber Bragg grating filter.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Michel; Gagnon, Mathieu; Duval, Simon; Bernier, Martin; Piché, Michel

    2015-12-01

    This article presents, for the first time to our knowledge, an all-fiber amplifier similariton laser based on a fiber Bragg grating filter. The laser emits 2.9 nJ pulses at a wavelength of 1554 nm with a repetition rate of 31 MHz. The dechirped pulses have a duration of 89 fs. The characteristic features of the pulse profile and spectrum along with the dynamics of the laser are highlighted in representative simulations. These simulations also address the effect of the filter shape and detuning with respect to the gain spectral peak. PMID:26625073

  1. Pulsed picosecond KGW:Nd3+ laser based on the Sagnac interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabovski, Vitaly V.; Prokhorenko, Valentin I.; Yatskiv, Dmytro Y.

    1995-04-01

    Energetic, statistical, and temporal characteristics of a pico-second KGW:Nd laser based on the Sagnac interferometer are studied. All experiments are provided in comparison with the traditional linear cavity. The effect of stimulated Raman scattering suppression in such a specific cavity was found. Stimulated Raman scattering in KGW dumped all output parameters in the laser with a linear cavity. A new cavity scheme can solve such problems and provide for good output handling. It is shown that output pulse duration is larger in the proposed scheme compared with a linear cavity but other characteristics are much better.

  2. Laser-Based Trespassing Prediction in Restrictive Environments: A Linear Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cheein, Fernando Auat; Scaglia, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Stationary range laser sensors for intruder monitoring, restricted space violation detections and workspace determination are extensively used in risky environments. In this work we present a linear based approach for predicting the presence of moving agents before they trespass a laser-based restricted space. Our approach is based on the Taylor's series expansion of the detected objects' movements. The latter makes our proposal suitable for embedded applications. In the experimental results (carried out in different scenarios) presented herein, our proposal shows 100% of effectiveness in predicting trespassing situations. Several implementation results and statistics analysis showing the performance of our proposal are included in this work.

  3. Laser-based X-ray and electron source for X-ray fluorescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle Brozas, F.; Crego, A.; Roso, L.; Peralta Conde, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present a modification to conventional X-rays fluorescence using electrons as excitation source and compare it with the traditional X-ray excitation for the study of pigments. For this purpose, we have constructed a laser-based source capable to produce X-rays as well as electrons. Because of the large penetration depth of X-rays, the collected fluorescence signal is a combination of several material layers of the artwork under study. However, electrons are stopped in the first layers, allowing a more superficial analysis. We show that the combination of both excitation sources can provide extremely valuable information about the structure of the artwork.

  4. Experimental demonstration of distributed feedback semiconductor lasers based on reconstruction-equivalent-chirp technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingsi; Wang, Huan; Chen, Xiangfei; Yin, Zuowei; Shi, Yuechun; Lu, Yanqing; Dai, Yitang; Zhu, Hongliang

    2009-03-30

    In this paper we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimental realization of distributed feedback (DFB) semiconductor lasers based on reconstruction-equivalent-chirp (REC) technology. Lasers with different lasing wavelengths are achieved simultaneously on one chip, which shows a potential for the REC technology in combination with the photonic integrated circuits (PIC) technology to be a possible method for monolithic integration, in that its fabrication is as powerful as electron beam technology and the cost and time-consuming are almost the same as standard holographic technology. PMID:19333287

  5. Cleaning of optical components for high-power laser-based firing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, B.D.; Hendrix, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the progress of AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), in addressing the issues of cleaning of hardware and optical components for laser-based firing sets. These issues are acceptability of cleaning processes and techniques of other government programs to the quality, reliability, performance, stockpile life, materials compatibility issues, and, perhaps most important, environmentally conscious manufacturing requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE). A review of ``previous cleaning art`` is presented using Military Standards (MIL STDs) and Military Interim Specifications (MISs) as well as empirical data compiled by the authors. Observations on processes and techniques used in building prototype hardware and plans for future work are presented.

  6. Quantum cascade laser-based substance detection: approaching the quantum noise limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuffner, Peter C.; Conroy, Kathryn J.; Boyson, Toby K.; Milford, Greg; Mabrok, Mohamed A.; Kallapur, Abhijit G.; Petersen, Ian R.; Calzada, Maria E.; Spence, Thomas G.; Kirkbride, Kennith P.; Harb, Charles C.

    2011-06-01

    A consortium of researchers at University of New South Wales (UNSW@ADFA), and Loyola University New Orleans (LU NO), together with Australian government security agencies (e.g., Australian Federal Police), are working to develop highly sensitive laser-based forensic sensing strategies applicable to characteristic substances that pose chemical, biological and explosives (CBE) threats. We aim to optimise the potential of these strategies as high-throughput screening tools to detect prohibited and potentially hazardous substances such as those associated with explosives, narcotics and bio-agents.

  7. Algal Biomass Analysis by Laser-Based Analytical Techniques—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pořízka, Pavel; Prochazková, Petra; Prochazka, David; Sládková, Lucia; Novotný, Jan; Petrilak, Michal; Brada, Michal; Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdeněk; Zemánek, Pavel; Adam, Vojtěch; Kizek, René; Novotný, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Algal biomass that is represented mainly by commercially grown algal strains has recently found many potential applications in various fields of interest. Its utilization has been found advantageous in the fields of bioremediation, biofuel production and the food industry. This paper reviews recent developments in the analysis of algal biomass with the main focus on the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and partly Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma techniques. The advantages of the selected laser-based analytical techniques are revealed and their fields of use are discussed in detail. PMID:25251409

  8. Development of Field-deployable Diode-laser-based Water Vapor Dial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham Le Hoai, Phong; Abo, Makoto; Sakai, Tetsu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a field-deployable diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has been developed for lower-tropospheric water vapor observation in Tokyo, Japan. A photoacoustic cell is used for spectroscopy experiment around absorption peaks of 829.022 nm and 829.054 nm. The water vapor density extracted from the observational data agrees with the referenced radiosonde data. Furthermore, we applied modulated pulse technique for DIAL transmitter. It enables DIAL to measure water vapor profile for both low and high altitude regions.

  9. Distributed feedback sol-gel zirconia waveguide lasers based on surface relief gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Chao; Wong, K. Y.; He, Yaning; Wang, Xiaogang

    2007-02-01

    Distributed feedback waveguide lasers based on dye-doped sol-gel zirconia films with permanent grating structures were demonstrated. The permanent grating was realized by employing a novel epoxy-based azo-polymer that generates a surface relief grating by a photo-isomerization process induced by two interfering writing beams. When employing the rhodamine 6G dye, tuning of the output wavelength of the distributed feedback waveguide laser from around 575 nm to 610 nm can be achieved by adjusting the tilting angle between the orientation of the grating and the pump beam.

  10. Localized planarization of optical damage using laser-based chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Elhadj, Selim; Guss, Gabe M.; Sridharan, Arun; Nielsen, Norman D.; Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Lee, Daeho; Grigoropoulos, Costas

    2013-11-01

    We present a method to repair damaged optics using laser-based chemical vapor deposition (L-CVD). A CO2 laser is used to heat damaged silica regions and polymerize a gas precursor to form SiO2. Measured deposition rates and morphologies agree well with finite element modeling of a two-phase reaction. Along with optimizing deposition rates and morphology, we also show that the deposited silica is structurally identical to high-grade silica substrate and possesses high UV laser damage thresholds. Successful application of such a method could reduce processing costs, extend optic lifetime, and lead to more damage resistant laser optics used in high power applications.

  11. Femtosecond-laser-based synthesis of ultrastable microwave signals from optical frequency references.

    PubMed

    Bartels, A; Diddams, S A; Oates, C W; Wilpers, G; Bergquist, J C; Oskay, W H; Hollberg, L

    2005-03-15

    We use femtosecond laser frequency combs to convert optical frequency references to the microwave domain, where we demonstrate the synthesis of 10-GHz signals having a fractional frequency instability of < or =3.5 x 10(-15) at a 1-s averaging time, limited by the optical reference. The residual instability and phase noise of the femtosecond-laser-based frequency synthesizers are 6.5 x 10(-16) at 1 s and -98 dBc/Hz at a 1-Hz offset from the 10-GHz carrier, respectively. The timing jitter of the microwave signals is 3.3 fs. PMID:15792011

  12. Laser-Based Methods for Detection of Nitric Oxide in Plants.

    PubMed

    Mandon, Julien; Mur, Luis A J; Harren, Frans J M; Cristescu, Simona M

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in plant signaling and in response to various stress conditions. Therefore, real-time measurements of NO production provide better insights into understanding plant processes and can help developing strategies to improve food production and postharvest quality. Using laser-based spectroscopic methods, sensitive, online, in planta measurements of plant-pathogen interactions are possible. This chapter introduces the basic principle of the optical detectors using different laser sources for accurate monitoring of fast dynamic changes of NO production. Several applications are also presented to demonstrate the suitability of these detectors for detection of NO in plants. PMID:27094415

  13. M&A For Lithography Of Sparse Arrays Of Sub-Micrometer Features

    DOEpatents

    Brueck, Steven R.J.; Chen, Xiaolan; Zaidi, Saleem; Devine, Daniel J.

    1998-06-02

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for the exposure of sparse hole and/or mesa arrays with line:space ratios of 1:3 or greater and sub-micrometer hole and/or mesa diameters in a layer of photosensitive material atop a layered material. Methods disclosed include: double exposure interferometric lithography pairs in which only those areas near the overlapping maxima of each single-period exposure pair receive a clearing exposure dose; double interferometric lithography exposure pairs with additional processing steps to transfer the array from a first single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair into an intermediate mask layer and a second single-period interferometric lithography exposure to further select a subset of the first array of holes; a double exposure of a single period interferometric lithography exposure pair to define a dense array of sub-micrometer holes and an optical lithography exposure in which only those holes near maxima of both exposures receive a clearing exposure dose; combination of a single-period interferometric exposure pair, processing to transfer resulting dense array of sub-micrometer holes into an intermediate etch mask, and an optical lithography exposure to select a subset of initial array to form a sparse array; combination of an optical exposure, transfer of exposure pattern into an intermediate mask layer, and a single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair; three-beam interferometric exposure pairs to form sparse arrays of sub-micrometer holes; five- and four-beam interferometric exposures to form a sparse array of sub-micrometer holes in a single exposure. Apparatuses disclosed include arrangements for the three-beam, five-beam and four-beam interferometric exposures.

  14. Heterogeneous Charge-Transfer Nanorods by Strained Melt-Molding Lithography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jueun; Chung, Jeyon; Hyon, Jinho; Seo, Chunhee; Nam, Jihye; Kang, Youngjong

    2016-03-01

    Hetero-nanorods consisting of two charge-transfer (CT) complexes were fabricated by the strained melt-molding lithography. Utilizing the lowered melting temperature by the formation of eutectic mixture, various well-defined CT complex nanorods can be easily fabricated by soft-lithography-assisted melt crystallization below 100 degrees C. Hetero-nanorods were fabricated by selective doping of the secondary CT complex at defects induced by applying the uniaxial strain. PMID:27455696

  15. Large area direct-write focused ion-beam lithography with dual-beam microscope.

    SciTech Connect

    Imre-Joshi, A.; Ocola, L. E.; Rich, L.; Klingfus, J.

    2010-03-01

    The authors have investigated the performance of focused ion-beam (FIB) direct-write lithography for large area (multiple write-field) patterning in an FEI Nova Nanolab 600 dual-beam microscope. Their system is configured with a 100 nm resolution X-Y stage and a RAITH ELPHY LITHOGRAPHY control interface, with its own integrated 16 bit DAC pattern generator and software. Key issues with regard to configuration, process parameters, and procedures have been addressed. Characterization of stitching errors, pattern repeatability, and drift were performed. Offset lithography (multiple exposures with offset write fields) and in-field registration marks were evaluated for correcting stitching errors, and a test microfluidic device covering an area of 1 x 1.4 mm{sup 2} was successfully fabricated. The authors found that by using a combination of offset lithography and in-field registration mark correction methods, the stitching errors can be kept well below 100 nm. They also found that due to higher beam deflection speed provided by the electrostatic scanning in FIB systems versus the wide-spread electron-beam systems with electromagnetic scanning, FIB lithography can be just as fast as electron-beam lithography for typical mill depths down to about 200-500 nm (material dependent). This opens the door for a large suite of applications for materials where pattern transfer is difficult or impossible by reactive methods.

  16. High resolution patterning for flexible electronics via roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabik, Sami; de Riet, Joris; Yakimets, Iryna; Smits, Edsger

    2014-03-01

    Flexible electronics is a growing field and is currently maturing in applications such as displays, smart packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. In order to process on flexible substrates at high throughput and large areas, novel patterning techniques will be essential. Conventional optical lithography is limited in throughput as well as resolution, and requires several alignment steps to generate multi-layered patterns, required for applications such as thin-film transistors. It therefore remains a complex and expensive process. Nanoimprint lithography is an emerging alternative to optical lithography, demonstrating patterning capabilities over a wide range of resolutions, from several microns down to a few nanometres. For display applications, nanoimprint lithography can be used to pattern various layers. Micron sized thin-film transistors for backplane can be fabricated where a self-aligned geometry is used to decrease the number of alignment steps, and increase the overlay accuracy. In addition, nano-structures can be used for optical applications such as anti-reflective surfaces and nano patterned transparent electrodes. Imprint lithography is a fully roll-to-roll compatible process and enables large area and high throughput fabrication for flexible electronics. In this paper we discuss the possibilities and the challenges of large area patterning by roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography, reviewing micron and nano sized structures realized on our roll-to-roll equipment. Nano patterned transparent electrodes, moth-eye antireflective coatings, and multilevel structures will be covered.

  17. A simple and residual-layer-free solute-solvent separation soft lithography method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xianglu; Xie, Huimin

    2015-09-01

    A solute-solvent separation soft lithography (3S soft lithography) is reported in this paper, which aims at offering a residual-layer-free micromachining technique that can be realized in an ordinary laboratory conveniently. In 3S soft lithography, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) block containing micro-structure relief serves as the stamp, and the resist (as the solute) is dissolved in a solvent to form a solution before being molded by the stamp. During the molding process, the stamp absorbs the solvent and filters the resist; as a result, the resist can solidify on the substrate and replicate the pattern on the stamp. To improve the global geometric uniformity of the duplicated pattern, a hybrid PDMS stamp whose effectiveness is verified by the finite element analysis is used. Moreover, the liquid bridge phenomenon is creatively applied to remove the bubble defects caused during the molding process. The pattern transfer fidelity of 3S soft lithography is analyzed, and some suggestions are summarized for performing a high quality 3S soft lithography based on the experimental results. Verified by our experiment, the micro-structure fabricated by 3S soft lithography can serve as a mask for the following etching, and a lattice with minimum line width of 200 nm has been successfully fabricated on the silicon wafer in our study.

  18. Nanofabrication at 1nm resolution by quantum optical lithography (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Eugen

    2015-08-01

    A major problem in the optical lithography was the diffraction limit. Here, we report and demonstrate a lithography method, Quantum Optical Lithography [1,2], able to attain 1 nm resolution by optical means using new materials (fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramics and QMC-5 resist). The performance is several times better than that described for any optical or Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) methods. In Fig. 1 we present TEM images of 1 nm lines recorded at 9.6 m/s. a) b) Fig. 1 TEM images of: a) multiple 1 nm lines written in a fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramics sample; b) single 1 nm line written in QMC-5 resist. References [1] E. Pavel, S. Jinga, B.S. Vasile, A. Dinescu, V. Marinescu, R. Trusca and N. Tosa, "Quantum Optical Lithography from 1 nm resolution to pattern transfer on silicon wafer", Optics and Laser Technology, 60 (2014) 80-84. [2] E. Pavel, S. Jinga, E. Andronescu, B.S. Vasile, G. Kada, A. Sasahara, N. Tosa, A. Matei, M. Dinescu, A. Dinescu and O.R. Vasile, "2 nm Quantum Optical Lithography", Optics Communications,291 (2013) 259-263

  19. Optimized lithography process for through-silicon vias-fabrication using a double-sided (structured) photomask for mask aligner lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichelt, Tina; Stuerzebecher, Lorenz; Zeitner, Uwe D.

    2015-07-01

    Through-silicon vias (TSV) are very important for wafer-level packaging as they provide patterning holes through thick silicon dies to integrate and interconnect devices which are stacked in the z-direction. For economic processing, TSV fabrication primarily needs to be cost effective, especially for a high throughput. Furthermore, a lithography process for TSV has to be stable enough to allow patterning on prestructured substrates with inhomogeneous topography. This can be addressed by an exposure process which offers a large depth of focus. We have developed a mask-aligner lithography process based on the use of a double-sided photomask to realize aerial images that meet these constraints.

  20. High performance Si immersion gratings patterned with electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully-Santiago, Michael A.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Brooks, Cynthia B.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Muller, Richard E.

    2014-07-01

    Infrared spectrographs employing silicon immersion gratings can be significantly more compact than spectro- graphs using front-surface gratings. The Si gratings can also offer continuous wavelength coverage at high spectral resolution. The grooves in Si gratings are made with semiconductor lithography techniques, to date almost entirely using contact mask photolithography. Planned near-infrared astronomical spectrographs require either finer groove pitches or higher positional accuracy than standard UV contact mask photolithography can reach. A collaboration between the University of Texas at Austin Silicon Diffractive Optics Group and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Microdevices Laboratory has experimented with direct writing silicon immersion grating grooves with electron beam lithography. The patterning process involves depositing positive e-beam resist on 1 to 30 mm thick, 100 mm diameter monolithic crystalline silicon substrates. We then use the facility JEOL 9300FS e-beam writer at JPL to produce the linear pattern that defines the gratings. There are three key challenges to produce high-performance e-beam written silicon immersion gratings. (1) E- beam field and subfield stitching boundaries cause periodic cross-hatch structures along the grating grooves. The structures manifest themselves as spectral and spatial dimension ghosts in the diffraction limited point spread function (PSF) of the diffraction grating. In this paper, we show that the effects of e-beam field boundaries must be mitigated. We have significantly reduced ghost power with only minor increases in write time by using four or more field sizes of less than 500 μm. (2) The finite e-beam stage drift and run-out error cause large-scale structure in the wavefront error. We deal with this problem by applying a mark detection loop to check for and correct out minuscule stage drifts. We measure the level and direction of stage drift and show that mark detection reduces peak-to-valley wavefront error