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Sample records for laser-induced dynamic gratings

  1. Applications of laser-induced gratings to spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rohlfing, E.A.

    1993-12-01

    This program has traditionally emphasized two principal areas of research. The first is the spectroscopic characterization of large-amplitude motion on the ground-state potential surface of small, transient molecules. The second is the reactivity of carbonaceous clusters and its relevance to soot and fullerene formation in combustion. Motivated initially by the desire to find improved methods of obtaining stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra of transients, most of our recent work has centered on the use of laser-induced gratings or resonant four-wave mixing in free-jet expansions. These techniques show great promise for several chemical applications, including molecular spectroscopy and photodissociation dynamics. The author describes recent applications of two-color laser-induced grating spectroscopy (LIGS) to obtain background-free SEP spectra of transients and double resonance spectra of nonfluorescing species, and the use of photofragment transient gratings to probe photodissociation dynamics.

  2. Study of laser induced plasma grating dynamics in gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarnac, A.; Durand, M.; Liu, Y.; Prade, B.; Houard, A.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Mysyrowicz, A.

    2014-02-01

    The relaxation of a plasma grating resulting from the interference of two crossing laser filaments in molecular and atomic gases is studied experimentally. Dissipation of the grating fringes is dominated by ambipolar diffusion in atomic gases and by a combination of ambipolar diffusion and collision-assisted free electron recombination in molecular gases. A theoretical model of the grating evolution is developed and compared to experimental results. Good agreement with simulations allows extracting plasma properties such as electron density, diffusion and recombination coefficients in Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, O2, CO2 and air at atmospheric pressure.

  3. Laser-induced grating spectroscopy of cadmium telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, Mark S.; Suchocki, Andrzej; Powell, Richard C.; Cantwell, Gene; Aldridge, Jeff

    1989-08-01

    Laser-induced transient gratings produced by two-photon absorption of picosecond pulses at 1.064 μm were used to examine the room-temperature nonlinear optical responses of CdTe crystals with different types of conductivity. Pulse-probe degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of grating dynamics on subnanosecond time scales were used to measure the ambipolar diffusion coefficient (Da) of charge carriers in the crystals. The value of Da =3.0 cm2 s-1 which was obtained is in very good agreement with theoretical estimates. A long-lived contribution to the signal consistent with a trapped charge photorefractive effect was observed at large grating spacings for n-type conductivity, and is tentatively attributed to a larger trap density in this sample. Measurements of the relative scattering efficiencies of successive diffracted orders in the Raman-Nath regime allowed for calculation of the laser-induced change in the index of refraction, due to the creation of free carriers. The value of Δn=4×10-4 which was obtained is in good agreement with theoretical estimates.

  4. Laser-induced transient grating setup with continuously tunable period

    SciTech Connect

    Vega-Flick, A.; Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A.; Khanolkar, A.; Abi Ghanem, M.; Boechler, N.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2015-12-15

    We present a modification of the laser-induced transient grating setup enabling continuous tuning of the transient grating period. The fine control of the period is accomplished by varying the angle of the diffraction grating used to split excitation and probe beams. The setup has been tested by measuring dispersion of bulk and surface acoustic waves in both transmission and reflection geometries. The presented modification is fully compatible with optical heterodyne detection and can be easily implemented in any transient grating setup.

  5. Investigation of ultrafast photothermal surface expansion and diffusivity in GaAs via laser-induced dynamic gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D.M.

    1992-04-01

    This thesis details the first direct ultrafast measurements of the dynamic thermal expansion of a surface and the temperature dependent surface thermal diffusivity using a two-color reflection transient grating technique. Studies were performed on p-type, n-type, and undoped GaAs(100) samples over a wide range of temperatures. By utilizing a 90 fs ultraviolet probe with visible excitation beams, the effects of interband saturation and carrier dynamics become negligible; thus lattice expansion due to heating and subsequent contraction caused by cooling provided the dominant influence on the probe. At room temperature a rise due to thermal expansion was observed, corresponding to a maximum net displacement of {approximately} 1 {Angstrom} at 32 ps. The diffracted signal was composed of two components, thermal expansion of the surface and heat flow away from the surface, thus allowing a determination of the rate of expansion as well as the surface thermal diffusivity, D{sub S}. By varying the fringe spacing of the grating, this technique has the potential to separate the signal contributions to the expansion of the lattice in the perpendicular and parallel directions. In the data presented here a large fringe spacing was used, thus the dominant contribution to the rising edge of the signal was expansion perpendicular to the surface. Comparison of he results with a straightforward thermal model yields good agreement over a range of temperatures (20--300{degrees}K). Values for D{sub S} in GaAs were measured and found to be in reasonable agreement with bulk values above 50{degrees}K. Below 50{degrees}K, D{sub S} were determined to be up to an order of magnitude slower than the bulk diffusivity due to increased phonon boundary scattering. The applicability and advantages of the TG technique for studying photothermal and photoacoustic phenomena are discussed.

  6. Single shot thermometry using laser induced thermal grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Pubo; Guan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhenrong; Wang, Sheng; Li, Guohua; Ye, Jingfeng; Hu, Zhiyun

    2015-05-01

    With the concern of environmental protection and reducing the fossil fuel consumption, combustion processes need to be more efficient and less contaminable. Therefore, the ability to obtain important thermophysical parameters is crucial to combustion research and combustor design. Traditional surveying techniques were difficult to apply in a confined space, especially the physically intrusions of detectors can alter the combustion processes. Laser-based diagnostic techniques, like CARS, SVRS, PLIF and TDLAS, allow the in situ, non-intrusive, spatially and temporally resolved measurements of combustion parameters in hostile environments. We report here a new non-intrusive optical diagnostic technique, based on laser-induced thermal grating. Thermal gratings generated in NO2/N2 binary mixtures, arise from the nonlinear interaction between the medium and the light radiation from the interference of two pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers (532 nm). This leads to the formation of a dynamic grating through the resonant absorption and the subsequent collisional relaxation. By the temporally resolved detection of a continuous wave, frequency-doubled Nd:YVO4 probe laser beam (671 nm) diffracted by LITG. The temporal behavior of the signal is a function of the local temperature and other properties of gas, various parameters of the target gas can be extracted by analyzing the signal. The accurate singleshot temperature measurements were carried out at different test conditions using a stainless steel pressurized cell, data averaged on 100 laser shots were compared with simultaneously recorded thermocouple data, and the results were consistent with each other. The LITG signal is shown to grow with increasing the gas pressure and is spatially coherent, which makes the LITG thermometry technique a promising candidate in high pressure environments.

  7. Laser-Induced Transient Grating Analysis of Dynamics of Interaction between Sensory Rhodopsin II D75N and the HtrII Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Keiichi; Sasaki, Jun; Spudich, John L.; Terazima, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between sensory rhodopsin II (SRII) and its transducer HtrII was studied by the time-resolved laser-induced transient grating method using the D75N mutant of SRII, which exhibits minimal visible light absorption changes during its photocycle, but mediates normal phototaxis responses. Flash-induced transient absorption spectra of transducer-free D75N and D75N joined to 120 amino-acid residues of the N-terminal part of the SRII transducer protein HtrII (ΔHtrII) showed only one spectrally distinct K-like intermediate in their photocycles, but the transient grating method resolved four intermediates (K1–K4) distinct in their volumes. D75N bound to HtrII exhibited one additional slower kinetic species, which persists after complete recovery of the initial state as assessed by absorption changes in the UV-visible region. The kinetics indicate a conformationally changed form of the transducer portion (designated Tr*), which persists after the photoreceptor returns to the unphotolyzed state. The largest conformational change in the ΔHtrII portion was found to cause a ΔHtrII-dependent increase in volume rising in 8 μs in the K4 state and a drastic decrease in the diffusion coefficient (D) of K4 relatively to those of the unphotolyzed state and Tr*. The magnitude of the decrease in D indicates a large structural change, presumably in the solvent-exposed HAMP domain of ΔHtrII, where rearrangement of interacting molecules in the solvent would substantially change friction between the protein and the solvent. PMID:17189313

  8. Properties and Applications of Laser-Induced Gratings in Rare Earth Doped Glasses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Edward Grady

    Scope and method of study. Four-wave-mixing techniques were used in an attempt to create permanent laser-induced grating in Pr^{3+}-, Nd ^{3+}-, Eu^ {3+}-, and Er^{3+ }-doped glasses. The permanent laser-induced grating signal intensity and build-up and erase times were investigated as function of the write beam crossing angle, write beam power, and temperature. Thermal lensing measurements were conducted on Eu^{3+} - and Nd^{3+}-doped glasses and room temperature Raman and resonant Raman spectra were obtained for Eu^{3+}-doped glasses. The permanent laser-induced grating signal intensity was studied in Eu^{3+} -doped alkali-metal glasses as a function of the alkali -metal network modifier ion and a model was developed by treating the sample as a two-level system. Optical device applications of the permanent laser-induced gratings were studied by creating some simple devices. Findings and conclusions. Permanent laser-induced gratings were created in the Pr^{3+ }- and Eu^{3+} -doped glasses. The permanent laser-induced grating is associated with a structural phase change of the glass host. The structural change is produced by high energy phonons which are emitted by radiationless relaxation processes of the rare earth ion. Nd^{3+} and Er^{3+} relax nonradiatively by the emission of phonons of much lower energy which are unable to produce the structural phase change needed to form a permanent laser-induced grating. The difference in energy of the emitted phonons is responsible for the differing characteristics of the thermal lensing experiments. The model does a good job of predicting the experimental results for the asymmetry and other parameters of the two-level system. The application of these laser -induced gratings for optical devices demonstrates their importance to optical technology.

  9. Laser induced damage in multilayer dielectric gratings due to ultrashort laser pulses. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.; Stuart, B.C.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Perry, M.D.

    1995-07-11

    Chirped pulse amplification is increasingly used to produce intense ultrashort laser pulses. When high-efficiency gratings are the dispersive element, as in the LLNL Petawatt laser, their susceptibility to laser induced damage constitutes a limitation on the peak intensities that can be reached. To obtain robust gratings, it is necessary to understand the causes of short-pulse damage, and to recognize the range of design options for high efficiency gratings. Metal gratings owe their high efficiency to their high conductivity. To avoid the inevitable light absorption that accompanies conductivity, we have developed designs for high efficiency rejection gratings that use only transparent dielectric materials. These combine the reflectivity of a multi-layer dielectric stack with a diffraction grating. We report here our present understanding of short-pulse laser induced damage, as it applies to dielectric gratings.

  10. Laser induced damage in multilayer dielectric gratings due to ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.; Stuart, B.C.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Perry, M.D.

    1995-05-26

    Chirped pulse amplification is increasingly used to produce intense ultrashort laser pulses. When high-efficiency gratings are the dispersive element, as in the LLNL Petawatt laser, their susceptibility to laser induced damage constitutes a limitation on the peak intensities that can be reached. To obtain robust gratings, it is necessary to understand the causes of short-pulse damage, and to recognize the range of design options for high efficiency gratings. Metal gratings owe their high efficiency to their high conductivity. To avoid the inevitable light absorption that accompanies conductivity, we have developed designs for high efficiency reflection gratings that use only transparent dielectric materials. These combine the reflectivity of a multilayer dielectric stack with a diffraction grating. We report here our present understanding of short-pulse laser induced damage, as it applies to dielectric gratings.

  11. Laser-induced grating spectroscopy of rare earth ions in solids

    SciTech Connect

    French, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of energy transfer and migration processes important in the optical dynamics of Tm,Ho:YAG and Tm:YAG laser crystals were investigated using both time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and laser-induced grating spectroscopy. Four-wave mixing techniques were used to produce permanent laser-induced refractive index gratings in Eu-doped silicate glasses. The effects on the characteristics of these permanent gratings produced by changing the divalent modifier ions of the glass host are reported. Efficient long-range energy migration was found to take place in the [sup 3]F[sub 4] level of the Tm ions, which enhances the energy transfer to Ho ions. The parameters describing excitation migration were determined experimentally and used to calculate an overall Tm-Ho energy transfer rate. This was found to be in close agreement with the rate determined by the results of fluorescence spectral dynamics measurements. Theoretical estimates were made of the fundamental ion-ion interaction rates responsible for each of the physical processes investigated here and the results were all found to be in close agreement with the experimentally determined values. The author extends previous investigations on the Eu-doped silicate glasses by describing the variation of the four-wave-mixing signal intensity of a series of glasses with different divalent alkaline network modifier ions. The temperature dependence of the signal from one of the samples was measured and a theoretical explanation for the change in the refractive index associated with the double-minimum potential well model is developed.

  12. Development of laser-induced grating spectroscopy for underwater temperature measurement in shock wave focusing regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gojani, Ardian B.; Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.; Saito, Tsutomu; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2004-02-01

    In Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) underwater shock wave focusing generates high pressures at very short duration of time inside human body. However, it is not yet clear how high temperatures are enhanced at the spot where a shock wave is focused. The estimation of such dynamic temperature enhancements is critical for the evaluation of tissue damages upon shock loading. For this purpose in the Interdisciplinary Shock Wave Research Center a technique is developed which employs laser induced thermal acoustics or Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy. Unlike most of gas-dynamic methods of measuring physical quantities this provides a non-invasive one having spatial and temporal resolutions of the order of magnitude of 1.0 mm 3 and 400 ns, respectively. Preliminary experiments in still water demonstrated that this method detected sound speed and hence temperature in water ranging 283 K to 333 K with errors of 0.5%. These results are used to empirically establish the equation of states of water, gelatin or agar cell which will work as alternatives of human tissues.

  13. Development of Laser-induced Grating Spectroscopy for Underwater Temperature Measurement in Shock Wave Focusing Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gojani, Ardian B.; Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.; Saito, Tsutomu; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    In Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) underwater shock wave focusing generates high pressures at very short duration of time inside human body. However, it is not yet clear how high temperatures are enhanced at the spot where a shock wave is focused. The estimation of such dynamic temperature enhancements is critical for the evaluation of tissue damages upon shock loading. For this purpose in the Interdisciplinary Shock Wave Research Center a technique is developed which employs laser induced thermal acoustics or Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy. Unlike most of gasdynamic methods of measuring physical quantities this provides a non-invasive one having spatial and temporal resolutions of the order of magnitude of 1.0 mm3 and 400 ns, respectively. Preliminary experiments in still water demonstrated that this method detected sound speed and hence temperature in water ranging 283 K to 333 K with errors of 0.5%. These results may be used to empirically establish the equation of states of water, gelatin or agar cells which will work as alternatives of human tissues.

  14. CO2 laser induced long period gratings in optical microfibers.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Haifeng; Jin, Wei; Zhang, Min

    2009-11-23

    Long period gratings (LPGs) are fabricated by use of focused high frequency CO(2) laser pulses to periodically modify the transverse dimension of silica microfibers. A 20-period LPG with a 27 dB attenuation dip is realized in a microfiber with a diameter of approximately 6.3 microm. The resonant wavelength has a negative temperature coefficient and a high sensitivity to external refractive index. The microfiber LPGs may be useful in micron scale in-fiber devices and sensors. PMID:19997432

  15. Trace species concentration and temperature measurements at high pressure using laser-induced grating spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael S.; DeBarber, Peter A.; Cummings, Eric B.; Hornung, Hans G.

    1995-09-01

    We have recorded laser-induced grating signals from mixtures of NO2 and air over a pressure range extending from less that 100 kPa (1 atm) to 10 MPa (100 atm). Signals generated from concentrations of NO2 at the part-per-million level have been successfully detected with high signal-to-noise rations. The measurements were made using the technique of laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA). Analysis of the acquired data was made using a comprehensive theory which includes the hydrodynamic response of the fluid and finite beam-size effects. The observed pressure dependence of the peak amplitude signals is consistent with the theory. Additionally, least squares fits between the theory and the temporally resolved signal yield accurate values of the local sound speed and thermal diffusivity. Determination of the local sound speed provides a measurement of the local temperature.

  16. Femtosecond laser-induced subwavelength ripples formed by asymmetrical grating splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Pin; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xin; Zhang, Kaihu; Shi, Xuesong; Li, Bo; Lu, Yongfeng

    2016-05-01

    The formation process and mechanism of subwavelength ripples were studied upon irradiation of ZnO by a femtosecond laser (800 nm, 50 fs, 1 kHz). An abnormally asymmetrical grating-splitting phenomenon was discovered. At relatively high laser fluences (F = 0.51-0.63 J/cm2), near-wavelength ripples were split asymmetrically to create subwavelength laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) with dual gaps (∼230 nm and ∼430 nm) on the primary grooves. At relatively low laser fluences (F = 0.4-0.45 J/cm2), near-wavelength ripples were split symmetrically, leading to the formation of uniform subwavelength structures with a period of ∼340 nm. The splitting phenomena are related to the varying laser beam dose induced by the overlapping during line scanning. The two grating-splitting types further imply that the dominated mechanism for LIPSS formation may be changed under different processing conditions.

  17. Trace species concentration and temperature measurements at high pressure using laser-induced grating spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.S.; DeBarber, P.A.; Cummings, E.B.; Hornung, H.G.

    1995-12-31

    Ongoing development by NASA and engine manufacturers of the next generation of aircraft engines for civil transport calls for combustors that will operate at pressures up to 60 atm and 2,000 K. Diagnostic measurements of this combustion environment are required to address the many engineering and modeling questions. While a variety of laser-based optical techniques have been developed over the last 20 years to detect trace species in reacting flows, few measurements have been made at pressures above 10 atm. Here, the authors have recorded laser-induced grating signals from mixtures of NO{sub x} and air over a pressure range extending from less than 100 kPa (1 atm) to 10 MPa (100 atm). Signals generated from concentrations of NO{sub 2} at the part-per-million level have been successfully detected with high signal-to-noise ratios. The measurements were made using the technique of laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA). Analysis of the acquired data was made using a comprehensive theory which includes the hydrodynamic response of the fluid and finite beam-size effects. The observed pressure dependence of the peak amplitude signals is consistent with the theory. Additionally, least squares fits between the theory and the temporally resolved signal yield accurate values of the local sound speed and thermal diffusivity. Determination of the local sound speed provides a measurement of the local temperature.

  18. Laser-induced damage of multilayer dielectric gratings with picosecond laser pulses under vacuum and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fanyu; Jin, Yunxia; Huang, Haopeng; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Shijie; He, Hongbo

    2015-10-01

    In this study, laser damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings (MDGs) are performed in vacuum (5×10-4 Pa) and in air at a wavelength of 1053 nm with pulse widths of 0.56 ps ~9.7 ps. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of MDGs in vacuum/air ranges from 2.1/2.2 J/cm2 to 4.4/4.8 J/cm2 for laser beams of normal incidence. The LIDT of MDGs follows a τ0.26 scaling in the pulse width regime considered. The typical damage morphologies in the two environments caused by the near threshold pulse were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM); the results indicate that the damage features of MDGs in vacuum are the same as those in air. The testing results reveal that a clean vacuum environment neither changes the laser damage mechanism nor lowers the LIDT of MDGs.

  19. Using the laser-induced Marangoni effect for the recording of diffraction gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastopov, S. F.; Sukhodol'Skii, A. T.

    1987-08-01

    A method for recording diffraction gratings is proposed which uses the photoinduced Marangoni effect occurring during the evaporation of a thin absorbing liquid layer on a solid substrate. The dynamics of mass transfer processes is analyzed using results of experiments with a concentrated solution of Rhodamine in ethyl alcohol in which the diffraction efficiency of the grating was determined directly in the process of its recording.

  20. Dynamic response of shear thickening fluid under laser induced shock

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xianqian Yin, Qiuyun; Huang, Chenguang; Zhong, Fachun

    2015-02-16

    The dynamic response of the 57 vol./vol. % dense spherical silica particle-polyethylene glycol suspension at high pressure was investigated through short pulsed laser induced shock experiments. The measured back free surface velocities by a photonic Doppler velocimetry showed that the shock and the particle velocities decreased while the shock wave transmitted in the shear thickening fluid (STF), from which an equation of state for the STF was obtained. In addition, the peak stress decreased and the absorbed energy increased rapidly with increasing the thickness for a thin layer of the STF, which should be attributed to the impact-jammed behavior through compression of particle matrix, the deformation or crack of the hard-sphere particles, and the volume compression of the particles and the polyethylene glycol.

  1. Surface plasmon resonance in eccentric femtosecond-laser-induced fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Chah, Karima; Voisin, Valérie; Kinet, Damien; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2014-12-15

    Highly localized refractive index modulations are photo-written in the core of pure silica fiber using point-by-point focused UV femtosecond pulses. These specific gratings exhibit a comb-like transmitted amplitude spectrum, with polarization-dependent narrowband cladding mode resonances. In this work, eccentric gratings are surrounded by a gold sheath, allowing the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) for radially-polarized light modes. The spectral response is studied as a function of the surrounding refractive index and a maximum sensitivity of 50  nm/RIU (refractive index unit) is reported for a well-defined cladding-mode resonance among the spectral comb. This novel kind of plasmonic fiber grating sensor offers rapidity of production, design flexibility, and high temperature stability. PMID:25503022

  2. Behavior of femtosecond laser-induced eccentric fiber Bragg gratings at very high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chikh-Bled, Hicham; Chah, Karima; González-Vila, Álvaro; Lasri, Boumediène; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    In this work, eccentric Bragg gratings are photoinscribed in telecommunication-grade optical fibers. They are localized close to the core-cladding interface, yielding strong cladding mode resonance couplings and high photoinduced birefringence. Their transmitted amplitude spectrum is measured with polarized light while they are exposed to temperature changes up to 900°C. Despite the gratings' overall good thermal stability that confirms their robustness for high-temperature refractometry, we report an interesting polarization effect depending on both the cladding mode resonance family and mode order. While the core mode birefringence decreases with growing temperatures, certain cladding mode resonances show an increase in wavelength splitting between their orthogonally polarized components. This differential behavior is of high interest in developing high-resolution, multiparametric sensing platforms. PMID:27607969

  3. In situ detection and analysis of laser-induced damage on a 1.5-m multilayer-dielectric grating compressor for high-energy, petawatt-class laser systems.

    PubMed

    Qiao, J; Schmid, A W; Waxer, L J; Nguyen, T; Bunkenburg, J; Kingsley, C; Kozlov, A; Weiner, D

    2010-05-10

    A grating-inspection system and a damage-analysis method have been developed to measure in situ laser-induced damage on a 1.5-m tiled-grating assembly of the OMEGA EP pulse compressor during a 15-ps, 2.2-kJ energy ramp. The beam fluence at which significant damage growth occurred was determined. This is the first report on beam fluence versus laser-induced-damage growth of meter-sized multilayer-dielectric-diffraction gratings. This result was correlated to the damage-probability measurement conducted on a small grating sample and is consistent with the fluence, corresponding to 100% damage probability. PMID:20588897

  4. Mid-Infrared Pumped Laser-Induced Thermal Grating Spectroscopy for Detection of Acetylene in the Visible Spectral Range.

    PubMed

    Sahlberg, Anna-Lena; Kiefer, Johannes; Aldén, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan

    2016-06-01

    We present mid-infrared laser-induced thermal grating spectroscopy (IR-LITGS) using excitation radiation around 3 µm generated by a simple broadband optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Acetylene as a typical small hydrocarbon molecule is used as an example target species. A mid-infrared broadband OPO pumped by the fundamental output of a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser was used to generate the pump beams, with pulse energies of 6-10 mJ depending on the wavelength. The line width of the OPO idler beam was ∼5 cm(-1), which is large enough to cover up to six adjacent acetylene lines. The probe beam was the radiation of a 532 nm cw solid state laser with 190 mW output power. Signals were generated in atmospheric pressure gas flows of N2, air, CO2 and Ar with small admixtures of C2H2 A detection limit of less than 300 ppm was found for a point measurement of C2H2 diluted in N2 As expected, the oscillation frequency of the IR-LITGS signal was found to have a large dependency on the buffer gas, which allows determination of the speed of sound. Moreover, the results reveal a very strong collisional energy exchange between C2H2 and CO2 compared to the other gases. This manifests as significant local heating. In summary, the MIR-LITGS technique enables spectroscopy of fundamental vibrational transitions in the infrared via detection in the visible spectral range. PMID:27091904

  5. Experimental investigation on dynamic characteristics and strengthening mechanism of laser-induced cavitation bubbles.

    PubMed

    Ren, X D; He, H; Tong, Y Q; Ren, Y P; Yuan, S Q; Liu, R; Zuo, C Y; Wu, K; Sui, S; Wang, D S

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic features of nanosecond laser-induced cavitation bubbles near the light alloy boundary were investigated with the high-speed photography. The shock-waves and the dynamic characteristics of the cavitation bubbles generated by the laser were detected using the hydrophone. The dynamic features and strengthening mechanism of cavitation bubbles were studied. The strengthening mechanisms of cavitation bubble were discussed when the relative distance parameter γ was within the range of 0.5-2.5. It showed that the strengthening mechanisms caused by liquid jet or shock-waves depended on γ much. The research results provided a new strengthening method based on laser-induced cavitation shotless peening (CSP). PMID:27150764

  6. Probing Molecular Dynamics by Laser-Induced Backscattering Holography.

    PubMed

    Haertelt, Marko; Bian, Xue-Bin; Spanner, Michael; Staudte, André; Corkum, Paul B

    2016-04-01

    We use differential holography to overcome the forward scattering problem in strong-field photoelectron holography. Our differential holograms of H_{2} and D_{2} molecules exhibit a fishbonelike structure, which arises from the backscattered part of the recolliding photoelectron wave packet. We demonstrate that the backscattering hologram can resolve the different nuclear dynamics between H_{2} and D_{2} with subangstrom spatial and subcycle temporal resolution. In addition, we show that attosecond electron dynamics can be resolved. These results open a new avenue for ultrafast studies of molecular dynamics in small molecules. PMID:27081975

  7. Probing Molecular Dynamics by Laser-Induced Backscattering Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haertelt, Marko; Bian, Xue-Bin; Spanner, Michael; Staudte, André; Corkum, Paul B.

    2016-04-01

    We use differential holography to overcome the forward scattering problem in strong-field photoelectron holography. Our differential holograms of H2 and D2 molecules exhibit a fishbonelike structure, which arises from the backscattered part of the recolliding photoelectron wave packet. We demonstrate that the backscattering hologram can resolve the different nuclear dynamics between H2 and D2 with subangstrom spatial and subcycle temporal resolution. In addition, we show that attosecond electron dynamics can be resolved. These results open a new avenue for ultrafast studies of molecular dynamics in small molecules.

  8. Laser-Induced Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Magnetic Films.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ka; Bauer, Gerrit E W

    2015-11-01

    We present a theory for the coherent magnetization dynamics induced by a focused ultrafast laser beam in magnetic films, taking into account nonthermal (inverse Faraday effect) and thermal (heating) actuation. The dynamic conversion between spin waves and phonons is induced by the magnetoelastic coupling that allows efficient propagation of angular momentum. The anisotropy of the magnetoelastic coupling renders characteristic angle dependences of the magnetization propagation that are strikingly different for thermal and nonthermal actuation. PMID:26588408

  9. Simultaneous measurement of speed of sound, thermal diffusivity, and bulk viscosity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids using laser-induced gratings.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Dimitrii N; Kiefer, Johannes; Seeger, Thomas; Fröba, Andreas P; Leipertz, Alfred

    2014-12-11

    The technique of laser-induced gratings (LIGs) has been applied to the simultaneous determination of speed of sound and thermal diffusivity of four 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([EMIm])-based room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs)-[EMIm][N(CN)2], [EMIm][MeSO3], [EMIm][C(CN)3], and [EMIm][NTf2]-at ambient pressure (1 bar (0.1 MPa)) and temperature (28 °C (301 K)). Transient laser-induced gratings were created as a result of thermalization of a quasi-resonant excitation of highly lying combinational vibrational states of the RTIL molecules and electrostrictive compression of the liquid by radiation of a pulse-repetitive Q-switched Nd:YAG pump laser (1064 nm). The LIGs temporal evolution was recorded using Bragg diffraction of the radiation from a continuous-wave probe laser (532 nm). By fitting the temporal profiles of the LIG signals, the speed of sound and thermal diffusivity were determined, and the isentropic compressibility and thermal conductivity were calculated. Independently, the special experimental arrangement allowed the measurement of the damping of the laser-excited acoustic waves and the derivation of the RTIL bulk viscosity for the first time. PMID:25415848

  10. Laser-induced magnetization dynamics and reversal in ferrimagnetic alloys.

    PubMed

    Kirilyuk, Andrei; Kimel, Alexey V; Rasing, Theo

    2013-02-01

    This review discusses the recent studies of magnetization dynamics and the role of angular momentum in thin films of ferrimagnetic rare-earth-transition metal (RE-TM) alloys, e.g. GdFeCo, where both magnetization and angular momenta are temperature dependent. It has been experimentally demonstrated that the magnetization can be manipulated and even reversed by a single 40 fs laser pulse, without any applied magnetic field. This switching is found to follow a novel reversal pathway, that is shown however to depend crucially on the net angular momentum, reflecting the balance of the two opposite sublattices. In particular, optical excitation of ferrimagnetic GdFeCo on a time scale pertinent to the characteristic time of the exchange interaction between the RE and TM spins, i.e. on the time scale of tens of femtoseconds, pushes the spin dynamics into a yet unexplored regime, where the two exchange-coupled magnetic sublattices demonstrate substantially different dynamics. As a result, the reversal of spins appears to proceed via a novel transient state characterized by a ferromagnetic alignment of the Gd and Fe magnetic moments, despite their ground-state antiferromagnetic coupling.Thus, optical manipulation of magnetic order by femtosecond laser pulses has developed into an exciting and still expanding research field that keeps being fueled by a continuous stream of new and sometimes counterintuitive results. Considering the progress in the development of plasmonic antennas and compact ultrafast lasers, optical control of magnetic order may also potentially revolutionize data storage and information processing technologies. PMID:23377279

  11. Dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced melting of silver

    SciTech Connect

    Chan Wailun; Averback, Robert S.; Cahill, David G.; Lagoutchev, Alexei

    2008-12-01

    We use optical third-harmonic generation to measure the melting dynamics of silver following femtosecond laser excitation. The dynamics reveals an unusual two-step process that is associated with the extreme electronic temperatures and very short time and length scales. In the first, which lasts a few picoseconds, the electron and phonon systems begin to equilibrate, and a thin surface layer undergoes melting. Heat conduction during this period is strongly suppressed by electron scattering from d-band excitations. In the second stage, the surface region remains above the melting temperature for a surprisingly long time, 20-30 ps, with the melt front propagating into the bulk at a velocity of {approx_equal}350 m s{sup -1}. In this stage, the electron and phonon systems again fall out of equilibrium and conduction of heat away from the surface region is now limited by the weak electron-phonon (e-p) coupling. From our model calculation, we propose that the melt depths in noble metals irradiated by femtosecond lasers are limited to thicknesses on the order of two to three times of the optical-absorption depth of the light.

  12. Dynamics of laser induced metal nanoparticle and pattern formation

    SciTech Connect

    Peláez, R. J. Kuhn, T.; Rodríguez, C. E.; Afonso, C. N.

    2015-02-09

    Discontinuous metal films are converted into either almost round, isolated, and randomly distributed nanoparticles (NPs) or fringed patterns of alternate non transformed film and NPs by exposure to single pulses (20 ns pulse duration and 193 nm wavelength) of homogeneous or modulated laser beam intensity. The dynamics of NPs and pattern formation is studied by measuring in real time the transmission and reflectivity of the sample upon homogeneous beam exposure and the intensity of the diffraction orders 0 and 1 in transmission configuration upon modulated beam exposure. The results show that laser irradiation induces melting of the metal either completely or at regions around intensity maxima sites for homogeneous and modulated beam exposure, respectively, within ≤10 ns. The aggregation and/or coalescence of the initially irregular metal nanostructures is triggered upon melting and continues after solidification (estimated to occur at ≤80 ns) for more than 1 μs. The present results demonstrate that real time transmission rather than reflectivity measurements is a valuable and easy-to-use tool for following the dynamics of NPs and pattern formation. They provide insights on the heat-driven processes occurring both in liquid and solid phases and allow controlling in-situ the process through the fluence. They also evidence that there is negligible lateral heat release in discontinuous films upon laser irradiation.

  13. Laser-induced perturbation into molecular dynamics localized in neuronal cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Chie; Takeda, Naoko; Kudoh, Suguru N.; Taguchi, Takahisa

    2015-03-01

    Molecular dynamics at synaptic terminals in neuronal cells is essential for synaptic plasticity and subsequent modulation of cellular functions in a neuronal network. For realizing artificial control of living neuronal network, we demonstrate laser-induced perturbation into molecular dynamics in the neuronal cells. The optical trapping of cellular molecules such as synaptic vesicles or neural cell adhesion molecules labeled with quantum dots was evaluated by fluorescence imaging and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The trapping and assembling dynamics was revealed that the molecular motion was constrained at the focal spot of a focused laser beam due to optical trapping force. Our method has a potential to manipulate synaptic transmission at single synapse level.

  14. Dynamic optical coupled system employing Dammann gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Caihui; Zhou, Changhe; Ru, Huayi

    2004-10-01

    With the increasing of the number of users in optical fiber communications, fiber-to-home project has a larger market value. Then the need of dynamic optical couplers, especially of N broad-band couplers, becomes greater. Though some advanced fiber fusion techniques have been developed, they still have many shortcomings. In this paper we propose a dynamic optical coupled system employing even-numbered Dammann gratings, which have the characteristic that the phase distribution in the first half-period accurately equals to that in the second-period with π phase inversion. In our experiment, we divide a conventional even-numbered Dammann grating into two identical gratings. The system can achieve the beam splitter and combiner as the switch between them according to the relative shift between two complementary gratings. When there is no shift between the gratings, the demonstrated 1×8 dynamic optical coupler achieves good uniformity of 0.06 and insertion loss of around 10.8 dB for each channel as a splitter. When the two gratings have an accurate shift of a half-period between them, our system has a low insertion loss of 0.46 dB as a combiner at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  15. Micro Dynamics of Pulsed Laser Induced Bubbles in Dusty Plasma Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.-W.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Tseng, Y.-P.; I Lin

    2008-09-07

    We experimentally study the micro dynamics of the laser induced plasma bubble in a dusty plasma liquid formed by negatively charged dust particles suspended in a low pressure rf Ar glow discharge. The plume from the ablation of the suspended dust particles pushes away dust particle and generates a dust-free plasma bubble. It then travels downward. The spatio-temporal evolution of the dust density fluctuation surrounding the bubble is monitored by directly tracking dust motion through optical video microscopy. The micro dynamics of the bubble associated dust acoustic type solitary oscillation in the wake field is investigated and discussed.

  16. Structural and magnetic dynamics of a laser induced phase transition in FeRh.

    PubMed

    Mariager, S O; Pressacco, F; Ingold, G; Caviezel, A; Möhr-Vorobeva, E; Beaud, P; Johnson, S L; Milne, C J; Mancini, E; Moyerman, S; Fullerton, E E; Feidenhans'l, R; Back, C H; Quitmann, C

    2012-02-24

    We use time-resolved x-ray diffraction and magneto-optical Kerr effect to study the laser-induced antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition in FeRh. The structural response is given by the nucleation of independent ferromagnetic domains (τ(1)~30 ps). This is significantly faster than the magnetic response (τ(2)~60 ps) given by the subsequent domain realignment. X-ray diffraction shows that the two phases coexist on short time scales and that the phase transition is limited by the speed of sound. A nucleation model describing both the structural and magnetic dynamics is presented. PMID:22463562

  17. Structural and Magnetic Dynamics of a Laser Induced Phase Transition in FeRh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariager, S. O.; Pressacco, F.; Ingold, G.; Caviezel, A.; Möhr-Vorobeva, E.; Beaud, P.; Johnson, S. L.; Milne, C. J.; Mancini, E.; Moyerman, S.; Fullerton, E. E.; Feidenhans'L, R.; Back, C. H.; Quitmann, C.

    2012-02-01

    We use time-resolved x-ray diffraction and magneto-optical Kerr effect to study the laser-induced antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition in FeRh. The structural response is given by the nucleation of independent ferromagnetic domains (τ1˜30ps). This is significantly faster than the magnetic response (τ2˜60ps) given by the subsequent domain realignment. X-ray diffraction shows that the two phases coexist on short time scales and that the phase transition is limited by the speed of sound. A nucleation model describing both the structural and magnetic dynamics is presented.

  18. A comparative study of laser-induced demagnetization dynamics in Fe, Co, and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Gentry, Christian; Zusin, Dmitriy; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Shaw, Justin; Nembach, Hans; Mathias, Stefan; Aeschlimann, Martin; Oppeneer, Peter; Schneider, Claus; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret

    Even twenty years after the discovery of ultrafast demagnetization of ferromagnetic materials induced by a femtosecond laser pulse there is still an ongoing debate about the mechanisms that drive the process. Surprisingly, a comprehensive study that compares demagnetization dynamics in different materials on equal footing is lacking. Yet, the scientific community would greatly benefit from such study. We fill this gap by performing a systematic comparison of ultrafast demagnetization behavior in Iron, Cobalt and Nickel, the simplest itinerant ferromagnets, under a wide range of pump fluences. In this experiment, we utilize a tabletop broadband extreme ultraviolet source to probe magnetization dynamics at the M2,3 absorption edges of these three elements using the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect. The obtained data can be used to inform theory and, thereby, assist in resolving the remaining questions about the micro- and macroscopic mechanisms behind ultrafast laser-induced magnetization dynamics in materials.

  19. Probing laser induced metal vaporization by gas dynamics and liquid pool transport phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    DebRoy, T.; Basu, S.; Mundra, K. )

    1991-08-01

    During laser beam welding of many important engineering alloys, an appreciable amount of alloying element vaporization takes place from the weld pool surface. As a consequence, the composition of the solidified weld pool is often significantly different from that of the alloy being welded. Currently there is no comprehensive theoretical model to predict, from first principles, laser induced metal vaporization rates and the resulting weld pool composition changes. The weld pool heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena have been coupled with the velocity distribution functions of the gas molecules at various locations above the weld pool to determine the rates of the laser induced element vaporization for pure metals. The procedure allows for calculations of the condensation flux based on the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy in both the vapor and the liquid phases. Computed values of the rates of vaporization of pure metals were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimentally determined values. The synthesis of the principles of gas dynamics and weld pool transport phenomena can serve as a basis for weld metal composition control.

  20. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Photogrammetry for Dynamic Characterization of Transparent and Aluminized Membrane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrington, Adrian A.; Jones, Thomas W.; Danehy, Paul M.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Photogrammetry has proven to be a valuable tool for static and dynamic profiling of membrane based inflatable and ultra-lightweight space structures. However, the traditional photogrammetric targeting techniques used for solid structures, such as attached retro-reflective targets and white-light dot projection, have some disadvantages and are not ideally suited for measuring highly transparent or reflective membrane structures. In this paper, we describe a new laser-induced fluorescence based target generation technique that is more suitable for these types of structures. We also present several examples of non-contact non-invasive photogrammetric measurements of laser-dye doped polymers, including the dynamic measurement and modal analysis of a 1m-by-1m aluminized solar sail style membrane.

  1. Dynamic model of thermal reaction of biological tissues to laser-induced fluorescence and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Seteikin, Alexey Yu; Krasnikov, Ilya V; Drakaki, Eleni; Makropoulou, Mersini

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the temperature fields and the dynamics of heat conduction into the skin tissue under several laser irradiation conditions with both a pulsed ultraviolet (UV) laser (λ=337  nm) and a continuous-wave (cw) visible laser beam (λ=632.8  nm) using Monte Carlo modeling. Finite-element methodology was used for heat transfer simulation. The analysis of the results showed that heat is not localized on the surface, but is collected inside the tissue in lower skin layers. The simulation was made with the pulsed UV laser beam (used as excitation source in laser-induced fluorescence) and the cw visible laser (used in photodynamic therapy treatments), in order to study the possible thermal effects. PMID:23839531

  2. Investigating the dynamics of laser induced sparks in atmospheric helium using Rayleigh and Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nedanovska, E.; Nersisyan, G.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Riley, D.; Graham, W. G.; Morgan, T. J.; Hüwel, L.; Murakami, T.

    2015-01-07

    We have used optical Rayleigh and Thomson scattering to investigate the expansion dynamics of laser induced plasma in atmospheric helium and to map its electron parameters both in time and space. The plasma is created using 9 ns duration, 140 mJ pulses from a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm, focused with a 10 cm focal length lens, and probed with 7 ns, 80 mJ, and 532 nm Nd:YAG laser pulses. Between 0.4 μs and 22.5 μs after breakdown, the electron density decreases from 3.3 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} to 9 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −3}, while the temperature drops from 3.2 eV to 0.1 eV. Spatially resolved Thomson scattering data recorded up to 17.5 μs reveal that during this time the laser induced plasma expands at a rate given by R ∼ t{sup 0.4} consistent with a non-radiative spherical blast wave. This data also indicate the development of a toroidal structure in the lateral profile of both electron temperature and density. Rayleigh scattering data show that the gas density decreases in the center of the expanding plasma with a central scattering peak reemerging after about 12 μs. We have utilized a zero dimensional kinetic global model to identify the dominant particle species versus delay time and this indicates that metastable helium and the He{sub 2}{sup +} molecular ion play an important role.

  3. Investigating the dynamics of laser induced sparks in atmospheric helium using Rayleigh and Thomson scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedanovska, E.; Nersisyan, G.; Morgan, T. J.; Hüwel, L.; Murakami, T.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Riley, D.; Graham, W. G.

    2015-01-01

    We have used optical Rayleigh and Thomson scattering to investigate the expansion dynamics of laser induced plasma in atmospheric helium and to map its electron parameters both in time and space. The plasma is created using 9 ns duration, 140 mJ pulses from a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm, focused with a 10 cm focal length lens, and probed with 7 ns, 80 mJ, and 532 nm Nd:YAG laser pulses. Between 0.4 μs and 22.5 μs after breakdown, the electron density decreases from 3.3 × 1017 cm-3 to 9 × 1013 cm-3, while the temperature drops from 3.2 eV to 0.1 eV. Spatially resolved Thomson scattering data recorded up to 17.5 μs reveal that during this time the laser induced plasma expands at a rate given by R ˜ t0.4 consistent with a non-radiative spherical blast wave. This data also indicate the development of a toroidal structure in the lateral profile of both electron temperature and density. Rayleigh scattering data show that the gas density decreases in the center of the expanding plasma with a central scattering peak reemerging after about 12 μs. We have utilized a zero dimensional kinetic global model to identify the dominant particle species versus delay time and this indicates that metastable helium and the He2+ molecular ion play an important role.

  4. Ablation plume structure and dynamics in ambient gas observed by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyabe, M.; Oba, M.; Iimura, H.; Akaoka, K.; Khumaeni, A.; Kato, M.; Wakaida, I.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamic behavior of an ablation plume in ambient gas has been investigated by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. The second harmonic beam from an Nd:YAG laser (0.5-6 J/cm2) was focused on a sintered oxide pellet or a metal chip of gadolinium. The produced plume was subsequently intersected with a sheet-shaped UV beam from a dye laser so that time-resolved fluorescence images were acquired with an intensified CCD camera at various delay times. The obtained cross-sectional images of the plume indicate that the ablated ground state atoms and ions of gadolinium accumulate in a hemispherical contact layer between the plume and the ambient gas, and a cavity containing a smaller density of ablated species is formed near the center of the plume. At earlier expansion stage, another luminous component also expands in the cavity so that it coalesces into the hemispherical layer. The splitting and coalescence for atomic plume occur later than those for ionic plume. Furthermore, the hemispherical layer of neutral atoms appears later than that of ions; however, the locations of the layers are nearly identical. This coincidence of the appearance locations of the layers strongly suggests that the neutral atoms in the hemispherical layer are produced as a consequence of three-body recombination of ions through collisions with gas atoms. The obtained knowledge regarding plume expansion dynamics and detailed plume structure is useful for optimizing the experimental conditions for ablation-based spectroscopic analysis.

  5. Simultaneous measurements of terahertz emission and magneto-optical Kerr effect for resolving ultrafast laser-induced demagnetization dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, T. J.; Mikhaylovskiy, R. V.; Tsukamoto, A.; Rasing, Th.; Kimel, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Simultaneous detection of terahertz (THz) emission and transient magneto-optical response is employed to study ultrafast laser-induced magnetization dynamics in three different types of amorphous metallic alloys: Co, GdFeCo, and NdFeCo. A satisfactory agreement between the dynamics revealed with the help of these two techniques is obtained for Co and GdFeCo. For NdFeCo the THz emission indicates faster dynamics than the magneto-optical response. This observation indicates that in addition to spin dynamics of Fe, ultrafast laser excitation of NdFeCo triggers faster magnetization dynamics of Nd originating from its orbital momentum.

  6. Laser-Induced Forward Transfer Using Triazene Polymer Dynamic Releaser Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, James Shaw; Lippert, Thomas; Nagel, Matthias; Nüesch, Frank; Wokaun, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    This article presents a short review of the use of triazene polymer as a dynamic release layer (DRL) for laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT), before looking at the latest research in more detail. The field of triazene polymer ablation only started around 20 years ago and has grown rapidly into a number of different application areas. Most promisingly, triazene ablation has been refined as a method for propulsion, bringing the benefits of LIFT to the deposition of sensitive transfer materials. The key to understanding LIFT with a triazene DRL is to understand the more fundamental nature of triazene polymer ablation in both frontside and backside orientations. This article focuses on the most recent experimental results on LIFT with a triazene DRL: the effect of picosecond pulse lengths compared with nanosecond pulse lengths; the effect of reduced air pressure; and the improvements in transfer in terms of range of transfer materials, and transfer across a gap. The results all help improve fundamental understanding of triazene-based LIFT, and the transfer of functioning OLEDs demonstrates the capability of the technique.

  7. Ion dynamics in a DC magnetron microdischarge measured with laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Christopher; Gascon, Nicolas; Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Ito, Tsuyohito; Cappelli, Mark

    2015-11-01

    We present evidence of coherent rotating azimuthal wave structures in a planar DC magnetron microdischarge operated with argon and xenon. The dominant stable mode structure varies with discharge voltage, and high frame rate camera imaging of plasma emission reveals propagating azimuthal waves in the negative E-> × B-> direction. This negative drift direction is attributed to a local field reversal arising from strong density gradients that drive excess ions towards the anode. Observed mode transitions are shown to be consistent with models of gradient drift-wave dispersion in such a field reversal when the fluid representation includes ambipolar diffusion parallel to the magnetic field direction. Time-averaged and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements interrogate xenon ion dynamics under the action of the field reversal. Time resolution is obtained by synchronizing with the coherent azimuthal wave frequency at fixed mode number. This work is sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research with Dr. Mitat Birkan as program manager. C.Y. acknowledges support from the DOE NNSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under Contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.

  8. Laser-induced fluorescence measurement of the dynamics of a pulsed planar sheath

    SciTech Connect

    Goeckner, M.J.; Malik, S.M. ); Conrad, J.R. ); Breun, R.A. )

    1994-04-01

    Using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) the ion density near the edge of an expanding plasma sheath has been measured. These measurements utilized a transition of N[sup +][sub 2] [the P12 component of the [ital X] [sup 2][Sigma][sup +][sub [ital g

  9. Observations of laser induced magnetization dynamics in Co/Pd multilayers with coherent x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Zhu, D.; Acremann, Y.; Miller, T. A.; Lindenberg, A. M.; Hellwig, O.; Stöhr, J.; Scherz, A.

    2011-12-01

    We report on time-resolved coherent x-ray scattering experiments of laser induced magnetization dynamics in Co/Pd multilayers with a high repetition rate optical pump x-ray probe setup. Starting from a multi-domain ground state, the magnetization is uniformly reduced after excitation by an intense 50 fs laser pulse. Using the normalized time correlation, we study the magnetization recovery on a picosecond timescale. The dynamic scattering intensity is separated into an elastic portion at length scales above 65 nm, which retains memory of the initial domain magnetization, and a fluctuating portion at smaller length scales corresponding to domain boundary motion during recovery.

  10. Observation of Laser Induced Magnetization Dynamics in Co/Pd Multilayers with Coherent X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Benny

    2012-04-05

    We report on time-resolved coherent x-ray scattering experiments of laser induced magnetization dynamics in Co/Pd multilayers with a high repetition rate optical pump x-ray probe setup. Starting from a multi-domain ground state, the magnetization is uniformly reduced after excitation by an intense 50 fs laser pulse. Using the normalized time correlation, we study the magnetization recovery on a picosecond timescale. The dynamic scattering intensity is separated into an elastic portion at length scales above 65 nm which retains memory of the initial domain magnetization, and a fluctuating portion at smaller length scales corresponding to domain boundary motion during recovery.

  11. Laser-induced UV photodissociation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane: dynamics of OH and Br formation.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ankur; Kawade, Monali; Upadhyaya, Hari P; Kumar, Awadhesh; Naik, Prakash D

    2011-01-28

    Photoexcitation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane (BNP) at 248 and 193 nm generates OH, Br, and NO(2) among other products. The OH fragment is detected by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and its translational and internal state distributions (vibration, rotation, spin-orbit, and Λ-doubling components) are probed. At both 248 and 193 nm, the OH fragment is produced translationally hot with the energy of 10.8 and 17.2 kcal∕mol, respectively. It is produced vibrationally cold (v" = 0) at 248 nm, and excited (v" = 1) at 193 nm with a vibrational temperature of 1870 ± 150 K. It is also generated with rotational excitation, rotational populations of OH(v" = 0) being characterized by a temperature of 550 ± 50 and 925 ± 100 K at 248 and 193 nm excitation of BNP, respectively. The spin-orbit components of OH(X(2)Π) are not in equilibrium on excitation at 193 nm, but the Λ-doublets are almost in equilibrium, implying no preference for its π lobe with respect to the plane of rotation. The NO(2) product is produced electronically excited, as detected by measuring UV-visible fluorescence, at 193 nm and mostly in the ground electronic state at 248 nm. The Br product is detected employing resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometer for better understanding of the dynamics of dissociation. The forward convolution analysis of the experimental data has provided translational energy distributions and anisotropy parameters for both Br((2)P(3∕2)) and Br∗((2)P(1∕2)). The average translational energies for the Br and Br∗ channels are 5.0 ± 1.0 and 6.0 ± 1.5 kcal∕mol. No recoil anisotropies were observed for these products. Most plausible mechanisms of OH and Br formation are discussed based on both the experimental and the theoretical results. Results suggest that the electronically excited BNP molecules at 248 and 234 nm relax to the ground state, and subsequently dissociate to produce OH and Br through different channels. The

  12. Dynamics of primary and secondary microbubbles created by laser-induced breakdown of an optically trapped nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Arita, Y.; Antkowiak, M.; Venugopalan, V.; Gunn-Moore, F. J.; Dholakia, K.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown of an optically trapped nanoparticle is a unique system for studying cavitation dynamics. It offers additional degrees of freedom, namely the nanoparticle material, its size, and the relative position between the laser focus and the center of the optically trapped nanoparticle. We quantify the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cavitation and secondary bubbles created in this system and use hydrodynamic modeling to quantify the observed dynamic shear stress of the expanding bubble. In the final stage of bubble collapse, we visualize the formation of multiple submicrometer secondary bubbles around the toroidal bubble on the substrate. We show that the pattern of the secondary bubbles typically has its circular symmetry broken along an axis whose unique angle rotates over time. This is a result of vorticity along the jet towards the boundary upon bubble collapse near solid boundaries. PMID:22400669

  13. Structural dynamics in FeRh during a laser-induced metamagnetic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirin, Florian; Vattilana, Michael; Shymanovich, Uladzimir; El-Kamhawy, Abd-Elmoniem; Tarasevitch, Alexander; Hohlfeld, Julius; von der Linde, Dietrich; Sokolowski-Tinten, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Time-resolved x-ray diffraction with ultrashort x-ray pulses from a laser-produced plasma is used to study the lattice response of FeRh during a femtosecond laser-induced antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) phase transition. Pump-probe measurements at initial sample temperatures below as well as above the AFM-to-FM transition temperature and for different laser pump fluences allowed to disentangle the various contributions driving lattice expansion. In particular, the data reveal that the structural changes associated with the magnetic phase transition occur on a time scale of a hundred picoseconds.

  14. Laser-induced resonance states as dynamic suppressors of ionization in high-frequency short pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Barash, Danny; Orel, Ann E.; Baer, Roi

    2000-01-01

    An adiabatic-Floquet formalism is used to study the suppression of ionization in short laser pulses. In the high-frequency limit the adiabatic equations involve only the pulse envelope where transitions are purely ramp effects. For a short-ranged potential having a single-bound state we show that ionization suppression is caused by the appearance of a laser-induced resonance state, which is coupled by the pulse ramp to the ground state and acts to trap ionizing flux. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  15. Variable delay using stationary and localized Brillouin dynamic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antman, Yair; Primerov, Nikolay; Sancho, Juan; Thévenaz, Luc; Zadok, Avi

    2012-03-01

    Reflections from movable, dynamic acoustic gratings in polarization maintaining (PM) fibers are employed in the long variable delay of periodic, isolated pulses. The gratings are introduced by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) interaction between two counter-propagating pump waves, which are spectrally detuned by the Brillouin frequency shift of the PM fiber and are both polarized along one of its principal axes. The gratings are interrogated by the reflections of read-out signals that are polarized along the orthogonal principal axis. High-rate phase modulation of both pump waves by a pseudo-random binary sequence introduces dynamic gratings that are both localized and stationary, at specific locations in which the modulated pumps are correlated. The separation between adjacent correlation peaks can be made arbitrarily long. Long variable delays are readily obtained by scanning the grating along the fiber, via changing either the length or the rate of the modulation sequence. At the same time, the short length of the gratings, on the order of a cm, accommodates the delay of broadband pulses. The technique is therefore free of the delay-times-bandwidth product limitation that undermines the performance of SBS-based 'slow light' delay: we report the delay 1-ns long pulses by as much as 770 ns. In addition, the combined reflections from two dynamic gratings with a variable separation are used to implement radio-frequency photonic filters of tunable free spectral range. At the current stage, the technique is restricted by noise from residual scattering that takes place outside of the correlation peaks. Hence, it is thus far limited to the processing of repetitive signals, for which the noise may be effectively averaged out.

  16. Dynamic Optical Grating Device and Associated Method for Modulating Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic optical grating device and associated method for modulating light is provided that is capable of controlling the spectral properties and propagation of light without moving mechanical components by the use of a dynamic electric and/or magnetic field. By changing the electric field and/or magnetic field, the index of refraction, the extinction coefficient, the transmittivity, and the reflectivity fo the optical grating device may be controlled in order to control the spectral properties of the light reflected or transmitted by the device.

  17. Demodulation System for Fiber Optic Bragg Grating Dynamic Pressure Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John D.; Adamovsky, Grigory; Floyd, Bertram

    2001-01-01

    Fiber optic Bragg gratings have been used for years to measure quasi-static phenomena. In aircraft engine applications there is a need to measure dynamic signals such as variable pressures. In order to monitor these pressures a detection system with broad dynamic range is needed. This paper describes an interferometric demodulator that was developed and optimized for this particular application. The signal to noise ratio was maximized through temporal coherence analysis. The demodulator was incorporated in a laboratory system that simulates conditions to be measured. Several pressure sensor configurations incorporating a fiber optic Bragg grating were also explored. The results of the experiments are reported in this paper.

  18. Dynamics of Laser-Ablation Plume and Ambient Gas Visualized by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Koichi; Watarai, Hiroshi

    2006-04-01

    The dynamics of both a laser-ablation plume and ambient gas were studied by visualizing their density distributions by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A deep dip was formed in the density distribution of the ambient gas. The depth of the dip was almost 100% immediately after irradiation of the ablation laser pulse. The size of the dip expanded with time. At a long delay time after the irradiation of the ablation laser pulse, the ambient gas returned to the dip and slowly filled it. The location of the dip corresponded to that of the plume ejected from the target. This means that the high pressure of the plume removed the ambient gas, and the plume and the ambient gas located exclusively. In addition, we observed the formation and propagation of a compressed layer around the dip.

  19. Relaxation dynamics of femtosecond-laser-induced temperature modulation on the surfaces of metals and semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Yoann; Derrien, Thibault J.-Y.; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Gurevich, Evgeny L.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) is a complicated phenomenon which involves periodic spatial modulation of laser energy absorption on the irradiated surface, transient changes in optical response, surface layer melting and/or ablation. The listed processes strongly depend on laser fluence and pulse duration as well as on material properties. This paper is aimed at studying the spatiotemporal evolution of a periodic modulation of the deposited laser energy, once formed upon irradiation of metal (Ti) and semiconductor (Si) surfaces. Assuming that the incoming laser pulse interferes with a surface electromagnetic wave, the resulting sinusoidal modulation of the absorbed laser energy is introduced into a two-dimensional two-temperature model developed for titanium and silicon. Simulations reveal that the lattice temperature modulation on the surfaces of both materials following from the modulated absorption remains significant for longer than 50 ps after the laser pulse. In the cases considered here, the partially molten phase exists 10 ps in Ti and more than 50 ps in Si, suggesting that molten matter can be subjected to temperature-driven relocation toward LIPSS formation, due to the modulated temperature profile on the material surfaces. Molten phase at nanometric distances (nano-melting) is also revealed.

  20. High-resolution imaging of ejection dynamics in laser-induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, R.; Visser, C. W.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Sun, C.; Huis in't Veld, A. J.; Lohse, D.

    2014-03-01

    Laser-induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is a 3D direct-write method suitable for precision printing of various materials. As the ejection mechanism of picosecond LIFT has not been visualized in detail, the governing physics are not fully understood yet. Therefore, this article presents an experimental imaging study on the ejection process of gold-based LIFT. The LIFT experiments were performed using a 6.7 picosecond Yb:YAG laser source equipped with a SHG. The beam was focused onto a 200 nm thick gold donor layer. The high magnification images were obtained using bright field illumination by a 6 ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser source and a 50× long-distance microscope objective that was combined with a 200 mm tube lens. For laser fluence levels up to two times the donor-transfer-threshold, the ejection of a single droplet was observed. The typical droplet radius was estimated to be less than 3 μm. A transition of ejection features towards higher fluence, indicates a second fluence-regime in the ejection process. For higher laser fluence, the formation of an elongated gold jet was observed. This jet fragments into multiple relatively small droplets, resulting in a spray of particles on the receiving substrate.

  1. Dynamic fiber Bragg grating sensing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Ren, Liang; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing

    2016-02-01

    The measurement of high frequency vibrations is important in many scientific and engineering problems. This paper presents a novel, cost effective method using fiber optic fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) for the measurement of high frequency vibrations. The method uses wavelength matched FBG sensors, with the first sensor acting as a transmission filter and the second sensor acting as the sensing portion. Energy fluctuations in the reflection spectrum of the second FBG due to wavelength mismatch between the sensors are captured by a photodiode. An in-depth analysis of the optical circuit is provided to predict the behavior of the method as well as identify ways to optimize the method. Simple demonstrations of the method were performed with the FBG sensing system installed on a piezoelectric transducer and on a wind turbine blade. Vibrations were measured with sampling frequencies up to 1 MHz for demonstrative purposes. The sensing method can be multiplexed for use with multiple sensors, and with care, can be retrofitted to work with FBG sensors already installed on a structure.

  2. Laser-induced dissociation dynamics of triatomic molecule in electronic excited states: A full-dimensional quantum mechanics study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaopeng; Yang, Chuanlu; Zheng, Yujun

    2015-12-14

    We present a detailed theoretical approach to investigate the laser-induced dissociation dynamics of a triatomic molecule on its electronic excited state in full dimensional case. In this method, the time evolution of the time-dependent system is propagated via combined the split operator method and the expansion of Chebyshev polynomials (or short-time Chebyshev propagation) and the system wave functions are expanded in terms of molecular rotational bases. As an example of the application of this formalism, the dissociation dynamics of H3(+)→H2(+)+H induced by ultrashort UV laser pulses are investigated on new Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces. Our numerical results show that the signals of dissociation products will be easier to observe as the increasing of field strength. Driving by a 266 nm laser beam, the calculated central value of kinetic-energy-release is 2.04 eV which shows excellent agreement with the experimental estimation of 2.1 eV. When the H3(+) ion is rotationally excited, the spatial distribution of product fragments will become well converged. PMID:26671377

  3. Energy absorption behavior of polyurea coatings under laser-induced dynamic tensile and mixed-mode loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajam, Kailash; Lee, Jaejun; Sottos, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Energy absorbing, lightweight, thin transparent layers/coatings are desirable in many civilian and military applications such as hurricane resistant windows, personnel face-shields, helmet liners, aircraft canopies, laser shields, blast-tolerant sandwich structures, sound and vibration damping materials to name a few. Polyurea, a class of segmented block copolymer, has attracted recent attention for its energy absorbing properties. However, most of the dynamic property characterization of polyurea is limited to tensile and split-Hopkinson-pressure-bar compression loading experiments with strain rates on the order of 102 and 104 s-1, respectively. In the present work, we report the energy absorption behavior of polyurea thin films (1 to 2 μm) subjected to laser-induced dynamic tensile and mixed-mode loading. The laser-generated high amplitude stress wave propagates through the film in short time frames (15 to 20 ns) leading to very high strain rates (107 to 108 s-1) . The substrate stress, surface velocity and fluence histories are inferred from the displacement fringe data. On comparing input and output fluences, test results indicate significant energy absorption by the polyurea films under both tensile and mixed-mode loading conditions. Microscopic examination reveals distinct changes in failure mechanisms under mixed-mode loading from that observed under pure tensile loading. Office of Naval Research MURI.

  4. Laser-Induced Dynamical Chirality and Intramolecular Energy Flow in the CH Chromophore

    SciTech Connect

    Thanopulos, Ioannis

    2007-11-29

    We review the quantum dynamics of intramolecular energy flow during and after coherent infrared multiphoton excitation of the CH organic chromophore. The understanding of the underlying dynamics is of central importance for a wide range of systems in molecular physics, chemistry and biology, due to the experimentally supported assumption that the chromophore dynamics is weakly-dependent on a specific environment, in particular on sub-picosecond time scale. The excitation process due to the interaction with the laser field is studied by computationally monitoring the wave packet motion in the configuration sub-space relevant to femtosecond dynamics, using global analytical potential energy and electric dipole functions previously developed. The features of the intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution and the related dynamical time scales are investigated. In particular, we discuss the generation of dynamical chirality in methane istopomers, the corresponding stereomutation and racemization phenomena on the femtosecond time scale, and their relation to intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution.

  5. All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santagiustina, Marco; Chin, Sanghoon; Primerov, Nicolay; Ursini, Leonora; Thévenaz, Luc

    2013-04-01

    The manipulation of dynamic Brillouin gratings in optical fibers is demonstrated to be an extremely flexible technique to achieve, with a single experimental setup, several all-optical signal processing functions. In particular, all-optical time differentiation, time integration and true time reversal are theoretically predicted, and then numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The technique can be exploited to process both photonic and ultra-wide band microwave signals, so enabling many applications in photonics and in radio science.

  6. All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings

    PubMed Central

    Santagiustina, Marco; Chin, Sanghoon; Primerov, Nicolay; Ursini, Leonora; Thévenaz, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The manipulation of dynamic Brillouin gratings in optical fibers is demonstrated to be an extremely flexible technique to achieve, with a single experimental setup, several all-optical signal processing functions. In particular, all-optical time differentiation, time integration and true time reversal are theoretically predicted, and then numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The technique can be exploited to process both photonic and ultra-wide band microwave signals, so enabling many applications in photonics and in radio science. PMID:23549159

  7. Dynamics of strong-field laser-induced microplasma formation in noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, D. A.; Compton, R.; Filin, A.; Levis, R. J.

    2010-03-01

    The ultrafast dynamics of microplasmas generated by femtosecond laser pulses in noble gases has been investigated using four-wave mixing (FWM). The time dependence of the FWM signal is observed to reach higher intensity levels faster for Xe, with progressively lower scattering intensity and longer time dynamics for the noble gas series Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne, and He. The temporal dynamics is interpreted in terms of a tunnel ionization and impact cooling mechanism. A formalism to interpret the observed phenomena is presented here with comparison to the measured laser intensity and gas pressure trends.

  8. Dynamics of charge clouds ejected from laser-induced warm dense gold nanofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jun; Li, Junjie; Correa, Alfredo A.; Tang, Shao; Ping, Yuan; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Li, Dong; Zhou, Qiong; Cao, Jianming

    2014-10-24

    We report the first systematic study of the ejected charge dynamics surrounding laser-produced 30-nm warm dense gold films using single-shot femtosecond electron shadow imaging and deflectometry. The results reveal a two-step dynamical process of the ejected electrons under the high pump fluence conditions: an initial emission and accumulation of a large amount of electrons near the pumped surface region followed by the formation of hemispherical clouds of electrons on both sides of the film, which are escaping into the vacuum at a nearly isotropic and constant velocity with an unusually high kinetic energy of more than 300 eV. We also developed a model of the escaping charge distribution that not only reproduces the main features of the observed charge expansion dynamics but also allows us to extract the number of ejected electrons remaining in the cloud.

  9. Dynamics of charge clouds ejected from laser-induced warm dense gold nanofilms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Jun; Li, Junjie; Correa, Alfredo A.; Tang, Shao; Ping, Yuan; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Li, Dong; Zhou, Qiong; Cao, Jianming

    2014-10-24

    We report the first systematic study of the ejected charge dynamics surrounding laser-produced 30-nm warm dense gold films using single-shot femtosecond electron shadow imaging and deflectometry. The results reveal a two-step dynamical process of the ejected electrons under the high pump fluence conditions: an initial emission and accumulation of a large amount of electrons near the pumped surface region followed by the formation of hemispherical clouds of electrons on both sides of the film, which are escaping into the vacuum at a nearly isotropic and constant velocity with an unusually high kinetic energy of more than 300 eV. We alsomore » developed a model of the escaping charge distribution that not only reproduces the main features of the observed charge expansion dynamics but also allows us to extract the number of ejected electrons remaining in the cloud.« less

  10. Dynamics of charge clouds ejected from laser-induced warm dense gold nanofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Correa, Alfredo A.; Li, Junjie; Tang, Shao; Ping, Yuan; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Li, Dong; Zhou, Qiong; Cao, Jianming

    2014-10-01

    We report a systematic study of the ejected charge dynamics surrounding laser-produced 30-nm warm dense gold films using single-shot femtosecond electron shadow imaging and deflectometry. The results reveal a two-step dynamical process of the ejected electrons under high pump fluence conditions: an initial emission and accumulation of a large amount of electrons near the pumped surface region, followed by the formation of hemispherical clouds of electrons on both sides of the film, which escape into the vacuum at a nearly isotropic and constant velocity with an unusually high kinetic energy of more than 300 eV. We also developed a model of the escaping charge distribution that not only reproduces the main features of the observed charge expansion dynamics but also allows us to extract the number of ejected electrons remaining in the cloud.

  11. Dynamics of charge clouds ejected from laser-induced warm dense gold nanofilms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Correa, Alfredo A; Li, Junjie; Tang, Shao; Ping, Yuan; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Li, Dong; Zhou, Qiong; Cao, Jianming

    2014-10-01

    We report a systematic study of the ejected charge dynamics surrounding laser-produced 30-nm warm dense gold films using single-shot femtosecond electron shadow imaging and deflectometry. The results reveal a two-step dynamical process of the ejected electrons under high pump fluence conditions: an initial emission and accumulation of a large amount of electrons near the pumped surface region, followed by the formation of hemispherical clouds of electrons on both sides of the film, which escape into the vacuum at a nearly isotropic and constant velocity with an unusually high kinetic energy of more than 300 eV. We also developed a model of the escaping charge distribution that not only reproduces the main features of the observed charge expansion dynamics but also allows us to extract the number of ejected electrons remaining in the cloud. PMID:25375431

  12. Influence of static pressure on dynamic characteristics of laser-induced cavitation and hard-tissue ablation under liquid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuanguo; Li, Xuwei; Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhan, Zhenlin; Xie, Shusen

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that laser-induced hard tissue ablation effects can be enhanced by applying an additional water-layer on tissue surface. However, the related mechanism has not yet been presented clearly. In this paper, the influence of static pressure on dynamic characteristics of cavitation induced by pulse laser in liquid and its effect on bovine shank bone ablation were investigated. The laser source is fiber-guided free-running Ho:YAG laser with wavelength of 2080 nm, pulse duration of 350 μs and energy of 1600 mJ. The tissue samples were immerged in pure water at different depths of 11, 16, 21, 26 and 31 mm. The working distance between the fiber tip and tissue surface was fixed at 1 mm for all studies. The dynamic interaction between laser, water and tissue were recorded by high-speed camera, and the morphological changes of bone tissue were assessed by stereomicroscope and OCT. The results showed that many times expansion and collapse of bubble were observed, more than four pulsation periods were accurately achieved with the most energy deposited in the first period and the bubble became more and more irregular in shape. The longitudinal length (7.49--6.74 mm) and transverse width (6.69--6.08 mm) of bubble were slowly decreased while volume (0.0586--0.0124 mm3) of ablation craters were drastically reduced, with static pressure increasing. The results also presented that the water-layer on hard-tissue surface can not only reduce thermal injury but also improve lubricity of craters, although the water-layer reduced ablation efficiency.

  13. Trends in Ln(III) Sorption to Quartz Assessed by Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Laser Induced Flourescence Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kuta, Jadwiga; Wander, Matthew C F.; Wang, Zheming; Jiang, Siduo; Wall, Nathalie; Clark, Aurora E.

    2011-11-08

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to examine trends in trivalent lanthanide [Ln(III)] sorption to quartz surface SiOH0 and SiO- sites across the 4f period. Complementary laser induced fluorescence studies examined Eu(III) sorption to quartz at varying ionic strength such that the surface sorbed species could be extrapolated at zero ionic strength, the conditions under which the simulations are performed. This allowed for direct comparison of the data, enabling a molecular understanding of the surface sorbed species and the role of the ion surface charge density upon the interfacial reactivity. Thus, this combined theoretical and experimental approach aids in the prediction of the fate of trivalent radioactive contaminants at temporary and permanent nuclear waste storage sites. Potential of mean force molecular dynamics, as well as simulations of pre-sorbed Ln(III) species agrees with the spectroscopic study of Eu(III) sorption, indicating that strongly bound inner-sphere complexes are formed upon sorption to an SiO- site. The coordination shell of the ion contains 6-7 waters of hydration and it is predicted that surface OH groups dissociate from the quartz and bind within the inner coordination shell of Eu(III). Molecular simulations predict less-strongly bound inner2 sphere species in early lanthanides and more strongly bound species in late lanthanides, following trends in the ionic radius of the 4f ions. The participation of surface dissociated OHgroups within the inner coordination shell of the Ln(III) ion is, however, consistent across the series studied. Sorption to a fully protonated quartz surface is not predicted to be favorable by any Ln(III), except perhaps Lu.

  14. Spectrally resolved optical probing of laser induced magnetization dynamics in bismuth iron garnet.

    PubMed

    Koene, Benny; Deb, Marwan; Popova, Elena; Keller, Niels; Rasing, Theo; Kirilyuk, Andrei

    2016-07-13

    The spectrally resolved magnetization dynamics in bismuth iron garnet shows a fluence dependent light induced modification of the magneto-optical Faraday spectrum. It is demonstrated that the relative contributions from the tetrahedral and octahedral iron sites to the Faraday spectrum change due to the impact of the pump pulse. This change explains the observed deviation from a linear dependence of the amplitude of the oscillations on the fluence, as expected for the inverse Faraday effect. PMID:27213266

  15. Spectrally resolved optical probing of laser induced magnetization dynamics in bismuth iron garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koene, Benny; Deb, Marwan; Popova, Elena; Keller, Niels; Rasing, Theo; Kirilyuk, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    The spectrally resolved magnetization dynamics in bismuth iron garnet shows a fluence dependent light induced modification of the magneto-optical Faraday spectrum. It is demonstrated that the relative contributions from the tetrahedral and octahedral iron sites to the Faraday spectrum change due to the impact of the pump pulse. This change explains the observed deviation from a linear dependence of the amplitude of the oscillations on the fluence, as expected for the inverse Faraday effect.

  16. Under-the-barrier dynamics in laser-induced relativistic tunneling.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, Michael; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Bauke, Heiko; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Keitel, Christoph H

    2013-04-12

    The tunneling dynamics in relativistic strong-field ionization is investigated with the aim to develop an intuitive picture for the relativistic tunneling regime. We demonstrate that the tunneling picture applies also in the relativistic regime by introducing position dependent energy levels. The quantum dynamics in the classically forbidden region features two time scales, the typical time that characterizes the probability density's decay of the ionizing electron under the barrier (Keldysh time) and the time interval which the electron spends inside the barrier (Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith tunneling time). In the relativistic regime, an electron momentum shift as well as a spatial shift along the laser propagation direction arise during the under-the-barrier motion which are caused by the laser magnetic field induced Lorentz force. The momentum shift is proportional to the Keldysh time, while the wave-packet's spatial drift is proportional to the Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith time. The signature of the momentum shift is shown to be present in the ionization spectrum at the detector and, therefore, observable experimentally. In contrast, the signature of the Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith time delay disappears at far distances for pure quasistatic tunneling dynamics. PMID:25167261

  17. Dynamics of a laser-induced relativistic electron beam inside a solid dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisov, G. S.; Ivanov, V. V.; Sentoku, Y.; Yates, K.; Leblanc, P.; Wiewior, P.; Kindel, J.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Jobe, D.; Spielman, R.

    2010-11-01

    Two-frame interferometry and shadowgraphy were used to investigate the dynamics of interaction of a powerful laser (UNR Leopard 2x10^18 W/cm^2, 0.5ps, 1057nm) with a glass target. The two-frame laser diagnostic reveals an ionization wave propagating inside the glass with half the speed of light. The interferometry delineates regions of ionization and excitation inside the glass target. A ``fountain effect'' of fast electrons inside the solid dielectric has been observed for the first time: a radially compact electron beam with sub-light speed fans out from the axis of the original beam, heading back to the target surface. Comparison with French (˜10^19W/cm^2) and UK (˜10^17W/cm^2) experiments implies a logarithmic dependence of the ionization depth with the laser intensity. Relativistic electron beam dynamics stemming from intense laser-glass interaction is a critical concern for the NIF ``fast ignition'' concept.

  18. Dynamics Of A Laser-Induced Plume Self-Similar Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Bennaceur-Doumaz, D.; Djebli, M.

    2008-09-23

    The dynamics of a laser ablation plume during the first stage of its expansion, just after the termination of the laser pulse is modeled. First, we suppose the laser fluence range low enough to consider a neutral vapor. The expansion of the evaporated material is described by one-component fluid and one-dimensional Euler equations. The vapor is assumed to follow an ideal gas flow. For high energetic ions, the charge separation can be neglected and the hydrodynamics equations can be solved using self-similar formulation. The obtained ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. Secondly, the effect of ionization is investigated when the evaporated gas temperature is sufficiently high. In this case, Saha equation is included in the formulation of the model. We find a self-similar solution for a finite value of the similarity variable which depends on the laser ablation parameters.

  19. Brillouin distributed sensing using localized and stationary dynamic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primerov, Nikolay; Antman, Yair; Sancho, Juan; Zadok, Avi; Thevenaz, Luc

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we apply a recent technique for the generation of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) dynamic gratings that are both localized and stationary to realize high-resolution distributed temperature sensing. The gratings generation method relies on the phase modulation of two pump waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS), with a symbol duration that is much shorter than the acoustic lifetime. This way the acoustic wave can efficiently build up in the medium at discrete locations only, where the phase difference between the two waves does not temporarily vary. The separation between neighboring correlation peaks can be made arbitrarily long. Using the proposed method, we experimentally demonstrate distributed temperature sensing with 5 cm resolution, based on modifications to both the local birefringence and the local Brillouin frequency shift in polarization maintaining fibers. The localization method does not require wideband detection and can generate the grating at any random position along the fiber, with complete flexibility. The phase-coding method is equally applicable to high-resolution SBS distributed sensing over standard fibers.

  20. Rapid Laser Induced Crystallization of Amorphous NiTi Films Observed by Nanosecond Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy (DTEM)

    SciTech Connect

    LaGrange, T; Campbell, G H; Browning, N D; Reed, B W; Grummon, D S

    2010-03-01

    The crystallization processes of the as-deposited, amorphous NiTi thin films have been studied in detail using techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry and, in-situ TEM. The kinetic data have been analyzed in terms of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolomogrov (JMAK) semi-empirical formula. The kinetic parameters determined from this analysis have been useful in defining process control parameters for tailoring microstructural features and shape memory properties. Due to the commercial push to shrink thin film-based devices, unique processing techniques have been developed using laser-based annealing to spatially control the microstructure evolution down to sub-micron levels. Nanosecond, pulse laser annealing is particularly attractive since it limits the amount of peripheral heating and unwanted microstructural changes to underlying or surrounding material. However, crystallization under pulsed laser irradiation can differ significantly from conventional thermal annealing, e.g., slow heating in a furnace. This is especially true for amorphous NiTi materials and relevant for shape memory thin film based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications. There is little to no data on the crystallization kinetics of NiTi under pulsed laser irradiation, primarily due to the high crystallization rates intrinsic to high temperature annealing and the spatial and temporal resolution limits of standard techniques. However, with the high time and spatial resolution capabilities of the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the rapid nucleation events occurring from pulsed laser irradiation can be directly observed and nucleation rates can be quantified. This paper briefly explains the DTEM approach and how it used to investigate the pulsed laser induced crystallization processes in NiTi and to determine kinetic parameters.

  1. Laser-induced damage in biological tissue: Role of complex and dynamic optical properties of the medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Elharith M.

    Since its invention in the early 1960's, the laser has been used as a tool for surgical, therapeutic, and diagnostic purposes. To achieve maximum effectiveness with the greatest margin of safety it is important to understand the mechanisms of light propagation through tissue and how that light affects living cells. Lasers with novel output characteristics for medical and military applications are too often implemented prior to proper evaluation with respect to tissue optical properties and human safety. Therefore, advances in computational models that describe light propagation and the cellular responses to laser exposure, without the use of animal models, are of considerable interest. Here, a physics-based laser-tissue interaction model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal temperature and pressure rise during laser exposure to biological tissues. Our new model also takes into account the dynamic nature of tissue optical properties and their impact on the induced temperature and pressure profiles. The laser-induced retinal damage is attributed to the formation of microbubbles formed around melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the damage mechanism is assumed to be photo-thermal. Selective absorption by melanin creates these bubbles that expand and collapse around melanosomes, destroying cell membranes and killing cells. The Finite Element (FE) approach taken provides suitable ground for modeling localized pigment absorption which leads to a non-uniform temperature distribution within pigmented cells following laser pulse exposure. These hot-spots are sources for localized thermo-elastic stresses which lead to rapid localized expansions that manifest themselves as microbubbles and lead to microcavitations. Model predictions for the interaction of lasers at wavelengths of 193, 694, 532, 590, 1314, 1540, 2000, and 2940 nm with biological tissues were generated and comparisons were made with available experimental data for the retina

  2. Dynamic features of a laser-induced cavitation bubble near a solid boundary.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan Xiang; Wang, Qian Xi; Keat, T S

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with detailed features of bubble dynamics near a solid boundary. The cavitation bubble was created by using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulse and observed using a high-speed camera (up to 100,000 frames per second). A hydrophone system was employed to monitor the acoustic signals generated by the transient pressure impulses and estimate the bubble oscillation periods. Experimental observations were carried out for bubbles with various maximum expanded radius Rmax (between 1.0mm and 1.6mm) and stand-off distances, ds (defined as the distance between the solid boundary and the bubble center at inception) of 0.4≤γ≤3.0, and γ=ds/Rmax. The existence of a solid boundary created asymmetry in the flow field and forced the bubble to collapse non-spherically, which finally brought forth the jet impact phenomenon. The dimensionless first and second oscillation periods were dependent on γ. A series of expansion and collapse of the bubble with cascading loss of energy were observed after the bubble had been generated. This study revealed that most bubbles lost about two-thirds of the total energy from the first maximum expansion to the second maximum expansion. PMID:23411165

  3. Investigations of the ultrafast laser induced melt dynamics by means of transient quantitative phase microscopy (TQPm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingareev, Ilya; Horn, Alexander

    2008-05-01

    Modifications of bulk aluminum irradiated well above ablation threshold (F < 300 J.cm-2) have been investigated in situ by means of shadowgraphy and transient quantitative phase microscopy (TQPm) using ultrafast laser radiation (tp=80 fs, λ=800 nm). This novel pump-probe technique enables quantitative time-resolved measurements of object's properties, e.g. dimensions of melt droplets and layer thickness or transient refractive index changes. A series of time-resolved phase images of vaporized material and/or melt, which are induced by n=1..8 pulses on an aluminum target, are obtained using TQPm. Dynamics and characteristics of melting, dependence of the ablated material volume on process parameters and thereby induced structural modifications have been studied. An increase of material ejection rate is observed at delay time of approximately τ=300 ns and τ>800 ns after the incident pulse. Transient refractive index modifications have been investigated in technical glass (Schott D263) by means of TQPm. By using high-repetition rate ultra-short pulsed laser radiation (tp=400 fs, λ=1045 nm, frep=1 MHz) focused by a microscope objective (w0 ~ 4 μm) heat accumulation and thereby glass melting as well as welding is enabled. Transient optical phase variation has been measured up to τ=2.1 μs after the incident pulse and can be attributed to the generation of free charge carriers and compression forces inside glass.

  4. Dynamics of laser-induced radial birefringence in silver-doped glasses.

    PubMed

    Ahangary, Ali Akbar; Bouchard, Frédéric; Santamato, Enrico; Karimi, Ebrahim; Khalesifard, Hamid Reza

    2015-09-01

    Silver ion-exchanged glass exhibits nonlinear optical properties upon interacting with intense light beams. The thermal effect due to the nanoparticles' light-absorption induces radial stress, and consequently, a radial birefringence on the glass surface. The induced birefringence possesses a topological charge of 1 in the transverse plane of the glass, i.e., cylindrical symmetry. Therefore, when the glass is illuminated with a circularly polarized light beam, a portion of the incoming beam flips its polarization handedness, since the plate is birefringent, and gains an orbital angular momentum of ±2 in units of the Planck constant. This is referred to as optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion, and can be understood by means of the Pancharatnam-Berry phase. Here, we design a pump-probe setup to study and observe the dynamics of optical angular momentum coupling in real time. We show that this effect can be permanent or reversible, depending on the power and interaction time of the pump beam. In particular, an intrinsic power-dependent birefringence hysteresis is observed on the sample after interaction with and the relaxation of the irradiated point. PMID:26368712

  5. X-ray laser-induced electron dynamics observed by femtosecond diffraction from nanocrystals of Buckminsterfullerene.

    PubMed

    Abbey, Brian; Dilanian, Ruben A; Darmanin, Connie; Ryan, Rebecca A; Putkunz, Corey T; Martin, Andrew V; Wood, David; Streltsov, Victor; Jones, Michael W M; Gaffney, Naylyn; Hofmann, Felix; Williams, Garth J; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M Marvin; Williams, Sophie; Curwood, Evan; Balaur, Eugeniu; Peele, Andrew G; Nugent, Keith A; Quiney, Harry M

    2016-09-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) deliver x-ray pulses with a coherent flux that is approximately eight orders of magnitude greater than that available from a modern third-generation synchrotron source. The power density of an XFEL pulse may be so high that it can modify the electronic properties of a sample on a femtosecond time scale. Exploration of the interaction of intense coherent x-ray pulses and matter is both of intrinsic scientific interest and of critical importance to the interpretation of experiments that probe the structures of materials using high-brightness femtosecond XFEL pulses. We report observations of the diffraction of extremely intense 32-fs nanofocused x-ray pulses by a powder sample of crystalline C60. We find that the diffraction pattern at the highest available incident power significantly differs from the one obtained using either third-generation synchrotron sources or XFEL sources operating at low output power and does not correspond to the diffraction pattern expected from any known phase of crystalline C60. We interpret these data as evidence of a long-range, coherent dynamic electronic distortion that is driven by the interaction of the periodic array of C60 molecular targets with intense x-ray pulses of femtosecond duration. PMID:27626076

  6. Dynamic and interaction of fs-laser induced cavitation bubbles for analyzing the cutting effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinne, N.; Schumacher, S.; Nuzzo, V.; Ripken, T.; Lubatschowski, H.

    2009-07-01

    A prominent laser based treatment in ophthalmology is the LASIK procedure which nowadays includes a cutting of the corneal tissue based on ultra short pulses. Focusing an ultra short laser pulse below the surface of biological tissue an optical breakdown is caused and hence a dissection is obtained. The laser energy of the laser pulses is absorbed by nonlinear processes. As a result a cavitation bubble expands and ruptures the tissue. Hence positioning of several optical breakdowns side by side generates an incision. Due to a reduction of the duration of the treatment the current development of ultra short laser systems points to higher repetition rates in the range of hundreds of KHz or even MHz instead of tens of kHz. This in turn results in a probable occurrence of interaction between different optical breakdowns and respectively cavitation bubbles of adjacent optical breakdowns. While the interaction of one single laser pulse with biological tissue is analyzed reasonably well experimentally and theoretically, the interaction of several spatial and temporal following pulses is scarcely determined yet. Thus the aim of this study is to analyse the dynamic and interaction of two cavitation bubbles by using high speed photography. The applied laser pulse energy, the energy ratio and the spot distance between different cavitation bubbles were varied. Depending on a change of these parameters different kinds of interactions such as a flattening and deformation of bubble shape or jet formation are observed. Based on these results a further research seems to be inevitable to comprehend and optimize the cutting effect of ultra short pulse laser systems with high (> 1 MHz) repetition rates.

  7. Picosecond infrared laser-induced all-atom nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation of dissociation of viruses.

    PubMed

    Hoang Man, Viet; Van-Oanh, Nguyen-Thi; Derreumaux, Philippe; Li, Mai Suan; Roland, Christopher; Sagui, Celeste; Nguyen, Phuong H

    2016-04-28

    Since the discovery of the plant pathogen tobacco mosaic virus as the first viral entity in the late 1800s, viruses traditionally have been mainly thought of as pathogens for disease-resistances. However, viruses have recently been exploited as nanoplatforms with applications in biomedicine and materials science. To this aim, a large majority of current methods and tools have been developed to improve the physical stability of viral particles, which may be critical to the extreme physical or chemical conditions that viruses may encounter during purification, fabrication processes, storage and use. However, considerably fewer studies are devoted to developing efficient methods to degrade or recycle such enhanced stability biomaterials. With this in mind, we carry out all-atom nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, inspired by the recently developed mid-infrared free-electron laser pulse technology, to dissociate viruses. Adopting the poliovirus as a representative example, we find that the primary step in the dissociation process is due to the strong resonance between the amide I vibrational modes of the virus and the tuned laser frequencies. This process is determined by a balance between the formation and dissociation of the protein shell, reflecting the highly plasticity of the virus. Furthermore, our method should provide a feasible approach to simulate viruses, which is otherwise too expensive for conventional equilibrium all-atom simulations of such very large systems. Our work shows a proof of concept which may open a new, efficient way to cleave or to recycle virus-based materials, provide an extremely valuable tool for elucidating mechanical aspects of viruses, and may well play an important role in future fighting against virus-related diseases. PMID:27071540

  8. Dynamic gate algorithm for multimode fiber Bragg grating sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Ganziy, D; Jespersen, O; Woyessa, G; Rose, B; Bang, O

    2015-06-20

    We propose a novel dynamic gate algorithm (DGA) for precise and accurate peak detection. The algorithm uses a threshold-determined detection window and center of gravity algorithm with bias compensation. We analyze the wavelength fit resolution of the DGA for different values of the signal-to-noise ratio and different peak shapes. Our simulations and experiments demonstrate that the DGA method is fast and robust with better stability and accuracy than conventional algorithms. This makes it very attractive for future implementation in sensing systems, especially based on multimode fiber Bragg gratings. PMID:26193010

  9. Dynamic and static strain gauge using superimposed fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y. C.; Yang, Y. H.; Li, J. M.; Yang, M. W.; Tang, J.; Liang, T.

    2012-10-01

    This paper demonstrates a simple and fast interrogation method for the dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to decrease nonequidistant space of generated a sensing pulse train in a time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A four times increase in the interrogation speed of dynamic strain, by generating a 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a 500 Hz scanning frequency, is demonstrated experimentally. The interrogation uncertainty and total harmonic distortion characterization of superimposed FBGs are tested and less than 4 pm standard deviation is obtained.

  10. Gelator-doped liquid-crystal phase grating with multistable and dynamic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui-Chi Yang, Meng-Ru; Tsai, Sheng-Feng; Yan, Shih-Chiang

    2014-01-06

    We demonstrate a gelator-doped nematic liquid-crystal (LC) phase grating, which can be operated in both the multistable mode and the dynamic mode. Thermoreversible association and dissociation of the gelator molecules can vary and fix the multistable diffraction efficiencies of the gratings. A voltage (V) can also be applied to modulate dynamically the diffraction efficiencies of the grating, which behaves as a conventional LC grating. Experimental results show that the variations of the diffraction efficiencies in the multistable and dynamic modes are similar. The maximum diffraction efficiency is approximately 30% at V = 2 V.

  11. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for dynamic machining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartow, Matthew J.; Calvert, Sean G.; Bayly, Philip V.

    2003-11-01

    Fiber Bragg grating sensors have attracted considerable attention for measurement applications due to their greatly reduced size, low weight, and immunity to electromagnetic interference in comparison with traditional sensing methods. Dynamic measurement of industrial machine tools is useful for gauging surface accuracy, monitoring tool condition, and predicting process stability, but requires a robust sensing scheme. The small size and high natural frequencies of micro machining tools coupled with a harsh manufacturing environment can render traditional sensors ineffective. This work presents a new method for measuring tool motion with fiber Bragg grating strain sensors. The feasibility of the sensing scheme is first demonstrated with a simple bench-top cantilever beam experiment. Then, a method for potting the sensors in the through coolant holes of a 1/8" carbide end mill with a high-viscosity gap-filling cyanoacrylate is demonstrated. Comparative structural analysis tests demonstrate the effectiveness of the sensors. Measurements of tool motion during cutting are presented. Finally, methods of noise reduction and improving signal accuracy are discussed.

  12. Gain recovery dynamics in semiconductor optical amplifiers with distributed feedback grating under assist light injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Cui; Zhao, Jing; Yu, Huilong; Zhang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The gain recovery dynamic characteristics of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with distributed feedback (DFB) grating are theoretically investigated. The interaction of the grating structure and the assist light is used to accelerate the gain recovery process in the SOA. The effects of the assist light that is injected into the SOA with DFB structure on the gain recovery dynamics, the steady-state carrier density, and field intensity distributions are analyzed, respectively. Results show that the recovery time in the DFB SOA is successfully reduced by injecting relatively high power assist light, whose wavelength is set at the gain region. Finally, under assist light injection, the effects of DFB grating on the gain recovery process are also discussed. It is shown that the gain recovery in the SOA with DFB grating is faster than that in the SOA without DFB grating. In addition, the coupling factor in the DFB grating structure can be optimized to shorten the gain recovery time.

  13. Tunable and reconfigurable multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on dynamic Brillouin gratings in fibers.

    PubMed

    Sancho, J; Primerov, N; Chin, S; Antman, Y; Zadok, A; Sales, S; Thévenaz, L

    2012-03-12

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate new architectures to realize multi-tap microwave photonic filters, based on the generation of a single or multiple dynamic Brillouin gratings in polarization maintaining fibers. The spectral range and selectivity of the proposed periodic filters is extensively tunable, simply by reconfiguring the positions and the number of dynamic gratings along the fiber respectively. In this paper, we present a complete analysis of three different configurations comprising a microwave photonic filter implementation: a simple notch-type Mach-Zehnder approach with a single movable dynamic grating, a multi-tap performance based on multiple dynamic gratings and finally a stationary grating configuration based on the phase modulation of two counter-propagating optical waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS). PMID:22418495

  14. Nanoparticle removal using laser induced plasma (LIP) technique and study of detachment modes based on molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peri, M. D. Murthy

    Nanoparticle contamination is a major problem in many industries. In the semiconductor industry, as the device (integrated circuit) size shrinks with each technological node (DRAM half-pitch), the feature size that has to be fabricated shrinks. Consequently, the minimum tolerable particle defect size also reduces to sub-100 nm level. In order to attain the stringent small size features, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) technique is being explored in the semiconductor industry. As the EUVL masks are reflective and pellicle free, the cleaning techniques employed to remove the native particle defects must be more effective for the removal of the sub-100 nm particles without any substrate damage. The effectiveness of Laser Induced Plasma (LIP) technique, considered as a next generation cleaning method, for removal of 30 nm PSL particles from silicon substrate was previously demonstrated by our group. In the current study, the removal of 100 nm PSL particles from photomask and 300 nm PSL particles from 500 nm patterns was investigated. It was observed that the patterns were damaged which could be attributed to the radiation heating of the plasma, and this necessitated pressure amplification techniques to amplify the transient pressure and minimize the risk of damage. As a potential solution, shocktubes were designed and transient pressure measurements were carried out in air medium. Also, plasma was generated in water, in order to take advantage of the density of the medium, to generate stronger shocks and consequently higher pressure. The performance of the shocktubes was characterized based on their pressure amplification factor. The shocktubes resulted in a pressure amplification factor of 11 in air. The particle removal experiments with shocktubes on 150 nm patterns were performed and no damage to the patterns was observed. However, there were particle adders due to the ablation of the shocktube material. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were initiated and

  15. Dynamics of a femtosecond/picosecond laser-induced aluminum plasma out of thermodynamic equilibrium in a nitrogen background gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Vincent; Bultel, Arnaud; Annaloro, Julien; Chambrelan, Cédric; Edouard, Guillaume; Grisolia, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the experimental studies, the assessment of the ability of ultra-short (femto or picosecond) laser pulses to provide correct estimates of the elemental composition of unknown samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy requires the modeling of a typical situation. The present article deals with this modeling for aluminum in nitrogen. A spherical layer model is developed. The central aluminum plasma is produced by the ultra-short pulse. This plasma is described using our collisional-radiative model CoRaM-Al in an upgraded version involving 250 levels. Its expansion and relaxation take place in nitrogen, where the formation and the propagation of a shock wave are taken into account. In this shocked nitrogen layer, the equilibrium conditions are assumed. Mass, momentum and energy conservation equations written under an Eulerian form are used to correctly model the global dynamics. Energy losses are due to radiative recombination, thermal Bremsstrahlung and spontaneous emission. These elementary processes are implemented. The only input parameters are the pulse energy E0, the ablated mass M of the sample and the pressure p0 of the surrounding gas. The equilibrium composition involving N2, N, N2+, N+ and free electrons of the shocked nitrogen layer is calculated from the thermodynamic database of our collisional-radiative model CoRaM-N2. The conditions E0 = 10 mJ and M ≃ 10- 10 kg corresponding to a 532 nm laser pulse are chosen. The model assumes the initial equilibrium of the aluminum plasma produced by the laser pulse absorbed by the sample. Then, owing to the significant overpressure with respect to the background gas (p0 is assumed atmospheric), the surrounding gas starts to be compressed while the propagation of a shock wave takes place. The shock layer maximum pressure is obtained at approximately 20 ns. At this characteristic time, the nitrogen pressure is around 400 times the atmospheric pressure. A shock velocity of 7 km s- 1 is predicted. The

  16. Dynamic laser-induced effects in nanocomposite systems based on the cadmium sulfide quantum dots in a silicate matrix.

    PubMed

    Voznesenskiy, S S; Sergeev, A A; Postnova, I V; Galkina, A N; Shchipunov, Yu A; Kulchin, Yu N

    2015-02-23

    In this paper we study the laser-induced modification of optical properties of nanocomposite based on cadmium sulphide quantum dots encapsulated into thiomalic acid shell which were embedded into a porous silica matrix. It was found that exposure to laser radiation at λ = 405.9 nm leads to modification of optical properties of nanocomposite. For this exposed area there is a significant amount of photodynamic changes under subsequent exposure to laser radiation at λ = 405.9 nm, namely photoabsorption and photorefraction which were studied at λ = 633 nm. The value of these effects dependent on the concentration of quantum dots and modifying radiation parameters. Moreover, it has dependence from polarization of exposure radiation. PMID:25836478

  17. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurement of ion and neutral dynamics in a Hall thruster during ionization oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Young, Christopher V.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents spatially and temporally resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of the xenon ion and neutral velocity distribution functions in a 400 W Hall thruster during natural ionization oscillations at 23 kHz, the so-called "breathing mode." Strong fluctuations in measured axial ion velocity throughout the discharge current cycle are observed at five spatial locations and the velocity maxima appear in the low current interval. The spatio-temporal evolution of the ion velocity distribution function suggests a propagating acceleration front undergoing periodic motion between the thruster exit plane and ˜1 cm downstream into the plume. The ion LIF signal intensity oscillates almost in phase with the discharge current, while the neutral fluorescence signal appears out of phase, indicating alternating intervals of strong and weak ionization.

  18. Relationship between the results of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and dynamical mechanical analysis in composite solid propellants during their aging.

    PubMed

    Farhadian, Amir Hossein; Tehrani, Masoud Kavosh; Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Karimi, Mehran; Reza Darbani, Seyyed Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to analyze thermal aging in AP/HTPB composite solid propellants, where AP and HTPB are ammonium perchlorate and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene, respectively. The method of accelerated aging was used to obtain samples of different ages. Dynamical mechanical analysis results have been provided in order to validate the LIBS results. Many methods have been used for the accurate investigation of spectra. First, molecular bands, such as CN, C2, and AlO, were compared in different samples so that their intensity ratios could be considered. In order to discriminate more accurately between different sample spectra, principle component analysis (PCA) was used as a suitable chemometric method. All these results represent changes in the chemical structure due to increasing time and temperature. PMID:27411188

  19. Direct methods for dynamic monitoring of secretions from single cells by capillary electrophoresis and microscopy with laser-induced native fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, W.

    1997-10-08

    Microscale separation and detection methods for real-time monitoring of dynamic cellular processes (e.g., secretion) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microscopic imaging were developed. Ultraviolet laser-induced native fluorescence (LINF) provides simple, sensitive and direct detection of neurotransmitters and proteins without any derivatization. An on-column CE-LINF protocol for quantification of the release from single cell was demonstrated. Quantitative measurements of both the amount of insulin released from and the amount remaining in the cell ({beta}TC3) were achieved simultaneously. Secretion of catecholamines (norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E)) from individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was determined using the on-column CE-LINF. Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved by LINF imaging microscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution. The secretion of serotonin from individual leech Retzius neurons was directly characterized by LINF microscopy with high spatial resolution.

  20. Dynamic Landslide Deformation Monitoring with Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. R.; Gischig, V.; Button, E.; Loew, S.

    2009-12-01

    Fiber optic (FO) strain sensors are a promising new technology for in-situ landslide monitoring. General performance advantages include high resolution, fast sampling rate, and insensitivity to electrical disturbances. Here we describe a new FO monitoring system based on long-gage fiber Bragg grating sensors installed at the Randa Rockslide Laboratory in southern Switzerland. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the system, describe relevant first results, and compare FO data to that from traditional instruments already installed on site. The Randa rock slope has been the subject of intensive research since its failure in 1991. Around 5 million cubic meters of rock remains unstable today, moving at rates up to 20 mm / year. Traditional in-situ monitoring techniques have been employed to understand the mechanics and driving forces of the currently unstable rock mass, however these investigations are limited by the resolution and low sampling rate of the sensors. The new FO monitoring system has micro-strain resolution and offers the capability to detect sub-micrometer scale deformations in both triggered-dynamic and continuous measurements. Two types of sensors have been installed: fully-embedded borehole sensors encased in grout at depths of 38, 40, and 68 m, and surface extensometers spanning active tension cracks. Dynamic measurements are triggered by sensor deformation and recorded at 100 Hz, while continuous measurements are logged every 5 minutes. Since installation in August 2008, the FO monitoring system has been operational 90% of the time. Time series deformation data show movement rates consistent with previous borehole extensometer surveys. Accelerated displacements following installation are likely related to long-term curing and dewatering of the grout. A number of interesting transients have been recorded, which in some cases were large enough to trigger rapid sampling. The combination of short- and long-term observation offers new

  1. Photodissociation dynamics of 2-chloro-6-nitrotoluene and nitrocyclopentane in gas phase: Laser-induced fluorescence detection of OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawade, Monali N.; Saha, Ankur; Upadhyaya, Hari P.; Kumar, Awadhesh; Naik, Prakash D.

    2014-10-01

    Photodissociation of 2-chloro-6-nitrotoluene (ClNT) at 193, 248 and 266 nm and nitrocyclopentane (NCP) at 193 nm leads to the formation of OH, as detected by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The nascent OH produced from the photolysis of ClNT at all the wavelengths is vibrationally cold, with the Boltzmann type rotational state distributions. However, the nascent OH product from NCP is in the ground and vibrationally excited states with the measured average relative population in ν″ = 1 to that in ν″ = 0 of 0.12 ± 0.03, and these levels are characterized by rotational temperatures of 650 ± 180 K and 1570 ± 90 K, respectively. The translational energy partitioned in the OH fragment has been measured for photodissociation of both ClNT and NCP. On the basis of both the experimental results and the ground state molecular orbital (MO) calculations, a plausible mechanism for the OH formation has been proposed.

  2. Dynamic Optical Gratings Accessed by Reversible Shape Memory.

    PubMed

    Tippets, Cary A; Li, Qiaoxi; Fu, Yulan; Donev, Eugenii U; Zhou, Jing; Turner, Sara A; Jackson, Anne-Martine S; Ashby, Valerie Sheares; Sheiko, Sergei S; Lopez, Rene

    2015-07-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) have been shown to accurately replicate photonic structures that produce tunable optical responses, but in practice, these responses are limited by the irreversibility of conventional shape memory processes. Here, we report the intensity modulation of a diffraction grating utilizing two-way reversible shape changes. Reversible shifting of the grating height was accomplished through partial melting and recrystallization of semicrystalline poly(octylene adipate). The concurrent variations of the grating shape and diffraction intensity were monitored via atomic force microscopy and first order diffraction measurements, respectively. A maximum reversibility of the diffraction intensity of 36% was repeatable over multiple cycles. To that end, the reversible shape memory process is shown to broaden the functionality of SMP-based optical devices. PMID:26081101

  3. On-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in photonic-phononic hybrid waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme for reversible and tunable on-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in a hybrid photonic-phononic waveguide. The dynamic grating is built up through the acousto-optic effect and the theoretical model of the optical mode conversion is developed by considering the geometrical deformation and refractive index change. Three kinds of mode conversions are able to be realized using the same hybrid waveguide structure in a large bandwidth by only changing the launched acoustic frequency. The complete mode conversion can be achieved by choosing a proper acoustic power under a given waveguide length. PMID:25996236

  4. On-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in photonic-phononic hybrid waveguide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guodong; Zhang, Ruiwen; Sun, Junqiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme for reversible and tunable on-chip optical mode conversion based on dynamic grating in a hybrid photonic-phononic waveguide. The dynamic grating is built up through the acousto-optic effect and the theoretical model of the optical mode conversion is developed by considering the geometrical deformation and refractive index change. Three kinds of mode conversions are able to be realized using the same hybrid waveguide structure in a large bandwidth by only changing the launched acoustic frequency. The complete mode conversion can be achieved by choosing a proper acoustic power under a given waveguide length. PMID:25996236

  5. Distributed characterization of localized and stationary dynamic Brillouin gratings in polarization maintaining optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Chiarello, Fabrizio; Sengupta, Dipankar; Palmieri, Luca; Santagiustina, Marco

    2016-03-21

    We experimentally generate localized and stationary dynamic Brillouin gratings in a 5 m long polarization maintaining fiber by phase-modulation of the pumps with a pseudo-random bit sequence. The dynamic Brillouin gratings are characterized in terms of length, bandwidth, group delay and group delay ripple, optical signal-to-noise ratio and peak to sidelobe ratio by measuring the distribution of the complex reflected signal along the fiber through swept-wavelength interferometry. By numerical processing, the performance of an optimal modulation format enabling null off-peak reflections are estimated and compared to the pseudo-random bit sequence case. PMID:27136783

  6. Dynamics of laser-induced channel formation in water and influence of pulse duration on the ablation of biotissue under water with pulsed erbium-laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ith, M.; Pratisto, H.; Altermatt, H. J.; Frenz, M.; Weber, H. P.

    1994-12-01

    The ability to use fiber-delivered erbium-laser radiation for non-contact arthroscopic meniscectomy in a liquid environment was studied. The laser radiation is transmitted through a water-vapor channel created by the leading part of the laser pulse. The dynamics of the channel formation around a submerged fiber tip was investigated with time-resolved flash photography. Strong pressure transients with amplitudes up to a few hundreds of bars measured with a needle hydrophone were found to accompany the channel formation process. Additional pressure transients in the range of kbars were observed after the laser pulse associated with the collapse of the vapor channel. Transmission measurements revealed that the duration the laser-induced channel stays open, and therefore the energy transmittable through it, is substantially determined by the laser pulse duration. The optimum pulse duration was found to be in the range between 250 and 350 µS. This was confirmed by histological evaluations of the laser incisions in meniscus: Increasing the pulse duration from 300 to 800 µs leads to a decrease in the crater depth from 1600 to 300 µm. A comparison of the histological examination after laser treatment through air and through water gave information on the influence of the vapor channel on the ablation efficiency, the cutting quality and the induced thermal damage in the adjacent tissue. The study shows that the erbium laser combined with an adequate fiber delivery system represents an effective surgical instrument liable to become increasingly accepted in orthopedic surgery.

  7. Toward the optimization of double-pulse LIBS underwater: effects of experimental parameters on the reproducibility and dynamics of laser-induced cavitation bubble.

    PubMed

    Cristoforetti, Gabriele; Tiberi, Marco; Simonelli, Andrea; Marsili, Paolo; Giammanco, Francesco

    2012-03-01

    Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was recently proposed for the analysis of underwater samples, since it overcomes the drawbacks of rapid plasma quenching and of large continuum emission, typical of single-pulse ablation. Despite the attractiveness of the method, this approach suffers nevertheless from a poor spectroscopic reproducibility, which is partially due to the scarce reproducibility of the cavitation bubble induced by the first laser pulse, since pressure and dimensions of the bubble strongly affect plasma emission. In this work, we investigated the reproducibility and the dynamics of the cavitation bubble induced on a solid target in water, and how they depend on pulse duration, energy, and wavelength, as well as on target composition. Results are discussed in terms of the effects on the laser ablation process produced by the crater formation and by the interaction of the laser pulse with floating particles and gas bubbles. This work, preliminary to the optimization of the spectroscopic signal, provides an insight of the phenomena occurring during laser ablation in water, together with useful information for the choice of the laser source to be used in the apparatus. PMID:22410923

  8. Reaction dynamics of V(a 4FJ)+NO-->VO(X 4Σ-)+N studied by a crossed-beam laser-induced fluorescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, M.; Yamashiro, R.; Matsumoto, Y.; Honma, Kenji

    2006-05-01

    The dynamics of the reaction, V(aFJ4)+NO →VO(XΣ-4)+N was studied by using a crossed-beam technique at 16.4kJ/mol of collision energy. The V atomic beam was generated by laser vaporization and crossed with the O2 beam at a right angle. The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for the transition of VO(BΠ4-XΣ4) was used to determine the rotational state distribution of the reaction product in the vibrational ground state. Almost pure V(aFJ4) beam was obtained by using the mixture of NH3 with N2 as a carrier gas. Comparing the LIF spectra of VO measured for two carrier gases, i.e., NH3/N2 and pure N2, it was concluded that the vibrational ground state of VO(XΣ-4) is formed almost entirely from the reaction of V(aFJ4) and the contribution of the metastable V(aDJ6) is negligible. The observed rotational distribution was similar to a statistical prior prediction, and suggested that the title reaction proceeds via a long-lived intermediate, which is consistent with an electron transfer mechanism.

  9. Periodic Evolution of a Xe I Population in an Oscillatory Discharge: Comparison between Time-Synchronized Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Measurements and A Dynamic Collisional-Radiative Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Young, Chris V.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Plasma Physics Laboratory Team

    2014-10-01

    We study the evolution of the Xe I 6 s '[ 1 / 2 ] 1 - 6 p '[ 3 / 2 ] 2 (834.68 nm air) transition lineshape in a plasma discharge oscillating at 60 Hz using time-synchronized laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements and a collisional-radiative model. Two different time-synchronized LIF techniques based on phase sensitive detection of the fluorescence signal are applied, yielding consistent results. The maximum observed peak fluorescence intensity occurs at low values of the discharge current, although the peak intensity drops to zero at zero discharge current. The peak intensity also decreases at the discharge current maximum. A dynamic collisional-radiative model of the weakly ionized xenon discharge is also implemented, based on a set of rate equations. The proper electron impact cross-sections and radiative decay rates are identified from the literature and used to compute accurate rate coefficients with the Boltzmann solver Bolsig+, including the time-varying electric field. The time evolution of the probed excited state density predicted by the model shows good agreement with the experimental measurements. This work is sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research with Dr. Mitat Birkan as program manager. CVY acknowledges support from the DOE NNSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under Contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.

  10. Laser-induced electron dynamics including photoionization: A heuristic model within time-dependent configuration interaction theory.

    PubMed

    Klinkusch, Stefan; Saalfrank, Peter; Klamroth, Tillmann

    2009-09-21

    We report simulations of laser-pulse driven many-electron dynamics by means of a simple, heuristic extension of the time-dependent configuration interaction singles (TD-CIS) approach. The extension allows for the treatment of ionizing states as nonstationary states with a finite, energy-dependent lifetime to account for above-threshold ionization losses in laser-driven many-electron dynamics. The extended TD-CIS method is applied to the following specific examples: (i) state-to-state transitions in the LiCN molecule which correspond to intramolecular charge transfer, (ii) creation of electronic wave packets in LiCN including wave packet analysis by pump-probe spectroscopy, and, finally, (iii) the effect of ionization on the dynamic polarizability of H(2) when calculated nonperturbatively by TD-CIS. PMID:19778110

  11. Dynamic interrogator for elastic wave sensing using Fabry Perot filters based on fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Harish, Achar V; Varghese, Bibin; Rao, Babu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Srinivasan, Balaji

    2015-07-01

    Use of in-fiber Fabry-Perot (FP) filters based on fiber Bragg gratings as both sensor as well as an interrogator for enhancing the detection limit of elastic wave sensing is investigated in this paper. The sensitivity of such a demodulation scheme depends on the spectral discrimination of the sensor and interrogator gratings. Simulations have shown that the use of in-fiber FP filters with high finesse provide better performance in terms of sensitivity compared to the demodulation using fiber Bragg gratings. Based on these results, a dynamic interrogator capable of sensing acoustic waves with amplitude of less than 1 micro-strain over frequencies of 10 kHz to several 100 kHz has been implemented. Frequency response of the fiber Bragg gratings in the given experimental setup has been compared to that of the conventional piezo sensors demonstrating that fiber Bragg gratings can be used over a relatively broad frequency range. Dynamic interrogator has been packaged in a compact box without any degradation in its performance. PMID:25783780

  12. Non-invasive detection of laser-induced retinal injury through the vitreous using dynamic light scattering (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Naiman, Melissa; Bouhenni, Rachida; Dunmire, Jeffery; Liu, Ying; Rafiq, Qundeel; Edward, Deepak; Gothard, David

    2016-03-01

    Laser radiation entering the eye has the potential of damaging the retina. As an inflammatory response, the proteins can rush to the lesion site created by laser exposure. We explore the hypothesis if these proteins can be detected non-invasively. In this preliminary study, we developed a new brief-case size dynamic light scattering instrument to detect these proteins in-vivo in the rabbit vitreous. The results were validated with bio-chemical analysis.

  13. Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Eric Bryant

    1995-01-01

    Laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is a new technique for remote nonintrusive measurement of thermophysical gas properties. LITA involves forming, via opto-acoustic effects, grating-shaped perturbations of gas properties by the use of intersecting beams from a short-pulse laser. A third beam scatters coherently into a signal beam off the perturbation grating via acousto-optical effects. The evolution of the gas perturbations modulates the scattered signal beam. Accurate values of the sound speed, transport properties, and composition of the gas can be extracted by analyzing the signal beam. An analytical expression for the spectrum, absolute magnitude, and time history of the LITA signal is derived. The optoacoustic effects of thermalization and electrostriction are treated. Finite beam-diameter, beam-duration, and thermalization-rate effects are included in the analysis. The expression accurately models experimental signals over a wide range of gas conditions. Experimental tests using LITA have been conducted on pure and NO_2-seeded air and helium at pressures ranging from {~ }0.1 kPa-14 MPa. Carbon dioxide has been explored near its liquid-vapor critical point. Accuracies of 0.1% in sound speed measurements have been achieved in these tests. Accuracies of {~}1% have been achieved in measurements of thermal diffusivity, although beam misalignment effects have typically degraded this accuracy by a factor of {~} 10-20. Using LITA, susceptibility spectra have been taken of approximately a femtogram of NO_2 . The effects of fluid motion and turbulence have been explored. LITA velocimetry has been demonstrated, in which the Doppler shift of light scattered from a flowing fluid is measured. LITA velocimetry requires no particle seeding, has a coherent signal beam, and can be applied to pulsed flows. LITA has also been applied to measure single-shot |chi^{(1) }|^2 or "Rayleigh scattering" spectra of a gas by the use of a technique of wavelength -division multiplexing

  14. Laser-induced thermal acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Eric B.

    Laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is a new technique for remote nonintrusive measurement of thermophysical gas properties. LITA involves forming, via opto-acoustic effects, grating-shaped perturbations of gas properties using intersecting beams from a short-pulse laser. A third beam scatters coherently into a signal beam off the perturbation grating via acousto-optical effects. The evolution of the gas perturbations modulates the scattered signal beam. Accurate values of the sound speed, transport properties, and composition of the gas can be extracted by analyzing the signal beam.An analytical expression for the spectrum, absolute magnitude, and time history of the LITA signal is derived. The optoacoustic effects of thermalization and electrostriction are treated. Finite beam-diameter, beam-duration, and thermalization-rate effects are included in the analysis. The expression accurately models experimental signals over a wide range of gas conditions.Experimental tests using LITA have been conducted on pure and [...]-seeded air and helium at pressures ranging from ~0.1 kPa-14 MPa. Carbon dioxide has been explored near its liquid-vapor critical point. Accuracies of 0.1% in sound speed measurements have been achieved in these tests. Accuracies of ~1% have been achieved in measurements of thermal diffusivity, although beam misalignment effects have typically degraded this accuracy by a factor of ~10-20. Using LITA, susceptibility spectra have been taken of approximately a femtogram of [...]. The effects of fluid motion and turbulence have been explored. LITA velocimetry has been demonstrated, in which the Doppler shift of light scattered from a flowing fluid is measured. LITA velocimetry requires no particle seeding, has a coherent signal beam, and can be applied to pulsed flows. LITA has also been applied to measure single-shot [...] or "Rayleigh scattering" spectra of a gas using a technique of wavelength-division multiplexing, called multiplex LITA. The LITA

  15. Experimental investigation of the structure and the dynamics of nanosecond laser-induced plasma in 1-atm argon ambient gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qianli; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Bai, Xueshi; Yu, Jin

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the structure and the dynamics of the plasma induced on a metallic target in 1-atm argon ambient by a nanosecond laser pulse with irradiance in the range of 10 GW/cm2. The structure is revealed to be sensitively dependent on the laser wavelength. A layered structure of different species characterizes the plasma induced by ultraviolet 355 nm pulse, while an effective mixing between the ablation vapor and the shocked ambient gas is observed with infrared 1064 nm pulse. The absorption property of the shocked gas is found to be crucial for determining the structure of the plasma.

  16. Dynamic Fracture of Borosilicate Glass with Plasma Confinement geometry in Pure Water by Laser-induced Shock Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Fumikazu; Kishimura, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Takanori

    2013-06-01

    In order to characterize dynamic fracture of borosilicate glass, we performed laser-shock-experiments of both an aluminum-ablator mounted glass and a glass with plasma confinement geometry in pure water by Q-switched Nd3+:YAG laser. The incident beam with 440 mJ were focused onto the target approximately 300 μm in diameter. The dynamic fracture of the glass targets is observed with high-speed digital framing-camera photography. For the aluminum-ablator mounted glass, propagation of the shock wave in water was observed, and the shock-wave velocity is obtained to be 1.65 +/- 0.02 km/s using image processing. Shock-pressure applied the target is estimated to be 180 MPa by Hugoniot relation. For the glass with plasma confinement geometry, generation of the micro-fragments from the rear side of the target was observed. This result indicates that shock-induced fragmentation by laser irradiation is enhanced by the plasma confinement effect. The soft-recovered fragments are separated according the size with PET mesh having deferent mesh size. As a result, the glass with plasma confinement geometry generated smaller fragment than the aluminum-ablator mounted glass.

  17. The Effect of an External Magnetic Field on the Plume Expansion Dynamics of Laser-Induced Aluminum Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, Hussain; Li, Qi; Hao, Zuoqiang; Gao, Xun; Lin, Jingquan

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we investigated the plasma morphology induced by a Nd:YAG laser with the aim of improving the understanding of the formation and dynamics of the plasma in two cases, with and without a magnetic field. Single laser pulse production of a plasma in the absence and presence of a magnetic field was performed with an aluminum target in air. A fast photography technique was employed to obtain information about the expansion dynamics and confinement of the aluminum plasma in each case. The generation of the laser plasma was allowed to expand at two locations with different magnetic field strengths, which correspond to the strength 0.58 T in the center of two magnetic poles and 0.83 T at a distance of 4 mm from the upper pole (N). The plume showed lateral confinement at longer delays when the target was placed at the center of the two poles. When the target was placed at a distance of 4 mm from the upper pole it was observed that the plume was divided into two lobes at the initial stage and traveled towards the center of the magnetic field with further elapse of time. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61178022), the Research Foundation for Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Nos. 20112216120006, 20122216120009 and 20122216110007) and also the Project of 14KP007

  18. Dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silicon by high spatial and temporal resolution imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, X.; Jia, T. Q. Peng, N. N.; Feng, D. H.; Zhang, S. A.; Sun, Z. R.

    2014-04-14

    The formation dynamics of periodic ripples induced by femtosecond laser pulses (pulse duration τ = 50 fs and central wavelength λ = 800 nm) are studied by a collinear pump-probe imaging technique with a temporal resolution of 1 ps and a spatial resolution of 440 nm. The ripples with periods close to the laser wavelength begin to appear upon irradiation of two pump pulses at surface defects produced by the prior one. The rudiments of periodic ripples emerge in the initial tens of picoseconds after fs laser irradiation, and the ripple positions keep unmoved until the formation processes complete mainly in a temporal span of 1500 ps. The results suggest that the periodic deposition of laser energy during the interaction between femtosecond laser pulses and sample surface plays a dominant role in the formation of periodic ripples.

  19. Thermophysical and gas-dynamic characteristics of laser-induced gasplasma flows under femtosecond laser ablation of titanium in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loktionov, E. Yu; Protasov, Yu S.; Protasov, Yu Yu

    2014-03-01

    We report the results of experimental investigation of thermophysical and gas-dynamic characteristics of the gas-plasma flows induced by ultrashort (45 - 60 fs) laser pulse irradiation (the radiation wavelength λ = 400, 800 nm) of a titanium target in vacuum (~5 × 10-4 mbar). The use of combined interferometric technique and complex experimental data processing allowed us to estimate the momentum coupling coefficient (Cm ~ 10-4 N W-1), the efficiency of laser energy conversion to the kinetic energy of the gas-plasma flow (65% - 85%), the spatiotemporal distributions of the particle density (ne = 1018 - 1020 cm-3) and velocity (langlevrangle=4 - 9 km s-1), the static (106 - 108 Pa) and total (107 - 1011 Pa) pressure and temperature (T=7 - 50 kK) in the flow. Our data are compared with published data obtained by other methods.

  20. Detection, Evaluation, and Optimization of Optical Signals Generated by Fiber Optic Bragg Gratings Under Dynamic Excitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Lekki, John; Lock, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic response of a fiber optic Bragg grating to mechanical vibrations is examined both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical expressions describing the consequences of changes in the grating's reflection spectrum are derived for partially coherent beams in an interferometer. The analysis is given in terms of the dominant wavelength, optical bandwidth, and optical path difference of the interfering signals. Changes in the reflection spectrum caused by a periodic stretching and compression of the grating were experimentally measured using an unbalanced Michelson interferometer, a Michelson interferometer with a non-zero optical path difference. The interferometer's sensitivity to changes in dominant wavelength of the interfering beams was measured as a function of interferometer unbalance and was compared to theoretical predictions. The theoretical analysis enables the user to determine the optimum performance for an unbalanced interferometer.

  1. Hybrid Raman/fiber Bragg grating sensor for distributed temperature and discrete dynamic strain measurements.

    PubMed

    Toccafondo, Iacopo; Taki, Mohammad; Signorini, Alessandro; Zaidi, Farhan; Nannipieri, Tiziano; Faralli, Stefano; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2012-11-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid fiber optic sensing technique that effectively combines Raman optical time domain reflectometry and in-line time-division-multiplexing for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) dynamic interrogation. The highly integrated proposed scheme employs broadband apodized low reflectivity FBGs with a single narrowband optical source and a shared receiver block, allowing for simultaneous measurements of distributed static temperature and discrete dynamic strain, over the same sensing fiber. PMID:23114320

  2. Influence of surrounding gas, composition and pressure on plasma plume dynamics of nanosecond pulsed laser-induced aluminum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawood, Mahmoud S.; Hamdan, Ahmad; Margot, Joëlle

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we present a comprehensive study of the plume dynamics of plasmas generated by laser ablation of an aluminum target. The effect of both ambient gas composition (helium, nitrogen or argon) and pressure (from ˜5 × 10-7 Torr up to atmosphere) is studied. The time- and space- resolved observation of the plasma plume are performed from spectrally integrated images using an intensified Charge Coupled Device (iCCD) camera. The iCCD images show that the ambient gas does not significantly influence the plume as long as the gas pressure is lower than 20 Torr and the time delay below 300 ns. However, for pressures higher than 20 Torr, the effect of the ambient gas becomes important, the shortest plasma plume length being observed when the gas mass species is highest. On the other hand, space- and time- resolved emission spectroscopy of aluminum ions at λ = 281.6 nm are used to determine the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) profiles. The effect of the ambient gas on the TOF profiles and therefore on the propagation velocity of Al ions is discussed. A correlation between the plasma plume expansion velocity deduced from the iCCD images and that estimated from the TOF profiles is presented. The observed differences are attributed mainly to the different physical mechanisms governing the two diagnostic techniques.

  3. Asymmetrisation of the profile of a thin dynamic holographic grating in a TV-locked optical feedback loop

    SciTech Connect

    Venediktov, Vladimir Yu; Ivanova, Natalya L; Freigang, N N; Laskin, V A

    2009-10-31

    A system for recording a dynamic holographic grating in an optically addressed liquid-crystal spatial light modulator is studied. The system provides the asymmetrisation of the grating profile by using a TV-locked optical feedback loop (nonlinear or adaptive interferometer). (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. Dynamic tracking down-conversion signal processing method based on reference signal for grating heterodyne interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guochao; Yan, Shuhua; Zhou, Weihong; Gu, Chenhui

    2012-08-01

    Traditional displacement measurement systems by grating, which purely make use of fringe intensity to implement fringe count and subdivision, have rigid demands for signal quality and measurement condition, so they are not easy to realize measurement with nanometer precision. Displacement measurement with the dual-wavelength and single-grating design takes advantage of the single grating diffraction theory and the heterodyne interference theory, solving quite well the contradiction between large range and high precision in grating displacement measurement. To obtain nanometer resolution and nanometer precision, high-power subdivision of interference fringes must be realized accurately. A dynamic tracking down-conversion signal processing method based on the reference signal is proposed. Accordingly, a digital phase measurement module to realize high-power subdivision on field programmable gate array (FPGA) was designed, as well as a dynamic tracking down-conversion module using phase-locked loop (PLL). Experiments validated that a carrier signal after down-conversion can constantly maintain close to 100 kHz, and the phase-measurement resolution and phase precision are more than 0.05 and 0.2 deg, respectively. The displacement resolution and the displacement precision, corresponding to the phase results, are 0.139 and 0.556 nm, respectively.

  5. Single grating x-ray imaging for dynamic biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Kaye S.; Paganin, David M.; Parsons, David W.; Donnelley, Martin; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Siu, Karen K. W.

    2012-07-01

    Biomedical studies are already benefiting from the excellent contrast offered by phase contrast x-ray imaging, but live imaging work presents several challenges. Living samples make it particularly difficult to achieve high resolution, sensitive phase contrast images, as exposures must be short and cannot be repeated. We therefore present a single-exposure, high-flux method of differential phase contrast imaging [1, 2, 3] in the context of imaging live airways for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) treatment assessment [4]. The CF study seeks to non-invasively observe the liquid lining the airways, which should increase in depth in response to effective treatments. Both high spatial resolution and sensitivity are required in order to track micron size changes in a liquid that is not easily differentiated from the tissue on which it lies. Our imaging method achieves these goals by using a single attenuation grating or grid as a reference pattern, and analyzing how the sample deforms the pattern to quantitatively retrieve the phase depth of the sample. The deformations are mapped at each pixel in the image using local cross-correlations comparing each 'sample and pattern' image with a reference 'pattern only' image taken before the sample is introduced. This produces a differential phase image, which may be integrated to give the sample phase depth.

  6. Laser induced ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedl, G.; Schuöcker, D.; Geringer, B.; Graf, J.; Klawatsch, D.; Lenz, H. P.; Piock, W. F.; Jetzinger, M.; Kapus, P.

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays, combustion engines and other combustion processes play an overwhelming and important role in everyday life. As a result, ignition of combustion processes is of great importance, too. Usually, ignition of a combustible material is defined in such a way that an ignition initiates a self-sustained reaction which propagates through the inflammable material even in the case that the ignition source has been removed. In most cases, a well defined ignition location and ignition time is of crucial importance. Spark plugs are well suited for such tasks but suffer from some disadvantages, like erosion of electrodes or restricted positioning possibilities. In some cases, ignition of combustible materials by means of high power laser pulses could be beneficial. High power lasers offer several different possibilities to ignite combustible materials, like thermal ignition, resonant ignition or optical breakdown ignition. Since thermal and resonant ignitions are not well suited on the requirements mentioned previously, only optical breakdown ignition will be discussed further. Optical breakdown of a gas within the focal spot of a high power laser allows a very distinct localization of the ignition spot in a combustible material. Since pulse duration is usually in the range of several nanoseconds, requirements on the ignition time are fulfilled easily, too. Laser peak intensities required for such an optical breakdown are in the range of 10 11 W/cm2. The hot plasma which forms during this breakdown initiates the following self-propagating combustion process. It has been shown previously that laser ignition of direct injection engines improves the fuel consumption as well as the exhaust emissions of such engines significantly. The work presented here gives a brief overview on the basics of laser induced ignition. Flame propagation which follows a successful ignition event can be distinguished into two diffrent regimes. Combustion processes within an engine are usually

  7. Localized and stationary dynamic gratings via stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pumps.

    PubMed

    Antman, Y; Primerov, N; Sancho, J; Thevenaz, L; Zadok, A

    2012-03-26

    A novel technique for the localization of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) interaction is proposed, analyzed and demonstrated experimentally. The method relies on the phase modulation of two counter-propagating optical waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS), these waves being spectrally detuned by the Brillouin frequency shift. The PRBS symbol duration is much shorter than the acoustic lifetime. The interference between the two modulated waves gives rise to an acoustic grating that is confined to narrow correlation peaks, as short as 1.7 cm. The separation between neighboring peaks, which is governed by the PRBS length, can be made arbitrarily long. The method is demonstrated in the generation and applications of dynamic gratings in polarization maintaining (PM) fibers. Localized and stationary acoustic gratings are induced by two phase modulated pumps that are polarized along one principal axis of the PM fiber, and interrogated by a third, readout wave which is polarized along the orthogonal axis. Using the proposed technique, we demonstrate the variable delay of 1 ns-long readout pulses by as much as 770 ns. Noise due to reflections from residual off-peak gratings and its implications on the potential variable delay of optical communication data are discussed. The method is equally applicable to the modulation of pump and probe waves in SBS over standard fibers. PMID:22453458

  8. Fully distributed chirped FBG sensor and application in laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chenglin; Chen, Na; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2009-11-01

    In the laser induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT), real-timely detecting the temperature distribution of the cured tissue is a bottleneck. In this paper, a fully distributed chirped Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor, which is of small size, immune from electromagnetic interference (EMI) and high sensitivity, is proposed to solve this problem. An experiment simulation of LITT is set up, and only one chirped FBG is used to detect the dynamic spectral variation with different laser power. Meanwhile, a high-efficiency spectra inversion algorithm named MSAE of FBG is utilized to demodulate the system and obtain the temperature distribution. The spatial resolution is 0.25mm and the running time of demodulation is tens of seconds, which can help doctors control the laser parameters such as the laser power and the treatment time to guarantee the security of the therapy.

  9. Compact fiber Bragg grating dynamic strain sensor cum broadband thermometer for thermally unstable ambience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, K.; Asokan, S.

    2010-01-01

    An instrument for simultaneous measurement of dynamic strain and temperature in a thermally unstable ambience has been proposed, based on fiber Bragg grating technology. The instrument can function as a compact and stand-alone broadband thermometer and a dynamic strain gauge. It employs a source wavelength tracking procedure for linear dependence of the output on the measurand, offering high dynamic range. Two schemes have been demonstrated with their relative merits. As a thermometer, the present instrumental configuration can offer a linear response in excess of 500 °C that can be easily extended by adding a suitable grating and source without any alteration in the procedure. Temperature sensitivity is about 0.06 °C for a bandwidth of 1 Hz. For the current grating, the upper limit of strain measurement is about 150 µɛ with a sensitivity of about 80 nɛ Hz-1/2. The major source of uncertainty associated with dynamic strain measurement is the laser source intensity noise, which is of broad spectral band. A low noise source device or the use of optical power regulators can offer improved performance. The total harmonic distortion is less than 0.5% up to about 50 µɛ,1.2% at 100 µɛ and about 2.3% at 150 µɛ. Calibrated results of temperature and strain measurement with the instrument have been presented. Traces of ultrasound signals recorded by the system at 200 kHz, in an ambience of 100-200 °C temperature fluctuation, have been included. Also, the vibration spectrum and engine temperature of a running internal combustion engine has been recorded as a realistic application of the system.

  10. Fiber Bragg grating dynamic strain sensor using an adaptive reflective semiconductor optical amplifier source.

    PubMed

    Wei, Heming; Tao, Chuanyi; Zhu, Yinian; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is configured to demodulate dynamic spectral shifts of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) dynamic strain sensor. The FBG sensor and the RSOA source form an adaptive fiber cavity laser. As the reflective spectrum of the FBG sensor changes due to dynamic strains, the wavelength of the laser output shifts accordingly, which is subsequently converted into a corresponding phase shift and demodulated by an unbalanced Michelson interferometer. Due to the short transition time of the RSOA, the RSOA-FBG cavity can respond to dynamic strains at high frequencies extending to megahertz. A demodulator using a PID controller is used to compensate for low-frequency drifts induced by temperature and large quasi-static strains. As the sensitivity of the demodulator is a function of the optical path difference and the FBG spectral width, optimal parameters to obtain high sensitivity are presented. Multiplexing to demodulate multiple FBG sensors is also discussed. PMID:27139682

  11. Kinetic Approach for Laser-Induced Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, Banaz; Rethfeld, Baerbel

    2008-10-22

    Non-equilibrium distribution functions of electron gas and phonon gas excited with ultrashort intense laser pulses are calculated for laser-induced plasmas occurring in solids. The excitation during femtosecond irradiation and the subsequent thermalization of the free electrons, as well as the dynamics of phonons are described by kinetic equations. The microscopic collision processes, such as absorption by inverse bremsstrahlung, electron-electron collisions, and electron-phonon interactions are considered by complete Boltzmann collision integrals. We apply our kinetic approach for gold by taking s-band electron into account and compare it with the case of excitation of d-band electrons.

  12. High spatial resolution, dynamic, and distributed fiber optic strain sensing based on phasorial Brillouin dynamic gratings reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, A.; Langer, T.; Tur, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel fiber-optic sensing technique based on the distributed measurement of Brillouin-induced phase-shift in the reflection from Brillouin dynamic gratings in polarization-maintaining fibers. Subject to signal to noise considerations, the strain sensitivity of the phase-shift in the reflection of a pulsed probe, orthogonally polarized to the gratings-generating pumps, is independent of the pulse width, suggesting the potential to achieve higher spatial resolutions than those offered by slope-assisted, phasorial Brillouin sensing techniques in standard single-mode fibers. We report the measurement of 500Hz strain vibrations (at a sampling rate of 1MHz) with a spatial resolution of 20cm.

  13. Magnetic domain wall gratings for magnetization reversal tuning and confined dynamic mode localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trützschler, Julia; Sentosun, Kadir; Mozooni, Babak; Mattheis, Roland; McCord, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    High density magnetic domain wall gratings are imprinted in ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic thin films by local ion irradiation by which alternating head-to-tail-to-head-to-tail and head-to-head-to-tail-to-tail spatially overlapping domain wall networks are formed. Unique magnetic domain processes result from the interaction of anchored domain walls. Non-linear magnetization response is introduced by the laterally distributed magnetic anisotropy phases. The locally varying magnetic charge distribution gives rise to localized and guided magnetization spin-wave modes directly constrained by the narrow domain wall cores. The exchange coupled multiphase material structure leads to unprecedented static and locally modified dynamic magnetic material properties.

  14. Photochromism of spirooxazine-doped polymers studied by monitoring dynamics of holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xin; Zheng, Meiling; Fu, Shencheng; Shi, Feng; Wang, Xiuli; Zhan, Naiyan

    2015-03-01

    As an organic photochromic material, spirooxazine attracted widespread attention because of its high fatigue resistance and thermal stability. In this paper, the photochromism of spirooxazine was studied by monitoring the dynamics of holographic gratings in spirooxazine-doped polymer films. A theoretical description for the transformation of spirooxazine and merocyanine molecules was carried out, which agrees well with the experimental results. The photochromism of spirooxazine-doped different matrixes were studied, the photochromic rate and fatigue resistance of spirooxazine-doped SiO2 films were found to be better than spirooxazine-doped PMMA films.

  15. Highly effective dynamic holographic gratings in doped bismuth titanate crystals and applications to metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovgalenko, George E.; Wu, Ying

    2009-05-01

    Highly efficient volume reflective, dynamical holographic gratings in doped Ti12TiO20 crystals have been observed. We demonstrated doped Ti12TiO20 single, electro-optical crystal and experimental set up, which combines high reversibility, small response time, high diffraction efficiency and practically unlimited number of cycles hologram recording, readout and erasing. It allows using doped Ti12TiO20 crystal as an attractive diffractive optical element in Dynamical Holographic Sensor -DHS for metrology applications. The high image contrast of the real time dynamical holographic interferograms without application of external electric field has been obtained for non transparent diffuse reflective objects using commercial available CW He-Ne laser. DHS applications for nondestructive test of the most vital parts engineering constructions to prevent premature failure have has been demonstrated. DHS application for visualization of cryogenic fields in the near zone of cryoultrasonic cancer tissue destructor has been presented.

  16. Laser-induced thermal-acoustic velocimetry with heterodyne detection

    SciTech Connect

    Schlamp, Stefan; Cummings, Eric B.; Sobota, Thomas H.

    2000-02-15

    Laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) was used with heterodyne detection to measure simultaneously and in a single laser pulse the sound speed and flow velocity of NO{sub 2} -seeded air in a low-speed wind tunnel up to Mach number M=0.1 . The uncertainties of the velocity and the sound speed measurements were {approx}0.2 m/s and 0.5%, respectively. Measurements were obtained through a nonlinear least-squares fit to a general, analytic closed-form solution for heterodyne-detected LITA signals from thermal gratings. Agreement between theory and experiment is exceptionally good. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  17. High dynamic range temperature-compensated fibre Bragg gratings sensor for structural monitoring of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeu, E.; Gnewuch, H.; Jackson, D. A.; Podoleanu, A.

    2006-06-01

    The distance changes between structural elements inside a building (e.g. walls, pillars, stairs, etc.) ought to be monitored, especially in seismic-prone areas, in order to assess its stability. Fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are now the most interesting choice for this purpose, since several gratings can be included in the fibre, resulting in a quasi-distributed sensor, which can be illuminated using a single light source and interrogated simply by a single optical spectrum analyzer (OSA), using wavelength multiplexing. The paper deals with such a sensor, which was installed for monitoring the distance changes in a construction joint between two building blocks inside the University "Politehnica" of Bucharest. Since this city is placed in a seismic-prone area, we use a fast scanning OSA, so that the dynamic behavior of the monitored construction joint is expected to be captured during future earthquakes. Slow drifts of the construction joint width will be also monitored. The paper describes the sensor structure and working principle, the experimental tests and main parameters evaluation. The reported sensor is temperature compensated. It has an estimated distance resolution better or equal to 10 μm, and a linearity of +0.2%...-0.35% for displacements up to 0.55 mm. Simulated dynamic tests are also reported.

  18. Recording of dynamic gratings in the nonlinear optical coating of a planar waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, N. M.; Korolev, A. E.; Koklyushkin, A. V.; Lipovskaya, M. Yu.; Nazarov, V. N.

    2003-04-01

    The possibility of controlled energy exchange between interfering waveguide modes in a singlemode planar waveguide with a nonlinear optical coating is analyzed. As the coating, a suspension of bacteriorhodopsin D96N was used, which makes it possible to realize two spectrally separated mechanisms of recording and controlling dynamic gratings, i.e., the spatial modulation of the trans-cis excitation rate and the spatial modulation of the cis-trans relaxation rate. The method of phase-modulated beams was used to implement the energy exchange. The dynamic gratings in the coating were recorded by using both radiation with a wavelength within the absorption band of the trans state (630 nm) and radiation with a wavelength within the absorption band of the cis state (440 nm). Efficient control of the energy exchange between the waveguide modes by means of uniform exposure of their interference region to radiation with another wavelength was observed. A completely integral geometrical layout for optically controlled energy exchange was realized. The results obtained are compared with known data on energy exchange between beams in the bulk of a similar nonlinear medium.

  19. Concentration measurements with Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlamp, Stefan; Sobota, Thomas H.

    2001-03-01

    Laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is used to measure the concentration of iodine vapor (40-150 ppm) in air instantaneously (1 μs), remotely, and non-intrusively. Two focused, pulsed intersecting laser beams inscribe a density grating in the fluid. A cw interrogation beam directed at the Bragg angle on the grating is scattered into a coherent signal beam whose intensity depends on the instantaneous density grating magnitude. The signal beam is detected by a photomultiplier tube and its history recorded by a digital storage oscilloscope. The species in question (e.g., I_2) and the dilution species are excited resonantly (by thermalization) and non-resonantly (by electrostriction), respectively. The signals show oscillations at (twice) the grating's Brillouin frequency for the case of thermalization (electrostriction). The ratio of the thermalization to the electrostriction grating magnitudes is proportional to the resonant species concentration. They are extracted by a least-squares fitting scheme. For good accuracy, the ratio must be of order unity. For this case, the standard error is 5%. The speed of sound (error <1%) and flow velocity (error <1%) can be measured simultaneously.

  20. The photodissociation and reaction dynamics of vibrationally excited molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Crim, F.F.

    1993-12-01

    This research determines the nature of highly vibrationally excited molecules, their unimolecular reactions, and their photodissociation dynamics. The goal is to characterize vibrationally excited molecules and to exploit that understanding to discover and control their chemical pathways. Most recently the author has used a combination of vibrational overtone excitation and laser induced fluorescence both to characterize vibrationally excited molecules and to study their photodissociation dynamics. The author has also begun laser induced grating spectroscopy experiments designed to obtain the electronic absorption spectra of highly vibrationally excited molecules.

  1. The photodissociation and reaction dynamics of vibrationally excited molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    We have used combined vibrational overtone excitation and laser induced fluorescence detection to study dissociation dynamics of hydroxylamine (NH[sub 2]OH), have performed our first laser induced grating experiments on water, and have begun assembling a new apparatus for preparing vibrationally excited molecules with simulated Raman excitation. We study role of vibrational excitation in photodissociation dynamics by using a vibrational state preparation technique, such as vibrational overtone excitation or stimulated Raman excitation, to create molecules with particular nuclear motions and then to excite that molecule to a dissociative electronic state.

  2. Magnetic domain wall gratings for magnetization reversal tuning and confined dynamic mode localization.

    PubMed

    Trützschler, Julia; Sentosun, Kadir; Mozooni, Babak; Mattheis, Roland; McCord, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    High density magnetic domain wall gratings are imprinted in ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic thin films by local ion irradiation by which alternating head-to-tail-to-head-to-tail and head-to-head-to-tail-to-tail spatially overlapping domain wall networks are formed. Unique magnetic domain processes result from the interaction of anchored domain walls. Non-linear magnetization response is introduced by the laterally distributed magnetic anisotropy phases. The locally varying magnetic charge distribution gives rise to localized and guided magnetization spin-wave modes directly constrained by the narrow domain wall cores. The exchange coupled multiphase material structure leads to unprecedented static and locally modified dynamic magnetic material properties. PMID:27487941

  3. Magnetic domain wall gratings for magnetization reversal tuning and confined dynamic mode localization

    PubMed Central

    Trützschler, Julia; Sentosun, Kadir; Mozooni, Babak; Mattheis, Roland; McCord, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    High density magnetic domain wall gratings are imprinted in ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic thin films by local ion irradiation by which alternating head-to-tail-to-head-to-tail and head-to-head-to-tail-to-tail spatially overlapping domain wall networks are formed. Unique magnetic domain processes result from the interaction of anchored domain walls. Non-linear magnetization response is introduced by the laterally distributed magnetic anisotropy phases. The locally varying magnetic charge distribution gives rise to localized and guided magnetization spin-wave modes directly constrained by the narrow domain wall cores. The exchange coupled multiphase material structure leads to unprecedented static and locally modified dynamic magnetic material properties. PMID:27487941

  4. Characterization of temperature-dependent birefringence in polarization maintaining fibers based on Brillouin dynamic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Hyun; Song, Kwang Yong

    2015-07-01

    Temperature dependence of birefringence in various types of polarization-maintaining fibers (PMF's) is rigorously investigated by the spectral analysis of Brillouin dynamic grating (BDG). PANDA, Bowtie, and PM photonic crystal fibers are tested in the temperature range of -30 to 150 ºC, where nonlinear temperature dependence is quantified for each fiber to an accuracy of ±7.6 × 10-8. It is observed that the amount of deviation from the linearity varies according to the structural parameters of the PMF's and the existence of acrylate jacket. Experimental confirmation of the validity of the BDG-based birefringence measurement is also presented in comparison to the periodic lateral force method.

  5. Molecular dynamics in azobenzene liquid crystal polymer films studied by transient grating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Kenji; Fujii, Tomomi; Kuwahara, Shota; Takado, Kiyohide; Ikeda, Tomiki

    2014-10-01

    We studied the effect of the ratio between the monomer and cross-linker molecules in the azobenene included liquid crystal polymer films by using the heterodyne transient grating (HD-TG) technique, which is one of the time-resolved measurement techniques. Depending on the ratio, the magnitude of the refractive index change, its anisotropy, and the lifetime of the cis isomer of azobenzene, generated by a UV pulse irradiation. By increasing the cross-linker ratio, the refractive index change and its anisotropy was reduced, indicating less ability for the motion, while slower lifetime was observed by increasing the monomer ratio, indicating that the film is difficult to return the original shape by a visiblelight irradiation. The obtained dynamics was consistent with the functionality of the films.

  6. Beam dynamics and wakefield simulations of the double grating accelerating structure

    SciTech Connect

    Najafabadi, B. Montazeri; Byer, R. L.; Ng, C. K.; England, R. J.; Peralta, E. A.; Soong, K.; Noble, R.; Wu, Z.

    2012-12-21

    Laser-driven acceleration in dielectric structures can provide gradients on the order of GeV/m. The small transverse dimension and tiny feature sizes introduce challenges in design, fabrication, and simulation studies of these structures. In this paper we present the results of beam dynamic simulation and short range longitudinal wakefield simulation of the double grating structure. We show the linear trend of acceleration in a dielectric accelerator design and calculate the maximum achievable gradient equal to 0.47E{sub 0} where E0 is maximum electric field of the laser excitation. On the other hand, using wakefield simulations, we show that the loss factor of the structure with 400nm gap size will be 0.12GV/m for a 10fC, 100as electron bunch which is an order of magnitude less than expected gradient near damage threshold of the device.

  7. High spatial resolution, low-noise Brillouin dynamic gratings reflectometry based on digital pulse compression.

    PubMed

    Bergman, A; Langer, T; Tur, M

    2016-08-01

    Digital pulse compression was used to enhance the performance of optical time-domain reflectometry, employing Brillouin dynamic gratings (BDGs) in polarization-maintaining fibers. The fundamental and unique issues in BDG field-reflection are addressed, and rules for proper selection of the coding and detection techniques are formulated. While coding in BDG applications generally requires coherent processing of the reflection, conditions are established for use of direct detection. A 256-bit Golay complementary unipolar probe code is used to demonstrate an eightfold signal-to-noise ratio enhancement in the measurement of the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS), with a spatial resolution of 2 cm and a full-BGS acquisition rate of 133⅓ kHz, resulting in an equivalent reduction in the estimation error of small Brillouin frequency shifts. PMID:27472639

  8. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Yuan, Ting-Bi; Hou, Zong-Yu; Zhou, Wei-Dong; Lu, Ji-Dong; Ding, Hong-Bin; Zeng, Xiao-Yan

    2014-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been regarded as a future superstar for chemical analysis for years due to its unique features such as little or no sample preparation, remote sensing, and fast and multi-element analysis. Chinese LIBS community is one of the most dynamically developing communities in the World. The aim of the work is to inspect what have been done in China for LIBS development and, based on the understanding of the overall status, to identify the challenges and opportunities for the future development. In this paper, the scientific contributions from Chinese LIBS community are reviewed for the following four aspects: fundamentals, instrumentation, data processing and modeling, and applications; and the driving force of LIBS development in China is analyzed, the critical issues for successful LIBS application are discussed, and in our opinion, the potential direction to improve the technology and to realize large scale commercialization in China is proposed.

  9. Laser-Induced Spallation of Microsphere Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Hiraiwa, Morgan; Stossel, Melicent; Khanolkar, Amey; Wang, Junlan; Boechler, Nicholas

    2016-08-01

    The detachment of a semiordered monolayer of polystyrene microspheres adhered to an aluminum-coated glass substrate is studied using a laser-induced spallation technique. The microsphere-substrate adhesion force is estimated from substrate surface displacement measurements obtained using optical interferometry, and a rigid-body model that accounts for the inertia of the microspheres. The estimated adhesion force is compared with estimates obtained using an adhesive contact model together with interferometric measurements of the out-of-plane microsphere contact resonance, and with estimated work of adhesion values for the polystyrene-aluminum interface. Scanning electron microscope images of detached monolayer regions reveal a unique morphology, namely, partially detached monolayer flakes composed of single hexagonal close packed crystalline domains. This work contributes to the fields of microsphere adhesion and contact dynamics, and demonstrates a unique monolayer delamination morphology. PMID:27409715

  10. Dynamic fiber Bragg grating strain sensor using a wavelength-locked tunable fiber ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yinian; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2012-04-01

    The interrogation systems based on fiber-optic sensors are very attractive for the practical applications in structural health monitoring owing to a number of advantages of optical fiber elements over their electronic counterparts. Among the fiber-optic sensors, the fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) have their own unique features to be widely used for detection of acoustic emission. We have developed a dynamic strain sensing system by using a tunable single longitudinal mode Erbium-doped fiber ring laser to be locked to the middle-reflection wavelength of the FBG as the demodulation technique. A proportional-integral-derivative device continuously controls the laser wavelength that is kept at the FBG middle-reflection wavelength, thus stabilizing the operating point against quasi-static perturbation, while the high frequency dynamic strain shifts the FBG reflection profile. The reflected power varies in proportion to the applied strain which can be derived directly from AC photocurrent of the reflected signal. We have designed and assembled a fourchannel demodulator system for simultaneous high frequency dynamic strain sensing.

  11. High Pressure Sensing and Dynamics Using High Speed Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.; Sandberg, R. L.; Lalone, B. M.; Marshall, B. R.; Grover, M.; Stevens, G. D.; Udd, E.

    2014-06-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are developing into useful sensing tools for measuring high pressure dynamics in extreme environments under shock loading conditions. Approaches using traditional diode array coupled FBG interrogation systems are often limited to readout speeds in the sub-MHz range. For shock wave physics, required detection speeds approaching 100 MHz are desired. We explore the use of two types of FBG sensing systems that are aimed at applying this technology as embedded high pressure probes for transient shock events. Both approaches measure time resolved spectral shifts in the return light from short (few mm long) uniform FBGs at 1550 nm. In the first approach, we use a fiber coupled spectrometer to demultiplex spectral channels into an array (up to 12) of single element InGaAs photoreceivers. By monitoring the detectors during a shock impact event with high speed recording, we are able to track the pressure induced spectral shifting in FBG down to a time resolution of 20 ns. In the second approach, developed at the Special Technologies Lab, a coherent mode-locked fiber laser is used to illuminate the FBG sensor. After the sensor, wavelength-to-time mapping is accomplished with a chromatic dispersive element, and entire spectra are sampled using a single detector at the modelocked laser repetition rate of 50 MHz. By sampling with a 12 GHz InGaAs detector, direct wavelength mapping in time is recorded, and the pressure induced FBG spectral shift is sampled at 50 MHz. Here, the sensing systems are used to monitor the spectral shifts of FBGs that are immersed into liquid water and shock compressed using explosives. In this configuration, the gratings survive to pressures approaching 50 kbar. We describe both approaches and present the measured spectral shifts from the shock experiments.

  12. Dynamics of surface thermal expansion and diffusivity using two-color reflection transient gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D.M.; Harris, C.B.

    1993-02-01

    We report ultrafast measurements of the dynamic thermal expansion of a surface and the temperature dependent surface thermal diffusivity using a two-color reflection transient grating technique. Studies were performed on p-type, n-type, and undoped GaAs(100) samples at several temperatures. Using a 75 fs ultraviolet probe with visible excitation beams, the electronic effects that dominate single color experiments become negligible; thus surface expansion due to heating and the subsequent contraction caused by cooling provide the dominant influence on the diffracted probe. The diffracted signal was composed of two components, thermal expansion of the surface and heat flow away from the surface, allowing the determination of the rate of expansion as well as the surface thermal diffusivity. At room temperature a signal rise due to thermal expansion was observed, corresponding to a maximum average displacement of {approx} 1 {angstrom} at 32 ps. Large fringe spacings were used, thus the dominant contributions to the signal were expansion and diffusion perpendicular to the surface. Values for the surface thermal diffusivity of GaAs were measured and found to be in reasonable agreement with bulk values above 50{degrees}K. Below 50{degrees}K, the diffusivity at the surface was more than an order of magnitude slower than in the bulk due to increased phonon boundary scattering. Comparison of the results with a straightforward thermal model yields good agreement over a range of temperatures (12--300{degrees}K). The applicability and advantages of the transient grating technique for studying photothermal and photoacoustic phenomena are discussed.

  13. The photodissociation and reaction dynamics of vibrationally excited molecules. Technical progress report, 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    We have used combined vibrational overtone excitation and laser induced fluorescence detection to study dissociation dynamics of hydroxylamine (NH{sub 2}OH), have performed our first laser induced grating experiments on water, and have begun assembling a new apparatus for preparing vibrationally excited molecules with simulated Raman excitation. We study role of vibrational excitation in photodissociation dynamics by using a vibrational state preparation technique, such as vibrational overtone excitation or stimulated Raman excitation, to create molecules with particular nuclear motions and then to excite that molecule to a dissociative electronic state.

  14. Transient Grating Spectroscopy in Magnetic Thin Films: Simultaneous Detection of Elastic and Magnetic Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Janušonis, J.; Jansma, T.; Chang, C. L.; Liu, Q.; Gatilova, A.; Lomonosov, A. M.; Shalagatskyi, V.; Pezeril, T.; Temnov, V. V.; Tobey, R. I.

    2016-01-01

    Surface magnetoelastic waves are coupled elastic and magnetic excitations that propagate along the surface of a magnetic material. Ultrafast optical techniques allow for a non-contact excitation and detection scheme while providing the ability to measure both elastic and magnetic components individually. Here we describe a simple setup suitable for excitation and time resolved measurements of high frequency magnetoelastic waves, which is based on the transient grating technique. The elastic dynamics are measured by diffracting a probe laser pulse from the long-wavelength spatially periodic structural deformation. Simultaneously, a magnetooptical measurement, either Faraday or Kerr effect, is sensitive to the out-of-plane magnetization component. The correspondence in the response of the two channels probes the resonant interaction between the two degrees of freedom and reveals their intimate coupling. Unraveling the observed dynamics requires a detailed understanding of the spatio-temporal evolution of temperature, magnetization and thermo-elastic strain in the ferromagnet. Numerical solution of thermal diffusion in two dimensions provides the basis on which to understand the sensitivity in the magnetooptic detection. PMID:27377262

  15. Transient Grating Spectroscopy in Magnetic Thin Films: Simultaneous Detection of Elastic and Magnetic Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Janušonis, J; Jansma, T; Chang, C L; Liu, Q; Gatilova, A; Lomonosov, A M; Shalagatskyi, V; Pezeril, T; Temnov, V V; Tobey, R I

    2016-01-01

    Surface magnetoelastic waves are coupled elastic and magnetic excitations that propagate along the surface of a magnetic material. Ultrafast optical techniques allow for a non-contact excitation and detection scheme while providing the ability to measure both elastic and magnetic components individually. Here we describe a simple setup suitable for excitation and time resolved measurements of high frequency magnetoelastic waves, which is based on the transient grating technique. The elastic dynamics are measured by diffracting a probe laser pulse from the long-wavelength spatially periodic structural deformation. Simultaneously, a magnetooptical measurement, either Faraday or Kerr effect, is sensitive to the out-of-plane magnetization component. The correspondence in the response of the two channels probes the resonant interaction between the two degrees of freedom and reveals their intimate coupling. Unraveling the observed dynamics requires a detailed understanding of the spatio-temporal evolution of temperature, magnetization and thermo-elastic strain in the ferromagnet. Numerical solution of thermal diffusion in two dimensions provides the basis on which to understand the sensitivity in the magnetooptic detection. PMID:27377262

  16. Dynamic Strain Sensing in a Long-Span Suspension Bridge Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yinian; Zhu, Yan-Jin; Balogun, Oluwaseyi; Zhu, Songye; Xu, You-Lin; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2011-06-01

    Optical fiber sensors are ideal for monitoring continuous deterioration conditions of civil infrastructure, especially of long-span bridges. Typically, a network of sensors is used to measure the strains or low frequency vibrational response of the structure. In this work, we demonstrate dynamic spectral demodulation of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor responses with a stabilized Michelson interferometer for monitoring mechanical strains in a model of long-span bridge. A series of experiments has been performed, including the measurements of the natural resonant modes of the model bridge, impact response of a bridge member and acoustic emissions in a fractured aluminum bar. The experimental results not only reveal that dynamic spectral demodulation of FBG strain responses at frequencies extending up to about 3.5 MHz is possible, but also suggest that the method may be suitable for monitoring high frequency mechanical strains in civil structures that result from cracking or impact loading, thus providing a tool for local detection of structural damage.

  17. Adaptive two-wave mixing wavelength demodulation of fiber Bragg grating sensor for monitoring dynamic strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yi; Zhou, Yi; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2005-05-01

    A two-wave mixing (TWM) wavelength demodulator using InP:Fe photorefractive crystal (PRC) in the C-band (1530-1570nm) is demonstrated. The system can be used as a wavelength demodulator for use with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors to monitor dynamic strains. In this configuration, the FBG is illuminated with a broadband source, and any strain in the FBG is encoded as a wavelength shift of the light reflected by the FBG. The reflected light from the FBG is spilt into two unbalanced paths and both beams (pump and signal) mix in the PRC. Any wavelength shift of the reflected light results in an equivalent phase shift between the pump and signal beams as they travel unbalanced path lengths. Since TWM is an adaptive process, the two interfering beams are naturally in quadrature and remain in quadrature even in the presence of large quasi-static strains. We demonstrate that FBG demodulation using TWM has the ability to selectively monitor dynamic strains without the need for active compensation of large quasi-static strains that otherwise would cause the FBG sensor to drift. As TWM interferometers can be readily multiplexed at relatively low cost; the proposed technique can be used to demodulate signals from a network of FBG sensors for use in structural health monitoring.

  18. Dynamic fiber Bragg gratings based health monitoring system of composite aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panopoulou, A.; Loutas, T.; Roulias, D.; Fransen, S.; Kostopoulos, V.

    2011-09-01

    The main purpose of the current work is to develop a new system for structural health monitoring of composite aerospace structures based on real-time dynamic measurements, in order to identify the structural state condition. Long-gauge Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) optical sensors were used for monitoring the dynamic response of the composite structure. The algorithm that was developed for structural damage detection utilizes the collected dynamic response data, analyzes them in various ways and through an artificial neural network identifies the damage state and its location. Damage was simulated by slightly varying locally the mass of the structure (by adding a known mass) at different zones of the structure. Lumped masses in different locations upon the structure alter the eigen-frequencies in a way similar to actual damage. The structural dynamic behaviour has been numerically simulated and experimentally verified by means of modal testing on two different composite aerospace structures. Advanced digital signal processing techniques, e.g. the wavelet transform (WT), were used for the analysis of the dynamic response for feature extraction. WT's capability of separating the different frequency components in the time domain without loosing frequency information makes it a versatile tool for demanding signal processing applications. The use of WT is also suggested by the no-stationary nature of dynamic response signals and the opportunity of evaluating the temporal evolution of their frequency contents. Feature extraction is the first step of the procedure. The extracted features are effective indices of damage size and location. The classification step comprises of a feed-forward back propagation network, whose output determines the simulated damage location. Finally, dedicated training and validation activities were carried out by means of numerical simulations and experimental procedures. Experimental validation was performed initially on a flat stiffened panel

  19. Interrogation of a wavelength tunable fiber Bragg grating sensor based ring laser for dynamic strain monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogun, Oluwaseyi; Zhu, Yinian; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2010-03-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are wavelength selective optical reflectors with excellent strain sensitivity and small sensing footprint, which makes them suitable as diagnostic sensors for structural health monitoring applications. In this work, we explore the narrowband wavelength selectivity of FBGs for optical feedback in a tunable fiber ring laser. The fiber ring laser consists of an erbium doped fiber laser that is pumped with a Raman laser (980 nm) to produce population inversion and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the C-band. The ASE light is used to illuminate a FBG sensor connected to the ring, and the reflected light from the sensor is fed back into the laser cavity to produce stimulated emission at the instantaneous center wavelength of the sensor. As the wavelength of the sensor shifts due mechanical or thermal strains, the wavelength of the optical output from the ring laser shifts accordingly. By combining the ring laser with a dynamic spectral demodulator for optical readout, the instantaneous wavelength of the ring laser is tracked with high temporal resolution. The fiber ring laser system offers several potential advantages in the diagnostic sensing of mechanical strains for SHM applications including, fully integrated laser and sensor system, high source power levels at the sensor wavelength, narrow spectral line-width, coherent spectral demodulation, and low system costs. In this work, we present experimental results that detail the feasibility of dynamic spectral tuning of the fiber ring laser at frequencies up to hundreds of kilohertz using a single FBG sensing element. Using multiple sensing elements, the fiber ring laser system would allow for active monitoring of dynamic strains in a multi-point sensor array configuration, which is particularly suitable for the localization of high frequency mechanical strains produced by impact loading and cracking events in structures.

  20. Laser induced melting and crystallization of boron doped amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Nebel, C.E.; Schoeniger, S.; Dahlheimer, B.; Stutzmann, M.

    1997-07-01

    Transient reflectivity experiments have been performed to measure the dynamics of laser-induced melting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and the crystallization to {micro}c-Si of films with different thicknesses on Corning 7059 glass. The laser-induced melting takes place with a velocity of 13 to 24 m/s, while the solidification is about a factor 10 slower. The crystallization starts at the Si/glass interface and at the surface. In the center of the films Si remains liquid for an extended period of time. The crystallization dynamics point towards an heterogeneous morphology of laser-crystallized Si, where the surface and the interface layers are composed of small grains and the bulk of larger grains.

  1. Experimental investigations on nonlinear dynamics of a semiconductor laser subject to optical injection and fiber Bragg grating feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jian; Zhong, Zhu-Qiang; Wei, Li-Xia; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2015-11-01

    Nonlinear dynamical characteristics of a slave semiconductor laser (S-SL) subject to optical injection from a master SL (M-SL) and optical feedback from a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are investigated experimentally. First, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of the S-SL subject to only optical injection. Through varying the injection coefficient and fixing the frequency detuning between the M-SL and S-SL, some dynamical states with typical characteristics are recorded and identified. Next, the variations of these dynamical states are further investigated with the introduction of a FBG feedback, and the according results show that these dynamical states may be changed after a FBG feedback is introduced into the S-SL. Finally, after collecting the mappings of the dynamical states of S-SL in the parameter space of injection coefficient and frequency detuning under different FBG feedback coefficients, the influences of FBG feedback on the nonlinear dynamics of the S-SL are analyzed.

  2. Variable delay of Gbit/s data using coded Brillouin dynamic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antman, Yair; Yaron, Lior; Langer, Tomy; Tur, Moshe; Zadok, Avi

    2013-03-01

    Dynamic Brillouin gratings (DBGs), inscribed by co-modulating two writing pump waves with a bi-phase code, are analyzed theoretically, simulated numerically, demonstrated and characterized experimentally. A comparison is made between modulation by pseudo-random bit sequences (PRBS) and perfect Golomb codes. Numerical analysis shows that Golomb codes provide lower off-peak reflectivity, due to the unique properties of their cyclic auto-correlation function. Golomb coded DBGs can therefor allow for the long variable delay of one-time probe waveforms with higher signal-tonoise ratios, and without averaging. A figure of merit is proposed, in terms of the optical signal-to-noise ratio of reflected waveforms and the delay-bandwidth product of the setup. As an example, the variable delay of return-to-zero, on-off keyed data at 1 Gbit/s rate, by as much as 10 ns, is successfully demonstrated. The eye diagram of the reflected waveform remains open, whereas PRBS modulation of the pump waves results in a closed eye.

  3. Neural network data analysis for laser-induced thermal acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlamp, Stefan; Hornung, Hans G.; Cummings, Eric B.

    2000-06-01

    A general, analytical closed-form solution for laser-induced thermal acoustic (LITA) signals using homodyne or heterodyne detection and using electrostrictive and thermal gratings is derived. A one-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network is trained using back-propagation learning and a steepest descent learning rule to extract the speed of sound and flow velocity from a heterodyne LITA signal. The effect of the network size on the performance is demonstrated. The accuracy is determined with a second set of LITA signals that were not used during the training phase. The accuracy is found to be better than that of a conventional frequency decomposition technique while being computationally as efficient. This data analysis method is robust with respect to noise, numerically stable and fast enough for real-time data analysis.

  4. Interaction between jets during laser-induced forward transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Patrascioiu, A.; Florian, C.; Fernández-Pradas, J. M.; Morenza, J. L.; Serra, P.; Hennig, G.; Delaporte, P.

    2014-07-07

    Simultaneous two-beam laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) was carried out for various inter-beam separations, analyzing both the resulting printing outcomes and the corresponding liquid transfer dynamics. In a first experiment, droplets of an aqueous solution were printed onto a substrate at different inter-beam distances, which proved that a significant departure from the single-beam LIFT dynamics takes places at specific separations. In the second experiment, time-resolved imaging analysis revealed the existence of significant jet-jet interactions at those separations; such interactions proceed through a dynamics that results in remarkable jet deflection for which a possible onset mechanism is proposed.

  5. Supersonic laser-induced jetting of aluminum micro-droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Zenou, M.; Sa'ar, A.; Kotler, Z.

    2015-05-04

    The droplet velocity and the incubation time of pure aluminum micro-droplets, printed using the method of sub-nanosecond laser induced forward transfer, have been measured indicating the formation of supersonic laser-induced jetting. The incubation time and the droplet velocity were extracted by measuring a transient electrical signal associated with droplet landing on the surface of the acceptor substrate. This technique has been exploited for studying small volume droplets, in the range of 10–100 femto-litters for which supersonic velocities were measured. The results suggest elastic propagation of the droplets across the donor-to-acceptor gap, a nonlinear deposition dynamics on the surface of the acceptor and overall efficient energy transfer from the laser beam to the droplets.

  6. Supersonic laser-induced jetting of aluminum micro-droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenou, M.; Sa'ar, A.; Kotler, Z.

    2015-05-01

    The droplet velocity and the incubation time of pure aluminum micro-droplets, printed using the method of sub-nanosecond laser induced forward transfer, have been measured indicating the formation of supersonic laser-induced jetting. The incubation time and the droplet velocity were extracted by measuring a transient electrical signal associated with droplet landing on the surface of the acceptor substrate. This technique has been exploited for studying small volume droplets, in the range of 10-100 femto-litters for which supersonic velocities were measured. The results suggest elastic propagation of the droplets across the donor-to-acceptor gap, a nonlinear deposition dynamics on the surface of the acceptor and overall efficient energy transfer from the laser beam to the droplets.

  7. Experimental investigation of the dynamics of laser-induced gas-plasma flows under femtosecond laser ablation of copper in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loktionov, E. Yu.; Protasov, Yu. S.; Protasov, Yu. Yu.

    2013-11-01

    Thermophysical and gas-dynamic characteristics of gas-plasma flows induced by ultrashort laser pulses interacting with a thin-film copper target in vacuum were studied experimentally. Using combined laser interferometry and complex processing of experimental data, we estimated the momentum coupling coefficient and the efficiency of laser-energy conversion to kinetic energy, spatiotemporal distributions of the number density and velocities of particles, pressure, and temperature in the gas-plasma flow. We provide comparative analysis of presented data with those found in the literature, which were obtained by other methods.

  8. Long-lived laser-induced microwave plasma guides in the atmosphere: Self-consistent plasma-dynamic analysis and numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, M. N.; Miles, R. B.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2010-08-15

    A detailed model of plasma dynamics, which self-consistently integrates plasma-kinetic, Navier-Stokes, electron heat conduction, and electron-vibration energy transfer equations, is used to quantify the limitations on the lifetime of microwave plasma waveguides induced in the atmosphere through filamentation with high-intensity ultrashort laser pulses further sustained by long laser pulses. We demonstrate that a near-infrared or midinfrared laser pulse can tailor plasma decay in the wake of a filament, efficiently suppressing, through electron temperature increase, the attachment of electrons to neutral species and dissociative recombination, thus substantially increasing the plasma-guide lifetime and facilitating long-distance transmission of microwaves.

  9. Expansion flow and cluster distributions originating from ultrafast-laser-induced fragmentation of thin metal films: A molecular-dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, Arun K.; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2006-01-15

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study the fragmentation patterns of ultrathin metal films as a function of the initial energization. The energization is assumed to occur instantaneously. Above the threshold for fragmentation, a homogeneous expansion of the exploding film is observed, in which a mixture of clusters of all sizes is found. The internal temperature of the clusters is constant, independent of space, time, and cluster size. The cluster size distribution can be characterized for small energizations as a biexponential distribution, but is better represented for larger energizations by a power law in cluster size m,{proportional_to}m{sup -{alpha}}, with an exponent {alpha} congruent with 2.8-3.1.

  10. Anions in laser-induced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanov, S. V.; Gornushkin, I. B.

    2016-07-01

    The equation of state for plasmas containing negative atomic and molecular ions (anions) is modeled. The model is based on the assumption that all ionization processes and chemical reactions are at local thermal equilibrium and the Coulomb interaction in the plasma is described by the Debye-Hückel theory. In particular, the equation of state is obtained for plasmas containing the elements Ca, Cl, C, Si, N, and Ar. The equilibrium reaction constants are calculated using the latest experimental and ab initio data of spectroscopic constants for the molecules CaCl_2, CaCl, Cl_2, N_2, C_2, Si_2, CN, SiN, SiC, and their positive and negative ions. The model is applied to laser-induced plasmas (LIPs) by including the equation of state into a fluid dynamic numerical model based on the Navier-Stokes equations describing an expansion of LIP plumes into an ambient gas as a reactive viscous flow with radiative losses. In particular, the formation of anions Cl-, C-, Si-, {{Cl}}2^{ - }, {{Si}}2^{ - }, {{C}}2^{ - }, CN-, SiC-, and SiN- in LIPs is investigated in detail.

  11. Fast dynamic interferometric lithography for large submicrometric period diffraction gratings production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gâté, Valentin; Bernaud, Gerard; Veillas, Colette; Cazier, Anthony; Vocanson, Francis; Jourlin, Yves; Langlet, Michel

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a successful technological transfer, from a state laboratory to an industrial company, for writing long and large submicron period gratings (potentially square-meter sized), implemented in an industrial direct laser beam writing equipment at 355 nm wavelength (Dilase 750 from KLOE SA company). The writing head, which has been inserted in the machine, consists of a phase mask which enables it to project a set of fringes pattern of small area onto a photoresist-coated substrate. As the substrate is continuously moving, one-dimensional or two-dimensional gratings can be fabricated over large areas limited only by the machine's stage displacement range. The optical scheme is described from the beam shaping to the printing processes and the phase mask optimization. In order to demonstrate the technology, 600 nm period gratings of over 20 cm in length have been fabricated. Such submicron structures can be used in solar cell modules for photon trapping and as antireflection coatings.

  12. Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2016-06-01

    In order to address the dynamics and physical mechanisms of LIPSS formation for three different classes of materials (metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics), two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on Titanium, Silicon and Fused Silica. For that purpose a Mach-Zehnder interferometer generated polarization controlled (parallel or cross-polarized) double-pulse sequences at 400 nm and 800 nm wavelength, with inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds. Multiple of these two-color double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample surfaces. The fluence of each individual pulse (400 nm and 800 nm) was always kept below its respective ablation threshold and only the joint action of both pulses lead to the formation of LIPSS. Their resulting characteristics (periods, areas) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The periods along with the LIPSS orientation allow a clear identification of the pulse which dominates the energy coupling to the material. For strong absorbing materials (Silicon, Titanium), a wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism can explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS. In contrast, for dielectrics (Fused Silica) the first pulse always dominates the energy deposition and LIPSS orientation, supporting a non-plasmonic formation scenario. For all materials, these two-color experiments confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition stage for LIPSS formation.

  13. Dynamic strain detection using a fiber Bragg grating sensor array for geotechnical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Naumann, M.; Borm, Gunter

    2003-03-01

    In recent years fiber Bragg gratings have been successfully introduced as sensors for strain, temperature and pressure variations. Their performance and reliability has been proven in many practical applications including strain monitoring in civil engineering and tunneling, downhole monitoring in oil reservoirs and flow assurance monitoring in pipelines. The gratings have great potential to at as true structurally integrated sensor elements. They can be embedded in typical structural or reinforcing elements of civil and geotechnical buildings. Several methods of interrogation schemes are established depending on the desired accuracy and resolution of the measurement. The most important methods are the linear discriminator, the tunable Fbry-Perot filter technique, and several interferometer setups.

  14. Interaction dynamics of fs-laser induced cavitation bubbles and their impact on the laser-tissue-interaction of modern ophthalmic laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinne, N.; Ripken, T.; Lubatschowski, H.; Heisterkamp, A.

    2011-07-01

    A today well-known laser based treatment in ophthalmology is the LASIK procedure which nowadays includes cutting of the corneal tissue with ultra-short laser pulses. Instead of disposing a microkeratome for cutting a corneal flap, a focused ultra-short laser pulse is scanned below the surface of biological tissue causing the effect of an optical breakdown and hence obtaining a dissection. Inside the tissue, the energy of the laser pulses is absorbed by non-linear processes; as a result a cavitation bubble expands and ruptures the tissue. Hence, positioning of several optical breakdowns side by side generates an incision. Due to a reduction of the amount of laser energy, with a moderate duration of treatment at the same time, the current development of ultra-short pulse laser systems points to higher repetition rates in the range of even Megahertz instead of tens or hundreds of Kilohertz. In turn, this results in a pulse overlap and therefor a probable occurrence of interaction between different optical breakdowns and respectively cavitation bubbles of adjacent optical breakdowns. While the interaction of one single laser pulse with biological tissue is analyzed reasonably well experimentally and theoretically, the interaction of several spatial and temporal following pulses is scarcely determined yet. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyse the dynamic and interaction of two cavitation bubbles by using high speed photography. The applied laser pulse energy, the energy ratio and the spot distance between different cavitation bubbles were varied. Depending on a change of these parameters different kinds of interactions such as a flattening and deformation of bubble shape or jet formation are observed. The effects will be discussed regarding the medical ophthalmic application of fs-lasers. Based on these results a further research seems to be inevitable to comprehend and optimize the cutting effect of ultra-short pulse laser systems with high (> 500 kHz) repetition

  15. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy combined with spatial heterodyne spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gornushkin, Igor B; Smith, Ben W; Panne, Ulrich; Omenetto, Nicoló

    2014-01-01

    A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) is tested for the first time in combination with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The spectrometer is a modified version of the Michelson interferometer in which mirrors are replaced by diffraction gratings. The SHS contains no moving parts and the gratings are fixed at equal distances from the beam splitter. The main advantage is high throughput, about 200 times higher than that of dispersive spectrometers used in LIBS. This makes LIBS-SHS a promising technique for low-light standoff applications. The output signal of the SHS is an interferogram that is Fourier-transformed to retrieve the original plasma spectrum. In this proof-of-principle study, we investigate the potential of LIBS-SHS for material classification and quantitative analysis. Brass standards with broadly varying concentrations of Cu and Zn were tested. Classification via principal component analysis (PCA) shows distinct groupings of materials according to their origin. The quantification via partial least squares regression (PLS) shows good precision (relative standard deviation < 10%) and accuracy (within ± 5% of nominal concentrations). It is possible that LIBS-SHS can be developed into a portable, inexpensive, rugged instrument for field applications. PMID:25226262

  16. Laser-induced gas-surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, T. J.

    Chemical reactions in homogeneous systems activated by laser radiation have been extensively investigated for more than a decade. The applications of lasers to promote gas-surface interactions have just been realized in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to examine the fundamental processes involved in laser-induced gas-surface chemical interactions. Specifically, the photon-enhanced adsorption, adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-solid reactions, product formation and desorption processes are discussed in detail. The dynamic processes involved in photoexcitation of the electronic and vibrational states, the energy transfer and relaxation in competition with chemical interactions are considered. These include both single and multiple photon adsorption, and fundamental and overtone transitions in the excitation process, and inter- and intra-molecular energy transfer, and coupling with phonons, electron-hole pairs and surface plasmons in the energy relaxation process. Many current experimental and theoretical studies on the subject are reviewed and discussed with the goal of clarifying the relative importance of the surface interaction steps and relating the resulting concepts to the experimentally observed phenomena. Among the many gas-solid systems that have been investigated, there has been more extensive use of CO adsorbed on metals, and SF 6 and XeF 2 interactions with silicon as examples to illustrate the many facets of the electronically and vibrationally activated surface processes. Results on IR laser stimulated desorption of C 5H 5N and C 5D 5N molecules from various solid surfaces are also presented. It is clearly shown that rapid intermolecular energy exchange and molecule to surface energy transfer can have important effects on photodesorption cross sections and isotope selectivities. It is concluded that utilization of lasers in gas-surface studies not only can provide fundamental insight into the mechanism and dynamics involved in heterogeneous

  17. The influence of ion gratings on rotational wavepacket dynamics inH2

    SciTech Connect

    Stavros, Vasilios G.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2007-11-24

    We generalize earlier work [V.G. Stavros, E. Harel, S.R.Leone, J. Chem. Phys. 122 (2005) 064301]by illustrating the plausiblerole ofion gratings in time-dependent degenerate four-wave mixing(TD-DFWM) experiments in H2. We postulate that at high laserintensities(1014 1015 W/cm2), H2+/H+ ions generate a static ion grating,it s signature manifested in the transformation from homodyne- toheterodyne-detection of the TD-DFWM signal, depending on laser intensity.The change in signal detection agrees with the calculated intensity forbarrier suppression ionization (BSI) in H2 and the reported onset ofsaturation for H2+ and H+, pointing towards the likely role of iongratings in intense laser field, FWM experiments.

  18. Efficiency dynamics of diffraction gratings recorded in liquid crystalline composite materials by a UV interference pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, R.; Sukhov, A. V.; Tabiryan, N. V.; Umeton, C.

    1999-07-01

    We have carried out an experimental and theoretical study of the efficiency of diffraction gratings recorded in samples of polymer dispersed liquid crystal pre-syrups by an interference pattern of curing UV light. The theoretical model takes into account the diffusion of excited monomers during the UV curing and the circumstance that the diffusion coefficient is strongly affected by the polymerisation process. The theoretical curves perfectly fit the experimental results and confirm the validity of our model.

  19. Laser-induced caesium-137 decay

    SciTech Connect

    Barmina, E V; Simakin, A V; Shafeev, G A

    2014-08-31

    Experimental data are presented on the laser-induced beta decay of caesium-137. We demonstrate that the exposure of a gold target to a copper vapour laser beam (wavelengths of 510.6 and 578.2 nm, pulse duration of 15 ns) for 2 h in an aqueous solution of a caesium-137 salt reduces the caesium-137 activity by 70%, as assessed from the gamma activity of the daughter nucleus {sup 137m}Ba, and discuss potential applications of laser-induced caesium-137 decay in radioactive waste disposal. (letters)

  20. Mestastable State Population in Laser Induced Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, V. H. S.; Kyriakides, C.; Ward, W. K.

    2006-01-01

    Laser induced plasma has been used as a source of neutrals and ions in the study of astrophysical plasmas. The purity of state of this source is essential in the determination of collision parameters such as the charge transfer rate coefficients between ions and neutrals. We will show that the temperature of the laser induced plasma is a rapidly decreasing function of time. The temperature is initially high but cools off rapidly through collisions with the expanding plasma electrons as the plasma recombines and streams into the vacuum. This rapid expansion of the plasma, similar to a supersonic jet, drastically lowers the internal energy of the neutrals and ions.

  1. On two optomechanical effects of laser-induced electrostriction in dielectric liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gojani, Ardian B.; Bejtullahu, Rasim; Obayashi, Shigeru

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents electrostriction from the phenomenological perspective, and gives details on two mechanical effects arising from laser-matter interaction. Electrostriction is the tendency of materials to compress in the presence of a varying electric field. In this paper, the investigated materials are polar and nonpolar dielectric liquids. It is stressed that the dominant factor is the time evolution of the laser pulse, which causes tensile stresses and acoustic waves. The study is supported by experimental realization of electrostriction, which can be detected only at favorable conditions (observed in water, but not in castor oil). This study will shed light in developing measurement techniques (e.g., laser-induced grating spectroscopy) and in explaining the onset of cavities and laser-induced liquid breakdown.

  2. Laser-Induced Underwater Plasma And Its Spectroscopic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lazic, Violeta

    2008-09-23

    Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for analysis of immersed solid and soft materials, and for liquid impurities are described. A method for improving the LIBS signal underwater and for obtaining quantitative analyses in presence of strong shot-to-shot variations of the plasma properties is proposed. Dynamic of the gas bubble formed by the laser pulse is also discussed, together with its importance in Double-Pulse (DP) laser excitation. Results of the studies relative to an application of multi-pulse sequence and its effects on the plasma and gas bubble formation are also presented.

  3. Laser-induced back-ablation of aluminum thin films using picosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    BULLOCK, A B

    1999-05-26

    Experiments were performed to understand laser-induced back-ablation of Al film targets with picosecond laser pulses. Al films deposited on the back surface of BK-7 substrates are ablated by picosecond laser pulses propagating into the Al film through the substrate. The ablated Al plume is transversely probed by a time-delayed, two-color sub-picoseond (500 fs) pulse, and this probe is then used to produce self-referencing interferograms and shadowgraphs of the Al plume in flight. Optical emission from the Al target due to LIBA is directed into a time-integrated grating spectrometer, and a time-integrating CCD camera records images of the Al plume emission. Ablated Al plumes are also redeposited on to receiving substrates. A post-experimental study of the Al target and recollected deposit characteristics was also done using optical microscopy, interferometry, and profilometry. In this high laser intensity regime, laser-induced substrate ionization and damage strongly limits transmitted laser fluence through the substrate above a threshold fluence. The threshold fluence for this ionization-based transmission limit in the substrate is dependent on the duration of the incident pulse. The substrate ionization can be used as a dynamic control of both transmitted spatial pulse profile and ablated Al plume shape. The efficiency of laser energy transfer between the laser pulse incident on the Al film and the ablated Al plume is estimated to be of order 5% and is a weak function of laser pulsewidth. The Al plume is highly directed. Low plume divergence ({theta}{sub divergence} < 5{sup o}) shows the ablated plume temperature to be very low at long time delays ( T << 0.5 eV at delays of 255 ns). Spectroscopic observations and calculations indicate that, in early time (t < 100 ps), the Al film region near the substrate/metal interface is at temperatures of order 0.5 eV. Interferograms of Al plumes produced with 0.1 {micro}m films show these plumes to be of high neutral atom

  4. Study Of Laser-Induced Copolymerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Gilda A.; Meador, Willard E.; Chang, C. Ken

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiments on photopolymerization of styrene/maleic anhydride copolymer published as part of Laser Polymerization Program at NASA Langley Research Center. Presents basic study of copolymerization of styrene and maleic anhydride under laser-induced initiation and polymerization. Helps to clarify different theories on such initiation and represents significant advances in understanding of basic processes.

  5. Picosecond surface restricted transient grating studies of carrier reaction dynamics at n -GaAs(100) interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Jahn, L.A.; Miller, R.J.D. )

    1992-03-01

    The surface restricted transient grating technique has been found to be sensitive to the Fermi level pinning surface states at the atomic interface of the native oxide layer of (100) GaAs. The sensitivity to these states is better than 10{sup {minus}4} of a monolayer. The grating signal associated with the surface states is eliminated by photoinduced removal of the oxide layer and hole transfer to Se{sup {minus}2} ions adsorbed to the surface. These results support the assignment of the signal to electronic factors associated with surface state species. The use of space charge field focusing of hole carriers to the surface has enabled a discrimination of the hole carrier reaction dynamics from those of the electron at the surface. {ital In} {ital situ} studies of interfacial hole transfer to Se{sup {minus}2} ions present at liquid junctions found the hole transfer time to be less than 30 ps. The selective quenching of the hole carrier through interfacial charge transfer has found that the hole carrier contributes to the optical dispersion in the 1 {mu} region to approximately the same extent as the electron.

  6. Dynamic measurement of inside strain distributions in adhesively bonded joints by embedded fiber Bragg grating sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Hideaki; Ning, Xiaoguang; Kageyama, Kazuro; Wada, Daichi; Igawa, Hirotaka

    2014-05-01

    Long-length fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with the length of about 100 mm was embedded onto the surface of a carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) substrate and two CFRP adherends were joined by adhesive to form an adhesive bonded single-lap joint. The joint was subjected to 0.5 Hz cyclic tensile load and longitudinal strain distributions along FBG were measured at 5 Hz by the fiber-optic distributed sensing system based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). We could successfully monitor the strain distributions accurately with high spatial resolution of around 1 mm.

  7. Evaluation of a 1540nm VCSEL for fibre Bragg gratings interrogation in dynamic measurement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Souto, J. A.; Martin-Mateos, P.; Posada, J. E.; Acedo, P.; Jackson, D. A.

    2014-05-01

    The performance of a 1540 nm pigtailed VCSEL has been characterized in terms of output power, frequency range and rate of wavelength sweeping for its application in fibre Bragg grating interrogation. Results are presented for the laser operating under optimized control when used to illuminate a single FBG mounted under tension between a fixed plane and a loud speaker cone subject to a range of frequencies at arbitrary amplitudes and transients. The ultimate objective is to extend the set-up to a parallel fibre topology supporting 8 FBGs with equal wavelengths.

  8. Surface Restricted Grating Studies of Interfacial Charge Transfer Dynamics at N-Gallium ARSENIDE(100) Liquid Junction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangdong

    1995-01-01

    Heterogeneous electron transfer involves the coupling of a dense manifold of highly delocalized electronic levels of the solid state to a discrete molecular state as well as an abrupt change in phase in the reaction coordinate. These features make this problem unique relative to homogeneous solution phase or gas phase reaction mechanisms which involve coupling between discrete states within a uniform medium. In this work, the advances in Surface Restricted Transient Grating Spectroscopy (Surface Restricted Transient Grating) are discussed in the context of studying interfacial charge transfer processes at single crystal semiconductor surfaces as a means to probe the primary processes governing heterogeneous electron transfer. In situ grating studies of n-GaAs/(Se ^{-2/-1}) aqueous liquid junction have observed 1 ~ 2 picosecond decay components in the presence of the selenium redox couple. Bias voltage and injection intensity dependencies have shown that field focusing of the hole carrier distribution to the surface reaction plane was achieved. Based on the bias voltage and injection intensity dependence, and known hole scavenging properties of Se^{ -2}, the fast initial decay is assigned to interfacial hole transfer. This time scale is coincident with the highly damped diffusive relaxation components of water under the high ionic concentrations present in the Helmholtz double layer of the GaAs electrode surface. The similarity in time scales between charge transfer and the rate limiting nuclear motion in the barrier crossing dynamics indicates that the electronic coupling at the interface is in the strong coupling regime. This study was the first direct time-resolved measurement of interfacial electron transfer from a single crystal surface. The observation that the dynamics are essentially in the strong coupling limit is contrary to conventional treatments of interfacial transfer processes, which assume weak coupling conditions. This result is important as it

  9. Laser-induced gas vortices.

    PubMed

    Steinitz, Uri; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh

    2012-07-20

    Recently, several femtosecond-laser techniques have demonstrated molecular excitation to high rotational states with a preferred sense of rotation. We consider collisional relaxation in a dense gas of such unidirectionally rotating molecules, and suggest that due to angular momentum conservation, collisions lead to the generation of macroscopic vortex gas flows. This argument is supported using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method, followed by a computational gas-dynamic analysis. PMID:22861845

  10. Change in refractive index of muscle tissue during laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Chen, Meimei; Liu, Shupeng; Guo, Qiang; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a long-period fiber-grating (LPG) based Michelson interferometric refractometry to monitor the change in refractive index of porcine muscle during laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). As the wavelength of RI interferometer alters with the change in refractive index around the probe, the LPG based refractometry is combined with LITT system to measure the change in refractive index of porcine muscle when irradiated by laser. The experimental results show the denaturation of tissue alters the refractive index significantly and the LPG sensor can be applied to monitor the tissue state during the LITT. PMID:24211967

  11. All-fiber probe for laser-induced thermotherapy with integrated temperature measurement capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Chen, W.; Yu, H.; Gassino, R.; Braglia, A.; Olivero, M.; Perrone, Guido; Vallan, A.

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents our recent results towards the development of a miniaturized all-fiber probe for laser induced thermal ablation of tumor cells, which combines the optimal delivery of a near-infrared high power ablating beam, a low power visible aiming beam and fast Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors. Specific combiner and probe end-cap based on dual cladding fibers have been developed to allow the simultaneous handling of the laser beams and of the signal that feeds the temperature sensor. Moreover, a very fast FBG interrogation system has been implemented to track abrupt temperature variations during medical treatment.

  12. NIR fibre Bragg grating as dynamic sensor: an application of 1D digital wavelet analysis for signal denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafizi, Z. M.; Kahandawa, G. C.; Epaarachchi, J.; Lau, K. T.; Canning, J.; Cook, K.

    2013-08-01

    During the past decade, many successful studies have evidently shown remarkable capability of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) sensor for dynamic sensing. Most of the research works utilized the 1550 nm wavelength range of FBG sensors. However near infra-red (NIR) FBG sensors can offer the lower cost of Structural health Monitoring (SHM) systems which uses cheaper silicon sources and detectors. Unfortunately, the excessive noise levels that experienced in NIR wavelengths have caused the rejection of sensor that operating in this range of wavelengths for SHM systems. However, with the appropriate use of signal processing tools, these noisy signals can be easily `cleaned'. Wavelet analysis is one of the powerful signal processing tools nowadays, not only for time-frequency analysis but also for signal denoising. This present study revealed that the NIR FBG range gave good response to impact signals. Furthermore, these `noisy' signals' response were successfully filtered using one dimensional wavelet analysis.

  13. Structural health monitoring of composite-based UAVs using simultaneous fiber optic interrogation by static Rayleigh-based distributed sensing and dynamic fiber Bragg grating point sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tur, Moshe; Sovran, Ido; Bergman, Arik; Motil, Avi; Shapira, Osher; Ben-Simon, Uri; Kressel, Iddo

    2015-09-01

    Embedded fiber-optic strain sensing networks for airworthy assessment of operational Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are presented. Sensing is based on in-flight fiber Bragg grating technology, as well as on on-ground Rayleigh backscattering distributed strain sensing. While the in-flight instrumentation monitors loads, looking for excessive values, the Rayleigh-based technique is used for high spatial resolution strain distribution along the UAV wings, under prescribed loading. Consistency of measurements over time indicates structural integrity. Simultaneous strain measurements using both distributed Rayleigh and fiber Bragg gratings, on the same fiber, promises to combine high spatial resolution, though practically static measurements with dynamic, though discrete ones.

  14. (Study of flow properties of wet solids using laser induced photochemical anemometry)

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, B.

    1990-07-23

    A new diagnostic measurement technique is being developed that will enable the investigation of the dynamics of flowing wet solids. The technique involves that use of Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry (LIPA), enhanced to enable two photochemical species to be excited. It uses laser induced photochromic and photo luminescent molecules to separately tag the two phases for times long enough for them to distort the tagging. Recording the distortions of the tagging caused by the movement of each phase enables us to obtain local characterization of flow properties of both phases of the wet solids at many positions simultaneously across a pipe.

  15. (Study of flow properties of wet solids using laser induced photochemical anemometry)

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, B.

    1990-04-03

    A new diagnostic measurement technique is being developed that will enable the investigation of the dynamics of flowing wet solids. The technique involves the use of Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry (LIPA), enhanced to enable two photochemical species to be excited. It uses laser induced photochromic and photo luminescent molecules to separately tag the two phases for times long enough for them to distort the tagging. Recording the distortions of the tagging caused by the movement of each phase enables us to obtain local characterization of flow properties of both phases of the wet solids at many positions simultaneously across a pipe.

  16. (Study of flow properties of wet solids using laser induced photochemical anemometry)

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, B.; Nocera, D.

    1990-01-23

    A new diagnostic measurement technique is being developed that will enable the investigation of the dynamics of flowing wet solids. The technique involves the use of Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry (LIPA), enhanced to enable two photochemical species to be excited. It uses laser induced photochromic and photo luminescent molecules to separately tag the two phases for times long enough for them to distort the tagging. Recording the distortions of the tagging caused by the movement of each phase enables us to obtain local characterization of flow properties of both phases of the wet solids at many positions simultaneously across a pipe.

  17. (Study of flow properties of wet solids using laser induced photo chemical anemometry)

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, B.

    1992-04-09

    A new diagnostic measurement technique is being developed that will enable the investigation of the dynamics of flowing wet solids. The technique involves the use of Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry (LIPA), enhanced to enable two photochemical species to be excited. It uses laser induced photochromic and photo luminescent molecules to separately tag the two phases for times long enough for them to distort the tagging. Recording the distortions of the tagging caused by the movement of each phase enables us to obtain local characterization of flow properties of both phases of the wet solids at many positions simultaneously across a pipe.

  18. Spectroscopy During Laser Induced Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, R.; Meyer, W.; Hering, P.

    1988-06-01

    In the course of laser induced shock wave lithotripsy (LISL) by means of a flashlamp pumped dye laser a plasma is formed on the stone's surface. Spectral analysis of the plasma flash leads to chemical stone analysis during the procedure. A time resolved integral analysis of scattered and laser induced fluorescence light makes stone detection possible and avoids tissue damage. We used a 200 μm fiber to transmit a 2 μs, 50 mJ pulse to the stone's surface and a second 200 μ fiber for analysis. This transmission system is small and flexible enough for controlled endoscopic use in the treatment of human ureter or common bile duct stones. Under these conditions the stone selective effect of lasertripsy leads only to minor tissue injury.

  19. Impulse characteristics of laser-induced blast wave in monoatomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X. L.; Ohtani, T.; Sasoh, A.; Kim, S.; Urabe, N.; Jeung, I.-S.

    The paper focuses on physical gas-dynamic characteristics of impulse generation by laser Induced blast wave (LIBW) in a laser-driven in tube accelerator (LITA). Propagation, reflection of blast wave and wave structure were intensively studied by using an ICCD camera system through shadowgraph.

  20. Temperature and Pressure Dependence of Signal Amplitudes for Electrostriction Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    The relative signal strength of electrostriction-only (no thermal grating) laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) in gas-phase air is reported as a function of temperature T and pressure P. Measurements were made in the free stream of a variable Mach number supersonic wind tunnel, where T and P are varied simultaneously as Mach number is varied. Using optical heterodyning, the measured signal amplitude (related to the optical reflectivity of the acoustic grating) was averaged for each of 11 flow conditions and compared to the expected theoretical dependence of a pure-electrostriction LITA process, where the signal is proportional to the square root of [P*P /( T*T*T)].

  1. Interaction of Laser Induced Micro-shockwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leela, Ch.; Bagchi, Suman; Tewari, Surya P.; Kiran, P. Prem

    Laser induced Shock Waves (LISWs) characterized by several optical methods provide Equation of State (EOS) for a variety of materials used in high-energy density physics experiments at Mbar pressures [1, 2]. Other applications include laser spark ignition for fuel-air mixtures, internal combustion engines, pulse detonation engines, laser shock peening [3], surface cleaning [4] and biological applications (SW lithotripsy) [5] to name a few.

  2. Nanorod Surface Plasmon Enhancement of Laser-Induced Ultrafast Demagnetization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haitian; Hajisalem, Ghazal; Steeves, Geoffrey M.; Gordon, Reuven; Choi, Byoung C.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast laser-induced magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films were measured using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser in a pump-probe magneto-optic Kerr effect setup. The effect of plasmon resonance on the transient magnetization was investigated by drop-coating the ferromagnetic films with dimensionally-tuned gold nanorods supporting longitudinal surface plasmon resonance near the central wavelength of the pump laser. With ~4% nanorod areal coverage, we observe a >50% increase in demagnetization signal in nanorod-coated samples at pump fluences on the order of 0.1 mJ/cm2 due to surface plasmon-mediated localized electric-field enhancement, an effect which becomes more significant at higher laser fluences. We were able to qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations using finite-difference time-domain simulations and mean-field theory. This dramatic enhancement of ultrafast laser-induced demagnetization points to possible applications of nanorod-coated thin films in heat-assisted magnetic recording. PMID:26515296

  3. Laser induced alignment of molecules dissolved in Helium nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Henrik

    2013-05-01

    Laser induced alignment, the method to confine the principal axes of molecules along axes fixed in the laboratory frame, is now used in a range of applications in physics and chemistry. With a few exceptions all studies have focused on isolated molecules in the gas phase. In this talk we present experimental studies of laser induced alignment of molecules embedded in the solvent of a superfluid helium nanodroplet. Alignment is conducted in both the adiabatic and the nonadiabtic regime where the alignment pulse is much longer or shorter, respectively, than the rotational period of the molecules. In the nonadiabatic limit, induced by a few-hundred femtosecond long laser pulse, we show that methyliodide molecules reach an alignment maximum 20 ps after the alignment pulse and gradually loose the alignment completely in another 60 ps. This dynamics is completely different from that of isolated methyliodide molecules where alignment occurs in regularly spaced (by 33.3 ps), narrow time windows, termed revivals. Adiabatic alignment, induced by 10 ns laser pulses, resembles the gas phase behavior although the observed degree of alignment falls below that of isolated molecules. Work done in collaboration with Dominik Pentkehner, Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University; Jens Hedegaard Nielsen, Department of Physics, Aarhus University; Alkwin Slenczka, Department of Chemistry, Regensburg University; and Klaus Mølmer, Department of Physics, Aarhus University.

  4. Nanorod Surface Plasmon Enhancement of Laser-Induced Ultrafast Demagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haitian; Hajisalem, Ghazal; Steeves, Geoffrey M.; Gordon, Reuven; Choi, Byoung C.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrafast laser-induced magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films were measured using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser in a pump-probe magneto-optic Kerr effect setup. The effect of plasmon resonance on the transient magnetization was investigated by drop-coating the ferromagnetic films with dimensionally-tuned gold nanorods supporting longitudinal surface plasmon resonance near the central wavelength of the pump laser. With ~4% nanorod areal coverage, we observe a >50% increase in demagnetization signal in nanorod-coated samples at pump fluences on the order of 0.1 mJ/cm2 due to surface plasmon-mediated localized electric-field enhancement, an effect which becomes more significant at higher laser fluences. We were able to qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations using finite-difference time-domain simulations and mean-field theory. This dramatic enhancement of ultrafast laser-induced demagnetization points to possible applications of nanorod-coated thin films in heat-assisted magnetic recording.

  5. Time-resolved digital holographic microscopy of laser-induced forward transfer process

    PubMed Central

    Ma, H.; Venugopalan, V.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a method for time-resolved digital holographic microscopy to obtain time-resolved 3-D deformation measurements of laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) processes. We demonstrate nanometer axial resolution and nanosecond temporal resolution of our method which is suitable for measuring dynamic morphological changes in LIFT target materials. Such measurements provide insight into the early dynamics of the LIFT process and a means to examine the effect of laser and material parameters on LIFT process dynamics. PMID:24748724

  6. Time-resolved digital holographic microscopy of laser-induced forward transfer process.

    PubMed

    Ma, H; Venugopalan, V

    2014-03-01

    We develop a method for time-resolved digital holographic microscopy to obtain time-resolved 3-D deformation measurements of laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) processes. We demonstrate nanometer axial resolution and nanosecond temporal resolution of our method which is suitable for measuring dynamic morphological changes in LIFT target materials. Such measurements provide insight into the early dynamics of the LIFT process and a means to examine the effect of laser and material parameters on LIFT process dynamics. PMID:24748724

  7. Diffraction by dual-period gratings.

    PubMed

    Skigin, Diana C; Depine, Ricardo A

    2007-03-20

    The dynamical characteristics of dual-period perfectly conducting gratings are explored. Gratings with several grooves (reflection) or slits (transmission) within each period are considered. A scalar approach is proposed to derive the general characteristics of the diffracted response. It was found that compound gratings can be designed to cancel as well as to intensify a given diffraction order. These preliminary estimations for finite gratings are validated by numerical examples for infinitely periodic reflection and transmission gratings with finite thickness, performed using an extension of the rigorous modal method to compound gratings, for both polarization cases. PMID:17334426

  8. Dynamic polarization grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal controllable by a single beam in a homeotropic-planar geometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Rin; Jang, Eunje; Kim, Jiyoon; Joo, Kyung-Il; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2012-12-20

    We present a dynamic polarization grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal cell that is controllable by a single pump beam in a binary homeotropic-planar configuration produced through selective rubbing. Upon single pump beam irradiation, the azo dyes in the liquid-crystal (LC) layer diffuse and adsorb onto the planar LC-anchoring surface due to trans-cis photo-isomerization. It is found that the dynamic polarization grating effect results mainly from the photo-induced easy axis reorientation by the amount of dye molecules adsorbed on the planar LC-alignment surface in a single-beam control scheme. The initial LC-anchoring conditions and the dynamic behavior of the dye adsorption strongly influence the repetitive writing-erasing processes by the single pump beam. PMID:23262590

  9. Grating lobes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The radiation patterns characteristic of an indefinite planar array of isotropic antennas was investigated. Particular emphasis was given to the grating lobe scatter from the rectenna. It is shown that an idealy arrayed rectenna of indefinite extent would produce grating lobes which are impulsive. It is further shown that a shift to finite extent or introduction of typical variations in element placement should generate more typical patterns.

  10. Laser induced surface stress on water droplets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Neng; Lin, Zhifang; Ng, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Laser induced stress on spherical water droplets is studied. At mechanical equilibrium, the body stress vanishes therefore we consider only the surface stress. The surface stress on sub-wavelength droplets is slightly weaker along the light propagation direction. For larger droplets, due to their light focusing effect, the forward stress is significantly enhanced. For a particle roughly 3 micron in radius, when it is excited at whispering gallery mode with Q ∼ 10⁴ by a 1 Watt Gaussian beam, the stress can be enhanced by two orders of magnitude, and can be comparable with the Laplace pressure. PMID:25321955

  11. Laser-induced electric breakdown in solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloembergen, N.

    1974-01-01

    A review is given of recent experimental results on laser-induced electric breakdown in transparent optical solid materials. A fundamental breakdown threshold exists characteristic for each material. The threshold is determined by the same physical process as dc breakdown, namely, avalanche ionization. The dependence of the threshold on laser pulse duration and frequency is consistent with this process. The implication of this breakdown mechanism for laser bulk and surface damage to optical components is discussed. It also determines physical properties of self-focused filaments.

  12. Laser Induced Chemical Liquid Phase Deposition (LCLD)

    SciTech Connect

    Nanai, Laszlo; Balint, Agneta M.

    2012-08-17

    Laser induced chemical deposition (LCLD) of metals onto different substrates attracts growing attention during the last decade. Deposition of metals onto the surface of dielectrics and semiconductors with help of laser beam allows the creation of conducting metal of very complex architecture even in 3D. In the processes examined the deposition occurs from solutions containing metal ions and reducing agents. The deposition happens in the region of surface irradiated by laser beam (micro reactors). Physics -chemical reactions driven by laser beam will be discussed for different metal-substrate systems. The electrical, optical, mechanical properties of created interfaces will be demonstrated also including some practical-industrial applications.

  13. Modeling of Laser-Induced Metal Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C D; Rubenchik, A M

    2008-02-20

    Experiments involving the interaction of a high-power laser beam with metal targets demonstrate that combustion plays an important role. This process depends on reactions within an oxide layer, together with oxygenation and removal of this layer by the wind. We present an analytical model of laser-induced combustion. The model predicts the threshold for initiation of combustion, the growth of the combustion layer with time, and the threshold for self-supported combustion. Solutions are compared with detailed numerical modeling as benchmarked by laboratory experiments.

  14. Application of the method of laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateeva, Natalia L.; Matvienko, Gennadii G.

    2004-02-01

    Great attention is now paid to ecology of the environment, in whic plants are of great importance. However the present methods of biophysical analysis of plant states are very labor-intensive and require a lot of time. The structure of protein-pigment complexes is known to break in different dissolvents that results in the shift of maxima of chlorophyll absorption and fluorescence bands. That is why development of methods for remote diagnostics of plants is of great scientific and practical interest. They would make it possible to determine species and state of plants rather quickly and accurately. We have developed a setup and methods for optical diagnostics of the physiological state of plants to investigate the dynamics of the fastest part of fluorescence of plants in vivo. The method of laser-induced fluorescence makes it possible to observe the level of vegetative development of living plants, as well as their state under the impact of some stress factors.

  15. Thermal characterization of nanofluids using laser induced thermal lens technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurian, Achamma; Kumar, Rajesh B.; George, Sajan D.

    2009-08-01

    A laser induced thermal lens technique has been employed to evaluate the dynamic thermal parameter, the thermal diffusivity, of gold nanofluids. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by citrate reduction of HAuCl4 in water. The UVVIS optical absorption spectra show an absorption peak around 540 nm owing to surface Plasmon resonance band of the gold particles. The thermal diffusivity of gold nanoparticles was evaluated by knowing the time constant of transient thermal lens obtained by fitting the experimental curve to the theoretical model of the mode-matched thermal lens. Analyses of the results show that the nanofluid exhibits lower thermal diffusivity value in comparison to the host medium, water. Further investigations also reveal that the concentration of nanoparticles in the fluid have influence on the measured thermal diffusivity value. Results are interpreted in terms of interfacial thermal resistance around the nanoparticles as well as on the clustering of nanoparticles.

  16. Coherent pulse interrogation system for fiber Bragg grating sensing of strain and pressure in dynamic extremes of materials.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, George; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor; Mielke, Chuck H; Azad, Abul; Marshall, Bruce; La Lone, Brandon M; Henson, Bryan; Smilowitz, Laura

    2015-06-01

    A 100 MHz fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system is described and applied to strain and pressure sensing. The approach relies on coherent pulse illumination of the FBG sensor with a broadband short pulse from a femtosecond modelocked erbium fiber laser. After interrogation of the FBG sensor, a long multi-kilometer run of single mode fiber is used for chromatic dispersion to temporally stretch the spectral components of the reflected pulse from the FBG sensor. Dynamic strain or pressure induced spectral shifts in the FBG sensor are detected as a pulsed time domain waveform shift after encoding by the chromatic dispersive line. Signals are recorded using a single 35 GHz photodetector and a 50 G Samples per second, 25 GHz bandwidth, digitizing oscilloscope. Application of this approach to high-speed strain sensing in magnetic materials in pulsed magnetic fields to ~150 T is demonstrated. The FBG wavelength shifts are used to study magnetic field driven magnetostriction effects in LaCoO3. A sub-microsecond temporal shift in the FBG sensor wavelength attached to the sample under first order phase change appears as a fractional length change (strain: ΔL/L<10-4) in the material. A second application used FBG sensing of pressure dynamics to nearly 2 GPa in the thermal ignition of the high explosive PBX-9501 is also demonstrated. Both applications demonstrate the use of this FBG interrogation system in dynamical extreme conditions that would otherwise not be possible using traditional FBG interrogation approaches that are deemed too slow to resolve such events. PMID:26072789

  17. Multiple fiber Bragg grating sensor network with a rapid response and wide spectral dynamic range using code division multiple access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngbok; Jeon, Sie-Wook; Park, Chang-Soo

    2011-05-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor networks have been intensively researched in optical sensor area and it developed in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and time division multiplexing (TDM) technologies which was adopted for its interrogating many optical sensors. In particular, WDM technology can be easily employed to interrogate FBG sensor however, the number of FBG sensors is limited. On the other hand, the TDM technique can extremely expand the number of sensor because the FBG sensors have same center wavelength. However, it suffers from a reduced sensor output power due to low reflectivity of FBG sensor. In this paper, we proposed and demonstrated the FBG sensor network based on code division multiple access (CDMA) with a rapid response and wide spectral dynamic range. The reflected semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) as a light source was directly modulated by the generated pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) code and the modulated signal is amplified and goes through FBG sensors via circulator. When the modulated optical signal experienced FBG sensor array, the optical signal which was consistent with center wavelength of FBGs is reflected and added from each sensors. The added signal goes into dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) as a dispersion medium. After through the DCF, the optical signal is converted into electrical signal by using photodetector (PD). For separate individual reflected sensor signal, the sliding correlation method was used. The proposed method improves the code interference and it also has advantages such as a large number of sensors, continuously measuring individual sensors, and decreasing the complexity of the sensor network.

  18. Confocal Laser Induced Fluorescence of Argon Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scime, Earl; Soderholm, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) provides measurements of flow speed, temperature and when absolutely calibrated, density of ions or neutrals in a plasma. Traditionally, laser induced fluorescence requires two ports on a plasma device. One port is used for laser injection and the other is used for fluorescence emission collection. Traditional LIF is tedious and time consuming to align. These difficulties motivate the development of an optical configuration that requires a single port and remains fully aligned at all times; confocal LIF. Our confocal optical design employs a single two inch diameter lens to both inject the laser light and collect the stimulated emission from an argon plasma. A pair of axicon lenses create an annular beam path for the emission collection and the pump laser light is confined inside the annulus of the collection beam. The measurement location is scanned radially by manually adjusting the final focusing lens position. Here we present optical modeling of and initial results from the axicon based confocal optical system. The confocal measurements are compared to traditional, two-port, LIF measurements over the same radial range. This work is supported by US National Science Foundation grant number PHY-1360278.

  19. The photodissociation and reaction dynamics of vibrationally excited molecules. Technical progress report, 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Combined vibrational overtone excitation and laser induced fluorescence detection was used to study dissociation dynamics of hydroxylamine (NH{sub 2}OH), laser induced grating experiments on water were analyzed, discovering the important role that electrostriction and thermal relaxation play, and a new apparatus for preparing vibrationally excited molecules with simulated Raman excitation was completed and the first measurements made. Role of vibrational excitation in photodissociation dynamics was studied using a vibrational state preparation technique, such as vibrational overtone excitation or stimulated Raman excitation, to create molecules with particular nuclear motions and then excite that molecule to a dissociative electronic state. Because the vibrational excitation alters the dissociation dynamics in the excited state, both by providing access to different portions of the excited state surface and by altering the motion of the system on the surface, it is usually refered to as vibrationally mediated photodissociation.

  20. CW CO2 Laser Induced Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pola, Joseph

    1989-05-01

    CW CO2 laser driven reactions between sulfur hexafluoride and carbon oxide, carbon suboxide, carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide proceed at subatmospheric pressures and yield fluorinated carbon compounds and sulfur tetrafluoride. CW CO2 laser driven reactions of organic compounds in the presence of energy-conveying sulfur hexafluoride show reaction course different from that normally observed due to elimination of reactor hot surface effects. The examples concern the decomposition of polychlorohydrocarbons, 2-nitropropane, tert.-butylamine, allyl chloride, spirohexane, isobornyl acetate and the oxidation of haloolefins. CW CO2 laser induced fragmentation of 1-methyl-l-silacyclobutanes and 4-silaspiro(3.4)octane in the presence of sulfur hexafluoride is an effective way for preparation and deposition of stable organosilicon polymers.

  1. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  2. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Peter J.

    1998-12-01

    This paper outlines a method for optically detecting bacteria on various backgrounds, such as meat, by imaging their laser induced auto-fluorescence response. This method can potentially operate in real-time, which is many times faster than current bacterial detection methods, which require culturing of bacterial samples. This paper describes the imaging technique employed whereby a laser spot is scanned across an object while capturing, filtering, and digitizing the returned light. Preliminary results of the bacterial auto-fluorescence are reported and plans for future research are discussed. The results to date are encouraging with six of the eight bacterial strains investigated exhibiting auto-fluorescence when excited at 488 nm. Discrimination of these bacterial strains against red meat is shown and techniques for reducing background fluorescence discussed.

  3. Laser-Induced Incandescence: Detection Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randall L.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental LII (laser-induced incandescence) measurements were performed in a laminar gasjet flame to test the sensitivity of different LII signal collection strategies to particle size. To prevent introducing a particle size dependent bias in the LII signal, signal integration beginning with the excitation laser pulse is necessary . Signal integration times extending to 25 or 100 nsec after the laser pulse do not produce significant differences in radial profiles of the LII signal due to particle size effects with longer signal integration times revealing a decreased sensitivity to smaller primary particles. Long wavelength detection reduces the sensitivity of the LII signal to primary particle size. Excitation of LII using 1064 nm light is recommended to avoid creating photochemical interferences thus allowing LII signal collection to occur during the excitation pulse without spectral interferences.

  4. Laser-induced autofluorescence of caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Karsten; Hibst, Raimund; Flemming, Gabriela; Schneckenburger, Herbert

    1993-07-01

    The laser induced autofluorescence from carious regions of human teeth was studied using a krypton ion laser at 407 nm as an excitation source, a fiberoptical detection system combined with a polychromator and an optical multichannel analyzer. In addition, time-resolved and time-gated fluorescence measurements in the nanosecond range were carried out. It was found that carious regions contain different fluorophores which emit in the red spectral range. The emission spectra with maxima around 590 nm, 625 nm and 635 nm are typical for metalloporphyrins, copro- and protoporphyrin. During excitation the fluorescence was bleached. Non-carious regions showed a broad fluorescence band with a maximum in the short-wavelength spectral region with shorter fluorescence decay times than the carious regions. Therefore, caries can be detected by spectral analysis of the autofluorescence as well as by determination of the fluorescence decay times or by time-gated imaging.

  5. Laser-induced fluorescence-cued, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy biological-agent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hybl, John D.; Tysk, Shane M.; Berry, Shaun R.; Jordan, Michael P

    2006-12-01

    Methods for accurately characterizing aerosols are required for detecting biological warfare agents. Currently, fluorescence-based biological agent sensors provide adequate detection sensitivity but suffer from high false-alarm rates. Combining single-particle fluorescence analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides additional discrimination and potentially reduces false-alarm rates. A transportable UV laser-induced fluorescence-cued LIBS test bed has been developed and used to evaluate the utility of LIBS for biological-agent detection. Analysis of these data indicates that LIBS adds discrimination capability to fluorescence-based biological-agent detectors.However, the data also show that LIBS signatures of biological agent simulants are affected by washing. This may limit the specificity of LIBS and narrow the scope of its applicability in biological-agent detection.

  6. Femtosecond laser-induced subwavelength ripples on Al, Si, CaF2 and CR-39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Shazia; Shahid Rafique, M.; Husinsky, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    The formation of self-organized subwavelength ripples on Al, Si, CaF2 and CR-39 induced by 25 fs laser pulses at central wavelength of 800 nm has been observed under certain experimental conditions. In case of Al subwavelength gratings with periodicities ranging from 20 to 220 nm are reported. For CaF2 the periodicity goes up to 625 nm. In case of Si, nano-gratings have the periodicity of 10-100 nm. The interspacing of these gratings is 60 nm in case of CR-39. These features which are significantly shorter than incident laser wavelength are observed at the irradiation fluence slightly higher than the ablation threshold regardless of the target material. In addition to these nanoripples, classical or microripples with an average spacing of 1-2 μm have also been registered on irradiated surfaces of Al and Si. These microripples have appeared at fluence higher than that is required for nanoripple-formation. It has been found that the formation of the laser-induced ripples is strongly dependent and quite sensitive to the incident laser fluence and the selection of material.

  7. Shadowgraphic studies of triazene assisted laser-induced forward transfer of ceramic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, K. S.; May-Smith, T. C.; Banks, D. P.; Grivas, C.; Eason, R. W.; Fardel, R.; Nagel, M.; Lippert, T.

    2009-06-01

    The laser-induced forward transfer process of solid ceramic donor materials (gadolinium gallium oxide and ytterbium doped yttrium aluminium oxide) was studied using triazene polymer as a sacrificial layer by means of a time-resolved nanosecond-shadowgraphy technique. The dependence of the ablation dynamics and quality of the ejected donor material on the laser fluence and thickness of the sacrificial and donor layers were investigated and discussed.

  8. Design of a full-silica pulse-compression grating.

    PubMed

    Bonod, Nicolas; Neauport, Jérôme

    2008-03-01

    A diffraction grating engraved on a two-dimensional photonic crystal composed of square air holes in a silica matrix is numerically studied for the compression of ultrashort pulses. The silica is therefore the only solid material of the grating, and the reflection of the incident beam is based on the contrast of the air and silica refractive indices. This optical component enables the single use of silica as a solid material, presenting a high laser-induced damage threshold. In comparison to gratings engraved on a dielectric stack, multilayer dielectric, it offers the advantage of avoiding the presence of interfaces between two solid materials with different mechanical properties and sources of mechanical constraints that can distort the grating. PMID:18311291

  9. In Search of Multi-Peaked Reflective Spectrum with Optic Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Dynamic Strain Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Hsiang

    2006-01-01

    In a typical optic fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain measurement, unless in an ideal static laboratory environment, the presence of vibration or often disturbance always exists, which often creates spurious multiple peaks in the reflected spectrum, resulting in a non-unique determination of strain value. In this report we attempt to investigate the origin of this phenomenon by physical arguments and simple numerical simulation. We postulate that the fiber gratings execute small amplitude transverse vibrations changing the optical path in which the reflected light traverses slightly and non-uniformly. Ultimately, this causes the multi-peak reflected spectrum.

  10. Laser-Induced Damage of Calcium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Espana, Aubrey L.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Dickinson, J T.

    2004-12-01

    Radiation damage of materials has long been of fundamental interest, especially since the growth of laser technology. One such source of damage comes from UV laser light. Laser systems continue to move into shorter wavelength ranges, but unfortunately are limited by the damage threshold of their optical components. For example, semiconductor lithography is making its way into the 157nm range and requires a material that can not only transmit this light (air cannot), but also withstand the highly energetic photons present at this shorter wavelength. CaF2, an alkaline earth halide, is the chosen material for vacuum UV 157 nm excimer radiation. It can transmit light down to 120 nm and is relatively inexpensive. Although it is readily available through natural and synthetic sources, it is often times difficult to find in high purity. Impurities in the crystal can result in occupied states in the band gap that induce photon absorption [2] and ultimately lead to the degradation of the material. In order to predict how well CaF2 will perform under irradiation of short wavelength laser light, one must understand the mechanisms for laser-induced damage. Laser damage is often a two-step process: initial photons create new defects in the lattice and subsequent photons excite these defects. When laser light is incident on a solid surface there is an initial production of electron-hole (e-h) pairs, a heating of free electrons and a generation of local heating around optically absorbing centers [3]. Once this initial excitation converts to the driving energy for nuclear motion, the result is an ejection of atoms, ions and molecules from the surface, known as desorption or ablation [3]. Secondary processes further driving desorption are photoabsorption, successive excitations of self-trapped excitons (STE's) and defects, and ionization of neutrals by incident laser light [3]. The combination of laser-induced desorption and the alterations to the electronic and geometrical

  11. Femtosecond laser-induced microstructures in glasses and applications in micro-optics.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jianrong

    2004-01-01

    Femtosecond laser has been widely used in microscopic modifications to materials due to its ultra-short laser pulse and ultrahigh light intensity. When a transparent material e.g. glass is irradiated by a tightly focused femtosecond laser, the photo-induced reaction is expected to occur only near the focused part of the laser beam inside the glass due to the multiphoton processes. We observed various induced structures e.g. color center defects, refractive index change, micro-void and micro-crack, in glasses after the femtosecond laser irradiation. In this paper, we review the femtosecond laser induced phenomena and discuss the mechanisms of the observed phenomena. We also introduce the fabrication of various micro-optical components, e.g. optical waveguide, micro-grating, micro-lens, fiber attenuator, 3-dimensional optical memory by using the femtosecond laser-induced structures. The femtosecond laser will open new possibilities in the fabrication of micro-optical components with various optical functions. PMID:15057868

  12. The fluence threshold of femtosecond laser blackening of metals: The effect of laser-induced ripples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Zhigui; Huang, Min; Zhao, Fuli

    2016-05-01

    With the primary controlling factor of the laser fluence, we have investigated femtosecond laser blackening of stainless steel, brass, and aluminum in visible light range. In general, low reflectance about 5% can be achieved in appropriate ranges of laser fluences for all the treated metal surfaces. Significantly, towards stainless steel and brass a fluence threshold of blackening emerges unusually: a dramatic reflectance decline occurs in a specific, narrow fluence range. In contrast, towards aluminum the reflectance declines steadily over a wide fluence range instead of the threshold-like behavior from steel and brass. The morphological characteristics and corresponding reflectance spectra of the treated surfaces indicates that the blackening threshold of stainless steel and brass corresponds to the fluence threshold of laser-induced subwavelength ripples. Such periodic ripples growing rapidly near ablation threshold absorb visible light efficiently through grating coupling and cavity trapping promoted by surface plasmon polaritons. Whereas, for aluminum, with fluence increasing the looming ripples are greatly suppressed by re-deposited nanoparticle aggregates that present intrinsic colors other than black, and until the formation of large scale "ravines" provided with strong light-trapping, sufficient blackening is achieved. In short, there are different fluence dependencies for femtosecond laser blackening of metals, and the specific blackening fluence threshold for certain metals in the visible range originates in the definite fluence threshold of femtosecond laser-induced ripples.

  13. Laser-induced cooling of a Yb:YAG crystal in air at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Soares de Lima Filho, Elton; Nemova, Galina; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2013-10-21

    We report for the first time the experimental demonstration of optical cooling of a bulk crystal at atmospheric pressure. The use of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor to measure laser-induced cooling in real time is also demonstrated for the first time. A temperature drop of 8.8 K from the chamber temperature was observed in a Yb:YAG crystal in air when pumped with 4.2 W at 1029 nm. A background absorption of 2.9 × 10⁻⁴ cm⁻¹ was estimated with a pump wavelength at 1550 nm. Simulations predict further cooling if the pump power is optimized for the sample's dimensions. PMID:24150315

  14. Railgun system using a laser-induced plasma armature

    SciTech Connect

    Onozuka, M.; Oda, Y.; Azuma, K.

    1996-05-01

    Development of an electromagnetic railgun system that utilizes a laser-induced plasma armature formation has been conducted to investigate the application of the railgun system for high-speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. Using the laser-induced plasma formation technique, the required breakdown voltage was reduced by one-tenth compared with that for the spark-discharged plasma. The railgun system successfully accelerated the laser-induced plasma armature by an electromagnetic force that accelerated the pellet. The highest velocity of the solid hydrogen pellets, obtained so far, was 2.6 km/sec using a 2m-long railgun. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Modeling chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanov, S. V.; Gornushkin, I. B.

    2015-11-01

    Under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium, a numerical algorithm is proposed to find the equation of state for laser-induced plasmas (LIPs) in which chemical reactions are permitted in addition to ionization processes. The Coulomb interaction in plasma is accounted for by the Debye-Hückel method. The algorithm is used to calculate the equation of state for LIPs containing carbon, silicon, nitrogen, and argon. The equilibrium reaction constants are calculated using the latest experimental and ab initio data of spectroscopic constants for the molecules {N}_2, {C}_2, {Si}_2, {CN}, {SiN}, {SiC} and their ions. The algorithm is incorporated into a fluid dynamic numerical model based on the Navier-Stokes equations describing an expansion of LIP plumes into an ambient gas. The dynamics of LIP plumes obtained by the ablation of SiC, solid silicon, or solid carbon in an ambient gas containing {N}_2 and Ar is simulated to study formation of molecules and molecular ions.

  16. Ultraviolet Laser-induced ignition of RDX single crystal.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhonghua; Zhang, Chuanchao; Liu, Wei; Li, Jinshan; Huang, Ming; Wang, Xuming; Zhou, Guorui; Tan, Bisheng; Yang, Zongwei; Li, Zhijie; Li, Li; Yan, Hongwei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zu, Xiaotao

    2016-01-01

    The RDX single crystals are ignited by ultraviolet laser (355 nm, 6.4 ns) pulses. The laser-induced damage morphology consisted of two distinct regions: a core region of layered fracture and a peripheral region of stripped material surrounding the core. As laser fluence increases, the area of the whole crack region increases all the way, while both the area and depth of the core region increase firstly, and then stay stable over the laser fluence of 12 J/cm(2). The experimental details indicate the dynamics during laser ignition process. Plasma fireball of high temperature and pressure occurs firstly, followed by the micro-explosions on the (210) surface, and finally shock waves propagate through the materials to further strip materials outside and yield in-depth cracks in larger surrounding region. The plasma fireball evolves from isotropic to anisotropic under higher laser fluence resulting in the damage expansion only in lateral direction while maintaining the fixed depth. The primary insights into the interaction dynamics between laser and energetic materials can help developing the superior laser ignition technique. PMID:26847854

  17. Ultraviolet Laser-induced ignition of RDX single crystal

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhonghua; Zhang, Chuanchao; Liu, Wei; Li, Jinshan; Huang, Ming; Wang, Xuming; Zhou, Guorui; Tan, Bisheng; Yang, Zongwei; Li, Zhijie; Li, Li; Yan, Hongwei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zu, Xiaotao

    2016-01-01

    The RDX single crystals are ignited by ultraviolet laser (355 nm, 6.4 ns) pulses. The laser-induced damage morphology consisted of two distinct regions: a core region of layered fracture and a peripheral region of stripped material surrounding the core. As laser fluence increases, the area of the whole crack region increases all the way, while both the area and depth of the core region increase firstly, and then stay stable over the laser fluence of 12 J/cm2. The experimental details indicate the dynamics during laser ignition process. Plasma fireball of high temperature and pressure occurs firstly, followed by the micro-explosions on the (210) surface, and finally shock waves propagate through the materials to further strip materials outside and yield in-depth cracks in larger surrounding region. The plasma fireball evolves from isotropic to anisotropic under higher laser fluence resulting in the damage expansion only in lateral direction while maintaining the fixed depth. The primary insights into the interaction dynamics between laser and energetic materials can help developing the superior laser ignition technique. PMID:26847854

  18. Ultraviolet Laser-induced ignition of RDX single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhonghua; Zhang, Chuanchao; Liu, Wei; Li, Jinshan; Huang, Ming; Wang, Xuming; Zhou, Guorui; Tan, Bisheng; Yang, Zongwei; Li, Zhijie; Li, Li; Yan, Hongwei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zu, Xiaotao

    2016-02-01

    The RDX single crystals are ignited by ultraviolet laser (355 nm, 6.4 ns) pulses. The laser-induced damage morphology consisted of two distinct regions: a core region of layered fracture and a peripheral region of stripped material surrounding the core. As laser fluence increases, the area of the whole crack region increases all the way, while both the area and depth of the core region increase firstly, and then stay stable over the laser fluence of 12 J/cm2. The experimental details indicate the dynamics during laser ignition process. Plasma fireball of high temperature and pressure occurs firstly, followed by the micro-explosions on the (210) surface, and finally shock waves propagate through the materials to further strip materials outside and yield in-depth cracks in larger surrounding region. The plasma fireball evolves from isotropic to anisotropic under higher laser fluence resulting in the damage expansion only in lateral direction while maintaining the fixed depth. The primary insights into the interaction dynamics between laser and energetic materials can help developing the superior laser ignition technique.

  19. Temperature Measurement in Supersonic Flows by Predissociative Transient Thermal Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Peter; Miles, Richard

    1998-11-01

    We present temporally resolved measurements of temperature in a range of supersonic flows by measuring the acoustic decay of laser created transient gratings. This is an extension of the LITA (Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics) technique. A thermal density grating is created in the flow folloing absorption and thermalization of light from an interference pattern created by the crossed beams of a short-pulsed laser. Rapid thermalization occurs by collisions with energetic 0 photofragments following predissociation of O^2 in air by absorption of 193 nm light. The grating relaxes to local equilibrium by acoustic and diffusive decay. The acoustic decay launches two counter- propagating gratings traveling at the speed-of-sound. The interference of the stationary thermal grating with the two counter-propagating acoustic gratings creates a variation in grating modulation depth with time. The modulation frequency is proportional to the speed-of-sound and is used in our measurements to determine temperature. Bragg diffraction off the grating by a cw probe laser is observed as an oscillatory decay over hundreds of nanoseconds; the modulation frequency is extracted from this signal by Fourier analysis. We present single laser pulse measurements of temperature in a Mach 2.0 and 3.9 nozzle flows, and in weakly ionized flows for which this technique has been developed.

  20. [Study of flow properties of wet solids using laser induced photochemical anemometry]. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, B.

    1990-07-23

    A new diagnostic measurement technique is being developed that will enable the investigation of the dynamics of flowing wet solids. The technique involves that use of Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry (LIPA), enhanced to enable two photochemical species to be excited. It uses laser induced photochromic and photo luminescent molecules to separately tag the two phases for times long enough for them to distort the tagging. Recording the distortions of the tagging caused by the movement of each phase enables us to obtain local characterization of flow properties of both phases of the wet solids at many positions simultaneously across a pipe.

  1. [Study of flow properties of wet solids using laser induced photochemical anemometry]. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, B.

    1990-04-03

    A new diagnostic measurement technique is being developed that will enable the investigation of the dynamics of flowing wet solids. The technique involves the use of Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry (LIPA), enhanced to enable two photochemical species to be excited. It uses laser induced photochromic and photo luminescent molecules to separately tag the two phases for times long enough for them to distort the tagging. Recording the distortions of the tagging caused by the movement of each phase enables us to obtain local characterization of flow properties of both phases of the wet solids at many positions simultaneously across a pipe.

  2. [Study of flow properties of wet solids using laser induced photochemical anemometry]. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, B.; Nocera, D.

    1990-01-23

    A new diagnostic measurement technique is being developed that will enable the investigation of the dynamics of flowing wet solids. The technique involves the use of Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry (LIPA), enhanced to enable two photochemical species to be excited. It uses laser induced photochromic and photo luminescent molecules to separately tag the two phases for times long enough for them to distort the tagging. Recording the distortions of the tagging caused by the movement of each phase enables us to obtain local characterization of flow properties of both phases of the wet solids at many positions simultaneously across a pipe.

  3. Reconstruction of two-dimensional molecular structure with laser-induced electron diffraction from laser-aligned polyatomic molecules

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chao; Wei, Hui; Wang, Xu; Le, Anh-Thu; Lu, Ruifeng; Lin, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the transient process of molecules has been a basic way to investigate photochemical reactions and dynamics. Based on laser-induced electron diffraction and partial one-dimensional molecular alignment, here we provide two effective methods for reconstructing two-dimensional structure of polyatomic molecules. We demonstrate that electron diffraction images in both scattering angles and broadband energy can be utilized to retrieve complementary structure information, including positions of light atoms. With picometre spatial resolution and the inherent femtosecond temporal resolution of lasers, laser-induced electron diffraction method offers significant opportunities for probing atomic motion in a large molecule in a typical pump-probe measurement. PMID:26503116

  4. Reconstruction of two-dimensional molecular structure with laser-induced electron diffraction from laser-aligned polyatomic molecules

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Chao; Wei, Hui; Wang, Xu; Le, Anh -Thu; Lu, Ruifeng; Lin, C. D.

    2015-10-27

    Imaging the transient process of molecules has been a basic way to investigate photochemical reactions and dynamics. Based on laser-induced electron diffraction and partial one-dimensional molecular alignment, here we provide two effective methods for reconstructing two-dimensional structure of polyatomic molecules. We demonstrate that electron diffraction images in both scattering angles and broadband energy can be utilized to retrieve complementary structure information, including positions of light atoms. Lastly, with picometre spatial resolution and the inherent femtosecond temporal resolution of lasers, laser-induced electron diffraction method offers significant opportunities for probing atomic motion in a large molecule in a typical pump-probe measurement.

  5. Signal-to-noise ratio evaluation with draw tower fibre Bragg gratings (DTGs) for dynamic strain sensing at elevated temperatures and corrosive environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pauw, B.; Lamberti, A.; Vanlanduit, S.; Van Tichelen, K.; Geernaert, T.; Berghmans, F.

    2014-05-01

    Measuring strain at the surface of a structure can help to estimate the dynamical properties of the structure under test. Such a structure can be a fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor consisting of fuel pins. In this paper we demonstrate a method to integrate draw tower gratings (DTGs) in a fuel pin and we subject this pin to conditions close to those encountered in a heavy liquid metal (HLM) reactor. More specifically, we report on the performance of DTGs used as a strain sensor when immersed in HLM during thermal cycles (up to 300_C) for up to 700 hours.

  6. Laser Induced Fluorescence on Molecular Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, Hjalmar; Rijke, Arij; Girault, Vincent; Stoffels, Winfred

    2008-10-01

    In the last half century, mercury has been used widely as the radiating species in many low pressure fluorescent lamps. Mercury primarily radiates at 254 nm and 185 nm. These photons excite a phosphor that fluoresces back to the ground state producing visible photons. This process reduces the efficiency because much of the energy of the UV photons has to be discarded. Using a species that emits light closer to or even in the visible range reduces these losses. Ideally the species (or a mixture of several species) should build up the whole visible spectrum, much like in HID lamps. InBr seems to be a good candidate for such a lamp, because it is an efficient radiator that emits most of its light around 370 nm; much closer to the visible part of the spectrum. In order to get insight in the energy transfer processes going on in these molecules we have conducted a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) experiment on InBr vapour and on a plasma. We have measured the decay times of different rovibrational levels of the InBr-molecule as well as the spectral distribution of the fluorescence from these levels. From the former we calculated the rotational temperature of the plasma and from the latter we calculated the Franck-Condon factors for the A-state as well as the vibrational temperature.

  7. Medical Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, A. K.; Rai, N. K.; Singh, Ankita; Rai, A. K.; Rai, Pradeep K.; Rai, Pramod K.

    2014-11-01

    Sedentary lifestyle of human beings has resulted in various diseases and in turn we require a potential tool that can be used to address various issues related to human health. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is one such potential optical analytical tool that has become quite popular because of its distinctive features that include applicability to any type/phase of samples with almost no sample preparation. Several reports are available that discusses the capabilities of LIBS, suitable for various applications in different branches of science which cannot be addressed by traditional analytical methods but only few reports are available for the medical applications of LIBS. In the present work, LIBS has been implemented to understand the role of various elements in the formation of gallstones (formed under the empyema and mucocele state of gallbladder) samples along with patient history that were collected from Purvancal region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The occurrence statistics of gallstones under the present study reveal higher occurrence of gallstones in female patients. The gallstone occurrence was found more prevalent for those male patients who were having the habit of either tobacco chewing, smoking or drinking alcohols. This work further reports in-situ LIBS study of deciduous tooth and in-vivo LIBS study of human nail.

  8. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargus, William

    2014-10-01

    Iodine (I2) has been considered as a potential electrostatic spacecraft thruster propellant for approximately 2 decades, but has only recently been demonstrated. Energy conversion efficiency appears to be on par with xenon without thruster modification. Intriguingly, performance appears to exceed xenon at high acceleration potentials. As part of a continuing program for the development of non-intrusive plasma diagnostics for advanced plasma spacecraft propulsion, we have identified the I II 5d5D4 o state as metastable, and therefore containing a reservoir of excited state ions suitable for laser probing. The 5d5D4 o - 6p5P3 transition at 695.878 nm is convenient for diode laser excitation with the 5s5S2 o - 6p5P3 transition at 516.12 nm as an ideal candidate for non-resonant fluorescence collection. We have constructed a Penning type iodine microwave discharge lamp optimized for I II production for table-top measurements. This work demonstrates I II laser-induced fluorescence in a representative iodine discharge and will validate our previous theoretical work based on the limited available historical I II spectral data.

  9. Laser-induced hydrocarbon contamination in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Wolfgang; Allenspacher, Paul; Schröder, Helmut; Wernham, Denny; Lien, Yngve

    2005-12-01

    We investigated laser-induced deposition processes on BK7 substrates under the influence of pulsed Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation, starting from small toluene partial pressures in a background vacuum environment. The composition and structure of the deposit was analyzed using microscopic methods like Nomarski DIC, dark-field and white-light interference microscopy, TEM, EDX and XPS. We found a distinct threshold for deposition built-up dependant on the partial pressure of toluene (0.2 J/cm2 at 0.1 mbar, 0.8 J/cm2 at 0.01 mbar toluene). The deposits strictly followed the spherical geometry of the laser spot. No deposit accumulated on MgF2 AR coated BK7 samples even at high toluene partial pressures. The onset of deposit was accompanied by periodic surface ripples formation. EDX and XPS analysis showed a carbon-like layer which strongly absorbed the 1 μm laser radiation. The typical number of shots applied was 50 000. In addition, long term lifetime tests of more than 5 Mio. shots per site were run.

  10. Laser-induced electron capture mass spectrometry

    PubMed

    Wang; Giese

    2000-02-15

    Two techniques are reported for detection of electrophorederivatized compounds by laser-induced electron capture time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-EC-TOF-MS). In both cases, a nitrogen laser is used to induce the electron capture. The analyte is deposited in a matrix consisting of a compound with a low ionization potential such as benzo[ghi]perylene in the first technique, where the electron for electron capture apparently comes from this matrix. In the second technique, the analyte is deposited on a silver surface in the absence of matrix. It seems that "monoenergetic" ions instantly desorb from the target surface in the latter case, since the peak width in the continuous extraction mode essentially matches the pulse width of the laser (4 ns). Ten picomoles of 3-O-(pentafluorobenzyl)-alpha-estradiol were detected at a S/N > or = 50, where the spot size of the laser was approximately 0.25% of the sample spot. It is attractive that simple conditions can enable sensitive detection of electrophores on routine TOF-MS equipment. The technique can be anticipated to broaden the range of analytes in both polarity and size that can be detected by EC-MS relative to the range for GC/EC-MS. PMID:10701262