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Sample records for laser-induced surface nanostructuring

  1. Excimer laser induced nanostructuring of silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Krishna, Mamidipudi Ghanashyam; Bhattacharya, Ashok

    2009-05-01

    The effect of KrF excimer laser energy density (below and above the ablation threshold), number of shots and angle of laser incidence on the morphological reconstruction, structure and specular reflectance of Si[311] surfaces is reported. At low energy densities (0.1 to 0.3 J/cm2) laser irradiation results in a variety of nanostructures, depending on laser energy density and number of shots, such as nanopores (40-60 nm dia) and nanoparticles (40-80 nm dia). At energies greater than the laser ablation threshold (2 to 5 J/cm2) the formation of nanowires (200 nm dia, 6-8 microm length), and closely spaced silicon nanograins (100-150 nm dia) is observed. Experiments to study the effect of laser irradiation in the proximity of a fixed shape such as a linear step edge in the form of a stainless steel blade and a cylindrical cross-section Cu wire were also carried out. In both cases, linearly organized nanoparticles (150-200 nm diameter) and nanowires (60-80 nm diameter) formed close to the edge. There is a systematic degradation of long-range order with the number of shots and laser energy density as evidenced from X-ray diffraction studies. At an energy density of 2 J/cm2, and 100 shots the [311] oriented silicon surface made a transition to a randomly oriented nanocrystalline state. PMID:19452995

  2. Femtosecond laser induced nanostructuring for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messaoudi, H.; Das, S. K.; Lange, J.; Heinrich, F.; Schrader, S.; Frohme, M.; Grunwald, R.

    2014-03-01

    The formation of periodical nanostructures with femtosecond laser pulses was used to create highly efficient substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). We report about the structuring of silver and copper substrates and their application to the SERS of DNA (herring sperm) and protein molecules (egg albumen). The maximum enhancement factors were found on Ag substrates processed with the second harmonic generation (SHG) of a 1-kHz Ti:sapphire laser and structure periods near the SHG wavelength. In the case of copper, however, the highest enhancement was obtained with long-period ripples induced with at fundamental wavelength. This is explained by an additional significant influence of nanoparticles on the surface. Nanostructured areas in the range of 1.25 mm2 were obtained in 10 s. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fast Fourier Transform and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the role of the chemical modification of the metal structures is addressed. Thin oxide layers resulting from working in atmosphere which improve the biocompatibility were indicated by vibration spectra. It is expected that the detailed study of the mechanisms of laser-induced nanostructure formation will stimulate further applications of functionalized surfaces like photocatalysis, selective chemistry and nano-biology.

  3. Anisotropic optical transmission of femtosecond laser induced periodic surface nanostructures on indium-tin-oxide films

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih; Wang, Hsuan-I; Luo, Chih-Wei; Leu, Jihperng

    2012-01-01

    Two types of periodic nanostructures, self-organized nanodots and nanolines, were fabricated on the surfaces of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films using femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. Multiple periodicities (approximately 800 nm and 400 nm) were clearly observed on the ITO films with nanodot and nanoline structures and were identified using two-dimensional Fourier transformation patterns. Both nanostructures show the anisotropic transmission characteristics in the visible range, which are strongly correlated with the geometry and the metallic content of the laser-induced nanostructures. PMID:23066167

  4. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic nanostructure creation on PET surface for controlling of cell spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuji; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Shinonaga, Togo; Kawa, Takuya

    2016-03-01

    A new method of periodic nanostructure formation on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface has been developed, employing a femtosecond laser with a wavelength of 1045 nm. To generate structured films, the PET was placed in contact with a silicon (Si) wafer, followed by irradiation with the laser focused on the Si wafer, passing through the PET film. In order to evaluate the surface morphology, atomic force microscopy analysis was conducted on both treated and untreated PET surfaces. From the results, nanostructures with a period of 600 nm and height of 100 nm were formed on the PET film surface by laser treatment. A cell cultivation test was carried out on PET films with and without periodic nanostructures, showing that for nanostructured films, the cells (MG-63) were spread along the periodic grooves; in contrast, random cell spreading was observed for cultures grown on the untreated PET film.

  5. Influence of irradiation dose on laser-induced surface nanostructures on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlamova, Olga; Bounhalli, Mourad; Reif, Juergen

    2013-08-01

    We report on the dependence of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on an increase of incident pulse number. On silicon, the patterns evolve from linear, parallel sub-wavelength ripples, grossly perpendicular to the laser polarization, via coalesced wider features parallel to the polarization, to a crater with periodically structured, pillar-like walls. Closer inspection of the patterns indicates that the different features always continue to exhibit reminiscence to the preceding lower-dose patterns, suggesting that, indeed, all patterns can be created by ONE single GENERAL formation process, as in self-organized structure formation, and the different structures/feature sizes are NOT due to DIFFERENT mechanisms.

  6. Control of tribological properties of diamond-like carbon films with femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumaru, Naoki; Miyazaki, Kenzo; Kiuchi, Junsuke

    2008-02-01

    This paper reports tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films nanostructured by femtosecond (fs) laser ablation. The nanostructure was formed in an area of more than 15 mm × 15 mm on the DLC surface, using a precise target-scan system developed for the fs-laser processing. The frictional properties of the DLC film are greatly improved by coating a MoS 2 layer on the nanostructured surface, while the friction coefficient can be increased by surface texturing of the nanostructured zone in a net-like patterning. The results demonstrate that the tribological properties of a DLC surface can be controlled using fs-laser-induced nanostructuring.

  7. Growth Twinning and Generation of High-Frequency Surface Nanostructures in Ultrafast Laser-Induced Transient Melting and Resolidification.

    PubMed

    Sedao, Xxx; Shugaev, Maxim V; Wu, Chengping; Douillard, Thierry; Esnouf, Claude; Maurice, Claire; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Pigeon, Florent; Garrelie, Florence; Zhigilei, Leonid V; Colombier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-26

    The structural changes generated in surface regions of single crystal Ni targets by femtosecond laser irradiation are investigated experimentally and computationally for laser fluences that, in the multipulse irradiation regime, produce sub-100 nm high spatial frequency surface structures. Detailed experimental characterization of the irradiated targets combining electron back scattered diffraction analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals the presence of multiple nanoscale twinned domains in the irradiated surface regions of single crystal targets with (111) surface orientation. Atomistic- and continuum-level simulations performed for experimental irradiation conditions reproduce the generation of twinned domains and establish the conditions leading to the formation of growth twin boundaries in the course of the fast transient melting and epitaxial regrowth of the surface regions of the irradiated targets. The observation of growth twins in the irradiated Ni(111) targets provides strong evidence of the role of surface melting and resolidification in the formation of high spatial frequency surface structures. This also suggests that the formation of twinned domains can be used as a sensitive measure of the levels of liquid undercooling achieved in short pulse laser processing of metals. PMID:27386891

  8. Laser Induced Surface Chemical Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinespring, Charter D.; Freedman, Andrew

    1990-02-01

    Studies of the thermal and photon-induced surface chemistry of dimethyl cadmium (DMCd) and dimethyl tellurium (DMTe) on GaAs(100) substrates under ultrahigh vacuum conditions have been performed for substrate temperatures in the range of 123 K to 473 K. Results indicate that extremely efficient conversion of admixtures of DMTe and DMCd to CdTe can be obtained using low power (5 - 10 mJ cm-2) 193 nm laser pulses at substrate temperatures of 123 K. Subsequent annealing at 473 K produces an epitaxial film.

  9. Laser induced surface stress on water droplets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Neng; Lin, Zhifang; Ng, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Laser induced stress on spherical water droplets is studied. At mechanical equilibrium, the body stress vanishes therefore we consider only the surface stress. The surface stress on sub-wavelength droplets is slightly weaker along the light propagation direction. For larger droplets, due to their light focusing effect, the forward stress is significantly enhanced. For a particle roughly 3 micron in radius, when it is excited at whispering gallery mode with Q ∼ 10⁴ by a 1 Watt Gaussian beam, the stress can be enhanced by two orders of magnitude, and can be comparable with the Laplace pressure. PMID:25321955

  10. Femtosecond laser-induced surface structures on carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Sajzew, Roman; Schröder, Jan; Kunz, Clemens; Engel, Sebastian; Müller, Frank A; Gräf, Stephan

    2015-12-15

    The influence of different polarization states during the generation of periodic nanostructures on the surface of carbon fibers was investigated using a femtosecond laser with a pulse duration τ=300  fs, a wavelength λ=1025  nm, and a peak fluence F=4  J/cm². It was shown that linear polarization results in a well-aligned periodic pattern with different orders of magnitude concerning their period and an alignment parallel and perpendicular to fiber direction, respectively. For circular polarization, both types of uniform laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) patterns appear simultaneously with different dominance in dependence on the position at the fiber surface. Their orientation was explained by the polarization-dependent absorptivity and the geometrical anisotropy of the carbon fibers. PMID:26670499

  11. Application of femtosecond-laser induced nanostructures in optical memory.

    PubMed

    Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Sakakura, Masaaki; Miura, Kiyotaka; Qiu, Jiarong; Kazansky, Peter G; Fujita, Koji; Hirao, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    The femtosecond laser induced micro- and nanostructures for the application to the three-dimensional optical data storage are investigated. We have observed the increase of refractive index due to local densification and atomic defect generation, and demonstrated the real time observation of photothermal effect after the femtosecond laser irradiation inside a glass by the transient lens (TrL) method. The TrL signal showed a damped oscillation with about an 800 ps period. The essential feature of the oscillation can be reproduced by the pressure wave creation and propagation to the outward direction from the irradiated region. The simulation based on elastodynamics has shown that a large thermoelastic stress is relaxed by the generation of the pressure wave. In the case of soda-lime glass, the velocity of the pressure wave is almost same as the longitudinal sound velocity at room temperature (5.8 microm/ns). We have also observed the localized photo-reduction of Sm3+ to Sm2+ inside a transparent and colorless Sm(3+)-doped borate glass. Photoluminescence spectra showed that some the Sm3+ ions in the focal spot within the glass sample were reduced to Sm2+ ions after femtosecond laser irradiation. A photo-reduction bit of 200 nm in three-dimensions can be recorded with a femtosecond laser and readout clearly by detecting the fluorescence excited by Ar+ laser (lambda = 488 nm). A photo-reduction bit can be also erased by photo-oxidation with a cw Ar+ laser (lambda = 514.5 nm). Since photo-reduction bits can be spaced 150 nm apart in a layer within glass, a memory capacity of as high as 1 Tbit can be achieved in a glass piece with dimensions of 10 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm. We have also demonstrated the first observation of the polarization-dependent periodic nanostructure formation by the interference between femtosecond laser light and electron acoustic waves. The observed nanostructures are the smallest embedded structures ever created by light. The period of self

  12. Laser-induced gas-surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, T. J.

    Chemical reactions in homogeneous systems activated by laser radiation have been extensively investigated for more than a decade. The applications of lasers to promote gas-surface interactions have just been realized in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to examine the fundamental processes involved in laser-induced gas-surface chemical interactions. Specifically, the photon-enhanced adsorption, adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-solid reactions, product formation and desorption processes are discussed in detail. The dynamic processes involved in photoexcitation of the electronic and vibrational states, the energy transfer and relaxation in competition with chemical interactions are considered. These include both single and multiple photon adsorption, and fundamental and overtone transitions in the excitation process, and inter- and intra-molecular energy transfer, and coupling with phonons, electron-hole pairs and surface plasmons in the energy relaxation process. Many current experimental and theoretical studies on the subject are reviewed and discussed with the goal of clarifying the relative importance of the surface interaction steps and relating the resulting concepts to the experimentally observed phenomena. Among the many gas-solid systems that have been investigated, there has been more extensive use of CO adsorbed on metals, and SF 6 and XeF 2 interactions with silicon as examples to illustrate the many facets of the electronically and vibrationally activated surface processes. Results on IR laser stimulated desorption of C 5H 5N and C 5D 5N molecules from various solid surfaces are also presented. It is clearly shown that rapid intermolecular energy exchange and molecule to surface energy transfer can have important effects on photodesorption cross sections and isotope selectivities. It is concluded that utilization of lasers in gas-surface studies not only can provide fundamental insight into the mechanism and dynamics involved in heterogeneous

  13. Metal surface nitriding by laser induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, A. L.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P.; Hermann, J.; Blondiaux, G.

    1996-10-01

    We study a nitriding technique of metals by means of laser induced plasma. The synthesized layers are composed of a nitrogen concentration gradient over several μm depth, and are expected to be useful for tribological applications with no adhesion problem. The nitriding method is tested on the synthesis of titanium nitride which is a well-known compound, obtained at present by many deposition and diffusion techniques. In the method of interest, a laser beam is focused on a titanium target in a nitrogen atmosphere, leading to the creation of a plasma over the metal surface. In order to understand the layer formation, it is necessary to characterize the plasma as well as the surface that it has been in contact with. Progressive nitrogen incorporation in the titanium lattice and TiN synthesis are studied by characterizing samples prepared with increasing laser shot number (100-4000). The role of the laser wavelength is also inspected by comparing layers obtained with two kinds of pulsed lasers: a transversal-excited-atmospheric-pressure-CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) and a XeCl excimer laser (λ=308 nm). Simulations of the target temperature rise under laser irradiation are performed, which evidence differences in the initial laser/material interaction (material heated thickness, heating time duration, etc.) depending on the laser features (wavelength and pulse time duration). Results from plasma characterization also point out that the plasma composition and propagation mode depend on the laser wavelength. Correlation of these results with those obtained from layer analyses shows at first the important role played by the plasma in the nitrogen incorporation. Its presence is necessary and allows N2 dissociation and a better energy coupling with the target. Second, it appears that the nitrogen diffusion governs the nitriding process. The study of the metal nitriding efficiency, depending on the laser used, allows us to explain the differences observed in the layer features

  14. Assessment of Laser-Induced Thermal Load on Silicon Nanostructures Based on Ion Desorption Yields

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Bennett N; Stolee, Jessica A; Pickel, Deanna L; Retterer, Scott T; Vertes, Akos

    2010-01-01

    Laser heating of macroscopic objects follows the Fourier law of diffusive heat conduction. However, when the dimensions of a structure approach the mean free path of the phonons, heat transport is properly described by the equations of ballistic-diffusive or ballistic transport. Due to the coexistence of these different mechanisms in most nanostructures, the description of their rapid laser heating becomes complex. Experimental assessment of the thermal load on these structures through IR imaging is currently too slow and lacks the spatial resolution to be useful. In this paper, we introduce a method based on measuring the laser-induced yields of quasimolecular ions that enables the comparison of the thermal loads on different structures. Due to the difference in the activation energies of the desorption processes, sodiated and potassiated peptide ion intensities become equal at a certain surface temperature. The laser fluences at which these ion yields are equal for two different structures correspond to equivalent thermal loads. As an example, we compare the nanosecond laser heating of silicon nanopost arrays (NAPA) with diverse post diameters and periodicities. Assessment of the thermal load through ion yield measurements can also be used to verify model assumptions for heat transport regimes of nanostructures.

  15. Effect of ambient environment on excimer laser induced micro and nano-structuring of stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umm-i-Kalsoom; Bashir, Shazia; Ali, Nisar; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Ahmad, Riaz

    2012-11-01

    The effect of laser fluence and an ambient environment on the formation and development of the micro and nano-structures on the laser irradiated stainless steel (AISI-304) targets have been investigated. For this purpose KrF excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, t = 20 ns, repetition rate 20 Hz) has been used. The targets are exposed for various laser fluences ranging from 0.72 J cm-2 to 1.27 J cm-2 under the vacuum condition and in the oxygen environment at a pressure of 133 mbar. Various features of treated targets, such as surface morphology, chemical composition and crystalline structure are analyzed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively. Scanning electron microscope analysis reveals the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), cavities, hillocks in both ambient environments (vacuum, oxygen). Cone-formation on the top of wave like ridges is observed under vacuum condition. In case of oxygen only redeposition is observed. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis exhibits that there is variation in chemical composition in both environments. When the target is treated in oxygen environment enhancement of the surface oxygen content is observed. X-ray diffraction exhibits that no new phases are formed under vacuum condition but a phase change in oxygen ambient is observed. For various fluences the variation in the peak intensity, crystallinity and d-spacing is observed under both ambient conditions.

  16. Laser-induced forward transfer of hybrid carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla-Papavlu, A.; Filipescu, M.; Vizireanu, S.; Vogt, L.; Antohe, S.; Dinescu, M.; Wokaun, A.; Lippert, T.

    2016-06-01

    Chemically functionalized carbon nanowalls (CNWs) are promising materials for a wide range of applications, i.e. gas sensors, membranes for fuel cells, or as supports for catalysts. However, the difficulty of manipulation of these materials hinders their integration into devices. In this manuscript a procedure for rapid prototyping of CNWs and functionalized CNWs (i.e. decorated with SnO2 nanoparticles) is described. This procedure enables the use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) as a powerful technique for printing CNWs and CNW:SnO2 pixels onto rigid and flexible substrates. A morphological study shows that for a large range of laser fluences i.e. 500-700 mJ/cm2 it is possible to transfer thick (4 μm) CNW and CNW:SnO2 pixels. Micro-Raman investigation of the transferred pixels reveals that the chemical composition of the CNWs and functionalized CNWs does not change as a result of the laser transfer. Following these results one can envision that CNWs and CNW:SnO2 pixels obtained by LIFT can be ultimately applied in technological applications.

  17. Laser Induced Aluminum Surface Breakdown Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Liu, Jiwen; Zhang, Sijun; Wnag, Ten-See (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Laser powered propulsion systems involve complex fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer processes. Based on an unstructured grid., pressure-based computational aerothermodynamics, platform, several sub-nio"'dels describing such underlying physics as laser ray tracing and focusing, thermal non-equilibrium, plasma radiation and air spark ignition have been developed. This proposed work shall extend the numerical platform and existing sub-models to include the aluminum wall surface Inverse Bremsstrahlung (113) effect from which surface ablation and free-electron generation can be initiated without relying on the air spark ignition sub-model. The following tasks will be performed to accomplish the research objectives.

  18. Laser Induced Aluminum Surface Breakdown Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Liu, Jiwen; Zhang, Sijun; Wang, Ten-See (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Laser powered propulsion systems involve complex fluid dynamics, thermodynamics and radiative transfer processes. Based on an unstructured grid, pressure-based computational aerothermodynamics; platform, several sub-models describing such underlying physics as laser ray tracing and focusing, thermal non-equilibrium, plasma radiation and air spark ignition have been developed. This proposed work shall extend the numerical platform and existing sub-models to include the aluminum wall surface Inverse Bremsstrahlung (IB) effect from which surface ablation and free-electron generation can be initiated without relying on the air spark ignition sub-model. The following tasks will be performed to accomplish the research objectives.

  19. Laser-induced periodic surface structuring of biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Susana; Rebollar, Esther; Oujja, Mohamed; Martín, Margarita; Castillejo, Marta

    2013-03-01

    We report here on a systematic study about the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on biopolymers. Self-standing films of the biopolymers chitosan, starch and the blend of chitosan with the synthetic polymer poly (vinyl pyrrolidone), PVP, were irradiated in air with linearly polarized laser beams at 193, 213 and 266 nm, with pulse durations in the range of 6-17 ns. The laser-induced periodic surface structures were topographically characterized by atomic force microscopy and the chemical modifications induced by laser irradiation were inspected via Raman spectroscopy. Formation of LIPSS parallel to the laser polarization direction, with periods similar to the laser wavelength, was observed at efficiently absorbed wavelengths in the case of the amorphous biopolymer chitosan and its blend with PVP, while formation of LIPSS is prevented in the crystalline starch biopolymer.

  20. Femtosecond laser-induced electronic plasma at metal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhaoyang; Mao, Samuel S.

    2008-08-04

    We develop a theoretical analysis to model plasma initiation at the early stage of femtosecond laser irradiation of metal surfaces. The calculation reveals that there is a threshold intensity for the formation of a microscale electronic plasma at the laser-irradidated metal surface. As the full width at half maximum of a laser pulse increases from 15 to 200 fs, the plasma formation threshold decreases by merely about 20%. The dependence of the threshold intensity on laser pulse width can be attributed to laser-induced surface electron emission, in particular due to the effect of photoelectric effect.

  1. Laser-induced periodic annular surface structures on fused silica surface

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi; Brelet, Yohann; Forestier, Benjamin; Houard, Aurelien; Yu, Linwei; Deng, Yongkai; Jiang, Hongbing

    2013-06-24

    We report on the formation of laser-induced periodic annular surface structures on fused silica irradiated with multiple femtosecond laser pulses. This surface morphology emerges after the disappearance of the conventional laser induced periodic surface structures, under successive laser pulse irradiation. It is independent of the laser polarization and universally observed for different focusing geometries. We interpret its formation in terms of the interference between the reflected laser field on the surface of the damage crater and the incident laser pulse.

  2. Laser-induced surface modification and metallization of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frerichs, H.; Stricker, J.; Wesner, D. A.; Kreutz, E. W.

    1995-02-01

    Laser-induced surface modification of different polymers is presented as a suitable pretreatment of surfaces in a two-step metallization process. Materials such as polyamide (PA), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), acrylbutadienestyrene (ABS), styreneacrylnitrile (SAN), polybutadieneterephthalate (PBT), and polyoxymethylene (POM) were treated by excimer-laser radiation at 248 nm in air. The aim of this study is to investigate different processing regimes of surface modification and ablation to increase surface roughness. Therefore, the laser-processing variables fluence F, repetition rate v and pulse number N are varied and the ablation depth, optical penetration depth, absorption coefficient and ablation threshold are determined. The metallization of pretreated (laser, wet chemical and plasma etching) polymers is investigated for different surface morphologies. The used metallization processes were electroplating and physical vapour deposition (PVD). The adhesion of the deposited films is measured with scratch and tape test methods in order to determine the regimes of suitable surface modification for metallization.

  3. Process Development for Silicon-Based Nanostructures Using Pulsed UV Laser Induced Epitaxy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chaodan

    1995-01-01

    Nanometer-scale devices have attracted great attention as the ultimate evolution of silicon integrated circuit technology. However, fabrication of nanometer-scale silicon based devices has met great difficulty because it places severe constraints on process technology. This is especially true for SiGe/Si heterostructures because they are particularly sensitive to strain relaxation and/or process induced defects. Recently developed Pulsed Laser Induced Epitaxy (PLIE) offers a promising approach for the fabrication of nanometer-scale SiGe/Si devices. It possesses the advantage of ultra-short time, low thermal budget and full compatibility with current silicon technology. The selective nature of the process allows epitaxial growth of high quality, localized SiGe layers in silicon. In this thesis, a process to fabricate SiGe nanowires in silicon using PLIE is described. In particular, Ge nanowires with a cross-section of {~}6times60 rm nm^2 are first formed using a lift-off process on the silicon substrate with e-beam lithography, followed by a thin low-temperature oxide deposition. Defect-free SiGe nanowires with a cross-section of {~ }25times95 rm nm^2 are then produced by impinging the laser beam on the sample. We thus demonstrate PLIE is a suitable fabrication technique for SiGe/Si nanostructures. Fabrication of Ge nanowires is also studied using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) micromachining techniques. Based on the SiGe nanowire process, we propose two advanced device structures, a quantum wire MOSFET and a lateral SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT). MEDICI simulation of the lateral SiGe HBT demonstrates high performance of the device. In order to characterize the SiGe nanowires using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, an advanced versatile focused ion beam assisted sample preparation technique using a multi-layer stack scheme for localized surface structures is developed and described in this thesis.

  4. Nanorod Surface Plasmon Enhancement of Laser-Induced Ultrafast Demagnetization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haitian; Hajisalem, Ghazal; Steeves, Geoffrey M.; Gordon, Reuven; Choi, Byoung C.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast laser-induced magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films were measured using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser in a pump-probe magneto-optic Kerr effect setup. The effect of plasmon resonance on the transient magnetization was investigated by drop-coating the ferromagnetic films with dimensionally-tuned gold nanorods supporting longitudinal surface plasmon resonance near the central wavelength of the pump laser. With ~4% nanorod areal coverage, we observe a >50% increase in demagnetization signal in nanorod-coated samples at pump fluences on the order of 0.1 mJ/cm2 due to surface plasmon-mediated localized electric-field enhancement, an effect which becomes more significant at higher laser fluences. We were able to qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations using finite-difference time-domain simulations and mean-field theory. This dramatic enhancement of ultrafast laser-induced demagnetization points to possible applications of nanorod-coated thin films in heat-assisted magnetic recording. PMID:26515296

  5. Nanorod Surface Plasmon Enhancement of Laser-Induced Ultrafast Demagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haitian; Hajisalem, Ghazal; Steeves, Geoffrey M.; Gordon, Reuven; Choi, Byoung C.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrafast laser-induced magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films were measured using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser in a pump-probe magneto-optic Kerr effect setup. The effect of plasmon resonance on the transient magnetization was investigated by drop-coating the ferromagnetic films with dimensionally-tuned gold nanorods supporting longitudinal surface plasmon resonance near the central wavelength of the pump laser. With ~4% nanorod areal coverage, we observe a >50% increase in demagnetization signal in nanorod-coated samples at pump fluences on the order of 0.1 mJ/cm2 due to surface plasmon-mediated localized electric-field enhancement, an effect which becomes more significant at higher laser fluences. We were able to qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations using finite-difference time-domain simulations and mean-field theory. This dramatic enhancement of ultrafast laser-induced demagnetization points to possible applications of nanorod-coated thin films in heat-assisted magnetic recording.

  6. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy of various carbon nanostructures (GO, G and nanodiamond) in Rd6G solution

    PubMed Central

    Bavali, A.; Parvin, P.; Mortazavi, S. Z.; Nourazar, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of carbon nanostructures such as graphene (G), graphene oxide (GO) and nanodiamond (ND) on the spectral properties of Rhodamine 6G (Rd6G) emission due to the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was investigated. It is shown that the addition of carbon nano- structures lead to sensible Red/Blue shifts which depend on the optical properties and surface functionality of nanoparticles. The current theories such as resonance energy transfer (RET), fluorescence quenching and photon propagation in scattering media support the experimental findings. Stern-Volmer curves for dynamic and static quenching of Rd6G molecules embedded with G, GO and nanodiamond are correlated with spectral shifts. Furthermore, time evolution of the spectral shift contributes to determine loading/release rates of fluorescent species with large S-parameter on the given nano-carriers. PMID:26137372

  7. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy of various carbon nanostructures (GO, G and nanodiamond) in Rd6G solution.

    PubMed

    Bavali, A; Parvin, P; Mortazavi, S Z; Nourazar, S S

    2015-05-01

    The effect of carbon nanostructures such as graphene (G), graphene oxide (GO) and nanodiamond (ND) on the spectral properties of Rhodamine 6G (Rd6G) emission due to the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was investigated. It is shown that the addition of carbon nano- structures lead to sensible Red/Blue shifts which depend on the optical properties and surface functionality of nanoparticles. The current theories such as resonance energy transfer (RET), fluorescence quenching and photon propagation in scattering media support the experimental findings. Stern-Volmer curves for dynamic and static quenching of Rd6G molecules embedded with G, GO and nanodiamond are correlated with spectral shifts. Furthermore, time evolution of the spectral shift contributes to determine loading/release rates of fluorescent species with large S-parameter on the given nano-carriers. PMID:26137372

  8. Laser-induced surface modification and metallization of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frerichs, Hartmut; Wesner, David A.; Kreutz, Ernst-Wolfgang

    1995-04-01

    Laser-induced surface modification of various polymers is presented as a suitable pretreatment of surfaces in a two-step metallization process. Materials such as polyamide (PA), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), acrylbutadienestyrene (ABS), styreneacrylnitril (SAN), polybutadieneterphtalate (PBT), and polyoxymethylen (POM) were treated by excimer laser radiation ((lambda) equals 248 nm) in air. The aim of this study is to investigate different processing regimes of surface modification. Therefore the laser processing variables fluence F, repetition rate v and pulse number N are varied and the absorption coefficient, optical penetration depth, ablation depth and ablation threshold are determined. The surface morphology and surface roughness are studied by optical surface profilometry and secondary electron microscopy (SEM). The influence of laser treatment on chemical composition of modified and ablated surfaces is analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Depending on the processing parameters and materials properties different microstructures and values of surface roughness are generated on the micrometer length scale. Pretreatment for the subsequent metallization is performed with laser radiation, wet chemical and plasma etching. The metallization of polymers is investigated for different surface morphologies. The used metallization processes are electroplating and physical vapor deposition (PVD). Adhesion of the deposited films, measured with scratch and tape test methods, is used as a criterion for determining regimes of suitable surface modification for subsequent metallization.

  9. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on steel and titanium alloy for tribological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonse, J.; Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S.; Höhm, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.

    2014-10-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) were generated on stainless steel (100Cr6) and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surfaces upon irradiation with multiple femtosecond laser pulses (pulse duration 30 fs, central wavelength 790 nm). The experimental conditions (laser fluence, spatial spot overlap) were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry for the processing of large surface areas (5 × 5 mm2) covered homogeneously by the nanostructures. The irradiated surface regions were subjected to white light interference microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealing spatial periods around 600 nm. The tribological performance of the nanostructured surface was characterized by reciprocal sliding against a ball of hardened steel in paraffin oil and in commercial engine oil as lubricants, followed by subsequent inspection of the wear tracks. For specific conditions, on the titanium alloy a significant reduction of the friction coefficient by a factor of more than two was observed on the laser-irradiated (LIPSS-covered) surface when compared to the non-irradiated one, indicating the potential benefit of laser surface structuring for tribological applications.

  10. From small aromatic molecules to functional nanostructured carbon by pulsed laser-induced photochemical stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, R. R.; Thakare, V. P.; Warule, S.; Lefez, B.; Hannoyer, B.; Jog, J. P.; Ogale, S. B.

    2012-06-01

    A novel route employing UV laser pulses (KrF Excimer, 248 nm) to cleave small aromatic molecules and stitch the generated free radicals into functional nanostructured forms of carbon is introduced. The process differs distinctly from any strategies wherein the aromatic rings are broken in the primary process. It is demonstrated that this pulsed laser-induced photochemical stitching (PLPS) process when applied to routine laboratory solvents (or toxic chemical wastes when discarded) Chlorobenzene and o-Dichlorobenzene yields Carbon Nanospheres (CNSs) comprising of graphene-like sheets assembled in onion-like configurations. This room temperature process implemented under normal laboratory conditions is versatile and clearly applicable to the whole family of haloaromatic compounds without and with additions of precursors or other nanomaterials. We further bring out its applicability for synthesis of metal-oxide based carbon nanocomposites.

  11. Characterisation of CFRP surface contamination by laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Pawel H.; Sawczak, Miroslaw; Wandowski, Tomasz; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw M.; Cenian, Adam

    2014-03-01

    The application of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) in aeronautics has been increasing. The CFRP elements are joint using rivets and adhesive bonding. The reliability of the bonding limits the use of adhesive bonding for primary aircraft structures, therefore it is important to assess the bond quality. The performance of adhesive bonds depends on the physico-chemical properties of the adhered surfaces. This research is focused on characterization of surfaces before bonding. In-situ examination of large surface materials, determine the group of methods that are preferred. The analytical methods should be non-destructive, enabling large surface analysis in relatively short time. In this work a spectroscopic method was tested that can be potentially applied for surface analysis. Four cases of surface condition were investigated that can be encountered either in the manufacturing process or during aircraft service. The first case is related to contamination of CFRP surface with hydraulic fluid. This fluid reacts with water forming a phosphoric acid that can etch the CFRP. Second considered case was related to silicone-based release agent contamination. These agents are used during the moulding process of composite panels. Third case involved moisture content in CFRP. Moisture content lowers the adhesion quality and leads to reduced performance of CFRP resulting in reduced performance of the adhesive bond. The last case concentrated on heat damage of CFRP. It was shown that laser induced fluorescence method can be useful for non-destructive evaluation of CFRP surface and some of the investigated contaminants can be easily detected.

  12. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analyses of tungsten surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, D.; Hollmann, E. M.; Doerner, R. P.; Rudakov, D. L.

    2016-02-01

    Tungsten (W) surfaces are analyzed with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Interactions of W with nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) laser pulses are found to be quite different in terms of the ambient Ar gas pressure dependence of the average ablation rate and W I line intensity. Collinear double-pulse LIBS (115 + 115 mJ) using two ns lasers (with interpulse separation Δt 12 = 5.32 μs) improves the signal-to-noise ratio over the whole Ar pressure range P Ar = 6.7 × 10-1 - 6.7 × 104 Pa in contrast with single-pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS) with 230 mJ, where a signal enhancement by a factor of ˜2-3 is obtained only at P Ar > 103 Pa. SP-LIBS with a ns laser has succeeded in obtaining a sharp transition between thin W layer with a thickness of ˜100 nm and the graphite substrate. A He I (587.5 nm) line has been successfully detected with SP-LIBS with a ns laser from W containing He bubbles (˜20-30 nm layers) in the near-surface region.

  13. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on niobium by femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, A.; Dias, A.; Gomez-Aranzadi, M.; Olaizola, S. M.; Rodriguez, A.

    2014-05-07

    The surface morphology of a Niobium sample, irradiated in air by a femtosecond laser with a wavelength of 800 nm and pulse duration of 100 fs, was examined. The period of the micro/nanostructures, parallel and perpendicularly oriented to the linearly polarized fs-laser beam, was studied by means of 2D Fast Fourier Transform analysis. The observed Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) were classified as Low Spatial Frequency LIPSS (periods about 600 nm) and High Spatial Frequency LIPSS, showing a periodicity around 300 nm, both of them perpendicularly oriented to the polarization of the incident laser wave. Moreover, parallel high spatial frequency LIPSS were observed with periods around 100 nm located at the peripheral areas of the laser fingerprint and overwritten on the perpendicular periodic gratings. The results indicate that this method of micro/nanostructuring allows controlling the Niobium grating period by the number of pulses applied, so the scan speed and not the fluence is the key parameter of control. A discussion on the mechanism of the surface topology evolution was also introduced.

  14. Femtosecond laser induced periodic nanostructures on titanium dioxide film for improving biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinonaga, T.; Horiguchi, N.; Tsukamoto, M.; Nagai, A.; Yamashita, K.; Hanawa, T.; Matsushita, N.; Guoqiang, X.; Abe, N.

    2013-03-01

    Periodic nanostructures formation on Titanium dioxide (TiO2) film by scanning of femtosecond laser beam spot at fundamental and second harmonic wave is reported. Titanium (Ti) is one of the most widely used for biomaterials, because of its excellent anti-corrosion and high mechanical properties. However, Ti implant is typically artificial materials and has no biofunction. Hence, it is necessary for improving the bioactivity of Ti. Recently, coating of TiO2 film on Ti plate surface is useful methods to improve biocompatibility of Ti plate. Then, if periodic nanostructures were formed on the film surface, cell spreading might be controlled at one direction. We propose periodic nanostructures formation on TiO2 film by femtosecond laser irradiation. Cell spread could be controlled along the grooves of periodic nanostructures. In the experiments, the film was formed on Ti plate with an aerosol beam. A commercial femtosecond Ti : sapphire laser system was employed in our experiments. Periodic nanostructures, lying perpendicular to the laser electric field polarization vector, were formed on the film at fundamental and second harmonic wave. Periodic nanostructures were also produced on Ti plate with femtosecond laser. The period of periodic nanostructures on the film was much shorter than that on Ti plate. By cell test, there was a region of cell spreading along the grooves of periodic nanostructures on the film formed with femtosecond laser at fundamental wave. On bare film surface, cell spreading was observed at all direction. These results suggest that direction of cell spread could be controlled by periodic nanostructures formation on the film.

  15. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silica

    SciTech Connect

    Hoehm, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krueger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2012-07-01

    The formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on two different silica polymorphs (single-crystalline synthetic quartz and commercial fused silica glass) upon irradiation in air with multiple linearly polarized single- and double-fs-laser pulse sequences ({tau} = 150 fs pulse duration, {lambda} = 800 nm center wavelength, temporal pulse separation {Delta}t < 40 ps) is studied experimentally and theoretically. Two distinct types of fs-LIPSS [so-called low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL) and high-spatial-frequency LIPSS (HSFL)] with different spatial periods and orientations were identified. Their appearance was characterized with respect to the experimental parameters peak laser fluence and number of laser pulses per spot. Additionally, the 'dynamics' of the LIPSS formation was addressed in complementary double-fs-pulse experiments with varying delays, revealing a characteristic change of the LSFL periods. The experimental results are interpreted on the basis of a Sipe-Drude model considering the carrier dependence of the optical properties of fs-laser excited silica. This new approach provides an explanation of the LSFL orientation parallel to the laser beam polarisation in silica - as opposed to the behaviour of most other materials.

  16. Laser-induced selective copper plating of polypropylene surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratautas, K.; Gedvilas, M.; Stankevičiene, I.; JagminienÄ--, A.; Norkus, E.; Li Pira, N.; Sinopoli, S.; Emanuele, U.; Račiukaitis, G.

    2016-03-01

    Laser writing for selective plating of electro-conductive lines for electronics has several significant advantages, compared to conventional printed circuit board technology. Firstly, this method is faster and cheaper at the prototyping stage. Secondly, material consumption is reduced, because it works selectively. However, the biggest merit of this method is potentiality to produce moulded interconnect device, enabling to create electronics on complex 3D surfaces, thus saving space, materials and cost of production. There are two basic techniques of laser writing for selective plating on plastics: the laser-induced selective activation (LISA) and laser direct structuring (LDS). In the LISA method, pure plastics without any dopant (filler) can be used. In the LDS method, special fillers are mixed in the polymer matrix. These fillers are activated during laser writing process, and, in the next processing step, the laser modified area can be selectively plated with metals. In this work, both methods of the laser writing for the selective plating of polymers were investigated and compared. For LDS approach, new material: polypropylene with carbon-based additives was tested using picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. Different laser processing parameters (laser pulse energy, scanning speed, the number of scans, pulse durations, wavelength and overlapping of scanned lines) were applied in order to find out the optimal regime of activation. Areal selectivity tests showed a high plating resolution. The narrowest width of a copper-plated line was less than 23 μm. Finally, our material was applied to the prototype of the electronic circuit board on a 2D surface.

  17. Laser induced modification of mechanical properties of nanostructures: graphene–water adsorbate–substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivovarov, P. A.; Frolov, V. D.; Zavedeev, E. V.; Khomich, A. A.; Konov, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of laser induced modification of local mechanical properties of polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition graphene on silicon substrate in air has been demonstrated. Nanosecond laser pulses (wavelength 532 nm) with focal spot diameter ~1 μm were used. Samples were placed and irradiated inside a scanning probe microscope (SPM) that allowed in situ studies of surface morphology and mechanical phase contrast in SPM tapping mode before and after multipulsed laser treatment. It was found that along with local profile transformation of graphene sheet (formation of nanopits and nanobumps), transformation of mechanical properties of graphene on a substrate structure took place. Such laser modified graphene area is larger than (but of the order of) the irradiation spot size. Its appearance is related to laser induced radial extension of an adsorbed water nanolayer intercalated between graphene and substrate. It is shown that the process of water layer lateral migration has a reversible character. This effect is proved by laser spot shift and sequential irradiation.

  18. Laser-induced nanoscale superhydrophobic structures on metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jagdheesh, R; Pathiraj, B; Karatay, E; Römer, G R B E; Huis in't Veld, A J

    2011-07-01

    The combination of a dual-scale (nano and micro) roughness with an inherent low-surface energy coating material is an essential factor for the development of superhydrophobic surfaces. Ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) machining/structuring is a promising technique for obtaining the dual-scale roughness. Sheets of stainless steel (AISI 304 L SS) and Ti-6Al-4V alloys were laser-machined with ultraviolet laser pulses of 6.7 ps, with different numbers of pulses per irradiated area. The surface energy of the laser-machined samples was reduced via application of a layer of perfluorinated octyltrichlorosilane (FOTS). The influence of the number of pulses per irradiated area on the geometry of the nanostructure and the wetting properties of the laser-machined structures has been studied. The results show that with an increasing number of pulses per irradiated area, the nanoscale structures tend to become predominantly microscale. The top surface of the microscale structures is seen covered with nanoscale protrusions that are most pronounced in Ti-6Al-4V. The laser-machined Ti-6Al-4V surface attained superhydrophobicity, and the improvement in the contact angle was >27% when compared to that of a nontextured surface. PMID:21627133

  19. Tribological performance of sub-100-nm femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonse, J.; Höhm, S.; Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.

    2016-06-01

    Sub-100-nm laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were processed on bulk titanium (Ti) surfaces by femtosecond laser pulse irradiation in air (30 fs pulse duration, 790 nm wavelength). The laser peak fluence, the spatial spot overlap, and the number of overscans were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry in order to obtain large surface areas (5 mm × 5 mm) covered homogeneously by the LIPSS. The laser-processed regions were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), white light interference microscopy (WLIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The friction coefficient of the nanostructured surfaces was tested during 1000 cycles under reciprocal sliding conditions (1 Hz, 1.0 N normal load) against a 10-mm diameter ball of hardened 100Cr6 steel, both in paraffin oil and in engine oil used as lubricants. Subsequently, the corresponding wear tracks were qualified by OM, SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX). The results of the tribological tests are discussed and compared to that obtained for near wavelength-sized fs-LIPSS, processed under somewhat different irradiation conditions. Some constraints for a beneficial effect of LIPSS on the tribological performance are provided.

  20. Micro torch assisted nanostructures' formation of nickel during femtosecond laser surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Kai; Duan, Ji'an; Wang, Cong; Dong, Xinran; Song, Yuxin; Luo, Zhi

    2016-06-01

    In this letter, we perform a comprehensive study of micro torch effect on the formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanostructures on nickel. Under identical experimental conditions, laser induced nanostructures and periodic surface patterns exhibit distinctly different level of morphology with and without the micro torch. In addition, assisted by the micro torch, the ablation threshold is considerably reduced and the content of oxygen in the textured nanostructures keeps a stable low level. It is suggested that the change on the surface directly relates to the status of plasma plume and substrate heating. With the assistance of the micro torch, laser induced plasma plume is confined and its density at center region is raised, which results in the increase of the central plasma's temperature, more energy deposited on the nickel surface, and ultimately leading to the changes in the nanostructures' morphology and ablation threshold.

  1. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was <1% of that from flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It

  2. Laser-induced periodic surface structures of thin, complex multi-component films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Juergen; Varlamova, Olga; Ratzke, Markus; Uhlig, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Femtosecond laser-induced regular nanostructures are generated on a complex multilayer target, namely a piece of a commercial, used hard disk memory. It is shown that after single-shot 800-nm irradiation at 0.26 J/cm2 only the polymer cover layer and—in the center—a portion of the magnetic multilayer are ablated. A regular array of linearly aligned spherical 450-nm features at the uncovered interface between cover and magnetic layers appears not to be produced by the irradiation. Only after about 10 pulses on one spot, classical ripples perpendicular to the laser polarization with a period of ≈700 nm are observed, with a modulation between 40 nm above and 40 nm below the pristine surface and an ablation depth only slightly larger than the thickness of the multilayer magnetic film. Further increase of the pulse number does not result in deeper ablation. However, 770-nm ripples become parallel to the polarization and are swelling to more than 120 nm above zero, much more than the full multilayer film thickness. In the spot periphery, much shallower 300-nm ripples are perpendicular to the strong modulation and the laser polarization. Irradiation with 0.49-J/cm2 pulses from an ultrafast white-light continuum results—in the spot periphery—in the formation of 200-nm ripples, only swelling above zero after removal of the polymer cover, without digging into the magnetic film.

  3. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-02-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was <1% of that from flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies. PMID:26648134

  4. Tribological performance of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium and a high toughness bearing steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonse, J.; Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S.; Höhm, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.

    2015-05-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) were processed on steel (X30CrMoN15-1) and titanium (Ti) surfaces by irradiation in air with linear polarized femtosecond laser pulses with a pulse duration of 30 fs at 790 nm wavelength. For the processing of large LIPSS covered surface areas (5 mm × 5 mm), the laser fluence and the spatial spot overlap were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry. The laser-processed surfaces were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), white light interference microscopy (WLIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spatial LIPSS periods between 450 and 600 nm were determined. The nanostructured surface regions were tribologically tested under reciprocal sliding conditions against a 10-mm diameter ball of hardened 100Cr6 steel. Paraffin oil and engine oil were used as lubricants for 1000 sliding cycles at 1 Hz with a normal load of 1.0 N. The corresponding wear tracks were analyzed by OM and SEM. In particular cases, the laser-generated nanostructures endured the tribological treatment. Simultaneously, a significant reduction of the friction coefficient and the wear was observed in the laser-irradiated (LIPSS-covered) areas when compared to the non-irradiated surface. The experiments reveal the potential benefit of laser surface structuring for tribological applications.

  5. Laser-induced transformation of supramolecular complexes: approach to controlled formation of hybrid multi-yolk-shell Au-Ag@a-C:H nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Manshina, A. A.; Grachova, E. V.; Povolotskiy, A. V.; Povolotckaia, A. V.; Petrov, Y. V.; Koshevoy, I. O.; Makarova, A. A.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Tunik, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work an efficient approach of the controlled formation of hybrid Au–Ag–C nanostructures based on laser-induced transformation of organometallic supramolecular cluster compound is suggested. Herein the one-step process of the laser-induced synthesis of hybrid multi-yolk-shell Au-Ag@a-C:H nanoparticles which are bimetallic gold-silver subnanoclusters dispersed in nanospheres of amorphous hydrogenated a-C:H carbon is reported in details. It has been demonstrated that variation of the experimental parameters such as type of the organometallic precursor, solvent, deposition geometry and duration of laser irradiation allows directed control of nanoparticles’ dimension and morphology. The mechanism of Au-Ag@a-C:H nanoparticles formation is suggested: the photo-excitation of the precursor molecule through metal-to-ligand charge transfer followed by rupture of metallophilic bonds, transformation of the cluster core including red-ox intramolecular reaction and aggregation of heterometallic species that results in the hybrid metal/carbon nanoparticles with multi-yolk-shell architecture formation. It has been found that the nanoparticles obtained can be efficiently used for the Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy label-free detection of human serum albumin in low concentration solution. PMID:26153347

  6. Laser-induced transformation of supramolecular complexes: approach to controlled formation of hybrid multi-yolk-shell Au-Ag@a-C:H nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Manshina, A A; Grachova, E V; Povolotskiy, A V; Povolotckaia, A V; Petrov, Y V; Koshevoy, I O; Makarova, A A; Vyalikh, D V; Tunik, S P

    2015-01-01

    In the present work an efficient approach of the controlled formation of hybrid Au-Ag-C nanostructures based on laser-induced transformation of organometallic supramolecular cluster compound is suggested. Herein the one-step process of the laser-induced synthesis of hybrid multi-yolk-shell Au-Ag@a-C:H nanoparticles which are bimetallic gold-silver subnanoclusters dispersed in nanospheres of amorphous hydrogenated a-C:H carbon is reported in details. It has been demonstrated that variation of the experimental parameters such as type of the organometallic precursor, solvent, deposition geometry and duration of laser irradiation allows directed control of nanoparticles' dimension and morphology. The mechanism of Au-Ag@a-C:H nanoparticles formation is suggested: the photo-excitation of the precursor molecule through metal-to-ligand charge transfer followed by rupture of metallophilic bonds, transformation of the cluster core including red-ox intramolecular reaction and aggregation of heterometallic species that results in the hybrid metal/carbon nanoparticles with multi-yolk-shell architecture formation. It has been found that the nanoparticles obtained can be efficiently used for the Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy label-free detection of human serum albumin in low concentration solution. PMID:26153347

  7. Characterization of Ag nanostructures fabricated by laser-induced dewetting of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikov, Ru. G.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Atanasov, P. A.; Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B.; Grochowska, K.; Sliwinski, G.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents results on laser nanostructuring of Ag thin films. The thin films are deposited on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition technology. The as fabricated films are then annealed by nanosecond laser pulses delivered by Nd:YAG laser system operated at λ = 355 nm. The film modification is studied as a function of the film thickness and the parameters of the laser irradiation as pulse number and laser fluence. In order to estimate the influence of the environment on the characteristics of the fabricated structures the Ag films are annealed in different surrounding media: water, air and vacuum. It is found that at certain conditions the laser treatment may lead to decomposition of the films into a monolayer of nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The optical properties of the fabricated nanostructures are investigated on the basis of transmission spectra taken by optical spectrometer. In the measured spectra plasmon resonance band is observed as its shape and position vary depending on the processing conditions. The fabricated structures are covered with Rhodamine 6G and tested as active substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS).

  8. Time resolved EUV pump-probe microscopy of fs-LASER induced nanostructure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiberger, R.; Hauck, J.; Reininghaus, M.; Wortmann, D.; Juschkin, L.

    2011-05-01

    We report on our efforts in design and construction of a compact Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV)-pump-probe microscope. The goal is the observation of formation of nanostructures, induced by a femtosecond (fs)-laser pulse. The unique interaction processes of fs-laser radiation with matter open up new markets in laser material processing and, therefore, are actively investigated in the last decade. The resulting "sub 100 nm"-structures offer vast potential benefits in photonics, biotechnology, tribological surface design, plasmonic applications and production of nanoparticles. Focused fs-laser radiation causes a local modification resulting in nanostructures of high precision and reproducibility. However the formation dynamics is not well understood. Research in this field requires high temporal and spatial resolution. A combination of fs-laser and EUV-microscope provides a tool for "in situ"-observation of the formation dynamics. As exemplary structures to be investigated, we use nanojets on thin gold films and periodic surface structures (ripples) on dielectrics. In the future, the EUV-pump-probe microscope can become a versatile tool to observe physical or biological processes. Microscopy using EUV-light is capable of detecting structures on a scale down to several tens of nanometers. For detailed investigations a compact EUV-microscope has been realized utilizing OVI Balmer-alpha radiation at 17.3 nm coming from a discharge produced oxygen plasma. As optical elements a grazing incidence elliptical collector and a zone plate with a width of outermost zone of 50 nm and a spectral filter to avoid chromatic aberrations are used. The detector is a fast gated microchannel plate with a pore size of 2 microns contacted by a low impedance transmission line. The expected spatial resolution of the setup is better than 100 nm and the time resolution is better than 1 ns. The newly developed EUV-microscope is a powerful tool for a wide field of investigations that need high time

  9. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo Chunlei

    2008-09-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate the generation of periodic surface structures on a technologically important material, tungsten, at both 400 and 800 nm, despite that the table values of dielectric constants for tungsten at these two wavelengths suggest the absence of surface plasmons, a wave necessary for forming periodic structures on metals. Furthermore, we find that the structure periods formed on tungsten are significantly less than the laser wavelengths. We believe that the dielectric constants of tungsten change significantly due to intense laser pulse heating and surface structuring and roughening at nanometer scales, permitting surface plasmon excitation and periodic structure formation.

  10. AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTE CRYSTAL SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S; Lucile Teague, L; Martine Duff, M; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E

    2008-06-10

    Semi-conducting CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals can be used in a variety of detector-type applications. CZT shows great promise for use as a gamma radiation spectrometer. However, its performance is adversely affected by point defects, structural and compositional heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), secondary phases and in some cases, damage caused by external forces. One example is damage that occurs during characterization of the surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy. Even minimal laser power can cause Te enriched areas on the surface to appear. The Raman spectra resulting from measurements at moderate intensity laser power show large increases in peak intensity that is attributed to Te. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to the Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam. The degree of surface damage to the crystal is dependent on the laser power, with the most observable damage occurring at high laser power. Moreover, intensity increases in the Te peaks of the Raman spectra are observed even at low laser power with little to no visible damage observed by AFM. AFM results also suggest that exposure to the same amount of laser power yields different amounts of surface damage depending on whether the exposed surface is the Te terminating face or the Cd terminating face of CZT.

  11. Tuning micropillar cavity birefringence by laser induced surface defects

    SciTech Connect

    Bonato, Cristian; Ding Dapeng; Gudat, Jan; Exter, Martin P. van; Thon, Susanna; Kim, Hyochul; Petroff, Pierre M.; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2009-12-21

    We demonstrate a technique to tune the optical properties of micropillar cavities by creating small defects on the sample surface near the cavity region with an intense focused laser beam. Such defects modify strain in the structure, changing the birefringence in a controllable way. We apply the technique to make the fundamental cavity mode polarization-degenerate and to fine tune the overall mode frequencies, as needed for applications in quantum information science.

  12. Laser-induced self-assembly of iron oxide nanostructures with controllable dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, Simon J.; Mollah, Shafikuddin; Giusca, Christina E.; Silva, S. Ravi P.

    2009-09-01

    The nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of fine iron powder submerged under different liquid media (water, methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol) is used to rapidly produce a variety of iron oxide nanostructures from nanoparticles to nanowires and nanosheets. The dimensionality of the nanostructures is shown to be a consequence of two controllable mechanisms. The rapid oxidation, collisional quenching, and coalescence of the ablation products are suggested as the dominant mechanisms for the formation of zero-dimensional nanostructures such as hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles in water, or iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles under alcohols. By employing different laser wavelengths (248 and 532 nm) it is demonstrated that the growth of extended iron oxyhydroxide nanostructures (one-dimensional nanowires and two-dimensional nanosheets) under methanol is possible and is a consequence of a second self-assembly mechanism driven by interaction between the UV laser pulses and the ablation products.

  13. AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF RAMAN LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTECRYSTAL SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Teague, L.; Duff, M.

    2008-10-07

    High quality CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals have the potential for use in room temperature gamma-ray and X-ray spectrometers. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. The presence of structural heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SPs) can have an impact on the detector performance. There is considerable need for reliable and reproducible characterization methods for the measurement of crystal quality. With improvements in material characterization and synthesis, these crystals may become suitable for widespread use in gamma radiation detection. Characterization techniques currently utilized to test for quality and/or to predict performance of the crystal as a gamma-ray detector include infrared (IR) transmission imaging, synchrotron X-ray topography, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. In some cases, damage caused by characterization methods can have deleterious effects on the crystal performance. The availability of non-destructive analysis techniques is essential to validate a crystal's quality and its ability to be used for either qualitative or quantitative gamma-ray or X-ray detection. The work presented herein discusses the damage that occurs during characterization of the CZT surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy, even at minimal laser powers. Previous Raman studies have shown that the localized annealing from tightly focused, low powered lasers results in areas of higher Te concentration on the CZT surface. This type of laser damage on the surface resulted in decreased detector performance which was most likely due to increased leakage current caused by areas of higher Te concentration. In this study

  14. Fabrication of Hybrid Nanostructures via Nanoscale Laser-Induced Reshaping for Advanced Light Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Zuev, Dmitry A; Makarov, Sergey V; Mukhin, Ivan S; Milichko, Valentin A; Starikov, Sergey V; Morozov, Ivan A; Shishkin, Ivan I; Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A

    2016-04-01

    Ordered hybrid nanostructures for nanophotonics applications are fabricated by a novel approach via femtosecond laser melting of asymmetric metal-dielectric (Au/Si) nanoparticles created by lithographical methods. The approach allows selective reshaping of the metal components of the hybrid nanoparticles without affecting the dielectric ones and is applied for tuning of the scattering properties of the hybrid nanostructures in the visible range. PMID:26901635

  15. Inexpensive laser-induced surface modification in bismuth thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, A. Reyes; Hautefeuille, M.; García, A. Esparza; Mejia, O. Olea; López, M. A. Camacho

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we present results on texturing a 500 nm thick bismuth film, deposited by sputtering onto a glass slide using a low-cost homemade, near-infrared pulsed laser platform. A 785 nm laser diode of a CD-DVD pickup head was precisely focused on the sample mounted on a motorized two-axis translation stage to generate localized surface microbumps on the bismuth films. This simple method successfully transferred desired micropatterns on the films in a computer-numerical control fashion. Irradiated zones were characterized by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that final results are strongly dependent on irradiation parameters.

  16. Pump-probe imaging of laser-induced periodic surface structures after ultrafast irradiation of Si

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Ryan D.; Torralva, Ben; Adams, David P.; Yalisove, Steven M.

    2013-09-30

    Ultrafast pump-probe microscopy has been used to investigate laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) formation on polished Si surfaces. A crater forms on the surface after irradiation by a 150 fs laser pulse, and a second, subsequent pulse forms LIPSS within the crater. Sequentially delayed images show that LIPSS with a periodicity slightly less than the fundamental laser wavelength of 780 nm appear on Si surfaces ∼50 ps after arrival of the second pump laser pulse, well after the onset of melting. LIPSS are observed on the same timescale as material removal, suggesting that their formation involves material ejection.

  17. Atmospheric thermometry for metallic surfaces by laser-induced second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedanekar, Niranjan R.; Yin, Huiqi; Laurendeau, Normand M.

    1996-07-01

    To the best of our knowledge we report the first demonstration of surface thermometry using laser-induced second-harmonic generation (SHG) on a realistic metallic surface at atmospheric pressure. The surface is probed with a pulsed infrared laser beam and the SHG signal is monitored in reflection. For metallic silver, the SHG signal is found to be temperature dependent in the 25-120 degrees C range. The current accuracy of the method is +/-5 degrees C. Future work with platinum should permit the application of SHG thermometry to much higher surface temperatures.

  18. Laser-induced synthesis of a nanostructured polymer-like metal-carbon complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakelian, S.; Kutrovskaya, S.; Kucherik, A.; Osipov, A.; Povolotckaia, A.; Povolotskiy, A.; Manshina, A.

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of nanotructured metal-carbon materials by laser irradiation is an actual branch of laser physics and nanotechnology. Laser sources with different pulse duration allow changing the heating rate with realization of different transition scenarios and synthesis materials with various physical properties. We study the process of the formation of nanostructured metal-clusters and complexes using laser irradiation of colloidal systems which were consisted of carbon micro- nanoparticles and nanoparticles of noble metals. For carbon nanoparticles synthesis we use the method of laser ablation in liquid. For the realization of different regimes of laser surface modification of the target (glassycarbon and shungite) and the formation of micro- nanoparticles in a liquid the YAG:Nd laser with a pulse duration from 0.5 ms up to 20 ms (pulse energy up to 50J) was applied. We have used the CW-laser with moderate intensity in liquid (water or ethanol) for nanoparticle of noble metals synthesis. Thus, colloidal systems were obtained by using CW-laser with λ = 1.06 μm, I ~ 105-6 W/cm2, and t = 10 min. The average size of resulting particles was approximately about 10 to 100 nm. The nanoparticle obtaining was provided in the colloidal solution with different laser parameters. In this work we have investigated the mechanism of the metal-carbon cluster formation during the process of irradiation of colloidal system which were consisted of separate carbon, silver and gold nanoparticles. This system was irradiated by nanosecond laser (100 ns) with average power up to 50W.

  19. Laser-induced deposition of nanostructured copper tracks from solutions containing oxidising additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateev, Sergey A.; Araslanova, Svetlana M.; Mironov, Vasilii S.; Gordeychuk, Dmitrii I.

    2015-05-01

    This paper involves the laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition of metals (LCLD). Organic alcohols with low molecular weights, such as ethanol and ethylene glycol, were used as the reductants. The addition of KBrO3 demonstrates how inorganic oxidizing additives affect the process of copper laser deposition from aqueous solutions. Such additives increase the deposition speed, which is an important challenge in the LCLD method. The deposited copper structures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive analysis (EDX), and impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent circuit of copper tracks was constructed using the impedance spectroscopy data. The studies revealed that the structures deposited from the solutions consist of densely agglomerated nanocrystals, which is in contrast to the microcrystalline deposit obtained in the absence of oxidizing additives.

  20. Quantitative elasticity measurement of urinary bladder wall using laser-induced surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Zhang, Fan; Song, Shaozhen; Wang, Ruikang K.; Huang, Zhihong; Nabi, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of urinary bladder elasticity is essential to its functions, including the storage and voiding phases of the micturition cycle. The bladder stiffness can be changed by various pathophysiological conditions. Quantitative measurement of bladder elasticity is an essential step toward understanding various urinary bladder disease processes and improving patient care. As a nondestructive, and noncontact method, laser-induced surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can accurately characterize the elastic properties of different layers of organs such as the urinary bladder. This initial investigation evaluates the feasibility of a noncontact, all-optical method of generating and measuring the elasticity of the urinary bladder. Quantitative elasticity measurements of ex vivo porcine urinary bladder were made using the laser-induced SAW technique. A pulsed laser was used to excite SAWs that propagated on the bladder wall surface. A dedicated phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) system remotely recorded the SAWs, from which the elasticity properties of different layers of the bladder were estimated. During the experiments, series of measurements were performed under five precisely controlled bladder volumes using water to estimate changes in the elasticity in relation to various urinary bladder contents. The results, validated by optical coherence elastography, show that the laser-induced SAW technique combined with PhS-OCT can be a feasible method of quantitative estimation of biomechanical properties. PMID:25574440

  1. Influence of surface cracks on laser-induced damage resistance of brittle KH₂PO₄ crystal.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jian; Chen, Mingjun; Liao, Wei; Wang, Haijun; Wang, Jinghe; Xiao, Yong; Li, Mingquan

    2014-11-17

    Single point diamond turning (SPDT) currently is the leading finishing method for achieving ultra-smooth surface on brittle KH(2)PO(4) crystal. In this work, the light intensification modulated by surface cracks introduced by SPDT cutting is numerically simulated using finite-difference time-domain algorithm. The results indicate that the light intensification caused by surface cracks is wavelength, crack geometry and position dependent. Under the irradiation of 355 nm laser, lateral cracks on front surfaces and conical cracks on both front and rear surfaces can produce light intensification as high as hundreds of times, which is sufficient to trigger avalanche ionization and finally lower the laser damage resistance of crystal components. Furthermore, we experimentally tested the laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) on both crack-free and flawed crystal surfaces. The results imply that brittle fracture with a series of surface cracks is the dominant source of laser damage initiation in crystal components. Due to the negative effect of surface cracks, the LIDT on KDP crystal surface could be sharply reduced from 7.85J/cm(2) to 2.33J/cm(2) (355 nm, 6.4 ns). In addition, the experiment of laser-induced damage growth is performed and the damage growth behavior agrees well with the simulation results of light intensification caused by surface cracks with increasing crack depths. PMID:25402114

  2. Effect of surface topography in the generation of chemical maps by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Quintas, I.; Piñon, V.; Mateo, M. P.; Nicolas, G.

    2012-09-01

    The development of technologically advanced materials is propelling the improvement of surface analytical techniques. In particular, the composition and hence the properties of most of these new materials are spatial dependent. Between the techniques able to provide chemical spatial information, laser-induced plasma spectroscopy known also as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a very promising analytical technique. During the last decade, LIBS was successfully applied to the analysis of surfaces and the generation of chemical maps of heterogeneous materials. In the LIBS analysis, several experimental factors including surface topography must be taken into account. In this work, the influence of surface roughness in LIBS signal during the point analysis and acquisition of chemical maps was studied. For this purpose, samples of stainless steel with different surface finishes were prepared and analyzed by LIBS. In order to characterize the different surfaces, confocal microscopy images were obtained. Afterwards, both topographic and spectroscopic information were combined to show the relationship between them. Additionally, in order to reveal the effect of surface topography in the acquisition of chemical maps, a three dimensional analysis of a sample exhibiting two different finishes was carried out.

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Magnetic surface nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, A.; Skomski, R.; Honolka, J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent trends in the emerging field of surface-supported magnetic nanostructures are reviewed. Current strategies for nanostructure synthesis are summarized, followed by a predominantly theoretical description of magnetic phenomena in surface magnetic structures and a review of experimental research in this field. Emphasis is on Fe- or Co-based nanostructures in various low-dimensional geometries, which are studied as model systems to explore the effects of dimensionality, atomic coordination, chemical bonds, alloying and, most importantly, interactions with the supporting substrate on the magnetism. This review also includes a discussion of closely related systems, such as 3d element impurities integrated into organic networks, surface-supported Fe-based molecular magnets, Kondo systems or 4d element nanostructures that exhibit emergent magnetism, thereby bridging the traditional areas of surface science, molecular physics and nanomagnetism.

  4. Mechanical Characterization of Nanoporous Thin Films by Nanoindentation and Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Gabriel

    Thin films represent a critical sector of modern engineering that strives to produce functional coatings at the smallest possible length scales. They appear most commonly in semiconductors where they form the foundation of all electronic circuits, but exist in many other areas to provide mechanical, electrical, chemical, and optical properties. The mechanical characterization of thin films has been a continued challenge due foremost to the length scales involved. However, emerging thin films focusing on materials with significant porosity, complex morphologies, and nanostructured surfaces produce additional difficulties towards mechanical analysis. Nanoindentation has been the dominant thin film mechanical characterization technique for the last decade because of the quick results, wide range of sample applicability, and ease of sample preparation. However, the traditional nanoindentation technique encounters difficulties for thin porous films. For such materials, alternative means of analysis are desirable and the lesser known laser-induced surface acoustic wave technique (LiSAW) shows great potential in this area. This dissertation focuses on studying thin, porous, and nanostructured films by nanoindentation and LiSAW techniques in an effort to directly correlate the two methodologies and to test the limits and applicabilities of each technique on challenging media. The LiSAW technique is particularly useful for thin porous films because unlike indentation, the substrate is properly accounted for in the wave motion analysis and no plastic deformation is necessary. Additionally, the use of lasers for surface acoustic wave generation and detection allows the technique to be fully non-contact. This is desirable in the measurement of thin, delicate, and porous films where physical sample probing may not be feasible. The LiSAW technique is also valuable in overcoming nanoscale roughness, particularly for films that cannot be mechanically polished, since typical SAW

  5. Ultraviolet and infrared femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on thin polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollar, Esther; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Pérez-Hernández, José A.; Ezquerra, Tiberio A.; Moreno, Pablo; Castillejo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates the formation of femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) by multipulse irradiation with the fundamental and 3rd harmonic of a linearly polarized Ti:sapphire laser (795 and 265 nm) on thin films of the polymers poly (ethylene terephthalate), poly (trimethylene terephthalate), and poly (carbonate bisphenol A) prepared by spin-coating. LIPSS, inspected by atomic force microscopy, are formed upon multiple pulse UV and IR irradiation with wavelength-sized period in a narrow range of fluences below the ablation threshold. Control and tunability of the size and morphology of the periodic structures become thus possible ensuring photochemical integrity of polymer films.

  6. Ultraviolet and infrared femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on thin polymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Rebollar, Esther; Castillejo, Marta; Vazquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Moreno, Pablo

    2012-01-23

    This work demonstrates the formation of femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) by multipulse irradiation with the fundamental and 3rd harmonic of a linearly polarized Ti:sapphire laser (795 and 265 nm) on thin films of the polymers poly (ethylene terephthalate), poly (trimethylene terephthalate), and poly (carbonate bisphenol A) prepared by spin-coating. LIPSS, inspected by atomic force microscopy, are formed upon multiple pulse UV and IR irradiation with wavelength-sized period in a narrow range of fluences below the ablation threshold. Control and tunability of the size and morphology of the periodic structures become thus possible ensuring photochemical integrity of polymer films.

  7. Initiation time of near-infrared laser-induced slip on the surface of silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sungho; Jhang, Kyung-Young

    2014-06-23

    We have determined the initiation time of laser-induced slip on a silicon wafer surface subjected to a near-infrared continuous-wave laser by numerical simulations and experiments. First, numerical analysis was performed based on the heat transfer and thermoelasticity model to calculate the resolved shear stress and the temperature-dependent yield stress. Slip initiation time was predicted by finding the time at which the resolved shear stress reached the yield stress. Experimentally, the slip initiation time was measured by using a laser scattering technique that collects scattered light from the silicon wafer surface and detects strong scattering when the surface slip is initiated. The surface morphology of the silicon wafer surface after laser irradiation was also observed using an optical microscope to confirm the occurrence of slip. The measured slip initiation times agreed well with the numerical predictions.

  8. Initiation time of near-infrared laser-induced slip on the surface of silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sungho; Jhang, Kyung-Young

    2014-06-01

    We have determined the initiation time of laser-induced slip on a silicon wafer surface subjected to a near-infrared continuous-wave laser by numerical simulations and experiments. First, numerical analysis was performed based on the heat transfer and thermoelasticity model to calculate the resolved shear stress and the temperature-dependent yield stress. Slip initiation time was predicted by finding the time at which the resolved shear stress reached the yield stress. Experimentally, the slip initiation time was measured by using a laser scattering technique that collects scattered light from the silicon wafer surface and detects strong scattering when the surface slip is initiated. The surface morphology of the silicon wafer surface after laser irradiation was also observed using an optical microscope to confirm the occurrence of slip. The measured slip initiation times agreed well with the numerical predictions.

  9. Polarization dependent formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures near stepped features

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Ryan D.; Torralva, Ben; Adams, David P.; Yalisove, Steven M.

    2014-06-09

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are formed near 110 nm-tall Au microstructured edges on Si substrates after single-pulse femtosecond irradiation with a 150 fs pulse centered near a 780 nm wavelength. We investigate the contributions of Fresnel diffraction from step-edges and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation to LIPSS formation on Au and Si surfaces. For certain laser polarization vector orientations, LIPSS formation is dominated by SPP excitation; however, when SPP excitation is minimized, Fresnel diffraction dominates. The LIPSS orientation and period distributions are shown to depend on which mechanism is activated. These results support previous observations of the laser polarization vector influencing LIPSS formation on bulk surfaces.

  10. Ultrasonic approach for surface nanostructuring.

    PubMed

    Skorb, Ekaterina V; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-03-01

    The review is about solid surface modifications by cavitation induced in strong ultrasonic fields. The topic is worth to be discussed in a special issue of surface cleaning by cavitation induced processes since it is important question if we always find surface cleaning when surface modifications occur, or vice versa. While these aspects are extremely interesting it is important for applications to follow possible pathways during ultrasonic treatment of the surface: (i) solely cleaning; (ii) cleaning with following surface nanostructuring; and (iii) topic of this particular review, surface modification with controllably changing its characteristics for advanced applications. It is important to know what can happen and which parameters should be taking into account in the case of surface modification when actually the aim is solely cleaning or aim is surface nanostructuring. Nanostructuring should be taking into account since is often accidentally applied in cleaning. Surface hydrophilicity, stability to Red/Ox reactions, adhesion of surface layers to substrate, stiffness and melting temperature are important to predict the ultrasonic influence on a surface and discussed from these points for various materials and intermetallics, silicon, hybrid materials. Important solid surface characteristics which determine resistivity and kinetics of surface response to ultrasonic treatment are discussed. It is also discussed treatment in different solvents and presents in solution of metal ions. PMID:26382299

  11. Detection of biological contaminants on foods and food surfaces using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Multari, Rosalie A; Cremers, David A; Dupre, Jo Anne M; Gustafson, John E

    2013-09-11

    The rapid detection of biological contaminants, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica , on foods and food-processing surfaces is important to ensure food safety and streamline the food-monitoring process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an ideal candidate technology for this application because sample preparation is minimal and results are available rapidly (seconds to minutes). Here, multivariate regression analysis of LIBS data is used to differentiate the live bacterial pathogens E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica on various foods (eggshell, milk, bologna, ground beef, chicken, and lettuce) and surfaces (metal drain strainer and cutting board). The type (E. coli or S. enterica) of bacteria could be differentiated in all cases studied along with the metabolic state (viable or heat killed). This study provides data showing the potential of LIBS for the rapid identification of biological contaminants using spectra collected directly from foods and surfaces. PMID:23941554

  12. Modeling laser-induced periodic surface structures: Finite-difference time-domain feedback simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Skolski, J. Z. P. Vincenc Obona, J.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Huis in 't Veld, A. J.

    2014-03-14

    A model predicting the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) is presented. That is, the finite-difference time domain method is used to study the interaction of electromagnetic fields with rough surfaces. In this approach, the rough surface is modified by “ablation after each laser pulse,” according to the absorbed energy profile, in order to account for inter-pulse feedback mechanisms. LIPSSs with a periodicity significantly smaller than the laser wavelength are found to “grow” either parallel or orthogonal to the laser polarization. The change in orientation and periodicity follow from the model. LIPSSs with a periodicity larger than the wavelength of the laser radiation and complex superimposed LIPSS patterns are also predicted by the model.

  13. Superhydrophobic antireflective silica films: fractal surfaces and laser-induced damage thresholds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yu Han; Huang, Zu Xing; Jiang, Xiao Dong; Wei, Xiao Feng; Li, Zhi Hong; Dong, Bao Zhong; Wu, Zhong Hua

    2005-02-01

    Several superhydrophobic antireflective silica films have been prepared by a solgel method that uses hexamethyl-disilizane (HMDS) as a modifier. In a high-power laser, laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) of 23-30 J/cm2 were obtained at 1064-nm wavelength with 1-ns pulse duration. By atomic-force microscopy and optical microscopy, the fractal surfaces of films were studied, and multifractal spectra (MFSs) were calculated both before and after laser damage. The two-sided effect of HMDS on particle growth determined the surface fractal of a particle and the multifractal structure of a film's surface. The bigger deltaalpha was, both before and after laser damage, the lower the LIDT was. The effect of methyl groups should be included in the determination of the MFS of the LIDT. PMID:15726949

  14. Superhydrophobic antireflective silica films: fractal surfaces and laser-induced damage thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yu Han; Huang, Zu Xing; Jiang, Xiao Dong; Wei, Xiao Feng; Li, Zhi Hong; Zhong Dong, Bao; Wu, Zhong Hua

    2005-02-01

    Several superhydrophobic antireflective silica films have been prepared by a solgel method that uses hexamethyl-disilizane (HMDS) as a modifier. In a high-power laser, laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) of 23-30 J/cm2 were obtained at 1064-nm wavelength with 1-ns pulse duration. By atomic-force microscopy and optical microscopy, the fractal surfaces of films were studied, and multifractal spectra (MFSs) were calculated both before and after laser damage. The two-sided effect of HMDS on particle growth determined the surface fractal of a particle and the multifractal structure of a film's surface. The bigger Deltaa was, both before and after laser damage, the lower the LIDT was. The effect of methyl groups should be included in the determination of the MFS of the LIDT.

  15. Laser-induced dry-fabrication of bibenzyl molecular layers on the silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong Ping; Chen, Zhi Qian; Dong, Dong; Xu, Guo Qin

    2014-08-01

    The covalently attached organic monolayer has great effects on the structures of the organic semiconductor thin films and their electronic transport properties in the fabrication of molecular electronic devices. A laser-induced dry-fabrication method has been developed to form bibenzyl-like molecular layers by photoinduced reaction of 4-bromostyrene molecules on silicon surface in the vacuum environment. The radical site produced via the C-Br bond cleavage concurrently reacts with the Cdbnd C vinyl group of the physisorbed 4-bromostyrene molecule above to form the -CH2-CHBr- covalent linkage. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) experimental results and density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirm the formation of covalently bonded bibenzyl-like (Phi-CH2-CHBr-Phi) molecular layers on the silicon surface.

  16. Infrared Laser Generation Of Heterogeneous Catalysts And Laser-Induced Reactions At Catalytic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danen, Wayne C.; Cheng, , Sheng-San; Iyer, Pradeep K.; Chiou, Shane-Jaw

    1984-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that continuous wave infrared CO2 laser radiation can be util-ized to rapidly produce active catalysts from inert precursors. The activity and selectiv-ity of Ca0 produced from Ca(OH)2 for the isomerization of 1-butene to cis- and trans-2-but-ene is discussed. Variation of the laser irradiation time produces catalytic activity and selectivity qualitatively similar to that resulting from conventional calcination at different temperatures. Pulsed infrared laser-induced reactions at catalytic surfaces are also discussed with emphasis on the dehydrobromination of 2-bromopropane and ethylene elimination from glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride at BaSO4 , A1PO4, and similar surfaces. Correlations are made of the extent of reaction with various experimental parameters including nature of the catalyst, laser frequency, laser fluence, number of laser pulses, and reagent-catalyst ratio.

  17. Dynamics of Nanostructures at Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Andreas K.

    2001-02-28

    Currently, much effort is being devoted to the goal of achieving useful nanotechnologies, which depend on the ability to control and manipulate things on a very small scale. One promising approach to the construction of nanostructures is 'self-assembly', which means that under suitable conditions desired nanostructures might form automatically due to physical and chemical forces. Remarkably, the forces controlling such self-assembly mechanisms are only poorly understood, even though highly successful examples of self-assembly are known in nature (e.g., complex biochemical machinery regularly self-assembles in the conditions inside living cells). This talk will highlight basic measurements of fundamental forces governing the dynamics of nanostructures at prototypical metal surfaces. We use advanced surface microscopy techniques to track the motions of very small structures in real time and up to atomic resolution. One classic example of self-organized nanostructures are networks of surface dislocations (linear crystal defects). The direct observation of thermally activated atomic motions of dislocations in a reconstructed gold surface allows us to measure the forces stabilizing the remarkable long-range order of this nanostructure. In another example, the rapid migration of nano-scale tin crystals deposited on a pure copper surface was traced to an atomic repulsion between tin atoms absorbed on the crystal surface and bronze alloy formed in the footprint of the tin crystals. It is intriguing to consider the clusters as simple chemo-mechanical energy transducers, essentially tiny linear motors built of 100,000 Sn atoms. We can support this view by providing estimates of the power and energy-efficiency of these nano-motors.

  18. Laser-induced periodic surface structure in nickel-fullerene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacik, J.; Lavrentiev, V.; Havranek, V.; Horak, P.; Hnatowicz, V.; Fajgar, R.

    2016-02-01

    The phase separation of a thin film of the binary composite of Ni and C60 has been studied using laser illumination of the sample through an array of pinholes (with a diameter of 10-µm and 60-µm × 80-µm spacing). The mesh with pinholes enabled splitting of the probing beam into an array of close-spaced laser micro-beams. The simultaneous illumination of the composite, with a set of micro-beams, resulted in a fast phase separation of the hybrid matter and an occurrence of unusual laser-induced periodic surface structures - a net of complex Ni and C allotropes (C60 and amorphous C) concentric rings and a fine array of the C60 - based islands, regularly distributed over the Ni + C60 thin film matrix. The results confirmed the high proclivity of the hybrid Ni + C60 composites to a correlated separation of the Ni and C-allotrope phases.

  19. Generation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on transparent material-fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Simon; Rung, Stefan; Hellmann, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    We report on a comparison between simulated and experimental results for the generation of laser-induced periodic surface structures with low spatial frequency on dielectrics. Using the established efficacy factor theory extended by a Drude model, we determine the required carrier density for the generation of low spatial frequency LIPSS (LSFL) and forecast their periodicity and orientation. In a subsequent calculative step, we determine the fluence of ultrashort laser pulses necessary to excite this required carrier density in due consideration of the pulse number dependent ablation threshold. The later calculation is based on a rate equation including photo- and avalanche ionization and derives appropriate process parameters for a selective generation of LSFL. Exemplarily, we apply this approach to the generation of LSFL on fused silica using a 1030 nm femtosecond laser. The experimental results for the orientation and spatial periodicity of LSFL reveal excellent agreement with the simulation.

  20. Effect of surface morphology on laser-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Guohua; Shi, Weimin; Yang, Weiguang; Yuan, Zhijun; Cao, Zechun; Zhou, Jun; Lou, Qihong; Liu, Jin; Wei, Guangpu

    2013-12-01

    The effect of surface morphology on laser-induced crystallization of hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films deposited by PECVD is studied in this paper. The thin films are irritated by a frequency-doubled (λ=532 nm) Nd:YAG pulsed nanosecond laser. An effective melting model is built to identify the variation of melting regime influenced by laser crystallization. Based on the experimental results, the established correlation between the grain growth characterized by AFM and the crystalline fraction (Xc) obtained from Raman spectroscopy suggests that the crystallized process form amorphous phase to polycrystalline phase. Therefore, the highest crystalline fraction (Xc) is obtained by a optimized laser energy density.

  1. Relaxation dynamics of femtosecond-laser-induced temperature modulation on the surfaces of metals and semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Yoann; Derrien, Thibault J.-Y.; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Gurevich, Evgeny L.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) is a complicated phenomenon which involves periodic spatial modulation of laser energy absorption on the irradiated surface, transient changes in optical response, surface layer melting and/or ablation. The listed processes strongly depend on laser fluence and pulse duration as well as on material properties. This paper is aimed at studying the spatiotemporal evolution of a periodic modulation of the deposited laser energy, once formed upon irradiation of metal (Ti) and semiconductor (Si) surfaces. Assuming that the incoming laser pulse interferes with a surface electromagnetic wave, the resulting sinusoidal modulation of the absorbed laser energy is introduced into a two-dimensional two-temperature model developed for titanium and silicon. Simulations reveal that the lattice temperature modulation on the surfaces of both materials following from the modulated absorption remains significant for longer than 50 ps after the laser pulse. In the cases considered here, the partially molten phase exists 10 ps in Ti and more than 50 ps in Si, suggesting that molten matter can be subjected to temperature-driven relocation toward LIPSS formation, due to the modulated temperature profile on the material surfaces. Molten phase at nanometric distances (nano-melting) is also revealed.

  2. Insulating oxide surfaces and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goniakowski, Jacek; Noguera, Claudine

    2016-03-01

    This contribution describes some peculiarities of the science of oxide surfaces and nanostructures and proposes a simple conceptual scheme to understand their electronic structure, in the spirit of Jacques Friedel's work. Major results on the effects of non-stoichiometry and polarity are presented, for both semi-infinite surfaces and ultra-thin films, and promising lines of research for the near future are sketched. xml:lang="fr"

  3. Polarisation-dependent generation of fs-laser induced periodic surface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräf, Stephan; Müller, Frank A.

    2015-03-01

    The formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPPS) was investigated on polished stainless steel surfaces under irradiation with fs-laser pulses characterised by a pulse duration τ = 300 fs, a laser wavelength λ = 1025 nm, a repetition frequency frep = 250 Hz and a laser fluence F = 1 J/cm2. For this purpose line scans with a scanning velocity v = 0.5 mm/s were performed in air environment at normal incidence utilising a well-defined temporal control of the electrical field vector. The generated surface structures were characterised by optical microscopy, by scanning electron microscopy and by atomic force microscopy in combination with Fourier transformation. The results reveal the formation of a homogenous and highly periodic surface pattern of ripples with a period Λexp ≈ 925 nm aligned perpendicular to the incident electric field vector for static linear polarisation states. Utilising a motor-driven rotation device it was demonstrated that a continuously rotating electric field vector allows to transfer the originally well-ordered periodic ripples into tailored disordered surface structures that could be of particular interest for e.g. absorbing surfaces, plasmonic enhanced optoelectronic devices and biomedical applications.

  4. Analysis of metal surfaces coated with europium-doped titanium dioxide by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Głogocka, Daria; Noculak, Agnieszka; Pucińska, Joanna; Jopek, Wojciech; Podbielska, Halina; Langner, Marek; Przybyło, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The surface passivation with titanium sol-gel coatings is a frequently used technique to control the adsorption of selected biological macromolecules and to reduce the exposure of the bulk material to biological matter. Due to the increasing number of new coating-preparation methods and new gel compositions with various types of additives, the quality and homogeneity determination of the surface covering is a critical factor affecting performance of any implanted material. While coating thickness is easy to determine, the homogeneity of the surface distribution of coating materials requires more elaborate methodologies. In the paper, the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based method, capable to quantitate the homogeneity and uniformity of the europium in titanium dioxide sol-gel coatings on stainless steel surfaces prepared with two different procedures: spin-coating and dip-coating, is presented. The emission intensity of titanium has been used to determine the coating thickness whereas the relative values of europium and titanium emission intensities provide data on the coating homogeneity. The obtained results show that the spin-coating technique provides better surface coverage with titanium dioxide. However, when the surface coating compositions were compared the dip-coating technique was more reliable. PMID:26687457

  5. The study of corrosion behavior of laser induced surface improvement (LISI) on steel and aluminum substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, N.; Vasanth, K.L.

    1999-07-01

    Laser Induced Surface Improvement (LISI) is a new process developed by University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) which employs lasers to melt precursor coatings and portions of the substrate to form a durable corrosion resistant surface. The LISI surface can be tailored to yield a composition that provides minimum impact to the base substrate material while giving good corrosion characteristics. The LISI surface treatment of tungsten carbide was applied on 7075 and 6061 aluminum alloys. The LISI treatment uses a chromium/nickel mixture and a stainless steel type mixture (pseudo stainless steel of 18 wt% chromium, 8 wt% nickel and a trace amount of manganese and silicon) on steel alloy 1010. The corrosion characteristics of these samples were determined in 3.5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution using linear polarization resistance technique. Potentiodynamic scans were run to determine the corrosion rates and optical microscopy was used to examine pitting characteristics of the different surface coatings. The effectiveness of the LISI modified surfaces to protect both steel and aluminum substrates is discussed.

  6. Fabricating micro embossments on the metal surface through spatially modulating laser-induced shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Y. X.; Xuan, T.; Lian, Z. C.; Hua, X. J.; Fu, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose one improved method to fabricate micro embossments on the metal surface through laser shock processing. One mapping layer with holes must be actively designed and produced on the metal surface, with which, laser-induced shock wave will be spatially modulated. Laser shock experiments were conducted. Then the surface morphologies, and metallographic microstructures were characterized. The forming process of the micro embossments was simulated with ABAQUS. The results show that under the spatially modulated shock loading, the surface material flows from the high-pressure zone to the low-pressure zone, which is responsible for forming the micro embossments. The shapes, sizes and arrangements of the micro embossments conform to those of the mapping holes. The hardnesses on the entire laser-shocked zones improve remarkably due to the plastic deformation at a high strain rate. The influences of the laser energy and mask pattern on the embossed structures are presented. Within certain limits, increasing laser energy is beneficial for making the embossment more convex. However, further excessively increasing the laser energy, the embossment will exhibit the height saturation due to the pressure rise within the closed mapping hole. The transverse sizes of the mapping holes also can influence the embossment heights significantly. Process parameters need to be chosen carefully to suppress the severe adiabatic compression of the gas within the mapping holes, and then avoid weakening the mechanical properties of the micro embossments. This method has a potential application in manufacturing protruded structures on the metal surface.

  7. Formation of superhydrophobic poly(dimethysiloxane) by ultrafast laser-induced surface modification.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae Oh; Shin, Hyun Joo; Jeoung, Sae Chae; Park, Youn-Il

    2008-08-18

    The formation of hemispherical nanostructures and microscaled papilla by ultrafast laser irradiation was found to be a potential method to generate superhydrophbic surface of synthetic polymers. Irradiation of femtosecond laser creates roughened poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surface in nano- and microscales, of which topography fairly well imitate a Lotus leaf in nature. The modified surface showed superhydrophobicity with a contact angle higher than 170 degrees as well as sliding angle less than 3 degrees. We further demonstrated that negative replica of the processed PDMS surface exhibit large contact angle hysteresis with a sliding angle of 90 degrees while the positive replica maintains superhydrophobicity. PMID:18711510

  8. Ultrafast laser induced periodic sub-wavelength aluminum surface structures and nanoparticles in air and liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Kuladeep, Rajamudili; Dar, Mudasir H.; Rao, D. Narayana E-mail: dnr-laserlab@yahoo.com; Deepak, K. L. N.

    2014-09-21

    In this communication, we demonstrate the generation of laser-induced periodic sub-wavelength surface structures (LIPSS) or ripples on a bulk aluminum (Al) and Al nanoparticles (NPs) by femtosecond (fs) laser direct writing technique. Laser irradiation was performed on Al surface at normal incidence in air and by immersing in ethanol (C₂H₅OH) and water (H₂O) using linearly polarized Ti:sapphire fs laser pulses of ~110 fs pulse duration and ~800 nm wavelength. Field emission scanning electron microscope is utilized for imaging surface morphology of laser written structures and it reveals that the spatial periodicity as well as the surface morphology of the LIPSS depends on the surrounding dielectric medium and also on the various laser irradiation parameters. The observed LIPSS have been classified as low spatial frequency LIPSS which are perpendicularly oriented to the laser polarization with a periodicity from 460 to 620 nm and high spatial frequency LIPSS which spectacles a periodicity less than 100 nm with the orientation parallel to the polarization of the incident laser beam. Fabricated colloidal solutions, which contain the Al NPs, were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM results reveal the formation of internal cavities in Al NPs both in ethanol and water. Formation mechanism of LIPSS and cavities inside the nanoparticles are discussed in detail.

  9. Effects of wet etch processing on laser-induced damage of fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Battersby, C.L.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Sheehan, L.M.

    1998-12-22

    Laser-induced damage of transparent fused silica optical components by 355 nm illumination occurs primarily at surface defects produced during the grinding and polishing processes. These defects can either be surface defects or sub-surface damage.Wet etch processing in a buffered hydrogen fluoride (HF) solution has been examined as a tool for characterizing such defects. A study was conducted to understand the effects of etch depth on the damage threshold of fused silica substrates. The study used a 355 nm, 7.5 ns, 10 Hz Nd:YAG laser to damage test fused silica optics through various wet etch processing steps. Inspection of the surface quality was performed with Nomarski microscopy and Total Internal Reflection Microscopy. The damage test data and inspection results were correlated with polishing process specifics. The results show that a wet etch exposes subsurface damage while maintaining or improving the laser damage performance. The benefits of a wet etch must be evaluated for each polishing process.

  10. Ultrafast laser induced periodic sub-wavelength aluminum surface structures and nanoparticles in air and liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuladeep, Rajamudili; Dar, Mudasir H.; Deepak, K. L. N.; Rao, D. Narayana

    2014-09-01

    In this communication, we demonstrate the generation of laser-induced periodic sub-wavelength surface structures (LIPSS) or ripples on a bulk aluminum (Al) and Al nanoparticles (NPs) by femtosecond (fs) laser direct writing technique. Laser irradiation was performed on Al surface at normal incidence in air and by immersing in ethanol (C2H5OH) and water (H2O) using linearly polarized Ti:sapphire fs laser pulses of ˜110 fs pulse duration and ˜800 nm wavelength. Field emission scanning electron microscope is utilized for imaging surface morphology of laser written structures and it reveals that the spatial periodicity as well as the surface morphology of the LIPSS depends on the surrounding dielectric medium and also on the various laser irradiation parameters. The observed LIPSS have been classified as low spatial frequency LIPSS which are perpendicularly oriented to the laser polarization with a periodicity from 460 to 620 nm and high spatial frequency LIPSS which spectacles a periodicity less than 100 nm with the orientation parallel to the polarization of the incident laser beam. Fabricated colloidal solutions, which contain the Al NPs, were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM results reveal the formation of internal cavities in Al NPs both in ethanol and water. Formation mechanism of LIPSS and cavities inside the nanoparticles are discussed in detail.

  11. Assessment of femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on polymer films.

    PubMed

    Rebollar, Esther; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Martín-Fabiani, Ignacio; Hernández, Margarita; Rueda, Daniel R; Ezquerra, Tiberio A; Domingo, Concepción; Moreno, Pablo; Castillejo, Marta

    2013-07-21

    In this work we present the formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on spin-coated thin films of several model aromatic polymers including poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(trimethylene terephthalate) and poly carbonate bis-phenol A upon irradiation with femtosecond pulses of 795 and 265 nm at fluences well below the ablation threshold. LIPSS are formed with period lengths similar to the laser wavelength and parallel to the direction of the laser polarization vector. Formation of LIPSS upon IR irradiation at 795 nm, a wavelength at which the polymers absorb weakly, contrasts with the absence of LIPSS in this spectral range upon irradiation with nanosecond pulses. Real and reciprocal space characterization of LIPSS obtained by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS), respectively, yields well correlated morphological information. Comparison of experimental and simulated GISAXS patterns suggests that LIPSS can be suitably described considering a quasi-one-dimensional paracrystalline lattice and that irradiation parameters have an influence on the order of such a lattice. Fluorescence measurements, after laser irradiation, provide indirect information about dynamics and structure of the polymer at the molecular level. Our results indicate that the LIPSS are formed by interference of the incident and surface scattered waves. As a result of this process, heating of the polymer surface above its glass transition temperature takes place enabling LIPSS formation. PMID:23728307

  12. Vicinal surfaces for functional nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tegenkamp, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Vicinal surfaces are currently the focus of research. The regular arrangements of atomic steps on a mesoscopic scale reveal the possibility to functionalize these surfaces for technical applications, e.g. nanowires, catalysts, etc. The steps of the vicinal surface are well-defined defect structures of atomic size for nucleation of low-dimensional nanostructures. The concentration and therefore the coupling between the nanostructures can be tuned over a wide range by simply changing the inclination angle of the substrate. However, the coupling of these nano-objects to the substrate is just as important in controlling their electronic or chemical properties and making a functionality useable. On the basis of stepped insulating films, these aspects are fulfilled and will be considered in the first part of this review. Recent results for the epitaxial growth of wide bandgap insulating films (CaF(2), MgO, NaCl, BaSrO) on metallic and semiconducting vicinal substrates (Si(100), Ge(100), Ag(100)) will be presented. The change of the electronic structure, the adsorption behavior as well as the kinetics and energetics of color centers in the presence of steps is discussed. The successful bridging of the gap between the atomic and mesoscopic world, i.e. the functionalization of vicinal surfaces by nanostructures, is demonstrated in the second part by metal adsorption on semiconducting surfaces. For (sub)monolayer coverage these systems have in common that the surface states do not hybridize with the support, i.e. the semiconducting surfaces are insulating. Here I will focus on the latest results of macroscopic transport measurements on Pb quantum wires grown on vicinal Si(111) showing indeed a one-dimensional transport behavior. PMID:21817211

  13. Femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures on multi-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Beltaos, Angela Kovačević, Aleksander G.; Matković, Aleksandar; Ralević, Uroš; Savić-Šević, Svetlana; Jovanović, Djordje; Jelenković, Branislav M.; Gajić, Radoš

    2014-11-28

    In this work, we present an observation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on graphene. LIPSS on other materials have been observed for nearly 50 years, but until now, not on graphene. Our findings for LIPSS on multi-layer graphene were consistent with previous reports of LIPSS on other materials, thus classifying them as high spatial frequency LIPSS. LIPSS on multi-layer graphene were generated in an air environment by a linearly polarized femtosecond laser with excitation wavelength λ of 840 nm, pulse duration τ of ∼150 fs, and a fluence F of ∼4.3–4.4 mJ/cm{sup 2}. The observed LIPSS were perpendicular to the laser polarization and had dimensions of width w of ∼30–40 nm and length l of ∼0.5–1.5 μm, and spatial periods Λ of ∼70–100 nm (∼λ/8–λ/12), amongst the smallest of spatial periods reported for LIPSS on other materials. The spatial period and width of the LIPSS were shown to decrease for an increased number of laser shots. The experimental results support the leading theory behind high spatial frequency LIPSS formation, implying the involvement of surface plasmon polaritons. This work demonstrates a new way to pattern multi-layer graphene in a controllable manner, promising for a variety of emerging graphene/LIPSS applications.

  14. Pulsewidth dependence of laser-induced periodic surface structure formed on yttria-stabilized zirconia polycrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakehata, Masayuki; Yashiro, Hidehiko; Oyane, Ayako; Ito, Atsuo; Torizuka, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    Three-mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) is a fine engineering ceramic that offers high fracture resistance and flexural strength. Thus, it is often applied in mechanical components and medical implants. The surface roughness can be controlled to improve the device characters in some applications. Ultrashort pulse lasers can form laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on 3Y-TZP, which have never been investigated in detail. Therefore, this paper reports the formation and characteristics of LIPSS formed on 3Y-TZP, focusing on the pulsewidth dependence. The LIPSS was formed by a Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification system, which generates 810 nmcentered 80-fs pulses at a 570 Hz repetition rate. The measured ablation threshold peak fluence was ~1.5 J/cm2 and the LIPSS was formed at the peak fluence of 2.7-7.7 J/cm2. For linearly polarized pulses, the lines of the LIPSS were oriented parallel to the polarization direction, and their period was comparable to or larger than the center wavelength of the laser. These characteristics differ from the reported characteristics of LIPSS on metals and dielectrics. The pulsewidth dependence of the ablation and LIPSS was investigated for different pulsewidths and signs of chirp. Under the investigated fluence condition, the LIPSS period increased with increasing pulsewidth for both signs of chirp. Similar pulsewidth dependencies were observed for circularly polarized pulses.

  15. Influence of substrate microcrystallinity on the orientation of laser-induced periodic surface structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nürnberger, P.; Reinhardt, H.; Kim, H-C.; Yang, F.; Peppler, K.; Janek, J.; Hampp, N.

    2015-10-07

    The research in this paper deals with the angular dependence of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) by linearly polarized nanosecond laser pulses on polycrystalline austenitic stainless steel. Incident angles ranging from 45° to 70° lead to the generation of superimposed merely perpendicular oriented LIPSS on steel as well as on monocrystalline (100) silicon which was used as a reference material. Additional extraordinary orientations of superimposing LIPSS along with significantly different periodicities are found on polycrystalline steel but not on (100) silicon. Electron backscatter diffraction measurements indicate that the expansion of these LIPSS is limited to the grain size and affected by the crystal orientation of the individual grains. Atomic force microscopy imaging shows that LIPSS fringe heights are in good agreement with the theoretically predicted penetration depths of surface plasmon polaritons into stainless steel. These results indicate that optical anisotropies must be taken into account to fully describe the theory of light-matter interaction leading to LIPSS formation.

  16. Nanoparticles based laser-induced surface structures formation on mesoporous silicon by picosecond laser beam interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbi, A.; Petit, A.; Melhem, A.; Stolz, A.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Gautier, G.; Defforge, T.; Semmar, N.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, laser induced periodic surface structures were formed on mesoporous silicon by irradiation of Nd:YAG picosecond pulsed laser beam at 266 nm wavelength at 1 Hz repetition rate and with 42 ps pulse duration. The effects of laser processing parameters as laser beam fluence and laser pulse number on the formation of ripples were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to image the surface morphologies and the cross section of samples after laser irradiation. At relatively low fluence ∼20 mJ/cm2, ripples with period close to the laser beam wavelength (266 nm) and with an always controlled orientation (perpendicular to the polarization of ps laser beam) appeared after a large laser pulse number of 12,000. It has been found that an initial random distribution of SiOx nanoparticles is periodically structured with an increase of the laser pulse number. Finally, it is experimentally demonstrated that we formed a 100 nm liquid phase under the protusion zones including the pores in the picosecond regime.

  17. A statistical study of the relationship between surface quality and laser induced damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Trey; Turchette, Quentin; Martin, Alex R.

    2012-11-01

    Laser induced damage of optical components is a concern in many applications in the commercial, scientific and military market sectors. Numerous component manufacturers supply "high laser damage threshold" (HLDT) optics to meet the needs of this market, and consumers pay a premium price for these products. While there's no question that HLDT optics are manufactured to more rigorous standards (and are therefore inherently more expensive) than conventional products, it is not clear how this added expense translates directly into better performance. This is because the standard methods for evaluating laser damage, and the underlying assumptions about the validity of traditional laser damage testing, are flawed. In particular, the surface and coating defects that generally lead to laser damage (in many laserparameter regimes of interest) are widely distributed over the component surface with large spaces in between them. As a result, laser damage testing typically doesn't include enough of these defects to achieve the sample sizes necessary to make its results statistically meaningful. The result is a poor correlation between defect characteristics and damage events. This paper establishes specifically why this is the case, and provides some indication of what might be done to remedy the problem.

  18. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on the Ti-based nanolayered thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Petrović, Suzana M.; Gaković, B.; Peruško, D.; Stratakis, E.; Bogdanović-Radović, I.; Čekada, M.; Fotakis, C.; Jelenković, B.

    2013-12-21

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) and chemical composition changes of Ti-based nanolayered thin films (Al/Ti, Ni/Ti) after femtosecond (fs) laser pulses action were studied. Irradiation is performed using linearly polarized Ti:Sapphire fs laser pulses of 40 fs pulse duration and 800 nm wavelength. The low spatial frequency LIPSS (LSFL), oriented perpendicular to the laser polarization with periods slightly lower than the irradiation wavelength, was typically formed at elevated laser fluences. On the contrary, high spatial frequency LIPSS (HSFL) with uniform period of 155 nm, parallel to the laser light polarization, appeared at low laser fluences, as well as in the wings of the Gaussian laser beam distribution for higher used fluence. LSFL formation was associated with the material ablation process and accompanied by the intense formation of nanoparticles, especially in the Ni/Ti system. The composition changes at the surface of both multilayer systems in the LSFL area indicated the intermixing between layers and the substrate. Concentration and distribution of all constitutive elements in the irradiated area with formed HSFLs were almost unchanged.

  19. Laser induced periodic surface structuring on Si by temporal shaped femtosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Almeida, G F B; Martins, R J; Otuka, A J G; Siqueira, J P; Mendonca, C R

    2015-10-19

    We investigated the effect of temporal shaped femtosecond pulses on silicon laser micromachining. By using sinusoidal spectral phases, pulse trains composed of sub-pulses with distinct temporal separations were generated and applied to the silicon surface to produce Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS). The LIPSS obtained with different sub-pulse separation were analyzed by comparing the intensity of the two-dimensional fast Fourier Transform (2D-FFT) of the AFM images of the ripples (LIPSS). It was observed that LIPSS amplitude is more emphasized for the pulse train with sub-pulses separation of 128 fs, even when compared with the Fourier transform limited pulse. By estimating the carrier density achieved at the end of each pulse train, we have been able to interpret our results with the Sipe-Drude model, that predicts that LIPSS efficacy is higher for a specific induced carrier density. Hence, our results indicate that temporal shaping of the excitation pulse, performed by spectral phase modulation, can be explored in fs-laser microstructuring. PMID:26480419

  20. Evaluation of surface and bulk qualities of semiconductor materials by a laser-induced photothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jingtao; Chen, Jian; Sun, Shiwen; Zhang, Dawei; Zhuang, Songlin; Wu, Zhouling

    2015-05-01

    Non-destructive evaluation of defects for semiconductor materials is critical to the quality control process. The existing evaluation methods, including radiographic testing, ultrasonic detection, fluorescence and infrared imaging, are widely used in industrial applications. In this paper an instrument based on laser-induced photothermal technique was applied to study various semiconductor materials. With a specially arranged pump-probe configuration, this system can do three dimensional mapping of local properties and defects. By using this photothermal instrument, several semiconductors, such as bulk CdZnTe (CZT) crystals and monocrystalline silicon wafers under different processing conditions, were investigated. The surface and internal structures and defects of these materials were tested nondestructively by the 3-D photothermal microscope. The results show intersting correlation between the photothermal characterizations and the processing conditions. In addition, the details of the development of the 3-D photothermal microscope were also presented. The system provides user-friendly operations of the defects characterization process and shows great potential of application for characterization of semiconductor materials.

  1. Measurements of deuterium retention and surface elemental composition with double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaviva, Salvatore; Caneve, Luisa; Colao, Francesco; Maddaluno, Giorgio; Krawczyk, Natalia; Czarnecka, Agata; Gasior, Pawel; Kubkowska, Monica; Lepek, Michal

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the tritium amount retained in the plasma facing components and their surface layer composition is of crucial importance for ITER. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical technique suitable for in situ measurements of both these quantities. For improving its sensitivity, the double pulse (DP) variant can be used, instead of the standard single pulse (SP). In this work Mo samples coated with 1.5-1.8 μm thick W-Al (as a proxy for Be) mixed layer, with co-deposited deuterium were analyzed under vacuum (˜5 × 10-5 mbar) by SP and DP LIBS, showing enhancement of the spectral intensity for the latter. Calibration free method was applied to the LIBS data for getting the elemental concentration of W and Al. Results are in satisfactory agreement with those obtained from preliminary, ion beam analysis measurements. Deuterium concentration was tentatively estimated by accounting for the intensity ratio between Dα and nearby WI lines.

  2. Error surface topology in the data analysis of laser-induced thermal acoustics signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlamp, Stefan; Schmid, Lukas

    2001-12-01

    Laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) promises remote, instantaneous and non-intrusive point-measurements of the speed of sound (temperature), thermal diffusivity (density), flow velocity (Mach number) and species concentration simultaneously in harsh environments. The data analysis relies on a nonlinear fit of an analytical model to the acquired data. The measured quantities are parameters in the model. Computational cost and convergence behaviour depend on the dimensionality of the parameter space, the initial guesses for the parameters and on whether the data analysis is performed in the time or frequency domain. The topology of the four-dimensional error surface is discussed and a characteristic allowable distance of the initial guesses from the global minimum is defined and quantified for typical configurations. Noise has no significant influence on the convergence neighbourhood or the computational cost. If improved initial guesses (10% maximum error) for the speed of sound and the flow velocity are obtained by data preprocessing, convergence of the fitting algorithm is ensured.

  3. Laser-induced patterns on metals and polymers for biomimetic surface engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kietzig, Anne-Marie; Lehr, Jorge; Matus, Luke; Liang, Fang

    2014-03-01

    One common feature of many functional surfaces found in nature is their modular composition often exhibiting several length scales. Prominent natural examples for extreme behaviors can be named in various plant leaf (rose, peanut, lotus) or animal toe surfaces (Gecko, tree frog). Influence factors of interest are the surface's chemical composition, its microstructure, its organized or random roughness and hence the resulting surface wetting and adhesion character. Femtosecond (fs) laser micromachining offers a possibility to render all these factors in one single processing step on metallic and polymeric surfaces. Exemplarily, studies on Titanium and PTFE are shown, where the dependence of the resulting feature sizes on lasing intensity is investigated. While Ti surfaces show rigid surface patterns of micrometer scaled features with superimposed nanostructures, PTFE exhibits elastic hairy structures of nanometric diameter, which upon a certain threshold tend to bundle to larger features. Both surface patterns can be adjusted to mimic specific wetting and flow behaviour as seen on natural examples. Therefore, fs-laser micromachining is suggested as an interesting industrially scalable technique to pattern and fine-tune the surface wettability of a surface to the desired extends in one process step. Possible applications can be seen with surfaces, which require specific wetting, fouling, icing, friction or cell adhesion behaviour.

  4. Remote surface pollutant measurement by adopting a variable stand-off distance based laser induced spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiesh Kumar, V.; Vasa, Nilesh J.; Sarathi, R.

    2015-11-01

    In an offshore environment, measurement of surface pollutants on rotating wind turbine blades is necessary to protect the blades from lightning damage. A remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique combined with a photometric device is proposed and demonstrated at the laboratory scale for remote sensing and quantification of surface pollutants such as salt deposits on the wind turbine blade material from different standoff distances. A telescope-based photometric device consisting of a translation stage coupled with an optical fiber is designed for acquiring the optical emissions from the laser-induced plasma at different standoff distances ranging from 1 to 100 m. The experimental studies clearly demonstrate the use of the photometric device in obtaining LIBS spectra for identifying and quantifying the salt deposits by temporal measurements of the optical emissions of a plasma from standoff distances between 1 and 40 m.

  5. Selective modification of nanoparticle arrays by laser-induced self assembly (MONA-LISA): putting control into bottom-up plasmonic nanostructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalfagiannis, Nikolaos; Siozios, Anastasios; Bellas, Dimitris V.; Toliopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bowen, Leon; Pliatsikas, Nikolaos; Cranton, Wayne M.; Kosmidis, Constantinos; Koutsogeorgis, Demosthenes C.; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Patsalas, Panos

    2016-04-01

    Nano-structuring of metals is one of the greatest challenges for the future of plasmonic and photonic devices. Such a technological challenge calls for the development of ultra-fast, high-throughput and low-cost fabrication techniques. Laser processing, accounts for the aforementioned properties, representing an unrivalled tool towards the anticipated arrival of modules based in metallic nanostructures, with an extra advantage: the ease of scalability. In the present work we take advantage of the ability to tune the laser wavelength to either match the absorption spectral profile of the metal or to be resonant with the plasma oscillation frequency, and demonstrate the utilization of different optical absorption mechanisms that are size-selective and enable the fabrication of pre-determined patterns of metal nanostructures. Thus, we overcome the greatest challenge of Laser Induced Self Assembly by combining simultaneously large-scale character with atomic-scale precision. The proposed process can serve as a platform that will stimulate further progress towards the engineering of plasmonic devices.Nano-structuring of metals is one of the greatest challenges for the future of plasmonic and photonic devices. Such a technological challenge calls for the development of ultra-fast, high-throughput and low-cost fabrication techniques. Laser processing, accounts for the aforementioned properties, representing an unrivalled tool towards the anticipated arrival of modules based in metallic nanostructures, with an extra advantage: the ease of scalability. In the present work we take advantage of the ability to tune the laser wavelength to either match the absorption spectral profile of the metal or to be resonant with the plasma oscillation frequency, and demonstrate the utilization of different optical absorption mechanisms that are size-selective and enable the fabrication of pre-determined patterns of metal nanostructures. Thus, we overcome the greatest challenge of Laser

  6. Multi-elemental surface mapping and analysis of carbonaceous shale by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Jie; Shi, Qi; He, Yi; Niu, Guanghui; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-01-01

    Gas shale is one of the important unconventional hydrocarbon source rocks, whose composition, such as mineral components and redox sensitive trace elements, has been proved as important geochemical proxies playing essential roles in indicating the gas potential and gas productivity in recent geological researches. Fast and accurate measurements for the shale composition, especially those with spatial resolution, will reveal rich information for the understanding and evaluation of gas shale reservoirs. In this paper, we demonstrated the potentiality as well as feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as an effective technique to perform spectrochemical analysis for shale samples. In case of the bulk analysis of pressed shale pellet, spectral analysis of the plasma emission revealed high sensitivity of LIBS for major, minor and even trace elements. More than 356 lines emitted by 19 different elements can be found. Among these species, redox sensitive trace elements such as V, Cr, and Ni were detected with high signal-to-ratios. Two-dimensional surface micro-analysis for the concerned major or minor elements with strong emissions was then applied to the smoothed shale slab. Local thermodynamic equilibrium for the plasma was first verified with a line profile point-by-point on the sample surface, the matrix effect was then assessed as negligible by the extracted electron density and temperature of the plasmas induced at each position on the same profile. Concentration mappings for the major elements of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na and K were finally constructed with their measured relative variations of line emission intensities. The distribution and correlations of these elements in concentration may reflect changes of shale mineral components with respected to the variations of the depositional environments and provide an important clue in identifying sedimentary processes when combined with other geological or geochemical evidences. These results well

  7. Selective modification of nanoparticle arrays by laser-induced self assembly (MONA-LISA): putting control into bottom-up plasmonic nanostructuring.

    PubMed

    Kalfagiannis, Nikolaos; Siozios, Anastasios; Bellas, Dimitris V; Toliopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bowen, Leon; Pliatsikas, Nikolaos; Cranton, Wayne M; Kosmidis, Constantinos; Koutsogeorgis, Demosthenes C; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Patsalas, Panos

    2016-04-14

    Nano-structuring of metals is one of the greatest challenges for the future of plasmonic and photonic devices. Such a technological challenge calls for the development of ultra-fast, high-throughput and low-cost fabrication techniques. Laser processing, accounts for the aforementioned properties, representing an unrivalled tool towards the anticipated arrival of modules based in metallic nanostructures, with an extra advantage: the ease of scalability. In the present work we take advantage of the ability to tune the laser wavelength to either match the absorption spectral profile of the metal or to be resonant with the plasma oscillation frequency, and demonstrate the utilization of different optical absorption mechanisms that are size-selective and enable the fabrication of pre-determined patterns of metal nanostructures. Thus, we overcome the greatest challenge of Laser Induced Self Assembly by combining simultaneously large-scale character with atomic-scale precision. The proposed process can serve as a platform that will stimulate further progress towards the engineering of plasmonic devices. PMID:27031573

  8. Pre-resonance-stimulated Raman scattering for water bilayer structure on laser-induced plasma bubble surface.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhanlong; Li, Hongdong; Fang, Wenhui; Wang, Shenghan; Sun, Chenglin; Li, Zuowei; Men, Zhiwei

    2015-07-15

    Pre-resonance-stimulated Raman scattering (PSRS) from water molecules in the air/water interfacial regions was studied when the laser-induced plasma bubble was generated at the interfaces. A characteristically lower Raman shift of OH-stretching vibrational modes of water molecules at around 3000  cm(-1) (370 meV) was observed, in which the mechanisms were possibly attributed to the strong hydrogen bond in a well-ordered water bilayer structure that was formed on a laser-induced plasma bubble surface. Simultaneously, the PSRS of ice Ih at about 3100  cm(-1) was obtained, which also belonged to the strong hydrogen bond effect in ice Ih structure. PMID:26176442

  9. Nanostructured Surfaces of Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Bressan, Eriberto; Sbricoli, Luca; Guazzo, Riccardo; Tocco, Ilaria; Roman, Marco; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Stellini, Edoardo; Gardin, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Sivolella, Stefano; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The structural and functional fusion of the surface of the dental implant with the surrounding bone (osseointegration) is crucial for the short and long term outcome of the device. In recent years, the enhancement of bone formation at the bone-implant interface has been achieved through the modulation of osteoblasts adhesion and spreading, induced by structural modifications of the implant surface, particularly at the nanoscale level. In this context, traditional chemical and physical processes find new applications to achieve the best dental implant technology. This review provides an overview of the most common manufacture techniques and the related cells-surface interactions and modulation. A Medline and a hand search were conducted to identify studies concerning nanostructuration of implant surface and their related biological interaction. In this paper, we stressed the importance of the modifications on dental implant surfaces at the nanometric level. Nowadays, there is still little evidence of the long-term benefits of nanofeatures, as the promising results achieved in vitro and in animals have still to be confirmed in humans. However, the increasing interest in nanotechnology is undoubted and more research is going to be published in the coming years. PMID:23344062

  10. Influence of crystal orientation on the formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures and lattice defects accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sedao, Xxx; Garrelie, Florence Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Pigeon, Florent; Maurice, Claire; Quey, Romain

    2014-04-28

    The influence of crystal orientation on the formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) has been investigated on a polycrystalline nickel sample. Electron Backscatter Diffraction characterization has been exploited to provide structural information within the laser spot on irradiated samples to determine the dependence of LIPSS formation and lattice defects (stacking faults, twins, dislocations) upon the crystal orientation. Significant differences are observed at low-to-medium number of laser pulses, outstandingly for (111)-oriented surface which favors lattice defects formation rather than LIPSS formation.

  11. Synthesis of rattle-type Ag@Al2O3 nanostructure by laser-induced heating of Ag and Al nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

    2015-10-01

    A simple and flexible method has been presented for the fabrication of rattle-type Ag@Al2O3 nanostructures in water and polyvinyl pyrrolidone polymer solution based on laser-induced heating of mixture of silver (Ag) and aluminium (Al) nanoparticles by 532-nm laser. Silver and aluminium nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation in liquid using same laser wavelength. The transmission electron micrographs revealed morphological changes from sintered-/intermediate-type structure in water medium and jointed structure (heterostructures) in polymer solution to rattle-type structure with changing irradiation time. At longer irradiation time, the Kirkendall effect becomes dominant due to diffusion rate mismatch between the two metals at the interface and facilitates the formation of porous alumina shell over silver core. The morphology and chemical composition of the nanostructures were characterized by transmission electron micrograph, high-resolution transmission electron micrograph and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The melting response of alumina (Al2O3), aluminium and silver nanoparticles with 532-nm laser wavelength provides novel pathway for rattle-type formation.

  12. Flip-chip bonding of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using laser-induced forward transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, K. S. Missinne, J.; Van Steenberge, G.

    2014-02-10

    This letter reports the use of the Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) technique for the fabrication of indium micro-bumps for the flip-chip (FC) bonding of single vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser chips. The FC bonded chips were electrically and optically characterized, and the successful functioning of the devices post-bonding is demonstrated. The die shear and life-time tests carried out on the bonded chips confirmed the mechanical reliability of the LIFT-assisted FC bonded assemblies.

  13. Flip-chip bonding of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using laser-induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, K. S.; Missinne, J.; Van Steenberge, G.

    2014-02-01

    This letter reports the use of the Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) technique for the fabrication of indium micro-bumps for the flip-chip (FC) bonding of single vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser chips. The FC bonded chips were electrically and optically characterized, and the successful functioning of the devices post-bonding is demonstrated. The die shear and life-time tests carried out on the bonded chips confirmed the mechanical reliability of the LIFT-assisted FC bonded assemblies.

  14. Influence of vacuum on nanosecond laser-induced surface damage morphology in fused silica at 1064 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R.; Chambonneau, M.; Grua, P.; Rullier, J.-L.; Natoli, J.-Y.; Lamaignère, L.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of vacuum on nanosecond laser-induced damage at the exit surface of fused silica components is investigated at 1064 nm. In the present study, as previously observed in air, ring patterns surrounding laser-induced damage sites are systematically observed on a plane surface when initiated by multiple longitudinal modes laser pulses. Compared to air, the printed pattern is clearly more concentrated. The obtained correlation between the damage morphology and the temporal structure of the pulses suggests a laser-driven ablation mechanism resulting in a thorough imprint of energy deposit. The ablation process is assumed to be subsequent to an activation of the surface by hot electrons related to the diffusive expansion of a plasma formed from silica. This interpretation is strongly reinforced with additional experiments performed on an optical grating in vacuum on which damage sites do not show any ring pattern. Qualitatively, in vacuum, the intensity-dependent ring appearance speed V ∝ I1/2 is shown to be different than in air where V ∝ I1/3. This demonstrates that the mechanisms of formation of ring patterns are different in vacuum than in air. Moreover, the mechanism responsible of the propagation of the activation front in vacuum is shown to be outdone when experiments are performed in air.

  15. Topographical and chemical microanalysis of surfaces with a scanning probe microscope and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    PubMed

    Kossakovski; Beauchamp

    2000-10-01

    Spatially resolved chemical imaging is achieved by combining a fiber-optic scanning probe microscope with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a single instrument, TOPOLIBS. Elemental composition of surfaces can be mapped and correlated with topographical data. The experiment is conducted in air with minimal sample preparation. In a typical experiment, surface topography is analyzed by scanning a sharp fiber-optic probe across the sample using shear force feedback. The probe is then positioned over a feature of interest and pulsed radiation is delivered to the surface using a nitrogen laser. The pulse vaporizes material from the surface and generates a localized plasma plume. Optical emission from the plume is analyzed with a compact UV/visible spectrometer. Ablation crater size is controlled by the amount of laser power coupled into the probe. Sampling areas with submicrometer dimensions are achieved by using reduced laser power. PMID:11028639

  16. Large-scale atomistic simulations of surface nanostructuring by short pulse laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengping; Shugaev, Maxim; Zhigilei, Leonid

    2015-03-01

    The availability of petascale supercomputing resources has expanded the range of research questions that can be addressed in the simulations and, in particular, enabled large-scale atomistic simulations of short pulse laser nanostructuring of metal surfaces. A series of simulations performed for systems consisting of 108 - 109 atoms is used in this study to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the generation of complex multiscale surface morphology and microstructure. At low laser fluence, just below the spallation threshold, a concurrent occurrence of fast laser melting, dynamic relaxation of laser-induced stresses, and rapid cooling and resolidification of the transiently melted surface region is found to produce a sub-surface porous region covered by a nanocrystalline layer. At higher laser fluences, in the spallation and phase explosion regimes, the material disintegration and ejection driven by the relaxation of laser-induced stresses and/or explosive release of vapor leads to the formation of complex surface morphology that can only be studied in billion-atom simulations. The first result from a billion atom simulation of surface nanostructuring performed on Titan will be discussed in the presentation. Financial support is provided by NSF (DMR-0907247 and CMMI-1301298) and AFOSR (FA9550-10-1-0541). Computational support is provided by the OLCF (MAT048) and NSF XSEDE (TG-DMR110090).

  17. Spatial analysis of impurities on the surface of flange and optical window of the tokamak using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Gulab Singh; Jyotsana, Aradhana; Pathak, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Ajai; Rai, Awadhesh K.

    2014-05-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) spectra of optical window and flange of Aditya tokamak have been recorded in the spectral range of 200-500 nm in open atmosphere. For qualitative analysis of these samples, the intensity variation of elemental impurities (Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Mo, Cu and C) on the surface of optical window and flange with radial distance has been studied. Depending on thickness of thin films of impurity, four different concentric color rings are observed on the surface of the flange. On moving from reddish brown to indigo color ring, the trends in spectral intensity of these impurities are found in decreasing order. Comparative spectral intensity variation of impurities in both the samples reveals that the impurity deposition on the flange surface is more in comparison to the optical window. Our study demonstrates the capability of LIBS to analyze the spatial distribution of deposited impurities on window and flange samples.

  18. Photoemission spectroscopy of planar and nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervasoni, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, I present some results for the process of excitation of bulk and surface plasmons during the emission of electrons in the proximity of surfaces of different shapes and dimensions. I describe in detail the effects due to the interaction between an electron and a stationary positive ion (or atomic hole) in the neighborhood of a metallic surface, paying special attention to the results obtained by my research group. We used the dielectric response of the metal and the specular reflection model for the case of planar surfaces, and the second quantization theory for nanostructured surfaces. In particular, we studied how the electron-hole pair interaction can influence the energy loss of the emerging electron. We investigated the importance of surface effects in the analysis of photoelectron spectroscopy. The method described here is useful for studying multiple plasmon excitations in nanostructures and for understanding the excited electron spectra of these nanostructures (different from those of the same bulk material).

  19. SEM and Raman spectroscopy analyses of laser-induced periodic surface structures grown by ethanol-assisted femtosecond laser ablation of chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Shazia; Shahid Rafique, M.; Nathala, Chandra S. R.; Ajami, Ali; Husinsky, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    The effect of fluence and pulse duration on the growth of nanostructures on chromium (Cr) surfaces has been investigated upon irradiation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses in a liquid confined environment of ethanol. In order to explore the effect of fluence, targets were exposed to 1000 pulses at various peak fluences ranging from 4.7 to 11.8 J cm-2 for pulse duration of ∼25 fs. In order to explore the effect of pulse duration, targets were exposed to fs laser pulses of various pulse durations ranging from 25 to 100 fs, for a constant fluence of 11.8 J cm-2. Surface morphology and structural transformations have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. After laser irradiation, disordered sputtered surface with intense melting and cracking is obtained at the central ablated areas, which are augmented with increasing laser fluence due to enhanced thermal effects. At the peripheral ablated areas, where local fluence is approximately in the range of 1.4-4 mJ cm-2, very well-defined laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) with periodicity ranging from 270 to 370 nm along with dot-like structures are formed. As far as the pulse duration is concerned, a significant effect on the surface modification of Cr has been revealed. In the central ablated areas, for the shortest pulse duration (25 fs), only melting has been observed. However, LIPSS with dot-like structures and droplets have been grown for longer pulse durations. The periodicity of LIPSS increases and density of dot-like structures decreases with increasing pulse duration. The chemical and structural modifications of irradiated Cr have been revealed by Raman spectroscopy. It confirms the formation of new bands of chromium oxides and enol complexes or Cr-carbonyl compounds. The peak intensities of identified bands are dependent upon laser fluence and pulse duration.

  20. Micro spatial analysis of seashell surface using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuan; Li, Yuandong; Li, Ying; Wang, Yangfan; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin; Zheng, Ronger

    2015-08-01

    The seashell has been studied as a proxy for the marine researches since it is the biomineralization product recording the growth development and the ocean ecosystem evolution. In this work a hybrid of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy was introduced to the composition analysis of seashell (scallop, bivalve, Zhikong). Without any sample treatment, the compositional distribution of the shell was obtained using LIBS for the element detection and Raman for the molecule recognition respectively. The elements Ca, K, Li, Mg, Mn and Sr were recognized by LIBS; the molecule carotene and carbonate were identified with Raman. It was found that the LIBS detection result was more related to the shell growth than the detection result of Raman. The obtained result suggested the shell growth might be developing in both horizontal and vertical directions. It was indicated that the LIBS-Raman combination could be an alternative way for the shell researches.

  1. First principles simulation of laser-induced periodic surface structure using the particle-in-cell method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Robert A.; Schumacher, Douglass W.; Chowdhury, Enam A.

    2015-11-01

    We present our results of a fundamental simulation of a periodic grating structure formation on a copper target during the femtosecond-pulse laser damage process, and compare our results to recent experiment. The particle-in-cell (PIC) method is used to model the initial laser heating of the electrons, a two-temperature model (TTM) is used to model the thermalization of the material, and a modified PIC method is employed to model the atomic transport leading to a damage crater morphology consistent with experimental grating structure formation. This laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) is shown to be directly related to the formation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) and their interference with the incident laser pulse.

  2. Mold-Based Application of Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) on Biomaterials for Nanoscale Patterning.

    PubMed

    Hendrikson, Wim; Masman-Bakker, Wendy; van Bochove, Bas; Skolski, Johann; Eichstädt, Justus; Koopman, Bart; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Grijpma, Dirk; Römer, Gert-Willem; Moroni, Lorenzo; Rouwkema, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are highly regular, but at the same time contain a certain level of disorder. The application of LIPSS is a promising method to functionalize biomaterials. However, the absorption of laser energy of most polymer biomaterials is insufficient for the direct application of LIPSS. Here, we report the application of LIPSS to relevant biomaterials using a two-step approach. First, LIPSS are fabricated on a stainless steel surface. Then, the structures are replicated onto biomaterials using the steel as a mold. Results show that LIPSS can be transferred successfully using this approach, and that human mesenchymal stromal cells respond to the transferred structures. With this approach, the range of biomaterials that can be supplied with LIPSS increases dramatically. PMID:26335444

  3. Ultra-short-pulsed laser-machined nanogratings of laser-induced periodic surface structures on thin molybdenum layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorticati, Davide; Römer, Gert-Willem; de Lange, Dirk Frederik; Huis in't Veld, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Large areas of regular diffraction nanogratings were produced consisting of so-called laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on thin molybdenum layers (<400 nm) deposited on a borosilicate glass substrate. The aim was to produce these structures without ablating nor cracking the molybdenum layer. Ultra short laser pulses were applied using a focused Gaussian beam profile. Processing parameters such as laser fluence, pulse overlap, number of overscans, repetition frequency, wavelength and polarization were varied to study the effect on periodicity, height, and especially regularity of the obtained LIPSS. It was found that a careful choice of the correct laser parameters is required to avoid detrimental mechanical stresses, cracking, and delamination during the laser processing of the layer in order to remain in its correct range of ductility as well as to ensure regular LIPSS. A possible photovoltaic application of these nanogratings could be found in texturing of thin film cells to enhance light trapping mechanisms.

  4. Surface temperature measurements in a porous media burner using a new laser-induced phosphorescence intensity ratio technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, A.; Zigan, L.; Sakhrieh, A.; Leipertz, A.

    2013-07-01

    Applying the laser-induced phosphorescence technique, the phosphorescence from a phosphor-coated surface can be used for the determination of the surface temperature during hydrocarbon fuel combustion in a porous media burner. A mixture of dysprosium-cerbium double-doped: yttrium aluminium garnet (Dy:Er:YAG) thermographic phosphor powder and an adhesive agent was used for coating the front surface of the burner which was operated with a thermal load of 1000 W and 2000 W and equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.8. A pulsed laser of 355 nm wavelength was used for phosphorescence excitation and a spectrometer for luminescence detections. An adapted intensity ratio (IR) method was applied for temperature determination and compared with two other IR methods. Temperature calibrations were executed in an oven which can be operated up to 2073 K. Imprecision and inaccuracy of the temperature measurements in the phosphor and the mixture calibrations and in the burner-coated front surface have been investigated. The adapted IR method allowed temperature measurements which were more accurate than the other two IR methods, applied for comparison. Compared to additionally performed thermocouple measurements and to published results in the literature using an infrared camera, the adapted IR method turned out to be the more accurate one. The temperature results were also in good agreement with numerical simulations given in the literature.

  5. Simulation study and guidelines to generate Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Waves for human skin feature detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tingting; Fu, Xing; Chen, Kun; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaotang

    2015-12-01

    Despite the seriously increasing number of people contracting skin cancer every year, limited attention has been given to the investigation of human skin tissues. To this regard, Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Wave (LSAW) technology, with its accurate, non-invasive and rapid testing characteristics, has recently shown promising results in biological and biomedical tissues. In order to improve the measurement accuracy and efficiency of detecting important features in highly opaque and soft surfaces such as human skin, this paper identifies the most important parameters of a pulse laser source, as well as provides practical guidelines to recommended proper ranges to generate Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs) for characterization purposes. Considering that melanoma is a serious type of skin cancer, we conducted a finite element simulation-based research on the generation and propagation of surface waves in human skin containing a melanoma-like feature, determine best pulse laser parameter ranges of variation, simulation mesh size and time step, working bandwidth, and minimal size of detectable melanoma.

  6. Laser-induced oxidation kinetics of bismuth surface microdroplets on GaAsBi studied in situ by Raman microprobe analysis.

    PubMed

    Steele, J A; Lewis, R A

    2014-12-29

    We report the cw-laser-induced oxidation of molecular-beam-epitaxy grown GaAsBi bismuth surface microdroplets investigated in situ by micro-Raman spectroscopy under ambient conditions as a function of irradiation power and time. Our results reveal the surface droplets are high-purity crystalline bismuth and the resultant Bi2O3 transformation to be β-phase and stable at room temperature. A detailed Raman study of Bi microdroplet oxidation kinetics yields insights into the laser-induced oxidation process and offers useful real-time diagnostics. The temporal evolution of new β-Bi2O3 Raman modes is shown to be well described by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov kinetic transformation theory and while this study limits itself to the laser-induced oxidation of GaAsBi bismuth surface droplets, the results will find application within the wider context of bismuth laser-induced oxidation and direct Raman laser processing. PMID:25607191

  7. Effect of annealing on the laser induced damage of polished and CO2 laser-processed fused silica surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doualle, T.; Gallais, L.; Cormont, P.; Donval, T.; Lamaignère, L.; Rullier, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effect of different heat treatments on the laser-induced damage probabilities of fused silica samples. Isothermal annealing in a furnace is applied, with different temperatures in the range 700-1100 °C and 12 h annealing time, to super-polished fused silica samples. The surface flatness and laser damage probabilities at 3 ns, 351 nm are measured before and after the different annealing procedures. We have found a significant improvement of the initial laser damage probabilities of the silica surface after annealing at 1050 °C for 12 h. A similar study has been conducted on CO2 laser-processed sites on the surface of the samples. Before and after annealing, we have studied the morphology of the sites, the evolution of residual stress, and the laser-induced damage threshold measured at 351 nm, 3 ns. In this case, we observe that the laser damage resistance of the laser created craters can reach the damage level of the bare fused silica surface after the annealing process, with a complete stress relieve. The obtained results are then compared to the case of local annealing process by CO2 laser irradiation during 1 s, and we found similar improvements in both cases. The different results obtained in the study are compared to numerical simulations made with a thermo-mechanical model based on finite-element method that allows the simulation of the isothermal or the local annealing process, the evolution of stress and fictive temperature. The simulation results were found to be very consistent with experimental observations for the stresses evolution after annealing and estimation of the heat affected area during laser-processing based on the density dependence with fictive temperature. Following this work, the temperature for local annealing should reach 1330-1470 °C for an optimized reduction of damage probability and be below the threshold for material removal, whereas furnace annealing should be kept below the annealing point to avoid sample

  8. Scanning tunneling microscopic studies of laser-induced modifications of Si(001)-(2 x 1) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Kosuke; Kanasaki, Jun'ichi

    2011-11-15

    Scanning tunneling microscopic studies of Si(001)-2 x 1 surfaces excited with 532-nm laser pulses of intensities below melting and ablation thresholds have revealed two different modes of structural modifications, strongly depending on the intensity of laser lights. The excitation below 100 mJ/cm{sup 2} causes bond rupture at individual dimer-sites leading to the formation of vacancies selectively on the outermost layer. The bond rupture, which shows a strongly site-sensitive rate, forms efficiently vacancy-strings elongated along the surface dimer-rows. Selective removal of surface dimers results in the exposure of flat and defect-less underlying layer as reported previously, which is resistive to the excitation at this range of intensity. At intensities above 100 mJ/cm{sup 2}, on the other hand, the excitation forms not only vacancies but also ad-dimers on terraces. The number density of ad-dimers is in proportion to the square of that for vacancies, indicating strongly that silicon atoms released by laser-induced bond rupture are associated with each other to form ad-dimers. The repeated irradiations at this range of intensities induce anisotropic growth of ad-dimer islands and of vacancy clusters on terrace regions, leading to multiply terraced structure. The primary processes of the structural modifications are discussed based on the quantitative analyses of the growth of vacancy and ad-dimer under excitation.

  9. Time-Resolved Imaging of Material Response Following Laser-Induced Breakdown in the Bulk and Surface of Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R N; Negres, R A; DeMange, P; Demos, S G

    2010-02-04

    Optical components within high energy laser systems are susceptible to laser-induced material modification when the breakdown threshold is exceeded or damage is initiated by pre-existing impurities or defects. These modifications are the result of exposure to extreme conditions involving the generation of high temperatures and pressures and occur on a volumetric scale of the order of a few cubic microns. The response of the material following localized energy deposition, including the timeline of events and the individual processes involved during this timeline, is still largely unknown. In this work, we investigate the events taking place during the entire timeline in both bulk and surface damage in fused silica using a set of time-resolved microscopy systems. These microscope systems offer up to 1 micron spatial resolution when imaging static or dynamic effects, allowing for imaging of the entire process with adequate temporal and spatial resolution. These systems incorporate various pump-probe geometries designed to optimize the sensitivity for detecting individual aspects of the process such as the propagation of shock waves, near-surface material motion, the speed of ejecta, and material transformations. The experimental results indicate that the material response can be separated into distinct phases, some terminating within a few tens of nanoseconds but some extending up to about 100 microseconds. Overall the results demonstrate that the final characteristics of the modified region depend on the material response to the energy deposition and not on the laser parameters.

  10. Modifications in surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass using laser induced Ni plasma as an ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shahbaz; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, M. Shahid; Yousaf, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Laser induced Ni plasma has been employed as source of ion implantation for surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass. Excimer laser (248 nm, 20 ns, 120mJ and 30 Hz) was used for the generation of Ni plasma. Thomson parabola technique was employed to estimate the energy of generated ions using CR39 as a detector. In response to stepwise increase in number of laser pulses from 3000 to 12000, the ion dose varies from 60 × 1013 to 84 × 1016 ions/cm2 with constant energy of 138 KeV. SEM analysis reveals the growth of nano/micro sized cavities, pores, pits, voids and cracks for the ion dose ranging from 60 × 1013 to 70 × 1015 ions/cm2. However, at maximum ion dose of 84 × 1016 ions/cm2 the granular morphology is observed. XRD analysis reveals that new phase of CuZnNi (200) is formed in the brass substrate after ion implantation. However, an anomalous trend in peak intensity, crystallite size, dislocation line density and induced stresses is observed in response to the implantation with various doses. The increase in ion dose causes to decrease the Yield Stress (YS), Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and hardness. However, for the maximum ion dose the highest values of these mechanical properties are achieved. The variations in the mechanical properties are correlated with surface and crystallographical changes of ion implanted brass.

  11. Improved detection of highly energetic materials traces on surfaces by standoff laser-induced thermal emission incorporating neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa-Navedo, Amanda; Galán-Freyle, Nataly Y.; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2013-05-01

    Terrorists conceal highly energetic materials (HEM) as Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) in various types of materials such as PVC, wood, Teflon, aluminum, acrylic, carton and rubber to disguise them from detection equipment used by military and security agency personnel. Infrared emissions (IREs) of substrates, with and without HEM, were measured to generate models for detection and discrimination. Multivariable analysis techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling by class analogy (SIMCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), support vector machine (SVM) and neural networks (NN) were employed to generate models, in which the emission of IR light from heated samples was stimulated using a CO2 laser giving rise to laser induced thermal emission (LITE) of HEMs. Traces of a specific target threat chemical explosive: PETN in surface concentrations of 10 to 300 ug/cm2 were studied on the surfaces mentioned. Custom built experimental setup used a CO2 laser as a heating source positioned with a telescope, where a minimal loss in reflective optics was reported, for the Mid-IR at a distance of 4 m and 32 scans at 10 s. SVM-DA resulted in the best statistical technique for a discrimination performance of 97%. PLS-DA accurately predicted over 94% and NN 88%.

  12. Highly sensitive fibre surface-enhanced Raman scattering probes fabricated using laser-induced self-assembly in a meniscus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Huang, Zhulin; Zhou, Fei; Lei, Xing; Yao, Bo; Meng, Guowen; Mao, Qinghe

    2016-05-19

    Fibre surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes have the advantages of flexibility, compactness, remote sensing capability and good repeatability in SERS detection and thus have a range of different applications. However, it is difficult to realize simple, low-cost and high-throughput preparations of fibre SERS probes with high sensitivity and desirable repeatability using the currently available fabrication techniques, which restricts their practical applications. We report here a simple, low-cost method using laser-induced self-assembly to realize the fast fabrication of fibre SERS probes with high sensitivity and excellent reproducibility. By lifting the fibre facet above a pre-synthesized nanoparticle colloid, a meniscus can be formed with the help of the surface tension of the liquid. Using irradiation from an induced laser guided by the fibre, localized thermal effects on the nanoparticles in the meniscus control the growth of the fibre probes and the electromagnetic interactions among the closely spaced nanoparticles assist the arrangement of nanoparticle clusters on the fibre facet. The prepared fibre probes showed a very high SERS sensitivity of 10(-10) M for p-aminothiophenol using a portable commericial Raman spectrometer with a short integration time of 2 s. They also showed excellent repeatability with relative standard deviations <2.8% in the SERS peak intensities for different detections with the same probe and 7.8% for different fibre probes fabricated under the same conditions. PMID:26780542

  13. Mechanism study of femtosecond laser induced selective metallization (FLISM) on glass surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Liao, Yang; Zeng, Huidan; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the mechanism of selective metallization on glass surfaces with the assistance of femtosecond laser irradiation followed by electroless plating. Irradiation of femtosecond laser makes it possible to selectively deposit copper microstructures in the irradiated area on glass surfaces coated with silver nitrate films. The energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses reveal that silver atoms are produced on the surface of grooves formed by laser ablation, which serve as catalysis seeds for subsequent electroless copper plating.

  14. Scanning electron microscopic study of laser-induced morphologic changes of a coated enamel surface

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    A low-energy Nd:YAG laser was used to irradiate extracted human teeth coated with a black energy-absorbent laser initiator in a study to determine the extent of the morphologic changes produced in the enamel surface. The laser initiator was applied to a cleaned enamel surface and irradiated at an energy output of 30 mJ or 75 mJ. Both energy levels produced morphologic changes of the surface. There was a sharp line of demarcation between the coated, irradiated area and the surrounding noncoated enamel surface. The scanning electron microscope view at the lower energy level showed that the surface had melted and reformed with numerous small, bubble-like inclusions. The 75 mJ energy level showed individual impact craters with shallow centers and raised edges containing numerous pores and large, bubble-like inclusions. Etching is a dental procedure in which an acid is normally used to remove a thin outer layer of the tooth structure. This is necessary to create a roughened, irregular surface in order to provide mechanical retention for dental restorative materials. The changes produced by the laser in this study suggest a simple, effective, and controlled method of etching the enamel surface of a tooth by altering its surface characteristics.

  15. Laser-induced novel patterns: As smart strain actuators for new-age dental implant surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çelen, Serap; Özden, Hüseyin

    2012-12-01

    Surface morphologies of titanium implants are of crucial importance for long-term mechanical adaptation for following implantation. One major problem is the stress shielding effect which originates from the mismatch of the bone and the implant elasticity. It is time for a paradigm shift and for an exploration of novel smart surfaces to prevent this problem. Several surface treatment methods have traditionally been used to modify the surface morphology of titanium dental implants. The laser micro-machining can be considered as a unique and promising, non-contact, no media, contamination free, and flexible treatment method for modifying surface properties of materials in the biomedical industry. The aim of the present study is two folds; to develop novel 3D smart surfaces which can be acted as strain actuators by nanosecond laser pulse energies and irradiation strategies. And analyze these smart surface morphologies using finite element methods in order to estimate their internal stiffness values which play a great role on stress shielding effect. Novel 3D smart strain actuators were prepared using an ytterbium fiber laser (λ = 1060 nm) with 200-250 ns pulse durations on commercial pure titanium dental implant material specimen surfaces and optimum operation parameters were suggested.

  16. Compositional and micro-scratch analyses of laser induced colored surface of titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akman, Erhan; Cerkezoglu, Ecem

    2016-09-01

    Laser marking of metallic surface is a very important application for industry. It is revealed that controlled oxide layer generation above the treated surface leads to colored appearance of metals with interference effect. The oxide layer control is provided with laser and process parameters. In this study, different colors of the Grade 2 titanium samples have been obtained by varying the laser scanning speed. Chromaticity coordinates of the different color surface have been calculated from the reflectance spectrum of the samples. Compositional analyses have been performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. To examine the mechanical properties of the surface, micro-scratch test has been applied to all the colored surfaces. Although delamination has been observed between two laser scanning speed as 950 mm/s and 450 mm/s, it can be said that the adhesion between the titanium substrate and the oxide coating is good.

  17. An Improved Method of Mitigating Laser Induced Surface Damage Growth in Fused Silica Using a Rastered, Pulsed CO2 Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, I L; Guss, G M; Nostrand, M J; Wegner, P L

    2010-10-21

    A new method of mitigating (arresting) the growth of large (>200 m diameter and depth) laser induced surface damage on fused silica has been developed that successfully addresses several issues encountered with our previously-reported large site mitigation technique. As in the previous work, a tightly-focused 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser spot is scanned over the damage site by galvanometer steering mirrors. In contrast to the previous work, the laser is pulsed instead of CW, with the pulse length and repetition frequency chosen to allow substantial cooling between pulses. This cooling has the important effect of reducing the heat-affected zone capable of supporting thermo-capillary flow from scale lengths on the order of the overall scan pattern to scale lengths on the order of the focused laser spot, thus preventing the formation of a raised rim around the final mitigation site and its consequent down-stream intensification. Other advantages of the new method include lower residual stresses, and improved damage threshold associated with reduced amounts of redeposited material. The raster patterns can be designed to produce specific shapes of the mitigation pit including cones and pyramids. Details of the new technique and its comparison with the previous technique will be presented.

  18. Evidence of liquid phase during laser-induced periodic surface structures formation induced by accumulative ultraviolet picosecond laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Huynh, T. T. D.; Petit, A.; Semmar, N.

    2015-11-09

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were formed on Cu/Si or Cu/glass thin films using Nd:YAG laser beam (40 ps, 10 Hz, and 30 mJ/cm{sup 2}). The study of ablation threshold is always achieved over melting when the variation of the number of pulses increases from 1 to 1000. But the incubation effect is leading to reduce the threshold of melting as increasing the number of laser pulse. Also, real time reflectivity signals exhibit typical behavior to stress the formation of a liquid phase during the laser-processing regime and helps to determine the threshold of soft ablation. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analyses have shown the topology of the micro-crater containing regular spikes with different height. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) allows finally to show three distinguished zones in the close region of isolated protrusions. The central zone is a typical crystallized area of few nanometers surrounded by a mixed poly-crystalline and amorphous area. Finally, in the region far from the protrusion zone, Cu film shows an amorphous structure. The real time reflectivity, AFM, and HR-TEM analyses evidence the formation of a liquid phase during the LIPSS formation in the picosecond regime.

  19. Elemental analysis by surface-enhanced Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy combined with liquid-liquid microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, M. A.; Legnaioli, S.; Almodóvar, F.; Hidalgo, M.; Palleschi, V.; Canals, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the possibility of using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS) combined with liquid-liquid microextraction techniques is evaluated as a simple and fast method for trace elemental analysis. Two different strategies for LIBS analysis of manganese contained in microdroplets of extraction solvent (Triton X-114) are studied: (i) analysis by direct laser irradiation of microdroplets; and (ii) analysis by laser irradiation of microdroplets dried on metallic substrates (surface-enhanced LIBS — SENLIBS). Experiments were carried out using synthetic samples with different concentrations of manganese in a 10% w/w Triton X-114 matrix. The analysis by direct laser irradiation of microdroplets showed low precision, sensitivity and poor linearity across the concentration range evaluated (R2 < 0.95). On the other hand, the SENLIBS method of analysis improved the sensitivity, the precision and the linearity of the calibration curve with respect to the direct analysis of microdroplets. In comparison with experimental results obtained by direct analysis, SENLIBS also allowed several replicate measurements to be carried out in a single microdroplet. The limit of detection obtained was 6 μg g- 1 of Mn.

  20. Femtosecond laser induced tunable surface transformations on (111) Si aided by square grids diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Weina; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei Liu, Yang

    2015-12-21

    We report an extra freedom to modulate the femtosecond laser energy distribution to control the surface ablated structures through a copper-grid mask. Due to the reduced deposited pulse energy by changing the scanning speed or the pulse fluence, a sequential evolution of three distinctly different surface patterns with periodic distributions is formed, namely, striped ripple lines, ripple microdots, and surface modification. By changing the scanning speed, the number of the multiple dots in a lattice can be modulated. Moreover, by exploring the ablation process through the copper grid mask, it shows an abnormal enhanced ablation effect with strong dependence of the diffraction-aided fs laser ablated surface structures on polarization direction. The sensitivity shows a quasi-cosinusoid-function with a periodicity of π/2. Particularly, the connection process of striped ripple lines manifests a preferential formation direction with the laser polarization.

  1. Laser Induced-Plasma Ion Mass Spectrometry for Characterization of Lunar and Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, R. C.; Blacic, J. D.; Cremers, D. A.; Ritzau, S. M.; Nordholt, J. E.; Funsten, H. O.

    1999-03-01

    LIMS is being developed to perform isotopic and elemental analysis of lunar and planetary surfaces at standoff distances. It uses an advanced ion mass spectrometer to obtain mass and energy spectra from the ionized plume produced by a laser.

  2. Laser-Induced Surface Damage of Optical Materials: Absorption Sources, Initiation, Growth, adn Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Papernov, S.; Schmid, A.W.

    2009-04-07

    Susceptibility to laser damage of optical-material surfaces originates from the nature of the surface as a transitional structure between optical-material bulk and its surroundings. As such, it requires technological processing to satisfy figure and roughness requirements and is also permanently subjected to environmental exposure. Consequently, enhanced absorption caused by mechanical structural damage or incorporation and sorption of microscale absorbing defects, even layers of organic materials, is always characteristic for optical-material surfaces. In this review physics of interaction of pulsed-laser radiation with surface imperfections for different types of optical materials (metals, semiconductors, dielectrics, etc.), mechanisms of damage initiation, damage morphology, and damage-site growth under repetitive pulse irradiation are discussed. Consideration is also given here to the surface treatments leading to the reduction of damage initiation sites, such as laser cleaning and conditioning, removal of the surface layers affected by the grinding/polishing process, and mitigation of the damage growth at already formed damage sites.

  3. Photoactivatable Nanostructured Surfaces for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Mosinger, Jiří; Lang, Kamil; Kubát, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to summarize the current status of photoactivatable nanostructured film and polymeric nanofiber surfaces used in biomedical applications with emphasis on their photoantimicrobial activity, oxygen-sensing in biological media, light-triggered release of drugs, and physical or structural transformations. Many light-responsive functions have been considered as novel ways to alter surfaces, i.e., in terms of their reactivities and structures. We describe the design of surfaces, nano/micro-fabrication, the properties affected by light, and the application principles. Additionally, we compare the various approaches reported in the literature. PMID:26589508

  4. Effect of Surface Charge on Laser-induced Neutral Atom Desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Kenneth M.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2010-10-01

    When an ionic metal oxide crystal is cleaved, inhomogeneous electrical charging of the surface can be a result. Such an effect has been well-documented in magnesium oxide (100). For example, recent rigorous AFM studies indicate that nanoscale charged clusters of MgO are created during cleavage, with high concentrations often located at terrace step edges.[1] In addition, ablation processes of freshly cleaved magnesium oxide crystals may be effected by remnant surface charging and microstructures.[2] We report here that such surface charging strongly impacts even neutral atom desorption, even under conditions of extremely mild excitation of surface terrace features. In our experiments, single crystal MgO (100) is cleaved in air and placed in an ultra-high vacuum chamber (UHV). We irradiate the crystal at 6.4 eV, photon energy resonant with five-coordinated (5-C) terrace sites and probe desorbing neutral oxygen atoms. It is found that a significant fraction of desorbed neutral oxygen atoms from the charged surface possess kinetic energies in excess of 0.7 eV. This is in contrast to uncharged samples (discharged in vacuo over 24 hours) that display a near-thermal oxygen atom distribution.

  5. Laser-induced damage initiated on the surface of particle contamination fused silica at 1064nm

    SciTech Connect

    Michlitsch, K.J.

    1998-06-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to quantify the effects of contamination particles on the damage threshold of laser-illuminated fused silica optics and set cleanliness requirements for optics on the beam line of the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Circular contamination particles were sputter-deposited onto fused silica windows which were then illuminated repetitively using a 1064nm laser. A variety of contaminants were tested including metals, oxides, and organics. Tests were conducted with particles on the input and output surfaces of the window, and the morphological features of the damage were very reproducible. A plasma often ignited at the contamination particle; its intensity was dependent upon the mass of the contaminant. Input surface damage was characteristically more severe than output surface damage. The size of the damaged area scaled with the size of the particle. On a few occasions, catastrophic damage (cracking or ablation of the substrate) initiated on the output surface due to contamination particles on either the input or output surface. From damage growth plots, predictions can be made about the severity of damage expected from contamination particles of known size and material.

  6. Investigation of surface damage precursor evolutions and laser-induced damage threshold improvement mechanism during Ion beam etching of fused silica.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Zhong, Yaoyu; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Xu, Mingjin; Sui, Tingting

    2016-09-01

    Surface damage precursor evolution has great influence on laser-induced damage threshold improvement of fused silica surface during Ion beam etching. In this work, a series of ion sputtering experiment are carried out to obtain the evolutions of damage precursors (dot-form microstructures, Polishing-Induced Contamination, Hertz scratches, and roughness). Based on ion sputtering theory, surface damage precursor evolutions are analyzed. The results show that the dot-form microstructures will appear during ion beam etching. But as the ion beam etching depth goes up, the dot-form microstructures can be mitigated. And ion-beam etching can broaden and passivate the Hertz scratches without increasing roughness value. A super-smooth surface (0.238nm RMS) can be obtained finally. The relative content of Fe and Ce impurities both significantly reduce after ion beam etching. The laser-induced damage threshold of fused silica is improved by 34% after ion beam etching for 800nm. Research results can be a reference on using ion beam etching process technology to improve laser-induced damage threshold of fused silica optics. PMID:27607688

  7. Laser induced surface acoustic wave combined with phase sensitive optical coherence tomography for superficial tissue characterization: a solution for practical application

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Zhang, Fan; Nabi, Ghulam; Wang, Ruikang K.; Huang, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties are important parameters that can be used to assess the physiologic conditions of biologic tissue. Measurements and mapping of tissue mechanical properties can aid in the diagnosis, characterisation and treatment of diseases. As a non-invasive, non-destructive and non-contact method, laser induced surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have potential to accurately characterise tissue elastic properties. However, challenge still exists when the laser is directly applied to the tissue because of potential heat generation due to laser energy deposition. This paper focuses on the thermal effect of the laser induced SAW on the tissue target and provides an alternate solution to facilitate its application in clinic environment. The solution proposed is to apply a thin agar membrane as surface shield to protect the tissue. Transient thermal analysis is developed and verified by experiments to study the effects of the high energy Nd:YAG laser pulse on the surface shield. The approach is then verified by measuring the mechanical property of skin in a Thiel mouse model. The results demonstrate a useful step toward the practical application of laser induced SAW method for measuring real elasticity of normal and diseased tissues in dermatology and other surface epithelia. PMID:24877004

  8. Elemental mass spectroscopy of remote surfaces from laser-induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Situ, W.; DeYoung, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The elemental mass analysis of laser-produced ions from Al, Cu, Ge, Ag, and a lunar simulant target when irradiated by a 400-mJ, 8-ns, Nd: YAG laser at 1 x 10(exp 9) W/cm(exp 2), is reported. Ions traveled down a 11.1-m evacuated tube to an ion-trap 1-m time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer where an elemental mass spectrum was recorded. The amount of target material removed per laser pulse and the ionization fraction were measured. The ion spatial distribution was measured at 11.1-m distance and found to be near a fourth-power cosine distribution. These results indicate the ability to mass analyze a surface over a distance of many kilometers for lunar and asteroid surface elemental mass analysis by a remote satellite or lunar rover.

  9. Generalized model for laser-induced surface structure in metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin-Mao, Ye; Zhen-Wei, Wu; Kai-Xin, Liu; Xiu-Zhang, Tang; Xiang-Ming, Xiong

    2016-06-01

    The details of the special three-dimensional micro-nano scale ripples with a period of hundreds of microns on the surfaces of a Zr-based and a La-based metallic glass irradiated separately by single laser pulse are investigated. We use the small-amplitude capillary wave theory to unveil the ripple formation mechanism through considering each of the molten metallic glasses as an incompressible viscous fluid. A generalized model is presented to describe the special morphology, which fits the experimental result well. It is also revealed that the viscosity brings about the biggest effect on the monotone decreasing nature of the amplitude and the wavelength of the surface ripples. The greater the viscosity is, the shorter the amplitude and the wavelength are. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10572002, 10732010, and 11332002).

  10. Laser induced nitrogen enhanced titanium surfaces for improved osseo-integration.

    PubMed

    Dahotre, Sanket N; Vora, Hitesh D; Rajamure, Ravi Shanker; Huang, Lu; Banerjee, Rajarshi; He, Wei; Dahotre, Narendra B

    2014-01-01

    The osseo-integration, corrosion resistance, and tribological properties of the commonly used bioimplant alloy Ti-6Al-4V were enhanced using a laser-based surface nitridation process. The biomedical properties of the laser nitrided Ti-6Al-4V were investigated using experimental and computational methodologies. Electrochemical analysis of laser nitrided titanium in simulated body fluid (SBF) was performed to assess the biomedical characteristics in near-human body conditions. Additionally, the corrosive wear performance of these laser nitrided samples was evaluated using pin-on-disk geometry with a zirconia pin counter surface in SBF to mimic the biological scenario. Osteoblast studies were conducted to evaluate cell affinity towards titanium nitrided bioimplant material. Cells adhered to all substrates, with high viability. Initial cell adhesion was revealed by focal adhesion formation on all substrates. Cells can proliferate on samples treated with 1.89 and 2.12 × 10(6) J/m(2) laser conditions, while those treated with 1.70 × 10(6) J/m(2) inhibited proliferation. Thus, microstructural and phase observations, electrochemical analyses, corrosive wear evaluation, and cell behavior analysis of laser nitrided surface of bioimplant material (Ti-6Al-4V) indicated that laser nitriding greatly improves the performance of bioimplant material. PMID:23963886

  11. Highly sensitive fibre surface-enhanced Raman scattering probes fabricated using laser-induced self-assembly in a meniscus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ye; Huang, Zhulin; Zhou, Fei; Lei, Xing; Yao, Bo; Meng, Guowen; Mao, Qinghe

    2016-05-01

    Fibre surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes have the advantages of flexibility, compactness, remote sensing capability and good repeatability in SERS detection and thus have a range of different applications. However, it is difficult to realize simple, low-cost and high-throughput preparations of fibre SERS probes with high sensitivity and desirable repeatability using the currently available fabrication techniques, which restricts their practical applications. We report here a simple, low-cost method using laser-induced self-assembly to realize the fast fabrication of fibre SERS probes with high sensitivity and excellent reproducibility. By lifting the fibre facet above a pre-synthesized nanoparticle colloid, a meniscus can be formed with the help of the surface tension of the liquid. Using irradiation from an induced laser guided by the fibre, localized thermal effects on the nanoparticles in the meniscus control the growth of the fibre probes and the electromagnetic interactions among the closely spaced nanoparticles assist the arrangement of nanoparticle clusters on the fibre facet. The prepared fibre probes showed a very high SERS sensitivity of 10-10 M for p-aminothiophenol using a portable commericial Raman spectrometer with a short integration time of 2 s. They also showed excellent repeatability with relative standard deviations <2.8% in the SERS peak intensities for different detections with the same probe and 7.8% for different fibre probes fabricated under the same conditions.Fibre surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes have the advantages of flexibility, compactness, remote sensing capability and good repeatability in SERS detection and thus have a range of different applications. However, it is difficult to realize simple, low-cost and high-throughput preparations of fibre SERS probes with high sensitivity and desirable repeatability using the currently available fabrication techniques, which restricts their practical applications

  12. Pulse- and time-dependent observation of UV-laser-induced structures on polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesting, Wolfgang; Knittel, Dierk; Bahners, Thomas; Schollmeyer, Eckhard

    1992-01-01

    Irradiation of highly absorbing polymers with a pulsed excimer laser can change the surface topography under certain conditions. Fibres made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polyamide show a characteristic roll-like morphology after treatment with 193 or 248 nm laser irradiation, which promises interesting applications in industrial processing of textile fibres. For a systematic study of the influences of the various parameters monofilaments made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and poly(propylene) were irradiated in place in a microscope. This allowed the observation of the evolution of the structure shot by shot. Quantitative data were taken by use of an image analysing system. The study was done with various laser fluences, wavelengths and in dependence on mechanical stress (draw) on the sample. With increasing number of shots the morphology gets more coarse due to a sort of "combining" of the rolls showing a logarithmic dependence of the mean roll-distance on the number of pulses applied. Characteristically, the fibre decomposes into ellipsoidal pieces after a sufficient number of shots. The polyolefinic material cannot be modified directly with 193 or 248 nm laser radiation due to the low absorption coefficient for these wavelenghts. By using a 157 nm F 2 laser certain surface modifications were observed on fibres and films. The structures were similar to the effects previously found on poly(ethylene terephthalate).

  13. Thin film contamination effects on laser-induced damage of fused silica surfaces at 355 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A. K.; Cordillot, C.; Fornier, A.; Genin, F. Y.; Rubenchick, A. M.; Schirmann, D.; Yoshiyama, J.

    1998-07-28

    Fused silica windows were artificially contaminated to estimate the resistance of target chamber debris shields against laser damage during NIF operation. Uniform contamination thin films (1 to 5 nm thick) were prepared by sputtering various materials (Au, Al, Cu, and B4C). The loss of transmission of the samples was first measured. They were then tested at 355 nm in air with an 8-ns Nd:YAG laser. The damage morphologies were characterized by Nomarski optical microscopy and SEM. Both theory and experiments showed that metal contamination for films as thin as 1 nm leads to a substantial loss of transmission. The laser damage resistance dropped very uniformly across the entire surface (e.g. 6 J/cm2 for 5 nm of Cu). The damage morphology characterization showed that contrary to clean silica, metal coated samples did not produce pits on the surface. B4C coated silica, on the other hand, led to a higher density of such damage pits. A model for light absorption in the thin film was coupled with a simple heat deposition and diffusion model to perform preliminary theoretical estimates of damage thresholds. The estimates of the loss due to light absorption and reflection pointed out significant .differences between metals (e.g. Al and Au). The damage threshold predictions were in qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  14. Surface plasmon resonance in eccentric femtosecond-laser-induced fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Chah, Karima; Voisin, Valérie; Kinet, Damien; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2014-12-15

    Highly localized refractive index modulations are photo-written in the core of pure silica fiber using point-by-point focused UV femtosecond pulses. These specific gratings exhibit a comb-like transmitted amplitude spectrum, with polarization-dependent narrowband cladding mode resonances. In this work, eccentric gratings are surrounded by a gold sheath, allowing the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) for radially-polarized light modes. The spectral response is studied as a function of the surrounding refractive index and a maximum sensitivity of 50  nm/RIU (refractive index unit) is reported for a well-defined cladding-mode resonance among the spectral comb. This novel kind of plasmonic fiber grating sensor offers rapidity of production, design flexibility, and high temperature stability. PMID:25503022

  15. Surface plasmon polaritons in artificial metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Jayson Lawrence

    Surface plasmon polaritons have been the focus of intense research due to their many unique properties such as high electromagnetic field localization, extreme sensitivity to surface conditions, and subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic waves. The area of potential impact is vast and includes promising advancements in photonic circuits, high speed photodetection, hyperspectral imaging, spectroscopy, enhanced solar cells, ultra-small scale lithography, and microscopy. My research has focused on utilizing these properties to design and demonstrate new phenomena and implement real-world applications using artificial metallic nanostructures. Artificial metallic nanostructures employed during my research begin as thin planar gold films which are then lithographically patterned according to previously determined dimensions. The result is a nanopatterned device which can excite surface plasmon polaritons on its surface under specific conditions. Through my research I characterized the optical properties of these devices for further insight into the interesting properties of surface plasmon polaritons. Exploration of these properties led to advancements in biosensing, development of artificial media to enhance and control light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, and hybrid plasmonic cavities. Demonstrations from these advancements include: label-free immunosensing of Plasmodium in a whole blood lysate, low part-per-trillion detection of microcystin-LR, enhanced refractive index sensitivity of novel resonant plasmonic devices, a defect-based plasmonic crystal, spontaneous emission modification of colloidal quantum dots, and coupling of plasmonic and optical Fabry-Perot resonant modes in a hybrid cavity.

  16. Enhanced color ratio calibration for two-dimensional surface thermometry using laser-induced phosphorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappe, C.; Lindén, J.; Richter, M.; Aldén, M.

    2013-08-01

    An alternative concept for calibrating spectral image intensity ratios is described, which provides simple, but effective means of compensation for systematic errors, caused by nonlinearities in signal detection. The method relies on image segmentation by means of signal thresholds, where pixels are organized into different subgroups according to their corresponding signal count value. Instead of defining one global spectral ratio per calibration temperature, the phosphor-coated target surface is illuminated inhomogeneously and resulting image ratios are calibrated individually for each pixel intensity subgroup. This allows the exploitation of high intensity regions on the camera chip which offer great precision advantages, but suffer from systematic errors caused by signal nonlinearities. Temperature calibration data of BaMg2Al16O27:Eu in the temperature range between 270 and 470 K was used to assess and compare the potential of both calibration approaches. In comparison to the conventional, e.g. global calibration approach, accuracy improvements of up to 39% were gained even while keeping average signal intensities below 15% of the detector's full dynamic range. Image ratio evaluations, based on segregated pixel subgroups, could help improve measurement accuracy also for other techniques, relying on the calibration of measured quantities. In two-dimensional phosphor thermometry, it helps bridge the current precision gap between two-color ratio methods and more elaborate lifetime-imaging approaches.

  17. Generation of laser-induced periodic surface structures in indium-tin-oxide thin films and two-photon lithography of ma-N photoresist by sub-15 femtosecond laser microscopy for liquid crystal cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klötzer, Madlen; Afshar, Maziar; Feili, Dara; Seidel, Helmut; König, Karsten; Straub, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is a widely used electrode material for liquid crystal cell applications because of its transparency in the visible spectral range and its high electrical conductivity. Important examples of applications are displays and optical phase modulators. We report on subwavelength periodic structuring and precise laser cutting of 150 nm thick indium-tin-oxide films on glass substrates, which were deposited by magnetron reactive DC-sputtering from an indiumtin target in a low-pressure oxygen atmosphere. In order to obtain nanostructured electrodes laser-induced periodic surface structures with a period of approximately 100 nm were generated using tightly focused high-repetition rate sub-15 femtosecond pulsed Ti:sapphire laser light, which was scanned across the sample by galvanometric mirrors. Three-dimensional spacers were produced by multiphoton photopolymerization in ma-N 2410 negative-tone photoresist spin-coated on top of the ITO layers. The nanostructured electrodes were aligned in parallel to set up an electrically switchable nematic liquid crystal cell.

  18. Nanostructured surfaces investigated by quantitative morphological studies.

    PubMed

    Perani, Martina; Carapezzi, Stefania; Mutta, Geeta Rani; Cavalcoli, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of different surfaces has been investigated by atomic force microscopy and quantitatively analyzed in this paper. Two different tools have been employed to this scope: the analysis of the height-height correlation function and the determination of the mean grain size, which have been combined to obtain a complete characterization of the surfaces. Different materials have been analyzed: SiO x N y , InGaN/GaN quantum wells and Si nanowires, grown with different techniques. Notwithstanding the presence of grain-like structures on all the samples analyzed, they present very diverse surface design, underlying that this procedure can be of general use. Our results show that the quantitative analysis of nanostructured surfaces allows us to obtain interesting information, such as grain clustering, from the comparison of the lateral correlation length and the grain size. PMID:27004458

  19. Nanostructured surfaces investigated by quantitative morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perani, Martina; Carapezzi, Stefania; Rani Mutta, Geeta; Cavalcoli, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of different surfaces has been investigated by atomic force microscopy and quantitatively analyzed in this paper. Two different tools have been employed to this scope: the analysis of the height-height correlation function and the determination of the mean grain size, which have been combined to obtain a complete characterization of the surfaces. Different materials have been analyzed: SiO x N y , InGaN/GaN quantum wells and Si nanowires, grown with different techniques. Notwithstanding the presence of grain-like structures on all the samples analyzed, they present very diverse surface design, underlying that this procedure can be of general use. Our results show that the quantitative analysis of nanostructured surfaces allows us to obtain interesting information, such as grain clustering, from the comparison of the lateral correlation length and the grain size.

  20. Computational characterization of ordered nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohieddin Abukhdeir, Nasser

    2016-08-01

    A vital and challenging task for materials researchers is to determine relationships between material characteristics and desired properties. While the measurement and assessment of material properties can be complex, quantitatively characterizing their structure is frequently a more challenging task. This issue is magnified for materials researchers in the areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology, where material structure is further complicated by phenomena such as self-assembly, collective behavior, and measurement uncertainty. Recent progress has been made in this area for both self-assembled and nanostructured surfaces due to increasing accessibility of imaging techniques at the nanoscale. In this context, recent advances in nanomaterial surface structure characterization are reviewed including the development of new theory and image processing methods.

  1. Fabrication of Hydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces for Microfluidic Control.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Kyojiro; Tsukahara, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    In the field of micro- and nanofluidics, various kinds of novel devices have been developed. For such devices, not only fluidic control but also surface control of micro/nano channels is essential. Recently, fluidic control by hydrophobic nanostructured surfaces have attracted much attention. However, conventional fabrication methods of nanostructures require complicated steps, and integration of the nanostructures into micro/nano channels makes fabrication procedures even more difficult and complicated. In the present study, a simple and easy fabrication method of nanostructures integrated into microchannels was developed. Various sizes of nanostructures were successfully fabricated by changing the plasma etching time and etching with a basic solution. Furthermore, it proved possible to construct highly hydrophobic nanostructured surfaces that could effectively control the fluid in microchannels at designed pressures. We believe that the fabrication method developed here and the results obtained are valuable contributions towards further applications in the field of micro- and nanofluidics. PMID:26753710

  2. Surface analysis of nanostructured carbonaceous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wepasnick, Kevin Andrew

    The characterization of surfaces is central to understanding its interaction with other materials. Current ground-breaking research in interfacial science is focusing on surfaces which have a nanoscopic-size to their structuring. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been explored extensively. However, to utilize these materials in commercial and scientific applications, the surfaces are often modified to tailor specific properties, such as dispersion, sorption, and reactivity. The focus of this thesis is to apply surface analytical techniques to explore the chemical and structural characteristics of modified nanostructured surfaces. Specifically studied are the covalent surface modifications of CNTs by strategies that involve the direct incorporation of specific elements into the graphene sidewalls by commonly used wet chemical oxidants. These resulting CNTs are then evaluated in terms of their change in surface chemistry and structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the surface oxidation, while chemical derivatization techniques in conjunction with XPS afforded the concentration of carboxyl, carbonyl, and hydroxyl groups on the CNT surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was able to provide detailed structural information on the modified CNT, including the extent of sidewall damage. Results indicate that the distribution of oxygen-containing functional groups was insensitive to the reaction conditions, but was dependent upon the identity of the oxidant. These trends in functional group concentration were then applied to determining environmental properties, specifically divalent metal cation sorption. Consistently, the increases in COOH functional groups result in an increase in sorption capacity of divalent metal cations, such as Zn2+ and Cd2+. Furthermore, the interactions of size-selected metal and metal-oxide nanoclusters with graphite surfaces were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling

  3. Superhydrophobic elastomer surfaces with nanostructured micronails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarikoski, Inka; Joki-Korpela, Fatima; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tuula T.; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2012-01-01

    New approaches to the fabrication of microstructures of special shape were developed for polymers. Unusual superhydrophobic surface structures were achieved with the use of flexible polymers and hierarchical molds. Flexible polyurethane-acrylate coatings were patterned with microstructures with use of microstructured aluminum mold in a controlled UV-curing process. Electron microscope images of the UV-cured coatings on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates revealed micropillars that were significantly higher than the corresponding depressions of the mold (even 47 vs. 35 μm). The elongation was achieved by detaching the mold from the flexible, partially cured acrylate surface and then further curing the separated microstructure. The modified acrylate surface is superhydrophobic with a water contact angle of 156° and sliding angle of < 10°. Acrylic thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) were patterned with micro-nanostructured aluminum oxide molds through injection molding. The hierarchical surface of the elastomer showed elongated micropillars (57 μm) with nail-head tops covered with nanograss. Comparison with a reference microstructure of the same material (35 μm) indicated that the nanopores of the micro-nanomold assisted the formation of the nail-shaped micropillars. The elasticity of the TPE materials evidently plays a role in the elongation because similar elongation has not been found in hierarchically structured thermoplastic surfaces. The hierarchical micronail structure supports a high water contact angle (164°), representing an increase of 88° relative to the smooth TPE surface. The sliding angle was close to zero degrees, indicating the Cassie-Baxter state.

  4. Laser-induced oxidation of titanium substrate: Analysis of the physicochemical structure of the surface and sub-surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Skowroński, Łukasz; Trzcinski, Marek; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl V.; Łazarek, Łukasz K.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of the complex chemical structure of the layers made on titanium in the process of the heating of its surfaces in an atmospheric environment, by irradiating samples with a nanosecond-pulsed laser. The study was carried out for electroplated, high purity, polycrystalline titanium substrates using a Yb:glass fiber laser. All measurements were made for samples irradiated in a broad range of accumulated fluence, below the ablation threshold. It has been determined how the complex index of refraction of both the oxynitride layers and the substrate vary as a function of accumulated laser fluence. It was also shown that the top layer of the film produced on titanium, which is transparent, is not a pure TiO2 as had been supposed before. The XPS and XRD analyses confirmed the presence of nitrogen compounds and the existence of nonstoichiometric compounds. By sputtering of the sample's surface using an Ar+ ion gun, the changes in the concentration of individual elements as a function of the layer's cross-section were determined. Lastly, an analysis of the surface morphology has also been carried out, explaining why the layers crack and exfoliate from their substrate.

  5. Polarity of oxide surfaces and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goniakowski, Jacek; Finocchi, Fabio; Noguera, Claudine

    2008-01-01

    Whenever a compound crystal is cut normal to a randomly chosen direction, there is an overwhelming probability that the resulting surface corresponds to a polar termination and is highly unstable. Indeed, polar oxide surfaces are subject to complex stabilization processes that ultimately determine their physical and chemical properties. However, owing to recent advances in their preparation under controlled conditions and to improvements in the experimental techniques for their characterization, an impressive variety of structures have been investigated in the last few years. Recent progress in the fabrication of oxide nano-objects, which have been largely stimulated by a growing demand for new materials for applications ranging from micro-electronics to heterogeneous catalysis, also offer interesting examples of exotic polar structures. At odds with polar orientations of macroscopic samples, some smaller size polar nano-structures turn out to be perfectly stable. Others are subject to unusual processes of stabilization, which are absent or not effective in their extended counterparts. In this context, a thorough and comprehensive reflexion on the role that polarity plays at oxide surfaces, interfaces and in nano-objects seems timely. This review includes a first section which presents the theoretical concepts at the root of the polar electrostatic instability and its compensation and introduces a rigorous definition of polar terminations that encompasses previous theoretical treatments; a second section devoted to a summary of all experimental and theoretical results obtained since the first review paper by Noguera (2000 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 12 R367); and finally a discussion section focusing on the relative strength of the stabilization mechanisms, with special emphasis on ternary compound surfaces and on polarity effects in ultra-thin films.

  6. Using shaped pulses to probe energy deposition during laser-induced damage of SiO2 surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, C W; Cross, D; Feit, M D; Bude, J D

    2008-10-24

    Laser-induced damage initiation in silica has been shown to follow a power-law behavior with respect to pulse-length. Models based on thermal diffusion physics can successfully predict this scaling and the effect of pulse shape for pulses between about 3ns and 10ns. In this work we use sophisticated new measurement techniques and novel pulse shape experiments to test the limits of this scaling. We show that simple pulse length scaling fails for pulses below about 3ns. Furthermore, double pulse initiation experiments suggest that energy absorbed by the first pulse is lost on time scales much shorter than would be predicted for thermal diffusion. This time scale for energy loss can be strongly modulated by maintaining a small but non-zero intensity between the pulses. By producing damage with various pulse shapes and pulse trains it is demonstrated that the properties of any hypothetical thermal absorber become highly constrained.

  7. Detection of immunoglobulins in a laser induced fluorescence system utilizing polydimethysiloxane microchips with advanced surface and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Schrott, Walter; Nebyla, Marek; Přibyl, Michal; Snita, Dalimil

    2011-01-01

    We developed an automated laser induced fluorescence system utilizing microfluidic chips for detection and quantification of immunoglobulins. Microchips were fabricated from polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) using the so-called "prepolymerization technique." The microchip structure helped minimize the effects of PDMS autofluorescence and light scattering. Furthermore, a thin and uniform PDMS layer forming the top of the microchip enabled proper focusing and collection of the excitation beam and the emitted fluorescence, respectively. The developed system was tested for the detection of mouse immunoglobulins. The capturing antibodies were immobilized on internal microchannel walls in the form of a polyelectrolyte. We clearly show that this immobilization technique, if correctly realized, gives results with high reproducibility. After sample incubation and washing, secondary antibodies labeled by fluorescein isothiocyanate were introduced into microchannels to build a detectable complex. We show that mouse antibodies can be quantified in a wide concentration range, 0.01-100 μg ml(-1). The lower detection limit was below 0.001 μg ml(-1) (6.7 pM). The developed laser induced fluorescence (LIF) apparatus is relatively cheap and easy to construct. The total cost of the developed LIF detector is lower than a typical price of plate readers. If compared to classical ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) plate systems, the detection of immunoglobulins or other proteins in the developed PDMS microfluidic device brings other important benefits such as reduced time demands (10 min incubation) and low reagent consumption (less than 1 μl). The cost of the developed PDMS chips is comparable with the price of commercial ELISA plates. The main troubleshooting related to the apparatus development is also discussed in order to help potential constructors. PMID:21359027

  8. Nanostructures created by interfered femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jimmy; Luo, Claire; Yin, Shizhuo; Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene

    2011-10-01

    The method by applying the interfered femtosecond laser to create nanostructured copper (Cu) surface has been studied. The nanostructure created by direct laser irradiation is also realized for comparison. Results show that more uniform and finer nanostructures with sphere shape and feature size around 100 nm can be induced by the interfered laser illumination comparing with the direct laser illumination. This offers an alternative fabrication approach that the feature size and the shape of the laser induced metallic nanostructures can be highly controlled, which can extremely improve its performance in related application such as the colorized metal, catalyst, SERS substrate, and etc.

  9. Geometrically induced surface polaritons in planar nanostructured metallic cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, P. S.; Intravia, F; Dalvit, Diego A.

    2014-01-14

    We examine the modal structure and dispersion of periodically nanostructured planar metallic cavities within the scattering matrix formulation. By nanostructuring a metallic grating in a planar cavity, artificial surface excitations or spoof plasmon modes are induced with dispersion determined by the periodicity and geometric characteristics of the grating. These spoof surface plasmon modes are shown to give rise to new cavity polaritonic modes at short mirror separations that modify the density of modes in nanostructured cavities. The increased modal density of states form cavity polarirons have a large impact on the fluctuation induced electromagnetic forces and enhanced hear transfer at short separations.

  10. Study of Surface Damage caused by Laser Irradiation for Quantitative Hydrogen Analysis in Zircaloy using Laser-induced Plasma Breakdown Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, K.; Yamada, N.; Niki, H.; Maruyama, T.; Kagawa, K.

    2009-03-17

    The surface damage caused by laser irradiation is studied to investigate the possibility of performing a depth-profile analysis of the hydrogen concentration in zircaloy-4 alloys using laser-induced plasma breakdown spectrometry. After laser irradiation, a heat-affected zone extending about 3 {mu}m down from the top surface can be seen. The depth of this heat-affected zone is independent of the laser power density in the range 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}. In order to obtain the depth profile of the hydrogen concentration in zircaloy-4 alloys, the power density of laser shots must be greater than 1.3x10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Plasmonic nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ruiqian

    In the last three decades, a large number of different plasmonic nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their unique optical properties. Those plasmonic nanostructures include nanoparticles, nanoholes and metal nanovoids. They have been widely utilized in optical devices and sensors. When the plasmonic nanostructures interact with the electromagnetic wave and their surface plasmon frequency match with the light frequency, the electrons in plasmonic nanostructures will resonate with the same oscillation as incident light. In this case, the plasmonic nanostructures can absorb light and enhance the light scattering. Therefore, the plasmonic nanostructures can be used as substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to enhance the Raman signal. Using plasmonic nanostructures can significantly enhance Raman scattering of molecules with very low concentrations. In this thesis, two different plasmonic nanostructures Ag dendrites and Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles are investigated. Simple methods were used to produce these two plasmonic nanostructures. Then, their applications in surface enhanced Raman scattering have been explored. Ag dendrites were produced by galvanic replacement reaction, which was conducted using Ag nitrate aqueous solution and copper metal. Metal copper layer was deposited at the bottom side of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane. Silver wires formed inside AAO channels connected Ag nitrate on the top of AAO membrane and copper layer at the bottom side of AAO. Silver dendrites were formed on the top side of AAO. The second plasmonic nanostructure is Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles. They were fabricated by electroless plating (galvanic replacement) reaction in a silver plating solution. First, electrochemically evolved hydrogen bubbles were used as template through electroless deposition to produce hollow Au nanoparticles. Then, the Au nanoparticles were coated with Cu shells in a Cu plating solution. In the following step, a Ag

  12. Strength Improvement of Glass Substrates by Using Surface Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amarendra; Kashyap, Kunal; Hou, Max T.; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Defects and heterogeneities degrade the strength of glass with different surface and subsurface properties. This study uses surface nanostructures to improve the bending strength of glass and investigates the effect of defects on three glass types. Borosilicate and aluminosilicate glasses with a higher defect density than fused silica exhibited 118 and 48 % improvement, respectively, in bending strength after surface nanostructure fabrication. Fused silica, exhibited limited strength improvement. Therefore, a 4-μm-deep square notch was fabricated to study the effect of a dominant defect in low defect density glass. The reduced bending strength of fused silica caused by artificial defect increased 65 % in the presence of 2-μm-deep nanostructures, and the fused silica regained its original strength when the nanostructures were 4 μm deep. In fragmentation tests, the fused silica specimen broke into two major portions because of the creation of artificial defects. The number of fragments increased when nanostructures were fabricated on the fused silica surface. Bending strength improvement and fragmentation test confirm the usability of this method for glasses with low defect densities when a dominant defect is present on the surface. Our findings indicate that nanostructure-based strengthening is suitable for all types of glasses irrespective of defect density, and the observed Weibull modulus enhancement confirms the reliability of this method.

  13. Strength Improvement of Glass Substrates by Using Surface Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amarendra; Kashyap, Kunal; Hou, Max T; Yeh, J Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Defects and heterogeneities degrade the strength of glass with different surface and subsurface properties. This study uses surface nanostructures to improve the bending strength of glass and investigates the effect of defects on three glass types. Borosilicate and aluminosilicate glasses with a higher defect density than fused silica exhibited 118 and 48 % improvement, respectively, in bending strength after surface nanostructure fabrication. Fused silica, exhibited limited strength improvement. Therefore, a 4-μm-deep square notch was fabricated to study the effect of a dominant defect in low defect density glass. The reduced bending strength of fused silica caused by artificial defect increased 65 % in the presence of 2-μm-deep nanostructures, and the fused silica regained its original strength when the nanostructures were 4 μm deep. In fragmentation tests, the fused silica specimen broke into two major portions because of the creation of artificial defects. The number of fragments increased when nanostructures were fabricated on the fused silica surface. Bending strength improvement and fragmentation test confirm the usability of this method for glasses with low defect densities when a dominant defect is present on the surface. Our findings indicate that nanostructure-based strengthening is suitable for all types of glasses irrespective of defect density, and the observed Weibull modulus enhancement confirms the reliability of this method. PMID:27194443

  14. The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Negres, R A; Norton, M A; Liao, Z M; Cross, D A; Bude, J D; Carr, C W

    2009-10-29

    Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. In this study, we focus on the effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant dependence of growth rate at 351 nm on pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns as {tau}{sup 0.3} for sites in the 50-100 {micro}m size range.

  15. Development of a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser end-pumped actively Q-switched laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Liu, Lei; Chen, Rongzhang; Nelsen, Bryan; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yongfeng; Chen, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the development of a compact and portable actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its applications in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The laser was end-pumped by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The cavity lases at a wavelength of 1064 nm and produced pulses of 16 ns with a maximum pulse energy of 12.9 mJ. The laser exhibits a reliable performance in terms of pulse-to-pulse stability and timing jitter. The LIBS experiments were carried out using this laser on NIST standard alloy samples. Shot-to-shot LIBS signal stability, crater profile, time evolution of emission spectra, plasma electron density and temperature, and limits of detection were studied and reported in this paper. The test results demonstrate that the VCSEL-pumped solid-state laser is an effective and compact laser tool for laser remote sensing applications. PMID:27036765

  16. Development of a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser end-pumped actively Q-switched laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Liu, Lei; Chen, Rongzhang; Nelsen, Bryan; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yongfeng; Chen, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the development of a compact and portable actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its applications in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The laser was end-pumped by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The cavity lases at a wavelength of 1064 nm and produced pulses of 16 ns with a maximum pulse energy of 12.9 mJ. The laser exhibits a reliable performance in terms of pulse-to-pulse stability and timing jitter. The LIBS experiments were carried out using this laser on NIST standard alloy samples. Shot-to-shot LIBS signal stability, crater profile, time evolution of emission spectra, plasma electron density and temperature, and limits of detection were studied and reported in this paper. The test results demonstrate that the VCSEL-pumped solid-state laser is an effective and compact laser tool for laser remote sensing applications.

  17. Time-resolved detection of aromatic compounds on planetary surfaces by ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshelman, E.; Daly, M. G.; Slater, G.; Cloutis, E.

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopic instruments are highly capable in the search for organics on Mars due to the potential to perform rapid and nondestructive measurements on unprepared samples. Upcoming and future Raman instruments are likely to also incorporate laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) capabilities, which can be added for modest cost and complexity. We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain sub-ns fluorescence lifetime measurements of Mars-relevant organics and minerals if a fast time-gating capability is used with an intensified detector and a short ultraviolet laser pulse. This serves a primary purpose of discriminating mineral from short-lived (less than 10 ns) organic fluorescence, considered a potential biosignature. Additionally, lifetime measurements may assist in determining if more than one fluorescing species is present and provide information concerning the molecular structure as well as the local environment. Fast time-gating is also useful at longer visible or near-IR wavelengths, as this approach increases the sensitivity of the instrument to organic material by removing the majority of the fluorescence background from the Raman signal and reducing the effect of ambient light.

  18. Electrochemical characterization of organosilane-functionalized nanostructured ITO surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruna, R.; Palacio, F.; López, M.; Pérez, J.; Mir, M.; Blázquez, O.; Hernández, S.; Garrido, B.

    2016-08-01

    The electroactivity of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) has been investigated for its further use in applications such as sensing biological compounds by the analysis of redox active molecules. ITO films were fabricated by using electron beam evaporation at different substrate temperatures and subsequently annealed for promoting their crystallization. The morphology of the deposited material was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, confirming the deposition of either thin films or nanowires, depending on the substrate temperature. Electrochemical surface characterization revealed a 45 % increase in the electroactive surface area of nanostructured ITO with respect to thin films, one third lower than the geometrical surface area variation determined by atomic force microscopy. ITO surfaces were functionalized with a model organic molecule known as 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol. The chemical attachment was done by means of a glycidoxy compound containing a reactive epoxy group, the so-called 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy-silane. ITO functionalization was useful for determining the benefits of nanostructuration on the surface coverage of active molecules. Compared to ITO thin films, an increase in the total peak height of 140 % was observed for as-deposited nanostructured electrodes, whereas the same measurement for annealed electrodes resulted in an increase of more than 400 %. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of nanostructured ITO to increase the surface-to-volume ratio, conductivity and surface area functionalization, features that highly benefit the performance of biosensors.

  19. Maskless fabrication of broadband antireflection nanostructures on glass surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo R, E. E.; Hoshii, T.; Tamaki, R.; Watanabe, K.; Sugiyama, M.; Okada, Y.; Miyano, K.

    2016-06-01

    In order to reduce reflection losses at the surface of glass optical components, we have developed a plasma-etching fabrication method in which a CaF2 mask is self-assembled on the glass surface, generating nanostructures of around 100 nm in size, fabricated with an approximate etching rate of 10 nm per minute, and with controllable height, depending on the process time. By treating glasses with different compositions, it was found that the nanostructures can be successfully fabricated in a glass composed mainly of SiO2, but with 10% CaO content. In addition to the high aspect ratio and tapered geometry of the nanostructures, through cross-section composition analysis, graded Si and O compositions were also found within the nanostructures. The combined contribution of the geometrical and graded composition effects resulted in broadband 96% and over 99% transmittance on one-side and both-side treated glass substrates, respectively.

  20. Study on characteristic parameters influencing laser-induced damage threshold of KH2PO4 crystal surface machined by single point diamond turning

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingjun; Li, Mingquan; Cheng, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao

    2011-01-01

    It has fundamental meaning to find the elements influencing the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of KH2PO4 (KDP) crystal and to provide suitable characterization parameters for these factors in order to improve the LIDT of KDP. Using single-point diamond turning (SPDT) to process the KDP crystal, the machined surface quality has important effects on its LIDT. However, there are still not suitable characteristic parameters of surface quality of KDP to correspond with the LIDT nowadays. In this paper, guided by the Fourier model theory, we study deeply the relationship between the relevant characteristic parameters of surface topography of KDP crystal and the experimental LIDT. Research results indicate that the waviness rather than the roughness is the leading topography element on the KDP surface machined by the SPDT method when the LIDT is considered and the amplitude of micro-waviness has greater influence on the light intensity inside the KDP crystal within the scope of dangerous frequencies between (180 μm)−1 and (90 μm)−1; with suitable testing equipment, the characteristic parameters of waviness amplitude, such as the arithmetical mean deviation of three-dimensional profile Sa or root mean square deviation of three-dimensional contour Sq, are able to be considered as suitable parameters to reflect the optical quality of the machined surface in order to judge approximately the LIDT of the KDP surface and guide the machining course. PMID:22247567

  1. Laser nanostructuring of polymers: Ripples and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillejo, Marta; Ezquerra, Tiberio A.; Martín, Margarita; Oujja, Mohamed; Pérez, Susana; Rebollar, Esther

    2012-07-01

    Polymer nanostructures and nanopatterns are being profusely used for developing next-generation organic devices with analytical and biological functions and photonic applications. Laser based strategies constitute an advantageous approach for the assembly and control of this type of soft matter nanostructures as they afford the sought versatility and reliability. Recent and on-going research on laser nanostructuring of thin films of synthetic polymers and natural biopolymers will be exemplified by studies on the generation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and their use for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based sensors.

  2. Nanostructuring of metal surfaces by corrosion for efficient water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jooyoung; Lim, Guh-Hwan; Lim, Byungkwon

    2016-01-01

    We show that simply by corroding Ni foam in an aqueous solution, it is possible to produce nanostructured surfaces. When Ni foam was corroded in water or an aqueous solution containing NaCl, a dense array of Ni(OH)2 nanosheets was produced on the surface of the foam. When corroded in the presence of RuCl3, the nanostructured surface composed of Ni(OH)2 nanosheets decorated with ultrasmall RuO2 nanoparticles was obtained. At an applied voltage of 1.7 V, the combination of these two nanostructured surfaces yielded a water-splitting current density more than three times that obtained on the commercial Pt wire electrodes.

  3. Surface effects on shape and topology optimization of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanthakumar, S. S.; Valizadeh, Navid; Park, Harold S.; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-07-01

    We present a computational method for the optimization of nanostructures, where our specific interest is in capturing and elucidating surface stress and surface elastic effects on the optimal nanodesign. XFEM is used to solve the nanomechanical boundary value problem, which involves a discontinuity in the strain field and the presence of surface effects along the interface. The boundary of the nano-structure is implicitly represented by a level set function, which is considered as the design variable in the optimization process. Two objective functions, minimizing the total potential energy of a nanostructure subjected to a material volume constraint and minimizing the least square error compared to a target displacement, are chosen for the numerical examples. We present results of optimal topologies of a nanobeam subject to cantilever and fixed boundary conditions. The numerical examples demonstrate the importance of size and aspect ratio in determining how surface effects impact the optimized topology of nanobeams.

  4. Carbon monoxide-induced dynamic metal-surface nanostructuring.

    PubMed

    Carenco, Sophie

    2014-08-18

    Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous molecule in surface science, materials chemistry, catalysis and nanotechnology. Its interaction with a number of metal surfaces is at the heart of major processes, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or fuel-cell optimization. Recent works, coupling structural and nanoscale in situ analytic tools have highlighted the ability of metal surfaces and nanoparticles to undergo restructuring after exposure to CO under fairly mild conditions, generating nanostructures. This Minireview proposes a brief overview of recent examples of such nanostructuring, which leads to a discussion about the driving force in reversible and non-reversible situations. PMID:25044189

  5. Lensfree on-chip imaging using nanostructured surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Khademhosseinieh, Bahar; Sencan, Ikbal; Biener, Gabriel; Su, Ting-Wei; Coskun, Ahmet F.; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the use of nanostructured surfaces for lensfree on-chip microscopy. In this incoherent on-chip imaging modality, the object of interest is directly positioned onto a nanostructured thin metallic film, where the emitted light from the object plane, after being modulated by the nanostructures, diffracts over a short distance to be sampled by a detector-array without the use of any lenses. The detected far-field diffraction pattern then permits rapid reconstruction of the object distribution on the chip at the subpixel level using a compressive sampling algorithm. This imaging modality based on nanostructured substrates could especially be useful to create lensfree fluorescent microscopes on a compact chip. PMID:20502644

  6. Nano-PIV for flows near nano-structured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikesit, Gea; Lindken, Ralph; Westerweel, Jerry

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that nano-structured surfaces can exhibit different wetting characteristics and higher slip-length values compared to smooth (i.e. non-structured) surfaces. In order to quantitatively measure the flows near such nano-structured surfaces, a Nano-PIV method with high spatial and temporal resolution is required. The TIRF-based PIV is a good candidate because it has been successfully applied for 3D nano-velocimetry near smooth surfaces, but it cannot be applied in a simple and direct manner since the nano-structures optically complicates the measurements: (i) they spatially influence and modulate the TIRF illumination, and (ii) they increase the probability of obtaining errors caused by the tracers' own emitted evanescent-waves. For fabricated periodic nano-structures with known dimensions and geometry, however, the spatially modulated TIRF illumination can be very useful for (i) a simple estimation of the illumination depth directly inside the microfluidic channels, and (ii) detection and measurement of the thin layer of air bubbles trapped at the nano-structures in the `Cassie-Baxter' wetting mode.

  7. Reversible Transitions on Electrically-Tunable Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupenkin, Tom; Taylor, J. Ashley; Kolodner, Paul; Hodes, Marc; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2006-03-01

    Recently demonstrated electrically tunable nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces provide a promising new way of manipulating liquids at both micro and macro scales. Dynamic control over the interaction of liquids with the solid substrate is of great interest to many research areas ranging from biology and chemistry to physics and nanotechnology. In this work the reversibility of the electrically induced superhydrophobic -- hydrophilic transition on nanostructured surfaces is addressed. Recently demonstrated approach based on momentarily induction of film boiling in a very thin layer of liquid adjacent to the solid-liquid interface is discussed. The dependence of the hydrophilic -- superhydrophobic transition on the topography of the nanostructured layer, as well as on the energy and duration of the electrical pulse is investigated. Several emerging applications of these surfaces, including lab-on-a-chip, chemical microreactor, and on-chip power sources are discussed.

  8. Molecular imaging with surface-enhanced CARS on nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuwe, Christian; Kaminski, Clemens F.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2012-03-01

    Strongly localized electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of nanoparticles and nanogaps greatly enhance spectroscopic signals near them such as in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In this work we combine this plasmonic surface enhancement with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) on reproducible nanostructured surfaces. Surface-enhanced CARS (SECARS) gives rise to very strong enhancements and we find that an enhancement of ~105 can be obtained over standard CARS. Using our nanostructured surfaces, we demonstrate strong correlation between plasmon resonances and surface-enhanced CARS intensities. Furthermore, fast imaging of molecular monolayers is performed. Our work paves the way for reliable single molecule Raman spectroscopy and fast molecular imaging on plasmonic surfaces.

  9. Sensitive determinations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr elements in aqueous solutions using chemical replacement combined with surface-enhanced laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, X Y; Hao, Z Q; Li, C M; Li, J M; Yi, R X; Shen, M; Li, K H; Guo, L B; Li, X Y; Lu, Y F; Zeng, X Y

    2016-06-13

    In this study, chemical replacement combined with surface-enhanced laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CR-SENLIBS) was for the first time applied to improve the detection sensitivities of trace heavy metal elements in aqueous solutions. Utilizing chemical replacement effect, heavy metal ions in aqueous solution were enriched on the magnesium alloy surface as a solid replacement layer through reacting with the high chemical activity metallic magnesium (Mg) within 1 minute. Unitary and mixed solutions with Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr elements were prepared to construct calibration curves, respectively. The CR-SENLIBS showed a much better detection sensitivity and accuracy for both unitary and mixed solutions. The coefficients of determination R2 of the calibration curves were above 0.96, and the LoDs were of the same order of magnitude, i.e., in the range of 0.016-0.386 μg/mL for the unitary solution, and in the range of 0.025-0.420 μg/mL for the mixed solution. These results show that CR-SENLIBS is a feasible method for improving the detection sensitivity of trace element in liquid sample, which definitely provides a way for wider application of LIBS in water quality monitoring. PMID:27410358

  10. Flux of OH and O radicals onto a surface by an atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet measured by laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemori, Seiya; Ono, Ryo

    2014-03-01

    The atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet is of emerging interest as a cutting-edge biomedical device for cancer treatment, wound healing and sterilization. Reactive oxygen species such as OH and O radicals are considered to be major factors in the application of biological plasma. In this study, density distribution, temporal behaviour and flux of OH and O radicals on a surface are measured using laser-induced fluorescence. A helium plasma jet is generated by applying pulsed high voltage of 8 kV with 10 kHz using a quartz tube with an inner diameter of 4 mm. To evaluate the relation between the surface condition and active species production, three surfaces are used: dry, wet and rat skin. When the helium flow rate is 1.5 l min-1, radial distribution of OH density on the rat skin surface shows a maximum density of 1.2 × 1013 cm-3 at the centre of the plasma-mediated area, while O atom density shows a maximum of 1.0 × 1015 cm-3 at 2.0 mm radius from the centre of the plasma-mediated area. Their densities in the effluent of the plasma jet are almost constant during the intervals of the discharge pulses because their lifetimes are longer than the pulse interval. Their density distribution depends on the helium flow rate and the surface humidity. With these results, OH and O production mechanisms in the plasma jet and their flux onto the surface are discussed.

  11. Automated quantification of one-dimensional nanostructure alignment on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jianjin; Goldthorpe, Irene A; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

    2016-06-10

    A method for automated quantification of the alignment of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures from microscopy imaging is presented. Nanostructure alignment metrics are formulated and shown to be able to rigorously quantify the orientational order of nanostructures within a two-dimensional domain (surface). A complementary image processing method is also presented which enables robust processing of microscopy images where overlapping nanostructures might be present. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of nanowire-covered surfaces are analyzed using the presented methods and it is shown that past single parameter alignment metrics are insufficient for highly aligned domains. Through the use of multiple parameter alignment metrics, automated quantitative analysis of SEM images is shown to be possible and the alignment characteristics of different samples are able to be quantitatively compared using a similarity metric. The results of this work provide researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology with a rigorous method for the determination of structure/property relationships, where alignment of 1D nanostructures is significant. PMID:27119552

  12. Automated quantification of one-dimensional nanostructure alignment on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jianjin; Goldthorpe, Irene A.; Mohieddin Abukhdeir, Nasser

    2016-06-01

    A method for automated quantification of the alignment of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures from microscopy imaging is presented. Nanostructure alignment metrics are formulated and shown to be able to rigorously quantify the orientational order of nanostructures within a two-dimensional domain (surface). A complementary image processing method is also presented which enables robust processing of microscopy images where overlapping nanostructures might be present. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of nanowire-covered surfaces are analyzed using the presented methods and it is shown that past single parameter alignment metrics are insufficient for highly aligned domains. Through the use of multiple parameter alignment metrics, automated quantitative analysis of SEM images is shown to be possible and the alignment characteristics of different samples are able to be quantitatively compared using a similarity metric. The results of this work provide researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology with a rigorous method for the determination of structure/property relationships, where alignment of 1D nanostructures is significant.

  13. Understanding the biological responses of nanostructured metals and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Terry C.; Reiss, Rebecca A.

    2014-08-01

    Metals produced by Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) offer distinct advantages for medical applications such as orthopedic devices, in part because of their nanostructured surfaces. We examine the current theoretical foundations and state of knowledge for nanostructured biomaterials surface optimization within the contexts that apply to bulk nanostructured metals, differentiating how their microstructures impact osteogenesis, in particular, for Ultrafine Grained (UFG) titanium. Then we identify key gaps in the research to date, pointing out areas which merit additional focus within the scientific community. For example, we highlight the potential of next-generation DNA sequencing techniques (NGS) to reveal gene and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) expression changes induced by nanostructured metals. While our understanding of bio-nano interactions is in its infancy, nanostructured metals are already being marketed or developed for medical devices such as dental implants, spinal devices, and coronary stents. Our ability to characterize and optimize the biological response of cells to SPD metals will have synergistic effects on advances in materials, biological, and medical science.

  14. Modulated surface nanostructures for enhanced light trapping and reduced surface reflection of crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayagaki, Takeshi; Hoshi, Yusuke; Hirai, Yuji; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Usami, Noritaka

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrated the fabrication of modulated surface nanostructures as a new surface texture design for thin wafer solar cells. Using a combination of conventional alkali etching and colloidal lithography, we fabricated surface textures with micrometer and nanometre scales on a Si substrate. These modulated surface nanostructures exhibit reduced surface reflection in a broad spectral range, compared with conventional micrometer textures. We investigated optical absorption using a rigorous coupled wave analysis simulation, which revealed a significant reduction in surface reflection over a broad spectral range and efficient light trapping (comparable to that of conventional micrometer-scale textures) for the modulated nanostructures. We found that the modulated surface nanostructures have a high potential of improving the performance of thin wafer crystalline Si solar cells.

  15. Imprinted and injection-molded nano-structured optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Alexander B.; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Clausen, Jeppe; Caringal, Gideon P.; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by nature, nano-textured surfaces have attracted much attention as a method to realize optical surface functionality. The moth-eye antireflective structure and the structural colors of Morpho butterflies are well- known examples used for inspiration for such biomimetic research. In this paper, nanostructured polymer surfaces suitable for up-scalable polymer replication methods, such as imprinting/embossing and injection-molding, are discussed. The limiting case of injection-moulding compatible designs is investigated. Anti-reflective polymer surfaces are realized by replication of Black Silicon (BSi) random nanostructure surfaces. The optical transmission at normal incidence is measured for wavelengths from 400 nm to 900 nm. For samples with optimized nanostructures, the reflectance is reduced by 50 % compared to samples with planar surfaces. The specular and diffusive reflection of light from polymer surfaces and their implication for creating structural colors is discussed. In the case of injection-moulding compatible designs, the maximum reflection of nano-scale textured surfaces cannot exceed the Fresnel reflection of a corresponding flat polymer surface, which is approx. 4 % for normal incidence. Diffraction gratings provide strong color reflection defined by the diffraction orders. However, the apperance varies strongly with viewing angles. Three different methods to address the strong angular-dependence of diffraction grating based structural color are discussed.

  16. Nanostructured surfaces for surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petefish, Joseph W.

    's mirror interferometer to perform multiple exposures at multiple angles before developing. Precise control of the resonance position is shown by locating three SPR dips at predetermined wavenumbers of 5000, 4000, and 3000 cm-1, respectively. A set of three gratings, each having four closely spaced resonances is employed to show how the sensor response could be broadened. The work in Chapter 3 shows potential for simultaneous enhancement of multiple vibrational modes; the multiband approach might find application for modes at disparate locations within the IR spectrum, while the broadband approach may allow concurrent probing of broad single modes or clusters of narrow modes within a particular neighborhood of the spectrum. Chapter 4 uses the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method to numerically explore another facet of the nanostructure-based tunability of grating-baed SPR sensing. The work in this chapter illustrates how infrared signal enhancement could be tailored by through adjustment of the grating amplitude. Modeled infrared reflection absorption (IRRAS) spectra and electric field distributions were generated for several nanostructured grating configurations. It was found that there exists a critical amplitude value for a given grating pitch where the plasmon response achieves a maximum. Amplitudes greater than this critical value produce a broader and attenuated plasmon peak, while smaller amplitudes produce a plasmon resonance that is not as intense. Field simulations show how amplitudes nearer the critical amplitude resulted in large increases in the electric field within an analyte film atop the sensor surface, and the relative strength of the increased field is predictable based on the appearance of the IRRAS spectra. It is believed that these larger fields are the cause of observed enhanced absorption. Published reports pertaining to interactions of SPs with molecular resonance and to diffraction-based tracking of plasmons without a spectrometer are

  17. Surface Engineering of Nanostructured Titanium Implants with Bioactive Ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-S; Kim, Y-J; Jang, J-H; Park, J-W

    2016-05-01

    Surface nanofeatures and bioactive ion chemical modification are centrally important in current titanium (Ti) oral implants for enhancing osseointegration. However, it is unclear whether the addition of bioactive ions definitively enhances the osteogenic capacity of a nanostructured Ti implant. We systematically investigated the osteogenesis process of human multipotent adipose stem cells triggered by bioactive ions in the nanostructured Ti implant surface. Here, we report that bioactive ion surface modification (calcium [Ca] or strontium [Sr]) and resultant ion release significantly increase osteogenic activity of the nanofeatured Ti surface. We for the first time demonstrate that ion modification actively induces focal adhesion development and expression of critical adhesion–related genes (vinculin, talin, and RHOA) of human multipotent adipose stem cells, resulting in enhanced osteogenic differentiation on the nanofeatured Ti surface. It is also suggested that fibronectin adsorption may have only a weak effect on early cellular events of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) at least in the case of the nanostructured Ti implant surface incorporating Sr. Moreover, results indicate that Sr overrides the effect of Ca and other important surface factors (i.e., surface area and wettability) in the osteogenesis function of various MSCs (derived from human adipose, bone marrow, and murine bone marrow). In addition, surface engineering of nanostructured Ti implants using Sr ions is expected to exert additional beneficial effects on implant bone healing through the proper balancing of the allocation of MSCs between adipogenesis and osteogenesis. This work provides insight into the future surface design of Ti dental implants using surface bioactive ion chemistry and nanotopography. PMID:26961491

  18. Surface processing technique based on opto-hydrodynamic phenomena occurring in laser-induced breakdown of a microdroplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Daehwan; Jang, Deoksuk; Choi, Tae-Youl; Kim, Dongsik

    2012-03-01

    We report the development of a surface processing technique based on the optical breakdown of a microdroplet and subsequent ejection of a pulsed microjet. The microjet was sufficiently fast to remove nanoparticles from surfaces and erode most materials. The small volume of the droplet enabled precise and selective treatment of surfaces. When the jet was impinged onto a laser spot focused by the droplet, ablation rates substantially larger than those in conventional pulsed laser ablation were obtained with significantly reduced thermal effects. The jet could remove 20 nm particles and an oxide layer from solid surfaces by hydrodynamic impact only.

  19. Laser-induced desorption of atomic and molecular fragments from a tin dioxide surface modified by a thin organic covering of copper phthalocyanine

    SciTech Connect

    Komolov, A. S. Komolov, S. A.; Lazneva, E. F.; Turiev, A. M.

    2012-01-15

    The systematic features of laser-induced desorption from an SnO{sub 2} surface exposed to 10-ns pulsed neodymium laser radiation are studied at the photon energy 2.34 eV, in the range of pulse energy densities 1 to 50 mJ/cm{sup 2}. As the threshold pulse energy 28 mJ/cm{sup 2} is achieved, molecular oxygen O{sub 2} is detected in the desorption mass spectra from the SnO{sub 2} surface; as the threshold pulse energy 42 mJ/cm{sup 2} is reached, tin Sn, and SnO and (SnO){sub 2} particle desorption is observed. The laser desorption mass spectra from the SnO{sub 2} surface coated with an organic copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) film 50 nm thick are measured. It is shown that laser irradiation causes the fragmentation of CuPc molecules and the desorption of molecular fragments in the laser pulse energy density range 6 to 10 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Along with the desorption of molecular fragments, a weak desorption signal of the substrate components O{sub 2}, Sn, SnO, and (SnO){sub 2} is observed in the same energy range. Desorption energy thresholds of substrate atomic components from the organic film surface are approximately five times lower than thresholds of their desorption from the atomically clean SnO{sub 2} surface, which indicates the diffusion of atomic components of the SnO{sub 2} substrate to the bulk of the deposited organic film.

  20. Effect of deposition method and substrate surface quality on laser-induced damage threshold for repetitive 13-ns and 130-fs pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melninkaitis, Andrius; Rakickas, Tomas; Miksys, Darius; Grigonis, Rimantas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas; Skrebutenas, Alfridas; Buzelis, Rytis; Drazdys, Ramutis; Abromavicius, Giedrius; Juskenas, Remigijus; Selskis, Algirdas

    2005-02-01

    A comparison of laser induced damage thresholds (LIDT) of ion assisted deposition (IAD) and standard electron beam deposition dielectric coatings on BK7 glass with different surface roughness was performed. Five types of high reflectance mirrors at 800 nm and two types of high reflectance mirrors at 1064 nm were tested. Mirror coatings were made of ZrO2 and SiO2. Automated LIDT measurements were performed according to the requirements of current ISO 11254-2 standard. Two lasers were used for the measurements: Nd:YAG (l = 1064 nm, t = 13 ns) and Ti:Sapphire (l = 800 nm, t = 130 fs ). All measurements were performed at 1-kHz pulse repetition rate (S-on-1 test). A fixed spot size was used for each laser. For 1064 nm it was ~ 70 um and for 800 nm ~ 500 um. The damage morphology and structure of coatings were characterized by an atomic force microscopy (AFM), Nomarski microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  1. Surface nanostructure formation by the interaction of slow xenon ions on HOPG surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y Wang, Y.; Xiao, G. Q.; Zhao, Y. T.; Li, D. H.; Zhao, D.; Xu, Z. F.; Li, F. L.

    2009-04-01

    Experiments on nanostructure formation on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces irradiated by slow highly charged Xeq+ (q = 23-29) ions have been carried out at a new experimental terminal for surface physics on the 320 kV ECR platform at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP). In the tapping mode atomic force microscope (AFM) image, the nano-sized hillocks protruding from the surfaces are probed. The height and diameter of the nanostructures increase with the projectile charge state. The present results reveal a similarity between the nanostructure formation produced by slow highly charged ions and the track formation induced by swift heavy ions.

  2. Introducing a new optimization tool for femtosecond laser-induced surface texturing on titanium, stainless steel, aluminum and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmmed, K. M. Tanvir; Ling, Edwin Jee Yang; Servio, Phillip; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2015-03-01

    The surface micro- and nano-scale features produced by femtosecond laser irradiation on titanium, stainless steel, aluminum and copper are reported in this work. Each observed surface microstructure, which was fabricated from a particular combination of four adjustable parameters, can be characterized by the fluence and pulses-per-spot (F-PPS) and accumulated fluence profile (AFP) models. By performing a wide screening of the experimental space, we have successfully mapped the evolution of microstructures as a function of two variables per model. We have also shown that these two models, in conjunction with one another and the data that we have presented, can be used as an optimization tool for scientists and engineers to quickly fine-tune the laser processing settings necessary for a desired surface topography. In addition, the electron-phonon coupling strength and thermal conductivity have been identified as the material properties that have the largest influence over the achievable surface patterns on metallic substrates.

  3. Localized Surface Plasmons in Nanostructured Monolayer Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zizhuo; Aydin, Koray

    2016-06-01

    Plasmonic materials provide electric-field localization and light confinement at subwavelength scales due to strong light-matter interaction around resonance frequencies. Graphene has been recently studied as an atomically thin plasmonic material for infrared and terahertz wavelengths. Here, we theoretically investigate localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in a monolayer, nanostructured black phosphorus (BP). Using finite-difference time-domain simulations, we demonstrate LSPRs at mid-infrared and far-infrared wavelength regime in BP nanoribbon and nanopatch arrays. Because of strong anisotropic in-plane properties of black phosphorus emerging from its puckered crystal structure, black phosphorus nanostructures provide polarization dependent, anisotropic plasmonic response. Electromagnetic simulations reveal that monolayer black phosphorus nanostructures can strongly confine infrared radiation in an atomically thin material. Black phosphorus can find use as a highly anisotropic plasmonic devices. PMID:27152653

  4. Jumping-Droplet-Enhanced Condensation on Scalable Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Miljkovic, N; Enright, R; Nam, Y; Lopez, K; Dou, N; Sack, J; Wang, E

    2013-01-09

    When droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump from the surface due to the release of excess surface energy. If designed properly, these superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces can not only allow for easy droplet removal at micrometric length scales during condensation but also promise to enhance heat transfer performance. However, the rationale for the design of an ideal nanostructured surface as well as heat transfer experiments demonstrating the advantage of this jumping behavior are lacking. Here, we show that silanized copper oxide surfaces created via a simple fabrication method can achieve highly efficient jumping-droplet condensation heat transfer. We experimentally demonstrated a 25% higher overall heat flux and 30% higher condensation heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art hydrophobic condensing surfaces at low supersaturations (<1.12). This work not only shows significant condensation heat transfer enhancement but also promises a low cost and scalable approach to increase efficiency for applications such as atmospheric water harvesting and dehumidification. Furthermore, the results offer insights and an avenue to achieve high flux superhydrophobic condensation.

  5. Investigation of ultrafast photothermal surface expansion and diffusivity in GaAs via laser-induced dynamic gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D.M.

    1992-04-01

    This thesis details the first direct ultrafast measurements of the dynamic thermal expansion of a surface and the temperature dependent surface thermal diffusivity using a two-color reflection transient grating technique. Studies were performed on p-type, n-type, and undoped GaAs(100) samples over a wide range of temperatures. By utilizing a 90 fs ultraviolet probe with visible excitation beams, the effects of interband saturation and carrier dynamics become negligible; thus lattice expansion due to heating and subsequent contraction caused by cooling provided the dominant influence on the probe. At room temperature a rise due to thermal expansion was observed, corresponding to a maximum net displacement of {approximately} 1 {Angstrom} at 32 ps. The diffracted signal was composed of two components, thermal expansion of the surface and heat flow away from the surface, thus allowing a determination of the rate of expansion as well as the surface thermal diffusivity, D{sub S}. By varying the fringe spacing of the grating, this technique has the potential to separate the signal contributions to the expansion of the lattice in the perpendicular and parallel directions. In the data presented here a large fringe spacing was used, thus the dominant contribution to the rising edge of the signal was expansion perpendicular to the surface. Comparison of he results with a straightforward thermal model yields good agreement over a range of temperatures (20--300{degrees}K). Values for D{sub S} in GaAs were measured and found to be in reasonable agreement with bulk values above 50{degrees}K. Below 50{degrees}K, D{sub S} were determined to be up to an order of magnitude slower than the bulk diffusivity due to increased phonon boundary scattering. The applicability and advantages of the TG technique for studying photothermal and photoacoustic phenomena are discussed.

  6. Rayleigh waves, surface disorder, and phonon localization in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, L. N.; Mei, S.; Knezevic, I.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a technique to calculate thermal conductivity in disordered nanostructures: a finite-difference time-domain solution of the elastic-wave equation combined with the Green-Kubo formula. The technique captures phonon wave behavior and scales well to nanostructures that are too large or too surface disordered to simulate with many other techniques. We investigate the role of Rayleigh waves and surface disorder on thermal transport by studying graphenelike nanoribbons with free edges (allowing Rayleigh waves) and fixed edges (prohibiting Rayleigh waves). We find that free edges result in a significantly lower thermal conductivity than fixed ones. Free edges both introduce Rayleigh waves and cause all low-frequency modes (bulk and surface) to become more localized. Increasing surface disorder on free edges draws energy away from the center of the ribbon and toward the disordered edges, where it gets trapped in localized surface modes. These effects are not seen in ribbons with fixed boundary conditions and illustrate the importance of phonon-surface modes in nanostructures.

  7. Nanostructured surfaces for microfluidics and sensing applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, Samuel Thomas; Piech, Marcin; Schneider, John F.; Vail, Sean; Hayes, Mark A.; Garcia, Anthony A.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Gust, D; Yang, Dongqing

    2007-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the use of light to move liquids on a photoresponsive monolayer, providing a new method for delivering analyses in lab-on-chip environments for microfluidic systems. The light-driven motion of liquids was achieved on photoresponsive azobenzene modified surfaces. The surface energy components of azobenzene modified surfaces were calculated by Van Oss theory. The motion of the liquid was achieved by generation of a surface tension gradient by isomerization of azobenzene monolayers using UV and Visible light, thereby establishing a surface energy heterogeneity on the edge of the droplet. Contact angle measurements of various solvents were used to demonstrate the requirement for fluid motion.

  8. Dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silicon by high spatial and temporal resolution imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, X.; Jia, T. Q. Peng, N. N.; Feng, D. H.; Zhang, S. A.; Sun, Z. R.

    2014-04-14

    The formation dynamics of periodic ripples induced by femtosecond laser pulses (pulse duration τ = 50 fs and central wavelength λ = 800 nm) are studied by a collinear pump-probe imaging technique with a temporal resolution of 1 ps and a spatial resolution of 440 nm. The ripples with periods close to the laser wavelength begin to appear upon irradiation of two pump pulses at surface defects produced by the prior one. The rudiments of periodic ripples emerge in the initial tens of picoseconds after fs laser irradiation, and the ripple positions keep unmoved until the formation processes complete mainly in a temporal span of 1500 ps. The results suggest that the periodic deposition of laser energy during the interaction between femtosecond laser pulses and sample surface plays a dominant role in the formation of periodic ripples.

  9. Experimental Study of Water Droplet Vaporization on Nanostructured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Jorge, Jr.

    This dissertation summarizes results of an experimental exploration of heat transfer during vaporization of a water droplet deposited on a nanostructured surface at a temperature approaching and exceeding the Leidenfrost point for the surface and at lower surface temperatures 10-40 degrees C above the saturated temperature of the water droplet at approximately 101 kPa. The results of these experiments were compared to those performed on bare smooth copper and aluminum surfaces in this and other studies. The nanostructured surfaces were composed of a vast array of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals grown by hydrothermal synthesis on a smooth copper substrate having an average surface roughness of approximately 0.06 micrometer. Various nanostructured surface array geometries were produced on the copper substrate by performing the hydrothermal synthesis for 4, 10 and 24 hours. The individual nanostructures were randomly-oriented and, depending on hydrothermal synthesis time, had a mean diameter of about 500-700 nm, a mean length of 1.7-3.3 micrometers,and porosities of approximately 0.04-0.58. Surface wetting was characterized by macroscopic measurements of contact angle based on the droplet profile and calculations based on measurements of liquid film spread area. Scanning electron microscope imaging was used to document the nanoscale features of the surface before and after the experiments. The nanostructured surfaces grown by hydrothermal synthesis for 4 and 24 hours exhibited contact angles of approximately 10, whereas the surfaces grown for 10 hours were superhydrophilic, exhibiting contact angles typically less than 3 degrees. In single droplet deposition experiments at 101 kPa, a high-speed video camera was used to document the droplet-surface interaction. Distilled and degassed water droplets ranging in size from 2.5-4.0 mm were deposited onto the surface from heights ranging from approximately 0.2-8.1 cm, such that Weber numbers spanned a range of approximately 0

  10. Propagating and localized surface plasmons in Ag nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Maciej; Dai, Yanan; Petek, Hrvoje

    Plasmonic excitations strongly depend on the size, geometry and dielectric environment of nanoscale metals. Here, we study an epitaxially grown Ag nanostructures on Si(001) and Si(111) surfaces by Low Energy Electron Microscopy/Photoemission Electron Microscopy (LEEM/PEEM). Using the combination of LEEM and broadly tunable femtosecond laser excited multiphoton PEEM we image how single crystalline metallic nanostructures form and how plasmon excitations depend on the particle structure and laser excitation parameters. For Ag pyramids with the dimensions of few hundreds nanometers, dipolar and quadrupolar localized surface plasmons are observed. For Ag wires with several micrometer lengths, both localized and propagating surface plasmons can be excited, depending on the polarization, particle orientation and energy of the excitation. Finally, in larger Ag islands, several micrometers in size, the interference patterns are created by plasmon waves excited at the island edges. In addition to plasmonic response, light diffraction patterns around the Ag nanostrutures are discussed.

  11. Theoretical study on line source laser-induced surface acoustic waves in two-layer structure in ablative regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Z. H.; Xu, B. Q.; Ni, X. W.; Lu, J.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2004-03-01

    The generation of ultrasound in film-substrate system by a laser line source is studied in the case of ablation mechanism, which can be realized by adding a liquid layer at the excitation point. The time domain displacement can be yielded by the numerical jointed inversed Laplace-Fourier transformation technique. The typical surface acoustic waves (SAW) of two layer structures, slow film on fast substrate and fast film on slow substrate, are obtained and the effect of the propagation distance and the thickness of the film on the SAW are given.

  12. Theoretical Study of the Effect of Enamel Parameters on Laser-Induced Surface Acoustic Waves in Human Incisor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ling; Sun, Kaihua; Shen, Zhonghua; Ni, Xiaowu; Lu, Jian

    2015-06-01

    The laser ultrasound technique has great potential for clinical diagnosis of teeth because of its many advantages. To study laser surface acoustic wave (LSAW) propagation in human teeth, two theoretical methods, the finite element method (FEM) and Laguerre polynomial extension method (LPEM), are presented. The full field temperature values and SAW displacements in an incisor can be obtained by the FEM. The SAW phase velocity in a healthy incisor and dental caries is obtained by the LPEM. The methods and results of this work can provide a theoretical basis for nondestructive evaluation of human teeth with LSAWs.

  13. Ion beam induced optical and surface modification in plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Udai B.; Gautam, Subodh K.; Kumar, Sunil; Hooda, Sonu; Ojha, Sunil; Singh, Fouran

    2016-07-01

    In present work, ion irradiation induced nanostructuring has been exploited as an efficient and effective tool for synthesis of coupled plasmonics nanostructures by using 1.2 MeV Xe ions on Au/ZnO/Au system deposited on glass substrate. The results are correlated on the basis of their optical absorption, surface morphologies and enhanced sensitivity of evolved phonon modes by using UV Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. Optical absorbance spectra of plasmonic nanostructures (NSs) show a decrease in band gap, which may be ascribed to the formation of defects with ion irradiation. The surface morphology reveals the formation of percolated NSs upon ion irradiation and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) study clearly shows the formation of multilayer system. Furthermore, RS measurements on samples are studied to understand the enhanced sensitivity of ion irradiation induced phonon mode at 573 cm-1 along with other modes. As compared to pristine sample, a stronger and pronounced evolution of these phonon modes is observed with further ion irradiation, which indicates localized surface plasmon results with enhanced intensity of phonon modes of Zinc oxide (ZnO) material. Thus, such plasmonic NSs can be used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates.

  14. DROPWISE CONDENSATION ON MICRO- AND NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Enright, R; Miljkovic, N; Alvarado, JL; Kim, K; Rose, JW

    2014-07-23

    In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface-enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro-and nanoscale using both bottom-up and top-down approaches has led to increased study of complex interfacial phenomena. In the heat transfer community, researchers have been extensively exploring the use of advanced surface structuring techniques to enhance phase-change heat transfer processes. In particular, the field of vapor-to-liquid condensation and especially that of water condensation has experienced a renaissance due to the promise of further optimizing this process at the micro-and nanoscale by exploiting advances in surface engineering developed over the last several decades.

  15. Superhydrophobic Behavior on Nano-structured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    Superhydrophobic behavior is observed in natural occurrences and has been thoroughly studied over the past few years. Water repellant properties on uniform arrays of vertically aligned nano-cones were investigated to determine the highest achievable contact angle (a measure of water drop repellency), which is measured from the reference plane on which the water drop sits to the tangent line of the point at which the drop makes contact with the reference plane. At low aspect ratios (height vs. width of the nano-cones), surface tension pulls the water into the nano-cone array, resulting in a wetted surface. Higher aspect ratios reverse the effect of the surface tension, resulting in a larger contact angle that causes water drops to roll off the surface. Fiber drawing, bundling, and redrawing are used to produce the structured array glass composite surface. Triple-drawn fibers are fused together, annealed, and sliced into thin wafers. The surface of the composite glass is etched to form nano-cones through a differential etching process and then coated with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Cone aspect ratios can be varied through changes in the chemistry and concentration of the etching acid solution. Superhydrophobic behavior occurs at contact angles >150 and it is predicted and measured that optimal behavior is achieved when the aspect ratio is 4:1, which displays contact angles >=175 .

  16. CW-laser-induced morphological changes of a single gold nanoparticle on glass: observation of surface evaporation.

    PubMed

    Setoura, Kenji; Okada, Yudai; Hashimoto, Shuichi

    2014-12-28

    Pulsed-laser heating of colloidal noble-metal nanoparticles in an aqueous solution induces morphological changes such as size reduction. However, the technique suffers disadvantages through polydispersed products. Here, we show that continuous-wave (CW) laser heating of single gold nanoparticles is capable of generating particles of smaller diameters with superb control in terms of exposure time and intensity. We show, based on calculations of particle temperatures under illumination, that surface evaporation below the boiling point of bulk gold occurs, resulting in a gradual diameter decrease in air. In our experiment, a focused illumination of Au NPs through an objective lens of a microscope provided peak-power densities (10(6)-10(7) W cm(-2)) equivalent to that of a typical nanosecond laser. Nevertheless the heating rate under CW laser illumination is much lower than that under pulsed-laser illumination, resulting in better control over nanoparticle heating and related morphological changes. Furthermore, the single-particle study of such heating helps us to clarify the evolution of such changes to a given particle. PMID:25377431

  17. Correlated diffuse x-ray scattering from periodically nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltwisch, V.; Haase, A.; Wernecke, J.; Probst, J.; Schoengen, M.; Burger, S.; Krumrey, M.; Scholze, F.

    2016-07-01

    Laterally periodic nanostructures were investigated with grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering. To support an improved reconstruction of nanostructured surface geometries, we investigated the origin of the contributions to the diffuse scattering pattern which is correlated to the surface roughness. Resonant diffuse scattering leads to a palmlike structure of intensity sheets. Dynamic scattering generates the so-called Yoneda band caused by a resonant scatter enhancement at the critical angle of total reflection and higher-order Yoneda bands originating from a subsequent diffraction of the Yoneda enhanced scattering at the grating. Our explanations are supported by modeling using a solver for the time-harmonic Maxwell's equations based on the finite-element method.

  18. Nanostructured Surfaces for Drug Delivery and Anti-Fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Kimberly Renee

    Effective and cost-efficient healthcare is at the forefront of public discussion; on both personal and policy levels, technologies that improve therapeutic efficacy without the use of painful hypodermic needle injections or the use of harsh chemicals would prove beneficial to patients. Nanostructured surfaces as structure-mediated permeability enhancers introduce a potentially revolutionary approach to the field of drug delivery. Parental administration routes have been the mainstay technologies for delivering biologics because these therapeutics are too large to permeate epithelial barriers. However, there is a significant patient dislike for hypodermic needles resulting in reduced patient compliance and poor therapeutic results. We present an alternative strategy to harness the body's naturally occurring biological processes and transport mechanisms to enhance the drug transport of biologics across the epithelium. Our strategy offers a paradigm shift from traditional biochemical drug delivery vehicles by using nanotopography to loosen the epithelial barrier. Herein, we demonstrate that nanotopographical cues can be used to enable biologics > 66 kDa to be transported across epithelial monolayers by increasing paracellular transport. When placed in contact with epithelial cells, nanostructured films significantly increase the transport of albumin, IgG, and a model therapeutic, etanercept. Our work highlights the potential to use drug delivery systems which incorporate nanotopographical cues to increase the transport of biologics across epithelial tissue. Furthermore, we describe current advancements in nano- and microfabrication for applications in anti-fibrosis and wound healing. Influencing cellular responses to biomaterials is crucial in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Since cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix features that are on the nanoscale, identifying nanostructures for imparting desirable cellular function could greatly

  19. Reaction mechanisms for on-surface synthesis of covalent nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björk, J.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, on-surface synthesis has become an increasingly popular strategy to form covalent nanostructures. The approach has great prospects for facilitating the manufacture of a range of fascinating materials with atomic precision. However, the on-surface reactions are enigmatic to control, currently restricting its bright perspectives and there is a great need to explore how the reactions are governed. The objective of this topical review is to summarize theoretical work that has focused on comprehending on-surface synthesis protocols through studies of reaction mechanisms.

  20. Fabrication of superhydrophobic nanostructured surface on aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, R.; Farzaneh, M.

    2011-01-01

    A superhydrophobic surface was prepared by consecutive immersion in boiling water and sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon®) on the surface of an aluminum alloy substrate. Immersion in boiling water was used to create a micro-nanostructure on the alloy substrate. Then, the rough surface was coated with RF-sputtered Teflon film. The immersion time in boiling water plays an important role in surface morphology and water repellency of the deposited Teflon coating. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a "flower-like" structure in first few minutes of immersion. And as the immersion time lengthened, a "cornflake" structure appeared. FTIR analyses of Teflon-like coating deposited on water treated aluminum alloy surfaces showed fluorinated groups, which effectively reduce surface energy. The Teflon-like coating deposited on a rough surface achieved with five-minute immersion in boiling water provided a high static contact angle (˜164°) and low contact angle hysteresis (˜4°).

  1. Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, S. A.; Bagnall, D. M.

    2008-09-01

    Broadband antireflection schemes for silicon surfaces based on the moth-eye principle and comprising arrays of subwavelength-scale pillars are applicable to solar cells, photodetectors, and stealth technologies and can exhibit very low reflectances. We show that rigorous coupled wave analysis can be used to accurately model the intricate reflectance behavior of these surfaces and so can be used to explore the effects of variations in pillar height, period, and shape. Low reflectance regions are identified, the extent of which are determined by the shape of the pillars. The wavelengths over which these low reflectance regions operate can be shifted by altering the period of the array. Thus the subtle features of the reflectance spectrum of a moth-eye array can be tailored for optimum performance for the input spectrum of a specific application.

  2. Liquid slip on a nanostructured surface.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doo Jin; Cho, Ki Yeon; Jang, Soohwan; Song, Young Seok; Youn, Jae Ryoun

    2012-07-17

    We explored a liquid slip, referred to as the Navier slip, at liquid-solid interface. Such a slip is provoked by the physicochemical features of the liquid-solid system. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of a nanoengineered surface structure on liquid slip by fabricating the self-assembly structure of nano Zinc oxide (n-ZnO). We have also examined how the liquid-solid surface interaction controlled by hydrophobic chemical treatment affects the liquid slip. The findings showed that liquid slip increases with decreasing the characteristic length scales (e.g., channel height and depth), resulting in drag reduction. It was also found that dewetted (Cassie) state due to the generation of air gap developed by n-ZnO was more critical for the liquid slip than the minimization of interface interaction. The linear and nonlinear Navier slip models showed that liquid slip behavior is more obvious when increasing the nonlinearity. This study will contribute to understanding of the underlying physics behind fluid slip phenomena, such as the Navier slip for Newtonian liquids and Maxwell's slip for Newtonian gases. PMID:22717057

  3. Strong emission of terahertz radiation from nanostructured Ge surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Chul; Maeng, Inhee; Kee, Chul-Sik; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su; Kim, Tae Heon; Lee, Jong Seok

    2015-06-29

    Indirect band gap semiconductors are not efficient emitters of terahertz radiation. Here, we report strong emission of terahertz radiation from germanium wafers with nanostructured surfaces. The amplitude of THz radiation from an array of nano-bullets (nano-cones) is more than five (three) times larger than that from a bare-Ge wafer. The power of the terahertz radiation from a Ge wafer with an array of nano-bullets is comparable to that from n-GaAs wafers, which have been widely used as a terahertz source. We find that the THz radiation from Ge wafers with the nano-bullets is even more powerful than that from n-GaAs for frequencies below 0.6 THz. Our results suggest that introducing properly designed nanostructures on indirect band gap semiconductor wafers is a simple and cheap method to improve the terahertz emission efficiency of the wafers significantly.

  4. Titanium nanostructural surface processing for improved biocompatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-C.; Lee, S.-Y.; Chen, C.-C.; Shyng, Y.-C.; Ou, K.-L.

    2006-10-23

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incident x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to evaluate the effect of titanium hydride on the formation of nanoporous TiO{sub 2} on Ti during anodization. Nano-titanium-hydride was formed cathodically before anodizing and served as a sacrificial nanoprecipitate during anodization. Surface oxidation occurred and a multinanoporous structure formed after cathodic pretreatments followed by anodization treatment. The sacrificial nanoprecipitate is directly dissolved and the Ti transformed to nanoporous TiO{sub 2} by anodization. The formation of sacrificial nanoprecipitates by cathodic pretreatment and of the multinanostructure by anodization is believed to improve biocompatibility, thereby promoting osseointegration.

  5. Sensitive And Selective Chemical Sensor With Nanostructured Surfaces.

    DOEpatents

    Pipino, Andrew C. R.

    2003-02-04

    A chemical sensor is provided which includes an optical resonator including a nanostructured surface comprising a plurality of nanoparticles bound to one or more surfaces of the resonator. The nanoparticles provide optical absorption and the sensor further comprises a detector for detecting the optical absorption of the nanoparticles or their environment. In particular, a selective chemical interaction is provided which modifies the optical absorption of the nanoparticles or their environment, and an analyte is detected based on the modified optical absorption. A light pulse is generated which enters the resonator to interrogate the modified optical absorption and the exiting light pulse is detected by the detector.

  6. Spectroscopy During Laser Induced Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, R.; Meyer, W.; Hering, P.

    1988-06-01

    In the course of laser induced shock wave lithotripsy (LISL) by means of a flashlamp pumped dye laser a plasma is formed on the stone's surface. Spectral analysis of the plasma flash leads to chemical stone analysis during the procedure. A time resolved integral analysis of scattered and laser induced fluorescence light makes stone detection possible and avoids tissue damage. We used a 200 μm fiber to transmit a 2 μs, 50 mJ pulse to the stone's surface and a second 200 μ fiber for analysis. This transmission system is small and flexible enough for controlled endoscopic use in the treatment of human ureter or common bile duct stones. Under these conditions the stone selective effect of lasertripsy leads only to minor tissue injury.

  7. Laser induced ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedl, G.; Schuöcker, D.; Geringer, B.; Graf, J.; Klawatsch, D.; Lenz, H. P.; Piock, W. F.; Jetzinger, M.; Kapus, P.

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays, combustion engines and other combustion processes play an overwhelming and important role in everyday life. As a result, ignition of combustion processes is of great importance, too. Usually, ignition of a combustible material is defined in such a way that an ignition initiates a self-sustained reaction which propagates through the inflammable material even in the case that the ignition source has been removed. In most cases, a well defined ignition location and ignition time is of crucial importance. Spark plugs are well suited for such tasks but suffer from some disadvantages, like erosion of electrodes or restricted positioning possibilities. In some cases, ignition of combustible materials by means of high power laser pulses could be beneficial. High power lasers offer several different possibilities to ignite combustible materials, like thermal ignition, resonant ignition or optical breakdown ignition. Since thermal and resonant ignitions are not well suited on the requirements mentioned previously, only optical breakdown ignition will be discussed further. Optical breakdown of a gas within the focal spot of a high power laser allows a very distinct localization of the ignition spot in a combustible material. Since pulse duration is usually in the range of several nanoseconds, requirements on the ignition time are fulfilled easily, too. Laser peak intensities required for such an optical breakdown are in the range of 10 11 W/cm2. The hot plasma which forms during this breakdown initiates the following self-propagating combustion process. It has been shown previously that laser ignition of direct injection engines improves the fuel consumption as well as the exhaust emissions of such engines significantly. The work presented here gives a brief overview on the basics of laser induced ignition. Flame propagation which follows a successful ignition event can be distinguished into two diffrent regimes. Combustion processes within an engine are usually

  8. Electric-field-enhanced condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Preston, Daniel J; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2013-12-23

    When condensed droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump due to the conversion of excess surface energy into kinetic energy. This phenomenon has been shown to enhance condensation heat transfer by up to 30% compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensing surfaces. However, after the droplets jump away from the surface, the existence of the vapor flow toward the condensing surface increases the drag on the jumping droplets, which can lead to complete droplet reversal and return to the surface. This effect limits the possible heat transfer enhancement because larger droplets form upon droplet return to the surface, which impedes heat transfer until they can be either removed by jumping again or finally shedding via gravity. By characterizing individual droplet trajectories during condensation on superhydrophobic nanostructured copper oxide (CuO) surfaces, we show that this vapor flow entrainment dominates droplet motion for droplets smaller than R ≈ 30 μm at moderate heat fluxes (q″ > 2 W/cm(2)). Subsequently, we demonstrate electric-field-enhanced condensation, whereby an externally applied electric field prevents jumping droplet return. This concept leverages our recent insight that these droplets gain a net positive charge due to charge separation of the electric double layer at the hydrophobic coating. As a result, with scalable superhydrophobic CuO surfaces, we experimentally demonstrated a 50% higher overall condensation heat transfer coefficient compared to that on a jumping-droplet surface with no applied field for low supersaturations (<1.12). This work not only shows significant condensation heat transfer enhancement but also offers avenues for improving the performance of self-cleaning and anti-icing surfaces as well as thermal diodes. PMID:24261667

  9. Nanosecond laser-induced ablation and laser-induced shockwave structuring of polymer foils down to sub-μm patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, P.; Bayer, L.; Ehrhardt, M.; Zimmer, K.; Engisch, L.

    2015-03-01

    Micro- and nanostructures exhibit a growing commercial interest where a fast, cost-effective, and large-area production is attainable. Laser methods have a great potential for the easy fabrication of surface structures into flexible polymer foils like polyimide (PI). In this study two different concepts for the structuring of polymer foils using a KrF excimer laser were tested and compared: the laser-induced ablation and the laser-induced shock wave structuring. The direct front side laser irradiation of these polymers allows the fabrication of different surface structures. For example: The low laser fluence treatment of PI results in nano-sized cone structures where the cone density can be controlled by the laser parameters. This allows inter alia the laser fabrication of microscopic QR code and high-resolution grey-tone images. Furthermore, the laser treatment of the front side of the polymer foil allows the rear side structuring due to a laserinduced shock wave. The resultant surface structures were analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as white light interferometry (WLI).

  10. Superomniphobic, transparent, and antireflection surfaces based on hierarchical nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Prantik; Jiang, Yongdong; Baker, David; Carrilero, Albert; Tulli, Domenico; Infante, Daniel; Hunt, Andrew T; Pruneri, Valerio

    2014-08-13

    Optical surfaces that can repel both water and oil have much potential for applications in a diverse array of technologies including self-cleaning solar panels, anti-icing windows and windshields for automobiles and aircrafts, low-drag surfaces, and antismudge touch screens. By exploiting a hierarchical geometry made of two-tier nanostructures, primary nanopillars of length scale ∼ 100-200 nm superposed with secondary branching nanostructures made of nanoparticles of length scale ∼ 10-30 nm, we have achieved static contact angles of more than 170° and 160° for water and oil, respectively, while the sliding angles were lower than 4°. At the same time, with respect to the initial flat bare glass, the nanotextured surface presented significantly reduced reflection (<0.5%), increased transmission (93.8% average over the 400 to 700 nm wavelength range), and very low scattering values (about 1% haze). To the authors' knowledge, these are the highest optical performances in conjunction with superomniphobicity reported to date in the literature. The primary nanopillars are monolithically integrated in the glass surface using lithography-free metal dewetting followed by reactive ion etching,1 while the smaller and higher surface area branching structure made of secondary nanoparticles are deposited by the NanoSpray2 combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). PMID:24988148

  11. Interaction of Laser Induced Micro-shockwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leela, Ch.; Bagchi, Suman; Tewari, Surya P.; Kiran, P. Prem

    Laser induced Shock Waves (LISWs) characterized by several optical methods provide Equation of State (EOS) for a variety of materials used in high-energy density physics experiments at Mbar pressures [1, 2]. Other applications include laser spark ignition for fuel-air mixtures, internal combustion engines, pulse detonation engines, laser shock peening [3], surface cleaning [4] and biological applications (SW lithotripsy) [5] to name a few.

  12. Photoemission electron microscopy of localized surface plasmons in silver nanostructures at telecommunication wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Mårsell, Erik; Larsen, Esben W.; Arnold, Cord L.; Xu, Hongxing; Mauritsson, Johan; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2015-02-28

    We image the field enhancement at Ag nanostructures using femtosecond laser pulses with a center wavelength of 1.55 μm. Imaging is based on non-linear photoemission observed in a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM). The images are directly compared to ultra violet PEEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging of the same structures. Further, we have carried out atomic scale scanning tunneling microscopy on the same type of Ag nanostructures and on the Au substrate. Measuring the photoelectron spectrum from individual Ag particles shows a larger contribution from higher order photoemission processes above the work function threshold than would be predicted by a fully perturbative model, consistent with recent results using shorter wavelengths. Investigating a wide selection of both Ag nanoparticles and nanowires, field enhancement is observed from 30% of the Ag nanoparticles and from none of the nanowires. No laser-induced damage is observed of the nanostructures neither during the PEEM experiments nor in subsequent SEM analysis. By direct comparison of SEM and PEEM images of the same nanostructures, we can conclude that the field enhancement is independent of the average nanostructure size and shape. Instead, we propose that the variations in observed field enhancement could originate from the wedge interface between the substrate and particles electrically connected to the substrate.

  13. Characterization of alumina-based ceramic nanocomposites by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Kaleem; Al-Eshaikh, Mohammad A.; Kadachi, Ahmed N.

    2015-06-01

    Alumina-based hybrids containing different concentrations of carbon nanostructure and SiC nanoparticles were consolidated by the spark plasma sintering in order to obtain fully dense bulk ceramic nanocomposites. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to determine relationship between plasma temperature and surface hardness of the composites. The characteristic parameters of plasma generated by irradiation of laser Nd:YAG ( λ = 1064 nm) on different bulk nanocomposites were determined at different delay times and energies by assuming the LTE condition for optically thin plasma. The plasma temperatures were estimated through intensity of selected aluminum emission lines using the Boltzmann plot method. The electron density was determined using the Stark broadening of selected aluminum and silicon emission lines. The samples were mechanically characterized by the Vickers hardness test. It has been observed that the plasma temperature increases with the increase in hardness and shows a perfect linear relationship. The results suggest that calibration curve between hardness and the plasma temperature can be employed as an alternate method to estimate the hardness of nanocomposite with varying concentrations of nanostructures just by measuring the plasma temperature with better reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, laser-induced break down spectroscopy (LIBS) offers potential applications in nuclear industry.

  14. Surface nanostructuring by ion-induced localized plasma expansion in zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    El-Said, A. S. E-mail: a.s.el-said@hzdr.de; Moslem, W. M.; Djebli, M.

    2014-06-09

    Creation of hillock-like nanostructures on the surface of zinc oxide single crystals by irradiation with slow highly charged ions is reported. At constant kinetic energy, the nanostructures were only observed after irradiation with ions of potential energies above a threshold between 19.1 keV and 23.3 keV. The size of the nanostructures increases as a function of potential energy. A plasma expansion approach is used to explain the nanostructures creation. The calculations showed that the surface nanostructures became taller with the increase of ionic temperature. The influence of charged cluster formation and the relevance of their polarity are discussed.

  15. Amplified effect of surface charge on cell adhesion by nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Ping; Meng, Jingxin; Zhang, Shuaitao; Ma, Xinlei; Wang, Shutao

    2016-06-01

    Nano-biointerfaces with varied surface charge can be readily fabricated by integrating a template-based process with maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry. Significantly, nanostructures are employed for amplifying the effect of surface charge on cell adhesion, as revealed by the cell-adhesion performance, cell morphology and corresponding cytoskeletal organization. This study may provide a promising strategy for developing new biomedical materials with tailored cell adhesion for tissue implantation and regeneration.Nano-biointerfaces with varied surface charge can be readily fabricated by integrating a template-based process with maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry. Significantly, nanostructures are employed for amplifying the effect of surface charge on cell adhesion, as revealed by the cell-adhesion performance, cell morphology and corresponding cytoskeletal organization. This study may provide a promising strategy for developing new biomedical materials with tailored cell adhesion for tissue implantation and regeneration. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM, KFM AFM, chemical modification and characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00649c

  16. Fast and Slow Wetting Dynamics on nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandyala, Dhiraj; Rahmani, Amir; Cubaud, Thomas; Colosqui, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    This talk will present force-displacement and spontaneous drop spreading measurements on diverse nanostructured surfaces (e.g., mesoporous titania thin films, nanoscale pillared structures, on silica or glass substrates). Experimental measurements are performed for water-air and water-oil systems. The dynamics of wetting observed in these experiments can present remarkable crossovers from fast to slow or arrested dynamics. The emergence of a slow wetting regime is attributed to a multiplicity of metastable equilibrium states induced by nanoscale surface features. The crossover point can be dramatically advanced or delayed by adjusting specific physical parameters (e.g., viscosity of the wetting phases) and geometric properties of the surface nanostructure (e.g., nanopore/pillar radius and separation). Controlling the crossover point to arrested dynamics can effectively modify the degree of contact angle hysteresis and magnitude of liquid adhesion forces observed on surfaces of different materials. This work is supported by a SEED Award from The Office of Brookhaven National Laboratory Affairs at Stony Brook University.

  17. Fabrication of large area nanostructures with surface modified silica spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kwang-Sun

    2014-03-01

    Surface modification of silica spheres with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate (TMSPM) has been performed at ambient condition. However, the FTIR spectra and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images show no evidence of the surface modification. The reaction temperatures were varied from 60 to 80 °C with various reaction periods. Small absorption shoulder of the CO stretching vibration was at 1700 cm-1, and slightly increased with the increase of the reaction time at 60 °C. The clear absorption peak appeared at 1698 cm-1 for the spheres reacted for 80 min at 70 °C and shifted toward 1720 cm-1 with the increase the reaction time. Strong absorption peak showed at 1698 cm-1 and shifted toward 1725 cm-1 with the increase of the reaction time at 80 °C. The spheres were dispersed to methanol and added photoinitiator (Irgacure-184). The solution was poured to a patterned glass substrate and exposed to the 254 nm UV-light during a self-assembly process. A large area and crack-free silica sphere film was formed. To increase the mechanical stability, a cellulose acetate solution was spin-coated to the film. The film was lift-off from the glass substrate to analyze the surface nanostructures. The surface nanostructures were maintained, and the film is stable enough to use as a mold to duplicate the nanopattern and flexible.

  18. Strong Casimir force reduction through metallic surface nanostructuring.

    PubMed

    Intravaia, Francesco; Koev, Stephan; Jung, Il Woong; Talin, A Alec; Davids, Paul S; Decca, Ricardo S; Aksyuk, Vladimir A; Dalvit, Diego A R; López, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Casimir force between bodies in vacuum can be understood as arising from their interaction with an infinite number of fluctuating electromagnetic quantum vacuum modes, resulting in a complex dependence on the shape and material of the interacting objects. Becoming dominant at small separations, the force has a significant role in nanomechanics and object manipulation at the nanoscale, leading to a considerable interest in identifying structures where the Casimir interaction behaves significantly different from the well-known attractive force between parallel plates. Here we experimentally demonstrate that by nanostructuring one of the interacting metal surfaces at scales below the plasma wavelength, an unexpected regime in the Casimir force can be observed. Replacing a flat surface with a deep metallic lamellar grating with sub-100 nm features strongly suppresses the Casimir force and for large inter-surfaces separations reduces it beyond what would be expected by any existing theoretical prediction. PMID:24071657

  19. Strong Casimir force reduction through metallic surface nanostructuring

    PubMed Central

    Intravaia, Francesco; Koev, Stephan; Jung, Il Woong; Talin, A. Alec; Davids, Paul S.; Decca, Ricardo S.; Aksyuk, Vladimir A.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; López, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Casimir force between bodies in vacuum can be understood as arising from their interaction with an infinite number of fluctuating electromagnetic quantum vacuum modes, resulting in a complex dependence on the shape and material of the interacting objects. Becoming dominant at small separations, the force has a significant role in nanomechanics and object manipulation at the nanoscale, leading to a considerable interest in identifying structures where the Casimir interaction behaves significantly different from the well-known attractive force between parallel plates. Here we experimentally demonstrate that by nanostructuring one of the interacting metal surfaces at scales below the plasma wavelength, an unexpected regime in the Casimir force can be observed. Replacing a flat surface with a deep metallic lamellar grating with sub-100 nm features strongly suppresses the Casimir force and for large inter-surfaces separations reduces it beyond what would be expected by any existing theoretical prediction. PMID:24071657

  20. Laser Nanostructurization of the Metal and Alloy Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanavin, Andrei; Kozlovskaya, Natalia; Krokhin, Oleg; Zavestovskaya, Irina

    2010-10-01

    The results from experimental and theoretical investigation of material pulsed laser treatment aimed at obtaining nano- and microstructured surface are presented. An experiment has been performed on the modification of indium surface using a solid-state diode-pumped laser. It has been shown that nano- and micro-size structures are formed under laser melting and fast crystallization of the metal surface. The kinetics of the crystallization of metals under superfast cooling. The distribution function for crystalline nuclei dimensions is analytically found within the framework of the classical kinetic equation in case of superfast temperature changing. The average number of particles in the crystalline nuclei and relative volume of the crystalline phase are determined as functions of thermodynamic and laser treatment regime parameters. Good agreement is observed with experimental results for ultrashort laser pulses induced micro- and nanostructures production.

  1. Computational design of surfaces, nanostructures and optoelectronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Kamal

    Properties of engineering materials are generally influenced by defects such as point defects (vacancies, interstitials, substitutional defects), line defects (dislocations), planar defects (grain boundaries, free surfaces/nanostructures, interfaces, stacking faults) and volume defects (voids). Classical physics based molecular dynamics and quantum physics based density functional theory can be useful in designing materials with controlled defect properties. In this thesis, empirical potential based molecular dynamics was used to study the surface modification of polymers due to energetic polyatomic ion, thermodynamics and mechanics of metal-ceramic interfaces and nanostructures, while density functional theory was used to screen substituents in optoelectronic materials. Firstly, polyatomic ion-beams were deposited on polymer surfaces and the resulting chemical modifications of the surface were examined. In particular, S, SC and SH were deposited on amorphous polystyrene (PS), and C2H, CH3, and C3H5 were deposited on amorphous poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using molecular dynamics simulations with classical reactive empirical many-body (REBO) potentials. The objective of this work was to elucidate the mechanisms by which the polymer surface modification took place. The results of the work could be used in tailoring the incident energy and/or constituents of ion beam for obtaining a particular chemistry inside the polymer surface. Secondly, a new Al-O-N empirical potential was developed within the charge optimized many body (COMB) formalism. This potential was then used to examine the thermodynamic stability of interfaces and mechanical properties of nanostructures composed of aluminum, its oxide and its nitride. The potentials were tested for these materials based on surface energies, defect energies, bulk phase stability, the mechanical properties of the most stable bulk phase, its phonon properties as well as with a genetic algorithm based evolution theory of

  2. Surface enhanced coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering on nanostructured gold surfaces.

    PubMed

    Steuwe, Christian; Kaminski, Clemens F; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2011-12-14

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is a well-known tool in multiphoton imaging and nonlinear spectroscopy. In this work we combine CARS with plasmonic surface enhancement on reproducible nanostructured surfaces. We demonstrate strong correlation between plasmon resonances and surface-enhanced CARS (SECARS) intensities on our nanostructured surfaces and show that an enhancement of ∼10(5) can be obtained over standard CARS. Furthermore, we find SECARS to be >10(3) times more sensitive than surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). We also demonstrate SECARS imaging of molecular monolayers. Our work paves the way for reliable single molecule Raman spectroscopy and fast molecular imaging on plasmonic surfaces. PMID:22074256

  3. Fabrication and characterization of hierarchical nanostructured smart adhesion surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungoo; Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-04-15

    The mechanics of fibrillar adhesive surfaces of biological systems such as a Lotus leaf and a gecko are widely studied due to their unique surface properties. The Lotus leaf is a model for superhydrophobic surfaces, self-cleaning properties, and low adhesion. Gecko feet have high adhesion due to the high micro/nanofibrillar hierarchical structures. A nanostructured surface may exhibit low adhesion or high adhesion depending upon fibrillar density, and it presents the possibility of realizing eco-friendly surface structures with desirable adhesion. The current research, for the first time uses a patterning technique to fabricate smart adhesion surfaces: single- and two-level hierarchical synthetic adhesive structure surfaces with various fibrillar densities and diameters that allows the observation of either the Lotus or gecko adhesion effects. Contact angles of the fabricated structured samples were measured to characterize their wettability, and contamination experiments were performed to study for self-cleaning ability. A conventional and a glass ball attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip were used to obtain the adhesive forces via force-distance curves to study scale effect. A further increase of the adhesive forces on the samples was achieved by applying an adhesive to the surfaces. PMID:22285098

  4. Fibronectin adsorption, cell adhesion, and proliferation on nanostructured tantalum surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Jensen, T; Kraft, David Christian; Foss, Morten; Kingshott, Peter; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Larsen, Arne Nylandsted; Chevallier, Jacques; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2010-05-25

    The interaction between dental pulp derived mesenchymal stem cells (DP-MSCs) and three different tantalum nanotopographies with and without a fibronectin coating is examined: sputter-coated tantalum surfaces with low surface roughness <0.2 nm, hut-nanostructured surfaces with a height of 2.9 +/- 0.6 nm and a width of 35 +/- 8 nm, and dome structures with a height of 13 +/- 2 nm and a width of 52 +/- 14 nm. Using ellipsometry, the adsorption and the availability of fibronectin cell-binding domains on the tantalum surfaces were examined, as well as cellular attachment, proliferation, and vinculin focal adhesion spot assembly on the respective surfaces. The results showed the highest fibronectin mass uptake on the hut structures, with a slightly higher availability of cell-binding domains and the most pronounced formation of vinculin focal adhesion spots as compared to the other surfaces. The proliferation of DP-MSCs was found to be significantly higher on dome and hut surfaces coated with fibronectin compared to the uncoated flat tantalum surfaces. Consequently, the results presented in this study indicate that fibronectin-coated nanotopographies with a vertical dimension of less than 5 nm influence cell adhesion. This rather interesting behavior is argued to originate from the more available fibronectin cell-binding domains observed on the hut structures. PMID:20443575

  5. Nanostructuring of molybdenum and tungsten surfaces by low-energy helium ions

    SciTech Connect

    De Temmerman, Gregory; Bystrov, Kirill; Zielinski, Jakub J.; Balden, Martin; Matern, Gabriele; Arnas, Cecile; Marot, Laurent

    2012-07-15

    The formation of metallic nanostructures by exposure of molybdenum and tungsten surfaces to high fluxes of low energy helium ions is studied as a function of the ion energy, plasma exposure time, and surface temperature. Helium plasma exposure leads to the formation of nanoscopic filaments on the surface of both metals. The size of the helium-induced nanostructure increases with increasing surface temperature while the thickness of the modified layer increases with time. In addition, the growth rate of the nanostructured layer also depends on the surface temperature. The size of the nanostructure appears linked with the size of the near-surface voids induced by the low energy ions. The results presented here thus demonstrate that surface processing by low-energy helium ions provides an efficient route for the formation of porous metallic nanostructures.

  6. Laser induced surface structuring and ion conversion in the surface oxide of titanium: possible implications for the wetability of laser treated implants.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Johan; Paz, María Dolores; León, Betty; Engqvist, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, commercially pure titanium was irradiated with UV-light with varying wavelengths using a Q-switched Nd:YAG-laser. This was performed in order to investigate if a laser treatment can be employed to rapidly introduce hydrophilic properties to titanium surfaces, which is believed to facilitate protein adsorption and cell attachment. It was demonstrated that irradiation with 355 nm light (10 Hz, 90 mJ/shot) for 1 min or more caused an ion conversion of Ti(4+) to Ti(3+) sites in the surface oxide which lead to an increase in hydrophilicity of the surface. Furthermore, shorter irradiation times at 355 nm caused a surface structuring that gave rise to an unexpected and unstable hydrophobic state at the surface. Irradiation with 266 nm light (10 Hz, 40 mJ/shot) did not introduce any ion conversion in the surface oxide, nor did it give rise to any hydrophobicity of the surface. PMID:23053809

  7. Measuring H, O, li, B, and BE on Planetary Surfaces: Calibration of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (libs) Data Under Air, Vacuum, and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Nelms, M.; Breves, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS), as implemented on the ChemCam instrument on Mars Science Lab and the proposed New Frontiers SAGE mission to Venus, can analyze elements from H to Pb from up to 7m standoff. This study examines the capabilities of LIBS to analyze H, O, B, Be, and Li under conditions simulating Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Of these, H is a major constituent of clay minerals and a key indicator of the presence of water. Its abundance in terrestrial materials ranges from 0 ppm up to 10's of wt.% H2O in hydrated sulfates and clays, with prominent emission lines occurring ca. 656.4 nm. O is an important indicator of atmospheric and magmatic coevolution, and has lines ca. 615.8, 656.2, 777.6, and 844.8 nm. Unfortunately there are very few geological samples from which O has been directly measured, but stoichiometry suggests that O varies from ca. 0 wt.% in sulfides to 21% in ferberite, 32% in ilmenite, 42% in amphiboles, 53% in quartz, 63% in melanterite, and 71% in epsomite. Li (lines at 413.3, 460.4, and 670.9 nm in vacuum), B (412.3 nm), and Be (313.1 nm) are highly mobile elements and key indicators of interaction with water. Local atmospheric composition and pressure significantly influence LIBS plasma intensity because the local atmosphere and the breakdown products from the atmospheric species interact with the ablated surface material in the plasma. Measurement of light elements with LIBS requires that spectra be acquired under conditions matching the remote environment. LIBS is critically dependent on the availability of well characterized, homogeneous reference materials that are closely matched in matrix (composition and structure) to the sample being studied. In modern geochemistry, analyses of most major, minor, and trace elements are routinely made. However, quantitative determination of light element concentrations in geological specimens still represents a major analytical challenge. Thus standards for which hydrogen, oxygen, and

  8. Nanostructures and pinholes on W surfaces exposed to high flux D plasma at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y. Z.; Liu, W.; Xu, B.; Luo, G.-N.; Li, C.; Fu, B. Q.; De Temmerman, G.

    2015-08-01

    Nanostructures and pinholes formed on tungsten surface exposed to high fluxes (1024 m-2 s-1) deuterium ions at 943 K and 1073 K were studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Nanostructure formation is observed at 943 K and 1073 K, and exhibits a strong dependence on the surface orientation. With increasing fluence, pinholes appear on the surface and are mainly observed on grains with surface normal near [1 1 1]. The pinholes are speculated to be caused by the rupture of bubbles formed near the surface. The formation of pinholes has no obvious relationship with the surface nanostructures.

  9. Laser Induced Chemical Liquid Phase Deposition (LCLD)

    SciTech Connect

    Nanai, Laszlo; Balint, Agneta M.

    2012-08-17

    Laser induced chemical deposition (LCLD) of metals onto different substrates attracts growing attention during the last decade. Deposition of metals onto the surface of dielectrics and semiconductors with help of laser beam allows the creation of conducting metal of very complex architecture even in 3D. In the processes examined the deposition occurs from solutions containing metal ions and reducing agents. The deposition happens in the region of surface irradiated by laser beam (micro reactors). Physics -chemical reactions driven by laser beam will be discussed for different metal-substrate systems. The electrical, optical, mechanical properties of created interfaces will be demonstrated also including some practical-industrial applications.

  10. Surface integral formulations for the design of plasmonic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Forestiere, Carlo; Iadarola, Giovanni; Rubinacci, Guglielmo; Tamburrino, Antonello; Dal Negro, Luca; Miano, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Numerical formulations based on surface integral equations (SIEs) provide an accurate and efficient framework for the solution of the electromagnetic scattering problem by three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a unified description of SIE formulations with both singular and nonsingular kernel and we study their accuracy in solving the scattering problem by metallic nanoparticles with spherical and nonspherical shape. In fact, the accuracy of the numerical solution, especially in the near zone, is of great importance in the analysis and design of plasmonic nanostructures, whose operation critically depends on the manipulation of electromagnetic hot spots. Four formulation types are considered: the N-combined region integral equations, the T-combined region integral equations, the combined field integral equations and the null field integral equations. A detailed comparison between their numerical solutions obtained for several nanoparticle shapes is performed by examining convergence rate and accuracy in both the far and near zone of the scatterer as a function of the number of degrees of freedom. A rigorous analysis of SIE formulations and their limitations can have a high impact on the engineering of numerous nano-scale optical devices such as plasmon-enhanced light emitters, biosensors, photodetectors, and nanoantennas. PMID:23201792

  11. Surface Integral Formulations for the Design of Plasmonic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestiere, Carlo; Iadarola, Giovanni; Rubinacci, Guglielmo; Tamburrino, Antonello; Dal Negro, Luca; Miano, Giovanni; Boston University Team; Universita'degli Studi di Napoli Federico Team, II; Universita'di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale Team

    2013-03-01

    Numerical formulations based on surface integral equations (SIEs) provide an accurate and efficient framework for the solution of the electromagnetic scattering problem by three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures in the frequency domain. In this work, we present a unified description of SIE formulations with both singular and nonsingular kernel and we study their accuracy in solving the scattering problem by metallic nanoparticles with spherical and nonspherical shape. In fact, the accuracy of the numerical solution, especially in the near zone, is of great importance in the analysis and design of plasmonic nanostructures, whose operation critically depends on the manipulation of electromagnetic hot spots. Four formulation types are considered: the N-combined region integral equations, the T-combined region integral equations, the combined field integral equations and the null field integral equations. A detailed comparison between their numerical solutions obtained for several nanoparticle shapes is performed by examining convergence rate and accuracy in both the far and near zone of the scatterer as a function of the number of degrees of freedom. A rigorous analysis of SIE formulations can have a high impact on the engineering of numerous nano-scale optical devices.

  12. First Principles Studies of ABO3 Perovskite Surfaces and Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilania, Ghanshyam

    Perovskite-type complex oxides, with general formula ABO 3, constitute one of the most prominent classes of metal oxides which finds key applications in diverse technological fields. In recent years, properties of perovskites at reduced dimensions have aroused considerable interest. However, a complete atomic-level understanding of various phenomena is yet to emerge. To fully exploit the materials opportunities provided by nano-structured perovskites, it is important to characterize and understand their bulk and near-surface electronic structure along with the electric, magnetic, elastic and chemical properties of these materials in the nano-regime, where surface and interface effects naturally play a dominant role. In this thesis, state-of-the-art first principles computations are employed to systematically study properties of one- and two-dimensional perovskite systems which are of direct technological significance. Specifically, our bifocal study targets (1) polarization behavior and dielectric response of ABO3 ferroelectric nanowires, and (2) oxygen chemistry relevant for catalytic properties of ABO3 surfaces. In the first strand, we identify presence of novel closure or vortex-like polarization domains in PbTIO3 and BaTiO3 ferroelectric nanowires and explore ways to control the polarization configurations by means of strain and surface chemistry in these prototypical model systems. The intrinsic tendency towards vortex polarization at reduced dimensions and the underlying driving forces are discussed and previously unknown strain induced phase transitions are identified. Furthermore, to compute the dielectric permittivity of nanostructures, a new multiscale model is developed and applied to the PbTiO3 nanowires with conventional and vortex-like polarization configurations. The second part of the work undertaken in this thesis is comprised of a number of ab initio surface studies, targeted to investigate the effects of surface terminations, prevailing chemical

  13. Roles of Surface and Interface Spins in Exchange Coupled Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Manh-Huong

    Exchange bias (EB) in magnetic nanostructures has remained a topic of global interest because of its potential use in spin valves, MRAM circuits, magnetic tunnel junctions, and spintronic devices. The exploration of EB on the nanoscale provides a novel approach to overcoming the superparamagnetic limit and increasing the thermoremanence of magnetic nanoparticles, a critical bottleneck for magnetic data storage applications. Recent advances in chemical synthesis have given us a unique opportunity to explore the EB in a variety of nanoparticle systems ranging from core/shell nanoparticles of Fe/γFe2O3, Co/CoO,and FeO/Fe3O4 to hollow nanoparticles of γFe2O3 and hybrid composite nanoparticles of Au/Fe3O4. Our studies have addressed the following fundamental and important questions: (i) Can one decouple collective contributions of the interface and surface spins to the EB in a core/shell nanoparticle system? (ii) Can the dynamic and static response of the core and shell be identified separately? (iii) Can one tune ``minor loop'' to ``exchange bias'' effects in magnetic hollow nanoparticles by varying the number of surface spins? (iv) Can one decouple collective contributions of the inner and outer surface spins to the EB in a hollow nanoparticle system? (v) Can EB be induced in a magnetic nanoparticle by forming its interface with a non-magnetic metal? Such knowledge is essential to tailor EB in magnetic nanostructures for spintronics applications. In this talk, we will discuss the aforementioned findings in terms of our experimental and atomistic Monte Carlo studies. The work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46438.

  14. Au-coated ZnO nanostructures for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dikovska, A O; Nedyalkov, N N; Imamova, S E; Atanasova, G B; Atanasov, P A

    2012-03-31

    Thin ZnO nanostructured films were produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies. The experimental conditions used for preparation of the samples were chosen to obtain different types of ZnO nanostructures. The Raman spectra of rhodamine 6G (R6G) were measured at an excitation wavelength of 785 nm after coating the ZnO nanostructures with a thin Au layer. The influence of the surface morphology on the Raman signal obtained from the samples was investigated. High SERS signal enhancement was observed from all Au-coated ZnO nanostructures.

  15. Profile Prediction and Fabrication of Wet-Etched Gold Nanostructures for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Dispersed nanosphere lithography can be employed to fabricate gold nanostructures for localized surface plasmon resonance, in which the gold film evaporated on the nanospheres is anisotropically dry etched to obtain gold nanostructures. This paper reports that by wet etching of the gold film, various kinds of gold nanostructures can be fabricated in a cost-effective way. The shape of the nanostructures is predicted by profile simulation, and the localized surface plasmon resonance spectrum is observed to be shifting its extinction peak with the etching time. (See supplementary material 1) PMID:20672106

  16. Responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to nanostructured platinum surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennisi, C. P.; Sevcencu, C.; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A.; Foss, M.; Lundsgaard Hansen, J.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Zachar, V.; Besenbacher, F.; Yoshida, K.

    2009-09-01

    The chronic performance of implantable neural prostheses is affected by the growth of encapsulation tissue onto the stimulation electrodes. Encapsulation is associated with activation of connective tissue cells at the electrode's metallic contacts, usually made of platinum. Since surface nanotopography can modulate the cellular responses to materials, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the 'in vitro' responses of connective tissue cells to platinum strictly by modulating its surface nanoroughness. Using molecular beam epitaxy combined with sputtering, we produced platinum nanostructured substrates consisting of irregularly distributed nanopyramids and investigated their effect on the proliferation, cytoskeletal organization and cellular morphology of primary fibroblasts and transformed glial cells. Cells were cultured on these substrates and their responses to surface roughness were studied. After one day in culture, the fibroblasts were more elongated and their cytoskeleton less mature when cultured on rough substrates. This effect increased as the roughness of the surface increased and was associated with reduced cell proliferation throughout the observation period (4 days). Morphological changes also occurred in glial cells, but they were triggered by a different roughness scale and did not affect cellular proliferation. In conclusion, surface nanotopography modulates the responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to platinum, which may be an important factor in optimizing the tissue response to implanted neural electrodes.

  17. Nonplanar conductive surfaces via "bottom-up" nanostructured gold coating.

    PubMed

    Vinod, T P; Jelinek, Raz

    2014-03-12

    Development of technologies for the construction of bent, curved, and flexible conductive surfaces is among the most important albeit challenging goals in the promising field of "flexible electronics". We present a generic solution-based "bottom-up" approach for assembling conductive gold nanostructured layers on nonplanar polymer surfaces. The simple two-step experimental scheme is based upon incubation of an amine-displaying polymer [the abundantly used poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), selected here as a proof of concept] with Au(SCN)4(-), followed by a brief treatment with a conductive polymer [poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)] solution. Importantly, no reducing agent is co-added to the gold complex solution. The resultant surfaces are conductive and exhibit a unique "nanoribbon" gold morphology. The scheme yields conductive layers upon PDMS in varied configurations: planar, "wrinkled", and mechanically bent surfaces. The technology is simple, inexpensive, and easy to implement for varied polymer surfaces (and other substances), opening the way for practical applications in flexible electronics and related fields. PMID:24548243

  18. Mixed role of surface on intrinsic losses in silicon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Subhadeep; Kunal, K.; Aluru, N. R.

    2016-03-01

    We utilize molecular dynamics simulations and show opposing roles of surface on dissipation in nanostructures. While the surface defects always aid in the entropy generation process, the scattering of phonons from rough surfaces can suppress Akhiezer damping. For the case of a silicon (2 × 1) reconstructed surface, the former dominates and Q-1 (Q is the quality factor) is found to increase with the decrease in size. However, different scaling trends are observed in the case of a hydrogen (H) terminated silicon surface with no defects and dimers. Particularly, in the case of a H-terminated silicon, if the resonator is operated with a frequency Ω such that Ωτph<1 , where τph is the phonon relaxation time and Q-1 is found to decrease with the decrease in size. The opposite scaling is observed for Ωτph>1 . A simplified model, based on two phonon groups (with positive and negative Grüneisen parameters), is considered to explain the observed trend. We show that the equilibration time between the two mode groups decreases with the decrease in size for the H-terminated structure. We also study the scaling of Q-1 factor with frequency for these cases.

  19. Enhancement of antireflection property of silicon using nanostructured surface combined with a polymer deposition.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jun Mok; Yoo, Sung Ho; Cho, Jong Hoi; Cho, Yong Hoon; Cho, Sung Oh

    2014-01-01

    Silicon (Si) nanostructures that exhibit a significantly low reflectance in ultraviolet (UV) and visible light wavelength regions are fabricated using a hydrogen etching process. The fabricated Si nanostructures have aperiodic subwavelength structures with pyramid-like morphologies. The detailed morphologies of the nanostructures can be controlled by changing the etching condition. The nanostructured Si exhibited much more reduced reflectance than a flat Si surface: an average reflectance of the nanostructured Si was approximately 6.8% in visible light region and a slight high reflectance of approximately 17% in UV region. The reflectance was further reduced in both UV and visible light region through the deposition of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) layer with a rough surface on the Si nanostructure: the reflectance can be decreased down to 2.5%. The enhancement of the antireflection properties was analyzed with a finite difference time domain simulation method. PMID:24397945

  20. Dynamic properties of integrated nanostructure on metallic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerirgui, D.; Tigrine, R.; Bourahla, B.

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the vibration properties of integrated nanostructure on crystalline surface. The embedded chain of molecules is parallel to y-axis and takes three different positions: top, hollow, and bridge. The vibrational dynamics of the structure is considered within the harmonic approximation framework. The evanescent and propagating vibrational field of the perfect lattice is determined and interpreted. The presence of the diatomic molecule chain breakdown the translation symmetry in one direction, and gives rise to localized states on its neighborhood. Our study is based on the matching method and the Green functions, the spectral and state densities associated to localized modes are determined and calculated numerically. Our results show that the presence of the inhomogeneity contribute to the creation of new branches of localized vibrational modes, and their number and feature depend strongly on structural parameters of the system and the position of the diatomic chain.

  1. Chiral nanostructuring of multivalent macrocycles in solution and on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Caricato, Marco; Delforge, Arnaud; Bonifazi, Davide; Dondi, Daniele; Mazzanti, Andrea; Pasini, Dario

    2015-03-28

    We describe the design and synthesis of a novel functionality-rich, homochiral macrocycle, possessing the overall molecular D2 symmetry, in which multivalency is introduced into the covalent framework by means of four suitably positioned pyridine moieties. The macrocycle synthesis is carried out with functionalized, enantiopure 1,1'-binaphthyl synthons as the source of chirality by means of a room temperature esterification reaction as the cyclization procedure. Upon addition of Pd(2+), coordination of the pyridine moieties occurs both intra and intermolecularly, to afford chiral ordered mono and dimeric macrocycles or multimeric aggregates depending on the solvents and conditions used. The metal binding event takes place in combination with a significant macrocyclic conformational rearrangement detected by circular dichroism spectroscopy. When in combination with a third component (C60), the macrocycle-Pd(2+) hybrid undergoes surface-confined nanostructuring into chiral nanofibres. PMID:25621466

  2. Electrostrictive Mechanism of Nanostructure Formation at Solid Surfaces Irradiated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses.

    PubMed

    Pavlyniuk, Oleg R; Datsyuk, Vitaly V

    2016-12-01

    The significance of the mechanical pressure of light in creation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) is investigated. Distributions of the electrically induced normal pressure and tangential stress at the illuminated solid surface, as well as the field of volume electrostrictive forces, are calculated taking into account surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation. Based on these calculations, we predict surface destruction and structure formation due to inelastic deformations during single femtosecond pulses. The calculated fields of the electromagnetic forces are found to agree well with the experimental ripple structures. We thus conclude that the electrostrictive forces can explain the origin of the periodic ripple structures. PMID:26754942

  3. An atomic force microscopy statistical analysis of laser-induced azo-polyimide periodic tridimensional nanogrooves.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Iuliana; Epure, Luiza; Sava, Ion; Damian, Victor; Hurduc, Nicolae

    2013-09-01

    The surface morphology of azo-polyimide films was investigated after 355 nm Nd: YAG laser irradiation with two different incident fluencies. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to correlate the laser-induced tridimensional nanogrooved surface relief with the incident fluence and the number of irradiation pulses. The height images revealed that the grooves depth increased even tens of times by increasing the incident fluence, using the same numbers of irradiation pulses. For low incident fluence, the films were uniformly patterned till 100 pulses of irradiation. Instead, when using higher fluence, after 15 pulses of irradiation the accuracy of the surface relief definition was reduced. This behavior could be explained by means of two different mechanisms, one that suppose the film photo-fluidization due to the cis-trans isomerization processes of the azo-groups and the second one responsible for the directional mass displacement. The dominant surface direction and parameters like isotropy, periodicity, and period were evaluated from the polar representation for texture analysis, revealing the appearance of ordered and directionated nanostructures for most of the experimental conditions. Also, the graphical studies of the functional volume parameters have evidenced the improvement of the relief structuration during surface nanostructuration. The correlation of these statistical texture parameters with the irradiation characteristics is important in controlling the alignment of either the liquid crystals or the cells/tissues on patterned azo-polyimide surfaces for optoelectronic devices and implantable biomaterials, respectively. PMID:23801415

  4. Laser-induced electric breakdown in solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloembergen, N.

    1974-01-01

    A review is given of recent experimental results on laser-induced electric breakdown in transparent optical solid materials. A fundamental breakdown threshold exists characteristic for each material. The threshold is determined by the same physical process as dc breakdown, namely, avalanche ionization. The dependence of the threshold on laser pulse duration and frequency is consistent with this process. The implication of this breakdown mechanism for laser bulk and surface damage to optical components is discussed. It also determines physical properties of self-focused filaments.

  5. Morphology control of nanostructures via surface reaction of metal nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Niu, K Y; Yang, J; Kulinich, S A; Sun, J; Li, H; Du, X W

    2010-07-21

    We report on the controllable synthesis of diverse nanostructures using laser ablation of a metal target in a liquid medium. The nanodroplets generated by laser ablation react with the liquid and produce various nanostructures, such as hollow nanoparticles, core-shell nanoparticles, heterostructures, nanocubes, and ordered arrays. A millisecond laser with low power density is essential for obtaining such metal nanodroplets, while the target material, the reactivity of liquid medium, and the laser frequency are decisive for controlling the morphology and size of the nanostructures produced. This green and powerful technique can be extended to different material systems for obtaining various nanostructures. PMID:20572659

  6. Formation of metallic nanostructures on the surface of ion- exchange glass by focused electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarenko, F. E.; Zhukov, M. V.; Mukhin, I. S.; Golubok, A. O.; Sidorov, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a new method for formation of metallic nanostructures on the surface of ion-exchange glass. The method is based on the interaction of a focused electron beam with ions in ion-exchange glass. In experiments nanostructures with different shapes were obtained, depending on the electrons irradiation conditions.

  7. Creation of Principally New Generation of Switching Technique Elements (Reed Switches) with Nanostructured Contact Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabanov, S. M.; Zeltser, I. A.; Maizels, R. M.; Moos, E. N.; Arushanov, K. A.

    2011-04-01

    The cycle of activities of the creation of principally new generation of reed switches with nanostructured contact surfaces was implemented. Experimental justification of the opportunity of reed switches creation with modified contact surface was given (instead of precious metals-based galvanic coating). Principally new technological process of modification of magnetically operated contacts contacting surfaces was developed, based on the usage of the ion-plasma methods of nanolayers and nanostructures forming having specified contact features.

  8. Nanosilver on nanostructured silica: Antibacterial activity and Ag surface area.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Teleki, Alexandra; Camenzind, Adrian; Krumeich, Frank; Meyer, Andreas; Panke, Sven; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2011-06-01

    Nanosilver is one of the first nanomaterials to be closely monitored by regulatory agencies worldwide motivating research to better understand the relationship between Ag characteristics and antibacterial activity. Nanosilver immobilized on nanostructured silica facilitates such investigations as the SiO2 support hinders the growth of nanosilver during its synthesis and, most importantly, its flocculation in bacterial suspensions. Here, such composite Ag/silica nanoparticles were made by flame spray pyrolysis of appropriate solutions of Ag-acetate or Ag-nitrate and hexamethyldisiloxane or tetraethylorthosilicate in ethanol, propanol, diethylene glucolmonobutyl ether, acetonitrile or ethylhexanoic acid. The effect of solution composition on nanosilver characteristics and antibacterial activity against the Gram negative Escherichia coli was investigated by monitoring their recombinantly synthesized green fluorescent protein. Suspensions with identical Ag mass concentration exhibited drastically different antibacterial activity pointing out that the nanosilver surface area concentration rather than its mass or molar or number concentration determine best its antibacterial activity. Nanosilver made from Ag-acetate showed a unimodal size distribution, while that made from inexpensive Ag-nitrate exhibited a bimodal one. Regardless of precursor composition or nanosilver size distribution, the antibacterial activity of nanosilver was correlated best with its surface area concentration in solution. PMID:23730198

  9. Morphologically manipulated Ag/ZnO nanostructures as surface enhanced Raman scattering probes for explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha; Hamad, Syed; Ahamad Mohiddon, Md.; Soma, Venugopal Rao; Ghanashyam Krishna, M.

    2016-03-01

    The detection of secondary explosive molecules (e.g., ANTA, FOX-7, and CL-20) using Ag decorated ZnO nanostructures as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes is demonstrated. ZnO nanostructures were grown on borosilicate glass substrates by rapid thermal oxidation of metallic Zn films at 500 °C. The oxide nanostructures, including nanosheets and nanowires, emerged over the surface of the Zn film leaving behind the metal residue. We demonstrate that SERS measurements with concentrations as low as 10 μM, of the three explosive molecules ANTA, FOX-7, and CL-20 over ZnO/Ag nanostructures, resulted in enhancement factors of ˜107, ˜107, and ˜104, respectively. These measurements validate the high sensitivity of detection of explosive molecules using Ag decorated ZnO nanostructures as SERS substrates. The Zn metal residue and conditions of annealing play an important role in determining the detection sensitivity.

  10. Laser induced nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ledingham, Ken; McCanny, Tom; Graham, Paul; Fang Xiao; Singhal, Ravi; Magill, Joe; Creswell, Alan; Sanderson, David; Allott, Ric; Neely, David; Norreys, Peter; Santala, Marko; Zepf, Matthew; Watts, Ian; Clark, Eugene; Krushelnick, Karl; Tatarakis, Michael; Dangor, Bucker; Machecek, Antonin; Wark, Justin

    1998-12-16

    Dramatic improvements in laser technology since 1984 have revolutionised high power laser technology. Application of chirped-pulse amplification techniques has resulted in laser intensities in excess of 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. In the mid to late eighties, C. K. Rhodes and K. Boyer discussed the possibility of shining laser light of this intensity onto solid surfaces and to cause nuclear transitions. In particular, irradiation of a uranium target could induce electro- and photofission in the focal region of the laser. In this paper it is shown that {mu}Ci of {sup 62}Cu can be generated via the ({gamma},n) reaction by a laser with an intensity of about 10{sup 19} Wcm{sup -2}.

  11. Time-resolved aluminium laser-induced plasma temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmick, D. M.; Parigger, C. G.

    2014-11-01

    We seek to characterize the temperature decay of laser-induced plasma near the surface of an aluminium target from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of aluminium alloy sample. Laser-induced plasma are initiated by tightly focussing 1064 nm, nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation. Temperatures are inferred from aluminium monoxide spectra viewed at systematically varied time delays by comparing experimental spectra to theoretical calculations with a Nelder Mead algorithm. The temperatures are found to decay from 5173 ± 270 to 3862 ± 46 Kelvin from 10 to 100 μs time delays following optical breakdown. The temperature profile along the plasma height is also inferred from spatially resolved spectral measurements and the electron number density is inferred from Stark broadened Hβ spectra.

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence of space-exposed polyurethane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Ralph H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The object of this work was to utilize laser-induced fluorescence technique to characterize several samples of space-exposed polyurethane. These samples were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which was in a shuttle-like orbit for nearly 6 years. Because of our present work to develop laser-induced-fluorescence inspection techniques for polymers, space-exposed samples and controls were lent to us for evaluation. These samples had been attached to the outer surface of LDEF; therefore, they were subjected to thermal cycling, solar ultraviolet radiation, vacuum, and atomic oxygen. It is well documented that atomic oxygen and ultraviolet exposure have detrimental effects on many polymers. This was a unique opportunity to make measurements on material that had been naturally degraded by an unusual environment. During our past work, data have come from artificially degraded samples and generally have demonstrated a correlation between laser-induced fluorescence and tensile strength or elasticity.

  13. Nanostructures and dynamics of macromolecules bound to attractive filler surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Tad; Barkley, Deborah; Jiang, Naisheng; Endoh, Maya; Masui, Tomomi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Michihiro; Satija, Sushil; Taniguchi, Takashi

    We report in-situ nanostructures and dynamics of polybutadiene (PB) chains bound to carbon black (CB) fillers (the so-called ``bound polymer layer (BPL)'') in a good solvent. The BPL on the CB fillers were extracted by solvent leaching of a CB-filled PB compound and subsequently dispersed in deuterated toluene to label the BPL for small-angle neutron scattering and neutron spin echo techniques. Intriguingly, the results demonstrate that the BPL is composed of two regions regardless of molecular weights of PB: the inner unswollen region of ~ 0.5 nm thick and outer swollen region where the polymer chains display a parabolic profile with a diffuse tail. This two-layer formation on the filler surface is similar to that reported for polymer chains adsorbed on planar substrates from melts. In addition, the results show that the dynamics of the swollen bound chains can be explained by the so-called ``breathing mode'' and is generalized with the thickness of the swollen BPL. Furthermore, we will discuss how the breathing collective dynamics is affected by the presence of polymer chains in a matrix solution. We acknowledge the financial support from NSF Grant No. CMMI-1332499.

  14. Interaction of Wide-Band-Gap Single Crystals with 248-nm Excimer Laser Irradiation: X. Laser-Induced Near-Surface Absorption in Single-Crystal NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Nwe, K H.; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J T.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2005-02-15

    Ultraviolet laser-induced desorption of neutral atoms and molecules from nominally transparent, ionic materials can yield particle velocities consistent with surface temperatures of a few thousand Kelvin, even in the absence of visible surface damage. The origin of the laser required for this surface heating has been often overlooked. In this work, we report simultaneous neutral emission and laser transmission measurements on single crystal NaCl exposed to 248-nm excimer laser radiation. As much as 20% of the incident radiation at 248 nm must be absorbed in the near surface region to account for the observed particle velocities. We show that the laser absorption grows from low values over several pulses and saturates at values sufficient to account for the surface temperatures required to explain the observed particle velocity distributions. The growth of absorption in these early pulses is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the emission intensities. Diffuse reflectance spectra acquired after exposure suggest that near surface V-type centers are responsible for most of the absorption at 248 nm in single crystal NaCl.

  15. Interaction of wide-band-gap single crystals with 248-nm excimer laser irradiation. X. Laser-induced near-surface absorption in single-crystal NaCl

    SciTech Connect

    Nwe, K.H.; Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.; Hess, W.P.

    2005-02-15

    Ultraviolet laser-induced desorption of neutral atoms and molecules from nominally transparent, ionic materials can yield particle velocities consistent with surface temperatures of a few thousand kelvin even in the absence of visible surface damage. The origin of the laser absorption required for this surface heating has been often overlooked. In this work, we report simultaneous neutral emission and laser transmission measurements on single-crystal NaCl exposed to 248-nm excimer laser radiation. As much as 20% of the incident radiation at 248 nm must be absorbed in the near-surface region to account for the observed particle velocities. We show that the laser absorption grows from low values over several pulses and saturates at values sufficient to account for the surface temperatures required to explain the observed particle velocity distributions. The growth of absorption in these early pulses is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the emission intensities. The diffuse reflectance spectra acquired after exposure suggest that near-surface V-type centers are responsible for most of the absorption at 248 nm in single-crystal NaCl.

  16. Monolithically integrated micro- and nanostructured glass surface with antiglare, antireflection, and superhydrophobic properties.

    PubMed

    Tulli, Domenico; Hart, Shandon D; Mazumder, Prantik; Carrilero, Albert; Tian, Lili; Koch, Karl W; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Piech, Garrett A; Pruneri, Valerio

    2014-07-23

    Hierarchical micro- and nanostructured surfaces have previously been made using a variety of materials and methods, including particle deposition, polymer molding, and the like. These surfaces have attracted a wide variety of interest for applications including reduced specular reflection and superhydrophobic surfaces. To the best of our knowledge, this paper reports the first monolithic, hierarchically structured glass surface that combines micro- and nanoscale surface features to simultaneously generate antiglare (AG), antireflection (AR), and superhydrophobic properties. The AG microstructure mechanically protects the AR nanostructure during wiping and smudging, while the uniform composition of the substrate and the micro- and nanostructured surface enables ion exchange through the surface, so that both the substrate and structured surface can be simultaneously chemically strengthened. PMID:24960031

  17. Functional surface chemistry of carbon-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdula, Daner

    The recently discovered abilities to synthesize single-walled carbon nanotubes and prepare single layer graphene have spurred interest in these sp2-bonded carbon nanostructures. In particular, studies of their potential use in electronic devices are many as silicon integrated circuits are encountering processing limitations, quantum effects, and thermal management issues due to rapid device scaling. Nanotube and graphene implementation in devices does come with significant hurdles itself. Among these issues are the ability to dope these materials and understanding what influences defects have on expected properties. Because these nanostructures are entirely all-surface, with every atom exposed to ambient, introduction of defects and doping by chemical means is expected to be an effective route for addressing these issues. Raman spectroscopy has been a proven characterization method for understanding vibrational and even electronic structure of graphene, nanotubes, and graphite, especially when combined with electrical measurements, due to a wealth of information contained in each spectrum. In Chapter 1, a discussion of the electronic structure of graphene is presented. This outlines the foundation for all sp2-bonded carbon electronic properties and is easily extended to carbon nanotubes. Motivation for why these materials are of interest is readily gained. Chapter 2 presents various synthesis/preparation methods for both nanotubes and graphene, discusses fabrication techniques for making devices, and describes characterization methods such as electrical measurements as well as static and time-resolved Raman spectroscopy. Chapter 3 outlines changes in the Raman spectra of individual metallic single-walled carbon nantoubes (SWNTs) upon sidewall covalent bond formation. It is observed that the initial degree of disorder has a strong influence on covalent sidewall functionalization which has implications on developing electronically selective covalent chemistries and

  18. Plasma erosion rate diagnostics using laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaeta, C. J.; Turley, R. S.; Matossian, J. N.; Beattie, J. R.; Williamson, W. S.

    1992-01-01

    An optical technique for measuring the sputtering rate of a molybdenum surface immersed in a xenon plasma has been developed and demonstrated. This approach, which may be useful in real-time wear diagnostics for ion thrusters, relies on laser-induced fluorescence to determine the density of sputtered molybdenum atoms.

  19. Laser-induced copper deposition with weak reducing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemirovsky, V. A.; Fateev, S. A.; Logunov, L. S.; Tumkin, I. I.; Safonov, S. V.; Khairullina, E. M.

    2013-11-01

    The study showed that organic alcohols with 1,2,3,5,6 hydroxyl groups can be used as reducing agents for laser-induced copper deposition from solutions (LCLD).Multiatomic alcohols, sorbitol, xylitol, and glycerol, are shown to be effective reducing agents for performing LCLD at glass-ceramic surfaces. High-conductivity copper tracks with good topology were synthesized.

  20. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of light by ZnO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Milekhin, A. G. Yeryukov, N. A.; Sveshnikova, L. L.; Duda, T. A.; Zenkevich, E. I.; Kosolobov, S. S.; Latyshev, A. V.; Himcinski, C.; Surovtsev, N. V.; Adichtchev, S. V.; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Wu, Chia Cheng; Wuu, Dong Sing; Zahn, D. R. T.

    2011-12-15

    Raman scattering (including nonresonant, resonant, and surface enhanced scattering) of light by optical and surface phonons of ZnO nanocrystals and nanorods has been investigated. It has been found that the nonresonant and resonant Raman scattering spectra of the nanostructures exhibit typical vibrational modes, E{sub 2}(high) and A{sub 1}(LO), respectively, which are allowed by the selection rules. The deposition of silver nanoclusters on the surface of nanostructures leads either to an abrupt increase in the intensity (by a factor of 10{sup 3}) of Raman scattering of light by surface optical phonons or to the appearance of new surface modes, which indicates the observation of the phenomenon of surface enhanced Raman light scattering. It has been demonstrated that the frequencies of surface optical phonon modes of the studied nanostructures are in good agreement with the theoretical values obtained from calculations performed within the effective dielectric function model.

  1. A nanostructured surface increases friction exponentially at the solid-gas interface

    PubMed Central

    Phani, Arindam; Putkaradze, Vakhtang; Hawk, John E.; Prashanthi, Kovur; Thundat, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    According to Stokes’ law, a moving solid surface experiences viscous drag that is linearly related to its velocity and the viscosity of the medium. The viscous interactions result in dissipation that is known to scale as the square root of the kinematic viscosity times the density of the gas. We observed that when an oscillating surface is modified with nanostructures, the experimentally measured dissipation shows an exponential dependence on kinematic viscosity. The surface nanostructures alter solid-gas interplay greatly, amplifying the dissipation response exponentially for even minute variations in viscosity. Nanostructured resonator thus allows discrimination of otherwise narrow range of gaseous viscosity making dissipation an ideal parameter for analysis of a gaseous media. We attribute the observed exponential enhancement to the stochastic nature of interactions of many coupled nanostructures with the gas media. PMID:27596851

  2. A nanostructured surface increases friction exponentially at the solid-gas interface.

    PubMed

    Phani, Arindam; Putkaradze, Vakhtang; Hawk, John E; Prashanthi, Kovur; Thundat, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    According to Stokes' law, a moving solid surface experiences viscous drag that is linearly related to its velocity and the viscosity of the medium. The viscous interactions result in dissipation that is known to scale as the square root of the kinematic viscosity times the density of the gas. We observed that when an oscillating surface is modified with nanostructures, the experimentally measured dissipation shows an exponential dependence on kinematic viscosity. The surface nanostructures alter solid-gas interplay greatly, amplifying the dissipation response exponentially for even minute variations in viscosity. Nanostructured resonator thus allows discrimination of otherwise narrow range of gaseous viscosity making dissipation an ideal parameter for analysis of a gaseous media. We attribute the observed exponential enhancement to the stochastic nature of interactions of many coupled nanostructures with the gas media. PMID:27596851

  3. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy as a Probe of the Surface Chemistry of Nanostructured Materials.

    PubMed

    Dick, Susan; Konrad, Magdalena P; Lee, Wendy W Y; McCabe, Hannah; McCracken, John N; Rahman, Taifur M D; Stewart, Alan; Xu, Yikai; Bell, Steven E J

    2016-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is now widely used as a rapid and inexpensive tool for chemical/biochemical analysis. The method can give enormous increases in the intensities of the Raman signals of low-concentration molecular targets if they are adsorbed on suitable enhancing substrates, which are typically composed of nanostructured Ag or Au. However, the features of SERS that allow it to be used as a chemical sensor also mean that it can be used as a powerful probe of the surface chemistry of any nanostructured material that can provide SERS enhancement. This is important because it is the surface chemistry that controls how these materials interact with their local environment and, in real applications, this interaction can be more important than more commonly measured properties such as morphology or plasmonic absorption. Here, the opportunity that this approach to SERS provides is illustrated with examples where the surface chemistry is both characterized and controlled in order to create functional nanomaterials. PMID:26822589

  4. Effects of fibre-form nanostructures on particle emissions from a tungsten surface in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamura, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Ohno, N.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of fibre-form nanostructure of a tungsten surface on both electron emission and sputtering in helium/argon plasmas are represented. Generally, a nano-fibre forest, the so-called ‘fuzz’, made of tungsten with helium gas inside is found to have the tendency of suppressing the particle emission substantially. The electron emission comes from the impact of high-energy primary electrons. In addition, a deeply biased tungsten target, which inhibits the influx of even energetic primary electrons, seems to produce an electron emission, and it may be suppressed on the way to nanostructure formation on the surface of the W target. Such an emission process is discussed here. The sputtering yield of the He-damaged tungsten surface with the fibre-form nanostructure depends on the surface morphology while the sputtering itself changes the surface morphology, so that the time evolutions of sputtering yield from the W surface with an originally well-developed nanostructure are found to show a minimum in sputtering yield, which is about a half for the fresh nanostructured tungsten and roughly one-fifth of the yield for the original flat normal tungsten surface. The surface morphology at that time is, for the first time, made clear with field emission scanning electron microscopy observation. The physical mechanism for the appearance of such a minimum in sputtering yield is discussed.

  5. High-precision potassium measurements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy under high vacuum conditions for in situ K-Ar dating of planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yuichiro; Sugita, Seiji; Kameda, Shingo; Miura, Yayoi N.; Ishibashi, Ko; Ohno, Sohsuke; Kamata, Shunichi; Arai, Tomoko; Morota, Tomokatsu; Namiki, Noriyuki; Matsui, Takafumi

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a series of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) experiments for K measurements under high vacuum conditions (10- 6 Pa) for the purpose of developing in-situ isochron type K-Ar dating instruments for planetary missions. Unlike whole rock measurement methods, isochron measurements require LIBS experiments in a vacuum chamber because simultaneous Ar isotopic measurements are necessary. However, detailed examination of detection limits and accuracy of this method at low pressures has not been examined extensively before. In this study, the capability of K measurements under high vacuum conditions was examined using LIBS. A compact Czerny-Turner type spectrometer equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD) as a detector was employed. Twenty-three geologic standard samples were measured using the LIBS method. The second strongest K emission line at 769.89 nm was used for calibration because the strongest emission line at 766.49 nm may suffer from strong interference from another emission line. A calibration curve was constructed for K using internal normalization with the oxygen line at 777 nm and well fitted by a power-law function. Based on the prediction band method, the detection limit and the quantitation limit were estimated to be 300 and 800 ppm, respectively. The 1σ relative uncertainty of the K calibration was 20% for 1 wt.% K2O and 40% for 3000 ppm K2O. If the amount of Ar is measured with 15% error for the 3.5 billion years rocks containing 1 and 0.3 wt.% K2O, the K-Ar ages would be determined with 10% and 20% 1σ errors, respectively. This level of precision will significantly improve the current Martian chronology, which has uncertainty about a factor of two to four. These results indicate that the concentration of K can be measured quantitatively under high vacuum conditions using a combination of instruments that have previously been carried in planetary missions, which suggests the viability of building in situ isochron K-Ar dating

  6. Tapered Optical Fiber Probe Assembled with Plasmonic Nanostructures for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Application.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhulin; Lei, Xing; Liu, Ye; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Zhaoming; Mao, Qinghe; Meng, Guowen

    2015-08-12

    Optical fiber-Raman devices integrated with plasmonic nanostructures have promising potentials for in situ probing remote liquid samples and biological samples. In this system, the fiber probe is required to simultaneously demonstrate stable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals and high sensitivity toward the target species. Here we demonstrate a generic approach to integrate presynthesized plasmonic nanostructures with tapered fiber probes that are prepared by a dipping-etching method, through reversed electrostatic attraction between the silane couple agent modified silica fiber probe and the nanostructures. Using this approach, both negatively and positively charged plasmonic nanostructures with various morphologies (such as Au nanosphere, Ag nanocube, Au nanorod, Au@Ag core-shell nanorod) can be stably assembled on the tapered silica fiber probes. Attributed to the electrostatic force between the plasmonic units and the fiber surface, the nanostructures do not disperse in liquid samples easily, making the relative standard deviation of SERS signals as low as 2% in analyte solution. Importantly, the detection sensitivity of the system can be optimized by adjusting the cone angle (from 3.6° to 22°) and the morphology of nanostructures assembled on the fiber. Thus, the nanostructures-sensitized optical fiber-Raman probes show great potentials in the applications of SERS-based environmental detection of liquid samples. PMID:26186260

  7. Fabrication of surface micro- and nanostructures for superhydrophobic surfaces in electric and electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Yonghao

    In our study, the superhydrophobic surface based on biomimetic lotus leave is explored to maintain the desired properties for self-cleaning. Parameters in controlling bead-up and roll-off characteristics of water droplets were investigated on different model surfaces. The governing equations were proposed. Heuristic study is performed. First, the fundamental understanding of the effect of roughness on superhydrophobicity is performed. The effect of hierarchical roughness, i.e., two scale roughness effect on roughness is investigated using systems of (1) monodisperse colloidal silica sphere (submicron) arrays and Au nanoparticle on top and (2) Si micrometer pyramids and Si nanostructures on top from KOH etching and metal assisted etching of Si. The relation between the contact area fraction and water droplet contact angles are derived based on Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equation for the systems and the two scale effect is explained regarding the synergistic combination of two scales. Previously the microscopic three-phase-contact line is thought to be the key factor in determining contact angles and hystereses. In our study, Laplace pressure was brought up and related to the three-phase-contact line and taken as a key figure of merit in determining superhydrophobicity. In addition, we are one of the first to study the effect of tapered structures (wall inclination). Combining with a second scale roughness on the tapered structures, stable Cassie state for both water and low surface energy oil may be achieved. This is of great significance for designing both superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity. Regarding the origin of contact angle hysteresis, study of superhydrophobicity on micrometer Si pillars was performed. The relation between the interface work of function and contact angle hysteresis was proposed and derived mathematically based on the Young-Dupre equation. The three-phase-contact line was further related to a secondary scale roughness induced. Based on

  8. Mechanical Strength and Broadband Transparency Improvement of Glass Wafers via Surface Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amarendra; Kashyap, Kunal; Hou, Max T.; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we mechanically strengthened a borosilicate glass wafer by doubling its bending strength and simultaneously enhancing its transparency using surface nanostructures for different applications including sensors, displays and panels. A fabrication method that combines dry and wet etching is used for surface nanostructure fabrication. Specifically, we improved the bending strength of plain borosilicate glass by 96% using these surface nanostructures on both sides. Besides bending strength improvement, a limited optical transmittance enhancement of 3% was also observed in the visible light wavelength region (400–800 nm). Both strength and transparency were improved by using surface nanostructures of 500 nm depth on both sides of the borosilicate glass without affecting its bulk properties or the glass manufacturing process. Moreover, we observed comparatively smaller fragments during the breaking of the nanostructured glass, which is indicative of strengthening. The range for the nanostructure depth is defined for different applications with which improvements of the strength and transparency of borosilicate glass substrate are obtained. PMID:27322276

  9. Mechanical Strength and Broadband Transparency Improvement of Glass Wafers via Surface Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amarendra; Kashyap, Kunal; Hou, Max T; Yeh, J Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we mechanically strengthened a borosilicate glass wafer by doubling its bending strength and simultaneously enhancing its transparency using surface nanostructures for different applications including sensors, displays and panels. A fabrication method that combines dry and wet etching is used for surface nanostructure fabrication. Specifically, we improved the bending strength of plain borosilicate glass by 96% using these surface nanostructures on both sides. Besides bending strength improvement, a limited optical transmittance enhancement of 3% was also observed in the visible light wavelength region (400-800 nm). Both strength and transparency were improved by using surface nanostructures of 500 nm depth on both sides of the borosilicate glass without affecting its bulk properties or the glass manufacturing process. Moreover, we observed comparatively smaller fragments during the breaking of the nanostructured glass, which is indicative of strengthening. The range for the nanostructure depth is defined for different applications with which improvements of the strength and transparency of borosilicate glass substrate are obtained. PMID:27322276

  10. Self-Supplied Nano-Fusing and Transferring Metal Nanostructures via Surface Oxide Reduction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jaeho; Seo, Ji-Won; Kim, Jong Yun; Lee, Jaemin; Cho, Changsoon; Kang, Juhoon; Choi, Sung-Yool; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-01-20

    Here, we demonstrate that chemical reduction of oxide layers on metal nanostructures fuses junctions at nanoscale to improve the opto-electrical performance, and to ensure environmental stability of the interconnected nanonetwork. In addition, the reducing reaction lowers the adhesion force between metal nanostructures and substrates, facilitating the detachment of them from substrates. Detached metal nanonetworks can be easily floated on water and transferred onto various substrates including hydrophobic, floppy, and curved surfaces. Utilizing the detached metal nanostructures, semitransparent organic photovoltaics is fabricated, presenting the applicability of proposed reduction treatment in the device applications. PMID:26700597

  11. Primary role of electron work function for evaluation of nanostructured titania implant surface against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Golda-Cepa, M; Syrek, K; Brzychczy-Wloch, M; Sulka, G D; Kotarba, A

    2016-09-01

    The electron work function as an essential descriptor for the evaluation of metal implant surfaces against bacterial infection is identified for the first time. Its validity is demonstrated on Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to nanostructured titania surfaces. The established correlation: work function-bacteria adhesion is of general importance since it can be used for direct evaluation of any electrically conductive implant surfaces. PMID:27207043

  12. Unstable Growth and Decay of Nanostructures on Crystalline Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einstein, Theodore L.

    2001-03-01

    Instabilities during growth are typically attributed to the venerable [step] Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect (SESE), or closely related asymmetries(J.G. Amar and F. Family, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77), 4584 (1996) for atoms arriving at upper and lower sides of a step. Esp., SESE leads to the well-known Bales-Zangwill (BZ) instability of step edges. We have found(O. Pierre-Louis, M.R. D'Orsogna, and T.L. Einstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82), 3661 (1999) that an analogous in-plane asymmetry of the energy barriers at kinks for atoms moving along step edges, the kink Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect (KESE), can produce a new instability that can supplant the BZ instability. (The relevant edge and corner barriers can be calculated semiempirically; moreover, they can theoretically be tuned in electrochemical cells.(M.I. Haftel and T.L. Einstein, Proc. MRS 580), 195 (2000); Proc. ICSFS-10 (Princeton, 2000), Appl. Surface Sci.) We analyze various contributions to the mass current along the step. Monte Carlo simulations on a simple SOS model are used to illustrate behavior and distinguish between strong and weak KESE. The threshold of stable kink-flow growth is analyzed. KESE can induce mound formation, the orientation of which depends on the strength of the kink ES barrier. Such behavior was observed on Ag(100).(G. Costantini ldots U. Valbusa, Proc. ICSFS-10 (Princeton, 2000), Appl. Surf. Sci.; Surface Sci. 459), L487 (2000) Intriguing experiments observe wavelength selection during step-flow growth on vicinal Cu(100).(T. Maroutian, L. Douillard, and H.-J. Ernst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83), 4353 (1999) KESE also can account for the instability of the Wolf-Villain model, in contrast to the similar Das Sarma-Tamborenea model.(P. Punyindu, Z. Toroczkai, and S. Das Sarma, preprint) At the coarse-grained level, the continuum step model can account for the decay of nanomounds on Si(7x7): the exponents of the decay rate and, more remarkably, the overall rate of these nanostructures (to within a factor of two

  13. Investigations of the Band Structure and Morphology of Nanostructured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Kevin R.

    2011-12-01

    and temperature, which is manifested by variations in the diffraction lineshape. The effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic corrugation factors will be discussed. Through a carefully coordinated study I show how these surface morphology measurements can be combined with angle resolved photoemission measurements to understand the role of surface corrugation in the ARPES measurement process. The measurements described here rely on the development of an analytical formulation for relating the crystal corrugation to the photoemission linewidth. I present ARPES measurements that show that, despite significant deviation from planarity of the crystal, the electronic structure of exfoliated suspended graphene is nearly that of ideal, undoped graphene; the Dirac point is measured to be within 25 meV of EF. Further, I show that suspended graphene behaves as a marginal Fermi-liquid, with a quasiparticle lifetime which scales as (E -- EF)--1 ; comparison with other graphene and graphite data is discussed. In contrast to graphene, which must be treated as a flexible membrane with continuous height variation, roughness in clean single crystal surfaces arises from lattice dislocations, which introduce discrete height variations. Such height variations can be exploited to generate a self assembled nano-structured surface. In particular, by making a vicinal cut on a single crystal surface, a nanoscale step array can be formed. A model system for such nanoscale self assembly is Cu(111). Cu(775) is formed by making an 8.5° viscinal cut of Cu(111) along the [112¯] axis. The electronic states formed on the surface of this system, with a nanoscale step array of 14 A terraces, shows markedly different behavior those formed on Cu(111). In this dissertation, I show that the tunability of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator, combined with its high-repetition rate and short pulse length, provides a powerful tool for resonant band mapping of the sp surface and image states on flat and

  14. Magnetic Behavior of Surface Nanostructured 50-nm Nickel Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Thermally evaporated 50-nm nickel thin films coated on borosilicate glass substrates were nanostructured by excimer laser (0.5 J/cm2, single shot), DC electric field (up to 2 kV/cm) and trench-template assisted technique. Nanoparticle arrays (anisotropic growth features) have been observed to form in the direction of electric field for DC electric field treatment case and ruptured thin film (isotropic growth features) growth for excimer laser treatment case. For trench-template assisted technique; nanowires (70–150 nm diameters) have grown along the length of trench template. Coercive field and saturation magnetization are observed to be strongly dependent on nanostructuring techniques. PMID:21076670

  15. Biomimetic silica nanostructures on the surface, controlled by polyvalent counteranions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sung Ho

    2013-09-01

    Biosilicification (silica biomineralization in diatoms) has been intensively investigated for the in vitro formation of inorganic nanostructures under the ambient condition. It is known that biosilicification occurs at the interface of catalytic templates, derived by interactions between cationic polyamines and anions. In this work, nanostructures of silica thin films were controlled by exchanging counteranions of quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) with orthophosphate/pyrophosphate anions such as HPO4-, HPO42-, PO43- and PO74-. Thickness of silica films and diameters of silica nanoparticulates were tuned at the nanometer scale. In addition, it was found that resulted silica structure highly depended on the structure of catalytic polymeric templates.

  16. Laser-induced plasma generation and evolution in a transient spray.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Tsuboi, Kazuya; Tomita, Eiji

    2014-01-13

    The behaviors of laser-induced plasma and fuel spray were investigated by visualizing images with an ultra-high-speed camera. Time-series images of laser-induced plasma in a transient spray were visualized using a high-speed color camera. The effects of a shockwave generated from the laser-induced plasma on the evaporated spray behavior were investigated. The interaction between a single droplet and the laser-induced plasma was investigated using a single droplet levitated by an ultrasonic levitator. Two main conclusions were drawn from these experiments: (1) the fuel droplets in the spray were dispersed by the shockwave generated from the laser-induced plasma; and (2) the plasma position may have shifted due to breakdown of the droplet surface and the lens effect of droplets. PMID:24921999

  17. CW CO2 Laser Induced Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pola, Joseph

    1989-05-01

    CW CO2 laser driven reactions between sulfur hexafluoride and carbon oxide, carbon suboxide, carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide proceed at subatmospheric pressures and yield fluorinated carbon compounds and sulfur tetrafluoride. CW CO2 laser driven reactions of organic compounds in the presence of energy-conveying sulfur hexafluoride show reaction course different from that normally observed due to elimination of reactor hot surface effects. The examples concern the decomposition of polychlorohydrocarbons, 2-nitropropane, tert.-butylamine, allyl chloride, spirohexane, isobornyl acetate and the oxidation of haloolefins. CW CO2 laser induced fragmentation of 1-methyl-l-silacyclobutanes and 4-silaspiro(3.4)octane in the presence of sulfur hexafluoride is an effective way for preparation and deposition of stable organosilicon polymers.

  18. Laser-Induced Spallation of Microsphere Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Hiraiwa, Morgan; Stossel, Melicent; Khanolkar, Amey; Wang, Junlan; Boechler, Nicholas

    2016-08-01

    The detachment of a semiordered monolayer of polystyrene microspheres adhered to an aluminum-coated glass substrate is studied using a laser-induced spallation technique. The microsphere-substrate adhesion force is estimated from substrate surface displacement measurements obtained using optical interferometry, and a rigid-body model that accounts for the inertia of the microspheres. The estimated adhesion force is compared with estimates obtained using an adhesive contact model together with interferometric measurements of the out-of-plane microsphere contact resonance, and with estimated work of adhesion values for the polystyrene-aluminum interface. Scanning electron microscope images of detached monolayer regions reveal a unique morphology, namely, partially detached monolayer flakes composed of single hexagonal close packed crystalline domains. This work contributes to the fields of microsphere adhesion and contact dynamics, and demonstrates a unique monolayer delamination morphology. PMID:27409715

  19. Titanium Surfaces with Nanostructures Influence on Osteoblasts Proliferation: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Vilkinis, Valdas

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Nanothechnology found to be increasingly implemented in implantology sphere over the recent years and it shows encouraging effect in this field. The aim of present review is to compare, based on the recent evidence, the influence of various nanostructure surface modifications of titanium for implants, on osteoblasts proliferation. Material and Methods A literature review of English articles was conducted by using MEDLINE database restricted to 2009 - 2014 and constructed according PRISMA guidelines. Search terms included “Titanium implant”, “Titanium surface with nanostructure”, “Osteoblast”. Additional studies were identified in bibliographies. Only in vitro and/or in vivo studies on nano structured implant surfaces plus control sample, with specific evaluation method for osteoblasts proliferation and at least one Ti sample with nanostructure, were included in the review. Results 32 studies with 122 groups of examined samples were selected for present review. Each study conducted in vitro experiment, two studies conducted additional in vivo experiments. All studies were dispensed by type of surface modification into two major groups; “Direct ablative titanium implant surface nano-modifications” with 19 studies and ”Nanocomposite additive implant surface modifications” with 13 studies. Overall 24 studies reporting on positive effect of nanostructured surface, 2 studies found no significant advantage and 6 studies reported on negative effect compared to other structure scales. Conclusions From examination of selected articles we can notice marked advantage in implementation of various nanostructures onto implant surface. Yet for discovering the ultimate implant surface nanostructure, further comparable investigations of Ti surface nanostructures need to be done. PMID:25386228

  20. Investigation of oxygen states and reactivities on a nanostructured cupric oxide surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svintsitskiy, D. A.; Stadnichenko, A. I.; Demidov, D. V.; Koscheev, S. V.; Boronin, A. I.

    2011-08-01

    Nanostructured copper (II) oxide was formed on clean copper foil at room temperature using activated oxygen produced by RF discharge. CuO particles of approximately 10-20 nm were observed on the surface by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). The copper states and oxygen species of the model cupric oxide were studied by means of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). These oxide particles demonstrated abnormally high reactivity with carbon monoxide (CO) at temperatures below 100 °C. The XPS data showed that the interaction of CO with the nanostructured cupric oxide resulted in reduction of the CuO particles to Cu 2O species. The reactivity of the nanostructured cupric oxide to CO was studied at 80 °C using XPS in step-by-step mode. The initial reactivity was estimated to be 5 × 10 -5 and was steadily reduced down to 5 × 10 -9 as the exposure was increased. O1s spectral analysis allowed us to propose that the high initial reactivity was caused by the presence of non-lattice oxygen states on the surface of the nanostructured CuO. We established that reoxidation of the partially reduced nanostructured cupric oxide by molecular oxygen O 2 restored the highly reactive oxygen form on the surface. These results allowed us to propose that the nanostructured cupric oxide could be used for low temperature catalytic CO oxidation. Some hypotheses concerning the nature of the non-lattice oxygen species with high reactivity are also discussed.

  1. Dirac fermions at high-index surfaces of bismuth chalcogenide topological insulator nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virk, Naunidh; Yazyev, Oleg V.

    2016-02-01

    Binary bismuth chalcogenides Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and related materials are currently being extensively investigated as the reference topological insulators (TIs) due to their simple surface-state band dispersion (single Dirac cone) and relatively large bulk band gaps. Nanostructures of TIs are of particular interest as an increased surface-to-volume ratio enhances the contribution of surfaces states, meaning they are promising candidates for potential device applications. So far, the vast majority of research efforts have focused on the low-energy (0001) surfaces, which correspond to natural cleavage planes in these layered materials. However, the surfaces of low-dimensional nanostructures (nanoplatelets, nanowires, nanoribbons) inevitably involve higher-index facets. We perform a systematic ab initio investigation of the surfaces of bismuth chalcogenide TI nanostructures characterized by different crystallographic orientations, atomic structures and stoichiometric compositions. We find several stable terminations of high-index surfaces, which can be realized at different values of the chemical potential of one of the constituent elements. For the uniquely defined stoichiometric termination, the topological Dirac fermion states are shown to be strongly anisotropic with a clear dependence of Fermi velocities and spin polarization on the surface orientation. Self-doping effects and the presence of topologically trivial mid-gap states are found to characterize the non-stoichiometric surfaces. The results of our study pave the way towards experimental control of topologically protected surface states in bismuth chalcogenide nanostructures.

  2. Dirac fermions at high-index surfaces of bismuth chalcogenide topological insulator nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Naunidh; Yazyev, Oleg V.

    2016-01-01

    Binary bismuth chalcogenides Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and related materials are currently being extensively investigated as the reference topological insulators (TIs) due to their simple surface-state band dispersion (single Dirac cone) and relatively large bulk band gaps. Nanostructures of TIs are of particular interest as an increased surface-to-volume ratio enhances the contribution of surfaces states, meaning they are promising candidates for potential device applications. So far, the vast majority of research efforts have focused on the low-energy (0001) surfaces, which correspond to natural cleavage planes in these layered materials. However, the surfaces of low-dimensional nanostructures (nanoplatelets, nanowires, nanoribbons) inevitably involve higher-index facets. We perform a systematic ab initio investigation of the surfaces of bismuth chalcogenide TI nanostructures characterized by different crystallographic orientations, atomic structures and stoichiometric compositions. We find several stable terminations of high-index surfaces, which can be realized at different values of the chemical potential of one of the constituent elements. For the uniquely defined stoichiometric termination, the topological Dirac fermion states are shown to be strongly anisotropic with a clear dependence of Fermi velocities and spin polarization on the surface orientation. Self-doping effects and the presence of topologically trivial mid-gap states are found to characterize the non-stoichiometric surfaces. The results of our study pave the way towards experimental control of topologically protected surface states in bismuth chalcogenide nanostructures. PMID:26847409

  3. Dirac fermions at high-index surfaces of bismuth chalcogenide topological insulator nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Virk, Naunidh; Yazyev, Oleg V

    2016-01-01

    Binary bismuth chalcogenides Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and related materials are currently being extensively investigated as the reference topological insulators (TIs) due to their simple surface-state band dispersion (single Dirac cone) and relatively large bulk band gaps. Nanostructures of TIs are of particular interest as an increased surface-to-volume ratio enhances the contribution of surfaces states, meaning they are promising candidates for potential device applications. So far, the vast majority of research efforts have focused on the low-energy (0001) surfaces, which correspond to natural cleavage planes in these layered materials. However, the surfaces of low-dimensional nanostructures (nanoplatelets, nanowires, nanoribbons) inevitably involve higher-index facets. We perform a systematic ab initio investigation of the surfaces of bismuth chalcogenide TI nanostructures characterized by different crystallographic orientations, atomic structures and stoichiometric compositions. We find several stable terminations of high-index surfaces, which can be realized at different values of the chemical potential of one of the constituent elements. For the uniquely defined stoichiometric termination, the topological Dirac fermion states are shown to be strongly anisotropic with a clear dependence of Fermi velocities and spin polarization on the surface orientation. Self-doping effects and the presence of topologically trivial mid-gap states are found to characterize the non-stoichiometric surfaces. The results of our study pave the way towards experimental control of topologically protected surface states in bismuth chalcogenide nanostructures. PMID:26847409

  4. How light gets through periodically nanostructured metal films: a role of surface polaritonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Zayats, A V; Salomon, L; De Fornel, F

    2003-06-01

    The physical origin of the enhanced optical transmission of periodically structured films related to surface plasmon polaritons is discussed from first principles. The enhancement of transmission through smooth, randomly rough and periodically nanostructured films is considered. Analysis shows that any metal (or dielectric) nanostructured film can exhibit enhanced transmission in certain spectral ranges corresponding to surface plasmon (or phonon) polariton Bloch mode states on a periodic structure. Resonant tunnelling via these states is responsible for the transmission enhancement. The properties of surface polaritonic crystals are analogous to those of photonic crystals and can find numerous applications for scaling down optical devices to nanometric dimensions as well as for designing novel nanostructured materials whose optical properties are determined by surface polariton interaction in a periodic structure. PMID:12787112

  5. Drag reduction using metallic engineered surfaces with highly ordered hierarchical topographies: nanostructures on micro-riblets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyung; Shin, Ryung; Jung, Myungki; Lee, Jinhyung; Park, Changsu; Kang, Shinill

    2016-03-01

    Durable drag-reduction surfaces have recently received much attention, due to energy-saving and power-consumption issues associated with harsh environment applications, such as those experienced by piping infrastructure, ships, aviation, underwater vehicles, and high-speed ground vehicles. In this study, a durable, metallic surface with highly ordered hierarchical structures was used to enhance drag-reduction properties, by combining two passive drag-reduction strategies: an air-layer effect induced by nanostructures and secondary vortex generation by micro-riblet structures. The nanostructures and micro-riblet structures were designed to increase slip length. The top-down fabrication method used to form the metallic hierarchical structures combined laser interference lithography, photolithography, thermal reflow, nanoimprinting, and pulse-reverse-current electrochemical deposition. The surfaces were formed from nickel, which has high hardness and corrosion resistance, making it suitable for use in harsh environments. The drag-reduction properties of various metal surfaces were investigated based on the surface structure: a bare surface, a nanostructured surface, a micro-riblet surface, and a hierarchically structured surface of nanostructures on micro-riblets.

  6. Fabrication of flower-like silver nanostructure on the Al substrate for surface enhanced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jun; Zheng, Hairong; Yan, Xiaoqing; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Zhenglong

    2012-01-01

    Surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) substrates consisting of flower-like nanostructure of electromagnetically coupled silver dendrites on Al surface were manufactured by modified galvanic displacement process between Ag ion and Al at room temperature. Substrate enhancement efficiency, which was evaluated from SEF intensities of the adsorbed Rhodamine 6 G(Rh6G), was found to increase rapidly with reaction time. The observation highlights the importance of strong coupling effects between nanobranches in SEF. The variation of SEF efficiency can be qualitatively explained with local surface plasmon resonance model of coupled silver nanostructures.

  7. Guided evolution of bulk metallic glass nanostructures: A platform for designing three-dimensional electrocatalytic surfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Doubek, Gustavo; Sekol, Ryan C.; Li, Jinyang; Ryu, Won -Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Nejati, Siamak; Moy, Eric; Reid, Candy; Carmo, Marcelo; Linardi, Marcelo; et al

    2015-12-22

    Precise control over catalyst surface composition and structure is necessary to improve the function of electrochemical systems. To that end, bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys with atomically dispersed elements provide a highly processable, nanoscale platform for electrocatalysis and surface modification. Here we report on nanostructures of Pt-based BMGs that are modified with various subtractive and additive processes to improve their electrochemical performance.

  8. Structure-related antibacterial activity of a titanium nanostructured surface fabricated by glancing angle sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengstock, Christina; Lopian, Michael; Motemani, Yahya; Borgmann, Anna; Khare, Chinmay; Buenconsejo, Pio John S.; Schildhauer, Thomas A.; Ludwig, Alfred; Köller, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to reproduce the physico-mechanical antibacterial effect of the nanocolumnar cicada wing surface for metallic biomaterials by fabrication of titanium (Ti) nanocolumnar surfaces using glancing angle sputter deposition (GLAD). Nanocolumnar Ti thin films were fabricated by GLAD on silicon substrates. S. aureus as well as E. coli were incubated with nanostructured or reference dense Ti thin film test samples for one or three hours at 37 °C. Bacterial adherence, morphology, and viability were analyzed by fluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy and compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Bacterial adherence was not significantly different after short (1 h) incubation on the dense or the nanostructured Ti surface. In contrast to S. aureus the viability of E. coli was significantly decreased after 3 h on the nanostructured film compared to the dense film and was accompanied by an irregular morphology and a cell wall deformation. Cell adherence, spreading and viability of hMSCs were not altered on the nanostructured surface. The results show that the selective antibacterial effect of the cicada wing could be transferred to a nanostructured metallic biomaterial by mimicking the natural nanocolumnar topography.

  9. Near surface properties of mixtures of propylammonium nitrate with n-alkanols 1. Nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Elbourne, Aaron; Cronshaw, Samuel; Voïtchovsky, Kislon; Warr, Gregory G; Atkin, Rob

    2015-10-28

    In situ amplitude modulated-atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) has been used to probe the nanostructure of mixtures of propylammonium nitrate (PAN) with n-alkanols near a mica surface. PAN is a protic ionic liquid (IL) which has a bicontinuous sponge-like nanostructure of polar and apolar domains in the bulk, which becomes flatter near a solid surface. Mixtures of PAN with 1-butanol, 1-octanol, and 1-dodecanol at 10-70 vol% n-alkanol have been examined, along with each pure n-alkanol, to reveal the effect of composition and n-alkanol chain length. At low concentrations the butanol simply swells the PAN near-surface nanostructure, but at higher concentrations the nanostructure fragments. Octanol and dodecanol first lower the preferred curvature of the PAN near-surface nanostructure because, unlike n-butanol, their alkyl chains are too long to be accommodated alongside the PAN cations. At higher concentrations, octanol and dodecanol self-assemble into n-alkanol rich aggregates in a PAN rich matrix. The concentration at which aggregation first becomes apparent decreases with n-alkanol chain length. PMID:26388145

  10. Preparation of Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures and their application in surface-enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jun; Ye, Yanyan; Zhang, Wenhui; Ren, Zebin; Huo, Yiping; Zheng, Hairong

    2015-11-01

    An effective substrate for surface-enhanced fluorescence, which consists of cluster Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures on a copper surface, was synthesized via a multi-stage galvanic replacement reaction of a Ag cluster in a chlorauric acid (HAuCl4) solution at room temperature. The fabricated silver/gold bimetallic cluster were found to yield large surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) enhancement factors for rhodamine 6G probe molecules deposited on the substrate, and also the fluorescence efficiency is critically dependent on the period of nanostructure growth. With the help of proper control reaction conditions, such as the reaction time, and concentration of reaction solutions, the maximum fluorescence enhanced effect was obtained. Therefore, the bimetallic nanostructure substrate also can be adapted to studies in SEF, which will expand the application of SEF. PMID:25691287

  11. Exploration of water jet generated by Q-switched laser induced water breakdown with different depths beneath a flat free surface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ross C C; Yu, Y T; Su, K W; Chen, J F; Chen, Y F

    2013-01-14

    The dynamics of a water jet on a flat free surface are investigated using a nanosecond pulsed laser for creating an oscillating bubble with different depths beneath the free surface. A thin jet is shown to deform a crater surface resulted from surface depression and cause a circular ring-shaped crater on the connection surface between the crater of surface depression and the thin jet. The collapse of this circular ring-shaped crater is proposed to the crown-like formation around a thick jet. The evolution of the bubble depth suggests a classification of four distinctive ranges of the bubble depths: non-crown formation when the parameter of bubble depth over the maximum bubble radius γ ≤ 0.5, unstable crown formation when 0.5 ≤ γ ≤ 0.6, crown-like structure with a complete crown wall when 0.6 ≤ γ ≤ 1.1, and non-crown formation when 1.1 ≤ γ. Furthermore, the orientation of the crown wall gradually turns counterclockwise to vertical direction with increasing γ from 0.5 to 1.1, implying a high correlation between the orientation of the crown wall and the depth of the bubble. This correlation is explained and discussed by the directional change of the jet eruption from the collapse of circular ring-shaped crater. PMID:23388938

  12. Surface phonon-polariton enhanced optical forces in silicon carbide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongfang; Lawandy, Nabil M; Zia, Rashid

    2013-09-01

    The enhanced optical forces induced by surface phonon-polariton (SPhP) modes are investigated in different silicon carbide (SiC) nanostructures. Specifically, we calculate optical forces using the Maxwell stress tensor for three different geometries: spherical particles, slab waveguides, and rectangular waveguides. We show that SPhP modes in SiC can produce very large forces, more than one order of magnitude larger than the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) forces in analogous metal nanostructures. The material and geometric basis for these large optical forces are examined in terms of dispersive permittivity, separation distance, and operating wavelength. PMID:24103963

  13. Atomic layer deposition in nanostructured photovoltaics: tuning optical, electronic and surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmstrom, Axel F.; Santra, Pralay K.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2015-07-01

    Nanostructured materials offer key advantages for third-generation photovoltaics, such as the ability to achieve high optical absorption together with enhanced charge carrier collection using low cost components. However, the extensive interfacial areas in nanostructured photovoltaic devices can cause high recombination rates and a high density of surface electronic states. In this feature article, we provide a brief review of some nanostructured photovoltaic technologies including dye-sensitized, quantum dot sensitized and colloidal quantum dot solar cells. We then introduce the technique of atomic layer deposition (ALD), which is a vapor phase deposition method using a sequence of self-limiting surface reaction steps to grow thin, uniform and conformal films. We discuss how ALD has established itself as a promising tool for addressing different aspects of nanostructured photovoltaics. Examples include the use of ALD to synthesize absorber materials for both quantum dot and plasmonic solar cells, to grow barrier layers for dye and quantum dot sensitized solar cells, and to infiltrate coatings into colloidal quantum dot solar cell to improve charge carrier mobilities as well as stability. We also provide an example of monolayer surface modification in which adsorbed ligand molecules on quantum dots are used to tune the band structure of colloidal quantum dot solar cells for improved charge collection. Finally, we comment on the present challenges and future outlook of the use of ALD for nanostructured photovoltaics.

  14. The influence of laser-induced nanosecond rise-time stress waves on the microstructure and surface chemical activity of single crystal Cu nanopillars

    SciTech Connect

    Youssef, G.; Crum, R.; Seif, D.; Po, G.; Prikhodko, S. V.; Kodambaka, S.; Ghoniem, N.; Gupta, V.

    2013-02-28

    An apparatus and test procedure for fabrication and loading of single crystal metal nanopillars under extremely high pressures (>1 GPa) and strain rates (>10{sup 7} s{sup -1}), using laser-generated stress waves, are presented. Single-crystalline Cu pillars ({approx}1.20 {mu}m in tall and {approx}0.45 {mu}m in diameter) prepared via focused ion beam milling of Cu(001) substrates are shock-loaded using this approach with the dilatational stress waves propagating along the [001] axis of the pillars. Transmission electron microscopy observations of shock-loaded pillars show that dislocation density decreases and that their orientation changes with increasing stress wave amplitude, indicative of dislocation motion. The shock-loaded pillars exhibit enhanced chemical reactivity when submerged in oil and isopropyl alcohol solutions, due likely to the exposure of clean surfaces via surface spallation and formation of surface steps and nanoscale facets through dislocation motion to the surface of the pillars, resulting in growth of thin oxide films on the surfaces of the pillars.

  15. The influence of laser-induced nanosecond rise-time stress waves on the microstructure and surface chemical activity of single crystal Cu nanopillars

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, G.; Crum, R.; Prikhodko, S. V.; Seif, D.; Po, G.; Ghoniem, N.; Kodambaka, S.; Gupta, V.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus and test procedure for fabrication and loading of single crystal metal nanopillars under extremely high pressures (>1 GPa) and strain rates (>107 s−1), using laser-generated stress waves, are presented. Single-crystalline Cu pillars (∼1.20 μm in tall and ∼0.45 μm in diameter) prepared via focused ion beam milling of Cu(001) substrates are shock-loaded using this approach with the dilatational stress waves propagating along the [001] axis of the pillars. Transmission electron microscopy observations of shock-loaded pillars show that dislocation density decreases and that their orientation changes with increasing stress wave amplitude, indicative of dislocation motion. The shock-loaded pillars exhibit enhanced chemical reactivity when submerged in oil and isopropyl alcohol solutions, due likely to the exposure of clean surfaces via surface spallation and formation of surface steps and nanoscale facets through dislocation motion to the surface of the pillars, resulting in growth of thin oxide films on the surfaces of the pillars. PMID:23526837

  16. In-situ characterization of femtosecond laser-induced crystallization in borosilicate glass using time-resolved surface third-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weimin; Wang, Liang; Han, Fangyuan; Fang, Chong

    2013-11-01

    Coherent phonon dynamics in condensed-phase medium are responsible for important material properties including thermal and electrical conductivities. We report a structural dynamics technique, time-resolved surface third-harmonic generation (TRSTHG) spectroscopy, to capture transient phonon propagation near the surface of polycrystalline CaF2 and amorphous borosilicate (BK7) glass. Our approach time-resolves the background-free, high-sensitivity third harmonic generation (THG) signal in between the two crossing near-IR pulses. Pronounced intensity quantum beats reveal the impulsively excited low-frequency Raman mode evolution on the femtosecond to picosecond timescale. After amplified laser irradiation, danburite-crystal-like structure units form at the glass surface. This versatile TRSTHG setup paves the way to mechanistically study and design advanced thermoelectrics and photovoltaics.

  17. Laser induced damage of fused silica polished optics due to a droplet forming organic contaminant.

    PubMed

    Bien-Aimé, Karell; Néauport, Jérome; Tovena-Pecault, Isabelle; Fargin, Evelyne; Labrugère, Christine; Belin, Colette; Couzi, Michel

    2009-04-20

    We report on the effect of organic molecular contamination on single shot laser induced damage density at the wavelength of 351 nm, with a 3 ns pulse length. Specific contamination experiments were made with dioctylphthalate (DOP) in liquid or gaseous phase, on the surface of fused silica polished samples, bare or solgel coated. Systematic laser induced damage was observed only in the case of liquid phase contamination. Different chemical and morphological characterization methods were used to identify and understand the damage process. We demonstrate that the contaminant morphology, rather than its physicochemical nature, can be responsible for the decrease of laser induced damage threshold of optics. PMID:19381171

  18. Localized surface plasmon resonance induced structure-property relationships of metal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilayurganapathy, Subramanian

    The confluence of nanotechnology and plasmonics has led to new and interesting phenomena. The industrial need for fast, efficient and miniature devices which constantly push the boundaries on device performance tap into the happy marriage between these diverse fields. Designing devices for real life application that give superior performance when compared with existing ones are enabled by a better understanding of their structure-property relationships. Among all the design constraints, without doubt, the shape and size of the nanostructure along with the dielectric medium surrounding it has the maximum influence on the response and thereby the performance of the device. Hence a careful study of the above mentioned parameters is of utmost importance in designing efficient devices. In this dissertation, we synthesize and study the optical properties of nanostructures of different shapes and size. In particular, we estimated the plasmonic near field enhancement via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and 2-photon Photoemission electron microscopy (2P-PEEM). We synthesized the nanostructures using four different techniques. One synthesis technique, the thermal growth method was employed to grow interesting Ag and Au nanostructures on Si. The absence of toxic chemicals during nanostructure synthesis via the thermal growth technique opens up myriad possibilities for applications in the fields of biomedical science, bioengineering, drug delivery among others along with the huge advantage of being environment friendly. The other three synthesis techniques (ion implantation, Electrodeposition and FIB lithography) were chosen with the specific goal of designing novel plasmonic metal, metal hybrid nanostructures as photocathode materials in next generation light sources. The synthesis techniques for these novel nanostructures were dictated by the requirement of high quantum efficiency, robustness under constant irradiation and coherent unidirectional electron emission

  19. Supersonic laser-induced jetting of aluminum micro-droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Zenou, M.; Sa'ar, A.; Kotler, Z.

    2015-05-04

    The droplet velocity and the incubation time of pure aluminum micro-droplets, printed using the method of sub-nanosecond laser induced forward transfer, have been measured indicating the formation of supersonic laser-induced jetting. The incubation time and the droplet velocity were extracted by measuring a transient electrical signal associated with droplet landing on the surface of the acceptor substrate. This technique has been exploited for studying small volume droplets, in the range of 10–100 femto-litters for which supersonic velocities were measured. The results suggest elastic propagation of the droplets across the donor-to-acceptor gap, a nonlinear deposition dynamics on the surface of the acceptor and overall efficient energy transfer from the laser beam to the droplets.

  20. Laser induced melting and crystallization of boron doped amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Nebel, C.E.; Schoeniger, S.; Dahlheimer, B.; Stutzmann, M.

    1997-07-01

    Transient reflectivity experiments have been performed to measure the dynamics of laser-induced melting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and the crystallization to {micro}c-Si of films with different thicknesses on Corning 7059 glass. The laser-induced melting takes place with a velocity of 13 to 24 m/s, while the solidification is about a factor 10 slower. The crystallization starts at the Si/glass interface and at the surface. In the center of the films Si remains liquid for an extended period of time. The crystallization dynamics point towards an heterogeneous morphology of laser-crystallized Si, where the surface and the interface layers are composed of small grains and the bulk of larger grains.

  1. Supersonic laser-induced jetting of aluminum micro-droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenou, M.; Sa'ar, A.; Kotler, Z.

    2015-05-01

    The droplet velocity and the incubation time of pure aluminum micro-droplets, printed using the method of sub-nanosecond laser induced forward transfer, have been measured indicating the formation of supersonic laser-induced jetting. The incubation time and the droplet velocity were extracted by measuring a transient electrical signal associated with droplet landing on the surface of the acceptor substrate. This technique has been exploited for studying small volume droplets, in the range of 10-100 femto-litters for which supersonic velocities were measured. The results suggest elastic propagation of the droplets across the donor-to-acceptor gap, a nonlinear deposition dynamics on the surface of the acceptor and overall efficient energy transfer from the laser beam to the droplets.

  2. Surface properties and biocompatibility of nanostructured TiO2 film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Asif; He, Jie; Jiao, Lingrui; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Sheng, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 films are deposited on a silicon substrate using 150-W power from the RF magnetron sputtering at working pressures of 3 to 5 Pa, with no substrate bias, and at 3 Pa with a substrate bias of -50 V. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that TiO2 films deposited on unbiased as well as biased substrates are all amorphous. Surface properties such as surface roughness and wettability of TiO2 films, grown in a plasma environment, under biased and unbiased substrate conditions are reported according to the said parameters of RF power and the working pressures. Primary rat osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cells have been cultured on nanostructured TiO2 films fabricated at different conditions of substrate bias and working pressures. The effects of roughness and hydrophilicity of nanostructured TiO2 films on cell density and cell spreading have been discussed. PMID:25852353

  3. Surface properties and biocompatibility of nanostructured TiO2 film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Asif; He, Jie; Jiao, Lingrui; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Sheng, Zhengming

    2015-02-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 films are deposited on a silicon substrate using 150-W power from the RF magnetron sputtering at working pressures of 3 to 5 Pa, with no substrate bias, and at 3 Pa with a substrate bias of -50 V. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that TiO2 films deposited on unbiased as well as biased substrates are all amorphous. Surface properties such as surface roughness and wettability of TiO2 films, grown in a plasma environment, under biased and unbiased substrate conditions are reported according to the said parameters of RF power and the working pressures. Primary rat osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cells have been cultured on nanostructured TiO2 films fabricated at different conditions of substrate bias and working pressures. The effects of roughness and hydrophilicity of nanostructured TiO2 films on cell density and cell spreading have been discussed.

  4. Simultaneous droplet impingement dynamics and heat transfer on nano-structured surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Jian; Graber, Christof; Liburdy, James; Pence, Deborah; Narayanan, Vinod

    2010-05-15

    This study examines the hydrodynamics and temperature characteristics of distilled deionized water droplets impinging on smooth and nano-structured surfaces using high speed (HS) and infrared (IR) imaging at We = 23.6 and Re = 1593, both based on initial drop impingement parameters. Results for a smooth and nano-structured surface for a range of surface temperatures are compared. Droplet impact velocity, transient spreading diameter and dynamic contact angle are measured. The near surface average droplet fluid temperatures are evaluated for conditions of evaporative cooling and boiling. Also included are surface temperature results using a gold layered IR opaque surface on silicon. Four stages of the impingement process are identified: impact, boiling, near constant surface diameter evaporation, and final dry-out. For the boiling conditions there is initial nucleation followed by severe boiling, then near constant diameter evaporation resulting in shrinking of the droplet height. When a critical contact angle is reached during evaporation the droplet rapidly retracts to a smaller diameter reducing the contact area with the surface. This continues as a sequence of retractions until final dry out. The basic trends are the same for all surfaces, but the nano-structured surface has a lower dissipated energy during impact and enhances the heat transfer for evaporative cooling with a 20% shorter time to achieve final dry out. (author)

  5. Surface functionalized nanostructured ceramic sorbents for the effective collection and recovery of uranium from seawater.

    PubMed

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Pittman, Jonathan W; Warner, Marvin G; Nell, Kara M; Clubb, Donald C; Gill, Gary A; Addleman, R Shane

    2016-07-28

    The ability to collect uranium from seawater offers the potential for a nearly limitless fuel supply for nuclear energy. We evaluated the use of functionalized nanostructured sorbents for the collection and recovery of uranium from seawater. Extraction of trace minerals from seawater and brines is challenging due to the high ionic strength of seawater, low mineral concentrations, and fouling of surfaces over time. We demonstrate that rationally assembled sorbent materials that integrate high affinity surface chemistry and high surface area nanostructures into an application relevant micro/macro structure enables collection performance that far exceeds typical sorbent materials. High surface area nanostructured silica with surface chemistries composed of phosphonic acid, phosphonates, 3,4 hydroxypyridinone, and EDTA showed superior performance for uranium collection. A few phosphorous-based commercial resins, specifically Diphonix and Ln Resin, also performed well. We demonstrate an effective and environmentally benign method of stripping the uranium from the high affinity sorbents using inexpensive nontoxic carbonate solutions. The cyclic use of preferred sorbents and acidic reconditioning of materials was shown to improve performance. Composite thin films composed of the nanostructured sorbents and a porous polymer binder are shown to have excellent kinetics and good capacity while providing an effective processing configuration for trace mineral recovery from solutions. Initial work using the composite thin films shows significant improvements in processing capacity over the previously reported sorbent materials. PMID:27184739

  6. Spreading and Fragmenting Characteristics of Impacting Droplet on Micro/ Nanostructured Water-Repellent Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungmo; Lee, Chan; Kim, Moo Hwan; Kim, Joonwon

    2012-11-01

    After impact on a solid surface a droplet spreads, but in different ways such as deposition, rebound, and fragmentation. Because fragmentation occurs when the kinetic energy beat the surface energy during impact, Weber number is the most important dimensionless number in the rebound/fragmentation criteria. This also can be dramatically changed by the micro/nano-scale surface structures. Different micro/nanostructured surfaces were fabricated using silicon wet etching, black silicon formation, or the combination of these methods. Then, spreading and fragmenting events were analyzed with supporting experimental results. On the surfaces, the microstructures form obstacles to drop spreading and retracting, the nanostructures give extreme water-repellency, and the hybrid micro/nanostructures facilitate droplet fragmentation. Especially, the Cassie-Baxter's fraction factor of the microstructures can change rebound/fragmentation criteria. From this work, we finally investigate how the micro/nanostructures can change spreading and fragmenting dynamics during droplet impact. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2011-0030075).

  7. Laser-induced transient grating setup with continuously tunable period

    SciTech Connect

    Vega-Flick, A.; Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A.; Khanolkar, A.; Abi Ghanem, M.; Boechler, N.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2015-12-15

    We present a modification of the laser-induced transient grating setup enabling continuous tuning of the transient grating period. The fine control of the period is accomplished by varying the angle of the diffraction grating used to split excitation and probe beams. The setup has been tested by measuring dispersion of bulk and surface acoustic waves in both transmission and reflection geometries. The presented modification is fully compatible with optical heterodyne detection and can be easily implemented in any transient grating setup.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of condensation on nanostructured surface in a confined space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Ji, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuwen

    2016-05-01

    Understanding heat transfer characteristics of phase change and enhancing thermal energy transport in nanoscale are of great interest in both theoretical and practical applications. In the present study, we investigated the nanoscale vaporization and condensation by using molecular dynamics simulation. A cuboid system is modeled by placing hot and cold walls in the bottom and top ends and filling with working fluid between the two walls. By setting two different high temperatures for the hot wall, we showed the normal and explosive vaporizations and their impacts on thermal transport. For the cold wall, the cuboid nanostructures with fixed height, varied length, width ranging from 4 to 20 layers, and an interval of four layers are constructed to study the effects of condensation induced by different nanostructures. For vaporization, the results showed that higher temperature of the hot wall led to faster transport of the working fluid as a cluster moving from the hot wall to the cold wall. However, excessive temperature of the hot wall causes explosive boiling, which seems not good for the transport of heat due to the less phase change of working fluid. For condensation, the results indicate that nanostructure facilitates condensation, which could be affected not only by the increased surface area but also by the distances between surfaces of the nanostructures and the cold end. There is an optimal nanostructure scheme which maximizes the phase change rate of the entire system.

  9. Transparent, biocompatible nanostructured surfaces for cancer cell capture and culture.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Boran; He, Zhaobo; Zhao, Libo; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; He, Rongxiang; Chen, Fangfang; Song, Haibin; Deng, Yuliang; Zhao, Xingzhong; Xiong, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood which have detached from both the primary tumor and any metastases may be considered as a "liquid biopsy" and are expected to replace tumor biopsies in the monitoring of treatment response and determining patient prognosis. Here, we introduce a facile and efficient CTC detection material made of hydroxyapatite/chitosan (HA/CTS), which is beneficial because of its transparency and excellent biological compatibility. Atomic force microscopy images show that the roughness of the HA/CTS nanofilm (HA/CTSNF) substrates can be controlled by changing the HA:CTS ratio. Enhanced local topographic interactions between nano-components on cancer cell membranes, and the antibody coated nanostructured substrate lead to improved CTC capture and separation. This remarkable nanostructured substrate has the potential for CTC culture in situ and merits further analysis. CTCs captured from artificial blood samples were observed in culture on HA/CTSNF substrates over a period of 14 days by using conventional staining methods (hematoxylin eosin and Wright's stain). We conclude that these substrates are multifunctional materials capable of isolating and culturing CTCs for subsequent studies. PMID:24904216

  10. Transparent, biocompatible nanostructured surfaces for cancer cell capture and culture

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Boran; He, Zhaobo; Zhao, Libo; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; He, Rongxiang; Chen, Fangfang; Song, Haibin; Deng, Yuliang; Zhao, Xingzhong; Xiong, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood which have detached from both the primary tumor and any metastases may be considered as a “liquid biopsy” and are expected to replace tumor biopsies in the monitoring of treatment response and determining patient prognosis. Here, we introduce a facile and efficient CTC detection material made of hydroxyapatite/chitosan (HA/CTS), which is beneficial because of its transparency and excellent biological compatibility. Atomic force microscopy images show that the roughness of the HA/CTS nanofilm (HA/CTSNF) substrates can be controlled by changing the HA:CTS ratio. Enhanced local topographic interactions between nano-components on cancer cell membranes, and the antibody coated nanostructured substrate lead to improved CTC capture and separation. This remarkable nanostructured substrate has the potential for CTC culture in situ and merits further analysis. CTCs captured from artificial blood samples were observed in culture on HA/CTSNF substrates over a period of 14 days by using conventional staining methods (hematoxylin eosin and Wright’s stain). We conclude that these substrates are multifunctional materials capable of isolating and culturing CTCs for subsequent studies. PMID:24904216

  11. Picosecond ultrasonic study of surface acoustic waves on titanium nitride nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornsson, M. M.; Connolly, A. B.; Mahat, S.; Rachmilowitz, B. E.; Daly, B. C.; Antonelli, G. A.; Myers, A.; Singh, K. J.; Yoo, H. J.; King, S. W.

    2015-03-07

    We have measured surface acoustic waves on nanostructured TiN wires overlaid on multiple thin films on a silicon substrate using the ultrafast pump-probe technique known as picosecond ultrasonics. We find a prominent oscillation in the range of 11–54 GHz for samples with varying pitch ranging from 420 nm down to 168 nm. We find that the observed oscillation increases monotonically in frequency with decrease in pitch, but that the increase is not linear. By comparing our data to two-dimensional mechanical simulations of the nanostructures, we find that the type of surface oscillation to which we are sensitive changes depending on the pitch of the sample. Surface waves on substrates that are loaded by thin films can take multiple forms, including Rayleigh-like waves, Sezawa waves, and radiative (leaky) surface waves. We describe evidence for detection of modes that display characteristics of these three surface wave types.

  12. Localized surface plasmon of quasi-one-dimensional metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingzhao

    2007-05-01

    The plasmon resonance of noble metal nanoparticles provides interesting optical properties in the visible and near-infrared region, and is highly tunable by varying the shape and the composition of the nanoparticles. The rod-like gold nanostructures can be synthesized by a seed-mediated method in aqueous surfactant solutions. Starting from different types of gold seeds, either single crystalline gold nanorods or penta-fold twinned gold bipyramids can be synthesized in decent yield with silver(I) added into the growth solution. These nanostructures have pronounced plasmon resonance varying in the 1˜2 eV range. The bipyramids are strikingly monodisperse in shape, which leads to the sharpest ensemble longitudinal plasmon resonance reported so far for metal colloid solutions. A mechanism based on the underpotential deposition of silver was thus suggested to explain the essential role of Ag(I) in the growth process. The optical spectra of the gold colloids were simulated with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results show excellent agreement with recent experimental optical spectra. The local field enhancement (|E|/|E0|) was studied at the plasmon resonance. Sharper structural features produce more significant enhancement and the largest enhancement of more than a factor of 200 is seen around the poles of the bipyramid. A large internal field enhancement by more than a factor of 30 is found for the bipyramids, which suggests that they will exhibit very strong optical nonlinearities. The plasmon can be further tuned by introducing the core/shell nanostructures such as metal/metal or metal/semiconductor nanorods. Following a simple procedure, a homogeneous layer of silver with 1-4 nm thickness can be plated onto the gold nanorods, which shifts the longitudinal plasmon mode of the nanorods toward blue. The silver layer can be converted to semiconductors silver sulfide or selenide, with the longitudinal plasmon resonance tuned toward red. The metal

  13. Two-color beam improvement of the colloidal particle lens array assisted surface nanostructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasiev, Andrei; Bredikhin, Vladimir; Pikulin, Alexander; Ilyakov, Igor; Shishkin, Boris; Akhmedzhanov, Rinat; Bityurin, Nikita

    2015-05-04

    We consider laser nanostructuring of the material surface by means of a colloidal particle lens array. Here, the monolayer of dielectric micro- or nanospheres placed on the surface acts as an array of near-field lenses that focus the laser radiation into the multitude of distinct spots, allowing the formation of many structures in a single stage. We show that conversion of a small part of the energy of the femtosecond beam into the second harmonic (SH) is an efficient way to increase the surface density of obtained nanostructures. By combining the fundamental frequency and the SH, one benefits both from the power of the former and from the focusing ability of the latter. This combination provides an efficient nanostructuring with sphere diameter close to the wavelength of the second harmonic. The possibility to create arrays of nanostructures with surface density above 5×10{sup 8} cm{sup −2} with femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser operating at 800 nm was demonstrated by employing 0.45 μm spheres.

  14. Laser-induced electron capture mass spectrometry

    PubMed

    Wang; Giese

    2000-02-15

    Two techniques are reported for detection of electrophorederivatized compounds by laser-induced electron capture time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-EC-TOF-MS). In both cases, a nitrogen laser is used to induce the electron capture. The analyte is deposited in a matrix consisting of a compound with a low ionization potential such as benzo[ghi]perylene in the first technique, where the electron for electron capture apparently comes from this matrix. In the second technique, the analyte is deposited on a silver surface in the absence of matrix. It seems that "monoenergetic" ions instantly desorb from the target surface in the latter case, since the peak width in the continuous extraction mode essentially matches the pulse width of the laser (4 ns). Ten picomoles of 3-O-(pentafluorobenzyl)-alpha-estradiol were detected at a S/N > or = 50, where the spot size of the laser was approximately 0.25% of the sample spot. It is attractive that simple conditions can enable sensitive detection of electrophores on routine TOF-MS equipment. The technique can be anticipated to broaden the range of analytes in both polarity and size that can be detected by EC-MS relative to the range for GC/EC-MS. PMID:10701262

  15. Laser-Induced Damage of Calcium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Espana, Aubrey L.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Dickinson, J T.

    2004-12-01

    Radiation damage of materials has long been of fundamental interest, especially since the growth of laser technology. One such source of damage comes from UV laser light. Laser systems continue to move into shorter wavelength ranges, but unfortunately are limited by the damage threshold of their optical components. For example, semiconductor lithography is making its way into the 157nm range and requires a material that can not only transmit this light (air cannot), but also withstand the highly energetic photons present at this shorter wavelength. CaF2, an alkaline earth halide, is the chosen material for vacuum UV 157 nm excimer radiation. It can transmit light down to 120 nm and is relatively inexpensive. Although it is readily available through natural and synthetic sources, it is often times difficult to find in high purity. Impurities in the crystal can result in occupied states in the band gap that induce photon absorption [2] and ultimately lead to the degradation of the material. In order to predict how well CaF2 will perform under irradiation of short wavelength laser light, one must understand the mechanisms for laser-induced damage. Laser damage is often a two-step process: initial photons create new defects in the lattice and subsequent photons excite these defects. When laser light is incident on a solid surface there is an initial production of electron-hole (e-h) pairs, a heating of free electrons and a generation of local heating around optically absorbing centers [3]. Once this initial excitation converts to the driving energy for nuclear motion, the result is an ejection of atoms, ions and molecules from the surface, known as desorption or ablation [3]. Secondary processes further driving desorption are photoabsorption, successive excitations of self-trapped excitons (STE's) and defects, and ionization of neutrals by incident laser light [3]. The combination of laser-induced desorption and the alterations to the electronic and geometrical

  16. Control of bacterial biofilm growth on surfaces by nanostructural mechanics and geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, A. K.; Hochbaum, A. I.; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, J.

    2011-12-01

    Surface-associated communities of bacteria, called biofilms, pervade natural and anthropogenic environments. Mature biofilms are resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose persistent pathogenic threats. The use of surface chemistry to inhibit biofilm growth has been found to only transiently affect initial attachment. In this work, we investigate the tunable effects of physical surface properties, including high-aspect-ratio (HAR) surface nanostructure arrays recently reported to induce long-range spontaneous spatial patterning of bacteria on the surface. The functional parameters and length scale regimes that control such artificial patterning for the rod-shaped pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa are elucidated through a combinatorial approach. We further report a crossover regime of biofilm growth on a HAR nanostructured surface versus the nanostructure effective stiffness. When the 'softness' of the hair-like nanoarray is increased beyond a threshold value, biofilm growth is inhibited as compared to a flat control surface. This result is consistent with the mechanoselective adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Therefore by combining nanoarray-induced bacterial patterning and modulating the effective stiffness of the nanoarray—thus mimicking an extremely compliant flat surface—bacterial mechanoselective adhesion can be exploited to control and inhibit biofilm growth.

  17. Superhydrophobic and omnidirectional antireflective surfaces from nanostructured ormosil colloids.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Adem; Khudiyev, Tural; Daglar, Bihter; Budunoglu, Hulya; Okyay, Ali K; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2013-02-01

    A large-area superhydrophobic and omnidirectional antireflective nanostructured organically modified silica coating has been designed and prepared. The coating mimics the self-cleaning property of superhydrophobic lotus leaves and omnidirectional broad band antireflectivity of moth compound eyes, simultaneously. Water contact and sliding angles of the coating are around 160° and 10°, respectively. Coating improves the transmittance of the glass substrate around 4%, when coated on a single side of a glass, in visible and near-infrared region at normal incidence angles. At oblique incidence angles (up to 60°) improvement in transmission reaches to around 8%. In addition, coatings are mechanically stable against impact of water droplets from considerable heights. We believe that our inexpensive and durable multifunctional coatings are suitable for stepping out of the laboratory to practical outdoor applications. PMID:23281919

  18. Formation and organization of planar polymeric and nanocomposite nanostructures on liquid and solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutov, G. B.; Gainutdinov, R. V.; Gubin, S. P.; Kislov, V. V.; Rakhnyanskaya, A. A.; Sergeev-Cherenkov, A. N.; Tolstikhina, A. L.

    2004-09-01

    We describe a new approach to fabrication of organized planar polymeric and composite nanostructures based on synthetic reactions in organized polymeric Langmuir monolayer at the gas-liquid interface. Novel polymeric quasi-crystalline planar monomolecular structures were formed at the gas-aqueous phase interface using new water-insoluble amphiphilic polyelectrolyte molecules. Corresponding ultrathin polymeric nanoscale-ordered films and stable planar polymeric nanocomposite structures with organized inorganic nanoparticles (palladium, gold and iron oxide) grown in the polymeric monolayer were formed successfully on the solid substrate surfaces. The obtained nanostructures were characterized by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques.

  19. Dynamics of the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) upon femtosecond two-color double-pulse irradiation of metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhm, S.; Herzlieb, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.; Bonse, J.

    2016-06-01

    In order to address the dynamics and physical mechanisms of LIPSS formation for three different classes of materials (metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics), two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on Titanium, Silicon and Fused Silica. For that purpose a Mach-Zehnder interferometer generated polarization controlled (parallel or cross-polarized) double-pulse sequences at 400 nm and 800 nm wavelength, with inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds. Multiple of these two-color double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample surfaces. The fluence of each individual pulse (400 nm and 800 nm) was always kept below its respective ablation threshold and only the joint action of both pulses lead to the formation of LIPSS. Their resulting characteristics (periods, areas) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The periods along with the LIPSS orientation allow a clear identification of the pulse which dominates the energy coupling to the material. For strong absorbing materials (Silicon, Titanium), a wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism can explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS. In contrast, for dielectrics (Fused Silica) the first pulse always dominates the energy deposition and LIPSS orientation, supporting a non-plasmonic formation scenario. For all materials, these two-color experiments confirm the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition stage for LIPSS formation.

  20. Laser-induced periodic surface structures on 6H-SiC single crystals using temporally delayed femtosecond laser double-pulse trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Juan; Tao, Wenjun; Song, Hui; Gong, Min; Ma, Guohong; Dai, Ye; Zhao, Quanzhong; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a time-delay-adjustable double-pulse train with 800-nm wavelength, 200-fs pulse duration and a repetition rate of 1 kHz, produced by a collinear two-beam optical system like a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, was employed for irradiation of 6H-SiC crystal. The dependence of the induced structures on time delay of double-pulse train for parallel-polarization configuration was studied. The results show that as the time delay of collinear parallel-polarization dual-pulse train increased, the induced near-subwavelength ripples (NSWRs) turn from irregular rippled pattern to regularly periodic pattern and have their grooves much deepened. The characteristics timescale for this transition is about 6.24 ps. Besides, the areas of NSWR were found to decay exponentially for time delay from 0 to 1.24 ps and then slowly increase for time delay from 1.24 to 14.24 ps. Analysis shows that multiphoton ionization effect, grating-assisted surface plasmon coupling effect, and timely intervene of second pulse in a certain physical stage experienced by 6H-SiC excited upon first pulse irradiation may contribute to the transition of morphology details.

  1. Transverse surface mechanical behavior and modified elastic modulus for charged nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linli; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2008-09-01

    The reversible surface stretch often emerges from the Hellman-Feynman forces exerted on the charged surfaces, leading to the change of the surface stress. A generalized surface elasticity theory is formulated, which allows one to analyze the transverse surface mechanical behavior. The involved transverse surface elastic constants are determined by an efficient method based on analyzing the process of molecular-dynamics simulation for surface elasticity. Our approach provides a framework with which the direct relation between the in-plane surface stress and the transverse surface elastic deformation is addressed in the presence of the surface charges. We also find the significant modification in the elastic modulus of nanostructures due to the existence of the transverse component of surface stress and strain arisen from the surface charges.

  2. Estimating explosive performance from laser-induced shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    A laboratory-scale method for predicting explosive performance (e.g., detonation velocity and pressure) based on milligram quantities of material is currently being developed. This technique is based on schlieren imaging of the shock wave generated in air by the formation of a laser-induced plasma on the surface of an energetic material. A large suite of pure and composite conventional energetic materials has been tested. Based on the observed linear correlation between the laser-induced shock velocity and the measured performance from full-scale detonation testing, this method is a potential screening tool for the development of new energetic materials and formulations prior to detonation testing. Recent results on the extension of this method to metal-containing energetic materials will be presented.

  3. Applications of laser-induced gratings to spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rohlfing, E.A.

    1993-12-01

    This program has traditionally emphasized two principal areas of research. The first is the spectroscopic characterization of large-amplitude motion on the ground-state potential surface of small, transient molecules. The second is the reactivity of carbonaceous clusters and its relevance to soot and fullerene formation in combustion. Motivated initially by the desire to find improved methods of obtaining stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra of transients, most of our recent work has centered on the use of laser-induced gratings or resonant four-wave mixing in free-jet expansions. These techniques show great promise for several chemical applications, including molecular spectroscopy and photodissociation dynamics. The author describes recent applications of two-color laser-induced grating spectroscopy (LIGS) to obtain background-free SEP spectra of transients and double resonance spectra of nonfluorescing species, and the use of photofragment transient gratings to probe photodissociation dynamics.

  4. Range-adaptive standoff recognition of explosive fingerprints on solid surfaces using a supervised learning method and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gaona, Inmaculada; Serrano, Jorge; Moros, Javier; Laserna, J Javier

    2014-05-20

    The distance between the sensor and the target is a particularly critical factor for an issue as crucial as explosive residues recognition when a laser-assisted spectroscopic technique operates in a standoff configuration. Particularly for laser ablation, variations in operational range influence the induced plasmas as well as the sensitivity of their ensuing optical emissions, thereby confining the attributes used in sorting methods. Though efficient classification models based on optical emissions gathered under specific conditions have been developed, their successful performance on any variable information is limited. Hence, to test new information by a designed model, data must be acquired under operational conditions totally matching those used during modeling. Otherwise, the new expected scenario needs to be previously modeled. To facing both this restriction and this time-consuming mission, a novel strategy is proposed in this work. On the basis of machine learning methods, the strategy stems from a decision boundary function designed for a defined set of experimental conditions. Next, particular semisupervised models to the envisaged conditions are obtained adaptively on the basis of changes in laser fluence and light emission with variation of the sensor-to-target distance. Hence, the strategy requires only a little prior information, therefore ruling out the tedious and time-consuming process of modeling all the expected distant scenes. Residues of ordinary materials (olive oil, fuel oil, motor oils, gasoline, car wax and hand cream) hardly cause confusion in alerting the presence of an explosive (DNT, TNT, RDX, or PETN) when tested within a range from 30 to 50 m with varying laser irradiance between 8.2 and 1.3 GW cm(-2). With error rates of around 5%, the experimental assessments confirm that this semisupervised model suitably addresses the recognition of organic residues on aluminum surfaces under different operational conditions. PMID:24773280

  5. Microscopic droplet formation and energy transport analysis of condensation on scalable superhydrophobic nanostructured copper oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, GuanQiu; Alhosani, Mohamed H; Yuan, ShaoJun; Liu, HaoRan; Ghaferi, Amal Al; Zhang, TieJun

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of nanotechnologies in condensation has been recognized as one opportunity to improve the efficiency of large-scale thermal power and desalination systems. High-performance and stable dropwise condensation in widely-used copper heat exchangers is appealing for energy and water industries. In this work, a scalable and low-cost nanofabrication approach was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper oxide (CuO) nanoneedle surfaces to promote dropwise condensation and even jumping-droplet condensation. By conducting systematic surface characterization and in situ environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) condensation experiments, we were able to probe the microscopic formation physics of droplets on irregular nanostructured surfaces. At the early stages of condensation process, the interfacial surface tensions at the edge of CuO nanoneedles were found to influence both the local energy barriers for microdroplet growth and the advancing contact angles when droplets undergo depinning. Local surface roughness also has a significant impact on the volume of the condensate within the nanostructures and overall heat transfer from the vapor to substrate. Both our theoretical analysis and in situ ESEM experiments have revealed that the liquid condensate within the nanostructures determines the amount of the work of adhesion and kinetic energy associated with droplet coalescence and jumping. Local and global droplet growth models were also proposed to predict how the microdroplet morphology within nanostructures affects the heat transfer performance of early-stage condensation. Our quantitative analysis of microdroplet formation and growth within irregular nanostructures provides the insight to guide the anodization-based nanofabrication for enhancing dropwise and jumping-droplet condensation performance. PMID:25419845

  6. Biomimetic compound eye with a high numerical aperture and anti-reflective nanostructures on curved surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Yu, W; Li, C; Zhang, H; Xu, Z; Lu, Z; Sun, Q

    2012-06-15

    Biomimetic compound eyes with a high numerical aperture on a curved surface were successfully fabricated by intelligent integration of traditional top-down and bottom-up micro- and nanofabrication methods together. In addition, the new hybrid micro- and nanofabrication method allows us to fabricate the antireflective nanostructures on each ommatidium to increase its vision sensitivity by improving the light transmission. The fabricated compound eye was optically characterized and was shown to have a numerical aperture of 0.77 for each ommatidium. Furthermore, it is shown that the transmission of the compound eye can be improved by 2.3% for the wavelength of 632.8 nm and a clearer image can be formed by the fabricated compound eye with antireflective nanostructures compared with that without antireflective nanostructures. In addition, the developed hybrid manufacturing method can be adapted to the fabrication of other complex micro- and nanodevices for photonics or other research areas. PMID:22739920

  7. Suppressing light reflection from polycrystalline silicon thin films through surface texturing and silver nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Akhter, Perveen; Huang, Mengbing Kadakia, Nirag; Spratt, William; Malladi, Girish; Bakhru, Hassarum

    2014-09-21

    This work demonstrates a novel method combining ion implantation and silver nanostructures for suppressing light reflection from polycrystalline silicon thin films. Samples were implanted with 20-keV hydrogen ions to a dose of 10¹⁷/cm², and some of them received an additional argon ion implant to a dose of 5×10¹⁵ /cm² at an energy between 30 and 300 keV. Compared to the case with a single H implant, the processing involved both H and Ar implants and post-implantation annealing has created a much higher degree of surface texturing, leading to a more dramatic reduction of light reflection from polycrystalline Si films over a broadband range between 300 and 1200 nm, e.g., optical reflection from the air/Si interface in the AM1.5 sunlight condition decreasing from ~30% with an untextured surface to below 5% for a highly textured surface after post-implantation annealing at 1000°C. Formation of Ag nanostructures on these ion beam processed surfaces further reduces light reflection, and surface texturing is expected to have the benefit of diminishing light absorption losses within large-size (>100 nm) Ag nanoparticles, yielding an increased light trapping efficiency within Si as opposed to the case with Ag nanostructures on a smooth surface. A discussion of the effects of surface textures and Ag nanoparticles on light trapping within Si thin films is also presented with the aid of computer simulations.

  8. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-01

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. PMID:21900733

  9. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Detection of Biomolecules Using EBL Fabricated Nanostructured Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Robert F.; Gutierrez-Rivera, Luis; Dew, Steven K.; Stepanova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Fabrication and characterization of conjugate nano-biological systems interfacing metallic nanostructures on solid supports with immobilized biomolecules is reported. The entire sequence of relevant experimental steps is described, involving the fabrication of nanostructured substrates using electron beam lithography, immobilization of biomolecules on the substrates, and their characterization utilizing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Three different designs of nano-biological systems are employed, including protein A, glucose binding protein, and a dopamine binding DNA aptamer. In the latter two cases, the binding of respective ligands, D-glucose and dopamine, is also included. The three kinds of biomolecules are immobilized on nanostructured substrates by different methods, and the results of SERS imaging are reported. The capabilities of SERS to detect vibrational modes from surface-immobilized proteins, as well as to capture the protein-ligand and aptamer-ligand binding are demonstrated. The results also illustrate the influence of the surface nanostructure geometry, biomolecules immobilization strategy, Raman activity of the molecules and presence or absence of the ligand binding on the SERS spectra acquired. PMID:25867853

  10. Optimization of the optical properties of nanostructured silicon surfaces for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Di; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Lambert, Y.; Deblock, Y.; Stiévenard, D.; Cristini-Robbe, O.; Xu, T.; Faucher, M.

    2014-04-07

    Surface nanostructuration is an important challenge for the optimization of light trapping in solar cell. We present simulations on both the optical properties and the efficiency of micro pillars—MPs—or nanocones—NCs—silicon based solar cells together with measurements on their associated optical absorption. We address the simulation using the Finite Difference Time Domain method, well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of nanostructures. We study the effect of the period, the bottom diameter, the top diameter, and the height of the MPs or NCs on the efficiency, assuming that one absorbed photon induces one exciton. This allows us to give a kind of abacus involving all the geometrical parameters of the nanostructured surface with regard to the efficiency of the associated solar cell. We also show that for a given ratio of the diameter over the period, the best efficiency is obtained for small diameters. For small lengths, MPs are extended to NCs by changing the angle between the bottom surface and the vertical face of the MPs. The best efficiency is obtained for an angle of the order of 70°. Finally, nanostructures have been processed and allow comparing experimental results with simulations. In every case, a good agreement is found.

  11. Optimization of the optical properties of nanostructured silicon surfaces for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Di; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Cristini-Robbe, O.; Xu, T.; Lambert, Y.; Deblock, Y.; Faucher, M.; Stiévenard, D.

    2014-04-01

    Surface nanostructuration is an important challenge for the optimization of light trapping in solar cell. We present simulations on both the optical properties and the efficiency of micro pillars—MPs—or nanocones—NCs—silicon based solar cells together with measurements on their associated optical absorption. We address the simulation using the Finite Difference Time Domain method, well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of nanostructures. We study the effect of the period, the bottom diameter, the top diameter, and the height of the MPs or NCs on the efficiency, assuming that one absorbed photon induces one exciton. This allows us to give a kind of abacus involving all the geometrical parameters of the nanostructured surface with regard to the efficiency of the associated solar cell. We also show that for a given ratio of the diameter over the period, the best efficiency is obtained for small diameters. For small lengths, MPs are extended to NCs by changing the angle between the bottom surface and the vertical face of the MPs. The best efficiency is obtained for an angle of the order of 70°. Finally, nanostructures have been processed and allow comparing experimental results with simulations. In every case, a good agreement is found.

  12. Modification of implant material surface properties by means of oxide nano-structured coatings deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Vladimir; Zykova, Anna; Smolik, Jerzy; Rogowska, Renata; Lukyanchenko, Vladimir; Kolesnikov, Dmitrii

    2014-08-01

    The deposition of functional coatings on the metal surface of artificial joints is an effective way of enhancing joint tribological characteristics. It is well-known that nanostructured oxide coatings have specific properties advantageous for future implant applications. In the present study, we measured the high hardness parameters, the adhesion strength and the low friction coefficient of the oxide magnetron sputtered coatings. The corrosion test results show that the oxide coating deposition had improved the corrosion resistance by a factor of ten for both stainless steel and titanium alloy substrates. Moreover, the hydrophilic nature of coated surfaces in comparison with the metal ones was investigated in the tensiometric tests. The surfaces with nanostructured oxide coatings demonstrated improved biocompatibility for in vitro and in vivo tests, attributed to the high dielectric constants and the high values of the surface free energy parameters.

  13. Laser-induced single point nanowelding of silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shuowei; Li, Qiang; Liu, Guoping; Yang, Hangbo; Yang, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ding; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Min

    2016-03-01

    Nanowelding of nanomaterials opens up an emerging set of applications in transparent conductors, thin-film solar cells, nanocatalysis, cancer therapy, and nanoscale patterning. Single point nanowelding (SPNW) is highly demanded for building complex nanostructures. In this letter, the precise control of SPNW of silver nanowires is explored in depth, where the nanowelding is laser-induced through the plasmonic resonance enhanced photothermal effect. It is shown that the illumination position is a critical factor for the nanowelding process. As an example of performance enhancement, output at wire end can be increased by 65% after welding for a plasmonic nanocoupler. Thus, single point nanowelding technique shows great potentials for high-performance electronic and photonic devices based on nanowires, such as nanoelectronic circuits and plasmonic nanodevices.

  14. Enhancing surface interactions with colon cancer cells on a transferrin-conjugated 3D nanostructured substrate.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shashwat S; Paul, Debjani; Bhansali, Sujit G; Aher, Naval D; Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Khandare, Jayant

    2012-06-11

    A transferrin-conjugated PEG-Fe(3) O(4) nanostructured matrix is developed to explore cellular responses in terms of enhanced cell adhesion, specific interactions between ligands in the matrix and molecular receptors on the cell membrane, comparison of cell shapes on 2D and 3D surfaces, and effect of polymer architecture on cell adhesion. Integration of such advanced synthetic nanomaterials into a functionalized 3D matrix to control cell behavior on surfaces will have implications in nanomedicine. PMID:22434693

  15. Rationally designed multifunctional plasmonic nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei; Schlücker, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    Rationally designed multifunctional plasmonic nanostructures efficiently integrate two or more functionalities into a single entity, for example, with both plasmonic and catalytic activity. This review article is focused on their synthesis and use in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a molecular spectroscopic technique with high sensitivity, fingerprint specificity, and surface selectivity. After a short tutorial on the fundamentals of Raman scattering and SERS in particular, applications ranging from chemistry (heterogeneous catalysis) to biology and medicine (diagnostics/imaging, therapy) are summarized.

  16. Pyrolytic deposition of nanostructured titanium carbide coatings on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremlev, K. V.; Ob"edkov, A. M.; Ketkov, S. Yu.; Kaverin, B. S.; Semenov, N. M.; Gusev, S. A.; Tatarskii, D. A.; Yunin, P. A.

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured titanium carbide coatings have been deposited on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by the MOCVD method with bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium dichloride precursor. The obtained TiC/MWCNT hybrid materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is established that a TiC coating deposits onto the MWCNT surface with the formation of a core-shell (MWSNT-TiC) type structure.

  17. Laser-induced hydrocarbon contamination in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Wolfgang; Allenspacher, Paul; Schröder, Helmut; Wernham, Denny; Lien, Yngve

    2005-12-01

    We investigated laser-induced deposition processes on BK7 substrates under the influence of pulsed Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation, starting from small toluene partial pressures in a background vacuum environment. The composition and structure of the deposit was analyzed using microscopic methods like Nomarski DIC, dark-field and white-light interference microscopy, TEM, EDX and XPS. We found a distinct threshold for deposition built-up dependant on the partial pressure of toluene (0.2 J/cm2 at 0.1 mbar, 0.8 J/cm2 at 0.01 mbar toluene). The deposits strictly followed the spherical geometry of the laser spot. No deposit accumulated on MgF2 AR coated BK7 samples even at high toluene partial pressures. The onset of deposit was accompanied by periodic surface ripples formation. EDX and XPS analysis showed a carbon-like layer which strongly absorbed the 1 μm laser radiation. The typical number of shots applied was 50 000. In addition, long term lifetime tests of more than 5 Mio. shots per site were run.

  18. Dehalogenative Homocoupling of Terminal Alkynyl Bromides on Au(111): Incorporation of Acetylenic Scaffolding into Surface Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; Cai, Liangliang; Ma, Honghong; Yuan, Chunxue; Xu, Wei

    2016-07-26

    On-surface C-C coupling reactions of molecular precursors with alkynyl functional groups demonstrate great potential for the controllable fabrication of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures/nanomaterials, such as carbyne, graphyne, and graphdiyne, which demand the incorporation of highly active sp-hybridized carbons. Recently, through a dehydrogenative homocoupling reaction of alkynes, the possibility was presented to fabricate surface nanostructures involving acetylenic linkages, while problems lie in the fact that different byproducts are inevitably formed when triggering the reactions at elevated temperatures. In this work, by delicately designing the molecular precursors with terminal alkynyl bromide, we introduce the dehalogenative homocoupling reactions on the surface. As a result, we successfully achieve the formation of dimer structures, one-dimensional molecular wires and two-dimensional molecular networks with acetylenic scaffoldings on an inert Au(111) surface, where the unexpected C-Au-C organometallic intermediates are also observed. This study further supplements the database of on-surface dehalogenative C-C coupling reactions, and more importantly, it provides us an alternative efficient way for incorporating the acetylenic scaffolding into low-dimensional surface nanostructures. PMID:27326451

  19. Aqueous phase deposition of dense tin oxide films with nano-structured surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Yoshitake Ohji, Tatsuki; Kato, Kazumi

    2014-06-01

    Dense tin oxide films were successfully fabricated in an aqueous solution. The pH of the solutions was controlled to pH 1.3 by addition of HCl. Precise control of solution condition and crystal growth allowed us to obtain dense tin oxide films. Concave–convex surface of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates was entirely-covered with the continuous films. The films were about 65 nm in thickness and had nano-structured surfaces. Morphology of the films was strikingly different from our previous reported nano-sheet assembled structures. The films were not removed from the substrates by strong water flow or air blow to show strong adhesion strength. The aqueous solution process can be applied to surface coating of various materials such as nano/micro-structured surfaces, particles, fibers, polymers, metals or biomaterials. - Graphical abstract: Dense tin oxide films of 65 nm were successfully fabricated in an aqueous solution. They had nano-structured surfaces. Concave-convex substrates were entirely-covered with the continuous films. - Highlights: • Dense tin oxide films of 65 nm were successfully fabricated in an aqueous solution. • They had nano-structured surfaces. • Concave–convex substrates were entirely-covered with the continuous films.

  20. Fabrication of surface confined biomolecular, polymeric, and metallic nanostructures using scanning probe and electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woo Kyung

    This thesis presents the fabrication and characterization of surface-confined nanostructures of biomolecules, polymer brushes, and gold nanowires on gold and silicon substrates. The molecular recognition-mediated, stepwise fabrication of patterned proteins (biotin and streptavidin) and stimulus-responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) nanostructures with feature sizes on the order of 200 nm is described. Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) on gold was used to build templates to tether biomolecular nanostructures. It is shown that streptavidin nanopatterns provide adapter surfaces for biotinylated proteins by molecular recognition. Nanopatterned ELPs were shown to undergo a reversible, hydrophilic-hydrophobic phase transition in response to external stimuli. Here, this phase transition behavior was studied on the molecular level by adhesion force measurements using an AFM. The strong hydrophobic interactions between ELPs were exploited to reversibly immobilize a thioredoxin-ELP fusion protein onto ELP nanopatterns above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), demonstrating the potential for ELP nanoarrays in reusable lab-on-chip devices for protein purification or nanoscale analysis. The fabrication of surface-confined stimulus-responsive pNIPAAM brush nanopatterns in a "grafting-from" approach that combines scanning probe lithography or electron beam lithography with surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is described. The reversible, stimulus-responsive conformational height change of nanopatterned pNIPAAM brushes was demonstrated by inverse transition cycling in water-methanol cononsolvent mixtures. The triggered control of interfacial properties on the nanometer scale holds significant promise for actuation in bionanotechnology applications where polymeric actuators may manipulate the transport, separation, and detection of biomolecules. The potentially important phenomenon of polymer brush

  1. Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Eric Bryant

    1995-01-01

    Laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is a new technique for remote nonintrusive measurement of thermophysical gas properties. LITA involves forming, via opto-acoustic effects, grating-shaped perturbations of gas properties by the use of intersecting beams from a short-pulse laser. A third beam scatters coherently into a signal beam off the perturbation grating via acousto-optical effects. The evolution of the gas perturbations modulates the scattered signal beam. Accurate values of the sound speed, transport properties, and composition of the gas can be extracted by analyzing the signal beam. An analytical expression for the spectrum, absolute magnitude, and time history of the LITA signal is derived. The optoacoustic effects of thermalization and electrostriction are treated. Finite beam-diameter, beam-duration, and thermalization-rate effects are included in the analysis. The expression accurately models experimental signals over a wide range of gas conditions. Experimental tests using LITA have been conducted on pure and NO_2-seeded air and helium at pressures ranging from {~ }0.1 kPa-14 MPa. Carbon dioxide has been explored near its liquid-vapor critical point. Accuracies of 0.1% in sound speed measurements have been achieved in these tests. Accuracies of {~}1% have been achieved in measurements of thermal diffusivity, although beam misalignment effects have typically degraded this accuracy by a factor of {~} 10-20. Using LITA, susceptibility spectra have been taken of approximately a femtogram of NO_2 . The effects of fluid motion and turbulence have been explored. LITA velocimetry has been demonstrated, in which the Doppler shift of light scattered from a flowing fluid is measured. LITA velocimetry requires no particle seeding, has a coherent signal beam, and can be applied to pulsed flows. LITA has also been applied to measure single-shot |chi^{(1) }|^2 or "Rayleigh scattering" spectra of a gas by the use of a technique of wavelength -division multiplexing

  2. Laser-induced thermal acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Eric B.

    Laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is a new technique for remote nonintrusive measurement of thermophysical gas properties. LITA involves forming, via opto-acoustic effects, grating-shaped perturbations of gas properties using intersecting beams from a short-pulse laser. A third beam scatters coherently into a signal beam off the perturbation grating via acousto-optical effects. The evolution of the gas perturbations modulates the scattered signal beam. Accurate values of the sound speed, transport properties, and composition of the gas can be extracted by analyzing the signal beam.An analytical expression for the spectrum, absolute magnitude, and time history of the LITA signal is derived. The optoacoustic effects of thermalization and electrostriction are treated. Finite beam-diameter, beam-duration, and thermalization-rate effects are included in the analysis. The expression accurately models experimental signals over a wide range of gas conditions.Experimental tests using LITA have been conducted on pure and [...]-seeded air and helium at pressures ranging from ~0.1 kPa-14 MPa. Carbon dioxide has been explored near its liquid-vapor critical point. Accuracies of 0.1% in sound speed measurements have been achieved in these tests. Accuracies of ~1% have been achieved in measurements of thermal diffusivity, although beam misalignment effects have typically degraded this accuracy by a factor of ~10-20. Using LITA, susceptibility spectra have been taken of approximately a femtogram of [...]. The effects of fluid motion and turbulence have been explored. LITA velocimetry has been demonstrated, in which the Doppler shift of light scattered from a flowing fluid is measured. LITA velocimetry requires no particle seeding, has a coherent signal beam, and can be applied to pulsed flows. LITA has also been applied to measure single-shot [...] or "Rayleigh scattering" spectra of a gas using a technique of wavelength-division multiplexing, called multiplex LITA. The LITA

  3. Single-molecule spectroscopic study of enhanced intrinsic phycoerythrin fluorescence on silver nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ray, Krishanu; Chowdhury, Mustafa H; Lakowicz, Joseph R

    2008-09-15

    In this paper, we report on steady-state and time-resolved single-molecule fluorescence measurements performed on a phycobiliprotein, R-phycoerythrin (RPE), assembled on silver nanostructures. Single-molecule measurements clearly show that RPE molecules display a 10-fold increase in fluorescence intensity, with a 7-fold decrease in lifetime when they are assembled on silver nanostructured surfaces, as compared to control glass slides. The emission spectrum of individual RPE molecules also displays a significant fluorescence enhancement on silver nanostructures as compared to glass. From intensity and lifetime histograms, it is clear that the intensities as well as lifetimes of individual RPE molecules on silver nanostructures are more heterogeneously distributed than that on glass. This single-molecule study provides further insight on the heterogeneity in the fluorescence intensity and lifetimes of the RPE molecules on both glass and SiFs surfaces, which is otherwise not possible to observe using ensemble measurements. Finite-difference time-domain calculations have been performed to study the enhanced near-fields induced around silver nanoparticles by a radiating excited-state fluorophore, and the effect of such enhanced fields on the fluorescence enhancement observed is discussed. PMID:18690697

  4. Proceeding of the 18th Intl. Workshop on Inelastic Ion-Surface Collisions (IISC-18)

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhold, Carlos O; Krstic, Predrag S; Meyer, Fred W

    2011-01-01

    The main topics of this proceedings were: (1) Energy loss of particles at surfaces; (2) Scattering of atoms, ions, molecules and clusters; (3) Charge exchange between particles and surfaces; (4) Ion induced desorption, electronic and kinetic sputtering; (5) Defect formation, surface modification and nanostructuring; (6) Electron, photon and secondary ion emission due to particle impact on surfaces; (7) Sputtering, fragmentation, cluster and ion formation in SIMS and SNMS; (8) Cluster/molecular and highly charged ion beams; and (9) Laser induced desorption.

  5. Si(hhm) surfaces: Templates for developing nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Bozhko, S. I. Ionov, A. M.; Chaika, A. N.

    2015-06-15

    The fabrication of ordered low-dimensional structures on clean and metal-atom-decorated stepped Si(557) and Si(556) surfaces is discussed. The formation conditions and atomic structure of regular step systems on clean Si(557) 7 × 7 and Si(556) 7 × 7 surfaces are studied. The atomic structure of stepped Si(hhm), Ag/Si(557), and Gd/Si(557) surfaces is studied using high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. The possibility of fabricating 1D and 2D structures of gadolinium and silver atoms on the Si(557) surface is demonstrated.

  6. Ti implants with nanostructured and HA-coated surfaces for improved osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Sirin, Hasret Tolga; Vargel, Ibrahim; Kutsal, Tulin; Korkusuz, Petek; Piskin, Erhan

    2016-05-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the osseointegration of titanium (Ti)-based Küntscher nails (K-nails) and plates with modified nanostructured and hydroxyapatite-coated surfaces in a rat femur model. Material surfaces were first modified via a simple anodization protocol in which the materials were treated in hydrogen fluoride (1% w/w) at 20 V. This modification resulted in tubular titanium oxide nanostructures of 40-65 nm in diameter. Then, hydroxyapatite-deposited layers, formed of particles (1-5) μm, were produced via incubation in a simulated body fluid, followed by annealing at 500°C. Both surface modifications significantly improved cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as compared to the control (non-modified Ti implants). The controls and modified nails and plates were implanted in the femur of 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The implants, with surrounding tissues, were removed after 10 weeks, and then mechanical tests (torque and pull-out) were performed, which showed that the modified K-nails exhibited significantly better osseointegration than the controls. Histologic examinations of the explants containing plates showed similar results, and the modified plates exhibited significantly better osseointegration than the controls. Surface nanostructuring of commercially available titanium-based implants by a very simple method - anodization - seems to be a viable method for increasing osseointegration without the use of bioactive surface coatings such as hydroxyapatite. PMID:26496822

  7. FT-IR characterization of the acidic and basic sites on a nanostructured aluminum nitride surface

    SciTech Connect

    Baraton, M.I.; Chen, X.; Gonsalves, K.E.

    1997-12-31

    A nanostructured aluminum nitride powder prepared by sol-gel type chemical synthesis is analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The surface acidic and basic sites are probed out by adsorption of several organic molecules. Resulting from the unavoidable presence of oxygen, the aluminum nitride surface is an oxinitride layer in fact, and its surface chemistry should present some analogies with alumina. Therefore, a thorough comparison between the acido-basicity of aluminum nitride and aluminum oxide is discussed. The remaining nitrogen atoms in the first atomic layer modify the acidity-basicity relative balance and reveals the specificity of the aluminum nitride surface.

  8. Understanding the wetting properties of nanostructured selenium coatings: the role of nanostructured surface roughness and air-pocket formation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Phong A; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Wetting properties of biomaterials, in particular nanomaterials, play an important role, as these influence interactions with biological elements, such as proteins, bacteria, and cells. In this study, the wetting phenomenon of titanium substrates coated with selenium nanoparticles was studied using experimental and mathematical modeling tools. Importantly, these selenium-coated titanium substrates were previously reported to increase select protein adsorption (such as vitronectin and fibronectin), to decrease bacteria growth, and increase bone cell growth. Increased selenium nanoparticle coating density resulted in higher contact angles but remained within the hydrophilic regime. This trend was found in disagreement with the Wenzel model, which is widely used to understand the wetting properties of rough surfaces. The trend also did not fit well with the Cassie–Baxter model, which was developed to understand the wetting properties of composite surfaces. A modified wetting model was thus proposed in this study, to understand the contributing factors of material properties to the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of these nanostructured selenium-coated surfaces. The analysis and model created in this study can be useful in designing and/or understanding the wetting behavior of numerous biomedical materials and in turn, biological events (such as protein adsorption as well as bacteria and mammalian cell functions). PMID:23737667

  9. Optical and thermal properties in ultrafast laser surface nanostructuring on biodegradable polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yada, Shuhei; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the effect of optical and thermal properties in laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) formation on a poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), a biodegradable polymer. Surface properties of biomaterials are known to be one of the key factors in tissue engineering. Methods to process biomaterial surfaces have been studied widely to enhance cell adhesive and anisotropic properties. LIPSS formation has advantages in a dry processing which is able to process complex-shaped surfaces without using a toxic chemical component. LIPSS, however, was difficult to be formed on PLLA due to its thermal and optical properties compared to other polymers. To obtain new perspectives in effect of these properties above, LIPSS formation dependences on wavelength, pulse duration and repetition rate have been studied. At 800 nm of incident wavelength, high-spatial frequency LIPSS (HSFL) was formed after applying 10000 femtosecond pulses at 1.0 J/cm2 in laser fluence. At 400 nm of the wavelength, HSFL was formed at fluences higher than 0.20 J/cm2 with more than 3000 pulses. Since LIPSS was less formed with lower repetition rate, certain heat accumulation may be required for LIPSS formation. With the pulse duration of 2.0 ps, higher laser fluence as well as number of pulses compared to the case of 120 fs was necessary. This indicates that multiphoton absorption process is essential for LIPSS formation. Study on biodegradation modification was also performed.

  10. Enhanced osseointegration of titanium implants with nanostructured surfaces: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Salou, Laëtitia; Hoornaert, Alain; Louarn, Guy; Layrolle, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys are commonly used for dental implants because of their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. The surface properties of titanium implants are key factors for rapid and stable bone tissue integration. Micro-rough surfaces are commonly prepared by grit-blasting and acid-etching. However, proteins and cells interact with implant surfaces in the nanometer range. The aim of this study was to compare the osseointegration of machined (MA), standard alumina grit-blasted and acid-etched (MICRO) and nanostructured (NANO) implants in rabbit femurs. The MICRO surface exhibited typical random cavities with an average roughness of 1.5 μm, while the NANO surface consisted of a regular array of titanium oxide nanotubes 37±11 nm in diameter and 160 nm thick. The MA and NANO surfaces had a similar average roughness of 0.5 μm. The three groups of implants were inserted into the femoral condyles of New Zealand White rabbits. After 4 weeks, the pull-out test gave higher values for the NANO than for the other groups. Histology corroborated a direct apposition of bone tissue on to the NANO surface. Both the bone-to-implant contact and bone growth values were higher for the NANO than for the other implant surfaces. Overall, this study shows that the nanostructured surface improved the osseointegration of titanium implants and may be an alternative to conventional grit-blasted and acid-etched surface treatments. PMID:25449926

  11. Oxygen interaction with disordered and nanostructured Ag(001) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattuone, L.; Burghaus, U.; Savio, L.; Rocca, M.; Costantini, G.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Boragno, C.; Rusponi, S.; Valbusa, U.

    2001-08-01

    We investigated O2 adsorption on Ag(001) in the presence of defects induced by Ne+ sputtering at different crystal temperatures, corresponding to different surface morphologies recently identified by scanning tunneling microscopy. The gas-phase molecules were dosed with a supersonic molecular beam. The total sticking coefficient and the total uptake were measured with the retarded reflector method, while the adsorption products were characterized by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. We find that, for the sputtered surfaces, both sticking probability and total O2 uptake decrease. Molecular adsorption takes place also for heavily damaged surfaces but, contrary to the flat surface case, dissociation occurs already at a crystal temperature, T, of 105 K. The internal vibrational frequency of the O2 admolecules indicates that two out of the three O2- moieties present on the flat Ag(001) surface are destabilized by the presence of defects. The dissociation probability depends on surface morphology and drops for sputtering temperatures larger than 350 K, i.e., when surface mobility prevails healing the defects. The latter, previously identified with kink sites, are saturated at large O2 doses. The vibrational frequency of the oxygen adatoms, produced by low temperature dissociation, indicates the formation of at least two different adatom moieties, which we tentatively assign to oxygen atoms at kinks and vacancies.

  12. Laser induced local structural and property modifications in semiconductors for electronic and photonic superstructures - Silicon carbide to graphene conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Naili

    Graphene is a single atomic layer two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal crystal of carbon atoms with sp2-bonding. Because of its various special or unique properties, graphene has attracted huge attention and considerable interest in recent years. This PhD research work focuses on the development of a novel approach to fabricating graphene micro- and nano-structures using a 532 nm Nd:YAG laser, a technique based on local conversion of 3C-SiC thin film into graphene. Different from other reported laser-induced graphene on single crystalline 4H- or 6H- SiC, this study focus on 3C-SiC polycrystal film grown using MBE. Because the SiC thin film is grown on silicon wafer, this approach may potentially lead to various new technologies that are compatible with those of Si microelectronics for fabricating graphene-based electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices. The growth conditions for depositing 3C-SiC using MBE on Si wafers with three orientations, (100), (110), and (111), were evaluated and explored. The surface morphology and crystalline structure of 3C-SiC epilayer were investigated with SEM, AFM, XRD, μ-Raman, and TEM. The laser modification process to convert 3C-SiC into graphene layers has been developed and optimized by studying the quality dependence of the graphene layers on incident power, irradiation time, and surface morphology of the SiC film. The laser and power density used in this study which focused on thin film SiC was compared with those used in other related research works which focused on bulk SiC. The laser-induced graphene was characterized with μ-Raman, SEM/EDS, TEM, AFM, and, I-V curve tracer. Selective deposition of 3C-SiC thin film on patterned Si substrate with SiO2 as deposition mask has been demonstrated, which may allow the realization of graphene nanostructures (e.g., dots and ribbons) smaller than the diffraction limit spot size of the laser beam, down to the order of 100 nm. The electrical conductance of directly written graphene

  13. Antibacterial and bioactive nanostructured titanium surfaces for bone integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, S.; Venturello, A.; Miola, M.; Cochis, A.; Rimondini, L.; Spriano, S.

    2014-08-01

    An effective and physiological bone integration and absence of bacterial infection are essential for a successful orthopaedic or dental implant. A titanium surface able to actively promote bone bonding and avoid microbial colonization represents an extremely interesting challenge for these purposes. An innovative and patented surface treatment focused on these issues is described in the present paper. It is based on acid etching and subsequent controlled oxidation in hydrogen peroxide, enriched with silver ions. It has been applied to commercially pure titanium (Ti-cp) and alloy Ti6Al4V. The chemistry and morphology of the surfaces are modified by the treatment on a nanoscale: they show a thin oxide layer with porosity on the nanoscale and silver particles (few nanometers in diameter), embedded in it. These features are effective in order to obtain antibacterial and bioactive titanium surfaces.

  14. Study of Gas Adsorption on Biphasic Nanostructured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nader, Rami; Hamieh, Tayssir; Villieras, Frédéric; Angelina. Razafitianamaharav; Toufaily, Joumana; Mcheik, Ali S.; Thomas, Fabien

    This work has carried out on grafted nanoparticles oxide silica to determine the possible existence of "nanoeffect". The textural properties and heterogeneity of surface of the samples were studied at the interface solid-gas. The Geometric properties were discussed in terms of the surface area while the energy properties were discussed in terms of the reactive sites of the surface.In the framework of this study, firstly, the sample was used in the non-grafted state and then in the grafted state using a hydrophilic molecule and a hydrophobic molecule. Several techniques have been used: Infrared spectroscopy, X ray diffraction, the point by point volumetric technique, which enable us to study the interactions between the adsorbate and the solid surface. Finally we have determined the size and electro thermal mobility using zestasizer (Nano ZS). The results obtained show that there are two types of groups silanols and siloxanes on the silica OX5 giving a composite hydrophilic-hydrophobic. This character causes a singular behavior in adsorptive material, the presence of hydrophilic groups, strongly polarized, and is detected by infrared spectroscopy. These groups cause significant differences depending on the polarizability of the probe molecules, and the adsorption of argon shows no heterogeneity of the surface, while nitrogen is adsorbed on the polar sites at low relative pressure, While the volumetric continues to adsorption of argon and nitrogen on combustion silica to obtain and to highlight sites of high energy and polar surface sites. The combustion silica which has been used as adsorbent in this study has an amorphous surface, virtually free of impurities indicates that the sample is not micro porous and grafting of the molecules makes a decrease in high energy sites or to a relative increase in surface low energy.

  15. Preparation of Thermoresponsive Nanostructured Surfaces for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Morito; Kumashiro, Yoshikazu; Nakayama, Masamichi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Haraguchi, Yuji; Umemura, Kazuo; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm)-immobilized surfaces for controlling cell adhesion and detachment were fabricated by the Langmuir-Schaefer method. Amphiphilic block copolymers composed of polystyrene and PIPAAm (St-IPAAms) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) radical polymerization. A chloroform solution of St-IPAAm molecules was gently dropped into a Langmuir-trough apparatus, and both barriers of the apparatus were moved horizontally to compress the film to regulate its density. Then, the St-IPAAm Langmuir film was horizontally transferred onto a hydrophobically modified glass substrate by a surface-fixed device. Atomic force microscopy images clearly revealed nanoscale sea-island structures on the surface. The strength, rate, and quality of cell adhesion and detachment on the prepared surface were modulated by changes in temperature across the lower critical solution temperature range of PIPAAm molecules. In addition, a two-dimensional cell structure (cell sheet) was successfully recovered on the optimized surfaces. These unique PIPAAm surfaces may be useful for controlling the strength of cell adhesion and detachment. PMID:26967769

  16. Nanostructured and Surface Polymerized Iron Particles for Magnetorheological Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ben; Fuchs, Alan; Gordaninejad, Faramarz; Evrensel, Cahit

    A novel magnetorheological fluid, in which the surface of iron particles is coated with poly (butyl acrylate) by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), is investigated. The polymer coating procedure includes two steps, which are immobilization of initiator: 2-4(-chlorosulfonylphenyl)-ethytrichlorosilane (CTCS) on the iron particles surface and graft polymerization of butyl acrylate from the surface. The surface coating is characterized by FTIR and SEM. This magnetorheological fluid has controllable off-state viscosity and high shear yield stress. Coating polymer on the iron particles surface by ATRP can significantly reduce iron particles settling and improve stability of the MR fluid. Polymerization kinetics of bulk butyl acrylate are investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Glass transition temperature is obtained using the step-scan DSC method. The molecular weight and conversion can be controlled by the molar ratio of monomer to initiator, reaction temperature and time. The reaction is first order determined by the plot of In (M/M0) against polymerization time. The overall activation energy is found to be 126kJ/mol by Kissinger's Method.

  17. Formation of nanostructured silicon surfaces by stain etching

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of ordered silicon structures by chemical etching of silicon in vanadium oxide (V2O5)/hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. The effects of the different etching parameters including the solution concentration, temperature, and the presence of metal catalyst film deposition (Pd) on the morphologies and reflective properties of the etched Si surfaces were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to explore the morphologies of the etched surfaces with and without the presence of catalyst. In this case, the attack on the surfaces with a palladium deposit begins by creating uniform circular pores on silicon in which we distinguish the formation of pyramidal structures of silicon. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrates that the surfaces are H-terminated. A UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study the reflectance of the structures obtained. A reflectance of 2.21% from the etched Si surfaces in the wavelength range of 400 to 1,000 nm was obtained after 120 min of etching while it is of 4.33% from the Pd/Si surfaces etched for 15 min. PMID:25435830

  18. Formation of nanostructured silicon surfaces by stain etching.

    PubMed

    Ayat, Maha; Belhousse, Samia; Boarino, Luca; Gabouze, Noureddine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Kechouane, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of ordered silicon structures by chemical etching of silicon in vanadium oxide (V2O5)/hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. The effects of the different etching parameters including the solution concentration, temperature, and the presence of metal catalyst film deposition (Pd) on the morphologies and reflective properties of the etched Si surfaces were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to explore the morphologies of the etched surfaces with and without the presence of catalyst. In this case, the attack on the surfaces with a palladium deposit begins by creating uniform circular pores on silicon in which we distinguish the formation of pyramidal structures of silicon. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrates that the surfaces are H-terminated. A UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study the reflectance of the structures obtained. A reflectance of 2.21% from the etched Si surfaces in the wavelength range of 400 to 1,000 nm was obtained after 120 min of etching while it is of 4.33% from the Pd/Si surfaces etched for 15 min. PMID:25435830

  19. Unidirectional Fast Growth and Forced Jumping of Stretched Droplets on Nanostructured Microporous Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Aili, Abulimiti; Li, Hongxia; Alhosani, Mohamed H; Zhang, TieJun

    2016-08-24

    Superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces have demonstrated outstanding capability in energy and water applications by promoting dropwise condensation, where fast droplet growth and efficient condensate removal are two key parameters. However, these parameters remain contradictory. Although efficient droplet removal is easily obtained through coalescence jumping on uniform superhydrophobic surfaces, simultaneously achieving fast droplet growth is still challenging. Also, on such surfaces droplets can grow to larger sizes without restriction if there is no coalescence. In this work, we show that superhydrophobic nanostructured microporous surfaces can manipulate the droplet growth and jumping. Microporous surface morphology effectively enhances the growth of droplets in pores owing to large solid-liquid contact area. At low supersaturations, the upward growth rate (1-1.5 μm/s) of these droplets in pores is observed to be around 15-25 times that of the droplets outside the pores. Meanwhile, their top curvature radius increases relatively slowly (∼0.25 μm/s) due to pore confinement, which results in a highly stretched droplet surface. We also observed forced jumping of stretched droplets in pores either through coalescence with spherical droplets outside pores or through self-pulling without coalescence. Both experimental observation and theoretical modeling reveal that excess surface free energy stored in the stretched droplet surface and micropore confinement are responsible for this pore-scale-forced jumping. These findings reveal the insightful physics of stretched droplet dynamics and offer guidelines for the design and fabrication of novel super-repellent surfaces with microporous morphology. PMID:27486890

  20. On the possibility of increasing lifetime of a neutron generator target through laser-induced nanorelief generation at the film - substrate interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanov, V. I.; Zayarnyi, D. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Makarov, S. V.; Saltuganov, P. N.

    2014-09-01

    The evolution of an ensemble of point defects (vacancies and interstitials) produced by irradiating a tritium-saturated titanium target (sorbent film on substrate) with deuterium is considered. It is shown that when the concentration of defects exceeds a certain critical value, the film undergoes transition into a quasiperiodic bent state with simultaneous clustering of defect aggregates at the relief extrema, spontaneously created at the film - substrate interface and at the film free surface. The aggregation of vacancies leads to the formation of pores. The subsequent deadherence or rapture of the film in the regions of large pores at the film - substrate interface leads to irreversible degradation of the target. We discuss the possibility of suppressing this effect by nanostructuring a laser-induced nanorelief at the substrate surface before the sorbent film deposition. Different types of such a relief are experimentally demonstrated.

  1. On the possibility of increasing lifetime of a neutron generator target through laser-induced nanorelief generation at the film – substrate interface

    SciTech Connect

    Emel'yanov, V I; Zayarnyi, D A; Ionin, A A; Kudryashov, S I; Makarov, S V; Saltuganov, P N

    2014-09-30

    The evolution of an ensemble of point defects (vacancies and interstitials) produced by irradiating a tritium-saturated titanium target (sorbent film on substrate) with deuterium is considered. It is shown that when the concentration of defects exceeds a certain critical value, the film undergoes transition into a quasiperiodic bent state with simultaneous clustering of defect aggregates at the relief extrema, spontaneously created at the film – substrate interface and at the film free surface. The aggregation of vacancies leads to the formation of pores. The subsequent deadherence or rapture of the film in the regions of large pores at the film – substrate interface leads to irreversible degradation of the target. We discuss the possibility of suppressing this effect by nanostructuring a laser-induced nanorelief at the substrate surface before the sorbent film deposition. Different types of such a relief are experimentally demonstrated. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  2. DNA-guided assembly of three-dimensional nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li-An; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Yih-Fan

    2015-03-01

    Surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has drawn much attention in recent years because its ability to greatly enhance Raman signals to allow for the detection of molecules at low concentration. When using metallic nanoparticles as SERS substrates, many studies have shown that the size of the interparticle gap significantly affects the enhancement of the Raman signals. Given that the optimal interparticle gap is as small as a few nanometers, fabricating sensitive, uniform, and reproducible SERS substrates remains challenging. Here we report a three-dimensional SERS substrate created through the assembly of core-shell nanoparticles using DNA. By using DNA of appropriate sequence and length, DNA-functionalized nanoparticles were assembled into ordered and highly packed nanostructures. The interparticle distance was precisely controlled by adjusting the design of the DNA and the thickness of the silver shell coated on the gold nanoparticles. Compared with randomly aggregated nanoparticles, the interparticle distance in the synthesized nanostructures can be more uniform and better controlled. In addition, the DNA-guided assembly process allows us to create precise nanostructures without using complex and expensive fabrication methods. The study demonstrates that the synthesized nanostructures can be used as effective SERS substrates to successfully measure the Raman signals of malachite green, a toxic compound that is sometimes illegally used on fish, as well as Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) at low concentrations.

  3. A Template-Free, Ultra-Adsorbing, High Surface Area Carbonate Nanostructure

    PubMed Central

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Mihranyan, Albert; Strømme, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We report the template-free, low-temperature synthesis of a stable, amorphous, and anhydrous magnesium carbonate nanostructure with pore sizes below 6 nm and a specific surface area of ∼ 800 m2 g−1, substantially surpassing the surface area of all previously described alkali earth metal carbonates. The moisture sorption of the novel nanostructure is featured by a unique set of properties including an adsorption capacity ∼50% larger than that of the hygroscopic zeolite-Y at low relative humidities and with the ability to retain more than 75% of the adsorbed water when the humidity is decreased from 95% to 5% at room temperature. These properties can be regenerated by heat treatment at temperatures below 100°C.The structure is foreseen to become useful in applications such as humidity control, as industrial adsorbents and filters, in drug delivery and catalysis. PMID:23874640

  4. Challenges in Applying Surface Analysis Methods to Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Matson, Dean W.; Pecher, Klaus H.; Williams, Josh R.; Wang, Chong M.

    2005-03-01

    Nanostructured materials of various types and forms are formulated in a variety of novel ways and increasingly subject to many types of chemical and physical analysis. Since nanomaterial systems contain a relatively large amount of surface or interface area, it should be natural to characterize them using tools designed to analyze surfaces and interfaces. We have found that nanoparticles and other nanostructured materials present a variety of challenges. This paper reviews environmental effects on measurements of Ce-oxide nanoparticles and nanoporous silica films and focuses on efforts to quantify the ion damage and sputter rates for the Fe-oxide nanoparticles. We have found that nanoparticles appear more readily damaged and to have sputter rates that exceed “bulk” materials. To verify such effects, we need to know many details about size, size distribution, density, and shape that are not always easily obtained.

  5. MATERIALS, FABRICATION, AND MANUFACTURING OF MICRO/NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES FOR PHASE-CHANGE HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M; Gerasopoulos, K; Maroo, SC; Hart, AJ

    2014-07-23

    This article describes the most prominent materials, fabrication methods, and manufacturing schemes for micro- and nanostructured surfaces that can be employed to enhance phase-change heat transfer phenomena. The numerous processes include traditional microfabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, lithography, and etching, as well as template-assisted and template-free nanofabrication techniques. The creation of complex, hierarchical, and heterogeneous surface structures using advanced techniques is also reviewed. Additionally, research needs in the field and future directions necessary to translate these approaches from the laboratory to high-performance applications are identified. Particular focus is placed on the extension of these techniques to the design of micro/nanostructures for increased performance, manufacturability, and reliability. The current research needs and goals are detailed, and potential pathways forward are suggested.

  6. Formation of surface nano-structures by plasma expansion induced by highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Moslem, W. M.; El-Said, A. S.

    2012-12-15

    Slow highly charged ions (HCIs) create surface nano-structures (nano-hillocks) on the quartz surface. The formation of hillocks was only possible by surpassing a potential energy threshold. By using the plasma expansion approach with suitable hydrodynamic equations, the creation mechanism of the nano-hillocks induced by HCIs is explained. Numerical analysis reveal that within the nanoscale created plasma region, the increase of the temperature causes an increase of the self-similar solution validity domain, and consequently the surface nano-hillocks become taller. Furthermore, the presence of the negative (positive) nano-dust particles would lead to increase (decrease) the nano-hillocks height.

  7. Site-directed, on-surface assembly of DNA nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rebecca; Saccà, Barbara; Niemeyer, Christof M

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional DNA lattices have been assembled from DNA double-crossover (DX) motifs on DNA-encoded surfaces in a site-specific manner. The lattices contained two types of single-stranded protruding arms pointing into opposite directions of the plane. One type of these protruding arms served to anchor the DNA lattice on the solid support through specific hybridization with surface-bound, complementary capture oligomers. The other type of arms allowed for further attachment of DNA-tethered probe molecules on the opposite side of the lattices exposed to the solution. Site-specific lattice assembly and attachment of fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides and DNA-protein conjugates was demonstrated using DNA microarrays on flat, transparent mica substrates. Owing to their programmable orientation and addressability over a broad dynamic range from the nanometer to the millimeter length scale, such supramolecular architecture might be used for presenting biomolecules on surfaces, for instance, in biosensor applications. PMID:26306556

  8. Laser-induced caesium-137 decay

    SciTech Connect

    Barmina, E V; Simakin, A V; Shafeev, G A

    2014-08-31

    Experimental data are presented on the laser-induced beta decay of caesium-137. We demonstrate that the exposure of a gold target to a copper vapour laser beam (wavelengths of 510.6 and 578.2 nm, pulse duration of 15 ns) for 2 h in an aqueous solution of a caesium-137 salt reduces the caesium-137 activity by 70%, as assessed from the gamma activity of the daughter nucleus {sup 137m}Ba, and discuss potential applications of laser-induced caesium-137 decay in radioactive waste disposal. (letters)

  9. Mestastable State Population in Laser Induced Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, V. H. S.; Kyriakides, C.; Ward, W. K.

    2006-01-01

    Laser induced plasma has been used as a source of neutrals and ions in the study of astrophysical plasmas. The purity of state of this source is essential in the determination of collision parameters such as the charge transfer rate coefficients between ions and neutrals. We will show that the temperature of the laser induced plasma is a rapidly decreasing function of time. The temperature is initially high but cools off rapidly through collisions with the expanding plasma electrons as the plasma recombines and streams into the vacuum. This rapid expansion of the plasma, similar to a supersonic jet, drastically lowers the internal energy of the neutrals and ions.

  10. Fe and Co nanostructures embedded into the Cu(100) surface: Self-Organization and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnikov, S. V. Klavsyuk, A. L.; Saletsky, A. M.

    2015-10-15

    The self-organization and magnetic properties of small iron and cobalt nanostructures embedded into the first layer of a Cu(100) surface are investigated using the self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo method and density functional theory. The similarities and differences between the Fe/Cu(100) and the Co/Cu(100) are underlined. The time evolution of magnetic properties of a copper monolayer with embedded magnetic atoms at 380 K is discussed.

  11. Turbulent boundary layer measurements over flat surfaces coated by nanostructured marine antifoulings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal, Uğur Oral; Ünal, Burcu; Atlar, Mehmet

    2012-06-01

    Whilst recent developments of nanotechnology are being exploited by chemists and marine biologists to understand how the completely environmentally friendly foul release coatings can control marine biofouling and how they can be developed further, the understanding of the hydrodynamic performances of these new generation coatings is being overlooked. This paper aims to investigate the relative boundary layer, roughness and drag characteristics of some novel nanostructured coatings, which were developed through a multi-European and multi-disciplined collaborative research project AMBIO (2010), within the framework of turbulent flows over rough surfaces. Zero-pressure-gradient, turbulent boundary layer flow measurements were conducted over flat surfaces coated with several newly developed nanostructured antifouling paints, along with some classic reference surfaces and a state-of-the-art commercial coating, in the Emerson Cavitation Tunnel (ECT) of Newcastle University. A large flat plane test bed that included interchangeable flat test sections was used for the experiments. The boundary layer data were collected with the aid of a two-dimensional DANTEC Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system. These measurements provided the main hydrodynamic properties of the newly developed nanostructured coatings including local skin friction coefficients, roughness functions and Reynolds stresses. The tests and subsequent analysis indicated the exceptionally good frictional properties of all coatings tested, in particular, the drag benefit of some new nanostructured coatings in the Reynolds number range investigated. The rapidly decreasing roughness function trends of AKZO19 and AKZO20 as the ks^{ + } increases were remarkable along with the dissimilar roughness function character of all tested coatings to the well-known correlation curves warranting further research at higher Reynolds numbers. The wall similarity concept for the Reynolds stresses was only validated for the

  12. Fe and Co nanostructures embedded into the Cu(100) surface: Self-Organization and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, S. V.; Klavsyuk, A. L.; Saletsky, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    The self-organization and magnetic properties of small iron and cobalt nanostructures embedded into the first layer of a Cu(100) surface are investigated using the self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo method and density functional theory. The similarities and differences between the Fe/Cu(100) and the Co/Cu(100) are underlined. The time evolution of magnetic properties of a copper monolayer with embedded magnetic atoms at 380 K is discussed.

  13. Calculating average surface enhancement factors of randomly nanostructured electrodes by a combination of SERS and impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kozuch, J; Petrusch, N; Gkogkou, D; Gernert, U; Weidinger, I M

    2015-09-01

    Polyhedron Ag nanostructures were created on top of a polished Au electrode via step-wise electrodeposition and tested as substrates for SERS spectroscopy. Average Raman enhancement factors were derived by combining SERS measurements with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which is able to determine the electroactive surface area of a randomly nanostructured surface. Depending on the deposition step an alternating increase and decrease of surface area was observed while the SERS intensity showed a clear maximum for the first deposition cycle. SEM pictures reveal the formation of Ag polyhedrons that are randomly dispersed on the Au surface. Furthermore the presence of a sub nanostructure on top of the polyhedron after the first deposition cycle is observed which becomes smoother after subsequent deposition cycles. Correlating the SEM pictures with SERS and EIS measurements it is concluded that the coral-like sub nanostructure is dominating the enhancement factor while the polyhedron structure itself only plays a minor role for electromagnetic field enhancement. PMID:25599525

  14. Site selective surface enhanced Raman on nanostructured cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Frances; Rice, James H.; Jose, Bincy; Forster, Robert J.; Keyes, Tia E.

    2011-07-01

    Presented here are angle dependence studies on the surface enhanced Raman (SER) signal obtained from dye placed on plasmon active nanocavity arrays. A comparative study was carried out between two modified array supports. One array had dye placed only on the interior walls of the cavities in the array. The other array had dye placed only on its top flat surface. Results show that Raman intensities as a function of angle depend on the location of the dye on the array; this was interpreted to arise from the presence of different plasmon polariton modes in these sites.

  15. Cassie-State Stability of Metallic Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Various Micro/Nanostructures Produced by a Femtosecond Laser.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiangyou; Pan, Lin; Fan, Peixun; Gong, Dingwei; Jiang, Dafa; Zhang, Hongjun; Li, Lin; Zhong, Minlin

    2016-02-01

    The Cassie-state stability plays a vital role in the applications of metallic superhydrophobic surfaces. Although a large number of papers have reported the superhydrophobic performance of various surface micro/nanostructures, the knowledge of which kind of micro/nanostructure contributes significantly to the Cassie-state stability especially under low temperature and pressure is still very limited. In this article, we fabricated six kinds of typical micro/nanostructures with different topography features on metal surfaces by a femtosecond laser, and these surfaces were modified by fluoroalkylsilane to generate superhydrophobicity. We then systematically studied the Cassie-state stability of these surfaces by means of condensation and evaporation experiments. The results show that some superhydrophobic surfaces, even with high contact angles and low sliding angles under normal conditions, are unstable under low temperature or external pressure. The Cassie state readily transits to a metastable state or even a Wenzel state under these conditions, which deteriorates their superhydrophobicity. Among the six micro/nanostructures, the densely distributed nanoscale structure is important for a stable Cassie state, and the closely packed micrometer-scale structure can further improve the stability. The dependence of the Cassie-state stability on the fabricated micro/nanostructures and the laser-processing parameters is also discussed. This article clarifies optimized micro/nanostructures for stable and thus more practical metallic superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:26745154

  16. Role of Nanostructure Coating Quality in Delay of Surface Flooding during Jumping Droplet Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Daniel J.; Antao, Dion; Miljkovic, Nenad; Barabadi, Banafsheh; Queeney, John; Wang, Evelyn

    Vapor condensation is commonly observed in everyday life and routinely used in industry as an effective means of transferring heat. In industrial systems, condensed vapor typically forms a thin liquid film which is not desired due to the large thermal resistance to heat transfer; however, if the condensing surface is functionalized with a hydrophobic coating, the condensate forms discrete liquid droplets which shed at sizes approaching the capillary length and refresh the surface for re-nucleation, resulting in a 5-7x heat transfer improvement. Furthermore, when a micro- or nanostructured surface is functionalized, a superhydrophobic surface can be created on which small (~10-100 µm) droplets coalesce and can spontaneously jump away from the surface due to release of excess surface energy; this jumping droplet mode of condensation has been shown to increase heat transfer by an additional 30 - 40%. However, at elevated supersaturations, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces can become flooded with condensate and form pinned droplets which cannot jump, thereby eliminating the desired heat transfer improvement. In this work, we experimentally demonstrated a delay in the supersaturation at which surface flooding occurs by reducing the hydrophobic coating defect density. This resulted in a lower proportion of structure unit cells occupied by condensate, which allowed higher droplet mobility and jumping at elevated supersaturation.

  17. Nanostructured Surfaces and Detection Instrumentation for Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhery, Vikram; George, Sherine; Lu, Meng; Pokhriyal, Anusha; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal (PC) surfaces have been demonstrated as a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics and life science research. PCs can be engineered to support optical resonances at specific wavelengths at which strong electromagnetic fields are utilized to enhance the intensity of surface-bound fluorophore excitation. Meanwhile, the leaky resonant modes of PCs can be used to direct emitted photons within a narrow range of angles for more efficient collection by a fluorescence detection system. The multiplicative effects of enhanced excitation combined with enhanced photon extraction combine to provide improved signal-to-noise ratios for detection of fluorescent emitters, which in turn can be used to reduce the limits of detection of low concentration analytes, such as disease biomarker proteins. Fabrication of PCs using inexpensive manufacturing methods and materials that include replica molding on plastic, nano-imprint lithography on quartz substrates result in devices that are practical for single-use disposable applications. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity fluorescence detection in the context of molecular diagnosis and gene expression analysis though the use of PC surfaces. Recent efforts to improve the design and fabrication of PCs and their associated detection instrumentation are summarized, including the use of PCs coupled with Fabry-Perot cavities and external cavity lasers. PMID:23624689

  18. Increasing the Morphological Stability of DNA-Templated Nanostructures with Surface Hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Lermusiaux, Laurent; Bidault, Sébastien

    2015-11-11

    DNA has been extensively used as a versatile template to assemble inorganic nanoparticles into complex architectures; thanks to its programmability, stability, and long persistence length. But the geometry of self-assembled nanostructures depends on a complex combination of attractive and repulsive forces that can override the shape of a molecular scaffold. In this report, an approach to increase the morphological stability of DNA-templated gold nanoparticle (AuNP) groupings against electrostatic interactions is demonstrated by introducing hydrophobicity on the particle surface. Using single nanostructure spectroscopy, the nanometer-scale distortions of 40 nm diameter AuNP dimers are compared with different hydrophilic, amphiphilic, neutral, and negatively charged surface chemistries, when modifying the local ionic strength. It is observed that, with most ligands, a majority of studied nanostructures deform freely from a stretched geometry to touching particles when increasing the salt concentration while hydrophobicity strongly limits the dimer distortions. Furthermore, an amphiphilic surface chemistry provides DNA-linked AuNP dimers with a high long-term stability against internal aggregation. PMID:26395441

  19. Fabrication of large-area arrays of hybrid nanostructures on polymer-derived chemically patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Nepal, Dhriti; Biswas, Sushmita; Park, Kyoungweon; Vaia, Richard; Nealey, Paul; Air Force Research Laboratories Collaboration; University of Chicago Team

    2014-03-01

    The precise placement and assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) into large-area nanostructure arrays will allow for the design and implementation of advanced nanoscale devices for applications in fields such as quantum computing, optical sensing, superlenses, photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and non-linear optics. Our work is focused on using chemically nanopatterned surfaces to fabricate arrays of hybrid nanostructures with each component of the building block at well-defined positions. The precise chemical contrast patterns with densities and resolution of features created using standard tools of lithography, polymer self-assembly, and surface functionalization allow for control of position and interparticle spacing through selective surface-particle and particle-particle interactions. We have demonstrated the assembly of NPs, including metallic NPs and semiconductor quantum dots, into arrays of hybrid structures with various geometries, such as monomers, dimers, quatrefoils, stripes, and chains. We have developed protocols to fabricate NP arrays over a variety of substrates, which allows for the design and characterization of optical and electronic nanostructures and devices to meet the requirements of various technological applications.

  20. Facile Phase Transfer and Surface Biofunctionalization of Hydrophobic Nanoparticles Using Janus DNA Tetrahedron Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Hong, Cheng-Yi; Wu, Shu-Xian; Liang, Hong; Wang, Li-Ping; Huang, Guoming; Chen, Xian; Yang, Huang-Hao; Shangguan, Dihua; Tan, Weihong

    2015-09-01

    Hydrophobic nanoparticles have shown substantial potential for bioanalysis and biomedical applications. However, their use is hindered by complex phase transfer and inefficient surface modification. This paper reports a facile and universal strategy for phase transfer and surface biofunctionalization of hydrophobic nanomaterials using aptamer-pendant DNA tetrahedron nanostructures (Apt-tet). The Janus DNA tetrahedron nanostructures are constructed by three carboxyl group modified DNA strands and one aptamer sequence. The pendant linear sequence is an aptamer, in this case AS1411, known to specifically bind nucleolin, typically overexpressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells. The incorporation of the aptamers adds targeting ability and also enhances intracellular uptake. Phase-transfer efficiency using Apt-tet is much higher than that achieved using single-stranded DNA. In addition, the DNA tetrahedron nanostructures can be programmed to permit the incorporation of other functional nucleic acids, such as DNAzymes, siRNA, or antisense DNA, allowing, in turn, the construction of promising theranostic nanoagents for bioanalysis and biomedical applications. Given these unique features, we believe that our strategy of surface modification and functionalization may become a new paradigm in phase-transfer-agent design and further expand biomedical applications of hydrophobic nanomaterials. PMID:26302208

  1. On-chip surface modified nanostructured ZnO as functional pH sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Wenpeng; Sun, Chongling; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua; Duan, Xuexin

    2015-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are promising candidates as electronic components for biological and chemical applications. In this study, ZnO ultra-fine nanowire (NW) and nanoflake (NF) hybrid structures have been prepared by Au-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure. Their surface morphology, lattice structures, and crystal orientation were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two types of ZnO nanostructures were successfully integrated as gate electrodes in extended-gate field-effect transistors (EGFETs). Due to the amphoteric properties of ZnO, such devices function as pH sensors. We found that the ultra-fine NWs, which were more than 50 μm in length and less than 100 nm in diameter, performed better in the pH sensing process than NW-NF hybrid structures because of their higher surface-to-volume ratio, considering the Nernst equation and the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model. Furthermore, the surface coating of (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) protects ZnO nanostructures in both acidic and alkaline environments, thus enhancing the device stability and extending its pH sensing dynamic range. PMID:26266876

  2. Surface-hardened nanostructured Ti- and Zr-matrix composites for medical and engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Kukareko, V. A.; Legostaeva, E. V.; Byeli, A. V.

    2011-03-01

    Combined studies have been conducted on the structural-phase state and physical-mechanical and tribological properties of nanostructured titanium and zirconium subjected to ion-beam implantation or microplasma oxidation. Low-temperature ion-beam nitriding of the materials examined is shown to provide a 25-35-fold increase in the wear resistance of their surface layers and a 40% decrease in the friction coefficient for tribological interaction with contact surfaces. Microplasma oxidation of titanium in aqueous solution of phosphoric acid, hydroxylapatite and calcium carbonate powders enables calcium-phosphate coatings with high physical-mechanical properties to be produced. Tribological tests in a dry friction regime and in isotonic solution of sodium chloride have revealed that a nanostructured titanium substrate-calcium phosphate coating biocomposite exhibits a fairly high friction coefficient (0.4-1.0) in tribological interactions with ultrahigh molecular-weight polyethylene or bone tissue. A substantial improvement in the tribotechnical properties of nanostructured titanium and zirconium with modified surface layers makes them very promising materials for medical and engineering applications.

  3. On-chip surface modified nanostructured ZnO as functional pH sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Wenpeng; Sun, Chongling; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua; Duan, Xuexin

    2015-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are promising candidates as electronic components for biological and chemical applications. In this study, ZnO ultra-fine nanowire (NW) and nanoflake (NF) hybrid structures have been prepared by Au-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure. Their surface morphology, lattice structures, and crystal orientation were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two types of ZnO nanostructures were successfully integrated as gate electrodes in extended-gate field-effect transistors (EGFETs). Due to the amphoteric properties of ZnO, such devices function as pH sensors. We found that the ultra-fine NWs, which were more than 50 μm in length and less than 100 nm in diameter, performed better in the pH sensing process than NW-NF hybrid structures because of their higher surface-to-volume ratio, considering the Nernst equation and the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model. Furthermore, the surface coating of (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) protects ZnO nanostructures in both acidic and alkaline environments, thus enhancing the device stability and extending its pH sensing dynamic range.

  4. Adherence of human oral keratinocytes and gingival fibroblasts to nano-structured titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A key element for long-term success of dental implants is integration of the implant surface with the surrounding host tissues. Modification of titanium implant surfaces can enhance osteoblast activity but their effects on soft-tissue cells are unclear. Adherence of human keratinocytes and gingival fibroblasts to control commercially pure titanium (CpTi) and two surfaces prepared by anodic oxidation was therefore investigated. Since implant abutments are exposed to a bacteria-rich environment in vivo, the effect of oral bacteria on keratinocyte adhesion was also evaluated. Methods The surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The number of adhered cells and binding strength, as well as vitality of fibroblasts and keratinocytes were evaluated using confocal scanning laser microscopy after staining with Live/Dead Baclight. To evaluate the effect of bacteria on adherence and vitality, keratinocytes were co-cultured with a four-species streptococcal consortium. Results SEM analysis showed the two anodically oxidized surfaces to be nano-structured with differing degrees of pore-density. Over 24 hours, both fibroblasts and keratinocytes adhered well to the nano-structured surfaces, although to a somewhat lesser degree than to CpTi (range 42-89% of the levels on CpTi). The strength of keratinocyte adhesion was greater than that of the fibroblasts but no differences in adhesion strength could be observed between the two nano-structured surfaces and the CpTi. The consortium of commensal streptococci markedly reduced keratinocyte adherence on all the surfaces as well as compromising membrane integrity of the adhered cells. Conclusion Both the vitality and level of adherence of soft-tissue cells to the nano-structured surfaces was similar to that on CpTi. Co-culture with streptococci reduced the number of keratinocytes on all the surfaces to approximately the same level and caused cell damage, suggesting that commensal bacteria could

  5. Fabrication of Hierarchically Micro- and Nano-structured Mold Surfaces Using Laser Ablation for Mass Production of Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jiwhan; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Na, Suckjoo; Lim, Hyuneui; Jung, Dae-Hwan

    2010-10-01

    Many studies have examined the formation of surfaces with mixed patterns of micro- and nano-sized lotus leaves that have hydrophobic properties. In this study, micro- and nano-shapes such as lotus leaves were fabricated on a metal mold surface using laser ablation and ripple formation. A microstructure on the mold surface was replicated onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using the polymer casting method to manufacture low-cost hydrophobic surfaces. A PDMS surface with micro- and nano-structures that were the inverse image of a lotus leaf showed hydrophobic characteristics (water contact angle: 157°). From these results, we deduced that portions of the microstructures were wet and that air gaps existed between the microstructures and the water drops. In this paper we suggest the possibility of the mass production of hydrophobic plastic surfaces and the development of a methodology for the hydrophobic texturing of various polymer surfaces, using the polymer casting method with laser-processed molds.

  6. Extremely superhydrophobic surfaces with micro- and nanostructures fabricated by copper catalytic etching.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Pil; Choi, Sinho; Park, Soojin

    2011-01-18

    We demonstrate a simple method for the fabrication of rough silicon surfaces with micro- and nanostructures, which exhibited superhydrophobic behaviors. Hierarchically rough silicon surfaces were prepared by copper (Cu)-assisted chemical etching process where Cu nanoparticles having particle size of 10-30 nm were deposited on silicon surface, depending on the period of time of electroless Cu plating. Surface roughness was controlled by both the size of Cu nanoparticles and etching conditions. As-synthesized rough silicon surfaces showed water contact angles ranging from 93° to 149°. Moreover, the hierarchically rough silicon surfaces were chemically modified by spin-coating of a thin layer of Teflon precursor with low surface energy. And thus it exhibited nonsticky and enhanced hydrophobic properties with extremely high contact angle of nearly 180°. PMID:21162520

  7. Modulating macrophage polarization with divalent cations in nanostructured titanium implant surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung-Ho; Kim, Youn-Jeong; Jang, Je-Hee; Park, Jin-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Nanoscale topographical modification and surface chemistry alteration using bioactive ions are centrally important processes in the current design of the surface of titanium (Ti) bone implants with enhanced bone healing capacity. Macrophages play a central role in the early tissue healing stage and their activity in response to the implant surface is known to affect the subsequent healing outcome. Thus, the positive modulation of macrophage phenotype polarization (i.e. towards the regenerative M2 rather than the inflammatory M1 phenotype) with a modified surface is essential for the osteogenesis funtion of Ti bone implants. However, relatively few advances have been made in terms of modulating the macrophage-centered early healing capacity in the surface design of Ti bone implants for the two important surface properties of nanotopography and and bioactive ion chemistry. We investigated whether surface bioactive ion modification exerts a definite beneficial effect on inducing regenerative M2 macrophage polarization when combined with the surface nanotopography of Ti. Our results indicate that nanoscale topographical modification and surface bioactive ion chemistry can positively modulate the macrophage phenotype in a Ti implant surface. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that chemical surface modification using divalent cations (Ca and Sr) dramatically induces the regenerative M2 macrophage phenotype of J774.A1 cells in nanostructured Ti surfaces. In this study, divalent cation chemistry regulated the cell shape of adherent macrophages and markedly up-regulated M2 macrophage phenotype expression when combined with the nanostructured Ti surface. These results provide insight into the surface engineering of future Ti bone implants that are harmonized between the macrophage-governed early wound healing process and subsequent mesenchymal stem cell-centered osteogenesis function.

  8. Modulating macrophage polarization with divalent cations in nanostructured titanium implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Ho; Kim, Youn-Jeong; Jang, Je-Hee; Park, Jin-Woo

    2016-02-26

    Nanoscale topographical modification and surface chemistry alteration using bioactive ions are centrally important processes in the current design of the surface of titanium (Ti) bone implants with enhanced bone healing capacity. Macrophages play a central role in the early tissue healing stage and their activity in response to the implant surface is known to affect the subsequent healing outcome. Thus, the positive modulation of macrophage phenotype polarization (i.e. towards the regenerative M2 rather than the inflammatory M1 phenotype) with a modified surface is essential for the osteogenesis funtion of Ti bone implants. However, relatively few advances have been made in terms of modulating the macrophage-centered early healing capacity in the surface design of Ti bone implants for the two important surface properties of nanotopography and and bioactive ion chemistry. We investigated whether surface bioactive ion modification exerts a definite beneficial effect on inducing regenerative M2 macrophage polarization when combined with the surface nanotopography of Ti. Our results indicate that nanoscale topographical modification and surface bioactive ion chemistry can positively modulate the macrophage phenotype in a Ti implant surface. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that chemical surface modification using divalent cations (Ca and Sr) dramatically induces the regenerative M2 macrophage phenotype of J774.A1 cells in nanostructured Ti surfaces. In this study, divalent cation chemistry regulated the cell shape of adherent macrophages and markedly up-regulated M2 macrophage phenotype expression when combined with the nanostructured Ti surface. These results provide insight into the surface engineering of future Ti bone implants that are harmonized between the macrophage-governed early wound healing process and subsequent mesenchymal stem cell-centered osteogenesis function. PMID:26807875

  9. Interaction of nanostructured metal overlayers with oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Wagner, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    Interactions between metals and oxides are key factors to determine the performance of metal/oxide heterojunctions, particularly in nanotechnology, where the miniaturization of devices down to the nanoregime leads to an enormous increase in the density of interfaces. One central issue of concern in engineering metal/oxide interfaces is to understand and control the interactions which consist of two fundamental aspects: (i) interfacial charge redistribution — electronic interaction, and (ii) interfacial atom transport — chemical interaction. The present paper focuses on recent advances in both electronic and atomic level understanding of the metal-oxide interactions at temperatures below 1000 ∘C, with special emphasis on model systems like ultrathin metal overlayers or metal nanoclusters supported on well-defined oxide surfaces. The important factors determining the metal-oxide interactions are provided. Guidelines are given in order to predict the interactions in such systems, and methods to desirably tune them are suggested. The review starts with a brief summary of the physics and chemistry of heterophase interface contacts. Basic concepts for quantifying the electronic interaction at metal/oxide interfaces are compared to well-developed contact theories and calculation methods. The chemical interaction between metals and oxides, i.e., the interface chemical reaction, is described in terms of its thermodynamics and kinetics. We review the different chemical driving forces and the influence of kinetics on interface reactions, proposing a strong interplay between the chemical interaction and electronic interaction, which is decisive for the final interfacial reactivity. In addition, a brief review of solid-gas interface reactions (oxidation of metal surfaces and etching of semiconductor surfaces) is given, in addition to a comparison of a similar mechanism dominating in solid-solid and solid-gas interface reactions. The main body of the paper reviews

  10. Unconventional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques using nanostructured diamond surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Victor; Jarmola, Andrey; Budker, Dmitry; Santori, Charles; Huang, Zhihong; Beausoleil, Raymond

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technologies rely on obtaining high nuclear magnetization, motivating low operating temperatures and high magnetic fields. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) techniques traditionally require another superconducting magnet and THz optics. We seek to use chip-scale devices to polarize nuclei in liquids at room temperature. The technique relies on optical pumping of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers and subsequent transfer of polarization to nuclei via hyperfine interaction, spin diffusion, and heteronuclear polarization transfer. We expect efficient polarization transfer will be realized by maximizing the diamond surface area. We have fabricated densely-packed (50 % packing fraction), high-aspect-ratio (10+) nanopillars over mm2 regions of the diamond surface. Pillars designed to have a few-hundred-nanometer diameter act as optical antennas, reducing saturation intensity. We also report progress in using nanopillar arrays as sensitive optical detectors of nano-scale NMR by measuring NV center Zeeman shifts produced by nearby external nuclei. The enhanced surface area increases the effective density of NV centers which couple to external nuclei. Combining these techniques may enable, e.g., identification of trace analytes and molecular imaging.

  11. Cicada Wing Surface Topography: An Investigation into the Bactericidal Properties of Nanostructural Features.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, S M; Habimana, O; Lawler, J; O' Reilly, B; Daniels, S; Casey, E; Cowley, A

    2016-06-22

    Recently, the surface of the wings of the Psaltoda claripennis cicada species has been shown to possess bactericidal properties and it has been suggested that the nanostructure present on the wings was responsible for the bacterial death. We have studied the surface-based nanostructure and bactericidal activity of the wings of three different cicadas (Megapomponia intermedia, Ayuthia spectabile and Cryptotympana aguila) in order to correlate the relationship between the observed surface topographical features and their bactericidal properties. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy performed in this study revealed that the tested wing species contained a highly uniform, nanopillar structure on the surface. The bactericidal properties of the cicada wings were investigated by assessing the viability of autofluorescent Pseudomonas fluorescens cells following static adhesion assays and targeted dead/live fluorescence staining through direct microscopic counting methods. These experiments revealed a 20-25% bacterial surface coverage on all tested wing species; however, significant bactericidal properties were observed in the M. intermedia and C. aguila species as revealed by the high dead:live cell ratio on their surfaces. The combined results suggest a strong correlation between the bactericidal properties of the wings and the scale of the nanotopography present on the different wing surfaces. PMID:26551558

  12. Development and optimization of ifosfamide nanostructured lipid carriers for oral delivery using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velmurugan, Ramaiyan; Selvamuthukumar, Subramanian

    2016-02-01

    The research focuses on the development and optimization of ifosfamide nanostructured lipid carriers for oral delivery with the application of response surface methodology. The objectives of the study were to develop a formulation for ifosfamide to be delivered orally, overcome the instability of the drug in acidic environment during oral administration, to sustain the release, drug leakage during storage and low loading capacity. A modified solvent diffusion method in aqueous system was applied to prepare nanostructured lipid nanoparticles. Hydrophilic polymers such as chitosan and sodium alginate were used as coating materials. Glycerol mono oleate and oleic acid were used as solid and liquid lipid, respectively. Poloxamer is used as stabilizers. The central composite rotatable design consisting of three-factored factorial design with three levels was used in this study. The physiochemical characterization included evaluation of surface morphology, particle size and surface charge of the drug in the delivery system. The in vitro drug release, entrapment and drug loading efficiency and as well as the storage stability were evaluated. The results showed that the optimal formulation was composed of drug/lipid ratio of 1:3, organic/aqueous phase ratio of 1:10 and concentration of surfactant of 1 % w/v. Ifosfamide nanostructured lipid carrier under the optimized conditions gave rise to the entrapment efficiency of 77 %, drug loading of 6.14 %, mean diameter of 223 nm and zeta potential value of -25 mV. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed spherical particles. The in vitro experiment proved that ifosfamide from the delivery system released gradually over the period of 72 h. Sodium alginate cross-linked chitosan nanostructured lipid carrier demonstrated enhanced stability of ifosfamide, high entrapment efficiency and sustained release.

  13. Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Photogrammetry and Videogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul; Jones, Tom; Connell, John; Belvin, Keith; Watson, Kent

    2004-01-01

    surface of the target. The improved method is denoted laser-induced-fluorescence photogrammetry.

  14. Study Of Laser-Induced Copolymerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Gilda A.; Meador, Willard E.; Chang, C. Ken

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiments on photopolymerization of styrene/maleic anhydride copolymer published as part of Laser Polymerization Program at NASA Langley Research Center. Presents basic study of copolymerization of styrene and maleic anhydride under laser-induced initiation and polymerization. Helps to clarify different theories on such initiation and represents significant advances in understanding of basic processes.

  15. Hierarchically porous micro/nanostructured copper surfaces with enhanced antireflection and hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Su, Yanjie; Hu, Jing; Yao, Lu; Wei, Hao; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-01-01

    A facile hydrothermal method has been proposed to fabricate hierarchically porous Cu micro/nanostructures on Cu foil, whose growth can be controlled by the reaction time and the amount of ethylene glycol added into the precursor. Compared to commercially available Cu foil, the micro/nanostructured Cu surfaces exhibit not only greatly enhanced ability to absorb light over a wide range of wavelengths from 250 to 1000 nm, but also improved hydrophobicity from 90.4° to 151.2° without any low-surface-energy chemical modification. The reflectance can reach a lowest value of 10% at 300 nm and show a biggest decrement of 53% at 582 nm. Due to their superhydrophobicity, the micro/nanostructured Cu foils demonstrate an improved anticorrosion ability against 3.5 wt% NaCl solution compared with a bare one. The proposed mechanism indicates that the combination of the dual-scale roughness and the adsorbed air in pores account for the enhanced antireflection and hydrophobicity.

  16. Effect of Octacalcium-Phosphate-Modified Micro/Nanostructured Titania Surfaces on Osteoblast Response.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pinliang; Liang, Jianhe; Song, Ran; Zhang, Yanmei; Ren, Lei; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu; Lin, Changjian

    2015-07-01

    Surface structures and properties of titanium implants play a vital role in successful bone replacement. To mimic the natural bone structure, some strategies have recently focused on the preparation of multiscaled morphology on medical titanium and shown some promising results; however, relatively few efforts have been made for further enhancing the biocompatibility of such a hierarchical hybrid structure without compromising the superior bioactivity of the starting micro/nano roughness. In this study, a thin ribbonlike octacalcium phosphate (OCP) coating was electrodeposited on a hierarchically structured titania surface, maintaining its micro/nanospongelike morphology. It is indicated that the micro/nanostructured surface with deposited OCP showed an improved biomineralization ability, in comparison to that without OCP modification, when immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). Further evaluations of cellular activities demonstrated that the introduction of OCP to the micro/nano spongelike-structured surface remarkably enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and extracellular matrix mineralization compared to that of cells on the micro/nanospongelike titania surface during 14 days of culturing. Meanwhile, the OCP-deposited micro/nanostructured surface displayed much a smaller passive current density and lower current response to the applied potential, resulting in the improvement of corrosion resistance. All of the evaluations suggested that the modification of the OCP coating on the prepared micro/nanospongelike titania is of superior chemical stability, biomineralization, and osteoblast activities, which indicates a favorable implant microenvironment for osseointegration in vivo. PMID:26076385

  17. Laser-induced backward transfer of nanoimprinted polymer elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinaeugle, Matthias; Heath, Daniel J.; Mills, Benjamin; Grant-Jacob, James A.; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Eason, Robert W.

    2016-04-01

    Femtosecond laser-induced backward transfer of transparent photopolymers is demonstrated in the solid state, assisted by a digital micromirror spatial light modulator for producing shaped deposits. Through use of an absorbing silicon carrier substrate, we have been able to successfully transfer solid-phase material, with lateral dimensions as small as ~6 µm. In addition, a carrier of silicon incorporating a photonic waveguide relief structure enables the transfer of imprinted deposits that have been accomplished with surface features exactly complementing those present on the substrate, with an observed minimum feature size of 140 nm.

  18. Formation Regularities of Plasmonic Silver Nanostructures on Porous Silicon for Effective Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    PubMed

    Bandarenka, Hanna V; Girel, Kseniya V; Bondarenko, Vitaly P; Khodasevich, Inna A; Panarin, Andrei Yu; Terekhov, Sergei N

    2016-12-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures demonstrating an activity in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy have been fabricated by an immersion deposition of silver nanoparticles from silver salt solution on mesoporous silicon (meso-PS). The SERS signal intensity has been found to follow the periodical repacking of the silver nanoparticles, which grow according to the Volmer-Weber mechanism. The ratio of silver salt concentration and immersion time substantially manages the SERS intensity. It has been established that optimal conditions of nanostructured silver layers formation for a maximal Raman enhancement can be chosen taking into account a special parameter called effective time: a product of the silver salt concentration on the immersion deposition time. The detection limit for porphyrin molecules CuTMPyP4 adsorbed on the silvered PS has been evaluated as 10(-11) M. PMID:27209406

  19. Formation Regularities of Plasmonic Silver Nanostructures on Porous Silicon for Effective Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandarenka, Hanna V.; Girel, Kseniya V.; Bondarenko, Vitaly P.; Khodasevich, Inna A.; Panarin, Andrei Yu.; Terekhov, Sergei N.

    2016-05-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures demonstrating an activity in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy have been fabricated by an immersion deposition of silver nanoparticles from silver salt solution on mesoporous silicon (meso-PS). The SERS signal intensity has been found to follow the periodical repacking of the silver nanoparticles, which grow according to the Volmer-Weber mechanism. The ratio of silver salt concentration and immersion time substantially manages the SERS intensity. It has been established that optimal conditions of nanostructured silver layers formation for a maximal Raman enhancement can be chosen taking into account a special parameter called effective time: a product of the silver salt concentration on the immersion deposition time. The detection limit for porphyrin molecules CuTMPyP4 adsorbed on the silvered PS has been evaluated as 10-11 M.

  20. Surface enhanced Raman scattering and photoluminescence properties of catalytic grown ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, S. K.; Jacob, C.

    2009-09-01

    Sword-like (diameter ranging from 40 nm to 300 nm) and needle-like zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (average tip diameter ˜40 nm) were synthesized on annealed silver template over silicon substrate and directly on silicon wafer, respectively via thermal evaporation of metallic zinc followed by a thermal annealing in air. The surface morphology, microstructure, chemical analysis and optical properties of the grown samples were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, room temperature photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. The sword-like ZnO nanostructures grown on annealed silver template are of high optical quality compared to needle-like ZnO nanorods for UV emission and show enhanced Raman scattering.

  1. Laser-nanostructured Ag films as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, S.J.; Carey, J.D.; Silva, S.R.P.

    2006-02-20

    Pulsed-laser (248 nm) irradiation of Ag thin films was employed to produce nanostructured Ag/SiO{sub 2} substrates. By tailoring the laser fluence, it was possible to controllably adjust the mean diameter of the resultant near-spherical Ag droplets. Thin films of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) were subsequently deposited onto the nanostructured substrates. Visible Raman measurements were performed on the ta-C films, where it was observed that the intensity of the Raman signal was increased by nearly two orders of magnitude, when compared with ta-C films grown on nonstructured substrates. The use of laser annealing as a method of preparing substrates, at low macroscopic temperatures, for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on subnanometer-thick films is discussed.

  2. Highly charged ion induced nanostructures at surfaces by strong electronic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; El-Said, Ayman S.; Krok, Franciszek; Heller, René; Gruber, Elisabeth; Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Nanostructure formation by single slow highly charged ion impacts can be associated with high density of electronic excitations at the impact points of the ions. Experimental results show that depending on the target material these electronic excitations may lead to very large desorption yields in the order of a few 1000 atoms per ion or the formation of nanohillocks at the impact site. Even in ultra-thin insulating membranes the formation of nanometer sized pores is observed after ion impact. In this paper, we show recent results on nanostructure formation by highly charged ions and compare them to structures and defects observed after intense electron and light ion irradiation of ionic crystals and graphene. Additional data on energy loss, charge exchange and secondary electron emission of highly charged ions clearly show that the ion charge dominates the defect formation at the surface.

  3. A vector model for analysing the surface photovoltage amplitude and phase spectra applied to complicated nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Ts; Donchev, V.; Germanova, K.; Kirilov, K.

    2009-07-01

    An approach is presented for comprehensive and reliable analysis of the surface photovoltage (SPV) amplitude and phase spectral behaviour in various semiconductor materials and structures. In this approach the SPV signal is represented as a radial vector with magnitude equal to the SPV amplitude and angle with respect to the x-axis equal to the SPV phase. This model is especially helpful in complicated nanostructures, where more than one SPV formation processes arises during the spectrum run. The value of the proposed model has been demonstrated by the successful explanation of seemingly contradictory SPV amplitude and phase spectra of AlAs/GaAs superlattices with embedded GaAs quantum wells, grown on different GaAs substrates. This has provided useful information about the investigated nanostructures. The need for simultaneous examination of both SPV amplitude and SPV phase spectra in order to obtain a correct understanding of the experimental data is emphasized.

  4. Measuring surface dislocation nucleation in defect-scarce nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lisa Y; He, Mo-rigen; Shin, Jungho; Richter, Gunther; Gianola, Daniel S

    2015-07-01

    Linear defects in crystalline materials, known as dislocations, are central to the understanding of plastic deformation and mechanical strength, as well as control of performance in a variety of electronic and photonic materials. Despite nearly a century of research on dislocation structure and interactions, measurements of the energetics and kinetics of dislocation nucleation have not been possible, as synthesizing and testing pristine crystals absent of defects has been prohibitively challenging. Here, we report experiments that directly measure the surface dislocation nucleation strengths in high-quality 〈110〉 Pd nanowhiskers subjected to uniaxial tension. We find that, whereas nucleation strengths are weakly size- and strain-rate-dependent, a strong temperature dependence is uncovered, corroborating predictions that nucleation is assisted by thermal fluctuations. We measure atomic-scale activation volumes, which explain both the ultrahigh athermal strength as well as the temperature-dependent scatter, evident in our experiments and well captured by a thermal activation model. PMID:25985457

  5. Efficient coupling and transport of a surface plasmon at 780 nm in a gold nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-08-01

    We study plasmonic nanostructures in single-crystal gold with scanning electron and femtosecond photoemission electron microscopies. We design an integrated laser coupling and nanowire waveguide structure by focused ion beam lithography in single-crystal gold flakes. The photoemission results show that the laser field is efficiently coupled into a propagating surface plasmon by a simple hole structure and propagates efficiently in an adjacent nano-bar waveguide. A strong local field is created by the propagating surface plasmon at the nano-bar tip. A similar structure, with a decreased waveguide width and thickness, displayed significantly more intense photoemission indicating enhanced local electric field at the sharper tip.

  6. Rationally designed multifunctional plasmonic nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: a review.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Schlücker, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    Rationally designed multifunctional plasmonic nanostructures efficiently integrate two or more functionalities into a single entity, for example, with both plasmonic and catalytic activity. This review article is focused on their synthesis and use in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a molecular spectroscopic technique with high sensitivity, fingerprint specificity, and surface selectivity. After a short tutorial on the fundamentals of Raman scattering and SERS in particular, applications ranging from chemistry (heterogeneous catalysis) to biology and medicine (diagnostics/imaging, therapy) are summarized. PMID:25373417

  7. Overview of the Characteristics of Micro- and Nano-Structured Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Sookyoung; Chung, Taerin; Lee, Byoungho

    2011-01-01

    The performance of bio-chemical sensing devices has been greatly improved by the development of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based sensors. Advancements in micro- and nano-fabrication technologies have led to a variety of structures in SPR sensing systems being proposed. In this review, SPR sensors (from typical Kretschmann prism configurations to fiber sensor schemes) with micro- or nano-structures for local light field enhancement, extraordinary optical transmission, interference of surface plasmon waves, plasmonic cavities, etc. are discussed. We summarize and compare their performances and present guidelines for the design of SPR sensors. PMID:22319369

  8. Live cell imaging based on surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence microscopy using random nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Youngjin; Lee, Wonju; Son, Taehwang; Kim, Sook Young; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Kim, Donghyun

    2014-02-01

    Localized surface plasmon enhanced microscopy based on nanoislands of random spatial distribution was demonstrated for imaging live cells and molecular interactions. Nanoislands were produced without lithography by high temperature annealing under various processing conditions. The localization of near-field distribution that is associated with localized surface plasmon on metallic random nanoislands was analyzed theoretically and experimentally in comparison with periodic nanostructures. For experimental validation in live cell imaging, mouse macrophage-like cell line stained with Alexa Fluor 488 was prepared on nanoislands. The results suggest the possibility of attaining the imaging resolution on the order of 80 nm.

  9. Hierarchical ZnO nanostructures: Growth mechanisms and surface correlated photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinblat, G.; Capeluto, M. G.; Tirado, M.; Bragas, A. V.; Comedi, D.

    2012-06-01

    ZnO nanowires were grown by vapor-transport and deposition on Au nanocluster covered fused and thermal silica and c-Si. The nanowire size and density depended strongly on the substrate type. By decreasing the O2 to local Zn partial pressure ratio, the growth pattern changed to nanocombs and nanosheets. ZnO nanohedgehogs were found on bare c-Si. We observe a remarkable correlation between the defect to exciton photoluminescence intensity ratio and the nanostructures specific surface areas. These results indicate that changes in strain and O deficiency defects at surfaces are behind the observed morphology changes, one to two-dimensional growth transition, and corresponding luminescence.

  10. Efficient Coupling and Transport of a Surface Plasmon at 780 nm in a Gold Nanostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-08-28

    We studied plasmonic nanostructures in single-crystal gold with scanning electron and femtosecond photoemission electron microscopies. We designed an integrated laser coupling and nanowire waveguide structure by focused ion beam lithography in single-crystal gold flakes. The photoemission results show that the laser field is efficiently coupled into a propagating surface plasmon by a simple hole structure and propagates efficiently in an adjacent nano-bar waveguide. A strong local field is created by the propagating surface plasmon at the nano-bar tip. A similar structure, with a decreased waveguide width and thickness, displayed significantly more intense photoemission indicating enhanced local electric field at the sharper tip.

  11. Synthesis of polymer nanostructures via the use of surfactant surface aggregates as templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, Maricel

    The subject of this work is the synthesis of polymer nanostructures via the use of surfactant surface aggregates as templates, also termed Template Assisted Admicellar Polymerization (TAAP). The first chapter reviews some of the most current nanopatterning techniques (including both top-down and bottom-up approaches), with particular emphasis on the fabrication of organic and inorganic patterned nanostructures via particle lithography. In chapter 2, highly ordered hexagonal arrays of latex spheres were prepared on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) from a variation of the Langmuir Blodgett technique, using an anionic surfactant (SDS), and a low molecular weight (ca. 10000) polyacrylamide as spreading agents. When a nonionic polyethoxylated (EO = 9) surfactant was used as the spreading agent, no ordered arrays were observed. Based on the correlation found between the surface tension in the presence of the latex particles and the critical concentration at which hexagonal arrangements of latex spheres occurs; a model was proposed to explain the role of the spreading agent in forming stable monolayers at the air/liquid interface, which in turn are necessary for the formation of well-ordered monolayers on a solid substrate from the LB technique. According to this model, solid-like regions of small numbers of latex spheres form at the liquid-air interface, which are then transferred to the substrate. These ordered regions then act as nuclei for the formation of 2D arrays of latex spheres on the surface upon water evaporation. The role of other factors such as relative humidity, substrate and solvent choice, and pulling vs. compression speed were also found to affect the quality of the monolayers formed. Finally, a simple, easy to automate, yet effective surface tension method was proposed to predict the optimal conditions for the formation of ordered monolayers using a variation of the LB deposition method from any monodisperse set of spheres. In chapter 3, a novel

  12. Quantifying the Coverage Density of Poly(ethylene glycol) Chains on the Surface of Gold Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaohu; Yang, Miaoxin; Wang, Yucai; Zheng, Yiqun; Li, Qingge; Chen, Jingyi; Xia, Younan

    2011-01-01

    The coverage density of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a key parameter in determining the efficiency of PEGylation, a process pivotal to in vivo delivery and targeting of nanomaterials. Here we report four complementary methods for quantifying the coverage density of PEG chains on various types of Au nanostructures by using a model system based on HS-PEG-NH2 with different molecular weights. Specifically, the methods involve reactions with fluorescamine and ninhydrin, as well as labeling with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and Cu2+ ions. The first two methods use conventional amine assays to measure the number of unreacted HS-PEG-NH2 molecules left behind in the solution after incubation with the Au nanostructures. The other two methods involve coupling between the terminal –NH2 groups of adsorbed -S-PEG-NH2 chains and FITC or a ligand for Cu2+ ion, and thus pertain to the “active” –NH2 groups on the surface of a Au nanostructure. We found that the coverage density decreased as the length of PEG chains increased. A stronger binding affinity of the initial capping ligand to the Au surface tended to reduce the PEGylation efficiency by slowing down the ligand exchange process. For the Au nanostructures and capping ligands we have tested, the PEGylation efficiency decreased in the order of citrate-capped nanoparticles > PVP-capped nanocages ≈ CTAC-capped nanoparticles ≫ CTAB-capped nanorods, where PVP, CTAC, and CTAB stand for poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), cetyltrimethylammonium chloride, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, respectively. PMID:22148912

  13. Fabrication of large-area hydrophobic surfaces with femtosecond-laser-structured molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, P. H.; Cheng, C. W.; Chang, C. P.; Wu, T. M.; Wang, J. K.

    2011-11-01

    Fast replication of large-area femtosecond-laser-induced surface micro/nanostructures on plastic parts by injection molding is demonstrated. An STAVAX steel mold insert is irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses with linear or circular polarization to form periodic-like nanostructures or nanostructure-covered conical microstructures. It was then used for the process of thermal injection molding. The process provides high-volume manufacturing means to generate hydrophobic enhanced plastic parts, which is expected to be widely used in consumables and chemical/biomedical device industries.

  14. Magnesium ion implantation on a micro/nanostructured titanium surface promotes its bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Lianyi; Pan, Hongya; Wen, Jin; Wu, Qianju; She, Wenjun; Jiao, Ting; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important ions associated with bone osseointegration, magnesium was incorporated into a micro/nanostructured titanium surface using a magnesium plasma immersion ion-implantation method. Hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 30 minutes (Mg30) and hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 60 minutes (Mg60) were used as test groups. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and amount of magnesium ions released were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) were used to evaluate cell responses, including proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation on the surface of the material or in their medium extraction. Greater increases in the spreading and proliferation ability of rBMMSCs were observed on the surfaces of magnesium-implanted micro/nanostructures compared with the control plates. Furthermore, the osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes were upregulated on both surfaces and in their medium extractions. The enhanced cell responses were correlated with increasing concentrations of magnesium ions, indicating that the osteoblastic differentiation of rBMMSCs was stimulated through the magnesium ion function. The magnesium ion-implanted micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces could enhance the proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs, suggesting they have potential application in improving bone-titanium integration. PMID:24940056

  15. Dopamine biosensor based on surface functionalized nanostructured nickel oxide platform.

    PubMed

    Roychoudhury, Appan; Basu, Suddhasatwa; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

    2016-10-15

    A dopamine biosensor has been developed using nickel oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and tyrosinase enzyme conjugate. Nickel oxide (NiO) NPs were synthesized by sol-gel method using anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), as template to control the size of synthesized nanoparticles. The structural and morphological studies of the prepared NPs were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. Afterwards, tyrosinase enzyme molecules were adsorbed on NiO NPs surface and enzyme coated NPs were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by solution casting method. The formation of enzyme-NPs conjugate was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques and used in selective detection and estimation of neurochemical dopamine by electrochemical method. The fabricated Tyrosinase/NiO/ITO electrode exhibits high sensitivity of 60.2nA/µM in linear detection range (2-100μM) with a detection limit of 1.038μM. The proposed sensor had a response time of 45s, long shelf life (45 days) with good reproducibility and selectivity in presence of interfering substances and was validated with real samples. The tyrosinase enzyme functionalized NiO platform has good bio-sensing efficacy and can be used in detection of other catecholamines and phenolic neurochemicals. PMID:26626970

  16. Post-Synthetic Decoupling of On-Surface-Synthesized Covalent Nanostructures from Ag(111).

    PubMed

    Rastgoo-Lahrood, Atena; Björk, Jonas; Lischka, Matthias; Eichhorn, Johanna; Kloft, Stephan; Fritton, Massimo; Strunskus, Thomas; Samanta, Debabrata; Schmittel, Michael; Heckl, Wolfgang M; Lackinger, Markus

    2016-06-27

    The on-surface synthesis of covalent organic nanosheets driven by reactive metal surfaces leads to strongly adsorbed organic nanostructures, which conceals their intrinsic properties. Hence, reducing the electronic coupling between the organic networks and commonly used metal surfaces is an important step towards characterization of the true material. We demonstrate that post-synthetic exposure to iodine vapor leads to the intercalation of an iodine monolayer between covalent polyphenylene networks and Ag(111) surfaces. The experimentally observed changes from surface-bound to detached nanosheets are reproduced by DFT simulations. These findings suggest that the intercalation of iodine provides a material that shows geometric and electronic properties substantially closer to those of the freestanding network. PMID:27125328

  17. Carbon-based nanostructured surfaces for enhanced phase-change cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraj Kousalya, Arun

    To maintain acceptable device temperatures in the new generation of electronic devices under development for high-power applications, conventional liquid cooling schemes will likely be superseded by multi-phase cooling solutions to provide substantial enhancement to the cooling capability. The central theme of the current work is to investigate the two-phase thermal performance of carbon-based nanostructured coatings in passive and pumped liquid-vapor phase-change cooling schemes. Quantification of the critical parameters that influence thermal performance of the carbon nanostructured boiling surfaces presented herein will lead to improved understanding of the underlying evaporative and boiling mechanisms in such surfaces. A flow boiling experimental facility is developed to generate consistent and accurate heat transfer performance curves with degassed and deionized water as the working fluid. New means of boiling heat transfer enhancement by altering surface characteristics such as surface energy and wettability through light-surface interactions is explored in this work. In this regard, carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings are exposed to low-intensity irradiation emitted from a light emitting diode and the subcooled flow boiling performance is compared against a non-irradiated CNT-coated copper surface. A considerable reduction in surface superheat and enhancement in average heat transfer coefficient is observed. In another work involving CNTs, the thermal performance of CNT-integrated sintered wick structures is evaluated in a passively cooled vapor chamber. A physical vapor deposition process is used to coat the CNTs with varying thicknesses of copper to promote surface wetting with the working fluid, water. Thermal performance of the bare sintered copper powder sample and the copper-functionalized CNT-coated sintered copper powder wick samples is compared using an experimental facility that simulates the capillary fluid feeding conditions of a vapor chamber

  18. Surface modification of plasmonic nanostructured materials with thiolated oligonucleotides in 10 seconds using selective microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Abel, Biebele; Aslan, Kadir

    2012-11-01

    This study demonstrates the proof-of-principle of rapid surface modification of plasmonic nanostructured materials with oligonucleotides using low power microwave heating. Due to their interesting optical and electronic properties, silver nanoparticle films (SNFs, 2 nm thick) deposited onto glass slides were used as the model plasmonic nanostructured materials. Rapid surface modification of SNFs with oligonucleotides was carried out using two strategies (1) Strategy 1: for ss-oligonucleotides, surface hybridization and (2) Strategy 2: for ds-oligonucleotides, solution hybridization), where the samples were exposed to 10, 15, 30 and 60 seconds microwave heating. To assess the efficacy of our new rapid surface modification technique, identical experiments carried out without the microwave heating (i.e., conventional method), which requires 24 hours for the completion of the identical steps. It was found that SNFs can be modified with ss- and ds-oligonucleotides in 10 seconds, which typically requires several hours of incubation time for the chemisorption of thiol groups on to the planar metal surface using conventional techniques. PMID:23645933

  19. A new approach to the fabrication of ``smart`` near-surface nanostructure composites

    SciTech Connect

    Gea, L.; Honda, S.; Boatner, L.A.; Haynes, T.E.; Sales, B.C.; Modine, F.A.; Meldrum, A.; Budai, J.D.; Beckers, L.

    1998-01-01

    A new method for the formation of smart near-surface nanoscale composites has been developed. In this approach, small precipitates of active phases are embedded in the near-surface region of the material that is to be modified by a combination of ion implantation and thermal processing. The dispersion, concentration, and microstructure of the nanocrystals formed in the substrate material can be tailored through a careful choice of processing parameters - making this approach well suited to high value added, high technology applications. The applicability of this approach to forming smart surfaces on otherwise inactive materials was established in the case of VO{sup 2} precipitates which were embedded in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals to create a medium suitable for optical applications--including optical data storage. Most recently, this concept has been extended to the fabrication of magnetic field sensitive nanostructured surfaces by forming magnetostrictive precipitates of materials such as Ni or RFe{sub 2} (with R = Tm, Tb, Sm) that are embedded in various single crystal oxide hosts. These nanostructured, active surface composites have been characterized using XRD, RBS, TEM, and magneto-optical techniques.

  20. Comparison of calcium phosphate coatings formed on femtosecond laser-induced and sand-blasted titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C. Y.; Yang, X. J.; Wei, Q.; Cui, Z. D.

    2008-11-01

    High energy femtosecond laser process was employed to create regular surface patterning on titanium while sand blasting treatment made a coarse surface. Both laser-induced titanium and blasted titanium could promote the formation of calcium phosphate compounds after the acid and alkali treatment, but little crystallized hydroxyapatite was grown on the laser-induced titanium in 1.5SBF only for 6 h, whereas Ca 4P 6O 19 was formed on the sand-blasted titanium. The femtosecond laser process together with common acid and alkali treatment might provide potential choice to enhance the biocompatibility of titanium and its alloys.

  1. Time-Resolved Aluminum Monoxide Emission Measurements in Laser-Induced Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmick, David; Parigger, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Laser-induced plasmas are useful for diagnostic applications in a wide variety of fields. One application is the creation of laser-induced plasmas on the surface of an aluminum sample to simulate an aluminized flame. In this study, aluminum monoxide emissions are measured to characterize the temperature along the laser-induced plasma as a function of time delay following laser-induced optical breakdown. The breakdown event is achieved by focusing 1064 nanometer laser radiation from an Nd:YAG laser onto the surface of an aluminum sample. Light from the plasma is dispersed with the use of a Czerny-Turner spectrograph, and time resolved emission spectra are recorded with an intensified, gated detector. Temperatures are inferred from the diatomic molecular emissions by fitting the experimentally collected to theoretically calculated spectra using a Nelder-Mead algorithm. For computation of synthetic spectra we utilize accurate line strengths for selected AlO molecular bands. Atomic emissions from aluminum are also investigated in our study of laser-induced plasma.

  2. Femtosecond laser nanostructuring of titanium metal towards fabrication of low-reflective surfaces over broad wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, Mudasir H.; Kuladeep, R.; Saikiran, V.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2016-05-01

    We investigated experimentally the formation of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on titanium (Ti) metal upon irradiation with linearly polarized Ti:Sapphire femtosecond (fs) laser pulses of ∼110 fs pulse width and 800 nm wavelength in air and water environments. It is observed that initially formed random and sparsely distributed nano-roughness (nanoholes, nanoparticles and nanoprotrusions) gets periodically structured with increase in number of laser pulses. In air at lower fluence, we observed the formation of high spatial frequency-LIPSS (HSFL) oriented parallel to the laser polarization direction, whereas at higher fluence formation of low spatial frequency-LIPSS (LSFL) were observed that are oriented perpendicular to the incident laser polarization. In water two types of subwavelength structures were observed, one with spatial periodicity of ∼λ/15 and oriented parallel to laser polarization, while the other oriented perpendicular to laser polarization with feature size of λ/4. The optimal conditions for fabricating periodic sub-wavelength structures are determined by controlling the fluence and pulse number. The fs laser induced surface modifications were found to suppress the specular reflection of the Ti surface over a wide wavelength range of 250-2000 nm to a great extent.

  3. Design, fabrication, and characterization of metallic nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and plasmonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Qingzhen

    Metal/dielectric nanostructures have the ability to sustain coherent electron oscillations known as surface plasmons. Due to their capability of localizing and guiding light in sub-wavelength metal nanostructures beyond diffraction limits, surface plasmon-based photonics, or “plasmonics” has opened new physical phenomena and lead to novel applications in metamaterials, optoelectronics, surface enhanced spectroscopy and biological sensing. This dissertation centers on design, fabrication, characterization of metallic nanostructures and their applications in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and actively tunable plasmonics. Metal-dielectric nanostructures are the building blocks for photonic metamaterials. One valuable design guideline for metamaterials is the Babinet’s principle, which governs the optical properties of complementary nanostructures. However, most complementary metamaterials are designed for the far infrared region or beyond, where the optical absorption of metal is small. We have developed a novel dual fabrication method, capable of simultaneously producing optically thin complementary structures. From experimental measurements and theoretical simulations, we showed that Babinet’s principle qualitatively holds in the visible region for the optically thin complements. The complementary structure is also a good platform to study subtle differences between nanoparticles and nanoholes in SERS (a surface sensitive technique, which can enhance the conventional Raman cross-section by 106˜108 fold, thus very useful for highly sensitive biochemical sensing). Through experimental measurement and theoretical analysis, we showed that the SERS enhancement spectrum (plot of SERS enhancement versus excitation wavelengths), dominated by local near-field, for nanoholes closely follows their far-field optical transmission spectrum. However, the enhancement spectrum for nanoparticles red-shifts significantly from their far-field optical extinction

  4. Luminescent systems based on the isolation of conjugated PI systems and edge charge compensation with polar molecules on a charged nanostructured surface

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Zhao, Bin; Geohegan, David B.; Styers-Barnett, David J.; Hu, Hui

    2014-07-15

    A photoluminescent or electroluminescent system and method of making a non-luminescent nanostructured material into such a luminescent system is presented. The method of preparing the luminescent system, generally, comprises the steps of modifying the surface of a nanostructured material to create isolated regions to act as luminescent centers and to create a charge imbalance on the surface; applying more than one polar molecule to the charged surface of the nanostructured material; and orienting the polar molecules to compensate for the charge imbalance on the surface of the nanostructured material. The compensation of the surface charge imbalance by the polar molecules allows the isolated regions to exhibit luminescence.

  5. Photophysics of Laser Dye-Doped Polymer Membranes for Laser-Induced Fluorescence Photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorrington, Adrian A.; Jones, Thomas W.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence target generation in dye-doped polymer films has recently been introduced as a promising alternative to more traditional photogrammetric targeting techniques for surface profiling of highly transparent or reflective membrane structures. We investigate the photophysics of these dye-doped polymers to help determine their long-term durability and suitability for laser-induced fluorescence photogrammetric targeting. These investigations included experimental analysis of the fluorescence emission pattern, spectral content, temporal lifetime, linearity, and half-life. Results are presented that reveal an emission pattern wider than normal Lambertian diffuse surface scatter, a fluorescence time constant of 6.6 ns, a pump saturation level of approximately 20 micro J/mm(exp 2), and a useful lifetime of more than 300,000 measurements. Furthermore, two demonstrations of photogrammetric measurements by laser-induced fluorescence targeting are presented, showing agreement between photogrammetric and physically measured dimensions within the measurement scatter of 100 micron.

  6. Theoretical study of surface plasmon resonances in hollow gold-silver double-shell nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Román-Velázquez, Carlos E; Noguez, Cecilia; Zhang, Jin Z

    2009-04-23

    A theoretical model has been developed to study the optical properties of metallic multishell structures on the nanometer scale. The Mie theory was generalized for multiconcentric spherical shell nanostructures and employed to determine the effects and importance of the different parameters of the system such as thickness, size, and other material properties, for instance, the medium index of refraction. A unique hollow gold-silver double-shell structure is used as an example to test the model developed with recent experiments. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectrum of this structure has been calculated as a function of various parameters, including shell thickness and diameter. Using parameters similar to those previously reported experimentally, very good agreement has been found between calculated and experimentally measured SPR spectra, which validates the model. The results provide new insights into the fundamental properties of complex metal nanostructures that give us the ability to control the optical response, which has important implications in the synthesis of new metal nanostructures as well as their application in emerging technologies. PMID:19226130

  7. Fabrication and measurement of nanostructures on the micro ball surface using a modified atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X S; Geng, Y Q; Li, W B; Yan, Y D; Hu, Z J; Sun, T; Liang, Y C; Dong, S

    2012-11-01

    In order to machine and measure nanostructures on the micro ball surface, a modified atomic force microscope (AFM) combining a commercial AFM system with a home built precision air bearing spindle is established. Based on this system, motions of both the AFM scanner and the air bearing spindle are controlled to machine nanostructures on the micro ball based on the AFM tip-based nano mechanical machining approach. The eccentric error between the axis of the micro ball and the axis of the spindle is reduced to 3-4 μm by the provided fine adjusting method. A 1000 nano lines array, 36 square pits structure, 10 square pits structure, and a zig-zag structure on the circumference of the micro ball with the diameter of 1.5 mm are machined successfully. The measurement results achieved by the same system reveal that the profiles and mode-power spectra curves of the micro ball are influenced by the artificially machined nanostructures significantly according to their distributions. This work is an useful attempt for modifying the micro ball profile and manufacture of the spherical modulation targets to study the experimental performance of the micro ball in implosion. PMID:23206095

  8. Design of lath-shaped tool in defective nanostructure removal from digital touch-panel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pa, P. S.

    2009-07-01

    An effective economic viability that uses micro electroremoval as a reclaim system was developed to remove the defective ITO nanostructure coatings from the optical PET surfaces of digital paper. The low yield of ITO thin film deposition is an important factor in semiconductor production. By establishing the reclaim process using the ultra-precise removal of the nanostructure coatings, the optoelectronic semiconductor industry can effectively reclaim defective products, minimizing both production costs and pollution. In the current experiment, a large lath-shaped cathode with a small gap-width between the cathode and the workpiece takes less time for the same amount of ITO removal. A small end radius of the cathode combines with enough electric power to drive fast machining. Pulsed direct current can improve the effect of dreg discharge, and it is advantageous to associate the workpiece with the fast feed rate. However, this improvement can increase the current rating. A high rotational speed of the electrodes, a higher temperature, or a large flow rate of the electrolyte corresponds to a higher removal rate for the ITO nanostructure. The micro electroremoval requires only a short period of time to remove the ITO thin film coatings easily and cleanly.

  9. Study of micro/nanostructures formed by a nanosecond laser in gaseous environments for stainless steel surface coloring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Fangfang; Ong, Weili; Guan, Yingchun; Li, Fengping; Sun, Shufeng; Lim, G. C.; Hong, Minghui

    2015-02-01

    Micro/nanostructures are fabricated on the stainless steel surfaces by a nanosecond laser in different gaseous environments, including air, O2, N2 and Ar. Our results indicate that the dimensional feature of the micro/nanostructures is greatly affected by laser scanning speed as well as gaseous environment. The chemical composition of the structures can be flexibly adjusted by laser processing parameters. Oxygen-rich environment is found to boost the growth of the nanostructures. The coloring by the laser processing can be achieved on the laser treated stainless steel surfaces. The multicolor effect on the surfaces is found to be attributed to both feature dimension and chemical composition of the structures. The coloring of the metal surfaces has promising applications in surface marking and code identifying.

  10. New nanostructured nickel-polymer nanohybrids with improved surface hydrophobicity and effect on the living cells adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, Ján; Oriňak, Andrej; Oriňaková, Renáta; Muhmann, Christian; Petruš, Ondrej; Harvanová, Denisa; Vargová, Jana; Jendželovský, Rastislav; Radoňák, Jozef; Fedoročko, Peter; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F.

    2015-11-01

    An intensive gain of surface hydrophobicity has been observed on the differently polar polymer layers spin-coated directly on the previously prepared nanostructured nickel surface to form nanohybrids. Nanostructured nickel layer has been prepared by electrochemical deposition to form polyhedral crystalline nanostructure. Surface morphology and homogeneity of a nanohybrid polymer layer have been monitored by TOF-SIMS and SEM methods. Hydrophobicity extension of nanohybrid surfaces increased nearly linearly with decreasing polarity of single polymers applied and maximum increase in hydrophobicity value obtained was 32%. Novel nanohybrid surfaces functionality has been tested on the different cells adhesion. The results showed cell adhesion followed with an inhibition of the living cells spreading and proliferation on declared nanostructured nickel-polymer nanohybrid surfaces. The maximum inhibition activity of nanohybrid surface against cells line has been observed in a case when polydimethylsiloxane was applied as surface polymeric layer. Preparation of this kind of surface is easy and inexpensive, with many proposed applications where hydrophobic surfaces are required. This also can tend as a model for the preparation of the surfaces with cell anti-adhesion and antimicrobial activity.

  11. Evolution of nanostructure and specific surface area during thermally driven dehydration of Mg(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimminger, H.; Habler, G.; Freiberger, N.; Abart, R.

    2016-01-01

    The thermally induced dehydration of micrometer-sized particles of Mg(OH)2 was investigated experimentally at ambient pressure and temperatures ranging from 350 to 1300 °C. Reaction progress is correlated with the evolution of the specific surface area and of the particle internal nanostructure. The maximum specific surface area of about 320 m2/g corresponding to a 70-fold increase relative to the starting material is obtained after heat treatment at 350 °C for about 2 h. This is due to the formation of a highly porous, particle-internal nanostructure comprised of newly crystallized strictly aligned, cube-shaped and nanometer-sized crystals of MgO and about 50 vol% porosity. Associated with the dehydration, intensive fracturing and defoliation occurs parallel to the (0001) plane of the original Mg(OH)2 or (111) of the topotaxially grown MgO. After heat treatment at increasingly higher temperatures, enhanced coarsening and sintering of the MgO crystals and healing of cracks leads to a successive decrease of the specific surface area. After heat treatment at 1300 °C for 2.5 h, the specific surface area has decreased to 5 m2/g close to the value typical for the original Mg(OH)2.

  12. Surface-Functionalization of Nanostructured Cellulose Aerogels by Solid State Eumelanin Coating.

    PubMed

    Panzella, Lucia; Melone, Lucio; Pezzella, Alessandro; Rossi, Bianca; Pastori, Nadia; Perfetti, Marco; D'Errico, Gerardino; Punta, Carlo; d'Ischia, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Bioinspired aerogel functionalization by surface modification and coating is in high demand for biomedical and technological applications. In this paper, we report an expedient three-step entry to all-natural surface-functionalized nanostructured aerogels based on (a) TEMPO/NaClO promoted synthesis of cellulose nanofibers (TOCNF); (b) freeze-drying for aerogel preparation; and (c) surface coating with a eumelanin thin film by ammonia-induced solid state polymerization (AISSP) of 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) or 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) previously deposited from an organic solution. Scanning electron microscopy showed uniform deposition of the dark eumelanin coating on the template surface without affecting porosity, whereas solid state (13)C NMR and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy confirmed the eumelanin-type character of the coatings. DHI melanin coating was found to confer to TOCNF templates a potent antioxidant activity, as tested by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays as well as strong dye adsorption capacity, as tested on methylene blue. The unprecedented combination of nanostructured cellulose and eumelanin thin films disclosed herein implements an original all-natural multifunctional aerogel biomaterial realized via an innovative coating methodology. PMID:26734842

  13. Nanostructure-based plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for surface analysis of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Song-Yuan; Yi, Jun; Li, Jian-Feng; Ren, Bin; Wu, De-Yin; Panneerselvam, Rajapandiyan; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, there has been an explosion of activity in the field of plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (PERS), including surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) and shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). In this Review, we explore the mechanism of PERS and discuss PERS hotspots — nanoscale regions with a strongly enhanced local electromagnetic field — that allow trace-molecule detection, biomolecule analysis and surface characterization of various materials. In particular, we discuss a new generation of hotspots that are generated from hybrid structures combining PERS-active nanostructures and probe materials, which feature a strong local electromagnetic field on the surface of the probe material. Enhancement of surface Raman signals up to five orders of magnitude can be obtained from materials that are weakly SERS active or SERS inactive. We provide a detailed overview of future research directions in the field of PERS, focusing on new PERS-active nanomaterials and nanostructures and the broad application prospect for materials science and technology.

  14. Laser-induced reaction alumina coating on ceramic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Chenghe

    Silicon carbide ceramics are susceptible to corrosion by certain industrial furnace environments. It is also true for a new class of silicon carbide-particulate reinforced alumina-matrix composite (SiCsb(P)Alsb2Osb3) since it contains more than 55% of SiC particulate within the composite. This behavior would limit the use of SiCsb(P)Alsb2Osb3 composites in ceramic heat exchangers. Because oxide ceramics corrode substantially less in the same environments, a laser-induced reaction alumina coating technique has been developed for improving corrosion resistance of the SiCsb(P)Alsb2Osb3 composite. Specimens with and without the laser-induced reaction alumina coating were subjected to corrosion testing at 1200sp°C in an air atmosphere containing Nasb2COsb3 for 50 ˜ 200 hours. Corroded specimens were characterized via x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The uncoated SiCsbP/Alsb2Osb3 composite samples experienced an initial increase in weight during the exposure to Nasb2COsb3 at 1200sp°C due to the oxidation of residual aluminum metal in the composite. There was no significant weight change difference experienced during exposure times between 50 and 200 hours. The oxidation layer formed on the as-received composite surface consisted of Si and Alsb2Osb3 (after washing with a HF solution). The oxidation layer grew outward and inward from the original surface of the composite. The growth rate in the outward direction was faster than in the inward direction. The formation of the Si/Alsb2Osb3 oxidation layer on the as-received composite was nonuniform, and localized corrosion was observed. The coated samples experienced very little mass increase. The laser-induced reaction alumina coating effectively provided protection for the SiCsbP/Alsb2Osb3 composite by keeping the corrodents from contacting the composite and by the formation of some refractory compounds such as Nasb2OAlsb2Osb3SiOsb2 and Nasb2Alsb{22}Osb

  15. Using Ambient Ion Beams to Write Nanostructured Patterns for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Anyin; Baird, Zane; Bag, Soumabha; Sarkar, Depanjan; Prabhath, Anupama; Pradeep, Thalappil; Cooks, Robert G.

    2014-11-10

    Electrolytic spray deposition was used to pattern surfaces with 2D metallic nanostructures. Spots that contain silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were created by landing solvated silver ions at desired locations using electrically floated masks to focus the metal ions to an area as little as 20 mm in diameter. The AgNPs formed are unprotected and their aggregates can be used for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The morphology and SERS activity of the NP structures were controlled by the surface coverage of landed silver ions. The NP structures created could be used as substrates onto which SERS samples were deposited or prepared directly on top of predeposited samples of interest. The evenly distributed hot spots in the micron-sized aggregates had an average SERS enhancement factor of 108. The surfaces showed SERS activity when using lasers of different wavelengths (532, 633, and 785 nm) and were stable in air.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of large specific surface area nanostructured amorphous silica materials.

    PubMed

    Marquez-Linares, Francisco; Roque-Malherbe, Rolando M A

    2006-04-01

    Large specific surface area materials attract wide attention because of their applications in adsorption, catalysis, and nanotechnology. In the present study, we describe the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured amorphous silica materials. These materials were obtained by means of a modification of the Stobe-Fink-Bohn (SFB) method. The morphology and essential features of the synthesized materials have been studied using an automated surface area and pore size analyzer and scanning electron microscopy. The existence of a micro/mesoporous structure in the obtained materials has been established. It was also found that the obtained particle packing materials show large specific surface area up to 1,600 m2/g. (To our best knowledge, there is no any reported amorphous silica material with such a higher specific surface area.) The obtained materials could be useful in the manufacture of adsorbents, catalyst supports, and other nanotechnological applications. PMID:16736774

  17. Highly efficient industrial large-area black silicon solar cells achieved by surface nanostructured modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Wei, Yi; Zhao, Zengchao; Tan, Xin; Bian, Jiming; Wang, Yuxuan; Lu, Chunxi; Liu, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Traditional black silicon solar cells show relatively low efficiencies due to the high surface recombination occurring at the front surfaces. In this paper, we present a surface modification process to suppress surface recombination and fabricate highly efficient industrial black silicon solar cells. The Ag-nanoparticle-assisted etching is applied to realize front surface nanostructures on silicon wafers in order to reduce the surface reflectance. Through a further tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment, the carrier recombination at and near the surface is greatly suppressed, due to a lower surface dopant concentration after the surface modification. This modified surface presents a low reflectivity in a range of 350-1100 nm. Large-area solar cells with an average conversion efficiency of 19.03% are achieved by using the TMAH treatment of 30 s. This efficiency is 0.18% higher than that of standard silicon solar cells with pyramidal surfaces, and also a remarkable improvement compared with black silicon solar cells without TMAH modifications.

  18. Kinetics of optically excited charge carriers at the GaN surface: Influence of catalytic Pt nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnerl, Andrea; Pereira, Rui N.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we use GaN with different deposited Pt nanostructures as a controllable model system to investigate the kinetics of photo-generated charge carriers in hybrid photocatalysts. We combine conductance and contact potential difference measurements to investigate the influence of Pt on the processes involved in the capture and decay of photo-generated charge carriers at and close to the GaN surface. We found that in the presence of Pt nanostructures the photo-excitation processes are similar to those found in Pt free GaN. However, in GaN with Pt nanostructures, photo-generated holes are preferentially trapped in surface states of the GaN covered with Pt and/or in electronic states of the Pt and lead to an accumulation of positive charge there, whereas negative charge is accumulated in localized states in a shallow defect band of the GaN covered with Pt. This preferential accumulation of photo-generated electrons close to the surface is responsible for a dramatic acceleration of the turn-off charge transfer kinetics and a stronger dependence of the surface photovoltage on light intensity when compared to a Pt free GaN surface. Our study shows that in hybrid photocatalysts, the metal nanostructures induce a spatially inhomogeneous surface band bending of the semiconductor that promotes a lateral drift of photogenerated charges towards the catalytic nanostructures.

  19. Kinetics of optically excited charge carriers at the GaN surface: Influence of catalytic Pt nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Winnerl, Andrea Pereira, Rui N.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2015-10-21

    In this work, we use GaN with different deposited Pt nanostructures as a controllable model system to investigate the kinetics of photo-generated charge carriers in hybrid photocatalysts. We combine conductance and contact potential difference measurements to investigate the influence of Pt on the processes involved in the capture and decay of photo-generated charge carriers at and close to the GaN surface. We found that in the presence of Pt nanostructures the photo-excitation processes are similar to those found in Pt free GaN. However, in GaN with Pt nanostructures, photo-generated holes are preferentially trapped in surface states of the GaN covered with Pt and/or in electronic states of the Pt and lead to an accumulation of positive charge there, whereas negative charge is accumulated in localized states in a shallow defect band of the GaN covered with Pt. This preferential accumulation of photo-generated electrons close to the surface is responsible for a dramatic acceleration of the turn-off charge transfer kinetics and a stronger dependence of the surface photovoltage on light intensity when compared to a Pt free GaN surface. Our study shows that in hybrid photocatalysts, the metal nanostructures induce a spatially inhomogeneous surface band bending of the semiconductor that promotes a lateral drift of photogenerated charges towards the catalytic nanostructures.

  20. Ordered arrays of polymeric nanopores by using inverse nanostructured PTFE surfaces.

    PubMed

    Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol; del Campo, Adolfo; Reinosa, Julián J; Fernández, José Francisco

    2012-09-28

    We present a simple, efficient, and high-throughput methodology for the fabrication of ordered nanoporous polymeric surfaces with areas in the range of cm(2). The procedure is based on a two-stage replication of a master nanostructured pattern. The process starts with the preparation of an ordered array of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) free-standing nanopillars by wetting self-ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide templates with molten PTFE. The nanopillars are 120 nm in diameter and approximately 350 nm long, while the array extends over cm(2). The PTFE nanostructuring process induces surface hydrocarbonation of the nanopillars, as revealed by confocal Raman microscopy/spectroscopy, which enhances the wettability of the originally hydrophobic material and facilitates its subsequent use as an inverse pattern. Thus, the PTFE nanostructure is then used as a negative master for the fabrication of macroscopic hexagonal arrays of nanopores composed of biocompatible poly(vinylalcohol). In this particular case, the nanopores are 130-140 nm in diameter and the interpore distance is around 430 nm. Features of such characteristic dimensions are known to be easily recognized by living cells. Moreover, the inverse mold is not destroyed in the pore array demolding process and can be reused for further pore array fabrication. Therefore, the developed method allows the high-throughput production of cm(2)-scale biocompatible nanoporous surfaces that could be interesting as two-dimensional scaffolds for tissue repair or wound healing. Moreover, our approach can be extrapolated to the fabrication of almost any polymer and biopolymer ordered pore array. PMID:22948375

  1. Surface engineering of aluminum alloys for automotive engine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, S.; Dahotre, Narendra B.; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2004-01-01

    The modification and refinement of surface and subsurface microstructure in Al-Si-based cast alloys via laser-induced rapid solidification can create a natural topography suitable for engine applications. The differential wear of the soft aluminum phase, hard silicon, and CuAl in the cell, along with the divorced eutectic nanostructure in the intercellular region, is expected to produce and replenish microfluidic channels and pits for efficient oil retention, spreading, and lubrication.

  2. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Nanostructured diamond film deposition on curved surfaces of metallic temporomandibular joint implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fries, Marc D.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2002-10-01

    Microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition of nanostructured diamond films was carried out on curved surfaces of Ti-6Al-4V alloy machined to simulate the shape of a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dental implant. Raman spectroscopy shows that the deposited films are uniform in chemical composition along the radius of curvature of the TMJ condyle. Thin film x-ray diffraction reveals an interfacial carbide layer and nanocrystalline diamond grains in this coating. Nanoindentation hardness measurements show an ultra-hard coating with a hardness value of 60+/-5 GPa averaged over three samples.

  3. Rayleigh surface waves, phonon mode conversion, and thermal transport in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Leon; Knezevic, Irena

    We study the effects of phonon mode conversion and Rayleigh (surface) waves on thermal transport in nanostructures. We present a technique to calculate thermal conductivity in the elastic-solid approximation: a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution of the elastic or scalar wave equations combined with the Green-Kubo formula. The technique is similar to an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, captures phonon wave behavior, and scales well to nanostructures that are too large to simulate with many other techniques. By imposing fixed or free boundary conditions, we can selectively turn off mode conversion and Rayleigh waves to study their effects. In the example case of graphenelike nanoribbons with rough edges, we find that mode conversion among bulk modes has little effect on thermal transport, but that conversion between bulk and Rayleigh waves can significantly reduce thermal conductivity. With increasing surface disorder, Rayleigh waves readily become trapped by the disorder and draw energy away from the propagating bulk modes, which lowers thermal conductivity. We discuss the implications on the accuracy of popular phonon-surface scattering models that stem from scalar wave equations and cannot capture mode conversion to Rayleigh waves.

  4. Nanostructured surfaces by supramolecular self-assembly of linear oligosilsesquioxanes with biocompatible side groups

    PubMed Central

    Nowacka, Maria; Makowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Summary Linear oligomeric silsesquioxanes with polar side moieties (e.g., carboxylic groups and derivatives of N-acetylcysteine, cysteine hydrochloride or glutathione) can form specific, self-assembled nanostructures when deposited on mica by dip coating. The mechanism of adsorption is based on molecule-to-substrate interactions between carboxylic groups and mica. Intermolecular cross-linking by hydrogen bonds was also observed due to the donor–acceptor character of the functional groups. The texture of supramolecular nanostructures formed by the studied materials on mica was analysed with atomic force microscopy and their specific surface energy was estimated by contact angle measurements. Significant differences in the surface roughness, thickness and the arrangement of macromolecules were noted depending on the kind of functional groups on the side chains. Specific changes in the morphology of the surface layer were observed when mica was primed with a monolayer of small organic compounds (e.g., N-acetylcysteine, citric acid, thioglycolic or acid). The adsorption of both silsesquioxane oligomers and organic primers was confirmed with attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. The observed physiochemical and textural variations in the adsorbed materials correlate with the differences in the chemical structure of the applied oligomers and primers. PMID:26734528

  5. Anisotropic Quantum Confinement Effect and Electric Control of Surface States in Dirac Semimetal Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xianbo; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Liu, Zhengfang; Li, Huili; Zhou, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of Dirac semimetals represents a new achievement in our fundamental understanding of topological states of matter. Due to their topological surface states, high mobility, and exotic properties associated with bulk Dirac points, these new materials have attracted significant attention and are believed to hold great promise for fabricating novel topological devices. For nanoscale device applications, effects from finite size usually play an important role. In this report, we theoretically investigate the electronic properties of Dirac semimetal nanostructures. Quantum confinement generally opens a bulk band gap at the Dirac points. We find that confinement along different directions shows strong anisotropic effects. In particular, the gap due to confinement along vertical c-axis shows a periodic modulation, which is absent for confinement along horizontal directions. We demonstrate that the topological surface states could be controlled by lateral electrostatic gating. It is possible to generate Rashba-like spin splitting for the surface states and to shift them relative to the confinement-induced bulk gap. These results will not only facilitate our fundamental understanding of Dirac semimetal nanostructures, but also provide useful guidance for designing all-electrical topological spintronics devices. PMID:25600392

  6. Role of Resonances in the Transmission of Surface Plasmon Polaritons between Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Johns, Paul; Yu, Kuai; Devadas, Mary Sajini; Hartland, Gregory V

    2016-03-22

    Understanding how surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagate in metal nanostructures is important for the development of plasmonic devices. In this paper, we study the transmission of SPPs between single-crystal gold nanobars on a glass substrate using transient absorption microscopy. The coupled structures were produced by creating gaps in single nanobars by focused ion beam milling. SPPs were launched by focusing the pump laser at the end of the nanobar, and the transmission across the gaps was imaged by scanning the probe laser over the nanostructure. The results show larger losses at small gap sizes. Finite element method calculations were used to investigate this effect. The calculations show two main modes for nanobars on a glass surface: a leaky mode localized at the air-gold interface, and a bound mode localized at the glass-gold interface. At specific gap sizes (approximately 50 nm for our system), these SPP modes can excite localized surface plasmon modes associated with the gap, which dissipate energy. This increases the energy losses at small gap sizes. Experiments and simulations were also performed for the nanobars in microscope immersion oil, which creates a more homogeneous optical environment, and consistent results were observed. PMID:26866536

  7. Radioactive contamination screening with laser-induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Sheely, R.; Di Benedetto, J.

    1994-06-01

    The ability to induce, detect and discriminate fluorescence of uranium oxides makes available new capabilities for screening the surface of large complex facilities for uranium. This paper will present the results of field tests evaluate laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) as a contamination screening tool and report on the progress to produce a field portable instrument for uranium surveys on exposed surfaces. The principal effect is to illuminate the surface of an object or an area with a remotely-located light source, and to evaluate the re-radiated emission energy. A gated intensified CCD camera was used with ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation to discriminate the phosphorescent (persistent) green uranium emission from the prompt background fluorescence which results from excitation of plants, concrete, soils, and other background materials.

  8. Control and understanding of the formation of micro/nanostructured metal surfaces using femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhlke, Craig A.

    An application of femtosecond lasers that has developed, in recent years, is the functionalization of surfaces. With femtosecond laser ablation micro and nano-scale features can be created in a single step without affecting the bulk material. In this dissertation micro/nanostructuring of metal surfaces, specifically nickel and SS316, was carried out using femtosecond laser pulses. By varying the fluence (between 0.01 and 3.18 J/cm2), and pulse count (between 1 and 20,000 pulses) incident on the metal surface, a number of surface morphologies were produced. It was demonstrated that a number of these morphologies can be separated in regions based on fluence and shot number. The effects of other parameters were studied in less detail, including: polarization, stationary versus rastering pulses, atmosphere during processing (processing in nitrogen and oxygen), and lens aberrations. Two morphologies from femtosecond laser ablation of metals are demonstrated for the first time: spike shaped microstructures that have peaks above the original surface, and pyramid shaped structures (with a much lower aspect ratio than commonly published morphologies) covered in thick layers of nanoparticles. Similarities and differences are shown between the commonly published relief structures, with a blunt, round top (mounds) and the protruding spikes. This work shows that the morphologies are formed through a balance between fluid flow, nanoparticle/material redeposition and preferential etching. It can be observed by watching the development of individual microstructures with increasing pulse count, what role each of these processes plays in their development. Mounds, spikes, and pyramids each have a different balance of these processes, leading to the uniqueness of each morphology. As an application of these processes, studies were completed to utilize the high surface areas of these micro/nanostructures to produce ultracapacitor electrodes. This proved to be challenging, due to the

  9. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sidra; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Faizan-ul-Haq

    2013-07-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (λ ˜ 1064 nm, τ ˜ 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO2: N2: He), O2, N2, and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis.

  10. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Sidra; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Faizan–ul-Haq

    2013-07-15

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (λ∼ 1064 nm, τ∼ 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO{sub 2}: N{sub 2}: He), O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis.

  11. Enhancement of infrared absorption of low-temperature uracil thin films by a nanostructured silver surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. Yu.; Stepanian, S. G.; Adamowicz, L.; Karachevtsev, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    Enhancement of infrared absorption (SEIRA) of adsorbed biological molecules by a nanostructured metal surface is one of the main routes to increasing the sensitivity of modern optical biosensors. The FTIR absorption spectra of thin films of the RNA base uracil deposited on low-temperature substrate (T = 6 K) with nanoscale silver structures were investigated in the spectral range 2700-600 cm-1. It was shown that the intensity of the absorption bands corresponding to νCO stretching vibrations (range 1800-1600 cm-1) of uracil (Ur) thin films increases 3-4 fold. For multilayer films, the influence of the nanostructures on the vibrational spectra weakens, and for the film layers more than 15 nm away from the surface, the enhancement is essentially absent. The energies and the vibrational spectra of the complexes of uracil monomers and dimers with 20-atom tetrahedral silver nanoclusters were calculated by the quantum-mechanical method DFT/B3LYP. The most stable complexes have the coordination bond between the top of the silver tetrahedron and the oxygen of the carbonyl group C4O. It was found that the formation of such complexes significantly (3-5 fold) enhances the intensity of the νC4O stretching vibration of uracil, while the intensities of the βNH, βCH and ring bending vibrations do not increase significantly.

  12. MBE fabrication of self-assembled Si and metal nanostructures on Si surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Galiana, Natalia; Martin, Pedro-Pablo; Munuera, Carmen; Varela del Arco, Maria; Soria, Federico; Ocal, Carmen; Ruiz, Ana; Alonso, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Two types of fairly regular distributions of Si nanostructures, of interest as templates to grow spatially controlled ensembles of metal (Co, Fe, Ag, etc.) nanostructures, are presented in this paper. Both of them are achieved by self-assembling processes during Si homoepitaxy. One corresponds to films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Si(0 0 1)-2 x 1 surfaces with low (<1 degree) miscut angles. In this case, arrays of 3D Si-islands displaying well defined pyramid-like shapes can be obtained, as evidenced by Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). Such arrays exhibit strong similarities with those reported for Ge and SiGe islands on Si(0 0 1), and may thus serve as a simpler route to produce ordered distributions of metallic nanodots. On the other hand, on Si(1 1 1)-7 x 7 vicinal substrates misoriented 4 degrees toward the View the MathML source direction, step rearrangement during homoepitaxy permits to produce nanopatterned surfaces, the building-blocks of which are triangular (1 1 1) platforms, with lateral dimensions of hundreds of nanometers, bound by step bunches about 30 nm high. Furthermore, different Ag deposition experiments support this spontaneous patterning on Si(1 1 1) as a promising approach to achieve regular distributions of metallic nanocrystals with an overall homogeneity in sizes, shapes and spacing.

  13. Transient analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on plasmonic nanostructures using a surface integral equation solver.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ismail E; Arda Ülkü, H; Bağci, Hakan

    2016-09-01

    Transient electromagnetic interactions on plasmonic nanostructures are analyzed by solving the Poggio-Miller-Chan-Harrington-Wu-Tsai (PMCHWT) surface integral equation (SIE). Equivalent (unknown) electric and magnetic current densities, which are introduced on the surfaces of the nanostructures, are expanded using Rao-Wilton-Glisson and polynomial basis functions in space and time, respectively. Inserting this expansion into the PMCHWT-SIE and Galerkin testing the resulting equation at discrete times yield a system of equations that is solved for the current expansion coefficients by a marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme. The resulting MOT-PMCHWT-SIE solver calls for computation of additional convolutions between the temporal basis function and the plasmonic medium's permittivity and Green function. This computation is carried out with almost no additional cost and without changing the computational complexity of the solver. Time-domain samples of the permittivity and the Green function required by these convolutions are obtained from their frequency-domain samples using a fast relaxed vector fitting algorithm. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the proposed MOT-PMCHWT solver. PMID:27607496

  14. Surface design and engineering of hierarchical hybrid nanostructures for asymmetric supercapacitors with improved electrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Achilleos, Demetra S; Hatton, T Alan

    2015-06-01

    With the current rising world demand for energy sufficiency, there is an increased necessity for the development of efficient energy storage devices. To address these needs, the scientific community has focused on the improvement of the electrochemical properties of the most well known energy storage devices; the Li-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors. Despite the fact that supercapacitors exhibit high power densities, good reversibility and long cycle life, they still exhibit lower energy densities than batteries, which limit their practical application. Various strategies have been employed to circumvent this problem, specifically targetting an increase in the specific capacitance and the broadening of the potential window of operation of these systems. In recent years, sophisticated surface design and engineering of hierarchical hybrid nanostructures has facilitated significant improvements in the specific and volumetric storage capabilities of supercapacitors. These nanostructured electrodes exhibit higher surface areas for ion adsorption and reduced ion diffusion lengths for the electrolyte ions. Significant advances have also been achieved in broadening the electrochemical window of operation of these systems, as realized via the development of asymmetric two-electrode cells consisting of nanocomposite positive and negative electrodes with complementary electrochemical windows, which operate in environmentally benign aqueous media. We provide an overview of the diverse approaches, in terms of chemistry and nanoscale architecture, employed recently for the development of asymmetric supercapacitors of improved electrochemical performance. PMID:25711524

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates fabricated using electroless plating on polymer-templated nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Bantz, Kyle C; Haynes, Christy L

    2008-06-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has great potential as an analytical technique based on the unique molecular signatures presented even by structurally similar analyte species and the minimal interference of scattering from water when sampling in aqueous environments. Unfortunately, analytical SERS applications have been restricted on the basis of limitations in substrate design. Herein, we present a simple SERS substrate that exploits electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle-seeded polymer scaffold that can be fabricated quickly and without specialized equipment. The polymer-templated nanostructures have stable enhancement factors that are comparable to the traditional silver film over nanospheres (AgFON) substrate, broad localized surface plasmon resonance spectra that allow various Raman excitation wavelengths to be utilized, and tolerance for both aqueous and organic environments, even after 5 day exposure. These polymer-templated nanostructures have an advantage over the AgFON substrate based on the ease of fabrication; specifically, the ability to generate fresh SERS substrates outside the laboratory environment will facilitate the application of SERS to new analytical spectroscopy applications. PMID:18461977

  16. Effect of Anti-Sticking Nanostructured Surface Coating on Minimally Invasive Electrosurgical Device in Brain.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Han-Yi; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chiang, Hsi-Jen; Lin, Li-Hsiang

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent of thermal injury in the brain after the use of a minimally invasive electrosurgical device with a nanostructured copper-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC-Cu) surface coating. To effectively utilize an electrosurgical device in clinical surgery, it is important to decrease the thermal injury to the adjacent tissues. The surface characteristics and morphology of DLC-Cu thin film was evaluated using a contact angle goniometer, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Three-dimensional biomedical brain models were reconstructed using magnetic resonance images to simulate the electrosurgical procedure. Results indicated that the temperature was reduced significantly when a minimally invasive electrosurgical device with a DLC-Cu thin film coating (DLC-Cu-SS) was used. Temperatures decreased with the use of devices with increasing film thickness. Thermographic data revealed that surgical temperatures in an animal model were significantly lower with the DLC-Cu-SS electrosurgical device compared to an untreated device. Furthermore, the DLC-Cu-SS device created a relatively small region of injury and lateral thermal range. As described above, the biomedical nanostructured film reduced excessive thermal injury with the use of a minimally invasive electrosurgical device in the brain. PMID:25851468

  17. MBE fabrication of self-assembled Si and metal nanostructures on Si surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiana, Natalia; Martin, Pedro-Pablo; Munuera, Carmen; Varela, María; Soria, Federico; Ocal, Carmen; Ruiz, Ana; Alonso, María

    2006-09-01

    Two types of fairly regular distributions of Si nanostructures, of interest as templates to grow spatially controlled ensembles of metal (Co, Fe, Ag, etc.) nanostructures, are presented in this paper. Both of them are achieved by self-assembling processes during Si homoepitaxy. One corresponds to films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Si(0 0 1)-2 × 1 surfaces with low (<1°) miscut angles. In this case, arrays of 3D Si-islands displaying well defined pyramid-like shapes can be obtained, as evidenced by Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). Such arrays exhibit strong similarities with those reported for Ge and SiGe islands on Si(0 0 1), and may thus serve as a simpler route to produce ordered distributions of metallic nanodots. On the other hand, on Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 vicinal substrates misoriented 4° toward the [1 1 2¯] direction, step rearrangement during homoepitaxy permits to produce nanopatterned surfaces, the building-blocks of which are triangular (1 1 1) platforms, with lateral dimensions of hundreds of nanometers, bound by step bunches about 30 nm high. Furthermore, different Ag deposition experiments support this spontaneous patterning on Si(1 1 1) as a promising approach to achieve regular distributions of metallic nanocrystals with an overall homogeneity in sizes, shapes and spacing.

  18. Plasmonic spectroscopy of metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Weihai

    gap distance between assembled nanorods. Moreover, dye--Au nanorod hybrid nanostructures have also been successfully fabricated for the study of the coupling between the transition dipole resonance and the plasmonic resonance. The coupling-induced plasmon shift is found to be strongly dependent on molecular properties, the dye concentration in solutions, and the spacer thickness between dye molecules and the surface of Au nanorods. The coupling can be switched off by means of laser-induced photodecomposition of dye molecules. Next, I will present my studies on the applications of metallic nanostructures. A SERS substrate has been constructed by assembling silver nanoparticles along silica nanofibers. The enhancement factors are found to be 2 x 10 5 for 4-mercaptobenzoic acid and 4-mercaptophenol, and 7 x 10 7 for rhodamine B isothiocyanate. A novel plasmonic optical fiber device has further been fabricated to detect small changes in the local dielectric environment. For individual Au nanorods, the index sensitivity and figure of merit (FOM) are found to be linearly dependent on the longitudinal plasmon resonance wavelength and reach 200 nm/RIU and 3.8, respectively. For nanorod ensembles, the index sensitivity and FOM of the longitudinal plasmon resonance are found to be 138 nm/RIU and 1.2, respectively. I believe that my research work on the plasmonic spectroscopy of metallic nanostructures has provided an in-depth fundamental understanding of the localized surface plasmon resonance and will have a number of implications for the applications of metallic nanostructures in optics, optoelectronics, and biotechnology.

  19. Enhancing Laser Induced Plasma Emissions using Various Excitation Modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lewis; Akpovo, Charlemagne; Gebreegziabher, Samson; Martinez, Jorge, Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Detection of hazardous materials with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) requires a detailed understanding of the sample matrix as well as the surrounding environment. We report on our efforts to understand and manipulate the continuum and atmospheric levels while enhancing surface and substrate material identifications. Comparisons are made between: single pulse (SP) nanosecond (ns); SP femtosecond (fs); SP fs-self-channeled (fs-sc); Dual pulse (DP) ns; DP ns -- fs; and DP ns fs-sc; and multi--pulse Continuous Wave (CW) plasmas formed on the sample surface. Plasma emission spectra from atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen, as well as aluminum and Copper substrates, and hazardous oxygen and nitrogen rich materials residues are analyzed.

  20. Hydrogen retention in tungsten materials studied by Laser Induced Desorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlobinski, M.; Philipps, V.; Schweer, B.; Huber, A.; Reinhart, M.; Möller, S.; Sergienko, G.; Samm, U.; 't Hoen, M. H. J.; Manhard, A.; Schmid, K.; Textor Team

    2013-07-01

    Development of methods to characterise the first wall in ITER and future fusion devices without removal of wall tiles is important to support safety assessments for tritium retention and dust production and to understand plasma wall processes in general. Laser based techniques are presently under investigation to provide these requirements, among which Laser Induced Desorption Spectroscopy (LIDS) is proposed to measure the deuterium and tritium load of the plasma facing surfaces by thermal desorption and spectroscopic detection of the desorbed fuel in the edge of the fusion plasma. The method relies on its capability to desorb the hydrogen isotopes in a laser heated spot. The application of LID on bulk tungsten targets exposed to a wide range of deuterium fluxes, fluences and impact energies under different surface temperatures is investigated in this paper. The results are compared with Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and a diffusion model.

  1. Direct laser writing of 3D polymer micro/nanostructures on metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekštytė, Sima; Žukauskas, Albertas; Purlys, Vytautas; Gordienko, Yuri; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

    2013-04-01

    Spectra of fields for applications of polymeric 3D micro/nanostructures are rapidly widening thus demanding the development of versatile precise and efficient fabrication methods that can be used to process a variety of materials and could be implemented to form tiny devices on a variety of surfaces without influencing their structural quality. We present the latest results obtained using laser lithography approach: 3D polymeric structures with submicrometer spatial resolution on different opaque surfaces such as semiconductors (Si) and various metals (Cr, Al, Fe and Ti). The photostructuring was performed using a range of photosensitive materials such as acrylate based AKRE23, acrylated biodegradable PEG-DA-258, epoxy based mr-NIL 6000, hybrid organic-inorganic SZ2080 and Ormocore b59.

  2. Direct laser writing of 3D micro/nanostructures on opaque surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekštytė, Sima; Žukauskas, Albertas; Purlys, Vytautas; Gordienko, Yuri; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

    2012-06-01

    Spectra of fields for applications of polymeric 3D micro/nanostructures is rapidly widening thus demanding the development of versatile precise and efficient fabrication methods that can be used to process a variety of materials and could be implemented to form tiny devices on a variety of surfaces without influencing their structural quality. We present the latest results obtained using laser lithography approach: 3D polymeric structures with submicrometer spatial resolution on different opaque surfaces such as semiconductors (Si) and various metals (Cr, Al, Fe, Ti). The photostructuring was performed using a range of photosensitive materials such as acrylate based AKRE23, acrylated biodegradable PEG-DA-258, epoxy based mr-NIL 6000, hybrid organic-inorganic SZ2080 and Ormocore b59.

  3. Mechanism behind the surface evolution and microstructure changes of laser fabricated nanostructured carbon composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foong, Y. M.; Koh, A. T. T.; Ng, H. Y.; Chua, D. H. C.

    2011-09-01

    Many studies have shown that amorphous carbon films with reduced internal stress, improved adhesion strength, and diversified material properties are obtainable through doping process, but the presence of dopants was reported to promote surface evolution and alter the microstructures of carbon matrix. By combining analyses from experimental results and theoretical estimations, this work examines the mechanism behind the surface evolution and microstructural changes in laser fabricated nanostructured copper-carbon composite. We showed that the presence of metal ions during laser deposition increased the heat dissipation on carbon matrix, which enhanced the formation of nanoislands but graphitized the carbon matrix. In addition, theoretical estimations and XPS hinted that the presence of energetic species may force the carbon ions to react with the substrate interface and form silicon carbide bonds, which contributed to the improved adhesion strength observed in copper doped carbon films, along with a reduction in internal stress owing to the presence of nanoclusters.

  4. Surface enhanced fluorescence from corroles and SERS studies of explosives using copper nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Syed; Krishna Podagatlapalli, G.; Ahamad Mohiddon, Md.; Venugopal Rao, S.

    2015-02-01

    We report the deployment of complex copper nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures (NSs), fabricated in a single step by ultrafast laser ablation of copper (Cu) in corroles/chloroform solutions, for surface enhanced fluorescence and surface enhanced Raman scattering studies (SERS). The characterization was performed by TEM, SAED, UV-visible absorption, and SEM techniques. Florescence enhancement of five orders in magnitude was obtained from corroles conjugated to Cu complex NPs. Cu NSs were utilized to record the SERS spectra of adsorbed Rhodamine 6G and explosive molecules of 5-amino-3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole and 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene. The estimated enhancement factors were in the range of 106-108.

  5. Rapid, controllable growth of silver nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates for red blood cell detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Tian, Xueli; Yin, Jun; Liu, Yu; Dong, Zhanmin; Sun, Jia-Lin; Ma, Wanyun

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanostructured films suitable for use as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates are prepared in just 2 hours by the solid-state ionics method. By changing the intensity of the external direct current, we can readily control the surface morphology and growth rate of the silver nanostructured films. A detailed investigation of the surface enhancement of the silver nanostructured films using Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a molecular probe revealed that the enhancement factor of the films was up to 1011. We used the silver nanostructured films as substrates in SERS detection of human red blood cells (RBCs). The SERS spectra of RBCs on the silver nanostructured film could be clearly detected at a laser power of just 0.05 mW. Comparison of the SERS spectra of RBCs obtained from younger and older donors showed that the SERS spectra depended on donor age. A greater proportion of the haemoglobin in the RBCs of older donors was in the deoxygenated state than that of the younger donors. This implies that haemoglobin of older people has lower oxygen-carrying capacity than that of younger people. Overall, the fabricated silver substrates show promise in biomedical SERS spectral detection. PMID:27094084

  6. Rapid, controllable growth of silver nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates for red blood cell detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu; Tian, Xueli; Yin, Jun; Liu, Yu; Dong, Zhanmin; Sun, Jia-Lin; Ma, Wanyun

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanostructured films suitable for use as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates are prepared in just 2 hours by the solid-state ionics method. By changing the intensity of the external direct current, we can readily control the surface morphology and growth rate of the silver nanostructured films. A detailed investigation of the surface enhancement of the silver nanostructured films using Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a molecular probe revealed that the enhancement factor of the films was up to 1011. We used the silver nanostructured films as substrates in SERS detection of human red blood cells (RBCs). The SERS spectra of RBCs on the silver nanostructured film could be clearly detected at a laser power of just 0.05 mW. Comparison of the SERS spectra of RBCs obtained from younger and older donors showed that the SERS spectra depended on donor age. A greater proportion of the haemoglobin in the RBCs of older donors was in the deoxygenated state than that of the younger donors. This implies that haemoglobin of older people has lower oxygen-carrying capacity than that of younger people. Overall, the fabricated silver substrates show promise in biomedical SERS spectral detection.

  7. Rapid, controllable growth of silver nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates for red blood cell detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Tian, Xueli; Yin, Jun; Liu, Yu; Dong, Zhanmin; Sun, Jia-Lin; Ma, Wanyun

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanostructured films suitable for use as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates are prepared in just 2 hours by the solid-state ionics method. By changing the intensity of the external direct current, we can readily control the surface morphology and growth rate of the silver nanostructured films. A detailed investigation of the surface enhancement of the silver nanostructured films using Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a molecular probe revealed that the enhancement factor of the films was up to 10(11). We used the silver nanostructured films as substrates in SERS detection of human red blood cells (RBCs). The SERS spectra of RBCs on the silver nanostructured film could be clearly detected at a laser power of just 0.05 mW. Comparison of the SERS spectra of RBCs obtained from younger and older donors showed that the SERS spectra depended on donor age. A greater proportion of the haemoglobin in the RBCs of older donors was in the deoxygenated state than that of the younger donors. This implies that haemoglobin of older people has lower oxygen-carrying capacity than that of younger people. Overall, the fabricated silver substrates show promise in biomedical SERS spectral detection. PMID:27094084

  8. Topographic characterization of the self-assembled nanostructures of chitosan on mica surface by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Wu, Jiafeng; Guo, Yan; Gong, Coucong; Song, Yonghai

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the self-assembled nanostructures of chitosan on mica surface formed from various solvents were investigated by using atomic force microscopy. The effects of various factors on the self-assembled nanostructures of chitosan on mica surface, including solvents, the concentration of chitosan, the pH of solution and the drying temperature, were explored in detail. Our experimental data resulted in the conclusion that chitosan molecules could self-assemble on mica surface to form various nanostructures such as nanoparticles, fibril and film. Nanoparticles were always formed on mica surface from CCl4, C6H6, CH2Cl2 solution, fibril preferred to form on mica surface from CH3CH2OH and CH3OH solution and the optimal solvent to form film was found to be CH3CN. Low concentration, pH and temperature were helpful for the formation of nanoparticles, medium concentration, pH and temperature resulted in fibril and high concentration, pH and temperature were often beneficial to forming chitosan films. The study of self-assembled nanostructures of chitosan on mica surface would provide new insight into the development of chitosan-based load-bearing materials.

  9. Dropwise Evaporative Cooling of Heated Surfaces with Various Wettability Characteristics Obtained by Nanostructure Modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-nan; Zhang, Zhen; Ouyang, Xiao-long; Jiang, Pei-xue

    2016-03-01

    A numerical and experimental investigation was conducted to analyze dropwise evaporative cooling of heated surfaces with various wettability characteristics. The surface wettability was tuned by nanostructure modifications. Spray-cooling experiments on these surfaces show that surfaces with better wettability have better heat transfer rate and higher critical heat flux (CHF). Single droplet impingement evaporative cooling of a heated surface was then investigated numerically with various wettability conditions to characterize the effect of contact angle on spray-cooling heat transfer. The volume of fluid (VOF) model with variable-time stepping was used to capture the time-dependent liquid-gas interface motion throughout the computational domain with the kinetic theory model used to predict the evaporation rate at the liquid-gas interface. The numerical results agree with the spray-cooling experiments that dropwise evaporative cooling is much better on surfaces with better wettability because of the better liquid spreading and convection, better liquid-solid contact, and stronger liquid evaporation.

  10. Solid-State Synthesized Nanostructured Au Dendritic Aggregates Towards Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, A.; Ruffino, F.; D'Andrea, C.; Gucciardi, P. G.; Reitano, R.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2016-06-01

    Micrometric Au structures, presenting a dendritic nano-structure, have been fabricated on a Si-based substrate. The fabrication method involves the deposition of a thin Au film on the substrate and a high-temperature annealing (1100°C) using fast heating and cooling ramps. The thermal process produces the growth, from the substrate, of Si micro-pillars whose top surfaces, covered by a crystalline Au layer, present a nanodendritic morphology. In addition to the micro-pillars, the sample surface presents a complex structural and chemical composition including Si3N4 regions due to the silicon-nitrogen intermixing during the heating stage. By studying the kinetic processes at the Au-Si interface during the thermal treatment, we describe the stages involved in the micro-pillars growth, in the dendritic morphology development, and in the Au atoms entrapment at the top of the dendritic surfaces. Finally, we present the analyses of the optical and surface enhanced Raman scattering properties of the Au dendritic aggregates. We show, in particular, that: (1) the Au dendrites aggregates act as effective scattering elements for the electromagnetic radiation in the infrared spectral region; and (2) the higher surface area due to the branched dendritic structure is responsible for the improvement in the sensitivity of the surface enhanced Raman scattering activity.

  11. Dropwise Evaporative Cooling of Heated Surfaces with Various Wettability Characteristics Obtained by Nanostructure Modifications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Zhen; Ouyang, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Pei-Xue

    2016-12-01

    A numerical and experimental investigation was conducted to analyze dropwise evaporative cooling of heated surfaces with various wettability characteristics. The surface wettability was tuned by nanostructure modifications. Spray-cooling experiments on these surfaces show that surfaces with better wettability have better heat transfer rate and higher critical heat flux (CHF). Single droplet impingement evaporative cooling of a heated surface was then investigated numerically with various wettability conditions to characterize the effect of contact angle on spray-cooling heat transfer. The volume of fluid (VOF) model with variable-time stepping was used to capture the time-dependent liquid-gas interface motion throughout the computational domain with the kinetic theory model used to predict the evaporation rate at the liquid-gas interface. The numerical results agree with the spray-cooling experiments that dropwise evaporative cooling is much better on surfaces with better wettability because of the better liquid spreading and convection, better liquid-solid contact, and stronger liquid evaporation. PMID:27003427

  12. Osteogenic response and osteoprotective effects in vivo of a nanostructured titanium surface with antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Ravanetti, F; Chiesa, R; Ossiprandi, M C; Gazza, F; Farina, V; Martini, F M; Di Lecce, R; Gnudi, G; Della Valle, C; Gavini, J; Cacchioli, A

    2016-03-01

    In implantology, as an alternative approach to the use of antibiotics, direct surface modifications of the implant addressed to inhibit bacterial adhesion and to limit bacterial proliferation are a promising tactic. The present study evaluates in an in vivo normal model the osteogenic response and the osteointegration of an anodic spark deposition nanostructured titanium surface doped with gallium (ASD + Ga) in comparison with two other surface treatments of titanium: an anodic spark deposition treatment without gallium (ASD) and an acid etching treatment (CTR). Moreover the study assesses the osteoprotective potential and the antibacterial effect of the previously mentioned surface treatments in an experimentally-induced peri-implantitis model. The obtained data points out a more rapid primary fixation in ASD and ASD + Ga implants, compared with CTR surface. Regarding the antibacterial properties, the ASD + Ga surface shows osteoprotective action on bone peri-implant tissue in vivo as well as an antibacterial effect within the first considered time point. PMID:26787484

  13. Kinetic Approach for Laser-Induced Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, Banaz; Rethfeld, Baerbel

    2008-10-22

    Non-equilibrium distribution functions of electron gas and phonon gas excited with ultrashort intense laser pulses are calculated for laser-induced plasmas occurring in solids. The excitation during femtosecond irradiation and the subsequent thermalization of the free electrons, as well as the dynamics of phonons are described by kinetic equations. The microscopic collision processes, such as absorption by inverse bremsstrahlung, electron-electron collisions, and electron-phonon interactions are considered by complete Boltzmann collision integrals. We apply our kinetic approach for gold by taking s-band electron into account and compare it with the case of excitation of d-band electrons.

  14. Modeling of Laser-Induced Metal Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C D; Rubenchik, A M

    2008-02-20

    Experiments involving the interaction of a high-power laser beam with metal targets demonstrate that combustion plays an important role. This process depends on reactions within an oxide layer, together with oxygenation and removal of this layer by the wind. We present an analytical model of laser-induced combustion. The model predicts the threshold for initiation of combustion, the growth of the combustion layer with time, and the threshold for self-supported combustion. Solutions are compared with detailed numerical modeling as benchmarked by laboratory experiments.

  15. Ion beam sputtered nanostructured semiconductor surfaces as templates for nanomagnet arrays.

    PubMed

    Teichert, C; de Miguel, J J; Bobek, T

    2009-06-01

    The ongoing tendency for increasing the storage densities in magnetic recording techniques requires a search for efficient routes to fabricate and characterize nanomagnet arrays on solid supports. Spontaneous pattern formation in semiconductor heteroepitaxy or under ion erosion of semiconductor surfaces yields nanostructured substrates that can serve as templates for subsequent deposition of magnetic material. The nanostructured morphology of the template can easily be replicated into the magnetic coating by means of the shadow deposition technique which allows one to selectively cover specific areas of the template with magnetic material. Here, we demonstrate that ion bombardment induced hexagonally arranged GaSb dots are suitable templates for fabricating by shadow deposition close-packed nanomagnets with a lateral extension of ≤50 nm, i.e. with a resulting storage density of up to 0.2 Tbit in(-2). Magnetic-force microscopy (MFM) measurements revealed that the individual nanomagnets-which are located on the tops of the semiconductor hillocks-are single domain and show mainly independent magnetization. The coupling behaviour was estimated from correlation function analysis of the MFM data. In addition, magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements demonstrate that the nanomagnets can be magnetized either out-of-plane or in-plane and show remanence at room temperature, with a coercive field of 120 mT. PMID:21715763

  16. Interaction of extreme ultraviolet laser radiation with solid surface: ablation, desorption, nanostructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolacek, Karel; Schmidt, Jiri; Straus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr; Juha, Libor; Chalupsky, Jaromir

    2015-02-01

    The area, where interaction of focused XUV laser radiation with solid surface takes place, can be divided according to local fluency into desorption region (if fluency is larger than zero and smaller than ablation threshold) and ablation region (if fluency is equal or larger than this threshold). It turned out that a direct nanostructuring (e.g. imprinting diffraction pattern created on edges of windows of proximity standing grid) is possible in the desorption region only. While for femtosecond pulses the particle (atom/molecule) removal-efficiency η in the desorption region is very small (η < 10%), and hence, it can be easily distinguished from the ablation region with η ~ 100%, for nanosecond pulses in desorption region this η rises at easily ablated materials from 0% at the periphery up to ~90% at the ablation contour and, therefore, the boundary between these two regions can be found with the help of nanostructuring only. This rise of removal efficiency could be explained by gradually increased penetration depth (due to gradually removed material) during laser pulse. This is a warning against blind using crater shape for fluency mapping in the case of long laser pulses. On the other hand it is a motivation to study an ablation plum (or ablation jet) and to create a knowledge bank to be used at future numerical modeling of this process.

  17. Surface morphology, tribological properties and in vitro biocompatibility of nanostructured zirconia thin films.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, M; Gambardella, A; Berni, M; Panseri, S; Montesi, M; Lopomo, N; Tampieri, A; Marcacci, M; Russo, A

    2016-05-01

    Deposition of nanostructured and low-wear zirconia (ZrO2) thin films on the metallic component of a total joint implant is envisaged to reduce wear of the soft ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) counterpart. In this work, morphological surface features, wear resistance and in vitro-biocompatibility of zirconia thin films deposited by the novel Pulsed Plasma Deposition (PPD) method have been investigated. Film thickness, roughness and wettability were found to be strongly dependent on deposition gas pressure. Interestingly, wear rate of UHMWPE disks coupled to zirconia-coated titanium spheres was only poorly correlated to the contact angle values, while film roughness and thickness seemed not to affect it. Furthermore, wear of UHMWPE, when coupled with zirconia coated-titanium spheres, significantly decreased with respect to uncoated spheres under dry or NaCl-lubricated conditions; besides, when using bovine serum, similar results were obtained for coated and uncoated spheres. Finally, suitable mesenchymal stem and osteoblast cells adhesion, proliferation and viability were observed, suggesting good biocompatibility of the nanostructured zirconia films. Taken together, the results shown in this work indicate that zirconia thin films deposited by the PPD method deserve further investigations as low-wear materials for biomedical applications such as total joint replacement. PMID:27003838

  18. Nanostructural surface engineering of grafted polymers on inorganic oxide substrates for membrane separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Wayne Hiroshi

    Nanostructural engineering of inorganic substrates by free radical graft polymerization was studied with the goal of developing new membrane materials for pervaporation. Graft polymerization consisted of modification of surface hydroxyls with vinyl trimethoxysilane, followed by solution graft polymerization reaction using either vinyl acetate (VAc) or vinyl pyrrolidone (VP). The topology of the modified surfaces was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) on both atomically smooth silicon wafer substrates and microporous inorganic membrane supports in order to deduce the effects of modification on the nanostructural properties of the membrane. While unmodified wafers showed a root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of 0.21 +/- 0.03 nm, roughness increased to 3.15 +/- 0.23 nm upon silylation. Under poor solvent conditions (i.e., air), surfaces modified with higher poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) or poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) polymer graft yields displayed lateral inhomogeneities in the polymer layer. Although RMS surface roughness was nearly identical (0.81--0.85 nm) for PVAc-modified surfaces grafted at different monomer concentrations, the skewness of the height distribution decreased from 2.22 to 0.78 as polymer graft yield increased from 0.8 to 3.5 mg/m2. The polymer-modified surfaces were used to create inorganic pervaporation membranes consisting of a single macromolecular separation layer formed by graft polymerization. PVAc grafted silica membranes (500A native pore size) were found selective for MTBE in the separation of 0.1--1% (v/v) MTBE from water, achieving MTBE enrichment factors as high as 371 at a permeate flux of 0.38 l/m2 hr and a Reynolds number of 6390; however, these membranes could not separate anhydrous organic mixtures. Pervaporative separation of methanol/MTBE mixtures was possible with PVAc and PVP-modified alumina supports of 50A native pore size, where the separation layer consisted of grafted polymer chains with estimated radius of

  19. A new systematic and quantitative approach to characterization of surface nanostructures using fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mousa, Amjed A.

    Thin films are essential constituents of modern electronic devices and have a multitude of applications in such devices. The impact of the surface morphology of thin films on the device characteristics where these films are used has generated substantial attention to advanced film characterization techniques. In this work, we present a new approach to characterize surface nanostructures of thin films by focusing on isolating nanostructures and extracting quantitative information, such as the shape and size of the structures. This methodology is applicable to any Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) data, such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) data which we are presenting here. The methodology starts by compensating the AFM data for some specific classes of measurement artifacts. After that, the methodology employs two distinct techniques. The first, which we call the overlay technique, proceeds by systematically processing the raster data that constitute the scanning probe image in both vertical and horizontal directions. It then proceeds by classifying points in each direction separately. Finally, the results from both the horizontal and the vertical subsets are overlaid, where a final decision on each surface point is made. The second technique, based on fuzzy logic, relies on a Fuzzy Inference Engine (FIE) to classify the surface points. Once classified, these points are clustered into surface structures. The latter technique also includes a mechanism which can consistently distinguish crowded surfaces from those with sparsely distributed structures and then tune the fuzzy technique system uniquely for that surface. Both techniques have been applied to characterize organic semiconductor thin films of pentacene on different substrates. Also, we present a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of our methodology to identify quantitatively particle sizes of two specimens of gold nanoparticles of different nominal dimensions dispersed on a mica surface. A comparison

  20. Enhanced osteoblast proliferation and corrosion resistance of commercially pure titanium through surface nanostructuring by ultrasonic shot peening and stress relieving.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Shitu; Bansal, Rajesh; Singh, Bijay P; Pandey, Rajiv; Narayanan, Shankar; Wani, Mohan R; Singh, Vakil

    2014-07-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of a novel process of surface modification, surface nanostructuring by ultrasonic shot peening, on osteoblast proliferation and corrosion behavior of commercially pure titanium (c p-Ti) in simulated body fluid. A mechanically polished disc of c p-Ti was subjected to ultrasonic shot peening with stainless steel balls to create nanostructure at the surface. A nanostructure (<20 nm) with inhomogeneous distribution was revealed by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. There was an increase of approximately 10% in cell proliferation, but there was drastic fall in corrosion resistance. Corrosion rate was increased by 327% in the shot peened condition. In order to examine the role of residual stresses associated with the shot peened surface on these aspects, a part of the shot peened specimen was annealed at 400°C for 1 hour. A marked influence of annealing treatment was observed on surface structure, cell proliferation, and corrosion resistance. Surface nanostructure was much more prominent, with increased number density and sharper grain boundaries; cell proliferation was enhanced to approximately 50% and corrosion rate was reduced by 86.2% and 41% as compared with that of the shot peened and the as received conditions, respectively. The highly significant improvement in cell proliferation, resulting from annealing of the shot peened specimen, was attributed to increased volume fraction of stabilized nanostructure, stress recovery, and crystallization of the oxide film. Increase in corrosion resistance from annealing of shot peened material was related to more effective passivation. Thus, the surface of c p-Ti, modified by this novel process, possessed a unique quality of enhancing cell proliferation as well as the corrosion resistance and could be highly effective in reducing treatment time of patients adopting dental and orthopedic implants of titanium and its alloys. PMID:25020216