Science.gov

Sample records for late 18th century

  1. Auroras Observed in Portugal in Late 18th Century Obtained from Printed and Manuscript Meteorological Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2005-09-01

    We present a new catalogue of observations of the aurora borealis at Lisbon, i.e., at low-latitudes, in the late 18th century by Jacob Præ torius and Henrique Schulze, two German artillery officers. Dates of 18 auroras compiled by Præ torius and Schulze are compared with those published in other catalogues for that period. The number of annual auroras observed by the two Germans is then compared with two indices of solar activity showing a very good level of consistency between all time series. Finally, we have assessed the number of auroras observed taking into consideration the phase of the lunar cycle and the geomagnetic latitude of Lisbon.

  2. Analysis of Time Data in Chinese Astronomical Almanacs of the Late 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.-W.; Mihn, B.-H.; Ahn, Y. S.; Choi, G.-E.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the time data in Chinese astronomical almanacs of the late 18th century in order to estimate the accuracy of the Shixian calendar. It is known that the calendar was enforced during the period of the Ching dynasty (1664--1912), and several astronomical almanacs using the calendar are preserved in the Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies of Korea; these almanacs cover the years 1772, 1773, 1774, 1780, 1781, 1783, 1785, and 1787. We compiled the times of the new moon, sunrise/sunset, and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions from the almanacs and compared them with the results of modern calculations. As a result, we found that the times of the new moon and twenty-four seasonal subdivisions show average differences of ˜ 3.35 ± 4.43 and ˜ 9.67± 13.24 min, respectively. Regarding he sunrise/sunset time, however, we found that the difference was less than 1 min when we defined the time as the moment that the zenith distance (z) of the Sun is 90°, unlike the modern definition, z=90° 50'. We expect that this study to contribute to the understanding of the accuracy obtained by Shixian calendar in calculations of the movements of celestial bodies.

  3. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  4. Two positive tuberculosis cases in the late Nigrovits family, 18th century, Vác, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szikossy, Ildikó; Pálfi, György; Molnár, Erika; Karlinger, Kinga; Kovács, Balázs K; Korom, Csaba; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H; Spigelman, Mark; Donoghue, Helen D; Kustár, Ágnes; Pap, Ildikó

    2015-06-01

    Two mummies of the Hungarian mummy collection from Vác were the subjects of anthropological, paleopathological, radiological, paleomicrobiological, paleohistological and paleoproteomic studies. Both individuals belonged to the same family. The father, József Nigrovits (No 29), died at the age of 55 on the 11th of November 1793; his son, Antal Nigrovits (No 54), died on the 16th of July 1803, at the age of 22. They lived in the 18th century in Vác, a small town in northern Hungary. The macroscopic examination of the son showed a severely deformed neck and back region; the father has no visible mark of any illnesses. As earlier researches showed that tuberculosis was widespread in the community, the etiology of these deformities was examined. The paleomicrobiological results found that both individuals were infected with tuberculosis. Although they suffered from TB, the CT scan data of the bodies and their 3D reconstructions showed no skeletal evidence of tuberculosis. The deformity of the son turned to be a developmental abnormality of unknown origin, but no Pott's gibbus was present. PMID:25814300

  5. Biomechanical beam analysis of long bones from a late 18th century slave cemetery in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ledger, M; Holtzhausen, L M; Constant, D; Morris, A G

    2000-06-01

    This study aims to quantify the physical demands of a sample of late 18th century skeletons from an unmarked burial site on Cobern Street, Cape Town, South Africa. Historical studies suggest that these individuals were either slaves or "free black" people of low socioeconomic standing. Cortical cross-sectional areas of paired humeri and tibiae from the Cobern Street collection (N = 29), a modern cadaver collection (N = 31), and a hunter-gatherer collection (N = 30) were compared by means of biomechanical beam analysis on computerized tomography scans. Results showed that the Cobern Street sample, both males and females, were closer to the modern group in total tibial cortical area and in the second moments and polar moments of cortical area, than to the hunter-gatherer group. It is assumed that these results can be explained by differences in lower limb activity. Tibial strength properties showed the hunter-gatherer peoples to be highly mobile and active walkers in comparison to the Cobern Street and modern samples. The males from the Cobern Street sample showed significantly higher values for humeral strength properties than either the hunter-gatherer or modern individuals, attesting to their status as manual laborers. The humeral cross-sectional strength properties for females were very similar between the Cobern Street and modern groups but again significantly different from the hunter-gatherer sample. The domestic chores performed by females of the recent cadaver sample may be very similar to those performed by the Cobern Street sample. PMID:10813703

  6. Observing Sunspots with 18th Century Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, Leif

    2016-05-01

    The sunspot and group numbers in the 18th Century relies heavily on the observations by J.C. Staudauch during 1749-1799 performed with a three-foot 'sky tube', likely affected by spherical and chromatc aberration. An observing network has been set up to make drawings of the spots on the solar disk using original telescopes from the 18th Century or reconstructed 'sky tubes' with the same defects as the instruments available to and affordable for amateurs of the period. We report the initial results of the effort, finding that the counts of groups and the sunspot numbers must be multipled by three to reproduce modern observations. This confirms the scale factors derived from recent revisions of the solar record.

  7. Captain Cook's beer: the antiscorbutic use of malt and beer in late 18th century sea voyages.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Brett J

    2003-01-01

    The custom of allowing British seamen the regular use of fermented liquor is an old one. Ale was a standard article of the sea ration as early as the fourteenth century. By the late eighteenth century, beer was considered to be at once a food (a staple beverage and essential part of the sea diet), a luxury (helping to ameliorate the hardship and irregularity of sea life) and a medicine (conducive to health at sea). In particular, beer and its precursors, wort and malt, were administered with the aim of preventing and curing scurvy. This paper examines the use of malt and beer during late eighteenth century British sea voyages, particularly their use as antiscorbutic agents, focusing on James Cook's three voyages during the period 1768-1780. Cook administered sweet wort (an infusion of malt), beer (prepared from an experimental, concentrated malt extract), and spruce beer (prepared mainly from molasses), among many other items, in his attempts to prevent and to cure scurvy. Despite the inconclusive nature of his own experiments, he reported favourably after his second voyage (1772-1775) on the use of wort as an antiscorbutic sea medicine (for which purpose it is now known to be useless). Cook thereby lent credibility to erroneous medical theories about scurvy, helping to perpetuate the use of ineffective treatments and to delay the discovery of a cure for the disorder. PMID:12810402

  8. [Health care in Western Europe in the late 18th century, as reported in Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty's travel journal].

    PubMed

    Rab, Irén

    2015-07-19

    Medical doctors working in Hungary and Transylvania were all trained abroad before the medical faculty of the University of Nagyszombat was founded in 1769. Most Roman Catholic medical students were trained in Vienna and Italy, whereas Protestants in Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. In the 18th century a total of 500 Hungarian medical students studied at universities in Western Europe. Medical students' peregrination did not involve academic training only: whenever they had the possibility, students visited renowned hospitals, university clinics and famous doctors in order to gain experience and medical practice to complete their education. Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty studied in Pest and Göttingen, obtained his medical doctor's diploma in Vienna in 1790, and then spent a year and a half at various medical institutions in Germany, The Netherlands, and England. Cseh-Szombaty's so far unpublished travel journal and alba amicorum provide a wealth of information about the practical knowledge that could be learned during peregrination, characteristics of medical training, patients' treatment, quality of German hospitals of the late 18th century, where the most famous doctors worked. It is an exciting description, how a doctor from Hungary spent his time studying in Western Europe. PMID:26170183

  9. Ballistic blocks around Kīlauea Caldera: Their vent locations and number of eruptions in the late 18th century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Donald A.; Zolkos, Scott P.; Haravitch, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of ballistic blocks occur around Kīlauea Caldera and record part of the latest major period of explosive activity on the volcano, in late 1790 or within a few years thereafter. The sizes of the blocks – the largest of which is more than 2 m in nominal diameter – and differences in rock types allow the definition of at least 6 dispersal lobes of mostly undetermined relative age. The orientations of the lobes help approximate the locations of vents or explosion sources on the floor of the caldera, now deeply buried by younger lava flows. The vents may have been distributed northward for about 2 km from near the site of the modern Halema'uma'u Crater and were apparently confined to the western half of the caldera. The blocks are entirely lithic except for those in one dispersal lobe, which contains cored bombs and blocks as well as juvenile lapilli. Eruption parameters calculated from EJECT! suggest that the phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions could have been generated at the water table, about 600 m below the high point on the caldera rim.

  10. [Counteraction against alcoholism in religious letters of 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rok, B

    1999-01-01

    The Polish historiography talks at length about the problem of alcoholism in Poland in the 18th century. Estimates were made about the scale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Many records are available today, mainly in the form of diaries, which describe the extent of drunkenness at that time. Much information on drinking bouts comes from satires (this article quotes after an anonymous satire found in the Polish manuscripts of the 18th century). Apart from the literature, also preachers contributed to the present knowledge of alcohol consumption within that period. Drunkenness was often mentioned in sermons and varied types of religious guides. The 18th century priests deemed drunkenness as a heavy sin and fiercely counteracted the abuse of alcoholic beverages, by condemning people in a state of intoxication. PMID:14631978

  11. The men of Nelson's navy: a comparative stable isotope dietary study of late 18th century and early 19th century servicemen from Royal Naval Hospital burial grounds at Plymouth and Gosport, England.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Patrick; Weston, Sam; Wild, Bastien; Boston, Ceridwen; Ditchfield, Peter; Shortland, Andrew J; Pollard, A Mark

    2012-05-01

    We present stable isotopic analyses of collagen from 80 servicemen excavated from the late 18th/early 19th century naval hospitals at Plymouth (50) and Haslar, Gosport (30) in southern England. Historical records suggest that, the diets of these two populations should be essentially identical. While δ(15) N of the rib collagen confirmed that naval servicemen were relatively well-catered for in terms of meat allowance (Plymouth average δ(15) N = 11.1‰, Gosport = 11.9‰), stable carbon isotope analysis produced average values for the two assemblages, which were significantly different (Plymouth average δ(13) C = -18.8‰, Gosport = -20.0‰). We postulate that these differences stem from divergent naval postings, with a greater proportion of Plymouth individuals serving in areas that entailed a greater input of C(4) foodstuffs. By comparison with published data from approximately contemporary burials at Snake Hill, Ontario, Canada and Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, we suggest that this area is the east coast of North America. For 15 of the 30 individuals from Gosport, we have data on ribs, femur, and dentine from the same skeleton, which appear to show that they came from a variety of locations in their preadolescence, but converged in dietary terms onto a "naval average," which is consistent with historical evidence for recruitment patterns into the Navy at the time. By comparison with published data from skeletons recovered from the wreck of the Mary Rose (sank 1545), we conclude that this naval diet was virtually unchanged from the 16th century to the end of the 18th century. PMID:22407735

  12. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    PubMed

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper. PMID:20882751

  13. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  14. The academician astronomers travelling in the 18th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, S.; Débarbat, S.

    1999-04-01

    In the 18th century, astronomers of the Académie des sciences of Paris made various contributions to the improvement of navigation: terrestrial determinations of longitude which improved charts for navigators, testing of marine clocks for longitude determinations at sea. In order to resolve the Cassini-Newton controversy regarding the shape of the Earth, the Académie proposed in 1735, that two expeditions should be made with a view to measuring a meridian arc. The results concluded that the Earth was flat on the sides of the poles, as predicted by Newton. By the mid-18th century, the first purely astronomical expedition (La Caille, Cap of Good Hope) led to the creation of an austral celestial map and new parallaxes. Later, Chappe d'Auteroche, Le Gentil and Pingré travelled to observe two transits of Venus over the Sun (1761, 1769) for the improvement of the solar parallax.

  15. Roads and cities of 18th century France.

    PubMed

    Perret, Julien; Gribaudi, Maurizio; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the 18th century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science. PMID:26401316

  16. Roads and cities of 18th century France

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Julien; Gribaudi, Maurizio; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the 18th century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science. PMID:26401316

  17. An 18th century Tuscan pharmacy: analysis of the library.

    PubMed

    Giuffra, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The archival documents of San Luca Hospital, which has long been the most important welfarist institution of the Republic of Lucca (Tuscany), are stored in the Record Offices of Lucca. The hospital was served by a pharmacy, where the medicaments were prepared for patients and for the needs of other institutions in the city. Three different inventories, dating back to 1719, 1749 and 1784, report on a list of books hosted in the pharmacy. The identification and analysis of the works available in the library have allowed to reconstruct the tendencies of pharmacy thoughts and practices in Lucca during the 18th century. The library of the pharmacy of San Luca Hospital revealed the persistence of ancient medicine and of the pharmacy tradition, based mainly on the use of the simples. However, the influence of iatrochemistry, which following the paracelsian theories contributed to convert pharmacy from a botanical science to a chemical discipline, increased in the second half of the century, when the library was enriched with more recent works. The analysis of the inventories demonstrates the presence of both the galenic-arabic and chemical tradition, therefore reflecting an 18th century pharmacy supplied with a composite literature. PMID:26203538

  18. [The interpretation of pulmonary tuberculosis in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Bernier, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis took on alarming proportions in the 18th-century Europe. This study examines the ways learned medical practitioners presented the causes of the malady in Great Britain and France, by analyzing 12 medical treatises. Four etiological models appears to have dominated medical thinking in this context: theories that emphasize contagion; those which attribute the cause to physiological disorders; those which find the origin in hereditary predispositions; and those theories which observe a link with behaviour and lifestyles. The study also shows how one of these theories - the hereditary theory - eventually triumphed over the others and became the dominant for the better part of the 19th century, and will be examined within the context of the growth of liberal and individualist ideology. PMID:15977379

  19. Scientific Psychology in the 18th Century: A Historical Rediscovery.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland

    2016-05-01

    As early as 1783, the almost forgotten philosopher, metaphysicist, and psychologist Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) designated himself "Professor für empirische Psychologie und Logik" (professor of empirical psychology and logic) at the University of Münster, Germany. His position was initiated and supported by the minister and educational reformer Franz von Fürstenberg (1729-1810), who considered psychology a core scientific discipline that should be taught at each school and university. At the end of the 18th century, then, psychology seems to have been on the verge of becoming an independent academic discipline, about 100 years before Wilhelm Wundt founded the discipline's first official laboratory. It seems surprising that Ueberwasser's writings-including a seminal textbook on empirical psychology-have been almost entirely overlooked in most historical accounts. We focus on this important founding moment of psychological science and on the circumstances that eventually brought this seminal development to a halt. PMID:27217252

  20. Regina Salomea Pilsztynowa, ophthalmologist in 18th-century Poland.

    PubMed

    Konczacki, Janina M; Aterman, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Regina Salomea Rusiecki (later Pilsztynowa) was a young, poorly educated Polish Catholic woman in the 18th century who became well known in Eastern Europe and the Ottoman Empire because of her skill in the treatment of cataracts and some other medical problems. She was born in 1718, and at the age of 14 she married an experienced, but significantly older, German Lutheran physician and ophthalmologist, Jakob Halpir. By helping him eagerly in his work, Pilsztynowa learned a great deal of her husband's way of treating cataracts and other ailments, and she ambitiously made use of the friendship and help of other physicians whom she met on her travels. Although there are some occurrences that could lead one to question aspects of Pilsztynowa's straight and honest character, one has also to point to her readiness to help where she could. PMID:11918899

  1. Austrian Pharmacy in the 18th and 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecary’s profession and education. In the 18th century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecary’s profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19th century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecaries’ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900. PMID:21179353

  2. Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research

  3. Evolution of Interannual and Decadal/Interdecadal variability of the SPCZ since the late 18th century using a network of Fiji coral δ18O time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassie, E. P.; Linsley, B. K.; Correge, T.; Wu, H. C.; Lemley, G. M.; Cabioch, G.

    2012-12-01

    interannual and D/I coral δ18O variability from equatorial sites in the Pacific (e.g. Maiana). Collectively, our results from the SPCZ region reflect the validity of the coral δ18O composite to track regional climatic variability at both interannual and decadal/interdecadal timescales. From the late 18th century to the late 19th century the D/I band dominates the Fiji composite while the ENSO-band amplitude is relatively small. Starting around 1885, this tendency reverses and we observed a drastic decrease in the D/I signal amplitude, with its variance reduced by more than 50%, while the ENSO-band signal increases progressively in amplitude toward the present, reaching unprecedented values during the mid-20th century. This switch around 1885 A.D. is unique over the last 250 years and may correspond to a reorganization of Pacific-wide climate.

  4. John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

  5. To feel what others feel: two episodes from 18th century medicine.

    PubMed

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-06-01

    In the late 18th century two medical fashions--Mesmerism in France and the Perkins 'tractor' in the USA and England--appealed to the principle that a single universal force acts on all of us and is responsible for health and illness. This principle served both fashions well, as it made it all the easier for those who came within their force fields to experience the sort of sensations that other subscribers to the fashion also seemed to feel. The first research on what is now known as the placebo effect was in connection with these two movements. The propensity to feel what we suppose or imagine that others like us feel remains even now one of the channels of the placebo effect. PMID:21515551

  6. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of…

  7. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  8. Samson Occom: Mohegan Missionary and Writer of the 18th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyer, Bernd

    1982-01-01

    One of the first Native American authors, Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, began writing in the 18th century. His writings included an ethnographic essay on the Montauk Tribe, an autobiographical sketch of his educational experiences and missionary activities, and his first publication, "Sermon at the Execution of Moses Paul." (ERB)

  9. Solutions To the Problem of Impact in the 17th and 18th Centuries and Teaching Newton's Third Law Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin

    1998-01-01

    Compares the ideas of young people about Newton's third law, focusing on youth of today and youth of the 17th and 18th centuries. Examines the use of Newton's third law in understanding impact phenomena in the 17th and 18th centuries. Contains 46 references. (DDR)

  10. The Treatment of the Motion of a Simple Pendulum in Some Early 18th Century Newtonian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauld, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of pendulum motion in early 18th century Newtonian textbooks is quite different to what we find in today's physics textbooks and is based on presuppositions and mathematical techniques which are not widely used today. In spite of a desire to present Newton's new philosophy of nature as found in his "Principia" 18th century textbook…

  11. Chapter 9: understanding the nervous system in the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    The 18th century was an age of transition. The time-honored neuropsychology of classical and medieval times, mechanized in Descartes' hydraulic neurophysiology, was undermined by microscopical observations and careful physiological experimentation. Yet it was not until the very end of the century, when work on electric fish and amphibia began to suggest an acceptable successor to "animal spirit," that the old understanding of human neurophysiology began to fade. This chapter traces this slow retreat from the iatrophysics of the early part of the century, with its hollow nerves and animal spirits, through a number of stop-gap explanations involving mysterious subtle fluids or forces described variously as irritability, élan vital, vis viva, vis insita, the spirit of animation etc., or perhaps involving vibrations and vibratiuncles and mysterious magnetic effluvia, to the dawning electrophysiology of the end of the century and the beginning of the next. This developing understanding filtered slowly through to affect medical education, and the 18th century saw the development of strong medical schools at Leiden, Edinburgh, Paris, Bologna and London. Associated with these developments there was a great increase, as a well-known physician looking back at the beginning of the following century noted, in a class of diseases that had little concerned physicians in the preceding century - "nervous disorders." PMID:19892112

  12. [Masters of obstetrics in the area of Vojvodina in the 18th and 19th century].

    PubMed

    Berić, B M

    1994-01-01

    The author reviews data about masters of obstetrics, physicians and surgeons nonphysicians, who worked in Vojvodina from the second half of the 18th till the beginning of the 20th century. They used to be the professional and time bridge as well as extremely important developmental link of continuity between the obstetrics of untrained and subsequently educated midwives and physicians gyneco--surgeons, later specialists gynecologists--obstetricians all as a part of integral discipline of gynecology and obstetrics in the area of Vojvodina. The existence of about 30 masters of obstetrics in the area of today's Vojvodina from the 18th to the 20th century, educated at medical faculties of Vienna, Budapest and Graz, points to the fact that obstetrics and gynecology in our regions in the 18th and especially 19th and 20th centuries, used to have similar, and somewhere identical trends and directions of development, like the obstetrics and gynecology of Central Europe of that time and that it used to be, just like it is today, a part of European gynecology and obstetrics. PMID:7739446

  13. The historical archaeology of the 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community of Nevis, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Michelle M.

    2000-11-01

    This is an historical archaeological examination of a 17th- and 18th-century Jewish community on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies. Unlike earlier archaeological studies of the Jewish Caribbean Diaspora that focused on single sites, this investigation used a community-wide approach to elucidate the daily experience of Sephardic Jews within the colonial Caribbean. This project included an archaeological excavation at the purported location of the community's synagogue, an electrical resistivity survey of the surviving cemetery, the construction of a map of property ownership in 18th-century Charlestown, and archival research. This study was carded out within a multiscalar and contextual framework that emphasized the importance of understanding the diaspora that brought the Jews to the West Indies, the development of the colonial Caribbean, and the surrounding environs of the port city of Charlestown, Nevis. The archaeological analysis of the supposed site of the synagogue proved that it was in fact that of a late 18th-century townhouse, but the associated land record research revealed the actual location of the community's former synagogue. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the physical layout of colonial-period Charlestown from the land records indicated the presence of a distinct Jewish quarter in the undesirable southern portion of the town. Evidence from the public records of Nevis and the social history of the members of the Jewish population unveiled external social and political pressures placed upon the Sephardim as well as internal religious and ethnic ties dig bound the community together. It is argued in closing that the archival evidence, in conjunction with the continued presence of a clustered settlement pattern like that of European Jewish communities during the medieval period, indicates that the Jews of the Caribbean were not fully integrated socially or politically into British colonial society. This examination of the Nevis community

  14. Zach, Gotha and the Venus transits of the 18th and 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Zach was a child and a secondary school boy when the Venus transits of the 18th century occurred, and we try to elucidate the somewhat garbled note given in Lalande' Bibliographie (1803). Zach - like many others - was interested in seeing a definitive result emerge from the observations. Encke, one of the first serious analysts of the observations, was supplied with information by Zach. We will briefly describe the attempts of Euler, du Séjour, Encke, Powalky and Newcomb to determine a reliable value of the solar parallax (the last one being finished only after the next pair of Venus transits had occurred!), and outline Zach's role in this field.

  15. Occupational medicine in the Idria mercury mine in the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Slavec, Z Z

    1998-12-01

    Of all medical sciences in Slovenia, occupational medicine has the longest tradition. It is not a mere coincidence that it had developed already at the beginning of 18th century in Idria. The Mercury mine in Idria, is the second largest European mine of its kind, next to the Spanish Almaden, and has been owned by the Habsburg dynasty for four centuries. To attain higher production, the miners in Idria received medical and social care much earlier than anywhere else; chronic intoxication caused by mercury fumes greatly hindered their working ability. The first and, at the same time, one of the most prominent doctors in Idria, J.A. Scopoli (1723-1788) perfectly described the symptoms of chronic intoxication with mercury in his work De Hydrargyro Idriensi Tentamina Physico-Chymico-Medica (Venice, 1761) and thus ranked himself among the early medical writers of occupational medicine, medical hygiene and toxicology. His predecessors were Ellenbog, Paracelsus, Mattioli and some others. The article describes the situation in the mine of Idria in the 17th and 18th century and focusses on Scopoli's mineralogical and medical discussion on mercury miners and mercurialism. PMID:11623564

  16. From Flamsteed to Piazzi and Lalande: new standards in 18th century astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, James

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The present high accuracy of stellar positions and proper motions allows us to determine the positional accuracy of old stellar catalogues. This has already been done for the most important catalogues from before the 18th century. Our aim is to extend this study to several 18th century catalogues. Methods: To do this, I studied ten catalogues: those of Flamsteed and Rømer, four catalogues of La Caille, and catalogues of Tobias Mayer, Bradley, Piazzi, and Lalande. A comparison with modern data, mostly from Hipparcos, compiled in the Simbad database of the CDS allowed me to determine the position errors of these catalogues. I also compared the stellar visual magnitudes given in eight of these catalogues with photometric V magnitudes. Results: Thanks to novel instruments, the rms positional accuracy improved from thousands to hundreds of arcsec in older catalogues to less than one minute in that of Flamsteed, and to 2-6 arcsec in the other catalogues I examined. These improvements allowed for the first time relatively accurate proper motions to be determined by 19th century astronomers. The catalogues with some corrections are available in digital form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A26

  17. Analyses of Etna Eruptive Activity From 18th Century and Characterization of Flank Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Carlo, P.; Branca, S.; Coltelli, M.

    2003-12-01

    Etna explosive activity has usually been considered subordinate with respect to the effusive eruptions. Nevertheless, in the last decade and overall after the 2001 and 2002 flank eruptions, explosive activity has drawn the attention of the scientific and politic communities owing to the damages that the long-lasting ash fall caused to Sicily's economy. We analyzed the eruptions from the 18th century to find some analogous behavior of Etna in the past. A study of the Etna historical record (Branca and Del Carlo, 2003) evidenced that after the 1727 eruption, there are no more errors in the attribution of the year of the eruption. Furthermore from this time on, the scientific quality of the chronicles allowed us to obtain volcanological information and to estimate the magnitude of the major explosive events. The main goal of this work was to characterize the different typologies of Etna eruptions in the last three centuries. Meanwhile, we have tried to find the possible relationship between the two kinds of activity (explosive and effusive) in order to understand the complexity of the eruptive phenomena and define the short-term behavior of Etna. On the base of the predominance of the eruptive typology (effusive or explosive) we have classified the flank eruptions in three classes: i) Type 1: almost purely effusive; ii) Type 2: the intensity of explosive activity comparable with the effusive; iii) Type 3: almost purely explosive with minor lava effusion (only the 1763 La Montagnola and 2002 eruptions belong to this class). Long-lasting explosive activity is produced by flank eruptions with continuous ash emission and prolonged fallout on the flanks (e.g. 1763, 1811, 1852-53, 1886, 1892, 2001 and 2002 eruptions). At summit craters continuous activity is weaker, whereas the strongest explosive eruptions are short-lived events. Furthermore, from the 18th to 20th century there were several years of intense and discontinuous summit explosive activity, from high strombolian

  18. [Public health services and healthcare workforce in Bakar of the 18th and 19th century].

    PubMed

    Čulina, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    This review article draws on scarce and poorly studied archival information and several published articles to describe the development and organisation of public health services in the town of Bakar over the 18th and 19th century. For a short while at the turn of the 19th century, Bakar established a hospital run by two physicians and one surgeon to treat patients affected by the so called Škrljevo disease, an endemic type of syphilis. As the century went on, the number of healthcare providers increased by two more physicians, four surgeons, and three to six licensed midwives. There was also a town pharmacy, that worked all that time. As a busy port, the town also provided well-organised maritime sanitary services. As its economy changed over the two centuries to come to a halt after an initial boom, which resulted in a severe drop in population from 7600 to 2000 people, public services deteriorated, including public health. Maritime services suffered the hardest blow, while the workforce gradually came down to one or two physicians and surgeons and several midwives. PMID:25632775

  19. Isotopic Ag-Cu-Pb record of silver circulation through 16th-18th century Spain.

    PubMed

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarède, Francis

    2011-05-31

    Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th-18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

  20. Isotopic Ag–Cu–Pb record of silver circulation through 16th–18th century Spain

    PubMed Central

    Desaulty, Anne-Marie; Telouk, Philippe; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Albarède, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Estimating global fluxes of precious metals is key to understanding early monetary systems. This work adds silver (Ag) to the metals (Pb and Cu) used so far to trace the provenance of coinage through variations in isotopic abundances. Silver, copper, and lead isotopes were measured in 91 coins from the East Mediterranean Antiquity and Roman world, medieval western Europe, 16th–18th century Spain, Mexico, and the Andes and show a great potential for provenance studies. Pre-1492 European silver can be distinguished from Mexican and Andean metal. European silver dominated Spanish coinage until Philip III, but had, 80 y later after the reign of Philip V, been flushed from the monetary mass and replaced by Mexican silver. PMID:21606351

  1. An analytical Raman spectroscopic study of an important english oil painting of the 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Vandenabeele, Peter; Jehlicka, Jan; Benoy, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    An opportunity was afforded to analyse pigment specimens from an unrestored oil painting in the style of the English School of the mid-18th Century prior to conservation being undertaken. Raman spectroscopy was adopted to characterise the pigments and indicated the presence of a novel red pigment which was assigned to the complex chromium mineral, hemihedrite, in addition to other interesting materials found in combination. This is the first recorded identification of hemihedrite spectral signals in an art context in a range of mineral pigments that are otherwise typical of this period and some hypotheses are presented to explain its presence based on its occurrence with associated mineral pigments. It is suggested that the presence of powdered glass identified in certain areas of the painting enhanced the reflectivity of the pigment matrix.

  2. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  3. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  4. The "System of Chymists" and the "Newtonian Dream" in Greek-Speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-01-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a "philosophy" of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This…

  5. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  6. A comparison of large 18th-century floods on Danube: Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj

    2013-04-01

    The documentation of historic floods can help in better understanding of factors that might cause and contribute to large and extreme flood events. In particular, the analysis of historic floods provides information about flood seasonality, its changes and anthropogenic impacts on river flood regime which in some cases strongly influenced flood behaviour. The main objective of the present contribution is to document large and medium size flood events on Danube in Vienna, Bratislava and Budapest in the 18th century. In the present study, based on contemporary documentary evidence, for each of the three towns a five-scaled flood index series is developed to describe the magnitude and intensity of flood events. According to this classification, the 100-year flood event was characterised by the index value 5, while great destructive floods - depending on their extension, destructivity and further impacts - received the values 4 and 3, respectively. Less significant but still harmful flood events were classified as No. 2, and floods without further specification remained in the lowest category (No. 1). Beside classification issues, seasonality and flood frequency differences between the three towns are as well discussed. The results indicate that a greater number of flood events took place in the last decades of the century, but only a few flood events of the same magnitude are documented simultaneously in all three towns. And whereas in 1775 no winter flood event was reported in Vienna, an important ice jam flood was documented in Bratislava, and a catastrophic ice jam flood event, greatest of the century, occurred in Budapest. In 1787 autumn the greatest flood event of the century occurred in Vienna, while hardly any flood waves were observed at Budapest. While in Vienna, summer (and partly autumn) floods had great importance, in Budapest a large number of ice jam floods were documented. In some cases the differences are likely caused by different hydrometeorological

  7. [Semantics of learned quackery in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Füssel, Marian

    2004-06-01

    In the 17th and 18th century republic of letters the problem of scientific fraud was met with a discourse of charlatanism. Departing from Johann Burchhard Menckes famous treatise on the Charlatanry of the learned the following essay traces how the accusations of academic and scientific misconduct put in terms of 'charlatanry' primarily helped to produce the new species of the erudite 'charlatan'. Facing a growing complexity of scientific culture this new frame of meaning, structured by numerous examples of scientific misconduct offered a new way of orientation in the world of learning. But besides its cognitive impacts the discourse of charlatanry allowed to create symbolic boundaries, which determined decisions upon the affiliation or non affiliation to the new forming scientific community by separating honourable from dishonourable scientific personae. Speaking of charlatanry therefore always implied a social distinction as much as a scientific. The discourses on charlatanry also mirror differentiations within the scientific field. At first dominated by a critique built on courteous or bourgeois values, the scientific field later on developed its own criteria of appraisal like authorship, originality, transparency etc. Attracting the attention of a further growing public sphere, the explicit verbalisation of claims not relating to the value system of a republic of letters primarily concerned with the production and distribution of knowledge finally led up to a more implicit moral economy of science. A change that at a large scale level can be described both as an internalisation of the values of scientific conduct and differentiation between justiciable and unjusticiable transgressions of the norms set up by the scientific community. PMID:15338535

  8. Malthus, the 18th century European explorers and the principle of population in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reniers, Georges

    2012-01-01

    In the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus included twelve chapters that offer a remarkable description of population dynamics from all corners of the world. His discussion of (sub-Saharan) Africa was almost entirely based on the travel accounts of James Bruce and Mungo Park, two late eighteenth century British explorers. In this essay, I introduce these sources and discuss the insights that Malthus did, or perhaps should have, derived from both. PMID:24259758

  9. The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hulden, Lena

    2011-01-01

    After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes.Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year.In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844. PMID:21324104

  10. The first Finnish malariologist, Johan Haartman, and the discussion about malaria in 18th century Turku, Finland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    After the Great Northern War in 1721, Sweden ceased to be an important military power. Instead, the kingdom concentrated on developing science. Swedish research got international fame with names as Carolus Linnaeus, Pehr Wargentin and Anders Celsius. Medical research remained limited and malaria was common especially in the coastal area and along the shores of the big lakes. Already in the beginning of the 18th century Swedish physicians recommended Peruvian bark as medication and they also emphasized that bleeding or blood-letting a malaria patient was harmful. Although malaria was a common disease in the kingdom, the situation was worst in the SW-part of Finland which consisted of the town of Turku and a large archipelago in the Baltic. The farmers had no opportunity to get modern healthcare until Johan Haartman was appointed district physician in 1754. To improve the situation he wrote a medical handbook intended for both the farmers and for persons of rank. Haartman's work was first published 1759 and he discussed all the different cures and medications. His aim was to recommend the best ones and warn against the harmful. His first choice was Peruvian bark, but he knew that the farmers could not afford it. Haartman was appointed professor in medicine at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1765. The malaria situation in Finland grew worse in the 1770's and Haartman analysed the situation. He found the connection between the warm summers and the spring epidemics next year. In a later thesis, Haartman analysed the late summer/early autumn malaria epidemics in the archipelago. Althouh Haartman did not know the connection between malaria and the vector, he gave astute advice and encouraged the farmers to build their cottages in windy places away from the shallow bays in which the Anopheles females hatched. Haartman died in 1788. After his death malaria research in Turku declined. His medical handbook would not be replaced until 1844. PMID:21324104

  11. Soil resources and agriculture in the center of European Russia at the end of the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyabina, I. O.; Golubinsky, A. A.; Kirillova, V. A.; Khitrov, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Soil-geographic and socioeconomic data were compared with the use of geoinformation technologies. The history of agricultural development of the East European Plain and distribution of population in Russia in the 18th century were studied by the example of Yaroslavl, Vladimir, and Ryazan gubernias (governorates). The analysis of the obtained data demonstrated considerable differences in land uses between the regions of the old (prior to the 16th century) development and the regions actively populated since the end of the 16th century. The soils of Vladimir and a half of Yaroslavl gubernias were most developed; in some local districts (uezds), the maximum possible efficiency of the use of the natural soil fertility was achieved. In contrast, in some chernozemic areas, considerable opportunities for the further extensive development were preserved, and the limits to the population growth were not reached. The level of agricultural loads on the territory remained relatively low.

  12. Non Destructive Investigation on the 17th/18th Century Sicilian Jewellery Collection at the Messina Regional Museum Using Mobile Raman Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, G.; Bersani, D.; Jehlicka, J.; Lottici, P. P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Raneri, S.; Vandenabeele, P.; Di Giacomo, C.; Larinà, G.

    2014-06-01

    A handheld Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm was used for the in situ analysis of the gems present in the 17th/18th century Sicilian jewelry collection preserved in the Messina Regional Museum (Italy).

  13. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Michal; Hershkovitz, Israel; Sklan, Ella H.; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Pap, Ildikó; Szikossy, Ildikó; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution. PMID:26863316

  14. Metallographic study of articles of the Kamensk iron foundry and iron works produced in the 18th-20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gizhevski, B. A.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Naumov, S. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Results have been presented for studies of the microstructure and chemical composition of a number of articles made of iron and cast iron at the Kamensk plant, which cover the period from the start of the production of iron on the territory of the city of Kamensk-Ural'skii at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries to the beginning of the 20th century. Differences in the composition of the Kamensk cast iron and modern grades of foundry cast iron have been established. Possible sources of technological difficulties and production waste at the Kamensk plant have been revealed. The potential of metallographic studies for the attribution of historical articles made of ferrous metals are shown.

  15. PCR diagnostics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in historic human long bone remains from 18th century burials in Kaiserebersdorf, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Lutz; Däubl, Barbara; Lindqvist, Charlotte; Kruckenhauser, Luise; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Haring, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background In the present pilot study we applied recently published protocols for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human remains. We screened long bones from an 18th century cemetery and skulls from the anatomical "Weisbach collection" (19th century). In addition, besides the study of abundance of tuberculosis in inmates of the poorhouse itself, we were interested to test whether in this particular instance tuberculosis can be identified from cortical bones, which are rarely affected by tuberculosis, but mostly better preserved than the vertebral bodies or epiphyses. Method The DNA extractions from the bone samples were obtained following established ancient DNA protocols. Subsequently extracts were subjected to a series of PCR amplifications using primer pairs published previously [1,2]. PCR products of the expected size were subsequently sequenced. Results Only primers targeting the repetitive IS6110 insertion sequence yielded PCR products of appropriate size. In one sample only (skull sample WB354 of the "Weisbach collection") sequence analysis revealed an authentic M. tuberculosis sequence that matched to a reference sequence from GenBank. Conclusion With a variety of established PCR approaches we failed to detect M. tuberculosis DNA in historic human femurs from an 18th century cemetery relating to a poor house in Kaiserebersdorf, Austria. Our data may indicate that in this particular case, thoracic or lumbar vertebrae, i.e. bones that are severely affected by the disease, would be more suitable for molecular diagnostics than long bones. However, the unpredictable state of DNA preservation in bones from museum collections does not allow any general recommendation of any type of bone. PMID:18799009

  16. The Lawyers in the 16th-18th Century's Germany: A Historical Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranieri, Filippo

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the sociological backgrounds of German lawyers of the Holy Roman Empire through an analysis of the dissertations and disputations written during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Focuses on their university education, family circumstances, and careers. Creates an information data bank to carry out the project. Predicts further…

  17. Raja Sawai Jai Singh II: An 18th Century Medieval Astronomer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanpied, William A.

    1975-01-01

    Offers a description of the instrumentation and methods utilized in this attempt at naked eye astronomy one century after the invention of the telescope. Also examines the motives which resulted in the implementation of an antiquated mode of observation. (Author/CP)

  18. Textbooks at the Crossroads: Scientific and Philosophical Textbooks in 18th Century Greek Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patiniotis, Manolis

    2006-01-01

    Greek society of the eighteenth century did not have the institutional or theoretical background for the development of an original interest in scientific pursuits. The contact with the new scientific ideas aimed basically at the assimilation of these ideas in the body of the existing contemplative philosophy and the context where such undertaking…

  19. Venetian Rule and Control of Plague Epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidou, Katerina; Mantadakis, Elpis; Sardi, Thalia; Samonis, George

    2009-01-01

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance. PMID:19116047

  20. [Sanitary state of the ships of the Baltic fleet and development of the navy hygiene in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, A V

    2015-09-01

    Sanitary and hygienic state of the Baltic navy ships in the 18th century was considered as unsatisfactory due to inappropriate habitation conditions answering hygienic requirements. The reason for the low ship habitation of that time was limited technological possibilities of the sail shipbuilding, lack of appropriate labour, and life and rest conditions for navy servicemen. In fact, wooden ships were not suitable for life activity of the navy crew, but contributed to disease increase. Because of the rapid development of the' navy hygiene and improvement of shipbuilding technologies, sanitary and hygienic state of local navy ships had became improving. With a glance on recommendations, developed by physicians D.P.Sinopeus and A.G.Bakherakht, were made following improvements: were implemented ventilators on ships, daily fumigation of ships rooms, monitoring of personal hygiene. PMID:26827523

  1. Venetian rule and control of plague epidemics on the Ionian Islands during 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidou, Katerina; Mantadakis, Elpis; Falagas, Matthew E; Sardi, Thalia; Samonis, George

    2009-01-01

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, measures were taken by the Venetian administration to combat plague on the Ionian Islands. At that time, although the scientific basis of plague was unknown, the Venetians recognized its infectious nature and successfully decreased its spread by implementing an information network. Additionally, by activating a system of inspection that involved establishing garrisons along the coasts, the Venetians were able to control all local movements in plague-infested areas, which were immediately isolated. In contrast, the neighboring coast of mainland Greece, which was under Ottoman rule, was a plague-endemic area during the same period. We conclude that even in the absence of scientific knowledge, close observation and social and political measures can effectively restrain infectious outbreaks to the point of disappearance. PMID:19116047

  2. [Development of animal husbandry in Groningen in the 18th and 19th century; a broad outline].

    PubMed

    Paping, R F

    2001-01-01

    This overview is mainly focussed on the clay area forming the northern half of the province. It is the wealthiest and most characteristic part, being cultured since the Middle Ages as testified by the many churches that even small villages were able to construct. About 1700 the province of Groningen enjoyed already a modern economy, fitting in with that of the other coastal areas of Friesland, Zeeland and Holland (the last mentioned was the richest region of the world in the 17th and 18th century). As aspects of modernity at that time can be considered: 1) the use of modern agricultural methods with higher yields per hectare and higher milk yields per cow than produced in the land provinces on the sandy soils; 2) Agriculture was aimed at earning money by selling of hte products. In opposition to the farmers in the land provinces, who mainly produced for subsistence farming, the farmers in the coastal areas produced for the trade; 3) A high degree of specialization was found in the rural areas. 30-40% of the families had own farms, 25% of the population were labourers, owing only small pieces of land and the rest of the working population had occupations outside agriculture (craftmen, shopkeepers, shipmasters, merchants etc.). Whereas on the sandy soils practically every family owned a farm, be it mostly a very small one. After reviewing the changes in the distribution of land in use of the production of fieldcrops or for meadows-always in function of the market value of the products-and after a discussion of type of cattle husbandry (breeding, fattening, dairying) it is concluded that a relative decrease of the importance of cattle husbandry in the clay region during the 18th - 19th century can be observed. Intensification of land use had a positive effect on crop-production. The much-heard opinion that the cattle plague epizootic of 1768-1786 caused a transition in land use through a switch from animal husbandry to arable farming, is not held by the author

  3. [Reports on eye diseases and their care in Sweden in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rehn, Nils O

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the physicians, active in the 1800 century in Sweden, who have reported in the annual proceedings of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, dealing with diseases and care of the eye. These articles, earlier described in a paper by the author, show a wide panorama in this field, discussing cataract surgery as well as surgery of other parts of the eye, injuries and diseases and ways of treatment. Most physicians have gone through their basic medical education in Sweden, completed with often many years studying abroad at well-known universities or hospital clinics. Some of them, particulary Acrel and Odhelius, specialized in eye surgery. PMID:17153173

  4. [The historian's competence tested by authority: on an academic debate of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Schandeler, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The debate which took place in the 1720s at the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Letters on the possibility or impossibility of understanding the history of the first centuries of Rome is generally interpreted to be less of a debate than an important epistemological clarification. A contextualization which takes into account the political stakes of the debate allows one to understand that the debate was the beginning of a larger process of the autonomisation of the field of historical studies, not only from the perspective of disciplinary divides, but also in relation to monarchal power. PMID:24871882

  5. [Relations between equilibrium and dynamics at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Schmit, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the reception of Galileo and Descartes' principles of statics in the works of some French scientists in the second half of seventeenth century, tracing their importance for the genesis of a concept of force. Through an examination of the link between statics and dynamics--especially concerning the phenomena of collision and the motion of falling bodies--it will be shown, first, that these principles of statics actually contributed to the genesis of dynamics; secondly, that the authors examined in this article managed to unify the various fields of mechanics by building a common axiomatic basis, and, thirdly, that there exists a conceptual identity between actions in engines and actions in dynamic phenomena. The evidence brought fourth in this articles challenges the view according to which statics, and more particularly the law of the lever, was an obstacle for the development of dynamics, and particularly for the conceptualization of force. PMID:25577927

  6. Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duner, David

    2013-05-01

    In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

  7. Textbooks at the Crossroads: Scientific and Philosophical Textbooks in 18th Century Greek Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiniotis, Manolis

    2006-11-01

    Greek society of the eighteenth century did not have the institutional or theoretical background for the development of an original interest in scientific pursuits. The contact with the new scientific ideas aimed basically at the assimilation of these ideas in the body of the existing contemplative philosophy and the context where such undertaking took place was exclusively education. At the same time, education was the field where the political and ideological pursuits of various social groups intersected. A quasi modernistic profile of the educational activity was especially favored by a new generation of scholars who wished to assert their distinctive intellectual physiognomy, as well as by the emergent group of merchants who strove to establish their distinctive cultural and political authority. As a result, the new interest in the sciences reflects the confluence of the aims of these two social groups. The study of scientific textbooks, which were produced under these circumstances, depicts the consequences of this confluence and brings to light some important aspects of the social and intellectual environment within which the contact of Greek intellectual life with modern sciences occurred.

  8. "Les maladies héréditaires:" 18th century disputes in France.

    PubMed

    López-Beltrán, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the discussions on the subject of hereditary disease that took place between 1748 and 1800 among French physicians. Two essay competitions which set prizes for dissertations on the hereditary transmission of disease (Dijon, 1748; Paris, 1788-1790) prompted several writers to try and specify the peculiarities of hereditary causes. The publication of a sceptical essay written for the first competition by Antoine Louis was a major cause of concern for medics wishing to preserve hereditary influence as a valid etiological category. Louis' analytical denial of even the possibility of the existence of an hereditary cause led both the judges and the best medical writers who took part in the Paris competition to force the situation towards the establishment of clear criteria for isolating the hereditary cause from other pathological influences. The transition from a humoralist to a solidist view of the human constitution (body) provided the frame within which the different criteria for heredity were discussed. The prize essays of the Paris competition shared the position that hereditary influence was characterized by a latent, predisposant kind of causation, which could produce some well known phenomena like atavism (or regression) and homochrony. The solidist causes were thought by most to be better candidates for that role. These developments turned out to be crucial for the emergence and strength of 19th century French (and European) hereditarianism, in medicine and other fields. PMID:11609190

  9. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries. PMID:23950895

  10. [The creation of hospitals by charities in Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 18th to 20th century].

    PubMed

    Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-01-01

    This article is the fruit of research into the cultural heritage of healthcare in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and explores the construction of hospitals supported by Catholic charities from the 18th to 20th century. Catholicism has always been strong in Minas Gerais, partly because the Portuguese Crown prohibited the free travel of priests, who were suspected of illegally trading in gold from the mines. A brotherhood was responsible for creating the first Santa Casa, in Vila Rica. Another very important religious group in Brazil, the Vincentians, was also devoted to charitable works and propagated the ideas on charity of Frederico Ozanan, based on the work of St. Vincent de Paul. This group comprised both a lay movement, supported by conferences organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and a religious order, the Vincentian priests and nuns. Catholic physicians make up the third group studied here, organized in a professional association promoted by the Catholic Church. The brotherhoods, Vincentians, and associations, with their Santa Casas, represent a movement that is recognized worldwide. The enormous Catholic participation in these charitable works brought in the physicians, who would often make no charge and exerted efforts to create hospitals that served the population. Although the capital of Minas Gerais was the creation of republicans and positivists in the 20th century, with their ideas of modernity, it remained dependent on Christian charity for the treatment of the poor. PMID:21936227

  11. The construction of the country landscape in Veneto plains (North of Italy) during 18th-21st centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borin, Maurizio; Novello, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on the transformation that has taken place in the last four centuries in Veneto's plain in northern Italy. The analysis of statistical data over a long period of time has made it possible to chronologically reconstruct the gradual transformation of wetlands into arable land, suitable for human settlement and for the development of industrial activities. Particularly relevant are the policies adopted by the Republic of Venice (14th-18th centuries) with regard to the management of waters, policies which were continued by the Italian State after its unification in 1861. The evolution of the concept of land reclamation gradually came to include draining, hygienic, agrarian and environmental factors, paying attention to the specific character of both mountain and lagoon areas. Over many centuries new country areas were created, 2/5 of them located below sea level, which can be cultivated due to complex systems of canalization and water pumping. Both the State and landowners invested capital in a project that was not only meant to sustain private interest but that also met public needs. Since 1882 (when the Baccarini law was passed) the subject of the 'sanitary reclamation' began to be discussed in Italy. This concerned 1/16 of the total surface of the country, 400,000 hectares of which in Veneto, where malaria was directly or indirectly responsible for the death of thousands of people. New livelihoods substituted those of the past: some economies based, for instance, on the harvesting of the marshes' products or on the common use of marginal lands disappeared. The recent process of industrialization in Veneto, often carried out with little consideration for the environment, has eventually opened up a new chapter in the history of the countryside of this region, that of environmental and landscape enhancement.

  12. Evidence for tuberculosis in 18th/19th century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe - French Western Indies).

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Dutour, Olivier; Courtaud, Patrice; Maixner, Frank; Romon, Thomas; Sola, Christophe; Zink, Albert

    2015-06-01

    During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of the disease. 11 bone samples from these cemeteries were analysed for ancient DNA. The samples were extracted with established procedures and examined for the cytoplasmic multicopy β-actin gene and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (IS 6110) by PCR. An amplification product for M. tuberculosis with the size of 123 bp was obtained. Sequencing confirmed the result. This study shows evidence of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a Caribbean slave population. PMID:25754341

  13. The conjoined twin sisters Helen and Judith (1701-1723) and their pictorial impact in later 18th-century science.

    PubMed

    van der Weiden, Robin M F; Clausberg, Karl

    2015-08-01

    Given the uniqueness of the Hungarian conjoined twin sisters Helen and Judith (1701–1723) and their lasting influence as an anatomical showcase if not model for mental or social deviant states, we present here a closer scrutiny of their introduction into the scientific literature of the later 18th century by analyzing depictions of the twins from 1707 onwards. PMID:26133671

  14. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  15. The ``System of Chymists'' and the ``Newtonian dream'' in Greek-speaking Communities in the 17th-18th Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokaris, Efthymios P.; Koutalis, Vangelis

    2008-06-01

    The acceptance of new chemical ideas, before the Chemical Revolution of Lavoisier, in Greek-speaking communities in the 17th and 18th centuries did not create a discourse of chemical philosophy, as it did in Europe, but rather a “philosophy” of chemistry as it was formed through the evolution of didactic traditions of Chemistry. This “philosophical” chemistry was not based on the existence of any academic institutions, it was focused on the ontology of principles and forces governing the analysis/synthesis of matter and formulated two didactic traditions. The one, named “the system of chymists”, close to the Boylean/Cartesian tradition, accepted, contrary to Aristotelianism, the five “chymical” principles and also the analytical ideal, but the “chymical” principles were not under a conceptual and experimental investigation, as they were in Europe. Also, a crucial issue for this tradition remained the “mechanical” principles which were under the influence of the metaphysical nature of the Aristotelian principles. The other, close to the Boylean/Newtonian tradition, was the integrated presentation of the Newtonian “dream”, which maintained a discursive attitude with reference to the “chemical attractions”-“chemical affinities” and actualised the mathematical atomism of Boscovich, according to which the elementary texture of matter could be causally explained within this complex architecture of mathematical “ punkta”. In this tradition also coexisted, in a discursive synthesis, the “chemical element” of Lavoisier and the arguments of the new theory and its opposition to the phlogiston theory, but the “chemical affinities” were under the realm of the “physical element” as “metaphysical point”.

  16. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science. PMID:22606747

  17. [Medicine and religion in Spanish anti-superstition discourse of the 16th to 18th centuries: a battle for hegemony].

    PubMed

    Campagne, F A

    2000-01-01

    The object of this research is the study of the different kinds of relationships between medicine and religion that appear in the Spanish anti-superstition discourse from the 16th to the 18th century. Despite the relationship of alliance and collaboration between the two professional groups proposed by the Spanish theologians in their essays, situations of conflict and mutual distrust could also arise. The professional physician could be an ally of the Christian priest but also a dangerous rival. PMID:11640189

  18. Flood hazard and a rapidly growing capital in the floodplain: Social response on major 18th-century Danube floods in Pest (East-Budapest)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Due to its floodplain location, Pest was especially prone to damages caused by great flood events. Before water regulation works, the greatest flood events, and the highest rate of destruction occurred during ice jam floods. Whereas in the first half of the 18th century Pest is restricted to the medieval downtown located on a higher terrain (Danube terrace), from the mid 18th century onwards the rapidly growing population established suburbs around the downtown in the lower-lying flood plain. Thus, while in the first half of the century floods were more dangerous for the harvest in the agricultural lands, in the second half of the century at the same place suburbs, urban areas with thousands of inhabitants were prone to the same danger. In the first half of the century at least three particularly large flood events, in 1712, 1732 and 1744, caused increasing problems in the close vicinity of the town (and its lands), the second half of the century - as part of a climatic anomaly (Maldá) famous of its weather extremes - was characterised by two extreme (in 1775 and 1799), at least two larger (1789 and 1795) and some more, medium-sized ice jam floods. While in terms of damaged houses the loss was only some dozens in the early part of the century, several hundreds of houses - actually, complete suburbs were erased by floods in 1775 and 1799. In the poster presentation a series of known damaging 18th-century floods, occurred at Pest, is presented, the short-term impacts (e.g. damages), and medium-, long-term administrative responses as well as related long-term landscape changes influenced by floods and flood protection are discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to present the main reasons why in the 18th century these great ice jam floods caused much greater damages (e.g. percentage of collapsed houses in suburbs) in Pest protected by dams than, for example, in the Buda suburbs with no dams, partly also located in high flood-risk areas, in the immediate

  19. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  20. [Genealogy of the Books of Practica medicinae in Europe before the End of 18th Century: From the Origin to the Disappearance].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2015-09-01

    The Practica medicinae represented the books written in Europe before the end of 18th century that dealt with individual deseases. In total, 100 Practica books, written by 95 authors, were collected and divided into four periods from the early 11th to the end of 18th century. The first Practica book was written at the Salernitan medical school on the basis of ancient medical books in the basic style, dealing with regional deseases arranged in "a capite ad calcem" manner, as well as with the fevers. The basic style comprised a majority in the first period and decreased gradually, becoming a minority in the 3rd and 4th periods. Sennert's practica was the largest and it elaborated with precise construction. The additional categories, such as female, children, and surgical deseases increased in the later periods. Those written in non-basic style based on pathogenesis or in alphabetical order also increased in the later periods. The practica books changed slightly and gradually, indicating the essential consistency of the concepts of diseases in these periods. PMID:26775338

  1. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France. PMID:23376265

  2. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  3. [Inadequate burials as an important factor in plague epidemic amongst Serbs in the Habsburg monarchy by the end of the 18th century: a historical analysis].

    PubMed

    Vasin, Goran; Božanić, Snežana; Božić, Milica Kisić

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the archaic customs of burying the deceased in Srem, primarily amongst Serbs, in the second half of the 18th century is the essential part of the paper that aims at clarifying the consequences of this negative habit onto the spreading of plague epidemic. The Austrian Empire tried to stop and prevent the epidemic with an array of legal norms, but in practice, these orders were often not upheld. Serbian Metropolitans Pavle Nenadović and Stefan Stratimirović insisted on eradicating superstition and retrograde, often uncivilized actions in burial rituals, and they partially succeeded. The example of plague in Irig and the surroundings in 1795-1796 explicitly shows the hazardous effects of the inadequate attitude towards the deceased as one of the factors in spreading the epidemic. Using primary archives, and published sources, with adequate literature, authors depict this complex historical process. PMID:25731012

  4. Changes in annual precipitation over the Earth's land mass excluding Antarctica from the 18th century to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijngaarden, W. A.; Syed, A.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation measurements made at nearly 1000 stations located in 114 countries were studied. Each station had at least 100 years of observations resulting in a dataset comprising over 1½ million monthly precipitation amounts. Data for some stations extend back to the 1700s although most of the data exist for the period after 1850. The total annual precipitation was found if all monthly data in a given year were present. The percentage annual precipitation change relative to 1961-90 was plotted for 6 continents; as well as for stations at different latitudes and those experiencing low, moderate and high annual precipitation totals. The trends for precipitation change together with their 95% confidence intervals were found for various periods of time. Most trends exhibited no clear precipitation change. The global changes in precipitation over the Earth's land mass excluding Antarctica relative to 1961-90 were estimated to be: -1.2 ± 1.7, 2.6 ± 2.5 and -5.4 ± 8.1% per century for the periods 1850-2000, 1900-2000 and 1950-2000, respectively. A change of 1% per century corresponds to a precipitation change of 0.09 mm/year.

  5. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of house paint and wallpaper samples from an 18th century historic property.

    PubMed

    Harroun, S G; Bergman, J; Jablonski, E; Brosseau, C L

    2011-09-01

    Conservation efforts for heritage buildings require a substantial knowledge of the chemical makeup of materials that were used throughout the lifetime of the property. In particular, conservators are often concerned with the identification of colorants used in both interior and exterior wall treatments (paint, wallpaper, etc.) in order to gain perspective into how the building may have appeared during a certain time period in its existence. Ideally, such an analysis requires a technique that provides molecular level information as to the identity of the colorant as well as other sample components (binders, fillers, etc.), which is useful for dating purposes. In addition, the technique should be easily applied to paint layer samples which can be extremely thin and fragile. Herein we report the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis of paint and wallpaper samples taken from exterior and interior surfaces of a historic building. Several pigments were identified in the samples, which ranged from early inorganic pigments (lead white, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, anhydrous chromium(III) oxide) which have been used in house paints for centuries, to a more modern pigment (phthalocyanine blue), developed in the middle of the 20th century. This analysis highlights the usefulness of SERS in such a conservation effort, and demonstrates for the first time pigment identification in house paints and wallpaper using SERS, which has far-reaching implications not only in the field of conservation, but also in forensics, industrial process control, and environmental health and safety. PMID:21267481

  6. BACCHUS temperature reconstruction for the period 16th to 18th centuries from Viennese and Klosterneuburg grape harvest dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, C.; Koch, E.; Hammerl, C.; Hammerl, T.; Pokorny, E.

    2009-11-01

    In the scientific project "Klosterneuburg Wine and Climate Change in Lower Austria" (BACCHUS), we focused on developing a grape harvest date (GHD) time series for the period 1523-2007 in the area of and around Vienna, one of the northeasternmost regions in Europe where vines are grown professionally. Since grape harvest dates are strongly influenced by spring to (early) summer temperatures, especially in a vine-growing region at a climatic border, we found highly significant correlation coefficients between homogenized multiple monthly mean temperatures at Vienna, Hohe Warte, and GHD. For example, correlation values reach -0.76 (p = 0.01) between GHD and April to July mean temperature or -0.79 (p = 0.01) between GHD and May to July mean temperature. This made it possible to reconstruct May to July mean temperatures, starting in 1523. The years from 1775 to 1850 were used as calibration period for determining the temperature sensitivity of GHD, as the running correlation coefficients (10 year moving window) were most pronounced in this period, varying between almost -1 and -0.7 (p = 0.05). We found warm decades in the 16th century, at the beginning of our series, which were as warm as the 1990s. Afterwards the mean May to July temperatures started to drop; the coldest decade of the record was from 1771 to 1780. A constant temperature increase for more than 30 years, as from the 1970s to the present, seems to be unprecedented during the last 470 years.

  7. Identification of animal glue species in artworks using proteomics: application to a 18th century gilt sample.

    PubMed

    Dallongeville, Sophie; Koperska, Monika; Garnier, Nicolas; Reille-Taillefert, Geneviève; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2011-12-15

    This study proposes a proteomic-based strategy for the identification of the origin species of glues used as binding media and adhesives in artworks. The methodology, based on FTICR high resolution mass spectrometry, was evaluated on glues from different animal origin (i.e., bovine, rabbit, and fish). The analysis of the peptide mixture resulting from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the proteins led to the identification of species-specific peptides. Up to 15 specific peptides were identified for the bovine species and three for the rabbit species and, in the case of sturgeon glue, three fish-specific peptides were found by sequence homology to the rainbow trout. Then, the method was applied to authenticate different rabbit skin glue samples, including a 100 year-old sample named "Colle à Doreurs" coming from the "Maison Totin-Frères". For this sample, two specific peptides of rabbit collagen were identified. To evaluate the method in a complex matrix, model paints composed of lead white, linseed oil, and animal glue were prepared. Species-specific peptides were identified in each paint sample. Finally, a gilt sample from St Maximin church dating from the eighteenth century was analyzed, and 13 peptides specific to bovine collagens were identified starting from very low sample amount (50 μg). PMID:22014085

  8. Structural and behavioural changes in the short term preventive check in the northwest Balkans in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hammel, E A; Galloway, P R

    2000-03-01

    Fertility responded negatively to grain insufficiency (proxied by grain price increases), and mortality responded positively in Croatia-Slavonia-Srem in the 18th and 19th centuries, as in most of Europe. Shifts in the intensity and timing of these responses occurred over time as social and economic structures changed. Shifts in the elasticity of fertility with respect to grain supply inversely mimic and lag changes in the elasticity of mortality. Both appear to be induced by increasing land shortage, the collapse of feudalism, and differences in the patterns of adjustment to post-feudal conditions among former civil and military serfs. Generally, responses are stronger for civil and former civil serfs, who may have been in less favorable economic circumstances than the military. Fertility responses in the year of a price shock come to dominate those in the year following, suggesting a shift from contraception to abortion as economic and social conditions apparently worsened and strategies of control intensified. Analysis of monthly responses supports the conjecture based on the annual responses. The shift to the preventive check and strength of the preventive check in the same year as the price shock is unusual in Europe and beyond. Analysis is based on 25 parishes and employs lagged annual and monthly time series analysis with corrections for autocorrelation, in combination with ethnographic and historical data. PMID:12159002

  9. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation. PMID:26653740

  10. Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes studied using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin.

    PubMed

    Latour, Gaël; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Soulier, Balthazar; Emond, Isabelle; Vaiedelich, Stéphane; Elias, Mady

    2009-11-20

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is especially attractive for the study of cultural heritage artifacts because it is noninvasive and nondestructive. We have developed an original full-field time-domain OCT system dedicated to the investigation of varnished and painted artifacts: an interferometric Mirau objective allows one to perform the scan without moving the works of art. The axial and transverse high resolution (respectively, 1.5 and 1 microm) are well adapted to the detection of the investigated structures (pigment grains, wood fibers, etc.). The illumination spectrum is in the visible range (centered at 630 nm, 150 nm wide) to potentially allow us to perform spectroscopic OCT on pigment particles. The examination of wood samples coated with a traditional finish, demonstrates the ability of the system to detect particles, characterize layers thickness, and image the three-dimensional wood structures below the varnishes. OCT has finally been applied to study in situ the coated wood surface of an 18th century Italian violin and provides important information for its conservation treatment. PMID:19935970

  11. The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.

    PubMed

    Soyer, François

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality. PMID:25022623

  12. "Do Not Turn a Deaf Ear or a Blind Eye on Me, as I Am Your Son": New Conceptions of Childhood and Parenthood in 18th- and 19th-Century Jewish Letter-Writing Manuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogman, Tal

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the cultural functions of Hebrew letter-writing manuals published in German-speaking countries in the 18th and 19th centuries, aimed at young people. I argue that these books, which were used frequently as textbooks for studying Hebrew writing, conveyed modern ideological values and at the same time corresponded to the…

  13. The Problem of Longitude in the 18th Century: Jorge Juan, Antonio de Ulloa and the Expedition of the Paris Academy of Sciences to the Kingdom of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, naval officers of the Spanish Navy in the Midshipmen's Royal Academy were appointed to take part in one of the most important scientific expeditions of the 18th century. The question of the shape of the Earth, of vital importance for navigation, was solved by the Paris Academy of Sciences by request of Louis XV of France in 1735. The aim was to determine the form of the ellipsoid that Newton had described in the 17th century for any spherical and homogeneous body in rotation about an axis. Two expeditions were prepared for the geodetic measures of meridian arc both in high latitudes (Lapland, Finland) and in the equatorial zone (the Kingdom of Peru); Pierre Louis Maupertuis took charge of the northern expedition whereas the second one was charged to La Condamine, along with Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. The results obtained by the Spaniards were gathered in a publication: Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú. In it, they dedicate a chapter to the determination of astronomic longitude with the only technology that was providing certain precision at the moment: the simultaneous observation of the same astronomic phenomenon in two different places. Specifically, they explain in detail in Book III: Las Observaciones de la Inmersiones y Emersiones de los satélites de Júpiter, como asimismo de los eclipses de Luna; de las cuales de deduce la Longitud de los Lugares, incluyendo las correcciones a efectuar por la variación de la declinación diaria del Sol.

  14. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) to reconstruct paleo SST during LIA (Kawakubo et al., 2014). LA-HR-ICPMS enables us to measure the long coral core rapidly. Our result shows SST variation in 17th-18th century in this area and SST declined in around 1700. This result reveals the response of Little Ice Age in the northwestern Pacific.

  15. Girls' Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century. Secondary Education in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albisetti, James C.; Goodman, Joyce; Rogers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited synthesis approaches the past three centuries with an eye to highlighting the importance of significant schools, as well as important women educators in the emergence of secondary education for girls. At the same time, each contributor pays careful attention to the specific political, cultural, and socio-economic factors that…

  16. The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2011-01-01

    The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon…

  17. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied. PMID:23923734

  18. [Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem and his contributions to the inauguration of the thalasso-therapy in Prussia in the 18th century. A medico-historical survey].

    PubMed

    Rummler, S

    2004-06-01

    This article is dedicated in remembrance of Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem, a former student of the University Frankfurt-on-Oder (Viadrina) in later eighteenth-century Germany. Friedrich Wilhelm von Halem from Aurich, was the first physician in the period of the German Enlightenment, who had introduced the thalasso-therapy as a part of a new health-conception. His pioneering achievement led to the foundation of the first health resort on the german coast of the North-Sea in Norderney (East Frisian Islands), May 1797. PMID:15236096

  19. Austrian-Hungarian Astronomical Observatories Run by the Society of Jesus at the Time of the 18th Century Venus Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Aspaas, Per Pippin; Bazso, Akos; Mueller, Isolde

    2013-05-01

    The Venus transit in June 1761 was the first one to be observed on a truly international scale: almost 250 astronomers followed this rare celestial event (e.g. Wulff 2012, p. 115), and at least 130 published successful observations of it (Aspaas 2012, p. 423). The present paper deals with the astronomical observatories built by the Society of Jesus in its eighteenth century "Provincia Austriae", at which the 1761 transit could be observed. Five Jesuit observatories are being presented in this context: three in today's Austria, namely, two in Vienna and one in Graz; one in Trnava in today's Slovakia and one in Cluj in today's Romania. Thereafter, we briefly examine which of these observatories submitted any Venus transit observations for publication in the appendix to Maximilian Hell's "Ephemerides astronomicae ad meridianum Vindobonensem" for the year 1762.

  20. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century

    PubMed Central

    HICKMAN, CLARE

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper — the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter’s Earl’s Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner’s house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces. PMID:26052165

  1. Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, S.; Jameson, R.; Etnier, M.; Flemings, M.; Bentzen, P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1969 and 1970, surveys of the endangered Yuma Clapper Rail were conducted using taped calls to elicit responses from the birds. During the two summers, more than 158 Yuma clappers were located in cattailtule marshes along the Colorado River south of Needles, California, to the International Boundary, a distance of about 240 miles. Clappers (probably of the same race) were also found in estuarian marshes of the Colorado River Delta of Mexico; in the Salton Sea; in two freshwater marsh areas near Phoenix, Arizona; and in two freshwater marshes adjacent to the lower Gila River near Tacna, Arizona.....Populations of Sonora Clapper Rails were discovered as permanent residents in five separate mangrove swamps along the west coast of Mexico in the vicinity of Kino Bay, Sonora. These observations were farther north than any heretofore reported for the race R. l. rhizophorae, and the swamps also represent the extreme northward limit of mangroves in Sonora.....During the winter, Yuma clappers did not respond to taped calls north of the International Boundary, whereas clappers along the coast of Sonora readily answered the calls during the same period of time. We conclude that most Yuma Clapper Rails migrate from their summer habitat along the Colorado River in September and do not return to the breeding areas until late April.

  2. History of individuals of the 18th/19th centuries stored in bones, teeth, and hair analyzed by LA-ICP-MS--a step in attempts to confirm the authenticity of Mozart's skull.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Christina; Reiter, Christian; Patzak, Beatrix; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A cranium stored in the Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg/Austria which is believed to be that of Mozart, and skeletal remains of suspected relatives which have been excavated from the Mozart family grave in the cemetery in Salzburg, have been subjected to scientific investigations to determine whether or not the skull is authentic. A film project by the Austrian television ORF in collaboration with Interspot Film on this issue was broadcast at the beginning of the "Mozart year 2006". DNA analysis could not clarify relationships among the remains and, therefore, assignment of the samples was not really possible. In our work this skull and excavated skeletal remains have been quantified for Pb, Cr, Hg, As, and Sb content by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain information about the living conditions of these individuals. A small splinter of enamel (less than 1 mm(3)) from a tooth of the "Mozart cranium" was also available for investigation. Quantification was performed by using spiked hydroxyapatite standards. Single hair samples which are recorded to originate from Mozart have also been investigated by LA-ICP-MS and compared with hair samples of contemporary citizens stored in the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna. In general, Pb concentrations up to approximately 16 mug g(-1) were found in the bone samples of 18th century individuals (a factor of 7 to 8 higher than in recent samples) reflecting elevated Pb levels in food or beverages. Elevated Pb levels were also found in hair samples. The amount of Sb in the enamel sample of the "Mozart cranium" (approx. 3 mug g(-1)) was significantly higher than in all the other tooth samples investigated, indicating possible Sb ingestion in early childhood. Elevated concentrations of elements in single hair samples gave additional information about possible exposure of the individuals to heavy metals at a particular point in their life. PMID:17429616

  3. A Multi-Analytical Approach for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Conservation-Restoration Treatment of Moroccan Historical Manuscripts Dating to the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Kerbal, Abdelali; Kajjout, Mohamed; Doumenq, Pierre; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The most critical steps during the conservation-restoration treatment applied in Moroccan libraries are the deacidification using immersion in a saturated aqueous calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution and the consolidation of degraded manuscripts using Japanese paper. The present study aims to assess the efficiency of this restoration method using a multi-analytical approach. For this purpose, three ancient Arabic Moroccan manuscript papers dating back to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were investigated to characterize the paper support and make a comparative study between pre-restoration and post-restoration states. Three structural and molecular characterization techniques including solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on (13)C with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP-MAS NMR), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to elucidate the cellulose main features, to identify the inorganic composition of the papers, and to study the crystallinity of the samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) allowed us to obtain a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the mineral fillers used in the manufacturing of the papers. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) ascertained the state of conservation of the different papers and helped us to study the elemental composition of the samples. After restoration, it was shown that the deacidification improved the stability of papers by providing an important alkaline buffer, as demonstrated using FT-IR and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results. However, XRD and ICP-AES did not confirm the pertinence of the treatment for all samples because of the unequal distribution of Ca on the paper surface during the restoration. The consolidation process was studied using SEM analysis; its effectiveness in restoring

  4. Organic Education in Public Schools of Late Nineteenth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    Organic education, which was introduced into the United States during the last third of the 19th century, was based upon Froebel's ideal of life as a connected whole. The late 19th century was a favorable period for innovation, for its economic prosperity made leaders feel that with the use of scientific methods anything was possible, and its…

  5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) ELEVATION DURING EXCAVATION OF 18TH CENTURY BASEMENT ENTRY WELL AND DRAINAGE SYSTEM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Belair, Tulip Grove Drive, Belair-at-Bowie, Bowie, Prince George's County, MD

  6. Late 18th to early 19th century sea-level history and inter-seismic behavior along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt recorded by coral microatolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sze-Chieh; Shyu, J. Bruce H.

    2016-04-01

    Along the western Myanmar plate boundary belt, the Indian-Australian plate is subducting obliquely beneath the Burma micro-plate at a rate of about 23 mm/yr. Although information about the 1762 Arakan earthquake, the only major historical event occurred along this plate boundary belt, has been delineated recently from uplifted coastal features, constraints on the inter-seismic behavior of this belt is still very limited, due to the lack of high resolution instrumental records in the area. Therefore, we utilized coral microatolls to analyze relative sea level history, in order to obtain potential information of land-level change along the western coast of Myanmar. Our sample was collected from northwestern Ramree Island, approximately 80 km away from the trench. Previous studies suggest that the coral was uplifted and killed during a local earthquake event in 1848, and recorded relative sea level history of ~80 years prior to that event. Since the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls is constrained within a few centimeters of the lowest tide level of the area, the patterns of annual growth bands of the coral microatoll in x-radiograph provide us yearly record of relative sea level, and we used U-Th dating technique to constrain the age of the coral. Our results show that this coral microatoll may have recorded the inter-seismic subsidence of northwestern Ramree Island, punctuated by several climatic events that produced die-down records of the coral growth bands. We hope the data obtained from this coral microatoll, combined with previously reported information of the area, will enable us to further understand the seismic behavior of this major plate boundary belt.

  7. The heliospheric Hale cycle over the last 300 years and its implications for a "lost" late 18th century solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Mathew J.; McCracken, Ken G.; Lockwood, Mike; Barnard, Luke

    2015-09-01

    A Hale cycle, one complete magnetic cycle of the Sun, spans two complete Schwabe cycles (also referred to as sunspot and, more generally, solar cycles). The approximately 22-year Hale cycle is seen in magnetic polarities of both sunspots and polar fields, as well as in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays reaching Earth, with odd- and even-numbered solar cycles displaying qualitatively different waveforms. Correct numbering of solar cycles also underpins empirical cycle-to-cycle relations which are used as first-order tests of stellar dynamo models. There has been much debate about whether the unusually long solar cycle 4 (SC4), spanning 1784-1799, was actually two shorter solar cycles combined as a result of poor data coverage in the original Wolf sunspot number record. Indeed, the group sunspot number does show a small increase around 1794-1799 and there is evidence of an increase in the mean latitude of sunspots at this time, suggesting the existence of a cycle "4b". In this study, we use cosmogenic radionuclide data and associated reconstructions of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) to show that the Hale cycle has persisted over the last 300 years and that data prior to 1800 are more consistent with cycle 4 being a single long cycle (the "no SC4b" scenario). We also investigate the effect of cycle 4b on the HMF using an open solar flux (OSF) continuity model, in which the OSF source term is related to sunspot number and the OSF loss term is determined by the heliospheric current sheet tilt, assumed to be a simple function of solar cycle phase. The results are surprising; Without SC4b, the HMF shows two distinct peaks in the 1784-1799 interval, while the addition of SC4b removes the secondary peak, as the OSF loss term acts in opposition to the later rise in sunspot number. The timing and magnitude of the main SC4 HMF peak is also significantly changed by the addition of SC4b. These results are compared with the cosmogenic isotope reconstructions of HMF and historical aurora records. These data marginally favour the existence of SC4b (the "SC4b" scenario), though the result is less certain than that based on the persistence of the Hale cycle. Thus while the current uncertainties in the observations preclude any definitive conclusions, the data favour the "no SC4b" scenario. Future improvements to cosmogenic isotope reconstructions of the HMF, through either improved modelling or additional ice cores from well-separated geographic locations, may enable questions of the existence of SC4b and the phase of Hale cycle prior to the Maunder minimum to be settled conclusively.

  8. From Poverty to Prosperity: The Impact of Socio-Economic Change on Finnish Elementary Education in the Late 18th and Early 19th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikonen, Risto

    2004-01-01

    The present study describes the private pursuit of improved Finnish elementary education in the time of Gustavus (1771-1808). In those days, the Government did not have enough resources to reorganise the Swedish educational system as a whole; therefore, the most efficient way to promote elementary education was to rely on private initiatives. The…

  9. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY SKETCH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY SKETCH OF EXTERIOR From King's Hand-Book of Boston, fourth edition Photocopy by Jack E. Boucher, February 1962 - Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association, Exhibition Hall, Huntington Avenue & West Newton Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 18th International Mouse Genome Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Darla R Miller

    2005-07-01

    The 18th International Mouse Genome Conference was held in Seattle, WA, US on October 18-22,2004. The meeting was partially supported by the Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER63851. Abstracts can be seen at imgs.org and the summary of the meeting was published in “Mammalian Genome”, Vol 16, Number 7, Pages 471-475.

  11. 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, William M

    2005-08-01

    The 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held at the Princess Sofia Hotel in Barcelona, Spain, from 11th-14th April, 2005. This is a yearly international meeting sponsored by the International Society for Antiviral Research (ISAR). The current president of ISAR is John A Secrest 3rd of the Southern Research Institute. The scientific programme committee was chaired by John C Drach from the University of Michigan. ISAR was founded in 1987 to exchange prepublication basic, applied and clinical information on the development of antiviral, chemical and biological agents as well as to promote collaborative research. The ISAR has had a major role in the significant advances of the past decade in the reduction of the societal burdens of viral diseases by the focus of ICAR on the discovery and clinical application of antiviral agents. The 18th ICAR was organised as a series of focus presentations on specific viral groups consisting of oral and poster presentations of original research findings. In addition, the conference included plenary speakers, award presentations, a minisymposium on bioterrorism, and a satellite symposium on clinical antiviral drug developments. The size of the conference (> 50 oral and 250 poster presentations) necessitates limitation to the most noteworthy in the judgment of this reviewer. The current membership of the ISAR is approximately 700 with approximately 50% the membership in attendance. PMID:16086663

  12. 8. 1770 S. CANALPORT & 530 W. 18TH STREET. SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. 1770 S. CANALPORT & 530 W. 18TH STREET. SOUTH FRONT MAIN ENTRY OF 1770 CANALPORT & SOUTHEAST CORNER OF 530 W. 18TH STREET. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Peter Schoenhofen Brewery, West Eighteenth Street & Canalport Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. The nature of plague in late eighteenth-century Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mikhail, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This article uses an examination of the 1791 plague in Egypt to explore the relationships among disease, famine, flood, drought, and death in late eighteenth-century Egypt. It analyzes how plague functioned as part of a regular biophysical pathology of the environment in which the disease came and went as one iteration in a cycle that included famine, wind, flood, drought, price inflation, and revolt. Using the works of Egyptian chroniclers, archival materials, secondary studies, and traveler accounts, this article integrates plague into the study of the Egyptian environment by showing how it was a regular and expected part of life in Egypt. PMID:18622069

  14. Problema vizual'noj registratsii nablyudenij v opticheskoj astronomii XVII-XVIII vekov %t Problem of visual registration of observations in optical astronomy in the 17th-18th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Kostantin V.

    This paper attempts to explain the growth of optical astronomy as a result of more general social and cultural change in European life during the two post-Renaissance centuries. It shows how the introduction of optical instruments into astronomical work was accompanied (and partly conditioned) by a few nonastronomical practices, such as collecting unusual things and their images, producing illusionary effects by means of optical devices, manufacturing pictures that could disturb the common visual perception, etc. The paper draws particular attention to the practices of manipulation with visual images that could help to introduce "illusionary" optical knowledge into making "true" drawings from natural objects, including celestial ones. In this way, the formation of new astronomical language can be understood as closely connected to the explicit formulation of technological instructions and legal rules for making copies from natural objects, as well as the general development of printing production and broadening of the market of printed illustrations. These often not enough co-ordinated practices stipulated the shift of optical astronomy into a significant part of seigniorial culture, where it obtained recognition as an essentially new and elite knowledge, associated with particular technological vigilance. During the transition of European monarchies into the absolutist social order, astronomy, on a level with other court services, assumed a shape of professional occupation supplied with certain monetary salaries, a stable position in official hierarchy, and supreme privileges. This was the way by which astronomy merged with the other natural studies and became one of the publicly recognised scientific disciplines.

  15. Peterburgskaya akademiya nauk v XVIII v. i ee pol' v rasprostranenii N'yutonianstva na kontinente Evropy %t Petersburg Academy of Sciences of 18th century and its role in the dissemination of Newtonianism in teh continental Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevskaya, N. I.

    "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" by I. Newton were published and immediately recognized in England in 1687. However in countries of the continental Europe up to 1744 dominated the Cartesianism. Few newtonians were exposed to persecutions. Under such circumstances in 1724 Peter The Great decided to found an Academy of sciences in Russia. Since in this country there were no scientists, it was decided to invite them from the continental Europe. Two scientists arrived to Russia were newtonians. Other just were graduated from universities and had no hope for scientific work in their native lands. This situation turned out to be rather happy. The newtonians - J. N. Delisle and J. Hermann - trained the youth (D. Bernoulli, L. Euler, F. Ch. Mayer, G. W. Krafft, A. D. Kantemir, G. W. Richmann, M. V. Lomonosov, N. I. Popov, V. K. Trediakovskij, A. D. Krasilnikov etc.). They created the science of Russia and enhanced the doctrine of Newton. Their scientific works were printed in "Commentarii" in Latin. The newspaper "St.-Petersburg sheets" and its appendix, the magazine "Notes on the Sheet" (issued in Russian and German) - published the works of Petersburg Academy of sciences and promoted the Newtonianism. Everyone, who could read in German, used these materials. One of the readers was I. Kant. He relied upon these publications in preparing his lectures at Königsberg University, and then later, in working out the cosmogony theory. The works of J. N. Delisle, L. Euler and A. C. Clairaut on the theory of comets' and planets' movement justified Newtons doctrine. They also forced J. Cassini to accept the doctrine as well. Delisle's papers on the history of astronomy published there are helpful for understanding of the history of development the astronomy. The books of J. F. Weidler "A history of astronomy" (1741) and "Astronomical bibliography" (1755) formed the basis for all histories of astronomy in the XVIII-XIX centuries.

  16. The Observing Eye: A Century of Baby Diaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Doris B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Identifies three categories of baby diaries--scientific, educational, and domestic--prevalent from the late 18th to late 19th century in Western Europe and the United States. Discusses the diarists and recurring themes in the diaries, such as the nature of instinctive behaviors and recapitulationism. Explores contemporary uses of the diary method.…

  17. Lightning and Gunpowder in the 18th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krider, E. P.

    2006-12-01

    On or before June, 1751, Benjamin Franklin and co-workers showed that gunpowder could be ignited by a small electric spark, and subsequently people used gunpowder to enhance the explosions of "thunder houses" to demonstrate that grounded metallic rods would protect model structures against lightning damage. Even before the sentry box and kite experiments proved that thunderclouds are electrified and that lightning is an electrical discharge in 1752, Franklin had hypothesized that a tall, well-grounded conductor might reduce or prevent lightning damage by silently discharging the cloud, and if a discharge did occur, then the tall rod would offer a preferred place for the lightning to strike, and the grounding conductors would guide the current into the ground in a harmless fashion. Over the next 10 years, experience gained through practice showed that grounded rods did indeed protect ordinary structures from lightning damage, but a question remained about the best way to protect gunpowder magazines. In 1762, Franklin recommended a tall "mast not far from it, which may reach 15 or 20 feet above the top of it, with a thick iron rod in one piece fastened to it, pointed at the highest end, and reaching down through the earth till it comes to water," and in 1772 he made a similar recommendation for protecting the British powder magazine at Purfleet. In 1780, Jan Ingenhousz asked Franklin to "communicate to me some short hints, which may occur to you about the most convenient manner of constructing gun powder magazines, the manner of preserving the powder from moisture and securing the building in the best manner from the effects of lightning." In his reply, Franklin detailed a method of protection that is almost perfect, "they should be constructed in the Ground; that the Walls should be lin'd with Lead, the Floor Lead, all 1/4 Inch thick & the Joints well solder'd; the Cover Copper; with a little Scuttle to enter, the whole in the Form of a Canister for Tea. If the Edges of the Cover scuttle fall into a Copper Channel containing Mercury, not the smallest Particle of Air or Moisture can enter to the Powder, even tho' the Walls stood in Water, or the whole was under Water." In 1876, the Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, made almost exactly the same recommendation for protecting against lightning, a method known today as a "Faraday cage."

  18. Surgery and national identity in late nineteenth-century Vienna

    PubMed Central

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    For historians of medicine, the professor Theodor Billroth of the University of Vienna was the leading European surgeon of late nineteenth century and the personification of intervention by organ or body part removal. For social and political historians, he was a German nationalist whose book on medical education heralded the rise of anti-Semitism in the Austrian public sphere. This article brings together and critically reassesses these two hitherto separate accounts to show how, in a period of dramatic social and political change, Viennese surgery split into two camps. One, headed by Billroth, was characterized by an alliance with the German educational model, German nationalism leading to racial anti-Semitism and an experimental approach to the construction of surgical procedure, which heavily relied on the methods of pathological physiology. The other, which followed a long Austrian tradition, stood for a clinically-oriented and strictly organized medical education that catered to an ethnically and socially diverse population and, simultaneously, for an anatomically oriented surgery, largely of the locomotor apparatus. This study shows how, in a major centre of medical education and capital of a multiethnic empire, surgical and national identities were forged together. PMID:18053931

  19. Surgery and national identity in late nineteenth-century Vienna.

    PubMed

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2007-12-01

    For historians of medicine, the professor Theodor Billroth of the University of Vienna was the leading European surgeon of the late nineteenth century and the personification of intervention by organ or body part removal. For social and political historians, he was a German nationalist whose book on medical education heralded the rise of anti-Semitism in the Austrian public sphere. This article brings together and critically reassesses these two hitherto separate accounts to show how, in a period of dramatic social and political change, Viennese surgery split into two camps. One, headed by Billroth, was characterized by an alliance with the German educational model, German nationalism leading to racial anti-Semitism and an experimental approach to the construction of surgical procedure, which heavily relied on the methods of pathological physiology. The other, which followed a long Austrian tradition, stood for a clinically oriented and strictly organized medical education that catered to an ethnically and socially diverse population and, simultaneously, for an anatomically oriented surgery, largely of the locomotor apparatus. This study shows how, in a major centre of medical education and capital of a multiethnic empire, surgical and national identities were forged together. PMID:18053931

  20. [Medicine and orientalism in the late nineteenth century Korea].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2002-06-01

    The paper investigates medical missionaries that exerted a significant role in establishing Western medicine in the late nineteenth century Chosun, in relation to orientalism, an academically popularized concept introduced by Edward Said. Historical analysis is focused on several important medical missionaries such as Horace N. Allen, William B. Scranton, John W. Heron, C. C. Vinton, and Oliver R. Avison to explain how their activism as medical missionary contributed to the formation of medical orientalism in which Western medicine was 'taught, studied, administered, and judged' in that period. In addition, I explore into how medical orientalism was in service of Japanese imperialism by showing that medical missionaries had to be under imperial surveillance by Japanese colonizers. The article explores the medical system of the Koryo Dynasty period and its social characteristics. First, the structure of medical system and roles of medical institutions during the Koryo Dynasty period will be summarized. Then the characteristics of the medical system will be identified through exploring the principles of its formation in a view of social recognition of medical care and a view of social recognition of medical care and a view of public policy. PMID:12619648

  1. Modern solar maximum forced late twentieth century Greenland cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, T.; Box, J. E.; Vinther, B. M.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Blunier, T.; White, J. W. C.; Nakaegawa, T.; Andresen, C. S.

    2015-07-01

    The abrupt Northern Hemispheric warming at the end of the twentieth century has been attributed to an enhanced greenhouse effect. Yet Greenland and surrounding subpolar North Atlantic remained anomalously cold in 1970s to early 1990s. Here we reconstructed robust Greenland temperature records (North Greenland Ice Core Project and Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2) over the past 2100 years using argon and nitrogen isotopes in air trapped within ice cores and show that this cold anomaly was part of a recursive pattern of antiphase Greenland temperature responses to solar variability with a possible multidecadal lag. We hypothesize that high solar activity during the modern solar maximum (approximately 1950s-1980s) resulted in a cooling over Greenland and surrounding subpolar North Atlantic through the slowdown of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation with atmospheric feedback processes.

  2. Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late nineteenth century

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.; Bevan, A.; Jones, P.D.

    1994-07-20

    The authors present global fields of decadal annual surface temperature anomalies, referred to the period 1951-1980, for each decade from 1881-1890 to 1981-1990 and for 1984-1993. In addition, they show decadal calendar-seasonal anomaly fields for the warm decades 1936-1945 and 1981-1990. The fields are based on sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface air temperature data. The SSTs are corrected for the pre-World War II use of uninsulated sea temperature buckets and incorporate adjusted satellite-based SSTs from 1982 onward. These results extend those published in the 1990 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Scientific Assessment. Despite poor data coverage initially and around the two World Wars the generally cold end of the nineteenth century and start to the twentieth century are confirmed, together with the substantial warming between about 1920 and 1940. Slight cooling of the northern hemisphere took place between the 1950s and the mid-1970s, although slight warming continued south of the equator. Recent warmth has been most marked over the northern continents in winter and spring, but the 1980s were warm almost everywhere apart from Greenland, the northwestern Atlantic and the midlatitude North Pacific. Parts of the middle- to high-latitude southern ocean may also have been cool in the 1980s, but in this area the 1951-1980 climatology is unreliable. The impact of the satellite data is reduced because the record of blended satellite and in situ SST is still too short to yield a climatology from which to calculate representative anomalies reflecting climatic change in the southern ocean. However, the authors propose a method of using existing satellite data in a step toward this target. The maps are condensed into global and hemispheric decadal surface temperature anomalies. The authors show the sensitivity of these estimated anomalies to alternative methods of compositing the spatially incomplete fields. 58 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. A study on the size of the Chinese population in the middle and late eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    1997-01-01

    This study aimed to correct errors in the estimation of the change in population size in China, during the Qing Dynasty (1741-1799). Data were obtained from household census records, the "True Facts of the Qing Dynasty" (Qing Shi Lu), and other historical records of minority, religious, and military population groups. Census records after 1740 included the number of household members instead of registered adult males aged 16-59. During 1741-75, the annual average growth rate was 13.2%. The growth rate during 1742-43 was 15.9% higher than the national average, a measure of undercounts. Underreporting was considered a problem throughout the entire study period. Undercounts in Gansu, Jiangxi, and Hubei provinces are described. Rates and underreporting varied between 30-50% in provinces. The annual average geometric growth rate during 1741-75 was an estimated 14.22%. The growth rate was 8.7% during 1776-94. It is unlikely that growth rates declined in the latter part of the century. The author adjusts figures after 1776 for undercounts of 5.52% annually. The total population undercount of 8 Manshu Banners (9.5 million), other ethnic minorities not registered (6 million), and monks, nuns, priests, and soldiers of the Green Standard (3.6 million) is an estimated 19.1 million. The adjusted total population is 388,150,057 in 1799. The annual growth rate of 14% during 1741-99 was much higher than the global growth rate of 3-5%. The 14% growth rate is likely when the birth rate is 35-38% and the mortality rate is around 20%, rates which agree with 20th century rates. Population growth in the 18th century had far reaching implications for today's population size. PMID:12294141

  4. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  5. Stratospheric Ozone Predictions For The Late 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Oman, L.

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of ozone evolution from 1960 until ~2100 from chemistry climate models (CCMs) that participated in CCMVal-2 are broadly consistent in that stratospheric ozone increases as chlorofluorcarbons decrease and the stratosphere cools (which affects the rate of temperature dependent loss processes), however, details of the projections vary significantly. Differences in the ozone response to specified changes in chlorine containing source gases dominate during the first half of the integrations. For example, from 1980 to 2000, chlorine change is by far the most important cause of ozone change, and the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average column ozone that range between -3 DU and -17 DU. In the second half of the 21st century climate change is primarily responsible for ozone change. By 2080 the CCMs produce changes in the 60S-60N average upper stratospheric ozone column that range from 4 DU to 10 DU. The CCM range of differences is due to differences in both composition and upper stratospheric temperature. Ozone loss processes each have their own temperature sensitivity, and the net sensitivity of ozone to temperature change in each CCM depends on the relative importance of each loss process; this depends on the composition and temperature for the baseline atmosphere. In the lower stratosphere, climate change affects ozone evolution through changes in photochemical reaction rates due to stratospheric cooling and through circulation differences affecting transport of ozone and other trace gases. These are not separable using an approach such as multiple linear regression because changes in circulation and temperature have the same time dependence after accounting for contributions due to chlorine change. Recent attention has focused on similarity of the CCMs in that all predict a speed-up of the Brewer Dobson circulation. However, differences in the magnitude of the speed-up, differences in horizontal mixing and differences in the photochemical response to

  6. "The Business of Life": Educating Catholic Deaf Children in Late Nineteenth-Century England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangion, Carmen M.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the debates in late nineteenth-century Britain regarding the education of deaf children revolved around communication. For many Victorians, sign language was unacceptable; many proponents of oralism attempted to "normalise" the hearing impaired by replacing deaf methods of communication with spoken language and lipreading. While debates on…

  7. Dragons in English: The Great Change of the Late Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheetham, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The impetus for the incredible variety found in the modern literary dragon is commonly seen to stem from the creative genius of either E. Nesbit or Kenneth Grahame. However, examination of dragon stories in the late nineteenth century shows that several different authors, on both sides of the Atlantic, were producing similar stories at about the…

  8. 1. COPY OF A LATE 19TH CENTURY BUSINESS CARD FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. COPY OF A LATE 19TH CENTURY BUSINESS CARD FOR A. ALEXANDER & SON FLOURING MILLS. CARD OWNED BY THOMAS R. WILSON. Photographer: Berni Rich, Score Photographers, September 1986. - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. Converting the Rosebud: Sicangu Lakota Catholicism in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a number of the dominant features of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Indian Catholicism on the Rosebud Reservation, focusing primarily on the Sicangu's responses to the significant differences between their traditional religious customs and the beliefs, rituals, and requirements of Catholicism. It first examines…

  10. Manners of Speaking: Linguistic Capital and the Rhetoric of Correctness in Late-Nineteenth-Century America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, William Rodney, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A number of arguments appeared in the late-nineteenth-century United States about "correctness" in language, arguments for and against enforcing a standard of correctness and arguments about what should count as correct in language. Insofar as knowledge about and facility with "correct" linguistic usage could affect one's standing in the social…

  11. 10. Photocopy, WATER TOWERS, late 19th or early 20th century. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy, WATER TOWERS, late 19th or early 20th century. Original Photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF899 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  12. 12. Photocopy, BOYS' MILITARY BAND, mid or late 19th century. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy, BOYS' MILITARY BAND, mid or late 19th century. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF854 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  13. Charlotte Mason, Home Education and the Parents' National Educational Union in the Late Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bellaigue, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the work of educationist Charlotte Mason (1842-1923) to explore the practice of home education in the late nineteenth century. Mason's work reflected and responded to the particular circumstances and concerns of her clientele. She provided a way for parents to compensate for the practical deficiencies of contemporary…

  14. Observed multivariable signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, Benjamin D.; Solomon, Susan; Bonfils, Céline; Zelinka, Mark D.; Painter, Jeffrey F.; Beltran, Francisco; Fyfe, John C.; Johannesson, Gardar; Mears, Carl; Ridley, David A.; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Wentz, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively muted warming of the surface and lower troposphere since 1998 has attracted considerable attention. One contributory factor to this "warming hiatus" is an increase in volcanically induced cooling over the early 21st century. Here we identify the signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic activity in multiple observed climate variables. Volcanic signals are statistically discernible in spatial averages of tropical and near-global SST, tropospheric temperature, net clear-sky short-wave radiation, and atmospheric water vapor. Signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic eruptions are also detectable in near-global averages of rainfall. In tropical average rainfall, however, only a Pinatubo-caused drying signal is identifiable. Successful volcanic signal detection is critically dependent on removal of variability induced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

  15. Alcoholism in Romania in the Late Nineteenth Century and at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    ANDREESCU, OANA; LEAŞU, FLORIN; ROGOZEA, LILIANA

    2014-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption has been described from the earliest times, alcohol abuse has grown significantly since the mid-nineteenth century as a consequence of the industrialization progress. Due to the socio-economic profile of Romania, which was considered to be agrarian, the idea of developing mainly the industry branches belonging to agriculture was considered. Amongst these branches, the production of alcohol appeared to be the most appropriate. The political state leaders from Romania enjoyed the taxes collected from alcohol commercialization, disregarding the costs involved in alcoholism which went far beyond them. PMID:26528038

  16. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  17. 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  18. Glacier changes on South Georgia since the late-19th century documented in historical photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John; Haynes, Valerie

    2014-05-01

    South Georgia is one of the few landmasses in the Southern Ocean. It provides a crucial geographical datapoint for glacier responses to climate change over different timescales. As part of an ongoing glacier inventory of the island, we are compiling a database of historical glacier photographs. Since the late 19th century, the island has been visited by numerous scientific and survey expeditions, as well as being the land-base for a major whaling industry. Historical photographs of the island are available from the late-19th century, beginning with the 1882-83 German International Polar Year Expedition. Many more exist from the 20th century, notably from the South Georgia Surveys in the 1950s. An assessment of the value of the photographs indicates that spatial coverage is variable, many lack reference features to pinpoint glacier positions and, in the case of smaller glaciers, the presence of snowcover makes it difficult to define the ice edge. Nevertheless, the photographs provide useful corroboration of more advanced glacier positions during the late-19th century and recession of smaller mountain and valley glaciers during the mid-20th century, while larger tidewater and sea-calving glaciers generally remained in relatively advanced positions until the 1980s. Since then, nearly all the glaciers have retreated; some of these retreats have been dramatic and a number of small mountain glaciers have fragmented or disappeared. The response of the glaciers can be related to synoptic-scale warming, particularly since the 1950s, moderated by individual glacier geometry and topography.

  19. The purple coloration of four late 19th century silk dresses: A spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, Andrea L.; Cosgrove, Bronwyn; Church, Jeffrey S.

    2016-02-01

    Prior to the 19th century the use of purple dyes for textile coloration was expensive and usually limited to royalty. The discovery of several synthetic purple dyes during the 19th century made the production of purple textiles more affordable and thus more readily available. The identification of the source of the purple coloration is of historical interest. Small yarn samples from four late 19th century silk dresses were analyzed using a combination of thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This combination of techniques enabled the analysis of the complex extraction products. While three of the dresses were found to be dyed using methyl violet, the fourth dress was found to be constructed from a warp yarn dyed with methyl violet in the presence of a tannic acid mordant, and a weft yarn dyed with mauve and a tin mordant.

  20. The purple coloration of four late 19th century silk dresses: A spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, Andrea L; Cosgrove, Bronwyn; Church, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-01

    Prior to the 19th century the use of purple dyes for textile coloration was expensive and usually limited to royalty. The discovery of several synthetic purple dyes during the 19th century made the production of purple textiles more affordable and thus more readily available. The identification of the source of the purple coloration is of historical interest. Small yarn samples from four late 19th century silk dresses were analyzed using a combination of thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This combination of techniques enabled the analysis of the complex extraction products. While three of the dresses were found to be dyed using methyl violet, the fourth dress was found to be constructed from a warp yarn dyed with methyl violet in the presence of a tannic acid mordant, and a weft yarn dyed with mauve and a tin mordant. PMID:26523685

  1. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  2. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was

  3. Paths to and from poverty in late 19th century novels

    PubMed Central

    Howden‐Chapman, Philippa; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Late 19th century novels provide graphic descriptions of working and living conditions and their impact on population health, in particular the detrimental effects of hunger, poor housing, environmental conditions, hazardous work and poor pay, smoking and alcohol and crime, but also the transformative possibilities of social and political action. The popularity of these novels helped raise the collective conscience of citizens and illuminated the direction for 20th century welfare reforms. Yet many of these problems remain and the pathways to and from poverty are still recognisable today. Although novels are now less central in conveying social information, re‐reading these novels enables us to understand how social and economic circumstances were understood at the time and what led to social and political change. PMID:16415257

  4. Priestley's Shadow and Lavoisier's Influence: Electricity and Heat in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Amy

    In the late eighteenth century, Joseph Priestley argued that any complete theory of heat also had to explain electrical phenomena, which manifested many similar effects to heat. For example, sparking or heating a sample of trapped air caused a reduction in the volume of air and made the gas toxic to living organisms. Because of the complexity of electrical and thermal phenomena, Antoine Lavoisier did not address electrical action in his published works. Rather, he focused on those effects produced by heating alone. With the success of Lavoisier's caloric theory of heat, natural philosophers and chemists continued to debate the relationship between heat and electricity. In this presentation, I compare and contrast the fate of caloric in early-nineteenth-century electrical studies via the work of two scientists: Humphry Davy in Britain and Robert Hare in America.

  5. Was there a Bacteriological Revolution in late nineteenth-century medicine?

    PubMed

    Worboys, Michael

    2007-03-01

    That there was a 'Bacteriological Revolution' in medicine in the late nineteenth-century, associated with the development of germ theories of disease, is widely assumed by historians; however, the notion has not been defined, discussed or defended. In this article a characterisation is offered in terms of four linked rapid and radical changes: (i) a series of discoveries of the specific causal agents of infectious diseases and the introduction of Koch's Postulates; (ii) a reductionist and contagionist turn in medical knowledge and practice; (iii) greater authority for experimental laboratory methods in medicine; (iv) the introduction and success of immunological products. These features are then tested against developments in four important but previously neglected diseases: syphilis, leprosy, gonorrhoea and rabies. From these case-studies I conclude that the case for a Bacteriological Revolution in late nineteenth-century medicine in Britain remains unproven. I suggest that historians have read into the 1880s changes that occurred over a much longer period, and that while there were significant shifts in ideas and practices over the decade, the balance of continuities and changes was quite uneven across medicine. My argument is only for Britain; in other countries the rate and extent of change may have been different. PMID:17324807

  6. Causes for the late 19th century European floods, as simulated in ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichet, A.; Wild, M.; Folini, D.; Schär, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the late 19th century, an unusual large number of floods were recorded in central Europe, causing important damages. Different factors contributing to the occurrence of these floods have been discussed, including the anomalously high precipitation anomalies observed in central Europe. Based on the frequency and spatial pattern of these floods, previous studies suggest that changes in the large scale circulation payed a relevant role. We use an atmospheric Global Circulation Model forced with observed SSTs to test this hypothesis and identify causes for the associated atmospheric circulation pattern. We find that the reproducibility of the central European high precipitation in the late 19th century is not deterministic but probabilistic. We also show that between 1875 and 1890, transient SSTs, as opposed to climatological ones, increase the probability for high precipitation anomalies in central Europe, whereas transient aerosol emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations have almost no impact. Finally, our results suggest that between 1875 and 1890, transient SSTs enhanced central European precipitation via their impact on the atmospheric circulation, by increasing the probability to develop pressure patterns favorable for high precipitation in central Europe (namely, a low pressure system over the British Isles and a high pressure system over the North Atlantic Ocean).

  7. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others. PMID:26689938

  8. Samuel Wilmot, fish culture, and recreational fisheries in late 19th century Ontario.

    PubMed

    Knight, William

    2007-01-01

    Historians have shown that fish culturists and anglers enjoyed a mutually beneficial relationship in 19th century North America. Sharing interests in producing and protecting fish for recreation, the two groups supported emerging regimes of fisheries administration and fish culture that privileged angling and game fish species. In Ontario, it has been argued that anglers achieved control of inland fisheries with help from state fish culturist Samuel Wilmot who, as a sportsman, shared anglers' recreational perspective. A closer look at Wilmot and fish culture in late 19th century Ontario, however, reveals a more complex struggle over recreational fisheries administration. I show that game fish culture under Wilmot was subordinated to fish culture programs that supported the Great Lakes commercial fisheries. Indeed, Wilmot resisted anglers' reframing of Ontario's fisheries as a private recreational resource. By the 1890s, however, this position was unpopular with Ontario's anglers and government officials, who demanded greater provincial control over recreational fisheries and fish culture. It was only after Wilmot's retirement in 1895 that game fish culture received higher priority in Ontario with both federal and provincial governments engaging in programs of wild bass transfers. In 1899, Ontario won a share of fisheries jurisdiction and established its first provincial fisheries administration, which laid the basis for more comprehensive programs of game fish culture in the 20th century. PMID:19227681

  9. Sand Dust Weather in Beijing from the Late 19th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue Zhen; Fang, Xiuqi

    Based on an ancient Chinese diary named Weng Tonghe Diary written in the late Qing Dynasty, daily weather entries were extracted, excluding the months with more than 4 absent recording days. From the data, monthly sand dust days (SDD) and monthly colder days from 1860 to 1898 are reconstructed. Then, based on the records of complementary rainfall/sunshine days, monthly rainfall/snowfall days are reconstructed. The results reveal that sand dust weather of the later half of the 19th century is more frequent than the mid-1980s, and especially the 1990s. The monthly distribution of the past differs to the recent several decades. The spring contribution to the total frequency during the later 19th century and during the years 1961-2000 is 70 and 60%, respectively. The spring SDD is significantly correlated with local meteorological conditions during the later 19th century. However, based on the present data, it would be difficult to attribute a dynamical mechanism as the prime meteorological factor responsible for the sand dust frequency distribution.

  10. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century. PMID:26013644

  11. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  12. In Referees We Trust? Controversies over Grant Peer Review in the Late Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Melinda

    While many accounts of external refereeing assume that it has been a consistent part of science since the seventeenth century, the practice developed far more slowly and haphazardly than many observers realize, and it was not until after the Second World War that ''peer review'' became considered an essential part of scientific publishing or grant-making. This talk will explore refereeing procedures at American grant-giving organizations in the twentieth century, focusing especially on the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. The creators of the NSF and the NIH put refereeing systems in place at their foundation. However, the form and function of these systems differed from modern ''peer review'' in several important ways. At the NSF the initial purpose of the referee process was to advise the NSF program directors, not to dictate funding decisions. At the NIH, small ''study sections'' devoted to particular subjects made recommendations to the NIH leadership, which rendered final judgments. However, beginning in the 1960s a series of controversies about NIH and NSF grants placed refereeing procedures at these organizations under more intense scrutiny. These debates culminated in six days of Special Oversight Hearings into the NSF's peer review process in the summer of 1975. Following the hearings, both the NSF and NIH reformed their review processes to place more emphasis on referees' opinions about grant proposals, making peer review increasingly responsible for decision-making. These controversies illustrate that refereeing continued to undergo significant changes in form and purpose throughout the twentieth century, and further suggest that both the scientific community and the public placed increased emphasis on the role of the referee during the late twentieth century.

  13. Myelopathy among zinc-smelter workers in Upper Silesia during the late 19th century.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J; Remler, Bernd

    2014-04-01

    Zinc-induced myeloneuropathy was recently (re)discovered and its pathophysiology elaborated as resulting from secondary copper deficiency. However, myelopathy was a recognized problem among European zinc-smelter workers in the late 19th century, although these early reports have been overlooked in recent studies and reports. The purpose of this article is to translate and review German-language reports of myelopathy among zinc-smelter workers in Upper Silesia (now southern Poland) by Schlockow from the 1870s. Disease manifestations among zinc-smelter workers developed after sustained zinc exposure over many years. The earliest symptoms were sensory and included paresthesias, dysesthesias, allodynia, and formication in the lower extremities, particularly the feet. Workers ultimately developed a clinical picture resembling subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord with a spastic-ataxic gait with prominent proprioceptive impairment, sensory disequilibrium, and rombergism. PMID:24688096

  14. [Crespi d'Adda: psychosocial risk factors in a late 19th century company town].

    PubMed

    Punzi, S

    2012-01-01

    Crespi d'Adda is a late 19th century company town established around a textile factory by Cristoforo Benigno Crespi and his son Silvio. It was an ideal model of company residency being a self-sufficient microcosm equipped with all the services needed by a community where the life of workers and their families was revolving around the factory and the working requirements. It was the expression of philanthropic and patronizing enlightened entrepreneurs at that time, committed in protecting workers' life inside and outside the factory, resulting into a more affectionate and productive manpower. Silvio Benigno Crespi developed an extensive activity to improve working conditions, with special reference to accident prevention and work-related diseases, as well as night work in factories, weekly day off, reduction of working hours: we can say that in some ways he was concerned also with psychosocial risks. PMID:23405777

  15. Florentine anatomical models and the challenge of medical authority in late-eighteenth-century Vienna.

    PubMed

    Maerker, Anna

    2012-09-01

    This paper investigates the reception of a set of Florentine anatomical wax models on display at the medico-surgical academy Josephinum in late-eighteenth-century Vienna. Celebrated in Florence as tools of public enlightenment, in the Habsburg capital the models were criticised by physicians, who regarded the Josephinum and its surgeons as a threat to their medical authority. The controversy surrounding these models from the empire's periphery temporarily destabilised the relationship between surgeons and physicians in the Austrian capital. The debate on the utility of the Tuscan anatomical models in Vienna highlights the fact that the centre of the Habsburg empire was by no means medically homogeneous, and that the implementation of reforms could be as difficult to achieve in the capital as in the provinces. PMID:22580019

  16. Medical confidentiality in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: an Anglo-German comparison1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Professional secrecy of doctors became an issue of considerable medico-legal and political debate in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in both Germany and England, although the legal preconditions for this debate were quite different in the two countries. While in Germany medical confidentiality was a legal obligation and granted in court, no such statutory recognition of doctors’ professional secrecy existed in England. This paper is a comparative analysis of medical secrecy in three key areas - divorce trials, venereal disease and abortion - in both countries. Based on sources from the period between c.1870 and 1939, our paper shows how doctors tried to define the scope of professional secrecy as an integral part of their professional honour in relation to important matters of public health. PMID:21077462

  17. [THE SOCIAL HYGIENE AS A PHENOMENON OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION IN MEDICINE OF LATE XIX--FIRST HALF XX CENTURIES].

    PubMed

    Schepin, V O; Zatravkin, S N

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of analysis of works of late XIX--first quarter of XY centuries devoted to problems of social hygiene. It is established that origin of social hygiene was directly related to crucial revision of conceptions of causes and essence of diseases that created necessary conditions for transfer into medicine ideas and methods of political economy, sociology and eugenics. It is proved that origin of social hygiene was appropriate consequence of those crucial alterations in mass physician's consciousness that characterize scientific revolution in medicine of late XIX--first half XX centuries. PMID:27116831

  18. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

    2014-05-01

    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26

  19. PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

    2013-11-01

    YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of

  20. Century-scale variability in late-summer rainfall events recorded over seven centuries in subannually laminated lacustrine sediments, White Pass, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockburn, Jaclyn M. H.; Lamoureux, Scott F.

    2007-03-01

    Formation of annually laminated sediments in Summit Lake, White Pass, British Columbia is controlled by runoff generated by snowpack and glacier melt and major rainfall events. The 700-yr varve record is divided into two subannual series (early and late) based on sedimentological criteria and sedimentary structures within each varve. A comparison of recent subannual laminae with nearby meteorological records supports the interpretation they are formed by river discharge events generated by major snow and glacier melt events and large late-summer rainfall events. A significant correlation exists between the late subannual thickness series and the size of the largest rainfall events in late summer. The long record indicates there was an abrupt increase in the thickness and frequency of major rainfall-induced sedimentary events at the end of the seventeenth century. In addition, the frequency of laminae generated by early runoff events also increased. However, early subannual varve thickness component remains statistically the same as the thickness prior to the end of the seventeenth century. This suggests the change in varve thickness at this time is due to increases in major late-summer rainfall frequency rather than increased sediment availability caused by regional Little Ice Age glacier advances.

  1. EDITORIAL: 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varandas, A. J. C.

    2011-08-01

    This special section of Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (CAMOP) in Physica Scripta collects some of the papers that have been presented at the 18th European Conference on Dynamics of Molecular Systems MOLEC 2010 held in September 2010 in Curia, Portugal, as part of a series of biennial MOLEC conferences. This started in 1976 in Trento, Italy, and has continued, visiting 17 cities in 11 countries, namely Denmark, The Netherlands, Israel, France, Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, Spain, United Kingdom, Turkey and Russia. Following the MOLEC tradition, the scientific programme of the Curia meeting focused on experimental and theoretical studies of molecular interactions, collision dynamics, spectroscopy, and related fields. It included invited speakers from 22 countries, who were asked to summarize the problems reported in their presentations with the objective of revealing the current thinking of leading researchers in atomic, molecular and optical physics. It is hoped that their authoritative contributions presented in this CAMOP special section will also appeal to non-specialists through their clear and broad introductions to the field as well as references to the accessible literature. This CAMOP special section comprises ten contributions, which cover theoretical studies on the electronic structure of molecules and clusters as well as dynamics of elastic, inelastic and reactive encounters between atoms, molecules, ions, clusters and surfaces. Specifically, it includes electronic structure calculations using the traditional coupled-cluster method (Barreto et al 028111), the electron-attached equation-of-motion coupled cluster method (Hansen et al 028110), the diffusion Monte Carlo method (López-Durán et al 028107) and the path-integral Monte Carlo method (Barragán et al 028109). The contributions on molecular dynamics include on-the-fly quasi-classical trajectories on a five-atom molecule (Yu 028104), quantum reaction dynamics on triatomics

  2. Late Nineteenth Century Popular Educational Conservatism: The Work of Coalminers on the School Boards of the North-East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Brendan

    1998-01-01

    Examines educational preferences of workers in England's North-East coal mining districts in the late 19th-century. Contrasts views of worker preferences represented in the memoirs of socialist labor organizers with the preferences recorded in votes of working-class members of local school boards. Finds a strong conservatism in many areas of…

  3. History, Nation and School Inspections: The Introduction of Citizenship Education in Elementary Schools in Late Nineteenth-Century Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evertsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    It was in the late nineteenth century that teaching in Sweden's elementary schools began its transformation from a religious education to a broader, national citizenship education that included history and geography. International research has pointed to a connection between the introduction of school inspections and the reform of public education…

  4. The Visualization of Native-American Peoples in a Late-Nineteenth-Century Sculpture Program in Vienna, Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bussel, Gerard W.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses historical representational strategies in his "inside" look at how Native culture and people were viewed from the perspective of Europeans. He presents an interesting study of a series of late-nineteenth-century sculptures at the Natural History Museum in Vienna that represents Indians from throughout the…

  5. Discourses for the New Industrial World: Industrialisation and the Education of the Public in Late Eighteenth-Century Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Malcolm McKinnon

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the transmission of ideas in the British Enlightenment. The focus is on three individuals, Matthew Boulton, James Keir and Anna Seward, who constructed and communicated messages about industrialisation in the late eighteenth century to the public rather than through formal education. Boulton, Keir and Seward attempted to…

  6. The lost origin of chemical ecology in the late 19th century

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The origin of plant chemical ecology generally dates to the late 1950s, when evolutionary entomologists recognized the essential role of plant secondary metabolites in plant–insect interactions and suggested that plant chemical diversity evolved under the selection pressure of herbivory. However, similar ideas had already flourished for a short period during the second half of the 19th century but were largely forgotten by the turn of the century. This article presents the observations and studies of three protagonists of chemical ecology: Anton Kerner von Marilaun (1831–1898, Innsbruck, Austria, and Vienna, Austria), who mainly studied the impact of geological, climatic, and biotic factors on plant distribution and survival; Léo Errera (1858–1906, Brussels, Belgium), a plant physiologist who analyzed the localization of alkaloids in plant cells and tissues histochemically; and Ernst Stahl (1848–1919, Jena, Germany), likely the first experimental ecologist and who performed feeding studies with snails and slugs that demonstrated the essential role of secondary metabolites in plant protection against herbivores. All three, particularly Stahl, suggested that these “chemical defensive means” evolved in response to the relentless selection pressure of the heterotrophic community that surrounds plants. Although convincingly supported by observations and experiments, these ideas were forgotten until recently. Now, more than 100 years later, molecular analysis of the genes that control secondary metabolite production underscores just how correct Kerner von Marilaun, Errera, and, particularly, Stahl were in their view. Why their ideas were lost is likely a result of the adamant rejection of all things “teleological” by the physiologists who dominated biological research at the time. PMID:18218780

  7. Debating scientific medicine: homoeopathy and allopathy in late nineteenth-century medical print in Bengal.

    PubMed

    Das, Shinjini

    2012-10-01

    The historiography of medicine in South Asia often assumes the presence of preordained, homogenous, coherent and clearly-bound medical systems. They also tend to take the existence of a medical 'mainstream' for granted. This article argues that the idea of an 'orthodox', 'mainstream' named allopathy and one of its 'alternatives' homoeopathy were co-produced in Bengal. It emphasises the role of the supposed 'fringe', ie. homoeopathy, in identifying and organising the 'orthodoxy' of the time. The shared market for medicine and print provided a crucial platform where such binary identities such as 'homoeopaths' and 'allopaths' were constituted and reinforced. This article focuses on a range of polemical writings by physicians in the Bengali print market since the 1860s. Published mostly in late nineteenth-century popular medical journals, these concerned the nature, definition and scope of 'scientific' medicine. The article highlights these published disputes and critical correspondence among physicians as instrumental in simultaneously shaping the categories 'allopathy' and 'homoeopathy' in Bengali print. It unravels how contemporary understandings of race, culture and nationalism informed these medical discussions. It further explores the status of these medical contestations, often self-consciously termed 'debates', as an essential contemporary trope in discussing 'science' in the vernacular. PMID:23112381

  8. Dental health of the late 19th and early 20th century Khoesan.

    PubMed

    Botha, D; Steyn, M

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the dental analysis performed on a Khoesan skeletal sample representing the late 19th and early 20th century Cape Colony in southern Africa. Skeletal material from two European collections (Vienna and Paris) was selected to compile a total sample of 116 specimens. Dental pathology frequencies were calculated for caries (28.4%), antemortem tooth loss (37.9%), periapical abscesses (29.3%), periodontal disease (26.7%), calculus (44.0%) and impacted canines (4.3%). Attrition scores indicated that the group under study had an average rate of attrition compared to other southern African populations. Frequency and intensity data were compared to several other samples from both the pre-contact and contact phases by means of chi-squared analysis. The outcome of the study suggested that the group under study was most likely in a state of transition between a diet and lifestyle of hunting-and-gathering and agriculture. Results were also consistent with those of groups from a low socio-economic status. PMID:25882044

  9. Debating Scientific Medicine: Homoeopathy and Allopathy in Late Nineteenth-century Medical Print in Bengal1

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shinjini

    2012-01-01

    The historiography of medicine in South Asia often assumes the presence of preordained, homogenous, coherent and clearly-bound medical systems. They also tend to take the existence of a medical ‘mainstream’ for granted. This article argues that the idea of an ‘orthodox’, ‘mainstream’ named allopathy and one of its ‘alternatives’ homoeopathy were co-produced in Bengal. It emphasises the role of the supposed ‘fringe’, ie. homoeopathy, in identifying and organising the ‘orthodoxy’ of the time. The shared market for medicine and print provided a crucial platform where such binary identities such as ‘homoeopaths’ and ‘allopaths’ were constituted and reinforced. This article focuses on a range of polemical writings by physicians in the Bengali print market since the 1860s. Published mostly in late nineteenth-century popular medical journals, these concerned the nature, definition and scope of ‘scientific’ medicine. The article highlights these published disputes and critical correspondence among physicians as instrumental in simultaneously shaping the categories ‘allopathy’ and ‘homoeopathy’ in Bengali print. It unravels how contemporary understandings of race, culture and nationalism informed these medical discussions. It further explores the status of these medical contestations, often self-consciously termed ‘debates’, as an essential contemporary trope in discussing ‘science’ in the vernacular. PMID:23112381

  10. Aerosol induced reduction in modeled precipitation in China in the late twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We examine ensembles of transient (1870 - 2005) sensitivity experiments with the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM with particular focus on aerosol induced reduction of precipitation in eastern China in the late twentieth century. In the model employed, the microphysics of stratiform clouds directly couples to aerosols, but not the microphysics of convective clouds. Increasing anthropogenic aerosol emissions in the model result in a reduction of precipitation that is mostly stronger than what is observed. Only in summer increasing aerosol emissions can improve the agreement between modeled and observed trends. The modeled drying is dominated by a decrease in convective precipitation. For the fraction of convective to total precipitation we find a decrease of about 4% to 6% per decade (2% for stratiform precipitation). These percentages are robust against model resolution. Not robust against model resolution are trends of precipitation anomalies (total, convective, or stratiform), which tend to be stronger for lower model resolution. Regarding the relative importance of different aerosols, our simulations suggest sulfate to be more relevant for the precipitation reduction than black and organic carbon.

  11. The fire ant wars. Nature and science in the pesticide controversies of the late twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Buhs, Joshua Blu

    2002-09-01

    This essay uses an approach borrowed from environmental history to investigate the interaction of science and nature in a late twentieth-century controversy. This debate, over the proper response to fire ants that had been imported into the American South accidentally and then spread across the region, pitted Rachel Carson and loosely federated groups of conservationists, scientists, and citizens against the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The analysis falls into three sections: an examination of the natural history of the ants; an examination of the views of the competing factions; and an examination of how those views, transformed into action, affected the natural world. Both sides saw the ants in terms of a constellation of beliefs about the relationship between nature, science, and democracy. As various ideas were put into play, they interacted with the natural history of the insects in unexpected ways--and with consequences for the cultural authority of the antagonists. Combining insights from the history of science and environmental history helps explain how scientists gain and lose cultural authority and, more fundamentally, allows for an examination of how nature can be integrated into the history of science. PMID:12592885

  12. Medicine, belief, witchcraft and demonic possession in late seventeenth-century Ulster.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Ireland's only published witchcraft pamphlet, written by Daniel Higgs, The Wonderful and True Relation of the Bewitching of a Young Girle in Ireland, What Ways she was Tormented, and a Receipt of the Ointment that she was Cured with (1699), works within the confines of late seventeenth-century demonology, while upholding the patriarchy of the fledgling Protestant Ascendancy. More importantly, it provides rare insight into early modern Protestant witchcraft beliefs, highlights the limits of contemporary medical care and provision and details the pathways of self-medication people resorted to. Higgs' method of promoting self-medication as a cure to bewitchment and demonic possession was based on a remedy described in an obscure Renaissance magical text. To promote his 'cure' the pamphlet included a particularly vitriolic critique of the established Irish medical profession, as self-regarding and incompetent witchcraft deniers. This article uses Higgs' pamphlet to explore the limits to/of medical knowledge in early modern Ireland and Europe. PMID:26979075

  13. [THE IMPROVEMENT OF CITIES AND SANITARY CONTROL IN RUSSIA IN LATE XIX--EARLY XX CENTURIES].

    PubMed

    Sherstneva, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article considers activity of municipal self-governments of Russia concerning support of sanitary epidemiological well-being of cities in the late XIX--early XX centuries. The acuteness of problem of sanitary conditions of urban settlements particularly became visible in post-reform period due to increasing of number of urban population, alteration of setup and rhythm of life in cities, appearance of new forms of worker's daily chores. Al this, against the background of underdevelopment of communal sphere aggravated epidemiological situation in cities. The impulse to improvement and development of sanitary control was made by the city regulations of 1870 presenting to town authorities the right to deal with sanitary issues. The significant input into improvement of cities was made first of all at the expense of construction of water supplies and sewerage and support of sanitary control of these spheres of municipal economy. Under town councils of many cities the sanitary commissions were organized to support permanent sanitary control in town. The development of town sanitation followed the way of specialization. The housing and communal, trade and food, school and sanitary and sanitary and veterinary control were organized. PMID:26399074

  14. In pursuit of precision: the calibration of minds and machines in late nineteenth-century psychology.

    PubMed

    Benschop, R; Draaisma, D

    2000-01-01

    A prominent feature of late nineteenth-century psychology was its intense preoccupation with precision. Precision was at once an ideal and an argument: the quest for precision helped psychology to establish its status as a mature science, sharing a characteristic concern with the natural sciences. We will analyse how psychologists set out to produce precision in 'mental chronometry', the measurement of the duration of psychological processes. In his Leipzig laboratory, Wundt inaugurated an elaborate research programme on mental chronometry. We will look at the problem of calibration of experimental apparatus and will describe the intricate material, literary, and social technologies involved in the manufacture of precision. First, we shall discuss some of the technical problems involved in the measurement of ever shorter time-spans. Next, the Cattell-Berger experiments will help us to argue against the received view that all the precision went into the hardware, and practically none into the social organization of experimentation. Experimenters made deliberate efforts to bring themselves and their subjects under a regime of control and calibration similar to that which reigned over the experimental machinery. In Leipzig psychology, the particular blend of material and social technology resulted in a specific object of study: the generalized mind. We will then show that the distribution of precision in experimental psychology outside Leipzig demanded a concerted effort of instruments, texts, and people. It will appear that the forceful attempts to produce precision and uniformity had some rather paradoxical consequences. PMID:11624166

  15. [Exploration of salt in Poland in the second half of the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Danowska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Following the First Partition in 1772, Poland lost the salt mines in Wieliczka, Bochnia and in the territory of Ruthenia to Austria. This was a serious blow to the economy, because since then, it became necessary to import salt, which was primarily taken advantage of by the Royal Prussian Maritime Trading Company (Pruska Kompania Morska) importing it from Austria. King Stanislaw August Poniatowski tried to initiate the exploration and exploitation of salt in the areas where it could be profitable. To this end, he ordered the exploration to Filip Carosi and Stanislaw Okraszewski, among other. The salt-works of the Castellan of Leukow, Jacek Jezierski in the town of Solca, in the Lqczyckie Region, active since 1780, was a private investment. Leopold von Beust's Kompania akcyjna obtained salt from a brine near the town of Busko, and Kompania z Osob Krajowych--from a brine in the town of Raczki nad Pilica. In 1782, the King appointed The Ore Commission (Komisja Kruszcowa), consisted of twelve commissioners, in order to conduct the exploration for minerals, including salt, their extraction and further administration. The Crown Treasury Commission (Komisja Skarbu Koronnego), a magistracy dealing with, among others, the economy of the country in a broad sense, was also involved in the exploration and exploatation of salt. At its command, in the summer of 1788, Tadeusz Czacki made a tour of the Kielce region in search of traces of salt. In view of the important events of the Four-Year Sejm (Sejm Czteroletni) and the subsequent loss of independence, the subject of salt exploration had to be abandoned. PMID:25675732

  16. Can legislation prevent debauchery? Mother gin and public health in 18th-century England.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J; Her, M; Gmel, G; Rehm, J

    2001-01-01

    The "gin epidemic" of 1720 to 1751 in England was the first time that government intervened in a systematic fashion to regulate and control sales of alcohol. The epidemic therefore provides an opportunity to gauge the effects of multiple legislative interventions over time. Toward that end, we employed time series analysis in conjunction with qualitative methodologies to test the interplay of multiple independent variables, including real wages and taxes, on the consumption of distilled spirits from 1700 through 1771. The results showed that each of the 3 major gin acts was successful in the short term only, consistent with the state's limited resources for enforcement at the local level, and that in each instance consumption actually increased shortly thereafter. This was true even of the Gin Act of 1751, which, contrary to the assumptions of contemporaries and many historians, succeeded by accident rather than by design. The results also suggest that the epidemic followed the inverse U-shaped trajectory of more recent drug scares and that consumption declined only after the more deleterious effects of distilled spirits had been experienced by large numbers of people. PMID:11236401

  17. The Teaching of Astronomy in Jesuit Colleges in the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanovas, J.

    On the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the foundation of the astronomical observatory at the college and seminary of Nagyszombat in 1755, it may be of interest to say something about the colleges of the Society of Jesus. The presence of the Jesuits there was brief, only two decades, as under the pressure of various external forces, the Jesuit Order was suppressed by Pope Clement XIV with the bull Dominus ac Redemptor on 23 July 1773. All the colleges that the Society had been running successfully all over the world either were closed, taken over by the governments, or given to the local bishops. Shortly after the Jesuits left the college of Nagyszombat, the king transferred it to Buda, where it gave rise to modern institutions of higher education derived. When Pope Pius VII returned to Rome after the Napoleonic wars, one of the first things he did was to reestablish the Society of Jesus in 1814. Old Jesuits, survivors of so many disgraces, joined younger Jesuits from Russia and Poland where in fact the order had never been suppressed. The most important of the Jesuit colleges, the Collegium Romanum in Rome, was given back to the Society of Jesus in 1823. Many other colleges were lost forever, but new ones were founded to continue the Society's previous successful activity.

  18. [History of ether in the 18th century: George-Louis Lesage's system of corpuscules ultramondains].

    PubMed

    Berger, Jutta

    2005-01-01

    The article presents an account of Lesage's theory of corpuscules ultramondains and ether. It shows that essential attributes of the antique concept of ether still belong to his speculative physics. In accordance with this concept, Lesage understood the corpuscules ultramondains as subtle celestial matter and carriers of the primordial movements in the universe which were characterised by their proximity to the divine. On the other hand, Lesage was engaged in the contemporary debate concerning the problem of causa gravitatis. His position turns out to be halfway between dynamic corpuscularity and mechanistic physics. With the former he shared the rejection of vortex theories and the adherence to the corpuscular theory of light and the nutshell theory, with the latter the rejection of action at-a-distance and forces inherent to matter. Contrary to the accusation that he plagiarised Fatio de Duillier's theory of gravitation, it is shown that Lesage formulated a gravitational mechanism essentially different to Fatio's. Lesage used the term ether for the theory of chemical affinities. His attempt to reduce them to gravitational force failed. The complexity of chemical phenomena could not be mastered theoretically by reduction to a uniform natural force. PMID:16689079

  19. [A psychopathologic conflict in the 18th century in the East Indies Squadron].

    PubMed

    Alliez, J; Le Goarant de Tromelin, G

    1989-11-01

    The authors first give a psychological evocation of the Bailli de Suffren, a great captain who vastly contributed to improve the image of the French Navy after the appalling seven years war, but whose character showed, nevertheless, originality, authoritarism, violence, sometimes vindictiveness and often negligence. The quarrels he had with most of his subordinates culminated as he was in command of the East Indies Squadron, applying sometimes exaggerated punishments. Chevalier de Tromelin was hierarchically just under him; this Chevalier had a character as chilly and stiff as the Bailli was the opposite; both were ambitious and deserving officers, the Chevalier being as much conformist as his "adversary" was fiery and bold. The shouts and rancours of the Bailli, when confronted to the rigidity and cold technicity of the Chevalier, marked their relationship. More than objective reasons arising from their duties, the fundamental incompatibility of their characters, explain their conflicts. Suffren played a double-game with his immediate subordinate; not lacking verbal smoothness, he nevertheless abused him in such a way in his reports to the authorities, that when Chevalier de Tromelin, being ill, asked to return to France, he learned that he had been dismissed of the Navy without having ever been heard or able to attempt to defend himself. He then spent his time trying to claim for a hearing without ever obtaining it, writing justificatory reports. He was "rehabilitated" in 1793 and died in half-exile in 1815. The authors were struck by the fact that for 200 years, no historian of the Fast Indies has ever taken into account the Squadron's distinctive features and the personality of Suffren. Thanks to their research in family documents, in the National and especially Navy Archives, they are able to show the importance of this psychological, not to say the psychopathological, aspect. One can only be struck by the silence of the various historians who worked on the subject, misjudging this "conditioning" which explains excessive punishments and long-harboured grudges. It is possible that Tromelin was the most affected because he was hierarchically the nearest. As the various documents or testimonies show, no fault or error could ever be retained against him that he could non justify. A detailed study of the handwritings of the two protagonists is presented in the text. Such conflicts are rather common within the Administration, but they seldom are of such duration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2699179

  20. Complement research in the 18th-21st centuries: Progress comes with new technology.

    PubMed

    Sim, R B; Schwaeble, W; Fujita, T

    2016-10-01

    The complement system has been studied for about 120 years. Progress in defining this large and complex system has been dependent on the research technologies available, but since the introduction of protein chromatography, electrophoresis, and antibody-based assay methods in the 1950s and 60s, and sequencing of proteins and DNA in the 70s and 80s, there has been very rapid accumulation of data. With more recent improvements in 3D structure determination (nmr and X-ray crystallography), the structures of most of the complement proteins have now been solved. Complement research since 1990 has been greatly stimulated by the discoveries of the multiple proteins in the lectin pathway, the strong association of Factor H, C3, Factor B allelic variants with adult macular degeneration and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome, and the introduction of the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody as a therapy for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome. Potential new roles for complement in tissue development and the search for novel therapeutics suggest a very active future for complement research. PMID:27371361

  1. Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to the 18th century

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Efraim

    2006-01-01

    Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. The article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (The Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) in the medieval and early Ottoman periods. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the medieval and early Ottoman Levant has yielded forty-eight substances of animal origin that were used medicinally. The vast majority of these substances were local and relatively easy to obtain. Most of the substances were domestic (honey, wax, silkworm, etc.), others were part of the local wildlife (adder, cuttle fish, flycatcher, firefly, frog, triton, scorpion, etc.), part of the usual medieval household (milk, egg, cheese, lamb, etc.), or parasites (louse, mouse, stinkbug, etc.). Fewer substances were not local but exotic, and therefore rare and expensive (beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, ambergris, etc.). The range of symptoms that the substances of animal origin were used to treat was extensive and included most of the known diseases and maladies of that era: mainly hemorrhoids, burns, impotence, wounds, and skin, eye, and stomach diseases. Changes in the moral outlook of modern societies caused the use of several substances of animal origin to cease in the course of history. These include mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton. PMID:16504024

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New standards in 18th century astrometry (Lequeux, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, J.

    2014-05-01

    Catalogue of Flamsteed (flamstee.dat): John Flamsteed (1646-1719) was the first astronomer in charge of Greenwich Observatory. His stellar catalogue (Flamsteed 1725) was built on observations from 1675 to 1683 with a 6-feet radius sextant mounted on an axis parallel to the polar axis of the Earth, then from 1683 to 1719 with a mural circle with a radius of 79.5 inches (2m). 220 stars over 3925. Catalogue of Romer (romer.dat): Ole (or Olaus) Romer (1644-1710) is principally known for his 1676 discovery of the finite velocity of light, a discovery that he shared with Jean-Dominique Cassini. After a long stay in Paris, he returned to Copenhagen in 1681 and was appointed professor of astronomy at the University. The observatory and all the observations were destroyed in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, with the exception of observations of 88 stars obtained during three observing nights, from 20 to 23 October 1706. La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (lacaifun.dat): Nicolas-Louis La Caille (or Lacaille, or de la Caille, 1713-1762) was a French astronomer who is remembered principally for his survey of the southern sky, where he introduced 14 new constellations that are still in use today. Before leaving for the Cape of Good Hope in 1750, he started a catalogue of the 400 brightest stars of both hemispheres, which he completed during his stays in Cape Town and in the Mauritius island, then after his return to Paris in 1754. He reduced the observations himself, including for the first time corrections for aberration and nutation, and published them with details of the observations and reductions (La Caille 1757). Bailly's adaptation of La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (bailly.dat): After the death of La Caille, Jean-Sylvain Bailly published a catalogue of the brighest stars of both hemispheres for the equinox B1750.0 in Ephemerides for 10 year from 1765 to 1775 (Anonymous (Bailly) 1763, p. lvii-lxiv). This catalogue obviously derives from the catalogue named lacaillefund.dat. La Caille's complete survey of the southern sky (lacaisur.dat): During his stay in Cape Town in 1751-1752, La Caille made the first systematic survey of the sky ever, in the modern sense. 244 stars over 9766. La Caille's catalogue of zodiacal stars (lacaizod.dat): When La Caille returned from his southern expedition in 1754, he undertook the construction of a catalogue of zodiacal stars. Mayer's zodiacal catalogue (mayer.dat): At exactly the same time as La Caille, Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) in Gottingen undertook a similar catalogue of zodiacal stars, using a 6-feet radius mural quadrant made by John Bird (1709-1776). 200 stars over 998. Bradley's stellar catalogue (bradley.dat): James Bradley (1693-1762) is famous for his discovery of aberration and nutation. From 1750 to his death in 1762, he built a large stellar catalogue, from observations first with an old mural sector and after 1753 with the Bird 8-ft mural sector located in Greenwich, where it 215 stars over 3220. Piazzi's stellar catalogue (piazzi.dat): Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1846) built a large catalogue containing 7646 stars from 1792 to 1813, observed in Palermo with an altazimuthal circle of Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800) can still be seen. 202 stars over 7646. Lalande's stellar catalogue (lalande.dat): L'Histoire celeste francaise de Lalande (Lalande 1801), which contains the unreduced observations of approximately 40,000 stars, is the first very large stellar catalogue. 198 stars over ~45000. (10 data files).

  3. Science and superstition: Comets and the French public in the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Philip

    1986-01-01

    The confirmation in 1759 of Halley's prediction for the return of the comet of 1682 was a triumphant scientific event, helping to convince a broad public that comets, like other celestial bodies, were knowable natural objects. Nevertheless, the frightening possibility that an unknown comet could appear at any time led to a startling degree of panic on a later occasion, when a study by Lalande on the statistical probability of a collision between earth and a comet was construed by rumor as a prophecy of imminent destruction.

  4. Tongue and lip frenectomy in Spanish medical texts of the 16th-18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Romero-Maroto, Martín; Sáez-Gómez, José Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The frena of the tongue and lip are normal structures of the buccal cavity, and surgical resection is only necessary in cases of hypertrophy. This article looks at medical texts of the Early Modern Era to analyze the origins and quality of our knowledge on this topic and examine any therapeutic measures proposed. This review shows that while the indications for carrying out tongue frenectomy are very similar to those today (speech and breastfeeding difficulties), those for carrying out a lip frenectomy are very different. Interestingly, apart from purely surgical or medicinal treatments, some authors indicated the need to complement such treatment with educational intervention and what can only be called basic speech therapy. PMID:22916406

  5. Frederica: An 18th-Century Planned Community. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Marion

    The excavated foundations of various structures in Frederica, Saint Simons Island, Georgia, remind visitors that from 1736 until 1758, this planned community served the military garrison quartered there and housed a population of 1000. This lesson is based on the Fort Frederica National Monument listed in the National Register of Historic Places.…

  6. Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

  7. [The natural dream: physiology of dreaming in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Tavera, M

    2000-01-01

    To give back dreaming to reason, to remove from it "that which is marvellous, supernatural and often terrible for the common man who studies it seriously", that is the intention of Jérôme Richard and Samuel Formey, who were both contemporaries of the philosophers of the Age of the Enlightenment. Relying on the medical theories of the time as well as on the explanatory models of physiology and psychology, they try to demonstrate "the true cause of dreaming" and the natural character of the oneiric phenomenon. The transmission of sensations, the working of memory and the association of ideas, the nature and power of imagination, the predetermined or random character of dreams constitute the framework of the questions from which the explanation of "all this apparent confusion" is developed. PMID:10986794

  8. Communicating the New Chemistry in 18th-Century Portugal: Seabra's "Elementos de Chimica"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Simoes, Ana

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the aims, contents and impact of Seabra's two-volume textbook--"Elementos de Chimica" ("Elements of Chemistry")--published in 1788 and 1790. Seabra's "Elements of Chemistry" does not conform to the characteristics usually ascribed to textbooks by traditional historiography, and in particular to textbooks published in the…

  9. Gross enamel hypoplasia in molars from subadults in a 16th-18th century London graveyard.

    PubMed

    Ogden, A R; Pinhasi, R; White, W J

    2007-07-01

    Dental Enamel Hypoplasia has long been used as a common nonspecific stress indicator in teeth from archaeological samples. Most researchers report relatively minor linear and pitted hypoplastic defects on tooth crown surfaces. In this work we report a high prevalence and early age of onset of extensive enamel defects in deciduous and permanent molars in the subadults from the post-medieval cemetery of Broadgate, east central London. Analysis of the dentition of all 45 subadults from the cemetery, using both macroscopic and microscopic methods, reveals disturbed cusp patterns and pitted, abnormal and arrested enamel formation. Forty-one individuals from this group (93.2%) showed some evidence of enamel hypoplasia, 28 of them showing moderate or extensive lesions of molars, deciduous or permanent (63.6% of the sample). Scanning Electron Microscope images reveal many molars with grossly deformed cuspal architecture, multiple extra cusps and large areas of exposed Tomes' process pits, where the ameloblasts have abruptly ceased matrix production, well before normal completion. This indented, rough and poorly mineralized surface facilitates both bacterial adhesion and tooth wear, and when such teeth erupt fully into the mouth they are likely to wear and decay rapidly. We suggest that this complex combination of pitted and plane-form lesions, combined with disruption of cusp pattern and the formation of multiple small cusps, should henceforth be identified as "Cuspal Enamel Hypoplasia." PMID:17492667

  10. Precipitations and floods in the central Iberian Peninsula in the late 16th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullón, T.

    2010-09-01

    Documental sources provided information to historically reconstruct the relationship among precipitation, drought and floods during the last 50 years of the 16th century in the Jarama-Tajo river system. The study area is located in the central Iberian Peninsula in the autonomous region of Madrid and is associated with a continental Mediterranean climate Periodic flooding of the fluvial shore and channel bed displacement in the Jarama-Tajo system conditioned land use during the historical period chosen for this study. Centuries ago, land use was well adapted to this river system and produced water intensive crops and pastureland despite the area’s relatively arid continental climate. Today, the river dynamics that once characterized the area, and are referred to in historical documents, have been replaced by permanent channels with stable courses on the flood plain due to the construction of regulating reservoirs and widespread gravel extraction. The data culled from the historical documents consulted for this study made it possible to detect and characterize the floods, and to relate them to yearly or seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature in the late 16th century. As a result, it was possible to define the interaction and time span between precipitation, droughts and floods; to provide a more accurate characterization of the climate at the end of the 16th century in accordance with earlier publications on the topic; and to define the fluvial dynamics of the rivers that form this system. These dynamics, although typical of Mediterranean regions, are often difficult to characterize since alterations in the area make it impossible to obtain direct data. The administrative records of royal estates located south of Madrid contained the most solid data, and was enhanced by accounts of incidents occurring in property located in groves or flood plains in the study area that was managed by religious orders or townships. The archives consulted included the

  11. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    SciTech Connect

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-07-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes.

  12. Charitable Provision for Blind People and Deaf People in Late Nineteenth Century London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees, Colin; Ralph, Sue

    2004-01-01

    In nineteenth century England much charitable activity was directed towards the relief of poverty, but such provision developed significantly to support a variety of requirements. Although from the eighteenth century onwards there were instances of co-operation between voluntary charitable effort and the state, governments in the early and mid…

  13. High-resolution dynamically downscaled projections of precipitation in the mid and late 21st century over North America

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-07-29

    This study performs high-spatial-resolution (12 km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations over a very large domain (7200 km × 6180 km, covering much of North America) to explore changes in mean and extreme precipitation in the mid and late 21st century under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP 4.5) and 8.5 (RCP 8.5). We evaluate WRF model performance for a historical simulation and future projections, applying the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) as initial and boundary conditions with and without a bias correction. WRF simulations using boundary and initial conditions from both versions of CCSM4 show smaller biases versus evaluation data sets than does CCSM4 over western North America. WRF simulations also improve spatial details of precipitation over much of North America. However, driving the WRF with the bias-corrected CCSM4 does not always reduce the bias. WRF-projected changes in precipitation include decreasing intensity over the southwestern United States, increasing intensity over the eastern United States and most of Canada, and an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation over much of North America. Projected precipitation changes are more evident in the late 21st century than the mid 21st century, and they are more evident under RCP 8.5 than under RCP 4.5 in the late 21st century. Uncertainties in the projected changes in precipitation due to different warming scenarios are non-negligible. Differences in summer precipitation changes between WRF and CCSM4 are significant over most of the United States.

  14. High-resolution dynamically downscaled projections of precipitation in the mid and late 21st century over North America

    DOE PAGESBeta

    none,

    2015-07-29

    This study performs high-spatial-resolution (12 km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations over a very large domain (7200 km × 6180 km, covering much of North America) to explore changes in mean and extreme precipitation in the mid and late 21st century under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP 4.5) and 8.5 (RCP 8.5). We evaluate WRF model performance for a historical simulation and future projections, applying the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) as initial and boundary conditions with and without a bias correction. WRF simulations using boundary and initial conditions from both versions of CCSM4 show smaller biasesmore » versus evaluation data sets than does CCSM4 over western North America. WRF simulations also improve spatial details of precipitation over much of North America. However, driving the WRF with the bias-corrected CCSM4 does not always reduce the bias. WRF-projected changes in precipitation include decreasing intensity over the southwestern United States, increasing intensity over the eastern United States and most of Canada, and an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation over much of North America. Projected precipitation changes are more evident in the late 21st century than the mid 21st century, and they are more evident under RCP 8.5 than under RCP 4.5 in the late 21st century. Uncertainties in the projected changes in precipitation due to different warming scenarios are non-negligible. Differences in summer precipitation changes between WRF and CCSM4 are significant over most of the United States.« less

  15. High-resolution dynamically downscaled projections of precipitation in the mid and late 21st century over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiali; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R.

    2015-07-01

    This study performs high-spatial-resolution (12 km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations over a very large domain (7200 km × 6180 km, covering much of North America) to explore changes in mean and extreme precipitation in the mid and late 21st century under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP 4.5) and 8.5 (RCP 8.5). We evaluate WRF model performance for a historical simulation and future projections, applying the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) as initial and boundary conditions with and without a bias correction. WRF simulations using boundary and initial conditions from both versions of CCSM4 show smaller biases versus evaluation data sets than does CCSM4 over western North America. WRF simulations also improve spatial details of precipitation over much of North America. However, driving the WRF with the bias-corrected CCSM4 does not always reduce the bias. WRF-projected changes in precipitation include decreasing intensity over the southwestern United States, increasing intensity over the eastern United Sates and most of Canada, and an increase in the number of days with heavy precipitation over much of North America. Projected precipitation changes are more evident in the late 21st century than the mid 21st century, and they are more evident under RCP 8.5 than under RCP 4.5 in the late 21st century. Uncertainties in the projected changes in precipitation due to different warming scenarios are non-negligible. Differences in summer precipitation changes between WRF and CCSM4 are significant over most of the United States.

  16. Skeletal and dental indicators of health in the late mediaeval (12-15th century) population from Nin, southern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Novak, M; Martinčić, O; Strinović, D; Slaus, M

    2012-12-01

    A comprehensive bioarchaeological study of the late mediaeval (12-15th century) skeletal sample from Nin was carried out in order to test the historically documented hypothesis that during the late mediaeval period Nin sustained a period of rapid development that resulted in it becoming one of the major urban centres on the eastern Adriatic coast. The analysed pathological changes (alveolar bone disease, dental caries, dental enamel hypoplasia, cribra orbitalia, periostitis, tuberculosis, Schmorl's nodes, vertebral osteoarthritis, and bone fractures) indicate a relatively good quality of life for the majority of the population from this late mediaeval site. A low prevalence of dental pathologies suggests an adequate diet while a low frequency of long bone trauma testifies to a relatively peaceful life for the inhabitants of mediaeval Nin. Increased urban development during this period resulted in a worsening of sanitary conditions most likely caused by overcrowding, which is reflected in the presence of tuberculosis and the relatively high frequencies of dental enamel hypoplasia and cribra orbitalia. An additional health concern for the late mediaeval inhabitants of Nin may have been the presence of malaria, as recorded in numerous historical sources. Comparison with other Croatian mediaeval skeletal samples suggests that the inhabitants of late mediaeval Nin experienced somewhat better living conditions than their contemporaries from other parts of Croatia. PMID:23102923

  17. [Effects of the periodical spread of rinderpest on famine, epidemic, and tiger disasters in the late 17th Century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Jin; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Hang

    2014-04-01

    This study clarifies the causes of the repetitive occurrences of such phenomena as rinderpest, epidemic, famine, and tiger disasters recorded in the Joseon Dynasty Chronicle and the Seungjeongwon Journals in the period of great catastrophe, the late 17th century in which the great Gyeongsin famine (1670~1671) and the great Eulbyeong famine (1695~1696) occurred, from the perspective that they were biological exchanges caused by the new arrival of rinderpest in the early 17th century. It is an objection to the achievements by existing studies which suggest that the great catastrophes occurring in the late 17th century are evidence of phenomena in a little ice age. First of all, rinderpest has had influence on East Asia as it had been spread from certain areas in Machuria in May 1636 through Joseon, where it raged throughout the nation, and then to the west part of Japan. The new arrival of rinderpest was indigenized in Joseon, where it was localized and spread periodically while it was adjusted to changes in the population of cattle with immunity in accordance with their life spans and reproduction rates. As the new rinderpest, which showed high pathogenicity in the early 17th century, was indigenized with its high mortality and continued until the late 17th century, it broke out periodically in general. Contrastively, epidemics like smallpox and measles that were indigenized as routine ones had occurred constantly from far past times. As a result, the rinderpest, which tried a new indigenization, and the human epidemics, which had been already indigenized long ago, were unexpectedly overlapped in their breakout, and hence great changes were noticed in the aspects of the human casualty due to epidemics. The outbreak of rinderpest resulted in famine due to lack of farming cattle, and the famine caused epidemics among people. The casualty of the human population due to the epidemics in turn led to negligence of farming cattle, which constituted factors that triggered

  18. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical "and" theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and…

  19. Hydraulics for Royal Gardens: Water Art as a Challenge for 18th Century Science and 21st Century Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Hydraulics is an engineering specialty and largely neglected as a topic in physics teaching. But the history of hydraulics from the Renaissance to the Baroque, merits our attention because hydraulics was then more broadly conceived as a practical and theoretical science; it served as a constant bone of contention for mechanics and mathematics; its obvious practical importance from raising water in mines to the playful fountains in royal gardens illustrates the social role of science like few others do. The playful character of historic hydraulics problems makes it also an appealing topic for modern science education.

  20. 6. LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST, 18th STREET BRIDGE AT RIGHT, PENNSYLVANIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST, 18th STREET BRIDGE AT RIGHT, PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD BRIDGE IN MIDDLE, CHICAGO TRANSIT AUTHORITY ORANGE LINE AT LEFT. - Pennsylvania Railroad, South Branch Chicago River Bridge, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River Bridge east of Canal Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (18th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 14-18, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J. Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    The Pacific Telecommunications Council's 18th annual conference is presented in two volumes. The PTC'96 gathering focused on seven streams: socio-economic issues; regulatory, legal and political issues; business and finance solutions; country studies; education, training, and human resources; convergence and networks; and technologies and…

  2. Pathologising white male sexuality in late nineteenth-century Australia through the medical prism of excess and constraint.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper will explore the constructions of white male sexuality in late nineteenth-century Australia by the medical profession. In a period where female sexuality was always suspect, male sexuality, too, was brought into question, and the male body was increasingly constructed as vulnerable to sexual excess and sexual pathology. If male sexuality was to be active and dynamic, this could readily go too far, rendering men merely a slip away from deviance. Here, I will consider these notions of excess and constraint through an examination of sexual norms and perceived perversions, including sexual excess, sodomy and masturbation. PMID:20845584

  3. Moral transgression, disease and holistic health in the Livingstonia Mission in late nineteenth and early twentieth-century Malawi.

    PubMed

    Hokkanen, Markku

    2009-01-01

    This article examines ideas of morality and health, and connections between moral transgression and disease in both Scottish missionary and Central African thought in the context of the Livingstonia Mission of the Presbyterian Free Church of Scotland in Malawi during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. By concentrating on debates, conflicts and co-operation between missionaries and Africans over the key issues of beer drinking and sexual morality, this article explores the emergence of a new "moral hygiene" among African Christian communities in Northern Malawi. PMID:19757536

  4. The Egalitarian Marriages of Six Froebelian Leaders in Late Nineteenth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    During the final years of the nineteenth century, among the leaders of the American Froebelian kindergarten movement were three dual-career couples who exemplified the concept of egalitarian marriage: John Kraus and Maria Kraus-Boelte, William and Eudora Hailmann, and Ada Morean Hughes and John Hughes. This paper focuses on the way these six…

  5. American Populism and Its Ontario Offshoots in the Late 19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the nineteenth century agrarian movements in Canada and the U.S., examining the similarities between Populism and the Canadian agricultural movement. Presents the American Populist Party Platform of 1892 and the Patrons of Industry Platform of 1891 to illustrate the agrarian ideas and political policies of each country. (GEA)

  6. Schools, Discipline and Community: Diary-writing and Schoolgirl Culture in Late Nineteenth-Century France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that 19th-century French boarding school culture used the idea of community to transmit feminine but not necessarily domestic values. These included obedience, selflessness, and interdependence. Students, however, transformed and reworked these messages to fit their individual needs, as revealed by one young woman's diary. (MJP)

  7. Instruments of Science and Citizenship: Science Education for Dutch Orphans during the Late Eighteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lissa L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the two most extensive instrument collections in the Netherlands during the second half of the eighteenth century--rivaling the much better known collection at the University of Leiden--belonged to an orphanage in The Hague that was specially established to mold hand-picked orphans into productive citizens. (The other was housed at the…

  8. When realism made a difference: The constitution of matter and its conceptual enigmas in late 19th century physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilholt, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The late 19th century debate among German-speaking physicists about theoretical entities is often regarded as foreshadowing the scientific realism debate. This paper brings out differences between them by concentrating on the part of the earlier debate that was concerned with the conceptual consistency of the competing conceptions of matter-mainly, but not exclusively, of atomism. Philosophical antinomies of atomism were taken up by Emil Du Bois-Reymond in an influential lecture in 1872. Such challenges to the consistency of atomism had repercussions within the physics community, as can be shown for the examples of Heinrich Hertz and Ludwig Boltzmann. The latter developed a series of counter-arguments, culminating in an ingenious attempt to turn the tables on the critics of atomism and prove the inconsistency of non-atomistic conceptions of nature. Underlying this controversy is a disagreement over specific goals of physical research which was considered crucially relevant to the further course of physical inquiry. It thereby exemplifies an attitude towards the realism issue that can be contrasted with a different, more neutral attitude of construing the realism issue as merely philosophical and indifferent with respect to concrete research programs in physics, which one also occasionally finds expressed in the 19th century controversy and which may be seen as the prevailing attitude of the 20th century debate.

  9. Testing late 20th century El Nino-Southern Oscillation variability against new coral-based estimates of natural variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, K. M.; Westphal, N.; Sayani, H. R.; Di Lorenzo, E.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.; Charles, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives large changes in global climate patterns from year to year, yet its sensitivity to continued anthropogenic greenhouse forcing is poorly constrained by both climate models and observational data. Here we analyze over 670 years worth of new, monthly-resolved fossil coral records of ENSO spanning the last 7,000 years. The new records are based on the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of U/Th-dated fossil corals from Christmas (2°N, 157°W) and Fanning (4°N, 160°W) Islands, located in the heart of the ENSO region. The corals document a highly variable ENSO, with reductions in ENSO variance of up to 60% documented in the last millennium and at several points through the reconstruction. Maximum ENSO variance is observed in the early 17th century, when values were up to 15% larger than present. There is no evidence for a precessionally-driven trend in ENSO variance from 6,000 years ago to present that some paleodata and coupled global climate models document. If there is an insolation-related signal in ENSO variance, our data suggest that it is overwhelmed by the large range of natural variability in ENSO. The average ENSO variance for the fossil coral database is 40% lower than late 20th century ENSO variance estimates derived from the fossil corals' modern counterparts. In order to test whether late 20th century ENSO variance is significantly larger than the long-term average implied by the fossil coral data, we employ a Monte Carlo-based approach that uses output from a 2,000-yr-long unforced simulation of the GFDL CM2.1 coupled GCM (Wittenberg, 2009). We first confirm that the model-based distribution of ENSO variance is consistent with the fossil coral-based distribution, which suggests that at least some of the current class of coupled climate models are capable of simulating the intrinsic variability in ENSO reasonably well. We then generate 10,000 pairs of modern and fossil 'pseudocoral' databases, drawing

  10. The State and Industrial Development in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Douglas

    Spanish American political and economic development has historically diverged from the other Western geographic areas. The economic systems of these nations have been characterized as dependent, and their political systems have reflected instability, authoritarian rule, and fraudulent democracy. In Peru, industrial progress began in the late 19th…

  11. 76 FR 25710 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ..., based on BAM survey results. The SQSP Handbook No. 336 includes an action plan for each state to... Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th Edition... concerning the collection of data about the proposed extension to ET Handbook 336, 18th...

  12. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago. PMID:25865777

  13. Late Holocene history of Chaitén Volcano: new evidence for a 17th century eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lara, Luis E.; Moreno, Rodrigo; Amigo, Álvaro; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to May 2008, it was thought that the last eruption of Chaitén Volcano occurred more than 5,000 years ago, a rather long quiescent period for a volcano in such an active arc segment. However, increasingly more Holocene eruptions are being identified. This article presents both geological and historical evidence for late Holocene eruptive activity in the 17th century (AD 1625-1658), which included an explosive rhyolitic eruption that produced pumice ash fallout east of the volcano and caused channel aggradation in the Chaitén River. The extents of tephra fall and channel aggradation were similar to those of May 2008. Fine ash, pumice and obsidian fragments in the pre-2008 deposits are unequivocally derived from Chaitén Volcano. This finding has important implications for hazards assessment in the area and suggests the eruptive frequency and magnitude should be more thoroughly studied.

  14. Finding ancient parasite larvae in a sample from a male living in late 17th century Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Chai, J Y; Park, E A; Lee, W; Lee, H; Lee, J S; Choi, Y M; Koh, B J; Park, J B; Oh, C S; Bok, G D; Kim, W L; Lee, E; Lee, E J; Seo, M

    2009-06-01

    Parasitological examination of samples from tombs of the Korean Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) could be helpful to researchers in understanding parasitic infection prevalence in pre-industrial Korean society. Whereas most of our previous parasitological studies revealed the presence of ancient parasite eggs in coprolites of Korean mummies, a sample from a man living in late 17th century Korea proved to be relatively unique in possessing what appeared to be several species of parasite larvae. The larvae identified included Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichostrongylus spp., along with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Paragonimus westermani. Since ancient parasite larvae retain enough morphology to make proper species identification possible, even after long burial times, the examination of parasite larvae within ancient samples will be conducted more carefully in our future work. PMID:19071966

  15. PSYCHOLOGY IN FRENCH ACADEMIC PUBLISHING IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: ALFRED BINET, EDITORIAL DIRECTOR AT THE SCHLEICHER PUBLISHING HOUSE.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To date, historians of psychology have largely ignored the role of academic publishing and the editorial policies of the late nineteenth century. This paper analyzes the role played by academic publishing in the history of psychology in the specific case of France, a country that provides a very interesting and unique model. Up until the middle of the 1890s, there was no collection specifically dedicated to psychology. Alfred Binet was the first to found, in 1897, a collection of works specifically dedicated to scientific psychology. He chose to work with Reinwald-Schleicher. However, Binet was soon confronted with (1) competition from other French publishing houses, and (2) Schleicher's management and editorial problems that were to sound the death knell for Binet's emerging editorial ambitions. The intention of this paper is to encourage the efforts of the pioneers of modern psychology to have their work published and disseminated. PMID:25975358

  16. Impact of Sea Surface Temperature Trend on Late Summer Asian Rainfall in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Qiying; Lu, Riyu

    2013-04-01

    The impact of the global sea surface temperature (SST) warming trend, which is the leading mode of SST variability, on late summer Asian rainfall is analyzed based on the simulations of five atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs), which are performed by the U. S. Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) Drought Working Group. Our evaluations of the model outputs indicate that these models roughly capture the main features of climatological rainfall and circulations over Asia and the western North Pacific (WNP), but they simulate a too strong monsoon trough and a too northward shifted in the subtropical anticyclone in the WNP, and fail to reproduce the rainy belt over East Asia. It is found that all of the models simulate an intensified WNP subtropical high (WNPSH) in late summer, and an enhanced precipitation in the tropical Indian Ocean and the maritime continent, and a suppressed precipitation in the tropical WNP, when the models are forced with the SST trend, which is characterized by a significant increase in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. All these changes are suggested to be dynamically coherent. In addition, precipitation changes forced by the SST trend are similar in the tropics, but show an apparent difference over extratropical Asia, in comparison with the observed rainfall trend. The possible reasons for this similarity and difference are discussed.

  17. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population.

    PubMed

    Bower, Nathan W; McCants, Sarah A; Custodio, Joseph M; Ketterer, Michael E; Getty, Stephen R; Hoffman, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories. PMID:17126382

  18. On the Cause of the Great North Atlantic Hurricane Drought of the Late 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, K.

    2015-12-01

    By all sensible metrics, North Atlantic tropical cyclone activity underwent a pronounced decline from the middle of the 20th Century through the 1980s, and then recovered. A rich literature is devoted to the causes is this hurricane drought, with some arguing that it is part of a natural, multi-decadal oscillation of North Atlantic climate, and others pointing to time-varying radiative forcing as the main cause of the drought. In this work I show that the net variability of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity in the second half of the 20th Century has two spectral peaks: One around a single decade and another at a period close to 70 years. I hypothesize that the longer period variability, of which the drought was a part, was principally owing to time-varying radiative forcing, while the quasi-decadal signal is part of a natural oscillation of North Atlantic climate. To test this hypothesis, I present evidence that the two main contributors to time-varying radiative forcing over the period were CO2 variations and aerosol forcing brought about by a combination of sulfate originating in European sulfur emissions and natural mineral dust from the Sahara, and then show that most of the longer-period variations can be statistically explained by a combination of these two forcing agents, at the same time demonstrating that the spatial pattern on this variability is consistent with the radiative forcing hypothesis. On the other hand, the spatial pattern of the quasi-decadal variations is closely aligned with that of the EOFs of natural variability in a large suite of unforced, coupled climate models, suggesting that this quasi-decadal signal is part of a natural oscillation of the North Atlantic climate.

  19. Psychicones: Visual Traces of the Soul in Late Nineteenth-Century Fluidic Photography

    PubMed Central

    Pethes, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc’s psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc’s plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky’s abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature. PMID:27292323

  20. Psychicones: Visual Traces of the Soul in Late Nineteenth-Century Fluidic Photography.

    PubMed

    Pethes, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc's psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc's plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky's abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature. PMID:27292323

  1. Impact of sea surface temperature trend on late summer Asian rainfall in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Qiying; Lu, Riyu

    2013-05-01

    impact of the global sea surface temperature (SST) warming trend, which is the leading mode of SST variability, on late summer Asian rainfall is analyzed based on the simulations of five atmospheric general circulation models, which are performed by the U. S. Climate Variability and Predictability Drought Working Group. Our evaluations of the model outputs indicate that these models roughly capture the main features of climatological rainfall and circulations over Asia and the western North Pacific (WNP), but they simulate a too strong monsoon trough and a too northward shifted in the subtropical anticyclone in the WNP and fail to reproduce the rain belt over East Asia. It is found that all of the models simulate an intensified WNP subtropical high (WNPSH) in late summer, an enhanced precipitation in the tropical Indian Ocean and the maritime continent, and a suppressed precipitation in the South Asian monsoon region, the South China Sea, and the Philippine Sea, when the models are forced with the SST trend, which is characterized by a significant increase in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. All these changes are suggested to be dynamically coherent. The warmer SST trend in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific may suppress precipitation over the Philippine Sea and thus result in a lower tropospheric anticyclonic circulation over the subtropical WNP. The warmer SSTs in the Indian Ocean may also be responsible for the anomalous easterlies and resultant less rainfall over the South Asian monsoon region. The precipitation changes forced by the SST trend are similar in the maritime continent but show an apparent difference over East Asia, in comparison with the observed rainfall trend over lands. The possible reasons for this difference are discussed.

  2. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  3. The Zimba, the Portuguese, and other cannibals in late sixteenth-century Southeast Africa.

    PubMed

    Allina, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Portuguese accounts of cannibalism in sixteenth-century southeast Africa reflect important but mostly unrecognised elements of the region's political and cultural history. The article analyses descriptions of the Zimba cannibals in Ethiopia Oriental, written by the Portuguese priest Joo dos Santos. Dos Santos's evidence figures significantly in scholarship for this period, and while many historians include his colourful descriptions of cannibalism, none has taken them seriously, largely dismissing them as a product of European myth-making. In focusing on the question of cannibalism, the article asks not whether the Zimba ate human flesh, nor why they might have, but how dos Santos came to believe that they did. Early modern European cultural outlooks had a role in producing such accounts, but the argument here focuses on how claims of cannibalism reflected African, rather than European, perspectives. Such claims were a vernacular expression of beliefs about, and critiques of, political power in the threatening and unsettled political environment of the time. In transmitting descriptions of cannibalism from African informants, dos Santos acted as an unwitting vehicle for this vernacular critique, conveying its meaning quite imperfectly to his readers. PMID:22026025

  4. Late-twentieth-century warming in Lake Tanganyika unprecedented since AD 500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Mayes, Marc T.; Meyer, Natacha; Johnson, Christopher; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Russell, James M.

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental observations suggest that Lake Tanganyika, the largest rift lake in East Africa, has become warmer, increasingly stratified and less productive over the past 90years (refs 1,2). These trends have been attributed to anthropogenic climate change. However, it remains unclear whether the decrease in productivity is linked to the temperature rise, and whether the twentieth-century trends are anomalous within the context of longer-term variability. Here, we use the TEX86 temperature proxy, the weight per cent of biogenic silica and charcoal abundance from Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to reconstruct lake-surface temperature, productivity and regional wildfire frequency, respectively, for the past 1,500years. We detect a negative correlation between lake-surface temperature and primary productivity, and our estimates of fire frequency, and hence humidity, preclude decreased nutrient input through runoff as a cause for observed periods of low productivity. We suggest that, throughout the past 1,500years, rising lake-surface temperatures increased the stratification of the lake water column, preventing nutrient recharge from below and limiting primary productivity. Our records indicate that changes in the temperature of Lake Tanganyika in the past few decades exceed previous natural variability. We conclude that these unprecedented temperatures and a corresponding decrease in productivity can be attributed to anthropogenic global warming, with potentially important implications for the Lake Tanganyika fishery.

  5. The effect of aerosols and sea surface temperature on China's climate over the late twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Focusing on China in the second half of the twentieth century, we examine the relative role of aerosols and prescribed, observation based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the evolution of surface solar radiation (SSR), surface air temperature (SAT), and precipitation in ensembles of transient (1870 - 2005) sensitivity experiments with the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM. Observations and simulations with transient SSTs and aerosol emissions agree reasonably well in eastern China in terms of SSR dimming (-6 +/- 2 W/m2/decade, 1960 - 2000), statistically non-significant JJA SAT trend (1950 - 2000), and drying in JJA from 1950 to 1990 (-2.5% to -3.5% per decade, essentially via reduction of convective precipitation). Other major observed features are not reproduce by the model, e.g. precipitation increase in the 1990s in the Yangtze valley, the strong warming in winter in northern parts of China and Mongolia, or SSR dimming in western China. For the model results, SO2 emissions are more relevant than emissions of black and organic carbon. Aerosol effects are less pronounced at higher model resolution. Transient SSTs are found to be crucial for decadal scale SAT variability over land, especially the strong warming in the 1990s, and, via SST forced reduction of cloud cover, for the ceasing of SSR dimming around the year 2000. Unforced cloud variability leads to relevant scatter (up to +/- 2 W/m2/decade) of modeled SSR trends at individual observation sites.

  6. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: evidence from late 19th century America.

    PubMed

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M

    2012-10-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900-1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20-50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  7. Vinken and Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology. A witness of late-twentieth century neurological progress.

    PubMed

    Koehler, P J; Jennekens, F G I

    2008-01-01

    Vinken and Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology (HCN) is best characterized as an encyclopedia. In this paper we describe the origin, production, and reception of HCN. Data were gathered from a literature search, by screening of HCN-volumes, interviewing key-role persons and a study of an HCN-archive. The initiative for HCN was taken by two Excerpta Medica staff members, the one a strategist with expertise in information systems, the other a gifted neurologist with an expert knowledge of who is who in the world of neurological literature. Within a period of 38 years, 2799 authors, 28 volume editors, the two initiators, and a third chief editor for the American continent described the whole of neurology in 1909 chapters on all together 46,025 pages (excluding index volumes). HCN was sold mainly to medical institutes in affluent countries. A digital version of the revised edition was proposed by the editors but refused by the publisher for commercial reasons. HCN was in general well received by book reviewers. The main criticisms concerned the price of the volumes, lack of editorial control, inadequacy of indexes, and lack of cross references. HCN offers unrivalled information on the state of the art of the clinical neurosciences in the second half of the twentieth century. In addition, it contains extensive reviews of the history of neurological diseases in the volumes of the original edition. PMID:18161596

  8. The late medieval kidney--nephrology in and about the fourteenth century.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-01-01

    The Late Medieval Period was a decisive period in the history of medicine. It was then that medical education was integrated into the universities that were coming into existence and when medicine made its transition from a menial trade to a regulated profession with a statutory basis of learning and graduation. It was also then that the necessities of understanding the fabric of the body was realized; for the first time in history, the study of anatomy and of human dissection were incorporated into the medical curriculum. This was a defining change whose subsequent expansion and evolution would bring about the study of function (physiology) and changes in disease (pathology). Few advances were made in the study of the kidney, which was considered part of the venous circulation, whose function was subservient to that of nutrition in eliminating excess fluid. Uroscopy flourished and reached unrealistic levels of dominance in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of any and all diseases, especially in the hands of quacks and charlatans. Alchemy, a mysterious pseudo-science, blossomed into a discipline that nurtured experimentation and laid the rudimentary foundations of scientific study, chemistry, and pharmacology. It was also then that surgery took form as a specialty that actually provided much of the medical care of the period including that of the principal diseases of the kidney, obstruction and calculi, and thereby laid the foundations of what in time would become urology. PMID:22681599

  9. Evidence for an increase in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere in the late twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newland, Mike; Martinerie, Patricia; Witrant, Emmanuel; Helmig, Detlev; Worton, David; Hogan, Chris; Sturges, Bill; Reeves, Claire

    2016-04-01

    The hydroxyl radical, OH, is the dominant sink for the majority of trace gases in the troposphere. Thus, it plays a major role in controlling atmospheric chemical composition. However despite this importance there remains much uncertainty as to whether concentrations of OH have changed in the background atmosphere in recent decades. It has previously been reported that recent levels of OH in the troposphere (1997-2008) are well buffered against changes in atmospheric composition (Montzka et al., 2011). We present two independent records that suggest that there was a significant increase in concentrations of the OH radical in the northern hemisphere during the last two decades of the twentieth century. Measurements from Greenland firn air of the changing ratios of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane and iso-pentane were compared using a photochemical clock method. Using these changing ratios we calculate an increase in the chemical processing of the air (i.e. [OH].t) between 1980 and 2000. Assuming t to be constant this provides a semi-quantitative historic record of OH concentrations. Furthermore, measurements of three alkyl nitrates (also from Greenland firn air), secondary oxidation products of the alkanes, suggest an increase in the [NO]/[HO2] ratio in the background atmosphere. This could be indicative of increasing NOx concentrations during this period, which would be consistent with increasing [OH]. These two records are further corroborated by comparison with the long term trend in increasing ozone mixing ratios from background European sites. Knowledge of historic changes to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere is fundamental to understanding the atmospheric records of trace gases and to determining historic trace gas emissions using top-down approaches. The results presented here have profound implications for our understanding of atmospheric composition in the past, the present and for predicting the future evolution of the atmosphere.

  10. Astrometry and early astrophysics at Kuffner Observatory in the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    The astronomer and mathematician Norbert Herz encouraged Moriz von Kuffner, owner of the beer brewery in Ottakring, to finance a private scientific observatory in the western parts of Vienna. In the years 1884-87 the Kuffner Observatory was built at the Gallitzinberg in Wien-Ottakring. It was an example of enlighted patronage and noted at the time for its rapid acquisition of new instruments and by increasing international recognition. It contained the largest heliometer in the world and the largest meridian circle in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Of the many scientists who worked here we mention Leo de Ball, Gustav Eberhard, Johannes Hartmann and we should not forget Karl Schwarzschild. Here in Vienna he published papers on celestial mechanics, measuring techniques, optics and his fundamental papers concerning photographic photometry, in particular the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law. The telescope and the associated camera with which he carried out his measurements are still in existence at the observatory. The observatory houses important astronomical instruments from the 19th century. All telescopes were made by Repsold und Söhne in Hamburg, and Steinheil in Munich. These two German companies were best renowned for quality and precision in high standard astronomical instruments. The Great Refractor (270/3500 mm) is still the third largest refractor in Austria. It was installed at the observatory in 1886 and was used together with the Schwarzschild Refractor for early astrophysical work including photography. It is this double refractor, where Schwarzschild carried out his measurements on photographic photometry. The Meridian Circle (132/1500 mm) was the largest meridian passage instrument of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is the largest meridian circle in Austria and still one of the largest in Europe. The telescope is equipped with one of the first impersonal micrometers of that time. First observations were carried

  11. Socialising Nurse Probationers in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries--Relevance of Historical Reflection for Modern Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentzon, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Historical records from London hospitals in the late 19th-early 20th centuries were analyzed for their depiction of nursing trainees. Analysis reveals a strong emphasis on character traits rather than intellectual ability. In contrast, the literature of the last 3 decades shows a contemporary concern for nurses as knowledgeable doers. (Contains 31…

  12. Classroom Wall Charts and Biblical History: A Study of Educational Technology in Elementary Schools in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evertsson, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the emergence of classroom wall charts as a teaching technology in Swedish elementary schools in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, using Biblical history teaching as an example. There has been some work done internationally on wall charts as an instructional technology, but few studies have looked at their…

  13. Using sunshine duration data to reconstruct total solar radiation time series since the late 19th century, for Athens area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Founda, Dimitra; Kazadzis, Stelios; Pierros, Fragiskos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Due to the scarcity of surface solar radiation measurements and the lack of long term time series of this variable, sunshine duration (SDu) has been widely considered as a useful proxy for surface total solar radiation (TSR) reaching the earth. Numerous relationships between SDu and TSR have been proposed which vary between sites, as a result of the dependence of the two variables from climatic and astronomical components. At the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), measurements of sunshine duration and surface total solar radiation have been conducted continuously since 1897 and 1953 respectively. These are the longest uninterrupted time series of SDu and TSR in the country. The ability of SDu observations at NOA to serve as a proxy for the estimation of TSR and the detection of its interannual and multi decadal variability is examined in the study. Using the respective time series we have retrieved the relationship between SDu and TSR on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis. To test the retrieved functions we have derived them for the period 1985-2013 and tested them for the period 1953-1984, where synchronous SDu and TSR measurements are available. A strong linear relationship between the time series of monthly SDU and TSR was found. The two series were highly correlated (correlation coefficient > 0.95, p<0.001). On a seasonal basis, stronger correlation between SDu and TSR was detected in winter, autumn and spring, when SDu and TSR exhibit larger variability due to cloudiness. The correlation coefficient was lower in summer, when almost clear sky conditions prevail in Athens. The results showed that SDu observations in Athens can successfully provide quantitative information on shortwave solar radiation, particularly under all-sky conditions. The calculated functions can be used for the reconstruction of TSR back to the late 19th century. This unique 115-yrs SDu and TSR retrieved datasets can provide valuable and unknown information of TSR variability over the

  14. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  15. Rethinking the history of female circumcision and clitoridectomy: American medicine and female sexuality in the late nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Sarah W

    2008-07-01

    During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, there was one kind of female orgasm and it was clitoral; there was also only one kind of healthy sexual instinct for a woman and it was for penetrative sex with her husband. When a woman behaved outside of this normality-by masturbating or by not responding to her husband's affections-her sexual instinct was seen as disordered. If healthy women, then, were believed only to be sexual within the marital embrace, what better way to explain these errant behaviors than by blaming the clitoris, an organ seen as key to female sexual instinct? Doctors corrected a clitoris in an unhealthy state using one of four surgeries-removing smegma or adhesions between the clitoris and its hood, removing the hood (circumcision), or removing the clitoris (clitoridectomy)-in order to correct a woman's sexual instinct in an unhealthy state. Their approach to clitoral surgery, at least as revealed in published medical works, was a cautious one that respected the importance of clitoral stimulation for healthy sexuality while simultaneously recognizing its role as cause and symptom in cases of insanity that were tied to masturbation. PMID:18065832

  16. [SANITATION AND SCHOOL HYGIENE IN THE SCHOOL INSTITUTTIONS OF THE TOBOLSK PROVINCE IN THE LATE XIX CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Valitov, A A; Tomilov, I S; Fedotova, D Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the article there is considered the history of the development ofsanitary and hygienic standards in school institutions of Tobolsk province in the late XIX century. In comparative terms there is characterized the presented in that period the legal framework regulating of abidance by hygienic and sanitary standards in educational institutions. There was executed an careful analysis of hygienic conditions on the example of the Tobolsk male gymnasium with a comparison of similar conditions in another Siberian educational/childcare institution--the Yenisei female progymnasium. The main sources in the study were reports of educators: I. Gursky--about hygienic living conditions of the inmates of the Tobolsk gymnasium and P.M. Golovachev--about sanitary conditions in the Yenisei female gymnasium. Contemporaries paid a great attention to such health and safety standards as heating, ventilation, lighting, capacity of classrooms and boarding facilities, the violation of which led to a deterioration in the health of students and the growth of the epidemics in mention educational institutions. PMID:27266029

  17. Science, suffrage, and experimentation: Mary Putnam Jacobi and the controversy over vivisection in late nineteenth-century America.

    PubMed

    Bittel, Carla Jean

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the medical activism of the New York physician Mary Putnam Jacobi (1842-1906), to illustrate the problems of gender and science at the center of the vivisection debate in late nineteenth-century America. In the post-Civil War era, individuals both inside and outside the medical community considered vivisection to be a controversial practice. Physicians divided over the value of live animal experimentation, while reformers and activists campaigned against it. Jacobi stepped into the center of the controversy and tried to use her public defense of experimentation to the advantage of women in the medical profession. Her advocacy of vivisection was part of her broader effort to reform medical education, especially at women's institutions. It was also a political strategy aimed at associating women with scientific practices to advance a women's rights agenda. Her work demonstrates how debates over women in medicine and science in medicine, suffrage, and experimentation overlapped at a critical moment of historical transition. PMID:16327083

  18. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  19. Proceedings of the 18th annual meeting of Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space.

    PubMed

    2004-11-01

    This issue contains the proceedings from the 18th annual meeting of the Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space, which was held at Fujita Health University, September 30-October 2, 2004. This includes papers from seven symposia: Present Status of the ISS Centrifuge and Its Scientific Goal, Strategy of Frontier Organisms--Plant Growth and Gravi-reception System, Animal Experiment in Space--Scientific Needs and Concerns, Scientific Significance of Biological Effects of Space Radiation, Adaptation of Animal Cells Against Gravity: Dynamics of Proteins and Fiber System, Growth and Gravity--How Has Gravity Associated Homeostasis Evolved and Developed?, and Tenth Anniversary of IML-2 and Its Follow-on Studies. In addition to the symposia papers, 26 general science papers from the annual meeting are included. PMID:15887354

  20. The 18th Congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jolyon P; Nichols, Steven C

    2011-09-01

    The 18th biennial Congress of ISAM was held for 4 days at the De Doelen Congress Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands, at which approximately 350 delegates, including 60 session chairs and speakers, attended. The abstracts of the 49 podium talks and the 126 posters that were presented have been published in the society's technical journal (journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Delivery), and the detailed program can be found on the ISAM website (www.isam.org). Postgraduate courses on the topics: 'Inhalation Therapy at the Intensive Care Unit'; 'Walking the Standards Maze: Standards for Device Development, Device Performance and Regulatory Approval'; and 'Nuts and Bolts of Aerosol Delivery: Theory, Guidelines and Practice', were offered to participants prior to the Congress itself. PMID:22833908

  1. Preface of the 18th International Conference on Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, April S.; Ptak, Aaron J.

    2015-09-01

    The first International Conference on Molecular Beam Epitaxy (IC-MBE) was held in Paris in 1978, chaired by Alfred Y. Cho. Every other year since, with the exception of a four-year break after the initial meeting, the IC-MBE has been held in European, Asian, and North American venues. The 18th and latest IC-MBE was held in Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, September 7-12, 2014, and was chaired by Yong-Hang Zhang (Arizona State University). MBE is an advanced crystal growth method that benefits areas from the study of fundamental physics, all the way through the production of devices used in countless fields. IC-MBE brings together researchers from all over the world, and is the premier forum for scientific and technological exchange among researchers investigating all types of materials growth using the MBE technique.

  2. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  3. Late Holocene upper bounds of flood magnitudes and twentieth century large floods in the ungauged, hyperarid alluvial Nahal Arava, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Yael; Grodek, Tamir; Enzel, Yehouda; Porat, Naomi; McDonald, Eric V.; Dahan, Ofer

    2008-03-01

    The impact of large twentieth century floods on the riparian vegetation and channel morphology of the relatively wide anabranching and braided Nahal Arava, southern Israel, was documented as part of developing tools to (a) identify recent large floods, (b) determine these flood's respective magnitudes in alluvial ungauged streams, and (c) determine long-term upper bounds to flood stages and magnitudes. Along most of its course Nahal Paran, a major tributary that impacts the morphology, floods and sediments of Nahal Arava at the study reach, is a coarse-gravel, braided ephemeral stream. Downstream of the Arava-Paran confluence, aeolian and fluvial sand delivered from eastern Arava valley alters the channel morphology. The sand has accreted up to 2.5 m above the distinct current channels, facilitating the recording of large floods. This sand enhances the establishment of denser riparian vegetation (mainly Tamarix nilotica and Haloxylon persicum) that interacts with floods and affects stream morphology. A temporal association was found between specific floods recorded upstream and tree-ring ages of re-growth of flood-damaged tamarix trees ('Sigafoos trees') in the past 30 years. This association can be utilized for developing a twentieth century flood chronology in hyperarid ungauged basins in the region. The minimum magnitude of the largest flood that covered the entire channel width, estimated from flood deposits, is approximately 1700-1800 m 3s - 1 . This is a larger magnitude than the largest gauged flood of 1150 m 3s - 1 that occurred in 1970 about 30 km upstream in Nahal Paran. Our estimation agrees with flood magnitude estimated from the regional envelope curve of the largest floods. Based on Holocene alluvial stratigraphy and OSL dating in the study reach we also conclude that flood stages did not reach the late Holocene (˜ 2.2 ka) surface and therefore we estimate a non-exceedance upper bound of ˜ 2000 m 3s - 1 flood magnitudes for Nahal Arava during that

  4. The Asian summer monsoon: an intercomparison of CMIP5 vs. CMIP3 simulations of the late 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, K. R.; Annamalai, H.; Kang, I.-S.; Kitoh, A.; Moise, A.; Turner, A.; Wang, B.; Zhou, T.

    2013-11-01

    The boreal summer Asian monsoon has been evaluated in 25 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-5 (CMIP5) and 22 CMIP3 GCM simulations of the late twentieth Century. Diagnostics and skill metrics have been calculated to assess the time-mean, climatological annual cycle, interannual variability, and intraseasonal variability. Progress has been made in modeling these aspects of the monsoon, though there is no single model that best represents all of these aspects of the monsoon. The CMIP5 multi-model mean (MMM) is more skillful than the CMIP3 MMM for all diagnostics in terms of the skill of simulating pattern correlations with respect to observations. Additionally, for rainfall/convection the MMM outperforms the individual models for the time mean, the interannual variability of the East Asian monsoon, and intraseasonal variability. The pattern correlation of the time (pentad) of monsoon peak and withdrawal is better simulated than that of monsoon onset. The onset of the monsoon over India is typically too late in the models. The extension of the monsoon over eastern China, Korea, and Japan is underestimated, while it is overestimated over the subtropical western/central Pacific Ocean. The anti-correlation between anomalies of all-India rainfall and Niño3.4 sea surface temperature is overly strong in CMIP3 and typically too weak in CMIP5. For both the ENSO-monsoon teleconnection and the East Asian zonal wind-rainfall teleconnection, the MMM interannual rainfall anomalies are weak compared to observations. Though simulation of intraseasonal variability remains problematic, several models show improved skill at representing the northward propagation of convection and the development of the tilted band of convection that extends from India to the equatorial west Pacific. The MMM also well represents the space-time evolution of intraseasonal outgoing longwave radiation anomalies. Caution is necessary when using GPCP and CMAP rainfall to validate (1) the time

  5. Floods of the Lower Tisza from the late 17th century onwards: frequency, magnitude, seasonality and great flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper is based on a recently developed database including contemporary original, administrative, legal and private source materials (published and archival) as well as media reports related to the floods occurred on the lower sections of the Tisza river in Hungary, with special emphasis on the area of Szeged town. The study area is well-represented by contemporary source evidence from the late 17th century onwards, when the town and its broader area was reoccupied from the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Concerning the applied source materials, the main bases of investigation are the administrative (archival) sources such as town council protocols of Szeged and county meeting protocols of Csanád and Csongrád Counties. In these (legal-)administrative documents damaging events (natural/environmental hazards) were systematically recorded. Moreover, other source types such as taxation-related damage accounts as well as private and official reports, letters and correspondence (published, unpublished) were also included. Concerning published evidence, a most important source is flood reports in contemporary newspapers as well as town chronicles and other contemporary narratives. In the presentation the main focus is on the analysis of flood-rich flood-poor periods of the last ca. 330 years; moreover, the seasonality distribution as well as the magnitude of Tisza flood events are also discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to provide a short overview, in the form of case studies, on the greatest flood events (e.g. duration, magnitude, damages, multi-annual consequences), and their further impacts on the urban and countryside development as well as on (changes in) flood defence strategies. In this respect, especially two flood events, the great (1815-)1816 and the catastrophic 1879 flood (shortly with causes and consequences) - that practically erased Szeged town from the ground - are presented in more detail.

  6. Medical electricity and madness in the 18th century: the legacies of Benjamin Franklin and Jan Ingenhousz.

    PubMed

    Beaudreau, Sherry Ann; Finger, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin had at least two accidents that resulted in electricity passing through his brain. In addition, he witnessed a patient's similar accident and performed an experiment that showed how humans could endure shocks to the head without serious ill effects, other than amnesia. Jan Ingenhousz, Franklin's Dutch-born medical correspondent better known for his discovery of photosynthesis, also had a serious accident that sent electricity though his head and, in a letter to Franklin, he described how he felt unusually elated the next day. During the 1780s, Franklin and Ingenhousz encouraged leading French and English electrical "operators" to try shocking the heads of melancholic and other deranged patients in their wards. Although they did not state that they were responding to Ingenhousz's and Franklin's suggestions, Birch, Aldini, and Gale soon did precisely what Ingenhousz and Franklin had suggested. These practitioners did not appear to induce convulsions in their mentally ill patients, but they still reported notable successes. PMID:16960304

  7. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of the varnish and glue of an ancient 18th century double bass.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Francesco; Orecchio, Santino; Cicero, Maria Grazia; Di Stefano, Cosimo

    2007-04-20

    A GC-MS investigation is conducted on the double bass "Panormus", property of Conservatorio di Musica "Vincenzo Bellini" in Palermo. The most important components of the varnish (fatty acids) and of the glue (proteinaceous amino acids), with which the musical instrument was treated in the past, are determined. The analyses are carried out by prior derivatization of fatty acids by acidic methanol and of amino acids by acidic methanol and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Analytes identification is achieved by direct comparison with several reference materials and the use of a digitized library. PMID:17376455

  8. A 18^th century thermometer recipe: The begin of experimental physics courses in Guadalajara, M'exico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alba Martinez, Durruty Jesus

    2007-03-01

    As a part of the Special Funds Collection of the Jalisco's State Public Library ``Juan Jos'e Arreola'' is a physics course manuscript attributed to Francisco Javier Clavigero s.j. (1731-1787), teacher at the Jesuit Colegio de Santo Tom'as (a college-level institution in Guadalajara before the university opening), inside of the vellum bounded volume is a unbounded folio containing instructions on how to build a thermometer. In this work are discussed some evidences of the belonging of such folio to the manuscript in spite of their differences (it is written in Spanish not in Latin as the whole), we also describe the process to construct the thermometer and how could be the experimental part of the physics course. Also is briefly exposed the importance of the educational role of Clavigero as a builder of the concept of mexicanity.

  9. A Role for Historical Experiments: Capturing the Spirit of the Itinerant Lecturers of the 18th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Don; Stinner, Art

    2007-01-01

    Gerald Rutherford (1964), one of the original authors of the Harvard Project Physics course which emphasized the history of science, expressed a view of inquiry which advocated the historical re-constructions of significant experiments. To implement this view we examine two modes of historical re-constructions; Heering's ("Paper…

  10. Spatial-temporal analysis on climate variation in early Qing dynasty (17th -18th century) using China's chronological records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan-Hui Elaine; Wang, Pao-Kuan; Fan, I.-Chun; Liao, Yi-Chun; Liao, Hsiung-Ming; Pai, Pi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change in the form of extreme, variation, and short- or mid-term fluctuation is now widely conceived to challenge the survival of the human beings and the societies. Meanwhile, improving present and future climate modeling needs a comprehensive understanding of the past climate patterns. Although historical climate modeling has gained substantive progress in recent years based on the new findings from dynamical meteorology, phenology, or paleobiology, less known are the mid- to short-term variations or lower-frequency variabilities at different temporal scale and their regional expressions. Enabling accurate historical climate modeling would heavily rely on the robustness of the dataset that could carry specific time, location, and meteorological information in the continuous temporal and spatial chains. This study thus presents an important methodological innovation to reconstruct historical climate modeling at multiple temporal and spatial scales through building a historical climate dataset, based on the Chinese chronicles compiled in a Zhang (2004) edited Compendium of Chinese Meteorological Records of the Last 3,000 Years since Zhou Dynasty (1100BC). The dataset reserves the most delicate meteorological data with accurate time, location, meteorological event, duration, and other phonological, social and economic impact information, and is carefully digitalized, coded, and geo-referenced on the Geographical Information System based maps according to Tan's (1982) historical atlas in China. The research project, beginning in January 2015, is a collaborative work among scholars across meteorology, geography, and historical linguistics disciplines. The present research findings derived from the early 100+ years of the Qing dynasty include the following. First, the analysis is based on the sampling size, denoted as cities/counties, n=1398 across the Mainland China in the observation period. Second, the frequencies of precipitation, cold-warm temperature, flood and drought with an index of social unrest are counted in an interval of a year, five years, ten years, and twenty years to gain their running mean(s) for every cites/counties to depict their temporal variations. Third, the cities and counties are divided into seven zones based on their meteorological and geographical characteristics, in order to interpret the regional expressions of the climate variations. Finally, the Ordinary Least Square regression model is used to estimate the coefficients among precipitation, temperature, flood and drought. Significantly, it is found that in general all these indices fluctuated in past 100+ years. However, the occurrence of drought and flood all have significant correlation with lower (colder) temperature (P=0.00) and also with precipitation (P<0.05). This implies that cold temperature tends to have higher meteorological extremes, and both flood and drought can occur approximately in the same year with abundant precipitation at different time. Among seven geographical zones, North China is found more vulnerable to the temperature changes considering these extreme weathers. Temperature change in Central and South China however are less significant. Central China on the other hand is more sensitive to the precipitation that are both correlated with drought and flood.