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Sample records for late imperial russia

  1. Imperialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2002-01-01

    This publication discusses issues related to imperialism. It examines the 1857 uprising against the British in India; examines how Hawaii became a U.S. territory at the turn of the 20th century; and reviews oil and U.S. energy policy, particularly the debate over drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, an issue relevant to September 11,…

  2. Temperature and precipitation effects on agrarian economy in late imperial China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D.; Li, Guodong; Forêt, Philippe; Lee, Harry F.

    2016-06-01

    Climate change has been statistically proven to substantially influence the economy of early modern Europe, particularly in the long term. However, a detailed analysis of climate change and the economy of historical China remains lacking, particularly from a large-scale and quantitative perspective. This study quantitatively analyzes the relationship between climate change and the economy in late imperial China (AD 1600–1840) at the national level. This study also compares the findings on the relationship between climate change and the economy in late imperial China with those in early modern Europe. Results of multivariate regression and Granger causality analyses indicate that (1) climate change induces economic fluctuations in late imperial China, particularly in the long term; (2) given that the economic center is located in South China during the study period, temperature has a greater influence on the economy than precipitation; (3) the population of China is statistically proven to primarily act as consumers in the long term; and (4) given the long-term role of the Chinese population, the economic vulnerability in late imperial China under climate change is further increased and is higher than that in early modern Europe, whose population mainly acts as producers in the long term. In conclusion, the late imperial Chinese society has a high economic vulnerability to climate change. These findings revisit Malthusian theory and ‘Great Divergence’ theory by including the perspective of economic vulnerability under climate change during the study period. The role of the population must be investigated further to address the socioeconomic vulnerabilities under climate change.

  3. The strength of a loosely defined movement: eugenics and medicine in imperial Russia.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the 'infiltration' of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900-17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859-1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879-1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia's and Iudin's attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas. PMID:25498435

  4. The Strength of a Loosely Defined Movement: Eugenics and Medicine in Imperial Russia

    PubMed Central

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the ‘infiltration’ of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900–17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859–1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879–1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia’s and Iudin’s attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas. PMID:25498435

  5. Infection, contagion, and public health in late medieval and early modern German imperial towns.

    PubMed

    Kinzelbach, Annemarie

    2006-07-01

    From today's point of view, the concepts of "miasma" and "contagion" appear to be two mutually exclusive perceptions of the spread of epidemic diseases, and quite a number of historians have tried to discuss the history of public health and epidemic diseases in terms of a progression from the miasmic to the contagionist concept. More detailed local studies, however, indicate how extremely misleading it may be to separate such medical concepts and ideas from their actual historical context. The article presented here, based on local studies in late medieval and early modern imperial towns in southern Germany, demonstrates to what extent the inhabitants of these towns had notions of both "miasma" and "contagion." Furthermore, a contextual analysis of language shows that they did not see a necessity to strictly distinguish between these different concepts relating to the spread of diseases. Tracing the meaning of "infection" and "contagion," we find that these terms were used in connection with various diseases, and that a change in the use of the expressions does not necessarily imply a change of the corresponding notion. Moreover, a coexistence of differing perceptions cannot--as some historians have suggested--be attributed to a divergence between the academic medicine and the popular ideas of that period. A survey of measures and actions in the public health sector indicates that a coexistence of--from our point of view--inconsistent concepts helped the authorities as well as the individuals to find means of defense and consolation during all those crises caused by epidemic diseases--crises that occurred very frequently in these towns during the late medieval and early modern periods. As the article demonstrates, the interaction during such crises reveals the continuity of ancient rituals and concepts as well as the adoption of new insights resulting from changes in the economical, political, scientific, religious, and social structures. PMID:16540700

  6. Psychology at High School in Late Imperial Russia (1881-1917)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byford, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Although historians of Russian psychology occasionally mention the bitter squabbles over high school psychology that occurred at major conferences in the 1900s-1910s, they usually present these debates schematically and merely as a side issue, failing to engage with all the difficulties surrounding the introduction of psychology into secondary…

  7. Body, gender, and disease: the female breast in late imperial Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Li

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the diverse ways in which Chinese medical experts historically gendered breast disease as a female ailment. By comparing representations of the female breast from the "Imperially-Compiled Golden Mirror of Medical Learning (Yuzuan yizong jinjian, 1742)" to those from earlier and contemporary texts, this paper analyzes how breast disease was alternately categorized as an ailment of childbearing and as a disease rooted in pathological female emotion. Medical awareness of breast disease in men did somewhat challenge these connections between womanhood and disease. Nevertheless, medical illustrations of women helped to reinforce the idea that breast disease was a characteristically female problem. PMID:22069795

  8. Between passion and repression: medical views of demon dreams, demonic fetuses, and female sexual madness in late imperial China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-fen

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that early Chinese physicians had already related female ailments to their sexual frustration. Moreover, many physicians paid more attention to non-reproductive women – nuns, widows, and unmarried women – as if they were more prone to suffer from unfulfilled desires and sexual frustration and, as a result, produce the sexual dreams and monstrous births that were described in the medical literature of medieval China as physical ailments. The earlier body-oriented etiology of these female illnesses gradually shifted to emotion-oriented perspectives in late imperial China. In particular, the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century doctors began to categorize women's sexual frustration as "yu disorders" or "love madness." In this article I will show not only the changing medical views of female sexual madness throughout the ages, but how these views were shaped by the societies in which both the doctors and patients were situated. PMID:22066151

  9. The Nature and Impact of Late Imperial Chinese Academies: A Review of Some Recent Publications in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    This review essay analyzes the historiography of Confucian academies ("shuyuan") in imperial China, focusing on five representative books published in China between 2008 and 2014, including two new editions of books originally published in 1995 and 2004. The five authors share a deep concern about the nature of academies, particularly…

  10. Syllabus for Use in Imperial Russian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husum, Carol

    This syllabus is an outline of a one semester course in Imperial Russia designed to emphasize the relationship between Russia's past and her present. Course content begins with the founding of the first Russian state and continues to the fall of the Romanovs in 1917. In addition, some topics are suggested for investigation of Russian history in…

  11. Plume type ophiolites in Japan, East Russia and Mongolia: Peculiarity of the Late Jurassic examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwatari, Akira; Ichiyama, Yuji; Ganbat, Erdenesaikhan

    2013-04-01

    Dilek and Furnes (2011; GSAB) provided a new comprehensive classification of ophiolites. In addition to the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) and supra-subduction zone (SSZ) types that are known for decades, they introduced rift-zone (passive margin) type, volcanic arc (active margin) type, and plume type. The last type is thought to be originated in oceanic large igneous provinces (LIPs; oceanic plateaus), and is preserved in the subduction-accretion complexes in the Pacific margins. The LIP-origin greenstones occur in the Middle Paleozoic (Devonian) accretionary complex (AC) in central Mongolia (Ganbat et al. 2012; AGU abst.). The Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic plume-type ophiolites are abundant in Japan. They are Carboniferous greenstones covered by thick limestone in the Akiyoshi belt (Permian AC, SW Japan; Tatsumi et al., 2000; Geology), Permian greenstones in the Mino-Tamba belt (Jurassic AC, SW Japan; Ichiyama et al. 2008; Lithos), and Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous greenstone in the Sorachi (Hokkaido; Ichiyama et al, 2012; Geology) and Mikabu (SW Japan; this study) belts. The LIP origin of these greenstones is indicated by abundance of picrite (partly komatiite and meimechite), geochemical features resembling HIMU basalts (e.g. high Nb/Y and Zr/Y) and Mg-rich (up to Fo93) picritic olivines following the "mantle array", suggesting very high (>1600oC) temperature of the source mantle plume. The Sorachi-Mikabu greenstones are characterized by the shorter time interval between magmatism and accretion than the previous ones, and are coeval with the meimechite lavas and Alaskan-type ultramafic intrusions in the Jurassic AC in Sikhote-Alin Mountains of Primorye (E. Russia), that suggest a superplume activity in the subduction zone (Ishiwatari and Ichiyama, 2004; IGR). The Mikabu greenstones extend for 800 km along the Pacific coast of SW Japan, and are characterized by the fragmented "olistostrome" occurrence of the basalts, gabbros and ultramafic cumulate rocks (but no mantle

  12. [THE IMPROVEMENT OF CITIES AND SANITARY CONTROL IN RUSSIA IN LATE XIX--EARLY XX CENTURIES].

    PubMed

    Sherstneva, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article considers activity of municipal self-governments of Russia concerning support of sanitary epidemiological well-being of cities in the late XIX--early XX centuries. The acuteness of problem of sanitary conditions of urban settlements particularly became visible in post-reform period due to increasing of number of urban population, alteration of setup and rhythm of life in cities, appearance of new forms of worker's daily chores. Al this, against the background of underdevelopment of communal sphere aggravated epidemiological situation in cities. The impulse to improvement and development of sanitary control was made by the city regulations of 1870 presenting to town authorities the right to deal with sanitary issues. The significant input into improvement of cities was made first of all at the expense of construction of water supplies and sewerage and support of sanitary control of these spheres of municipal economy. Under town councils of many cities the sanitary commissions were organized to support permanent sanitary control in town. The development of town sanitation followed the way of specialization. The housing and communal, trade and food, school and sanitary and sanitary and veterinary control were organized. PMID:26399074

  13. Sexological deliberation and social engineering: Albert Moll and the sterilisation debate in late imperial and Weimar Germany.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    The physician and sexologist Albert Moll, from Berlin, was one of the main protagonists within the German discourse on the opportunities and dangers of social engineering, by eugenic interventions into human life in general, as well as into reproductive hygiene and healthcare policy in particular. One of the main sexological topics that were discussed intensively during the late-Wilhelminian German Reich and the Weimar Republic was the question of the legalisation of voluntary and compulsory sterilisations on the basis of medical, social, eugenic, economic or criminological indications. As is clear from Moll's conservative principles of medical ethics, and his conviction that the genetic knowledge required for eugenically indicated sterilisations was not yet sufficiently elaborated, he had doubts and worries about colleagues who were exceedingly zealous about these surgical sterilisations--especially Gustav Boeters from Saxony. PMID:23002295

  14. Sexological Deliberation and Social Engineering: Albert Moll and the Sterilisation Debate in Late Imperial and Weimar Germany

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The physician and sexologist Albert Moll, from Berlin, was one of the main protagonists within the German discourse on the opportunities and dangers of social engineering, by eugenic interventions into human life in general, as well as into reproductive hygiene and healthcare policy in particular. One of the main sexological topics that were discussed intensively during the late-Wilhelminian German Reich and the Weimar Republic was the question of the legalisation of voluntary and compulsory sterilisations on the basis of medical, social, eugenic, economic or criminological indications. As is clear from Moll’s conservative principles of medical ethics, and his conviction that the genetic knowledge required for eugenically indicated sterilisations was not yet sufficiently elaborated, he had doubts and worries about colleagues who were exceedingly zealous about these surgical sterilisations – especially Gustav Boeters from Saxony. PMID:23002295

  15. Historical data as a baseline for conservation: reconstructing long-term faunal extinction dynamics in Late Imperial-modern China.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Samuel T; Crees, Jennifer J; Di Fonzo, Martina M I

    2015-08-22

    Extinction events typically represent extended processes of decline that cannot be reconstructed using short-term studies. Long-term archives are necessary to determine past baselines and the extent of human-caused biodiversity change, but the capacity of historical datasets to provide predictive power for conservation must be assessed within a robust analytical framework. Local Chinese gazetteers represent a more than 400-year country-level dataset containing abundant information on past environmental conditions and include extensive records of gibbons, which have a restricted present-day distribution but formerly occurred across much of China. Gibbons show pre-twentieth century range contraction, with significant fragmentation by the mid-eighteenth century and population loss escalating in the late nineteenth century. Isolated gibbon populations persisted for about 40 years before local extinction. Populations persisted for longer at higher elevations, and disappeared earlier from northern and eastern regions, with the biogeography of population loss consistent with the contagion model of range collapse in response to human demographic expansion spreading directionally across China. The long-term Chinese historical record can track extinction events and human interactions with the environment across much longer timescales than are usually addressed in ecology, contributing novel baselines for conservation and an increased understanding of extinction dynamics and species vulnerability or resilience to human pressures. PMID:26246553

  16. Late Quaternary and Future Biome Simulations for Alaska and Eastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Amy; Walsh, John; Saito, Kazuyuki; Bigelow, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    We simulated Arctic biomes across a region including Alaska and Eastern Russia using the BIOME4 biogeochemical and biogeography vegetation model. BIOME4, which produces an equilibrium vegetation distribution under a given climate condition, was forced by CMIP5/PMIP3 climate data. We are exploring vegetation and permafrost distributions during the last 21,000 years and future projections (2100 C.E.) to gain an understanding of the effects of climate shifts on this complex subsystem. When forced with the baseline modern climatology, compiled from the University of Delaware temperature and precipitation climatology and ERA-40 sunshine data, our biome simulations were generally consistent with current vegetation observations in the study region. Much of the study area was simulated to have evergreen and deciduous taiga and shrub tundras. Paleoclimatological simulations were compared with pollen data samples taken through the study region. Simulations for the Last Glacial Maximum show the Bering Land Bridge covered almost entirely by cushion forb, lichen, and moss tundra, shrub tundra, and graminoid tundra. Three out of the five models' climate data produce evergreen and deciduous taiga in what is now southwestern Alaska. The distributions of cushion forb, lichen, and moss tundra and graminoid tundra differ noticeably between models, however, shrub tundra distributions are generally in agreement. Simulations for the Mid-Holocene are in better agreement on pollen-based distributions of biomes. Shrub tundra is simulated along the Arctic coast, and in some cases along the eastern coast of Russia. All models show evergreen taiga along the southern coast of Russia as well as covering the southern half of present-day Alaska. Deciduous taiga is simulated in the interior regions of eastern Russia and Alaska, though the distributions in Alaska differ between models. Pre-Industrial biome simulations were very similar to Mid-Holocene simulations. Differences include more shrub

  17. Late Quaternary and future biome simulations for Alaska and Eastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Amy S.

    Arctic biomes across a region including Alaska and Eastern Russia were investigated using the BIOME4 biogeochemical and biogeography vegetation model. This study investigated past (the last 21,000 years), present, and future vegetation distributions in the study area, using climate forcing from five CMIP5 models (CCSM4, GISS-E2-R, MIROC-ESM, MPI-ESM, and MRI-CGCM3). The present-day BIOME4 simulations were generally consistent with current vegetation observations in the study region characterized by evergreen and deciduous taiga and shrub tundras. Paleoclimatological simulations were compared with pollen data samples collected in the study region. Pre-industrial biome simulations are generally similar to the modern reconstruction but differ by having more shrub tundra in both Russia and Alaska to the north, as well as less deciduous taiga in Alaska. Pre-industrial simulations were in good agreement with the pollen data. Mid-Holocene simulations place shrub tundras along the Arctic coast, and in some cases along the eastern coast of Russia. Simulations for the Mid-Holocene are in good agreement with pollen-based distributions of biomes. Simulations for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) show that the Bering Land Bridge was covered almost entirely by cushion forb, lichen and moss tundra, shrub tundra, and graminoid tundra. Three out of the five models' climate data produce evergreen and deciduous taiga in what is now southwestern Alaska, however the pollen data does not support this. The distributions of cushion forb, lichen, and moss tundra and graminoid tundra differ noticeably between models, while shrub tundra distributions are generally similar. Future simulations of BIOME4 based on the RCP8.5 climate scenario indicate a northward shift of the treeline and a significant areal decrease of shrub tundra and graminoid tundra regions in the 21st century. Intrusions of cool mixed, deciduous, and conifer forests above 60°N, especially in southwest Alaska, were notable

  18. Palaeoenvironmental dynamics inferred from late Quaternary permafrost deposits on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta, Northeast Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, Sebastian; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Andreev, Andrei A.; Kienast, Frank; Meyer, Hanno; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Sierralta, Melanie

    2008-08-01

    Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The record mirrors the environmental history of Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island reflects the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

  19. Late Mesozoic deformations of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma orogenic belt, Northeast Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridovsky, Valery

    2016-04-01

    The Verkhoyansk-Kolyma orogenic belt marks the boundary between the Kolyma-Omolon superterrane (microcontinent) and the submerged eastern margin of the North Asian craton. The orogenic system is remark able for its large number of economically viable gold deposits (Natalka, Pavlik, Rodionovskoe, Drazhnoe, Bazovskoe, Badran, Malo-Tarynskoe, etc.). The Verkhoyansk - Kolyma orogenic belt is subdivided into Kular-Nera and the Polousny-Debin terranes. The Kular-Nera terrane is mainly composed of the Upper Permian, Triassic, and Lower Jurassic black shales that are metamorphosed at lower greenschist facies conditions. The Charky-Indigirka and the Chai-Yureya faults separate the Kular-Nera from the Polousny-Debin terrane that is predominantly composed of the Jurassic flyschoi dturbidites. The deformation structure of the region evolved in association with several late Mesozoic tectonic events that took place in the north-eastern part ofthe Paleo-Pacific. In Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous several generations of fold and thrust systems were formed due to frontal accretion of the Kolyma-Omolon superterrane to the eastern margin of the North Asian craton.Thrusting and folding was accompanied by granitic magmatism, metamorphic reworking of the Late Paleozoic and the Early Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, and formation of Au-Sn-W mineralization. Three stages of deformation related to frontal accretion can be distinguished. First stage D1 has developed in the north-eastern part of the Verkhoyansk - Kolyma orogenic belt. Early tight and isoclinal folds F1 and assosiated thrusts are characteristic of D1. Major thrusts, linear concentric folds F2 and cleavage were formed during D2. The main ore-controlling structures are thrust faults forming imbricate fan systems. Frontal and oblique ramps and systems of bedding and cross thrusts forming duplexes are common. It is notable that mineralized tectonized zones commonly develop along thrusts at the contacts of rocks of contrasting competence

  20. Late Weichselian (Valdaian) and Holocene vegetation and environmental history of the northern Timan Ridge, European Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paus, Aage; Svendsen, John Inge; Matiouchkov, Alexei

    2003-11-01

    Lake and peat deposits from the Timan Ridge, Arctic Russia, were pollen analysed, reconstructing the vegetation history and paleoenvironment since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) 20-18,000 years ago. The sites studied are located inside the margins of a large paleolake of about 20 km2, by us named Lake Timan. This lake developed in the Late Weichselian, more than 30,000 years after the deglaciation of this region, and was formed due to increased precipitation and warmer summers that accelerated the melting of stagnant ice within its catchment. The lake was drained during the early Holocene when the outlet rivers eroded the spillways. A new generation of much smaller lakes formed during the Holocene when the last remnants of buried glacier ice melted away causing the exposed floor of Lake Timan to subside. Since deglaciation, the following regional vegetation development has been recorded: (1) During the initial stage of Lake Timan, the dominant vegetation was discontinuous steppe/tundra, with patches of snow bed vegetation. (2) A dwarf-shrub tundra established during the Late Weichselian interstadial (Aller ød), probably reflecting warmer and moister conditions. (3) The Younger Dryas cooling is recognised by a reversal to steppe/tundra and snowbeds on unstable mineral-soils, and higher palynological richness. (4) Soon after the transition into the Holocene, a birch-forest established on the Timan Ridge. (5) A cooling starting around 8200 cal. years BP initiated the deforestation of the exposed hills. In the most protected sites, birch trees persisted until later than 4000 years ago, reflecting a gradual development into the present treeless dwarf-shrub tundra.

  1. Late Pleistocene Interstadial Environment on Faddeyevskiy Island, East-Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, Andrei A.; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Romanenko, Fedor A.; Filimonova, Ludmila V.; Sulerzhitsky, Leopold D.; Tarasov, Pavel E.

    1999-01-01

    Pollen, plant macrofossil, LOI and radiocarbon analyses of a 1.4-m section from Faddeyevskiy Island, Novosibirskie Ostrova archipelago (75 deg 20 min N, 143 deg 50 min E, 30m elevation) provide new information on the Late Pleistocene interstadial environmental history of this high Arctic region. Bulk radiocarbon dates of 25,700 +/- 1000, 32,780 +/- 500, 35,200 +/- 650 and two AMS dates of 29,950 +/- 660 and 42,990 +/- 1280 indicate that the deposits accumulated during the Kargian (Boutellier) interval. Numerous mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) remains collected in the vicinity of the site were radiocarbon dated to 36,700-18,500 yr. BP. Rare bison (Bison priscus) bones were dated to 32,200 +/- 600 and 33,100 +/- 320. Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Artemisia pollen dominate the pollen spectra with some Ranunculaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Rosaceae, and Compositae. These pollen spectra reflect a tundra-steppe vegetation which probably was dominant on the exposed shelf of the Arctic Ocean. The presence of Carex macrofossils infer a summer climate two degrees warmer than today. The productivity of this local vegetation during the Kargian interstadial was apparently high enough to feed the grass-eater herds.

  2. Late Quaternary lake records from the Anadyr Lowland, Central Chukotka (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkin, Anatoly; Anderson, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    Three lake cores provide insight into the vegetation and climate history of the past ∼45,000 14C yr in the Anadyr Lowland, a key paleogeographic link between the Bering Land Bridge (BLB) and interior Western Beringia (WB). Although not without chronological issues, these records suggest that the Late Pleistocene interstade (approximating Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 3) was a time of unstable environments consistent with previous interpretations for southern areas of WB and in contrast to more stable conditions inferred for northern WB. A hiatus in the records during OIS2 implies dry, frigid environments in the Anadyr Lowland. Previous research suggested that Chuktoka was a westward extension of relatively mesic environments of the BLB, which acted as a “filter” to intercontinental migrations. The Lowland data indicate that Chukotka may have been more of a transitional zone between mesic BLB and more xeric regions of western WB. A structurally novel biome dominated by deciduous forest and high-shrub tundra was proposed as occupying much of Beringia between ∼11,000 and 9000 14C yr BP. The unusual pollen assemblage that characterizes the Lowland suggests that perhaps a second biome was also present in Beringia, one that was dominated by meadows with Betula shrub thickets.

  3. Between Literary Education and Academic Learning: The Study of Literature at Secondary School in Late Imperial Russia (1860s-1900s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byford, Andy

    2004-01-01

    Research into the history of Russian education has been primarily concerned with the sociopolitical dynamics of the educational field?concretely, with government policies on education and science, with the social composition of the teaching and academic corps, and with the broadly ideological attitudes and activities of government officials,…

  4. Education and the New Imperialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikly, Leon

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss the role of education in relation to the new imperialism. The article begins by explaining what is meant by the term the "new imperialism" and how it differs from older forms of European imperialism characterized by colonial rule. The new imperialism is presented as having material and discursive aspects…

  5. Culture and Imperialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, Edward W.

    Growing out of a series of lectures given at universities in the United States, Canada, and England, this book reopens the dialogue between literature and the life of its time. It draws dramatic connections between the imperial endeavor and the culture that both reflected and reinforced it, describing a general pattern of relationships between the…

  6. In Search of an Audience: Popular Pharmacies and the Limits of Literate Medicine in Late Seventeenth- and Early Eighteenth-Century Russia.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the question of the limits of literate medicine in Europe, through an examination of the Russian literate medical world of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Russian courtly medicine had been dominated by Western Europeans from the 1480s, but in the early eighteenth century new licensing arrangements solidified the presence of these foreigners in the wider Russian medical world. Foreign medical practitioners took advantage of this development, aiming works at an increasingly large proportion of Russian literate society. These works, along with satirical and religious works emulating or deriding medical texts, show how by the 1720s the limits of literate medicine in Russia lay not at the edges of official court medicine, but rather at the edges of literate society. PMID:26725412

  7. The Garden and the Jungle: Burnett, Kipling and the Nature of Imperial Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Imperial British India is the point of origin for protagonists in both Frances Hodgson Burnett's "The Secret Garden" (1911) and Rudyard Kipling's "The Jungle Books" (1894-1895), two influential children's stories in which late Victorian notions of childhood education and nature converge with those of national and imperial identity. In Burnett's…

  8. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial

  9. Detrital Zircon Ages from Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Myrgovaam Basin Sandstones (Rauchua Trough), Western Chukotka, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, E. L.; Toro, J.; Gehrels, G.; Tuchkova, M.; Katkov, S.

    2004-12-01

    Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Myrgovaam Basin sediments (previously Rauchua Trough) are regionally significant because of the stratigraphic constraints they provide on the age and progression of deformation in the Chukotka fold belt, a possible along-strike continuation of the Alaskan Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. Existing descriptions of the structural and stratigraphic relations of Myrgovaam Basin sediments to underlying strata are contradictory. Some maps portray the basin fill as deposited unconformably over deformed Triassic and Jurassic strata of the Chukotka fold-belt. In other publications, the deposits are described as structurally detached and imbricated by N-verging thrust sheets (Baranov, 1996). Field studies reveal that underlying strata are tightly folded compared to overlying strata and that the contact is a structural discordance not an unconformity. More locally, we observed arkosic sandstones typical of the Myrgovaam Basin interbedded with underlying Late Jurassic strata or present as submarine channel deposits cut into older rocks, suggesting an original stratigraphic relationship. To reconcile these observations we suggest regional deformation post-dates deposition of Myrgovaam Basin deposits, and that the disharmony in deformational style between underlying thin-bedded Triassic sandstones and shales and (stratigraphically) overlying massive quartzites, is due to their different mechanical properties. Petrographic studies indicate that fine-grained Triassic-early Jurassic sandstones represent a distal recycled orogen source, while Myrgovaam Basin sandstones originated from a proximal orogenic source containing granitoid and crystalline basement rocks (microcline, biotite, muscovite and fragments of multiply deformed schist) and intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks. Laser Ablation ICPMS was used to date zircons (100 grains) from sandstones of the Myrgovaam Basin and compare them to those in Triassic sandstones (300 grains) and verify

  10. Imperial boyhood: piracy and the play ethic.

    PubMed

    Deane, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Representations of perpetual boyhood came to fascinate the late Victorians, partly because such images could naturalize a new spirit of imperial aggression and new policies of preserving power. This article traces the emergence of this fantasy through a series of stories about the relationship of the boy and the pirate, figures whose opposition in mid-Victorian literature was used to articulate the moral legitimacy of colonialism, but who became doubles rather than antitheses in later novels, such as R.L. Stevenson's "Treasure Island" and Joseph Conrad's "Lord Jim." Masculine worth needed no longer to be measured by reference to transcendent, universal laws, but by a morally flexible ethic of competitive play, one that bound together boyishness and piracy in a satisfying game of international adventure. PMID:22355829

  11. Imperial Mission and Manifest Destiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Jeff D.; Cherwitz, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Offers theoretical distinctions among the terms sacred, myth, ideology, and political myth. Analyzes representative speeches and debates on imperialism in the United States and Great Britain and contends that the distinction between the two rhetorical typologies concurrently existing in each nation account for the dominance of imperialist rhetoric…

  12. A seismic refraction survey of the Imperial Valley Region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuis, G. S.; Mooney, W. D.; Healy, J. H.; McMechan, G. A.; Lutter, W. J.

    1984-02-01

    from 16 km (Salton Sea) to 10 km (U.S.-Mexican border). Gravity modeling requires that this layer deepen and/or pinch out beneath the bordering mesas and mountain ranges. Based on its high velocity and the presence of intrusive basaltic rocks in the sedimentary section in the Imperial Valley, the subbasement is thought to be a mafic intrusive complex similar to oceanic middle crust. (6) Several structures are seen that affect basement, transition zone, and deeper parts of the sedimentary layer. They include a scarp along the Imperial fault, as much as 1 km down to the northeast, and a scarp passing roughly along the topographic boundary between the Imperial Valley and the bordering mesa to the west, as much as 3½ km down to the east. We interpret the latter scarp to be the suture, or rift boundary, between the older crystalline basement on the mesa and the younger metasedimentary basement in the Imperial Valley. (7) On a contour map of reduced travel time from our most widely recorded shot point, subtle patches of early arrivals among otherwise late arrivals in the central Imperial Valley correlate well with known geothermal resource areas having reservoir temperatures of more than 150°C. Apparently the Salton Trough is a location where new crust is being generated. As the rift opens, mafic intrusive rocks fill it from below as sedimentary rocks fill it from above. Rifting and intrusion produce high heat flow that metamorphoses the sedimentary rocks to shallow depth (metasedimentary basement in the Imperial Valley) and thus consolidates the new crust.

  13. The Changing Status of the Ph.D. Degree in Russia: An Academic Attribute in the Nonacademic Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolentseva, Anna

    2007-01-01

    In Russia there is a system of two advanced academic degrees: candidate of sciences and doctor of sciences. Historically, in imperial Russia there was a system of academic regulations and degrees based on European, mostly German patterns. Then in the Soviet period from 1918, the degrees of master's and doctor of sciences, which had existed for…

  14. Origin and evolution of overlapping calc-alkaline and alkaline magmas: The Late Palaeozoic post-collisional igneous province of Transbaikalia (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinovsky, B. A.; Tsygankov, A. A.; Jahn, B. M.; Katzir, Y.; Be'eri-Shlevin, Y.

    2011-08-01

    The Late Palaeozoic voluminous magmatism in Transbaikalia, Russia (a territory of > 600,000 km 2 to the east of Lake Baikal) is highly diverse and complex. Of special interest are (1) the significant overlap in time between magmatic suites commonly ascribed to post-collisional and within-plate settings and (2) the provenance of the coeval, but distinct, granitoid magmas that are closely spaced within a large region. Magmatic activity lasted almost continuously from ~ 330 Ma to ~ 275 Ma and included five igneous suites occupying a total area of ~ 200,000 km 2: (1) the Barguzin suite of high-K calc-alkaline granite (330-310 Ma); (2 and 3) the coeval Chivyrkui suite of low-silica calc-alkaline granitoids and the Zaza suite of high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline granite and quartz syenite which were emplaced between 305 and 285 Ma; and (4 and 5) the partially overlapped in time Lower-Selenga monzonite-syenite suite (285-278 Ma) and the Early-Kunalei suite of alkali-feldspar and peralkaline quartz syenite and granite (281-275 Ma). The overall increase in alkalinity of the granitoids with time reflects the progress from post-collisional to within-plate settings. However, a ~ 20 m.y. long transitional period during which both calc-alkaline and alkaline granitoids were emplaced indicates the coexistence of thickened (batholiths) and thinned (rift) crustal tracts. Sr-Nd-O isotope and elemental geochemical data suggest that the relative contribution of mantle-derived components to the generation of silicic magmas progressively increased with time. The high-K calc-alkaline granite magmas that formed the Angara-Vitim batholith were generated by high degree melting of supracrustal metamorphic rocks [ɛNd(t) = - 5.7 to - 7.7; δ 18O(Qtz) = 12‰], with minor contribution of H 2O and K from the underplated mafic magma (the convective diffusion model). The coeval calc-alkaline Chivyrkui suite and the transitional to alkaline Zaza suite formed as a result of mixing of crustal silicic

  15. Space Agriculture, Tourism and Health - Lessons from British Imperial History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivier, D. J.

    Advocates of space commercialisation and colonisation have drawn on previous centuries' experience of the exploration and exploitation of terrestrial New Worlds. Although so far chiefly confined to the colonisation of the Americas and exploration of the Antarctic, a proper examination of the problems and solutions faced and found by the late 19th - early 20th century Jamaican tourist trade, mid-Victorian planter agriculturalists in Sri Lanka and the impact of climatic theories of health on early 20th century White colonists in Kenya and Rhodesia, can, if properly applied to today's conditions affecting modern space businesses, offer important insights to the psychological impact and aetiology of disease amongst future space colonists, and the success- ful establishment and management of tourism and agriculture in space. By following the precedents set by the imperial pioneers, it should be possible to apply their founding principles in these sectors successfully, while avoiding the pitfalls and excesses of terrestrial imperialism.

  16. Abdus Salam at Imperial College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom

    2008-07-01

    It is a privilege, as well as a great pleasure, for me to talk about Abdus Salam at Imperial College. He is someone to whom I owe a great personal debt. I have always felt that I was very fortunate to have found myself joining his group in 1959, less than three years after he first set it up. It was a very exciting place to be, and a very exciting time in theoretical physics.

  17. Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, S.; Kuzmina, S.; Andreev, A. A.; Kienast, F.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Kuznetsova, T.; Sierralta, M.

    2009-04-01

    Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island (Lena Delta, NE Siberia) reflects the environmental history of West Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The record mirrors the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

  18. The "Theory" of Media Imperialism: Some Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejes, Fred

    This paper describes the media imperialism approach to the study of international communications, which focuses on the processes by which modern communications media have operated to create, maintain, and expand systems of domination and dependency on a world-wide scale. To provide some theoretical basis for the media imperialism approach, the…

  19. Liquefaction sites, Imperial Valley, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youd, T.L.; Bennett, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Sands that did and did not liquefy at two sites during the 1979 Imperial Valley, Calif., earthquake (ML = 6.6) are identified and their properties evaluated. SPT tests were used to evaluate liquefaction susceptibility. Loose fine sands in an abandoned channel liquefied and produced sand boils, ground fissures, and a lateral spread at the Heber Road sites. Evidence of liquefaction was not observed over moderately dense over-bank sand east of the channel nor over dense point-bar sand to the west. -from ASCE Publications Information

  20. Provenance of Late Carboniferous to Jurassic sandstones for southern Taimyr, Arctic Russia: A comparison of heavy mineral analysis by optical and QEMSCAN methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Pease, Victoria; Omma, Jenny; Benedictus, Aukje

    2015-11-01

    Sandstone framework-grain petrography, optical and QEMSCAN (Quantitative Evaluation of Minerals by Scanning Electron Microscopy) heavy mineral analysis carried out on 40 samples collected from east and west southern Taimyr are used to constrain the provenance and tectonic history of Late Carboniferous to Late Jurassic siliciclastic sequences. The tectonic settings of provenance evolved gradually from a mix of volcanic arc and recycled orogen to craton interior. Much of the detritus in the Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic siliciclastic succession came from proximal sources with contributions from multi-type source rocks including acid igneous rocks, basalts, sedimentary rocks and low to medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Carboniferous to Permian sandstones contain low-diversity suites of heavy minerals, including apatite, tourmaline, zircon, rutile, Cr-spinel, monazite and titanite. Cr-spinel indicates probable influx from exposed ophiolitic basement. Abundant euhedral zircon and apatite suggest a volcanic arc source related with Uralian collision. The appearance of garnet in the early Triassic signals the unroofing of a metamorphic source. The abrupt increase of clinopyroxene in Middle to Late Triassic sandstones indicates the influx of detritus from basic rocks related with Siberian Trap magmatism. The decrease of Cr-spinel and an abundance of staurolite in Jurassic samples indicate that unroofing of an ophiolitic source ceased and that stripping of a different thrust sheet containing plenty of staurolite-bearing metamorphic rocks commenced.

  1. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  2. [Healing and the Roman imperial culture].

    PubMed

    Ziethen, G

    1994-01-01

    From the time of Augustus till Late Antiquity one of the important elements of Roman Imperial policy was the celebration of rituals honouring the Roman Emperor. Elements of Hellenistic ruler cult and traditions of the Roman Republican Age were connected with Roman administration, the economic life and military organisation. Thereby the Roman Emperor generally was considered not only as a powerful and legitimate political leader but also as a well-educated and informed princeps with some kind of ritual sphere. Continuing the traditions of kingship risen in the Oriental monarchies and traduced to the Hellenistic rulers, the Roman Emperor seemed--pictured as Asclepius or Sarapis--to be able to heal not only incurable persons by magic therapy, but also to give a cure to mishandled affairs of state. The hope of the people in the panacea founded on the Emperor's knowledge was explained differently on two intellectual levels: the belief in magical-medical practices against threatening demons and the sophisticated comparisons of the eras of the Roman Empire expressed as the progress of human life from the cradle of iuventus to the old age of senectus. With the image of the Roman State as a human being a tradition began which had been prepared by the parable of the body and the limbs since early Roman historiography. From paganism to the Christianisation of the Roman Empire the vocabulary of healing and therapy was used in papyrological, literary, juridical and theological texts expressing the expectation in impersonation and ceremony of the Roman and Byzantine Emperors till the godblessed monarchs in Christian Europe. PMID:7900185

  3. Pliocene Invertebrates From the Travertine Point Outcrop of the Imperial Formation, Imperial County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.

    2008-01-01

    Forty-four invertebrate taxa, including one coral, 40 mollusks (30 bivalves and 10 gastropods), and three echinoids are recognized from a thin marine interval of the Imperial Formation near Travertine Point, Imperial County, California. The Travertine Point outcrop lies about midway between exposures of the Imperial Formation around Palm Springs, Riverside County, and exposures centered at Coyote Mountain in Imperial and San Diego Counties. Based on faunal comparisons, the Travertine Point outcrop corresponds to the Imperial and San Diego outcrops. The Travertine Point fauna is inferred to have lived in subtropical to tropical waters at littoral to inner sublittorial (<50 m) water depths. Coral and molluscan species from the Travertine Point outcrop indicate a Pliocene age. Two extant bivalve mollusks present have not previously been reported as fossils Anadara reinharti and forms questionably referred to Dosinia semiobliterata.

  4. Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Moscow, the political and economic heart of Russia, sits on the far eastern end of Europe, roughly 1300 kilometers (815 miles) west of the Ural Mountains and the Asian continent. The city boasts a population of nine million and encompasses an area of 1035 square kilometers (405 square miles). The Moscow River runs through the center of the city, and the Kremlin, the seat of the Russian government, lies in the direct center. Moscow is thought to have been founded in the 12th Century by Yury Dolgoruky, Prince of Suzdal, who hosted a big feast on the site. The city was shortly after established as a trading route along the Moscow River. Ivan III, who is largely credited with uniting all of Russia, built the Kremlin's cathedrals and declared Moscow the capital of his new kingdom in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Ivan the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, where it remained until the Bolsheviks brought the seat of government back to Moscow in 1918. Over the years the city has been sacked and burnt to the ground by the Tartars, the Poles, and the French. Thanks to the resilient spirit of the Russian people, the city remains as vital as ever. Now it is as capitalist in nature as London or New York, and everything from Big Macs to BMWs can be found on its streets. The blue-gray pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The light green areas surrounding the city are farms and the brown regions are more sparsely vegetated areas. This image of Moscow was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  5. [Association between Hajime Hoshi and Imperial princes].

    PubMed

    Misawa, Miwa

    2008-01-01

    Hajime Hoshi established Hoshi Pharmaceutical Company in 1911, and developed it into the No. 1 pharmaceutical company of Japan by 1918. He had many well-known friends and acqaintances including Hirobumi Ito, Shinpei Goto, Koki Hirota, Hideyo Noguchi, Inazo Nitobe, Kojiro Matsushita and Mitsuru Toyama. In this paper, the Imperial Family (princes) who had personal relationships with Hajime Hoshi are reported. Six princes visited the factories of Hoshi Pharmaceutical Company and Hoshi Pharmaceutical Commercial School from 1922 to 1928. They were Princes Fushimino-miya, Asakano-miya, Chichibuno-miya, Kitashirakawano-miya, Takedano-miya and LiKen-Ko. Each of His Imperial Highnesses showed much enthusiasm when visiting the factories and school. They wished to see the latest world-scale modern factories that were producing important drugs and exporting them to advanced Western countries. The anniversary date of the founding of Hoshi University is May 18, the day on which Fushmino-miya visited the former school of the University. Hajime Hoshi named his daughter Yasuko after Prince Asakano-miya Yasuhiko. He used to receive invitations to visit from those princes, hold congenial talks with them, and was sometimes presented with Imperial gifts. Hoshi had a global view and warm character, and entertained a deep respect for the Imperial Family. Therefore, it is conjectured that the princes had a favorable impression for Hoshi. It is believed that the splendid historical association between Hajime Hoshi and the Imperial princes should be recorded as historical events. PMID:19227663

  6. Imperialism and the English Language in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Considers whether the charge of linguistic imperialism can be appropriately leveled against the British government during its colonial rule of Hong Kong. The article analyzes the concept of linguistic imperialism, considers landmarks in the history of the English language in Hong Kong, and applies the concept of linguistic imperialism to the…

  7. What Diagrams Argue in Late Imperial Chinese Combinatorial Texts.

    PubMed

    Bréard, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes towards diagrammatic reasoning and visualization in mathematics were seldom spelled out in texts from pre-modern China, although illustrations figure prominently in mathematical literature since the eleventh century. Taking the sums of finite series and their combinatorial interpretation as a case study, this article investigates the epistemological function of illustrations from the eleventh to the nineteenth century that encode either the mathematical objects themselves or represent their related algorithms. It particularly focuses on the two illustrations given in Wang Lai's (1768-1813) Mathematical Principles of Sequential Combinations, arguing that they reflect a specific mode of nineteenth-century mathematical argumentative practice and served as a heuristic model for later authors. PMID:26411068

  8. From Russia with Montessori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Ruth Corey

    2005-01-01

    As leader of a People-to-People tour to Russia, and one whose family history is linked to the cataclysmic history of 20th-century Russia, Ruth Corey, felt a special responsibility to introduce her traveling companions to Russia, and Russian Montessorians to her cohorts. Her traveling companions were a group of 15 Montessori teachers, committed to…

  9. Capability Development at Imperial Oil Resources Ltd.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerington, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Striving to be learning organization, Imperial Oil of Canada focused on organizational, divisional, and individual capability development. Lessons learned include the following: (1) all levels of employees are potential professionals; (2) learning must be continuous; (3) intrinsic motivation and commitment are essential; and (4) organizational…

  10. "Economics Imperialism", Education Policy and Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allais, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how economics imperialism (the increasing colonization of other disciplines by neoclassical economics) has affected contemporary education policies. I suggest that an increasing preoccupation with education meeting the needs of the economy, together with the prevalence of economic concepts outside of economics, have contributed…

  11. Syllabus for Use in Imperial Chinese History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husum, Carol

    This syllabus is for a one semester course in the history of Imperial China, a study of the development of the world's oldest civilization still in existence. Emphasis is placed upon the cultural as well as the political and economic development of China until 1644. Major topics in the course outline are: 1) The Origins and Geography of China; 2)…

  12. Language Science and Orientalism in Imperial Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Judith R. H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…

  13. Educational and Demographic Profile: Imperial County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Imperial County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  14. The Linguistic Imperialism of Neoliberal Empire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the transition from the linguistic imperialism of the colonial and postcolonial ages to the increasingly dominant role of English as a neoimperial language. It analyzes "global" English as a key dimension of the U.S. empire. U.S. expansionism is a fundamental principle of the foreign policy of the United States that can be…

  15. Imperialism: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) resources related to imperialism and the Spanish-American War. Materials selected include books, academic journals, theme issues, videos, workbooks, and curriculum guides. Includes information on locating, ordering, and reproducing these resources. (MJP)

  16. Age and paleoenvironment of the imperial formation near San Gorgonio Pass, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, K.; Poore, R.Z.; Matti, J.

    1999-01-01

    Microfossiliferous marine sediments of the Imperial Formation exposed in the Whitewater and Cabazon areas, near San Gorgonio Pass, southern California, are late Miocene in age and were deposited at intertidal to outer neritic depths, and possibly upper bathyal depths. A late Miocene age of 7.4 to >6.04 Ma is based on the ranges of age-diagnostic benthic foraminifers (Cassidulina delicata and Uvigerina peregrina), planktic foraminifers (Globigerinoides obliquus, G. extremus, and Globigerina nepenthes; zones N17-N19), and calcareous nannoplankton (Discoaster brouweri, D. aff. D. surculus, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicata, Sphenolithus abies, and S. neoabies; zones CN9a-CN11) coupled with published K/Ar dates from the underlying Coachella Formation (10.1 ?? 1.2 Ma; Peterson, 1975) and overlying Painted Hill Formation (6.04 ?? 0.18 and 5.94 ?? 0.18 Ma; J. L. Morton in Matti and others, 1985 and Matti and Morton, 1993). Paleoecologic considerations (sea-level fluctuations and paleotemperature) restrict the age of the Imperial Formation to 6.5 through 6.3 Ma. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages indicate that the Imperial Formation in the Whitewater and Cabazon sections accumulated at inner neritic to outer neritic (0-152 m) and possibly upper bathyal (152-244 m) depths. Shallowing to inner neritic depths occurred as the upper part of the section was deposited. This sea-level fluctuation corresponds to a global highstand at 6.3 Ma (Haq and others, 1987). Planktic foraminifers suggest an increase in surface-water temperatures upsection. A similar increase in paleotemperatures is interpreted for the North Pacific from 6.5 to 6.3 Ma (warm interval W10 of Barron and Keller, 1983). Environmental contrasts between the Whitewater and Cabazon sections of the Imperial Formation provide evidence for right-lateral displacements on the Banning fault, a late Miocene strand of the San Andreas fault system. The Cabazon section lies south of the Banning fault, and has been displaced west

  17. The Germans from Russia: Documenting the Immigrant Experience in Northern Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastian, Dawn E.

    2005-01-01

    The Sidney Heitman Germans from Russia Collection at the Colorado State University Libraries is named in honor of the late Dr. Heitman's years of research and teaching about Colorado's second largest ethnic group. Created to support his Germans from Russia in Colorado Study Project, active at the university in the late 1970s, the collection's…

  18. Some remarks on preparations for Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli's journey to Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalakin, V. K.

    The present paper deals with the outline of some circumstances of the visit of Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli to the Nicolai Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Russia. There are some scan-copies of official letters displayed which belong to the collection from the diplomatic correspondence between the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Russia, and the Diplomatic Service of the Kingdom of Sardinia. The correspondence had been triggered by the application of Schiaparelli for his trip to the Pulkovo Observatory with the aim of perfection in Astronomy and Geodesy. The corresponding facsimile as well as its English translation is given

  19. Changing Patterns of Cultural Imperialism in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, John

    Using Belize, Central America, as an example, this paper illustrates some of the changing patterns of cultural imperialism that can presently be viewed in the emerging nations of the world. Cultural imperialism is defined as the process whereby the culture of a weaker nation is dominated by that of a stronger nation. In September 1981, Belize,…

  20. Uranium Reserves on Planet Zeus: A Unit on Imperialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    Designed as a follow up unit on the study of imperialism, this lesson requires students to use their knowledge of imperialism to solve a problem that could arise in the future space frontier. Organized for small group participation, the lesson focuses on international cooperation. Includes all required resources and suggests appropriate additional…

  1. Imperial Valley College 2+2+2 Project Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Ralph

    This handbook of the Imperial Valley College (IVC) 2+2+2 Project provides an overview of the development of an articulated education program for business and law enforcement careers, involving six local high schools and San Diego State University, Imperial Valley Campus. Following a brief introduction to the 2+2+2 project in section I, section II…

  2. Bologna Goes Global: A New Imperialism in the Making?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Eva

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that imperialism continues to exist today. It focuses on the ideational dimension of such power constellation and highlights the role of "educational diplomacy". Specifically, it examines norm-settings within international educational politics as a way of identifying shifts within what might be called benevolent imperialism. At…

  3. Surface Deformation in Imperial Valley, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eneva, M.; Adams, D.; Falorni, G.; Morgan, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Imperial Valley in southern California is subjected to significant tectonic deformation resulting from the relative movement of the North American and Pacific plates. It is characterized by large earthquakes, frequent swarm activity, and aseismic events. High heat flow makes possible the operation of geothermal fields, some of which cause man-made surface displacements superimposed on the tectonic deformation. We apply radar interferometry (InSAR) to analyze Envisat ASAR data for the period 2003-2010. The SqueeSAR technique is used to obtain deformation time series and annual rates at numerous locations of permanent and distributed scatterers (PS and DS). SqueeSAR works very well in agricultural areas, where conventional differential InSAR (DinSAR) fails. We observe differential movements marking the Superstition Hills, San Andreas, and Imperial faults. The Imperial fault traverses agricultural fields, where DInSAR does not work and thus our SqueeSAR observations are the first for this fault (Fig. 1). We also observe steps in the deformation time series around the Superstition Hills fault from an October 2006 aseismic event and the April 2010 M7.2 earthquake south of the U.S.-Mexico border. Significant annual deformation rates are detected in the current geothermal fields. For example, subsidence of up to -50 mm/year is seen at the Salton Sea field (Fig. 2), and both subsidence and uplift are seen at Heber. We also determine the deformation baseline at prospective geothermal fields, thus making it possible in the future to distinguish between man-made and tectonic causes of surface deformation. Fig. 1. Line-of-sight (LOS) deformation indicates differential displacement on both sides of Imperial Fault. Movements away from the satellite are shown in yellow to red, and towards the satellite in blue. Larger deformation is associated with two geothermal fields, Heber (to the south-west) and East Mesa (to the east). Fig. 2. Subsidence in the Salton Sea geothermal

  4. Imperial climatographies from Tyrol to Turkestan.

    PubMed

    Coen, Deborah R

    2011-01-01

    This article argues for the importance of Europe's continental empires, Habsburg and Romanov, to the emergence of a physical-dynamical model of the global climate before World War I. It begins to identify a set of questions and methods that were distinctive of climatology as a continental-imperial science of "regionalization" with a global vision. The focus is on studies of mountain climatology by Heinrich von Ficker and A. I. Voeikov in the ecologically vulnerable regions of Tyrol and western Turkestan. This continental-imperial context deserves historians' attention because it suggests a new model for the globalization of knowledge: not simply a matter of scaling up, globalization must be understood as a process of seeing across scales, of recognizing causal connections between local, regional, and planetary phenomena. "For a change, the material for a dissertation was procured mostly with the feet." Heinz Ficker, of his research on the föhn wind in Tyrol, 1906 "Science is something beautiful, especially when you can do it on horseback." Ficker in his journal in 1913, in a mountain pass in central Asia. PMID:21936186

  5. Russia's scientific legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    Many insights of Russian scientists are unknown or long-forgotten outside of Russia. Making the Russian literature accessible to the international scientific community could stimulate new lines of research.

  6. Flooding on Russia's Lena River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  8. Media Imperialism and the Videocassette Recorder: The Case of Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan, Christine

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the growing decentralization of media in developing countries, particularly through the videocassette recorder and more locally produced media products, requires a rethinking of the cultural and economic components of the media imperialism thesis. (ARH)

  9. 6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COOLING TROUGH REMAINS Imperial Carbon Black ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COOLING TROUGH REMAINS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  10. 4. VIEW SOUTHEAST, COMPRESSOR PADS Imperial Carbon Black Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTHEAST, COMPRESSOR PADS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  11. 7. VIEW NORTHEAST, COOLING TANK Imperial Carbon Black Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHEAST, COOLING TANK - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  12. 3. VIEW NORTH, COOLING TANK REMAINS Imperial Carbon Black ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH, COOLING TANK REMAINS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  13. 5. VIEW SOUTH, STORAGE BUILDING PIERS Imperial Carbon Black ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SOUTH, STORAGE BUILDING PIERS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  14. 9. VIEW EAST, STORAGE BUILDING PIERS Imperial Carbon Black ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW EAST, STORAGE BUILDING PIERS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  15. 8. VIEW NORTHEAST, WORKSHOP PIERS Imperial Carbon Black Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW NORTHEAST, WORKSHOP PIERS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  16. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COMPRESSOR PADS Imperial Carbon Black Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, COMPRESSOR PADS - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  17. Dating Violence in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysova, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of violence in interpersonal relationships has been little studied in Russia, and the phenomenon of violence between dating partners has not been the object of scientific interest at all. The study on which the present article is based was designed to obtain information about the violence in dating among students enrolled in…

  18. Home Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staroverova, T. I.

    2011-01-01

    From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

  19. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  20. Communication imperialism and dependency: a conceptual clarification.

    PubMed

    Lee, P S

    1988-01-01

    Communications imperialism has to do with the domination of a country's media activities by another. The ownership, structure, distribution or content of the media in 1 country are affected by pressures from media interests of another country or group out of proportion with those of that country. To determine if this is happening we should consider the country's policies, the private sector;s efforts to export communications elements, and actions of the dominant country against the dominated. The 4 aspects of international media in this situation are television program exportation, foreign ownership and control of media distribution, the infringement of capital opinions on other societies, and the transfer of commercialism and broadcasting norms. In addition to the software and hardware and the other forms of communication such as satellites, computers, and transportation of the mass media, there are the cultural effects on the developing countries. In the case of involuntary of voluntary dependency of the recipient country, the effect of the unbalanced international communication can be harmful or beneficial. Communication dependency may not be harmful to the culture of the recipient country. In determining the theory of unbalanced international communications 3 factors should be considered. There are: the role of the interacting countries, the nature of the dependency of the recipient country, and the beneficial or harmful effect of unbalanced communication pattern on that country. PMID:12283101

  1. Russia: Forest policy during transition

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Russia is a recognized leader in forest conservation, research, and development. This book analyzes the country`s forest sector and the severe management problems that threaten its socioeconomic stability and environmental integrity. It outlines the significance of Russia`s forest resources, review the sector`s performance, identifies the key challenges, proposal and agenda for forest sector reform, and assesses the need for assistance from the international community. The book`s main focus is on Siberia and the Far East. Tables, boxes, and figures show various factors that contribute to and are affected by Russia`s environmental problems and the expected reforms in the forest sector.

  2. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    SciTech Connect

    Reams, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  3. Imperial Valley and Salton Sea, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Southern California's Salton Sea is a prominent visual for astronauts. This large lake supports the rich agricultural fields of the Imperial, Coachella and Mexicali Valleys in the California and Mexico desert. The Salton Sea formed by accident in 1905 when an irrigation canal ruptured, allowing the Colorado River to flood the Salton Basin. Today the Sea performs an important function as the sink for agricultural runoff; water levels are maintained by the runoff from the surrounding agricultural valleys. The Salton Sea salinity is high-nearly 1/4 saltier than ocean water-but it remains an important stopover point for migratory water birds, including several endangered species. The region also experiences several environmental problems. The recent increased demands for the limited Colorado River water threatens the amount of water allowed to flow into the Salton Sea. Increased salinity and decreased water levels could trigger several regional environmental crises. The agricultural flow into the Sea includes nutrients and agricultural by-products, increasing the productivity and likelihood of algae blooms. This image shows either a bloom, or suspended sediment (usually highly organic) in the water that has been stirred up by winds. Additional information: The Salton Sea A Brief Description of Its Current Conditions, and Potential Remediation Projects and Land Use Across the U.S.-Mexico Border Astronaut photograph STS111-E-5224 was taken by the STS-111 Space Shuttle crew that recently returned from the International Space Station. The image was taken June 12, 2002 using a digital camera. The image was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  4. Emergency medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Townes, D A; Lee, T E; Gulo, S; VanRooyen, M J

    1998-08-01

    Russia has undergone sweeping political and social reforms within the past 5 years. The economic and social reforms heralded by the "new openness" of perestroika have led to a restructuring of medicine as well. Changes include the emergence of "for profit" organizations and acute care facilities, the introduction of private health insurance, modifications in the medical education system, and realignment of health priorities with a new trend toward primary care. PMID:9701309

  5. [The influenza pandemic of 1782, with special reference to its occurrence in the Imperial City of Nuremberg].

    PubMed

    Vasold, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    In Germany, very little research has been done on the flu pandemic of 1782. The year before, in 1781, an epidemic of dysentery had ravaged Central Europe quite seriously. The flu pandemic began in Germany in spring 1782. It took its origin in the Far East, probably in Imperial China. From there it slowly traveled westward and finally hit Russia and Germany. In early 1782, it arrived in eastern Prussia. Mortality rose, in Königsberg (Kaliningrad) mainly people over 30 died. From the German coast on the Baltic Sea the virus soon crossed over to England and Scotland. Within Germany it slowly moved southward, to places like Berlin, Weimar and further south. In Berlin very many people became sick. In spring 1782, in many parts of Germany, from east to west, people were bed-ridden. In Nuremberg, a young doctor described the symptoms of the disease and the therapy he gave to his patients in a pamphlet but apart from that there are few sources. Probably not many people consulted a doctor. Mortality in Nuremberg, it seems, did not rise very much. The city had been in decline since the 1750s, its population now shrunk even further. When this scourge hit Central Europe, the Holy Roman Empire was in decline, after an attack of famine and pestilence in the early 1770s and that epidemic of dysentery in 1781. It finally collapsed some 25 years later, in 1806, and the Imperial City of Nuremberg was absorbed by the Kingdom of Bavaria. PMID:22400200

  6. Location of odor sources and the affected population in Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, J.L.

    1981-08-01

    This report is divided into four sections. The first two sections contain general background information on Imperial County. The third section is a general discussion of odor sources in Imperial County, and the fourth maps the specific odor sources, the expected areas of perception, and the affected populations. this mapping is done for the Imperial Valley and each of the four Imperial County KGRA's (Known Geothermal Resource Areas) where odor from the development of the geothermal energy may affect population.

  7. Total PCBs and PCB congeners in Spanish Imperial Eagle eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila (heliaca) adalberti is the only directly endangered bird of prey in Europe. Lowered reproductive success in numerous bird species has been associated with eggshell thinning and reduced production caused by DDE, the most common organochlorine residue found in wild birds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are usually the second most common organochlorine pollutant found in wild birds. Research to evaluate the incidence of organochlorine pollutants in the Spanish Imperial Eagle has been previously conducted. The authors have now determined the levels of total PCBs and selected PCB congeners in 34 eggs of Spanish Imperial Eagle collected at Donana National Park, Castile Plateau and Nature Park of Monfrague, since this has considerable significance when attempts are made to correlate the embryonic mortality of avian wildlife with PCB residue levels.

  8. Seismic and geodetic studies of the Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Imperial Valley exhibits perhaps the most active current tectonism in the United States; patterns of gravitational and thermal anomalies, along with geodetic measurements, strike-slip faulting, and recent volcanism suggest that the continental crust may still be spreading (Elders et al., 1972). In recent years, the United States Geological Survey and Caltech have added new seismic stations into a dense network in the Imperial Valley to study in detail the relationship between geothermal areas and earthquakes, and to understand the tectonic processes taking place there. The purposes of this study are to: (1) examine crustal structure using recently available data on P-wave arrival times of local earthquakes; (2) examine the leveling data for evidence of tectonic subsidence or uplift; and (3) study correlations between seismicity, seismic velocity, geodetic motion, geothermal activity, and local geology to provide a more consistent picture of the tectonics of the Imperial Valley.

  9. Surface displacement on the Imperial and Superstition Hills faults triggered by the Westmorland, California, earthquake of 26 April 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, R.V.; Lienkaemper, J.J.; Rymer, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Parts of the Imperial and the Superstition Hills faults moved right-laterally at the ground surface at the time of or shortly following the ML 5.6 Westmorland earthquake of 26 April 1981. The displacements occurred prior to any significant aftershocks on either fault and thus are classed as sympathetic. Although the main shock was located in an exceptionally seismogenic part of Imperial Valley, about 20 km distant from either fault, no clear evidence of surface faulting has yet been found in the epicentral area. Horizontal displacement on the Imperial and Superstition Hills faults, southeast and southwest of the epicenter, respectively, reached maxima of 8 mm and 14 mm, and the discontinuous surface ruptures formed along approximately equal lengths of northern segments of the two structures (16.8 km and 15.7 km, respectively). The maximum vertical component of slip on the Imperial fault, 6 ram, was observed 3.4 km north of the point of largest horizontal slip. Vertical movement on the Superstition Hills fault was less than 1 mm. No new displacement was found along the traces of the Brawley fault zone, the San Andreas fault, or the part of the Coyote Creek fault that slipped during the 1968 Borrego Mountain earthquake. A careful search in the epicentral area of the main shock failed to locate any definite evidence of surface faulting. Concentrations of late aftershocks north and northeast of Calipatria near the southeastward projection of the San Andreas fault occurred mostly after our field check; this area was not investigated.

  10. Earthquakes, active faults, and geothermal areas in the Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.; Mowinckel, P.; Peake, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    A dense seismograph network in the Imperial Valley recorded a series of earthquake swarms along the Imperial and Brawley faults and a diffuse pattern of earthquakes along the San Jacinto fault. Two known geothermal areas are closely associated with these earthquake swarms. This seismicity pattern demonstrates that seismic slip is occurring along both the Imperial-Brawley and San Jacinto fault systems.

  11. Earthquakes, active faults, and geothermal areas in the imperial valley, california.

    PubMed

    Hill, D P; Mowinckel, P; Peake, L G

    1975-06-27

    A dense seismograph network in the Imperial Valley recorded a series of earthquake swarms along the Imperial and Brawley faults and a diffuse pattern of earthquakes along the San Jacinto fault. Two known geothermal areas are closely associated with these earthquake swarms. This seismicity pattern demonstrates that seismic slip is occurring along both the Imperial-Brawley and San Jacinto fault systems. PMID:17772600

  12. San Diego Gas and Electric Company Imperial Valley geothermal activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichs, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric and its wholly owned subsidiary New Albion Resources Co. have been affiliated with Magma Power Company, Magma Energy Inc. and Chevron Oil Company for the last 2-1/2 years in carrying out geothermal research and development in the private lands of the Imperial Valley. The steps undertaken in the program are reviewed and the sequence that must be considered by companies considering geothermal research and development is emphasized. Activities at the south end of the Salton Sea and in the Heber area of Imperial Valley are leading toward development of demonstration facilities within the near future. The current status of the project is reported.

  13. Is imposing risk awareness cultural imperialism?

    PubMed

    Førde, O H

    1998-11-01

    -class values like sociability, sharing, conviviality and tolerance can not be imposed without unwanted side effects on culture and human interaction. The moral and coercive crusade for increased risk awareness and purity in life style can too readily take on the form of cultural imperialism towards conformity. Epidemiologists and the health care movement in general have a mandate to fight disease and premature death; they have no explicit mandate to change culture. PMID:9783858

  14. Academic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Edward J; Ziganshina, Lilia; Ziganshin, Airat U

    2004-12-01

    Academic medicine, along with professionalism of the medical community in Russia underwent a remarkable evolution from the Revolution through the decline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet period brought about an enormous expansion of numbers of admissions to medical schools and a corresponding increase in the number of new physicians. Academic medical institutions were separated from institutions of higher learning in general and medical science was separated from the mainstream of science. Many of these features have been reversed in the past 14 years and re-professionalization of medicine has resumed. PMID:15578798

  15. Kinderland in the Fatherland: Growing Children in Imperial Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the milieu in which children of Imperial Berlin were raised. When contemporaries in the rapidly expanding capital of the Second German Empire (1871-1918) looked at children, this milieu darkened. The city, they argued, threatened children's growing bodies, and such institutions as the home, the clinic, and the school…

  16. Imperial Contradictions: Is the Valley a Watershed, Region, or Cyborg?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Alan P.

    2005-01-01

    Is California's Imperial Valley a watershed? If so, at what level and by what topographic logic? Is it a region? If so, at what level and by what geographic logic? Are its boundaries natural, political, or multivalent on different scales? In short, this essay looks at the special (re)production of environmental conditions within a cyborg world.…

  17. Out of Place: Economic Imperialisms in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    New Zealand has received world-wide accolades for its Early Childhood Education (ECE) curriculum, Te Whariki. This paper explores the tension between economic imperialism, and a curriculum acknowledged as visionary. The foundational ideas of Te Whariki emanate from sociocultural and anti-racist pedagogies. However, its implementation is hampered…

  18. US Imperialism, Transmodernism and Education: A Marxist Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The author begins by discussing David Geoffrey Smith's analysis of the enantiomorphism inherent in the rhetoric of New American Imperialism. He goes on to examine critically Smith's defence of Enrique Dussel's advocacy of transmodernism as a way of understanding this enantiomorphism and of moving beyond what are seen as the constraints of both…

  19. Philosophy and Education in Stoicism of the Roman Imperial Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reydams-Schils, G.

    2010-01-01

    The Stoics of the Roman Imperial period share the imperative that education should not focus on erudition for its own sake, but contribute to the pursuit of the good life as they define it in philosophical terms. Hence these later Stoics express similar concerns about the technical and theoretical aspects of philosophy as they do about…

  20. Cultural Imperialism and the Marketing of Native America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitt, Laurie Anne

    1995-01-01

    Using capitalist market assumptions and legal theories, the Western legal system is extending practices of cultural imperialism to include commodification and marketing of indigenous cultural resources (medicinal and spiritual knowledge, ceremonies, and artistic expressions) and genetic resources (human DNA). Recognizing that law has never been…

  1. Developing an Integrated Institutional Repository at Imperial College London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshari, Fereshteh; Jones, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to demonstrate how a highly integrated approach to repository development and deployment can be beneficial in producing a successful archive. Design/methodology/approach: Imperial College London undertook a significant specifications process to gather and formalise requirements for its repository system. This was done…

  2. 1. VIEW SOUTHWEST FROM BUNNELL ROAD, GENERAL VIEW Imperial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTHWEST FROM BUNNELL ROAD, GENERAL VIEW - Imperial Carbon Black Plant (Ruin), North side of North Fork of Hughes River along Bunnell Run Road just over 0.5 mile from its intersection with State Route 16, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  3. Martha Whiteley of Imperial College, London: A Pioneering Woman Chemist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rafaelle M.; Nicholson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Martha Whiteley (1866-1956) was one of the most important women chemists in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 20th century. In a male-dominated field, she was an academic on the staff of a co-educational university, Imperial College, London, where she carried out research of her own choosing, rather than assisting a male professor. She…

  4. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  5. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Third Semester. Theme VI: Nineteenth Century Imperialism Affected the Imperial Powers and the Colonies. Student Worksheets. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The worksheets contained in this bulletin are designed for use in conjunction with the teaching strategies for Theme VI entitled, "Nineteenth Century Imperialism Affected the Imperial Powers and the Colonies." The worksheets correspond to specific teaching strategies with accompanying questions on the appropriate strategy page. Included are…

  6. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Third Semester. Theme VI: Nineteenth Century Imperialism Affected the Imperial Powers and the Colonies. Teacher Strategies. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Designed to assist teachers and supervisors in the implementation of the global history course, this bulletin presents learning activities which include the rationale, performance objectives, and teaching strategies related to Theme VI entitled, "Nineteenth Century Imperialism Affected the Imperial Powers and the Colonies." This theme has seven…

  7. Paleogeography of Cretaceous ammonoids of the Pacific coast of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagt-Yazykova, E. A.; Zonova, T. D.

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the results of a study of the biogeographical distribution of Late Albian-Maastrichtian ammonites, found in sequences of the Pacific coast of Russia. The taxa typical of the Pacific Realm were identified, and their distribution traced beyond the borders of this region. In addition, species-migrants, distributed within the studied area were established. As a results of our works, a high level of endemism of ammonite fauna of the East of Russia was noted (75-88% of endemic species, on average). The bipolarity, previously established in the distribution of ammonoids within the Pacific Paleobiogeographical Realm, as well as their high regional provincialism, was confirmed. The following division of the studied area into faunal ammonite provinces in the Late Cretaceous was proposed: Arctic Province; Boreal-Pacific Province, including northeastern Russia (Chukotka Peninsula, the Koryak Upland, Penzhyna Gulf) and the boreal coast of North America (Alaska Peninsula, Arctic Canada and British Columbia); Northwest Pacific Province, including the Primorye Territory, Sakhalin and Shikotan Islands, the Japanese Islands; Northeast Province of the Pacific (the western coast of the United States and Mexico); Southwest Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, Oceania) and Southeast (the western coast of South America and Antarctica, Seymour and James Ross Islands) Provinces. This division is confirmed by data on inoceramid species. In addition, levels of global transgressions and general sea level rise, associated with the appearances of most of widespread marine taxa in the Pacific shelf seas, are established. These include Late Albian, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, Late Coniacian, Late Campanian, Early-Late Maastrichtian boundary. Moreover, migration of ammonites occurred due to the Tethys Ocean extension and followed the northern sea straits in the Arctic Ocean and within the Pacific Realm, depending on warm currents. Both the counter and one-way migrations were

  8. Selfies of Imperial Cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps): What Is Happening Underwater?

    PubMed

    Gómez-Laich, Agustina; Yoda, Ken; Zavalaga, Carlos; Quintana, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    During the last few years, the development of animal-borne still cameras and video recorders has enabled researchers to observe what a wild animal sees in the field. In the present study, we deployed miniaturized video recorders to investigate the underwater foraging behavior of Imperial cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps). Video footage was obtained from 12 animals and 49 dives comprising a total of 8.1 h of foraging data. Video information revealed that Imperial cormorants are almost exclusively benthic feeders. While foraging along the seafloor, animals did not necessarily keep their body horizontal but inclined it downwards. The head of the instrumented animal was always visible in the videos and in the majority of the dives it was moved constantly forward and backward by extending and contracting the neck while travelling on the seafloor. Animals detected prey at very short distances, performed quick capture attempts and spent the majority of their time on the seafloor searching for prey. Cormorants foraged at three different sea bottom habitats and the way in which they searched for food differed between habitats. Dives were frequently performed under low luminosity levels suggesting that cormorants would locate prey with other sensory systems in addition to sight. Our video data support the idea that Imperial cormorants' efficient hunting involves the use of specialized foraging techniques to compensate for their poor underwater vision. PMID:26367384

  9. Selfies of Imperial Cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps): What Is Happening Underwater?

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Laich, Agustina; Yoda, Ken; Zavalaga, Carlos; Quintana, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    During the last few years, the development of animal-borne still cameras and video recorders has enabled researchers to observe what a wild animal sees in the field. In the present study, we deployed miniaturized video recorders to investigate the underwater foraging behavior of Imperial cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps). Video footage was obtained from 12 animals and 49 dives comprising a total of 8.1 h of foraging data. Video information revealed that Imperial cormorants are almost exclusively benthic feeders. While foraging along the seafloor, animals did not necessarily keep their body horizontal but inclined it downwards. The head of the instrumented animal was always visible in the videos and in the majority of the dives it was moved constantly forward and backward by extending and contracting the neck while travelling on the seafloor. Animals detected prey at very short distances, performed quick capture attempts and spent the majority of their time on the seafloor searching for prey. Cormorants foraged at three different sea bottom habitats and the way in which they searched for food differed between habitats. Dives were frequently performed under low luminosity levels suggesting that cormorants would locate prey with other sensory systems in addition to sight. Our video data support the idea that Imperial cormorants’ efficient hunting involves the use of specialized foraging techniques to compensate for their poor underwater vision. PMID:26367384

  10. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. Kondyor Massif, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model.

    The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Russia`s Great Game in a nuclear South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Taylor, T.T.

    1998-12-31

    Lost in the noise of Pakistan`s nuclear weapon tests in the western Baluchistan desert on 28 and 30 May was a surprising diplomatic move by Russia. On 23 May, Russia became the first state to express its willingness to recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state, provided that India commits itself to the international nonproliferation regime. Russia`s Ambassador to India, Albert Chernyshev, stated in the days after the Indian but before the Pakistani nuclear tests that ``India proclaimed itself a nuclear weapons power. One now hopes that India will behave as a nuclear weapons power by acting responsibly. Every nuclear weapons state has some rights. But for getting recognition it must have some obligations. Once it is ready to show these obligations by joining the nonproliferation regime, its recognition as a nuclear weapons power will follow.`` Russia`s Great Game in South Asia in pursuit of short-term economic and other interests appears to be a serious obstacle on the path to dealing effectively with the South Asian nuclear crisis. Grave damage to security, stability and nonproliferation has already resulted from India`s and Pakistan`s actions, but the situation does not have to spiral out of control. It is imperative that the international community respond appropriately to this challenge. The international community is at a crossroads and Russia`s actions will be critical. Will it be willing to go beyond the narrow economic and political calculations reflected in its diplomatic posturing, and take actions that will serve its long-term interests by bridging differences with other great powers in order to demonstrate to India that it has not chosen the right path. If Russia decides it can gain from India`s current, perilous path and blocks or otherwise frustrates appropriate responses, the nuclear danger on the subcontinent will escalate and the global regimes to promote nonproliferation and to ban testing will be seriously, perhaps fatally, weakened with

  13. Building Baluchitherium and Indricotherium: imperial and international networks in early-twentieth century paleontology.

    PubMed

    Manias, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Over the first decades of the twentieth century, the fragmentary remains of a huge prehistoric ungulate were unearthed in scientific expeditions in India, Turkestan and Mongolia. Following channels of formal and informal empire, these were transported to collections in Britain, Russia and the United States. While striking and of immense size, the bones proved extremely difficult to interpret. Alternately naming the creature Paraceratherium, Baluchitherium and Indricotherium, paleontologists Clive Forster-Cooper, Alexei Borissiak and Henry Fairfield Osborn struggled over the reconstruction of this gigantic fossil mammal. However, despite these problems, shared work on the creature served as a focus for collaboration and exchange rather than rivalry between these three scientific communities. Not only did the initial interpretation and analysis depend on pre-existing connections between British and American paleontological institutions, but the need for comparative material, recognition and contacts brought British and American scholars into communication and exchange with their counterparts in the Soviet Union. This article examines these processes. It first uses these excavations as a comparative case-study of different manifestations of colonial science in this period, examining how scholars in the Britain, the Russian Empire and the United States used formal and informal colonial links to Asia to pursue new research. It then moves to examine how the common problem of reconstructing this giant animal drew metropolitan scientific communities together, at least for a time. The construction of the Baluchitherium and Indricotherium illustrates the drives to expand research both imperially and internationally in the early-twentieth century, but also the continual problems in resources, institutionalization, transport and communication that could run up against scientific work. PMID:25537636

  14. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  15. The Imperial Curriculum: Racial Images and Education in the British Colonial Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, J. A., Ed.

    This book presents a comparative analysis of racial attitudes within formal schooling of both Britain and its former dominions and colonies. It provides essays that examine racism, education, and imperialism, and focuses on the function of education, curriculum, and textbooks in shaping imperial images of dominance and deference. The following…

  16. American Television around the World: An Economic Analysis of "Media Imperialism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deSilva, Indrawansa

    The global flow of telefilms has been one of the most debated issues in international communication in recent years. In an attempt to explain the process of global program flow, several theoretical frameworks have been developed, and the "media imperialism" thesis became the most prominent among them. The "media imperialism" thesis, however, did…

  17. 78 FR 894 - Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution... of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California... July 8, 2010 (75 FR 39366), we published a limited approval and limited disapproval of the...

  18. 75 FR 27975 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ...: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... previous version of Rule 420 (see 68 FR 8839). CARB has made no subsequent submittals of the rule. C. What..., Imperial County was reclassified as a serious PM nonattainment area (see 69 FR 48792 and 40 CFR part...

  19. Measuring ground movement in geothermal areas of Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, B. E.

    1974-01-01

    Significant ground movement may accompany the extraction of large quantities of fluids from the subsurface. In Imperial Valley, California, one of the potential hazards of geothermal development is the threat of both subsidence and horizontal movement of the land surface. Regional and local survey nets are being monitored to detect and measure possible ground movement caused by future geothermal developments. Precise measurement of surface and subsurface changes will be required to differentiate man-induced changes from natural processes in this tectonically active region.

  20. 69. The Imperial Block (8082 East Park) was built in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. The Imperial Block (80-82 East Park) was built in 1900 for stores and lodgings. The ground floor has its original cast-iron storefront. The Ivanhoe Block was built in 1905 and also served as lodgings on the upper levels, above commercial space. Its storefront is covered with wood paneling. Bay windows in the upper two floors are divided by circular arches of egg-and-dart molding. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  1. Isotopic reconstruction of human diet and animal husbandry practices during the Classical-Hellenistic, imperial, and Byzantine periods at Sagalassos, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Benjamin T; De Cupere, Bea; Marinova, Elena; Van Neer, Wim; Waelkens, Marc; Richards, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    An isotopic reconstruction of human dietary patterns and livestock management practices (herding, grazing, foddering, etc.) is presented here from the sites of Düzen Tepe and Sagalassos in southwestern Turkey. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined from bone collagen extracted from humans (n = 49) and animals (n = 454) from five distinct time periods: Classical-Hellenistic (400-200 BC), Early to Middle Imperial (25 BC-300 AD), Late Imperial (300-450 AD), Early Byzantine (450-600 AD), and Middle Byzantine (800-1200 AD). The humans had protein sources that were based on C(3) plants and terrestrial animals. During the Classical-Hellenistic period, all of the domestic animals had δ(13) C and δ(15) N signatures that clustered together; evidence that the animals were herded in the same area or kept in enclosures and fed on similar foods. The diachronic analysis of the isotopic trends in the dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats highlighted subtle but distinct variations in these animals. The δ(13) C values of the dogs and cattle increased (reflecting C(4) plant consumption) during the Imperial and Byzantine periods, but the pigs and the goats displayed little change and a constant C(3) plant-based diet. The sheep had a variable δ(13) C pattern reflecting periods of greater and lesser consumption of C(4) plants in the diet. In addition, the δ(15) N values of the dogs, pigs, cattle, and sheep increase substantially from the Classical-Hellenistic to the Imperial periods reflecting a possible increase in protein consumption, but the goats showed a decrease. Finally, these isotopic results are discussed in the context of zooarcheological, archeobotanical, and trace element evidence. PMID:22729657

  2. 75 FR 45653 - Notice of Re-Opening of Comment Period for the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Re-Opening of Comment Period for the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes... of the comment period on the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area Management Plan (RAMP) and... So. 4th St., El Centro, California 92243. Copies of the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes RAMP/EIS...

  3. Lena River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from June 28, 2002, shows numerous burn scars dotting the northern Siberian landscape along the Lena River. In the true-color image, the burn scars appear dark grayish-brown, while in the false-color image they appear red, as does the bare exposed soil of the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range to the east of the north-flowing Lena. A tinge of blue along the mountains in the false-color image means there is some lingering snow or ice, and that the bare soil is due to spring's late arrival there, and not to burn scars. At the top, sea ice still fills the Laptev Sea. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  4. Global Education Comes to Russia in 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jan L.

    This paper discusses the first international conference on the future of education in Russia held in Sochi, Russia, in September of 1991. The focus was on recent efforts that have been made by educators to develop global education in Russian schools. These efforts include a detailed project for the development of global education in Russia and…

  5. Giovanni Alessandro Brambilla (1728-1800) and the Imperial Infantry Regiment #22 ("Lacy"). On occasion of the bicentennial of his death.

    PubMed

    Holubar, K; Fatović-Ferencić, S

    2000-09-15

    Giovanni Alessandro Brambilia (1728-1800) was the Chief Surgeon of the Imperial Austrian Army and the first director of the newly founded medico-surgical academy in Vienna (1785). He died in Padua in late July 1800 (29th?), en route from his estate in Lombardy to Vienna, and the chiostro della magnolia in the Santo displays a memorial plaque commemorating his demise. On account of his merits for the education of (military) surgeons and the development of surgery in Austria, this short article shall serve to briefly recall his life and related facts. PMID:11042908

  6. Cure for empire: the 'Conquer-Russia-Pill', pharmaceutical manufacturers, and the making of patriotic Japanese, 1904-45.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoi-Eun

    2013-04-01

    Seirogan, a popular anti-diarrhoeal pill, is arguably one of the most successful pharmaceutical products of modern Japan. What is less known is that the Japanese army initially developed Seirogan during the Russo-Japanese War as the ‘Conquer-Russia-Pill’, which was later marketed to the public by private manufacturers. Previous scholars have emphasised the top–down governmental method of mobilising private sectors to manipulate public opinion for the cause of external imperialist expansion and domestic stability during wartime Japan. But the matrix that the Conquer-Russia-Pill allows us to glimpse is an inverted power relation among the state, commercial sectors, and imperial citizens. While the Japanese government remained indifferent if not hostile to jingoistic pharmaceutical manufacturers who could easily disrupt international relations, pharmaceutical companies quickly recognised and exploited the opportunities that the Conquer-Russia-Pill and its symbolism provided under the banner of the empire. In turn, Japanese consumers reacted to commercial sermons carefully anchored in patriotic and militaristic discourses and images by opening their wallets. In other words, the popularity of the Conquer-Russia-Pill was a culmination of the convergence of a governmental initiative to enhance military capabilities, the commercial ingenuity of pharmaceutical manufacturers, and a consumer response to patriotic exhortations. PMID:24070348

  7. Modeling Events in the Lower Imperial Valley Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, X.; Wei, S.; Zhan, Z.; Fielding, E. J.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2010-12-01

    The Imperial Valley below the US-Mexican border has few seismic stations but many significant earthquakes. Many of these events, such as the recent El Mayor-Cucapah event, have complex mechanisms involving a mixture of strike-slip and normal slip patterns with now over 30 aftershocks with magnitude over 4.5. Unfortunately, many earthquake records from the Southern Imperial Valley display a great deal of complexity, ie., strong Rayleigh wave multipathing and extended codas. In short, regional recordings in the US are too complex to easily separate source properties from complex propagation. Fortunately, the Dec 30 foreshock (Mw=5.9) has excellent recordings teleseismically and regionally, and moreover is observed with InSAR. We use this simple strike-slip event to calibrate paths. In particular, we are finding record segments involving Pnl (including depth phases) and some surface waves (mostly Love waves) that appear well behaved, ie., can be approximated by synthetics from 1D local models and events modeled with the Cut-and-Paste (CAP) routine. Simple events can then be identified along with path calibration. Modeling the more complicated paths can be started with known mechanisms. We will report on both the aftershocks and historic events.

  8. Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

  9. Shannon Lucid Trains in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Shannon Lucid is seen egressing from a training version of a soyez spacecraft, during a water survival training session in Russia. In March of 1996, Lucid accompanied the STS-76 crew to the Russian space station, Mir, where she stayed for a little over four months before returning to Earth with the STS-79 crew.

  10. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  11. Reading and Society in Russia in the First Years of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, B. V.; Zorkaia, N. A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the changes in the attitude of Russia's reading public in terms of frequency and intensiveness and the factors that influence these changes. In comparison with the situation in the late Soviet era and with the perestroika years, the picture of mass reading by Russians over the 1990s and, especially, in the first years of the…

  12. Ecological Activism in Post-Soviet Russia and the Western World (A Comparative Analysis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usacheva, O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Ecological activism (henceforth ecoactivism) in Russia, a country with a predominant European culture, has common roots with the Europe of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A process of intensive industrialization and urbanization required that unspoiled, natural landscapes be preserved for rest, recreation, and ecological education. This…

  13. Russia`s nuke complex: A case for downsizing

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear weapons stored in former Soviet republics, uncontrolled export of bomb-grade nuclear materials, and recruitment of ex-Soviet nuclear physicists by Third-World nations remain today`s top proliferation risks, reports Oleg Bukharin, a visiting researcher at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environment Studies. To address these risks, Russia {open_quotes}must shift its weapons production and development to weapons dismantlement, management of weapons materials, and maintenance of a much smaller...arsenal,{close_quotes} Bukharin writes. The goal of such conversion, he says, {open_quotes}is a nuclear complex that is environmentally safe...and compatible with nonproliferation objectives.{close_quotes} Reconfiguration of Russia`s weapons complex also must provide for redeployment of the hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians who have supported the federation`s nuclear weapons program, Bukharin insists. {open_quotes}A truly durable strategy to prevent the dispersion of Russian weapons expertise must [involve] these weapons experts in non-weapons research,{close_quotes} says Bukharin. Furthermore, Bukharin writes, the Russian conversion program must prevent nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands. {open_quotes}Widespread corruption, crime, and emerging black markets increase the risk of diversion of weapons-grade uranium or plutonium,{close_quotes} he says.

  14. Wildfires, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple wildfires burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the region off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. Overview of Reclamation's geothermal program in Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulcher, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is presently involved in a unique Geothermal Resource Development Program in Imperial Valley, California. The main purpose of the investigations is to determine the feasibility of providing a source of fresh water through desalting geothermal fluids stored in the aquifers underlying the valley. Significant progress in this research and development stage to date includes extensive geophysical investigations and the drilling of five geothermal wells on the Mesa anomaly. Four of the wells are for production and monitoring the anomaly, and one will be used for reinjection of waste brines from the desalting units. Two desalting units, a multistage flash unit and a vertical tube evaporator unit, have been erected at the East Mesa test site. The units have been operated on shakedown and continuous runs and have produced substantial quantities of high-quality water.

  16. [Foundation and development of biochemistry at the Imperial Kharkov University].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Chernyshenko, A A

    2000-01-01

    The article summarizes the biochemical researches carried out at Kharkiv Imperial University from the middle of XIX century up to the cessation of its existence in 1920 as a result of transformation into the Kharkiv Institute of National Education. Scientific activity at the Chair of Medical Chemistry at Medical Department is described in details. Information on professors who led the chair and their researches are represented. Among them a great attention is spared to the Kharkiv works of such famous scientists as A. Danilevsky and V. Gulevich, who made a great contribution to the development of Russian and world biochemistry. There are also some resordes about researches of biological and physiological chemistry carried out at other chairs of Medical Department and Department of Physics and Mathematics of the Kharkiv University. In particular, the article presents the works of well-known plant physiologists and biochemists prof. V. Palladin and V. Zalessky, and the endocrinological researches led by prof. A. Reprev. PMID:10979572

  17. SI Units to be Used in Place of Imperial Units and Old Metric Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A table lists the following quantities in imperial units, old metric units, and SI units: mass, force, energy, torque, power, pressure, temperature, thermal conductivity, frequency, dynamic viscosity, and kinematic viscosity. (MLH)

  18. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  19. Efficacy of CC traps and seasonal activity of adult Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Imperial and Palo Verde Valleys, California.

    PubMed

    Chu, C C; Henneberry, T J; Natwick, E T; Ritter, D; Birdsall, S L

    2001-02-01

    Adult whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring trap (CC trap) catches were compared with suction type trap catches. CC trap catches were significantly correlated to the suction trap catches. Higher numbers of B. argentifolii adults were caught in CC traps oriented toward an untreated, B. argentifolii-infested, cotton field as compared with traps oriented toward Bermuda grass fields, farm roads, or fallow areas. CC trap catches at five heights above ground (from 0 to 120 cm) were significantly related to each other in choice and no-choice studies. CC trap catches were low in the Imperial and Palo Verde Valleys from late October to early June each of 1996, 1997, and 1998. Trap catches increased with increasing seasonal air temperatures and host availability. Trap catches were adversely affected by wind and rain. Abrupt trap catch increases of 40- to 50-fold for 1-2 d in late June to early July followed by abrupt decreases in adult catches suggest migrating activity of adults from other nearby crop sources. PMID:11233132

  20. Russia [Teachers Guide and Student Readings].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, PA. Intercultural Understanding Project.

    This teaching unit, one of a series of curriculum guides on different world areas for use at the secondary level, treats the culture and history of Russia, oftentimes comparing it with that of the United States. Major teaching objectives are to have students compare and contrast basic geographic, cultural, and historical information on Russia and…

  1. The carbon balance of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolman, Han; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Recapp Russia Synthesis Team

    2013-04-01

    We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan using inventory based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is -342 Tg C yr-1 from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inventory based Land Ecosystem Assessment and inverse models estimate. A lower boundary estimate is provided at -1350 Tg C yr-1 from from the inversion models. The average of the three methods is -613.5 Tg C yr-1. The methane emission is estimated separately at 41.4 TgC yr-1. These three methods agree well within their respective error bounds. There is thus good consistency between bottom up and top down methods. The forests of Russia primarily cause the net atmosphere to land flux ( -692 Tg C yr-1 from the LEA) with remarkable little interannual variability. It remains however remarkable that the three methods provide such close estimates (-615, -662, -554 TgCyr-1) for NBP, given the inherent uncertainties in all of the approaches. The lack of recent forest inventories, the few eddy covariance sites and associated uncertainty with upscaling and under sampling of concentrations for the inversions are among the prime causes of the uncertainty. The DGVMs suggest a much lower uptake at -91Tg C yr-1 and we argue that this is caused by a high estimate of heterotrophic respiration compared to other methods.

  2. Russia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... to sunglint (mirror-like reflection of the Sun's rays by the water). The Amur River valley is a primary breeding ground for storks and ... About 20% of the Amur wetlands are protected by official conservation measures, but human development has converted large portions to ...

  3. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  4. Geodetic constraints on frictional properties and earthquake hazard in the Imperial Valley, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Eric O.; Fialko, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    We analyze a suite of geodetic observations across the Imperial Fault in southern California that span all parts of the earthquake cycle. Coseismic and postseismic surface slips due to the 1979 M 6.6 Imperial Valley earthquake were recorded with trilateration and alignment surveys by Harsh (1982) and Crook et al. (1982), and interseismic deformation is measured using a combination of multiple interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR)-viewing geometries and continuous and survey-mode GPS. In particular, we combine more than 100 survey-mode GPS velocities with InSAR data from Envisat descending tracks 84 and 356 and ascending tracks 77 and 306 (149 total acquisitions), processed using a persistent scatterers method. The result is a dense map of interseismic velocities across the Imperial Fault and surrounding areas that allows us to evaluate the rate of interseismic loading and along-strike variations in surface creep. We compare available geodetic data to models of the earthquake cycle with rate- and state-dependent friction and find that a complete record of the earthquake cycle is required to constrain key fault properties including the rate-dependence parameter (a - b) as a function of depth, the extent of shallow creep, and the recurrence interval of large events. We find that the data are inconsistent with a high (>30 mm/yr) slip rate on the Imperial Fault and investigate the possibility that an extension of the San Jacinto-Superstition Hills Fault system through the town of El Centro may accommodate a significant portion of the slip previously attributed to the Imperial Fault. Models including this additional fault are in better agreement with the available observations, suggesting that the long-term slip rate of the Imperial Fault is lower than previously suggested and that there may be a significant unmapped hazard in the western Imperial Valley.

  5. Late paternities.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jean

    2007-06-01

    Late paternities are frequent. Very often these couples ask for medically assisted procreation. In general, it is considered that the couple should not be treated differently from the couple where the father is younger. Recent studies show a certain number of specific risks linked to the late paternities. Doctors and society do not act in the same way towards men and women: a 'sensible age' for women to no longer attempt pregnancy has been set in many countries at 42 years of age, whereas men aged 80 can benefit from IVF attempts and be reimbursed by the state or insurance companies. This is an obvious inequity. PMID:17579995

  6. HIV/AIDS in Russia: determinants of regional prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Dominique; Jordaan, Jacob A

    2007-01-01

    Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be multidisciplinary in nature. Finally

  7. Public health assessment for Stoker Company, Imperial, Imperial County, California, Region 9. Cerclis No. CAD066635442. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    Stoker Company is a pesticide dealer and crop dusting loading facility located in the County of Imperial, approximately 25 miles from the Mexican border. The 26-acre site is barren with no vegetation. Operations at the facility, beginning in 1966, have caused the surface soil over much of the site to be contaminated with pesticides. Some of the contaminated surface soil has blown off-site and impacted nearby surface soil and surface water. This preliminary public health assessment evaluated the potential for adverse health effects to occur in five populations identified as being impacted by contaminants. The impacted populations include: (1) on-site workers; (2) the family formerly living on the neighboring D K property; (3) the D K Duck Hunting Club members; (4) individuals using untreated surface water for drinking and/or other domestic purposes; and (5) individuals living or working near crop dusting operations. Based on this assessment, Stoker Company is considered to pose a public health hazard because long-term exposure to site-related contaminants may cause adverse health effects.

  8. Imperial County geothermal development. Quarterly report, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Three areas are reported: Geothermal Administration, Geothermal Planning; and other Geothermal Activities. Geothermal Administration addresses the status of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP) transfer, update of the Geothermal Resource Center, and findings of Geothermal field inspections. Field inspections will cover the four new wells drilled by Magma at the Salton Sea in preparation for 28 MW power plant, the progress at Sperry at East Mesa, and the two on-line power plants in East Mesa and North Brawley. Evaluation of cooperative efforts will cover the Geothermal Subsidence Detection Network Resurvey, Master EIR for the Salton Sea and the Annual Imperial County Geothermal meeting. The status of Geothermal development throughout the County will cover existing proposed facilities. The summary of the Geothermal meeting (Appendix A) will also provide the status of several projects. Geothermal Planning addresses the EIR Notice of Exemption from CEQA, progress on the Master EIR for the Salton Sea, and the EIR for Phillips Petroleum for 6 exploratory wells in the Truckhaven area. Other Geothermal Activity addresses the Department of Energy Region IX meeting hosted by Imperial County, the Annual Imperial County Geothermal meeting, Class II-1 geothermal hazardous waste disposal siting study, and Imperial County Geothermal Direct Heat Study.

  9. Quo Vadis?: Russia's health challenges.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Patricio V

    2011-01-01

    The roots of the health crisis in the Russian Federation are not entirely, or even primarily, in the state of the health care system. High levels of mortality and morbidity, particularly among working-age males, reflect many other factors that transcend the health system as they are related to the aging of the population, growing urbanization, lifestyles and risky behaviours. Spending more money on healthcare, while necessary, will not be sufficient to improve Russia's health outcomes on a sustainable basis. A multisectoral strategy is required, coupled with increased health expenditures and structural reforms to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare organization, financing and service delivery. However, it should be clear that improving health outcomes is a complex, medium- to long-term undertaking that should be addressed forcefully by the government at the federal and regional levels as a priority social objective. PMID:22073879

  10. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  11. Bone deformities and skeletal malformations in the Roman Imperial Age.

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Catalano, Paola; Pantano, Walter; Caldarini, Carla; Fornaciari, Gino

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes some cases of individuals affected by skeletal deformities resulting in "freak" appearance. The skeletal remains were found during large archaeological excavations in the Roman territory, carried out by the Special Superintendence to the Archeological Heritage of Rome in the last years, dated back to the Imperial Age. The first cases reported are referred to two growth disorders with opposite effects: a case of dwarfism and another of gigantism. The former concerns a young man from the Collatina necropolis with very short and malformed limbs, which allowed a diagnosis of acondroplasic dwarfism, a rare congenital disorder that limits height below 130 cm. The latter case comes from the necropolis of Torre Serpentana in Fidenae, and is instead referred to a young person of very high stature, about 204 cm, suffering from Gigantism, a rare condition which in this case seems to have been linked to a hormonal dysfunction due to a pituitary adenoma. A third case regards a joint disease affecting the vertebral column and causing severe deformities. The skeleton was found in the Collatina necropolis and belongs to an old woman, suffering from ankylosing spondylitis. Finally, the last and very peculiar case is related to an individual recovered in the necropolis of Castel Malnome. The skeletal remains belong to an adult man with a complete fusion of the temporo-mandibular joint, which compromised mastication and caused severe deformation of the maxillofacial complex. These cases are described in detail together with the possible implications that these deformities could have on in the social context. PMID:25702379

  12. Aquaculture in the Imperial Valley -- A geothermal success story

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1999-03-01

    The Salton Sea and Imperial Valley area of southern California has long been recognized as a hot spot of geothermal development. In the geothermal industry, this area has for some time been synonymous with electric power generation projects. Starting with the first plant in East Mesa in 1979, geothermal power has increased over the years to the present 400+ MW of installed capacity in the three primary areas of Salton Sea, Heber and East Mesa. Although most in the industry are aware of the millions of kilowatt-hours annually produced in this desert oasis of development, they remain surprisingly uninformed about the Valley`s other geothermal industry -- aquaculture. At present, there are approximately 15 fish farming (or aquaculture) operations clustered, for the most part, around the Salton Sea. All of these farms use geothermal fluids to control the temperature of the fish culture facilities so as to produce larger fish in a shorter period of time and to permit winter production which would otherwise not be possible. In aggregate, these farms produce on the order of 10,000,000 lbs of fish per year most of which is sold into the California market. Principle species are catfish, striped bass and tilapia. For the past several years, tilapia has been the fastest growing part of the aquaculture industry. In 1996, the total US consumption of tilapia was 62,000 lbs. Of this, only 16,000,000 lbs (26%) was domestically produced and the balance imported. The primary market for the fish on the West Coast is among the Asian-American populations in the major cities. Fish are shipped and sold liver at the retail level.

  13. Russia's energy policy: A framing comment

    SciTech Connect

    Aslund, A.

    2006-05-15

    A prominent specialist on the Russian economy provides a framing comment on two preceding papers entitled 'Russia's Energy Policy' (by Vladimir Milov, Leonard Coburn, and Igor Danchenko) and 'Russia's Energy Policy: A Divergent View' (by Matthew J. Sagers). The author argues that Russia's current energy policy should be viewed as an outcome of competition between three overlapping programs. In this context, he identifies three policy models - the old Soviet, the liberal or oligarchic, and the most recent state capitalist. The latter is currently supported by President Putin, who prioritizes diversification of the country's economy at the expense of diminished investments in the oil and gas sector.

  14. Whole-Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-1 (Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez Figueroa, M.; Levi, D.; Markelov, M.; Dedkov, V.; Aleksandrova, N.; Shipulin, G.

    2015-01-01

    BCG vaccine (Mycobacterium bovis BCG-1 [Russia]) is the most important component of tuberculosis prophylaxis in Russia. This study represents the complete genome sequence and genetic characteristics of M. bovis BCG-1 (Russia), which has been used to manufacture BCG vaccine in Russia and in some other countries. PMID:26564042

  15. 77 FR 13591 - Imperial Valley Solar Company (IVSC) 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Imperial Valley Solar Company (IVSC) 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Imperial Valley Solar Company (IVSC) 1, LLC's...Library system by clicking on the appropriate link in the above list. They are also available for...

  16. 78 FR 18581 - Imperial Valley Solar 1, LLC: Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Imperial Valley Solar 1, LLC: Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Imperial Valley Solar 1, LLC's application for market-based rate... filings in the above-referenced proceeding(s) are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system...

  17. Crustal Structure in the Imperial Valley Region of California From Active-Source Seismic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuis, G. S.; Mooney, W. D.

    2008-12-01

    New crust is being generated by rifting in the Salton Trough. As the rift opens, mafic intrusive rocks fill it from below as young sedimentary rocks fill it from above. Rifting and intrusion produce high heat flow and temperatures that metamorphose the sedimentary rocks to shallow depths, forming a metasedimentary basement in the central part of the Trough, or Imperial Valley, thus consolidating the new crust. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an extensive seismic-refraction survey in the Imperial Valley region of California in 1979, and recorded additional data in 1992. Profile data were modeled using a combination of forward and inverse modeling techniques. First arrivals on profiles and arrays from all shots were combined in an inversion for a basement-depth model. Finally an an existing gravity profile across the Salton Trough was modeled. Results are as follows: (1) No first-order velocity discontinuity is observed between sedimentary and "basement" rocks in the Imperial Valley; whereas such a discontinuity is observed on West Mesa, west of the Imperial Valley. In the Imperial Valley, basement velocity is 5.65 km/s, and basement is as much as 6 km deep. On West Mesa, basement velocity is 5.9 km/s and is at most 2 km deep. In the Imperial Valley, basement shoals beneath known geothermal areas, and the deepest wells (approx. 4 km) have penetrated only the upper part of the known Cenozoic stratigraphic column in the Salton Trough. Based on these results, we interpret basement in the Imperial Valley to be sedimentary rocks metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies and basement on West Mesa to be crystalline rocks. (2) The Imperial fault offsets basement in a normal sense by as much as 1 km down to the northeast, and there is an irregular basement scarp as high as 3.5 km between West Mesa and the Imperial Valley, which we interpret as a rift suture between old crystalline and young metasedimentary basement. (3) "Subbasement" (Vp 6.9 km/s) is seen at depths as

  18. "Rule Britannia" and the New American Empire: A Marxist Analysis of the Teaching of Imperialism, Actual and Potential, in the British School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The author begins by arguing that in order to understand imperialism it is necessary to have a conceptual awareness of the concepts of racism and racialisation. He then considers how the British Empire impacted on schools during the imperial era. He goes on to examine the nature of the New Imperialism. Calls are currently being made by notable…

  19. Engineering aspects of geothermal development with emphasis on the Imperial Valley of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, M.

    1978-01-01

    This review was prepared in support of a geothermal planning activity of the County of Imperial. Engineering features of potential geothermal development are outlined. Acreage requirements for drilling and powerplants are estimated, as are the costs for wells, fluid transmission pipes, and generating stations. Rough scaling relationships are developed for cost factors as a function of reservoir temperature. Estimates are made for cooling water requirements, and possible sources of cooling water are discussed. Availability and suitability of agricultural wastewater for cooling are emphasized. The utility of geothermal resources for fresh water production in the Imperial Valley is considered.

  20. The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

  1. US sanctions on Russia hit ITER council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clery, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    The ITER fusion experiment has had to bow to the impact of US sanctions against Russia and move the venue of its council meeting, scheduled for 18-19 June, from St Petersburg to the project headquarters in Cadarache, France.

  2. Enterprise systems in Russia: 1992-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataev, Michael Yu; Bulysheva, Larisa A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander A.; Emelyanenko, Vladimir A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces the enterprise systems (ES) development and implementation in Russia in the past three decades. Historic analysis shows that, in terms of time frame, the development of ACS (Automated Control Systems) in the former Soviet Union and the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the West was almost parallel. In this paper, the current status and the major trend of ES in Russia is discussed.

  3. Outreach and educational activities in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, M.; Kartashova, A.

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview of the major internal as well as international meetings and events held in Russia and dedicated to the integration, development and expanding of knowledge in Planetary Research. The report is complemented by the Europlanet activities in Russia over the last year, achieved goals and lessons learned. Additionally, we highlight current problems and possible future improvements to the present educational and outreach techniques.

  4. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  5. From 'beastly philosophy' to medical genetics: eugenics in Russia and the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Krementsov, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    This essay offers an overview of the three distinct periods in the development of Russian eugenics: Imperial (1900-1917), Bolshevik (1917-1929), and Stalinist (1930-1939). Began during the Imperial era as a particular discourse on the issues of human heredity, diversity, and evolution, in the early years of the Bolshevik rule eugenics was quickly institutionalized as a scientific discipline--complete with societies, research establishments, and periodicals--that aspired an extensive grassroots following, generated lively public debates, and exerted considerable influence on a range of medical, public health, and social policies. In the late 1920s, in the wake of Joseph Stalin's 'Great Break', eugenics came under intense critique as a 'bourgeois' science and its proponents quickly reconstituted their enterprise as 'medical genetics'. Yet, after a brief period of rapid growth during the early 1930s, medical genetics was dismantled as a 'fascist science' towards the end of the decade. Based on published and original research, this essay examines the factors that account for such an unusual--as compared to the development of eugenics in other locales during the same period--historical trajectory of Russian eugenics. PMID:21466003

  6. Beginnings of geothermal impact on county population and leadership, Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Pick, J.B.; Butler, E.W.

    1980-09-01

    A major geothermal energy development scenario is about to begin in Imperial County. Initial energy-socioeconomic interactions in the areas of population and county leadership structure are discussed. These include immigration of energy company workers, a sewage plant dispute, conflict over union affiliation of geothermal laborers, and a transmission corridor routing dispute.

  7. Blue Indians: Teaching the Political Geography of Imperialism with Fictional Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Fictional film provides an opportunity to breathe life into the application of academic concepts by capturing the attention and imagination of students. Using the 2009 hit movie "Avatar", it is argued that popular fiction has the potential to help students grasp the dynamics of imperial/indigenous relationships in part because it removes…

  8. International Students: Constructions of Imperialism in the "Chronicle of Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jeong-eun; Sagaria, Mary Ann Danowitz

    2004-01-01

    This article links colonial/neocolonial and feminist literature with discourses on international students to examine how a discourse of imperialism constructs and represents international students in U.S. universities. Applying a critical discourse analysis to 78 articles published in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" between 1996 and 1999, the…

  9. De/Scribing Squ*w: Indigenous Women and Imperial Idioms in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, C. Richard

    2003-01-01

    Tracing the history of the term "squaw" offers insights into the positionings and politics of indigenous femininity in colonial America. Today, as throughout the colonization of Native America, imperial projects and projections have based themselves upon and imagined themselves through the lives, bodies, and images of indigenous women, situating…

  10. A Proposed Plan for Reference Services for San Diego and Imperial Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Grace Thomas

    The purpose of the present study is to assist with the planning for improved reference service in the libraries of San Diego and Imperial counties, California, and to make recommendations regarding the location of area libraries and the relationships of the libraries within the system. The following recommendations are made for the system: (1)…

  11. Indigenous Ownership and the Emergence of U.S. Liberal Imperialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konkle, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Scholars have remarked upon the powerful--and frustrating, for analysis--abstractions of U.S. imperialism. The idea of empire itself is completely naturalized (thus the way of life) but also utterly depoliticized (thus the difficulty of recognizing it as a historical process comparable to others). By the 1830s the nation itself was understood as…

  12. Jane Austen and Imperialism--A Rereading of "Pride and Prejudice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Runjiang; Li, Yucheng

    2009-01-01

    This thesis attempts to search for the clues related to British domestic exploitation of the peasant labors and overseas colonization of other countries after rereading the novel "Pride and Prejudice," with an aim to bring out Austen's intimacy with Imperialism. It will offer some insights into a better understanding of provincial world…

  13. Linguistic Globalization and the Call Center Industry: Imperialism, Hegemony or Cosmopolitanism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonntag, Selma K.

    2009-01-01

    Linguistic imperialism, linguistic hegemony and linguistic cosmopolitanism are broad and contrasting conceptualizations of linguistic globalization that are frequently, if implicitly, invoked in the literature, both academic and non-academic, on language practices and perceptions in the call center industry. I begin with outlining each of these…

  14. Caribbean Musical Social Commentary and the Exportation/Importation Perspective of Communication and Cultural Imperialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regis, Humphrey A.

    Cultural imperialism is seen not as a static phenomenon but as a dynamic process in which the more developed countries (the dominating "centers" of the world system) influence the less developed countries (the dominated "periphery" of the system). In this process the more developed countries produce artifacts and content that reflect their culture…

  15. Educational Developments during the Years 1974 to 1976. Imperial Government of Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Research and Planning in Science and Education, Teheran (Iran).

    Since the Imperial decree in 1974, Iran has been engaged in implementing an educational policy which promotes equal educational opportunities for all its children. On the primary level, free education and one free meal daily has created an increase in enrollments in rural areas. Religious minorities, who receive free education, are allowed to…

  16. Imperial County geothermal development. Quarterly report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The activities of the Geothermal Office during the quarter are discussed, including: important geothermal events, geothermal waste disposal, a grant award by the California Energy Commission, the geothermal development meeting, and the current status of geothermal development in Imperial County. Activities of the Geothermal Planner are addressed, including permits, processing of EIR's, and other planning activities. Progress on the direct heat study is reported.

  17. 75 FR 8008 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...EPA is proposing a limited approval and limited disapproval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern coarse particulate matter (PM10) emissions from sources of fugitive dust such as construction sites, unpaved roads, and disturbed soils in open and agricultural......

  18. 76 FR 28453 - Cesar Chavez Special Resource Study-Alameda, Fresno, Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Monterey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... National Park Service Cesar Chavez Special Resource Study--Alameda, Fresno, Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles.... ACTION: Notice of Scoping for Cesar Chavez Special Resource Study. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions.... 110-229-May 2008), the NPS is conducting a special resource study of the sites in the State of...

  19. "The Free Flow of News" and "Western Communication Imperialism": Divergent Views on Ethics in International Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, John C.

    A growing international controversy exists between the West on one hand and the Third World, Marxist states, and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) on the other focusing on the concepts of "free flow of information" and "Western communication imperialism," and on ethical issues relating to these…

  20. Salton Sea and Imperial Valley, California as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Salton Sea and Imperial Valley area of southern California, including a portion of northern Baja California, Mexico, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 17th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 125 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 27 hours.

  1. Placing colonial ornithology: imperial ambiguities in Upper Canada, 1791-1841.

    PubMed

    Greer, Kirsten A

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the emergence of colonial ornithology in Upper Canada, 1791-1841, to determine the impact of empire and local contexts on the natural history activity. I argue that colonial ornithology emerged as a by-product of British imperialism that helped to reinforce British, upper- and middle-class, gender-specific white identities through practices of sportsman-hunting, taxidermy, natural theology, and the romantic-aesthetic. However, as this paper reveals, British imperial practices and ideas of ornithology relied on the participation of First Nations and Métis peoples, whose knowledge and skills were instrumental to British naturalists. The First Nations and Métis peoples therefore exerted a real presence in colonial ornithology in Upper Canada--albeit a subservient one in the British ornithological texts--as they positioned themselves as part of the ornithological trade with the collection and trading of specimens. Furthermore, British military officers, settlers, and tourists tapped into American scientific networks and knowledge systems rather than focusing solely on Britain as an imperial centre of accumulation. British imperial ideas and practices of colonial ornithology in Upper Canada therefore remained ambiguous during the early nineteenth century. PMID:19569389

  2. 78 FR 896 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews I. Proposed Action On April 27, 2012 (77 FR 25109), EPA... and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); does not impose an...

  3. 78 FR 23677 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... III. EPA Action IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews I. Proposed Action On January 7, 2013 (78 FR... not acting on Rule 802 at this time. \\2\\ See, e.g., 75 FR 8010 (February 23, 2010). Comment...

  4. 76 FR 39303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution...

  5. 76 FR 7142 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD... versions of these rules? We approved an earlier version of Rule 201 into the SIP on January 3, 2007 (72 FR... permit exemptions. Rule 103 was approved into the SIP on May 31, 1972 (37 FR 10842). The...

  6. 77 FR 25109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Implementation of Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990,'' 59 FR 41998 (August 16, 1994). 5. ``PM-10...: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD...-2008 monitoring period (74 FR 63309). This determination suspended some of the planning...

  7. 76 FR 39357 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Pollution Control District, Kern County Air Pollution Control District, and Ventura County Air Pollution... proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD), Kern County Air Pollution Control District (KCAPCD), and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District...

  8. 76 FR 26615 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    .... SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District... various air pollution sources. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the... February 9, 2011 (76 FR 7142), EPA proposed to approve the following rules into the California SIP....

  9. 78 FR 922 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... for the Implementation of Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990,'' 57 FR 13498 (April 16... Preamble for the Implementation of Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990,'' 59 FR 41998 (August...: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District...

  10. 75 FR 39365 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... minimis level. Id. at 42011. \\19\\ 75 FR 8008, 8010, and proposal TSD, pp. 5-7. Open areas: --Windblown... Order Reviews I. Summary of Proposed Action On February 23, 2010 (75 FR 8008), EPA proposed a limited... section E.6 for recreational use of public lands in Imperial County. \\6\\ 75 FR 8008, 8010-8011 and...

  11. Enlightenment and the "Heart of Darkness": (Neo)Imperialism in the Congo, and Elsewhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronach, Ian

    2006-01-01

    This article approaches the current state of qualitative inquiry by constructing an allegory of neo-imperialism. It is based substantively on a history and contemporary anthro-politics of the Congo and in particular the city of Kisangani; metaphorically on Conrad's unsettling deployment of that same place as "the heart of darkness"; and ironically…

  12. Many Rhodes: Travelling Scholarships and Imperial Citizenship in the British Academic World, 1880-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietsch, Tamson

    2011-01-01

    Since its Foundation in 1901, the Rhodes Scholarships scheme has been held up as the archetype of a programme designed to foster imperial citizens. However, though impressive in scale, Cecil Rhodes's foundation was not the first to bring colonial students to Britain. Over the course of the previous half-century, governments, universities and…

  13. "In Defence of Cricket": The Imperial Games Ethic in Victorian English Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates how societies can be judged by the athletic games they play through presentation of an exchange of letters appearing in the 1872 issues of the Upper Canada College newspaper. Shows how cricket, representing imperial society and muscular Christianity, was threatened by the Yankees and "American baseball." (LS)

  14. Why Russia is not a state

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  15. Space Radar Image of Star City, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the Star City cosmonaut training center, east of Moscow, Russia. Four American astronauts are training here for future long-duration flights aboard the Russian Mir space station. These joint flights are giving NASA and the Russian Space Agency experience necessary for the construction of the international Alpha space station, beginning in late 1997. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), on its 62nd orbit on October 3, 1994. This Star City image is centered at 55.55 degrees north latitude and 38.0 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 32 kilometers by 49 kilometers (20 miles by 30 miles). North is to the top in this image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The image was produced using three channels of SIR-C radar data: red indicates L-band (23 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and received); green indicates L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue indicates C-band (6 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In general, dark pink areas are agricultural; pink and light blue areas are urban communities; black areas represent lakes and rivers; dark blue areas are cleared forest; and light green areas are forested. The prominent black runways just right of center are Shchelkovo Airfield, about 4 km long. The textured pale blue-green area east and southeast of Shchelkovo Airfield is forest. Just east of the runways is a thin railroad line running southeast; the Star City compound lies just east of the small bend in the rail line. Star City contains the living quarters and training facilities for Russian cosmonauts and their families. Moscow's inner loop road is visible at the lower left edge of the image. The Kremlin is just off the left edge, on the banks of the meandering Moskva River. The Klyazma River snakes to the southeast from the reservoir in the upper left (shown in bright red

  16. Summer Harvest in Saratov, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Saratov Oblast (province) is located in the southeastern portion of the East-European plain, in the Lower Volga River Valley. Southern Russia produces roughly 40 percent of the country's total agricultural output, and Saratov Oblast is the largest producer of grain in the Volga region. Vegetation changes in the province's agricultural lands between spring and summer are apparent in these images acquired on May 31 and July 18, 2002 (upper and lower image panels, respectively) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR).

    The left-hand panels are natural color views acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Less vegetation and more earth tones (indicative of bare soils) are apparent in the summer image (lower left). Farmers in the region utilize staggered sowing to help stabilize yields, and a number of different stages of crop maturity can be observed. The main crop is spring wheat, cultivated under non-irrigated conditions. A short growing season and relatively low and variable rainfall are the major limitations to production. Saratov city is apparent as the light gray pixels on the left (west) bank of the Volga River. Riparian vegetation along the Volga exhibits dark green hues, with some new growth appearing in summer.

    The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree backward, nadir and 60-degree forward-viewing cameras displayed as red, green and blue respectively. In these images, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and the spring and summer views were processed identically to preserve relative variations in brightness between the two dates. Urban areas and vegetation along the Volga banks look similar in the two seasonal multi-angle composites. The agricultural areas, on the other hand, look strikingly different. This can be attributed to differences in brightness and texture between bare soil and vegetated land. The chestnut-colored soils in

  17. [Palivizumab: four seasons in Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranov, A A; Ivanov, D O; Aliamovskaia, G A; Amirova, V R; Antoniuk, I V; Asmolova, G A; Beliaeva, I A; Bokeria, E L; Briukhanova, O A; Vinogradova, I V; Vlasova, E V; Galustian, A N; Gafarova, G V; Gorev, V V; Davydova, I V; Degtiarev, D N; Degtiareva, E A; Dolgikh, V V; Donits, I M; Zakharova, N I; Zernova, L Iu; Zimina, E P; Zuev, V V; Keshishian, E S; Kovalev, I A; Koltunov, I E; Korsunskiĭ, A A; Krivoshchekov, E V; Krsheminskaia, I V; Kuznetsova, S N; Liubimenko, V A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Nesterenko, É V; Nikolaev, S V; Ovsiannikov, D Iu; Pavlova, T I; Potapova, M V; Rychkova, L V; Safarov, A A; Safina, A I; Skachkova, M A; Soldatova, I G; Turti, T V; Filatova, N A; Shakirova, R M; Ianulevich, O S

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the Russian Federation (RF) registered palivizumab--innovative drug, based on monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization of seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children of disease severe progress risk group, which include primarily premature infants, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Currently, palivizumab is included in the list of recommended medicines and medical care standards of different countries, including Russia. In the review the results of Russian research on the progress of RSV infection, its epidemiology and immunization experience gained over the 2010-2014 period are summarized in relation to the foreign data. During the four epidemic seasons palivizumab immunization covered more than 3,200 children of severe RSV infection risk group with a progressive annual increase in the number of patients who received the drug. Geography of palivizumab immunization is also greatly expanded in our country during this time. If during the first two seasons measures of immunization were taken mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg, at the present time, thirty one territorial entities of the Russian Federation have the experience in the drug application. Analysis of the results of RSV infection immunization (made in several regions) confirms the high clinical efficacy and palivizumab safety already demonstrated in international studies. In addition, the analysis presents the potential to improve the efficiency of the integrated RSV infection immunization programs, realizing in the establishment of high-risk child group register, adequate counseling for parents, as well as the development of the routing of patients and coordination of interaction between different health institutions during the immunization. PMID:25563005

  18. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  19. Space Biology in Russia Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  20. Destroyed documents: uncovering the science that Imperial Tobacco Canada sought to conceal

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, David; Chaiton, Michael; Lee, Alex; Collishaw, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1992, British American Tobacco had its Canadian affiliate, Imperial Tobacco Canada, destroy internal research documents that could expose the company to liability or embarrassment. Sixty of these destroyed documents were subsequently uncovered in British American Tobacco’s files. Methods Legal counsel for Imperial Tobacco Canada provided a list of 60 destroyed documents to British American Tobacco. Information in this list was used to search for copies of the documents in British American Tobacco files released through court disclosure. We reviewed and summarized this information. Results Imperial Tobacco destroyed documents that included evidence from scientific reviews prepared by British American Tobacco’s researchers, as well as 47 original research studies, 35 of which examined the biological activity and carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke. The documents also describe British American Tobacco research on cigarette modifications and toxic emissions, including the ways in which consumers adapted their smoking behaviour in response to these modifications. The documents also depict a comprehensive research program on the pharmacology of nicotine and the central role of nicotine in smoking behaviour. British American Tobacco scientists noted that “… the present scale of the tobacco industry is largely dependent on the intensity and nature of the pharmacological action of nicotine,” and that “... should nicotine become less attractive to smokers, the future of the tobacco industry would become less secure.” Interpretation The scientific evidence contained in the documents destroyed by Imperial Tobacco demonstrates that British American Tobacco had collected evidence that cigarette smoke was carcinogenic and addictive. The evidence that Imperial Tobacco sought to destroy had important implications for government regulation of tobacco. PMID:19828670

  1. Geology of Wrangel Island, Arctic Russia, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, E. L.; Gehrels, G.; Soloviev, A.

    2007-12-01

    It has long been suggested that Wrangel Island represents the western continuation of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt of northern Alaska. It is thus a unique exposure to test for the continuity of structures, lithologies and facies from Alaska to Russia across the Chukchi Sea, however no new structural and geochrononologic data has emerged since the thorough overview of Kos'ko et al. (1993, Geol. Surv.Canada Bull. 461). In 2006, an international team of geologists (S.Sokolov, M.Tuchkova, V.Verzhbitsky, E.Miller and V.Pease) visited the island with the help and logistic support of the director and scientific staff of the Wrangel Island Wildlife Preserve. Strata on Wrangel Island are highly deformed and metamorphosed, but may match part of the section described for the Hannah Trough, Alaska (Sherwood et al., 2002 GSA Spec.Paper 360): Coarse clastic strata overlie late Precambrian basement (630-700 Ma Kos'ko et al. (1993)), followed by a succession of mid to Late Paleozoic limestone, shale and lesser clastic rocks. Wrangel Island differs from the N.Slope and Brooks Range in that a thick sequence of basinal Triassic clastics constitutes the upper part of the section. Comparison of single grain U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from the Triassic of Wrangel to the Russian Arctic mainland and to the Lisburne Hills, Alaska, suggests basin continuity and similar source regions between these three regions (but not the N. Slope) in the Triassic. Single grain ages as young as 215 Ma validate the inferred Triassic age of these sediments on Wrangel Island. Penetrative deformation, increasing in strain and metamorphic grade with depth in the section, is defined by a foliation that dips south and a pronounced N-S mineral elongation or stretching lineation. The structural style of deformation is unlike the style of folding and thrusting in the external (northern) part of the Brooks Range, but similar to that of the internal (southern) zone of the Brooks Range. Limited thin

  2. Patterns of suicide mortality in Russia.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex; Spivak, Andrew L

    2003-01-01

    While Russia perennially has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, researchers had little access to valid data during the Soviet era to examine this issue. Transparency increased following the dissolution of the USSR, and this article employs newly available vital statistics data to describe the demographic, temporal, and spatial patterns of suicide in Russia. The discussion reveals that suicide mortality in Russia is among the highest in the world and is more than three times higher than in the United States; exhibited radical changes between 1984 and 1994; varies widely within the country, with a general increase in rates from west to east; and is highest among working-age males. PMID:12882415

  3. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and

  4. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  5. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  6. Gazprom and Russia: The economic rationality of Russian foreign energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloudis, Stergos Carl Thornton

    Charges of imperialism underpinned by coercive economic tactics are some of the accusations leveled against Vladimir Putin's foreign energy policy during his presidential tenure. However, after the traditional policies of coercion failed to secure Russian interests in Europe during the 1990's, this dissertation argues Putin adopted a radically different approach upon his rise to the Presidency. Driven by public demand to continue the domestic subsidization of natural gas and realizing that the chief avenue for securing revenue was in gas sales to Europe, this project suggests that Putin developed a new foreign energy policy approach meant to secure Russian interests. This transformation was accomplished by the Presidential Administration's efforts during Putin's tenure to bring the Russian natural gas monopoly, Gazprom, under its control. Dubbed Persuasive Politics, this paradigm suggests that the foreign energy policies of the Presidential Administration and Gazprom during Putin's tenure were underpinned by the rational economic argument that the only route to Russian resurgence in the medium term was through profitable economic relations with the European states. To test this theoretical approach the author employs a case study analysis of Russian relations with the European Union member state Greece as well as the non-EU state of Ukraine. The intent is to identify how a mutually beneficial relationship was constructed to persuade both governments through the utilization of economic inducements that cooperation with Russia in the natural gas sphere was in their own best interest.

  7. TB an epidemic in Russia's prisons.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Over 100,000 prisoners are infected with tuberculosis (TB) in Russia, which has the highest incarceration rate in the world. Drug-resistant TB is found in thousands of inmates, and approximately 20,000 have died from it within the past 2 years. Although the country now has 50 centers for TB-infected prisoners, many are not being cured because of medicine shortages and failure to complete treatment. Up to 25 percent of TB infections found in Russian jails are multi-drug resistant, as opposed to 4 percent in Russia's general population and under 2 percent in the United States. PMID:11367347

  8. United States/Russia Space Cooperation Documentary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents the initiative to develop a multinational, permanent space research laboratory. Historical background on the U.S. and Soviet manned space flight program as well as joint efforts such as the Apollo-Soyuz link up is shown. The current initiative will begin with collaborative missions involving NASA's space shuttle and Russia's Mir space station, and culminate in a permanently manned space station involving the U.S., Russia, Japan, Canada, and ESA. Shown are computer simulations of the proposed space station. Commentary is provided by the NASA administrator, former astronauts, cosmonauts, and Russian and American space experts.

  9. Russia's social upper class: from ostentation to culturedness.

    PubMed

    Schimpfossl, Elisabeth

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses examples of strategies employed by representatives of Russia's new social upper class to acquire social distinction. By the late 2000s many of the upper-class Russians included in this study distanced themselves from the conspicuous ostentation ascribed to the brutish 1990s. Instead, they strove to gain legitimacy for their social position by no longer aggressively displaying their wealth, but instead elaborating more refined and individualized tastes and manners and reviving a more cultured image and self-image. These changes found their expression in various modes of social distinction ranging from external signs, such as fashion and cars, to ostentation vicariously exercised through the people these upper-class Russians surrounded themselves with. The article will trace these interviewees' strategies for distinction in the late 2000s by discussing tastes in lifestyle and consumption as well as adornment through sartorial signs and through vicarious ostentation, as exemplified by their choice of female company. Changing attitudes towards vehicles and modes of transport, with special regards to the Moscow Metro, will serve as a further illustration of modes of distinction. Crucial for this discussion is the role of the Russian/Soviet intelligentsia, both for vicarious status assertion and elite distinction anchored in the interviewees' social backgrounds. PMID:24697715

  10. A modern approach to the Neopleistocene stratigraphy and paleogeography of Central European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shik, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The study compiles the current knowledge on the Neopleistocene stratigraphy and paleogeography of Central European Russia (including the limits of ice sheets in the first half of the Middle Neopleistocene and Late Neopleistocene) on the basis of new data and provides a draft of the revised regional stratigraphic scale adopted by the regional Interdepartmental Stratigraphic Committee on the Central and Southern Russian platform. The proposed scale incorporates a number of new horizons: the Setun', Moiseevo, Navlya, and Ikorets horizons of the Lower Neopleistocene; Vologda and Gorki horizons of the Middle Neopleistocene; Chermenino Horizon of the Upper Neopleistocene; and Shuvalovo Horizon of the Holocene. The adopted scale is correlated with the oxygen-isotopic stages and substages identified in the Neopleistocene by the decision of the ISC of Russia, as well as with glacials and interglacials of Lithuania, Poland, Germany, and England. The study discusses the problem of a division of the Pleistocene with respect to duration of Pleistocene stages.

  11. Managing the global environmental risks in Russia: Missing links and external influences

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, V.

    1996-06-01

    Based on analysis of management history of three global environmental issues in Russia--climate change, ozone depletion and acid rains--the author suggests few explanations of failure to build-up the nationwide strategy to manage global risks. Among them are specific factors related to the science-policy relationship in Russia, scientific uncertainties on global changes processes and impacts, etc. Particular attention is given to such internal factors as the monopolization of these issues by the single state agency Hydromet until the late 1980`s; the interest of the Soviet military in global atmospheric issues; the absence of any major input from the public or the media; and the manner in which the discussion of these issues was nested within the Soviet government`s broader foreign policy agenda.

  12. Chinese Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of students from China studying in Russia, but still less than 2 percent of Chinese who study abroad do so in Russia. A third of these students would not encourage others to do so, on the grounds that educational conditions are not good and that they feel unwelcome in Russia. Most of these students…

  13. Smoke and Clouds over Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Several mountain ranges and a portion of the Amur River are visible in this set of MISR images of Russia's far east Khabarovsk region. The images were acquired on May 13, 2001 during Terra orbit 7452. The view from MISR's 70-degree forward-looking camera is at the top left; the 26-degree forward-looking view is at the top right. The larger image at the bottom is a stereo 'anaglyph' created using the cameras at two intermediate angles. To view the stereo image in 3-D you need red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over your left eye. All of the images are oriented with north to the left to facilitate stereo viewing. Each image covers an area about 345 kilometers x 278 kilometers.

    The Amur River, in the upper right, and Lake Bolon, at the top center, are most prominent in the 26-degree view due to sunglint (mirror-like reflection of the Sun's rays by the water). The Amur River valley is a primary breeding ground for storks and cranes and a stopover for large numbers of migratory birds. About 20% of the Amur wetlands are protected by official conservation measures, but human development has converted large portions to agricultural uses. Other notable features in these images are several mountain chains, including the Badzhal'skiy to the left of center and the Bureiskiy in the lower left.

    Smoke plumes from several forest fires can be seen. They are especially apparent in the 70-degree view where the smoke's visibility is accentuated, in part, by the long slant path through the atmosphere. The largest plumes are in the lower left and upper right, with some smaller plumes above and to the right of the image centers. In the upper images the hazy region in the vicinity of these smaller plumes has the appearance of low-altitude smoke, but depth perception provided by the stereo anaglyph shows that it is actually a distinct layer of high-altitude cirrus clouds. Whether the cirrus is related to the fires is uncertain. It is possible, however, for the fires have

  14. Career development: domestic display as imperial, anthropological, and social trophy.

    PubMed

    Wintle, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing the dynamics of collection and display in the colonial context, this essay considers the South Asian artifacts collected by Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Chief Commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1894-1904. Temple exhibited the teak carvings, body adornments, and hunting tools that he amassed throughout his career in his home, The Nash, which became the foundation of his public persona as a triumphant colonial chief, a "shining light" in the emerging discipline of anthropology, and a wealthy, upper-class lord of the manor. The politics of consumption, decoration, and self-creation converge in The Nash, offering a glimpse into how material objects removed from India during the late nineteenth century were consumed in Britain and how domestic display contributed to the formation of British identity. PMID:19069005

  15. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  16. Mapping Russia: Geographic and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khachikian, Arthur

    For people living in the 20th century, Russia has been associated with images of communism, the Bolshevik Revolution, totalitarian regimes and leaders, and the fears and stereotypes of the Cold War era. The dissolution of the Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War, and the liberal revolutions of the 1980s-1990s have provided an opportunity to…

  17. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Detlev H; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Pilikova, Olga M; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K

    2015-12-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  18. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A.; Morozov, Vyacheslav G.; Yunicheva, Yulia V.; Pilikova, Olga M.; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A.; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T.; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K.

    2015-01-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  19. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 38694) and determined on October 4, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 64107, October 17, 2011). The Commission transmitted its determination in this review to... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  20. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...)). Background The Commission instituted this review on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11273) and determined on June 6, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 34749, June 14, 2011). The Commission transmitted... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the...

  1. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... nitrate from Russia (71 FR 17080). The Commission is now conducting a second review to determine whether... recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is... (65 FR 37759, June 16, 2000). Following five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  2. The Health Sciences Library Network in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accart, Jean-Philippe

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of libraries in Russia focuses on science and medical libraries. Topics addressed include historical background; library science education; a consortium formed to build national databases and disseminate information; producers of scientific and medical information; international cooperation; interlibrary loans; the Russian Medical…

  3. Libraries at "the End of Russia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronayne, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Describes the library at Far Eastern State Technical University in Vladivostok (Russia) based on a visit that was part of a collaborative project with California State University, Sacramento. Highlights include staffing; problems with funding, space, and technology; library collections in the Department of World Politics and Law; and the nearby…

  4. An Overview of Teacher Education in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    This paper describes the experience of an educational psychologist who completed a Fulbright Lectureship at Moscow State Pedagogical University in Russia during April and May of 1993. The chaotic situation brought about by the dramatic and rapid changes that have taken place since the collapse of the Soviet Union has resulted in hyperinflation,…

  5. Environmental Education for Sustainable Development in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimov, N. S.; Malkhazova, S. M.; Romanova, E. P.

    2005-01-01

    The conceptual underpinning and the organizational structure of the existing system of higher environmental education in Russia are analysed. The system, embracing 129 universities, has been created in the last 10 years. At present there is a shift from general environmental education to education for sustainable development. The new system is…

  6. Child Care in Russia: In Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ispa, Jean

    With the advent of "perestroika" and "glasnost," Russian childcare and education underwent a transitional period in practice and theory. Contrasting impressions from an earlier visit under the Communist regime, this book describes the experiences of Jean Ispa in her travels to Russia, observing children in six child care centers. Interviews are…

  7. Building Bridges: Miami "Ambassadors" Visit Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Toni Fuss

    2001-01-01

    Describes a three-week exchange program where William H. Turner Technical Arts High School (Miami, Florida) students participated in the U.S./Russian student exchange program. Focuses on the students' stereotypes before the trip and their interview comments following the trip about the hardships in Russia. (CMK)

  8. Imperial landscapes of health: place, plants and people between India and Australia, 1800s-1900s.

    PubMed

    Beattie, James

    2012-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, place bore immediately and urgently on questions of imperialism, race, and health. This article considers European strategies to control local environments and improve healthiness through the exchange of people, plants, ideas and garden designs between India and Australia. Migration removed Europeans from unhealthy environments, either permanently (to Australia and elsewhere) or temporarily (to hill stations in India). Trees like the eucalyptus were introduced into India to enhance European health, based on belief they drained sources of disease. I argue a crucial new understanding of the intersection between health and place in the nineteenth-century British Empire can be provided by tracing the networks through which people, plants, and ideas moved to consider the broader imperial frameworks. PMID:23066604

  9. Imperial nursing: cross-cultural challenges for women in the health professions: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Katrin

    2010-05-01

    This essay briefly examines some of the cross-cultural challenges that faced nurses in the Philippines, India, and South Africa in the context of 19th and 20th century imperialism. During this time, nurses from colonizing countries served as agents of empire by helping to establish and reinforce American and European control in colonized societies. In doing so, they sought to instill the racial and gender hierarchies of their home countries in the colonial territories. But once these women moved to the colonies, they frequently found their preconceptions about femininity, sexuality, and race challenged in unexpected ways. The history of nursing in the age of empire is a story of good intentions mixed with cultural chauvinism, of professional rigor mixed with condescension, of devotion and generosity shaped and often distorted by ideas of gendered and racial conventions, and of ambitious reform crushed by an inability to think beyond the bounds of imperialism. PMID:20679326

  10. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 2. Environmental control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, W.; Hill, J.

    1980-07-01

    Environmental control technologies are essential elements to be included in the overall design of Imperial Valley geothermal power systems. Environmental controls applicable to abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions, cooling tower drift, noise, liquid and solid wastes, and induced subsidence and seismicity are assessed here. For optimum abatement of H{sub 2}S under a variety of plant operating conditions, removal of H{sub 2}S upstream of the steam turbine is recommended. The environmental impact of cooling tower drift will be closely tied to the quality of cooling water supplies. Conventional noise abatement procedures can be applied and no special research and development are needed. Injection technology constitutes the primary and most essential environmental control and liquid waste disposal technology for Imperial Velley geothermal operations. Subsurface injection of fluids is the primary control for managing induced subsidence. Careful maintenance of injection pressure is expected to control induced seismicity. (MHR)

  11. Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

  12. [Labor migration to Russia from nearby countries].

    PubMed

    Krasinets, E; Barinova, N

    1996-01-01

    According to official data the unemployment rate in the Russian Federation at the end of the first half of 1995 reached 5.7 million people, or 7.6% of the economically active population. At the present time [1996] the proportion of potentially unemployed people ranges from 13% to 17% of the economically active population. During 1993-95, in the whole economy of Russia, the number of vacancies fluctuated between 320,000 and 400,000. Moreover, in the first quarter of 1995 an increase of manpower needs by 14% was observed compared to the first quarter of 1994. In the first half of 1995 the manpower needs increased to 311,000-400,000 people, or 43.1%. As far as the regional distribution of available jobs was concerned, one-fifth of them was located in the Urals and western Siberia and about one-third in the central region. In order to protect the labor market for Russian natives, in December 1993 a presidential decree was issued. At the end of 1994 the number of foreign workers in Russia numbered 128,999 people, of which 73,695 (58.9%) came from adjacent countries bordering Russia. Experts ascertained that these foreign workers provided higher qualifications: 47.2% were better qualified than the local work force, 75% were more productive, and 83.2% were more disciplined. The labor migration in Russia during the 1990s will depend on the demographic and socioeconomic changes in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union and the composition of the labor market, as well as measures taken in Russia concerning immigration policy. It is estimated that in the coming years the annual number of foreign workers would equal 110,000-130,000 people, and if quotas are set up by mutual agreement the number could grow two- to three-fold compared to the figure of 1994. PMID:12294931

  13. The Foundry: the DNA synthesis and construction Foundry at Imperial College

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Stephen; Kitney, Richard; Freemont, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of a DNA synthesis and construction foundry at Imperial College in London heralds a new chapter in the development of synthetic biology to meet new global challenges. The Foundry employs the latest technology to make the process of engineering biology easier, faster and scalable. The integration of advanced software, automation and analytics allows the rapid design, build and testing of engineered organisms. PMID:27284027

  14. Imperial Valley's proposal to develop a guide for geothermal development within its county

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    A plan to develop the geothermal resources of the Imperial Valley of California is presented. The plan consists of development policies and includes text and graphics setting forth the objectives, principles, standards, and proposals. The plan allows developers to know the goals of the surrounding community and provides a method for decision making to be used by county representatives. A summary impact statement for the geothermal development aspects is provided.

  15. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  16. The Foundry: the DNA synthesis and construction Foundry at Imperial College.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Stephen; Kitney, Richard; Freemont, Paul

    2016-06-15

    The establishment of a DNA synthesis and construction foundry at Imperial College in London heralds a new chapter in the development of synthetic biology to meet new global challenges. The Foundry employs the latest technology to make the process of engineering biology easier, faster and scalable. The integration of advanced software, automation and analytics allows the rapid design, build and testing of engineered organisms. PMID:27284027

  17. Combined PIXE and XPS analysis on republican and imperial Roman coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daccà, A.; Prati, P.; Zucchiatti, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Mandò, P. A.; Gemme, G.; Parodi, R.; Pera, R.

    2000-03-01

    A combined PIXE and XPS analysis has been performed on a few Roman coins of the republican and imperial age. The purpose was to investigate via XPS the nature and extent of patina in order to be capable of extracting PIXE data relative to the coins bulk. The inclusion of elements from the surface layer, altered by oxidation and inclusion, is a known source of uncertainty in PIXE analyses of coins, performed to assess the composition and the provenance.

  18. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  19. Moral imperialism and multi-centric clinical trials in peripheral countries.

    PubMed

    Garrafa, Volnei; Lorenzo, Claudio

    2008-10-01

    Moral imperialism is expressed in attempts to impose moral standards from one particular culture, geopolitical region or culture onto other cultures, regions or countries. Examples of Direct Moral Imperialism can be seen in various recurrent events involving multi-centric clinical trials promoted by developed (central) countries in poor and developing (peripheral) countries, particularly projects related to the theory of double standards in research. After the WMA General Assembly refused to change the Helsinki Declaration - which would have given moral recognition to the above mentioned theory - the USA abandoned the declaration and began to promote regional seminars in peripheral countries with the aim of "training" researchers on ethical perspectives that reflect America's best interests. Individuals who received such training became transmitters of these central countries' ideas across the peripheral countries, representing a form of Indirect Moral Imperialism. The paper proposes the establishment of regulatory and social control systems for clinical trials implemented in peripheral countries, through the formulation of ethical norms that reflect the specific contexts of these countries, along with the drawing up and validation of their own national norms. PMID:18949224

  20. S.N. Nikitin (1851-1909) and his contribution to the development of the Mesozoic stratigraphic scheme of Central Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodubtseva, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a biography of S.N. Nikitin, one of the outstanding Russian geologists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and provides a review of his contribution to study of the Mesozoic of Central Russia.

  1. Imperial County geothermal development. Summary report, 1979-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    The progress of geothermal development during the past three years, county activities in support of geothermal development, and current challenges and future needs of the geothermal industry and the county are summarized. Exploration activities have resulted in the identification and definition of three additional Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRAs) during the grant period: the Westmorland KGRA, the East Brawley KGRA, both in 1980, and the South Brawley KGRA in 1982. Exploration is continuing in other areas of the county as well. Three 10 megawatt power plants have begun operations during the grant period: the Magma East Mesa 10 Megawatt Binary Power Plant, the Union/Southern California Edison 10 Megawatt Flash Power Plant in Brawley, both beginning operations in 1980, and the Union/Southern California Edison 10 Megawatt Flash Power Plant at the Salton Sea, initiating operations in 1982. Three commercial power plants are scheduled to begin construction during late 1982 or early 1983. Groundbreaking for the Heber Binary Project is scheduled for November 1982. Site work has already begun for the Heber Flash Power Plant. The Magma 28 megawatt power plant at the Salton Sea is to begin construction in early 1983. Two commercial power plants are in planning stages. (MHR)

  2. [Medicine and orientalism in the late nineteenth century Korea].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2002-06-01

    The paper investigates medical missionaries that exerted a significant role in establishing Western medicine in the late nineteenth century Chosun, in relation to orientalism, an academically popularized concept introduced by Edward Said. Historical analysis is focused on several important medical missionaries such as Horace N. Allen, William B. Scranton, John W. Heron, C. C. Vinton, and Oliver R. Avison to explain how their activism as medical missionary contributed to the formation of medical orientalism in which Western medicine was 'taught, studied, administered, and judged' in that period. In addition, I explore into how medical orientalism was in service of Japanese imperialism by showing that medical missionaries had to be under imperial surveillance by Japanese colonizers. The article explores the medical system of the Koryo Dynasty period and its social characteristics. First, the structure of medical system and roles of medical institutions during the Koryo Dynasty period will be summarized. Then the characteristics of the medical system will be identified through exploring the principles of its formation in a view of social recognition of medical care and a view of social recognition of medical care and a view of public policy. PMID:12619648

  3. The contradiction of space: Oil, imperialism and the accumulation of capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labban, Mazen

    This essay examines the relations between the production of oil and gas, the global expansion of capital and the territorial control and division of geographical space. The main argument is that the historical expansion of capital, and the subsequent inter-capitalist competition, has produced and has come to depend on a geographical contradiction between an open and integrated world economy and its division into exclusive economic territories. This contradiction is the result of the contradiction between the conditions for accumulation for individual (national) capitals and the conditions for accumulation for capital as a whole. The objective natural conditions of accumulation are of specific importance, and they gain more importance as capital accumulation comes to rely on more intensive and expansive exploitation of natural resources---specifically crucial resources such as oil and gas. The development of productivity and the concentration of capital cause the rates of profit to decline; the exploitation of natural resources at an increasing scale results from the increase in the mass of raw material required to counter the tendency of the rate of profit ton fall and to resume the accumulation of capital at an expanded scale. This is common to all branches of industry, including the extractive industry---the competition for natural resources is ultimately determined by the competition for increasing, or at least maintaining, the profitability of competing capitals. The contemporary competition among US, Japanese, Indian, Chinese and Western European transnational oil and gas companies for investment in the oil and gas industry of Russia and Iran is examined against the ongoing competition among the US, Russia, China and India for the geopolitical control of the former Soviet republics of Central Asia and the Caucasus. This process is a development of the inter-imperialist competition that began in the late nineteenth century and which resumed in full force since

  4. Russia clamps downs on data release

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    This paper reports that Russia is stepping up enforcement of laws banning unauthorized release of detailed geological and geophysical data to foreign companies. But companies authorized to sell or license information about Russian minerals say the stricter oversight isn't affecting their activities. That's because the effort is intended to curb illegal sales of data by Russian regional organizations and federal agencies. In addition, Russia's state tax department and ministries of finance and justice are considering sanctions to be imposed for violations of lawful procedures. The added vigilance by Russian officials likely will help clear up confusion among foreign companies, resulting from vague laws and regulations, about how and from whom data may be obtained obtained legally.

  5. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia.

    PubMed

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  6. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  7. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    PubMed

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. PMID:23633268

  8. When did "scientific psychology" begin in Russia?

    PubMed

    Sirotkina, Irina

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of the institutionalisation of psychology in Russia was as complex as in other countries. The institutionalisation was more than a single event or even a series of events: it was a manifold process that involved various actors, groups, and political parties, and took at least several decades. Psychology was taught within the subject of philosophy, but as a separate course, at high schools, from the early nineteenth century. When, in mid-century, philosophy was banned from universities for political reasons, logic and psychology still remained in the curriculum. Psychology became a contested area in the 1860s, with the rise of the radical movement that accompanied the abolition of serfdom and other reforms. The young radicals, or nihilists, favoured positive science and gave clear preference to physiology; at medical schools, psychology gradually became part of physiology and psychiatry teaching. Psychiatric clinics provided a venue for the first psychological experiments; the first courses in experimental psychology were also taught to psychiatry students. At the turn of the century, humanities departments joined in by opening laboratories and adding courses in experimental psychology to the philosophical psychology traditionally taught. Yet by 1917, the year when the monarchy ended in Russia, only two universities, in Moscow and Odessa, had succeeded in founding laboratories. The institutionalisation of psychology on a mass scale followed the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. The new communist regime facilitated the country's modernisation, and psychology became one of its instruments. PMID:19569437

  9. Late Paleozoic orogeny in Alaska's Farewell terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, D.C.; Dumoulin, J.; Layer, P.; Sunderlin, D.; Roeske, S.; McClelland, B.; Harris, A.G.; Abbott, G.; Bundtzen, T.; Kusky, T.

    2003-01-01

    Evidence is presented for a previously unrecognized late Paleozoic orogeny in two parts of Alaska's Farewell terrane, an event that has not entered into published scenarios for the assembly of Alaska. The Farewell terrane was long regarded as a piece of the early Paleozoic passive margin of western Canada, but is now thought, instead, to have lain between the Siberian and Laurentian (North American) cratons during the early Paleozoic. Evidence for a late Paleozoic orogeny comes from two belts located 100-200 km apart. In the northern belt, metamorphic rocks dated at 284-285 Ma (three 40Ar/39Ar white-mica plateau ages) provide the main evidence for orogeny. The metamorphic rocks are interpreted as part of the hinterland of a late Paleozoic mountain belt, which we name the Browns Fork orogen. In the southern belt, thick accumulations of Pennsylvanian-Permian conglomerate and sandstone provide the main evidence for orogeny. These strata are interpreted as the eroded and deformed remnants of a late Paleozoic foreland basin, which we name the Dall Basin. We suggest that the Browns Fork orogen and Dall Basin comprise a matched pair formed during collision between the Farewell terrane and rocks to the west. The colliding object is largely buried beneath Late Cretaceous flysch to the west of the Farewell terrane, but may have included parts of the so-called Innoko terrane. The late Paleozoic convergent plate boundary represented by the Browns Fork orogen likely connected with other zones of plate convergence now located in Russia, elsewhere in Alaska, and in western Canada. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. [Academic presentation of neurology and psychiatry of Keijo Imperial University at annual meetings].

    PubMed

    Kanekawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The origin of Keijo Imperial University, Medical School, Psychiatry course, and presentation at the Annual Meetings of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology and The Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology were investigated from its establishment to 1945. Keijo was the name used for the capital city of Korea, Seoul, when Korea was under Japanese rule. We believe the Keijo Imperial University evolved out of the Governor-General of Korea Hospital and Keijo Medical Professional School. The first Professor at the University was Shinji Suitsu, who studied under Shuzo Kure. He visited Shizuoka prefecture when he collaborated in Kure's "Actual situation and statistical observation on home custody of mental patients" (1918). This was confirmed by photographic materials from this time. The year after the visit to Shizuoka, Suitsu was sent to the Korean Peninsula. In 1913, Suitsu established the Department of Psychiatry at the Governor-General of Korea Hospital, and the institution had 500 tsubo (approximately 1,650 m2) of land within Keijo (Seoul), with floor space of 160 tsubo (approximately 528 m2) and 24 beds. Treatments were performed by Suitsu, an assistant, and 8-9 nurses. The number of hospitalized patients was 30-50 patients per year. Cells had floor heating. Keijo Imperial University was established in 1924, and was called Jodai. In 1925, Suitsu retired from his Professorship of Psychiatry at Keijo Medical Professional School. Suitsu was from Kyoto Imperial University, and had studied abroad. In 1925, Suitsu's father-in-law, and a long-time friend of Shuzo Kure, Seiji Yamane, passed away. The professor who took up the position after Suitsu was Kiyoji Kubo, who was originally supposed to go to Hokkaido Imperial University. When the medical school was established at Keijo Imperial University in 1926, Kubo was offered a professorship there. Jodai was under the jurisdiction of the Governor-General of Korea, and not the Ministry of Education. Later

  11. Mineral resources of the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-360), Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.S.U.; Yeend, W.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; Gese, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-360), California Desert Conservation Area, Imperial County, California. The potential for undiscovered base and precious metals, and sand and gravel within the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area is low. The study area has a moderate potential for geothermal energy. One small sand-free area between the Coachella Canal and the west edge of the dune field would probably be the only feasible exploration site for geothermal energy. The study area has a moderate to high potential for the occurrence of undiscovered gas/condensate within the underlying rocks. 21 refs.

  12. Shallow velocity structure in the Imperial Valley region of Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Stock, J. M.; Hole, J. A.; Fuis, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Imperial Valley, located south of the Salton Sea of Southern California, contains a pull-apart basin formed by the on-going oblique extension between the southernmost San Andreas fault and the northern Imperial fault. In this very seismically active area, the earthquakes tend to occur in the form of seismic swarms (e.g. events in August 2012), often related to the geothermal systems in the valley. Previous active seismic studies (e.g. Fuis et al. 1979, Parsons and McCarthy 1996) have revealed major crustal structures including the shallow basin structures in the valley and surroundings, based primarily on 2D models. A better 3D structure model is still awaiting construction to provide improved information on the location of earthquakes, faults, fault-zone properties, and the evolution of the basin. The 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) deployed a seismic array at 2-km grid spacing in the central northern part of the valley (Line 11), and three longer seismic lines across the valley with active sources (Lines 1, 2, and 3). Here we will present the shallow (to 8-km depth) 3D structure in this region obtained by modeling the traveltimes of the first arrivals in these recordings and from earlier experiments. We have processed arrivals from all shots at all receivers, from the SSIP dataset, in the region south of the Salton Sea. Relevant data from the 1979 Imperial Valley experiment has also been used. The 3D structure of the valley was inverted from the surface to 8-km depth using the technique of Hole (1992). On average, the velocity increases rapidly from ~2 km/s at the surface to 5.6 km/s at 5 km depth, a velocity range corresponding to the unmetamorphosed sediments (Fuis et al. 1984). Below 5-km depth, velocity increases slowly to 6.3 km/s at 8-km depth, a velocity range corresponding to the metasedimentary rocks, or 'basement' (Fuis et al. 1984). In depth slices, geothermal areas are characterized by high velocity zones. Specifically, we observe a

  13. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 1. Environment, health, and socioeconomics

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.

    1980-07-01

    Utilization of the Imperial Valley's geothermal resources to support energy production could be hindered if environmental impacts prove to be unacceptable or if geothermal operations are incompatible with agriculture. To address these concerns, an integrated environmental and socioeconomic assessment of energy production in the valley was prepared. The most important impacts examined in the assessment involved air quality changes resulting from emissions of hydrogen sulfide, and increases in the salinity of the Salton Sea resulting from the use of agricultural waste waters for power plant cooling. The socioeconomics consequences of future geothermal development will generally be beneficial. (MHR)

  14. Fire Regime and Land Abandonment in European Russia: Case Study of Smolensk Oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Manisha, A.; Romanenkov, V.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Hansen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in anthropogenically-dominated landscapes are generally attributed to ecosystem management, agriculture, and policy drivers. In European Russia, fire mainly occurring on agricultural lands, wetlands, and abandoned lands. In the agricultural practice in Russia prescribed fires are believed to increase pasture and hay productivity, suppress trees and shrub expansion, and reduce fire hazards, with fire frequency fire dependent on land use and agricultural practices. The large-scale socio-economic transition since the fall of the Soviet Union has led to changes in land use and land management, including land abandonment and changing agricultural practices. In June 2014, an extensive field campaign was completed in the Smolensk Oblast, located approximately two hundred kilometers west of Moscow on the border with Belarus. Our field sampling was based on circa 1985 Landsat-based forest cover map (Potapov et al., 2014). Points were randomly selected from the non-forested class of the 1985 classification, prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Of total field collects, 55% points were sampled on land in either early or late stage of abandonment, 15% from actively cropped fields, and 30% from hay or pasture. Fire frequency was calculated for the 108 field points using 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data for years 2000-2014. Also we calculated percent of points burned in spring 2014 using 30 m Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data to derive burn scars. Actively cropped fields had lowest burn frequency while abandoned lands - early and late stage abandonment - had highest frequency. Fire frequency was significantly higher on wet soils than dry soils, with no relationship between fire frequency and tree canopy cover. We hypothesize, higher fire frequency on abandoned lands was likely due to greater fuel loads and because of traditional belief in rural Russia that fire is efficient way to suppress tree and shrub expansion.

  15. Russia in the World Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    The comparison of Russia and the countries of the former USSR with other countries of the world on various natural and anthropogenic characteristics, including those for water sector, has become more popular in recent years. At the same time, after the break-up of the Soviet Union there were significant changes in political, social and economic spheres on the territory of new formed countries, that influenced their water resources state. Such changes as well as other environmental changes may become even more significant in the future that predetermines the necessity of the profound study of the question, as all the conditions and changes still have not been fully explored. First of all, it concerns the economic crisis including water sector in the early 90's which has not been fully overcome until present time despite economic recovery in the last years of the twentieth century. Together with the changes in climatic conditions it caused perceptible changes in the river runoff on the territory of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, countries which have much in common. As the result, peculiar conditions for the formation and usage of water resources on the territory of the former Soviet Union have been formed. The laboratory of hydrology of the Institute of Geography of Russian Academy of Sciences analysed the situation with water resources in the countries of the former Soviet Union, and the position of Russia in the global water industry. The comparison of changes in various water consumption characteristics of the states was made; the evaluation of influence of changing economic activity on the river flow and quality of waters was analysed; comparison by the availability of water resources, anthropogenic influence, efficiency of water use, with world characteristics was made. There were 19 countries selected, including the Post-Soviet states, which occupy 54% of land and form 56% of the world population. Among the compared parameters there were: availability of water

  16. Skhodnya, Khvalynsk, Satanay, and Podkumok calvariae: possible Upper Paleolithic hominins from European Russia.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Ekaterina; Gunz, Philipp

    2011-02-01

    European Russia has been at the fringe of the hominin dispersal for most of the late Pleistocene. However, by about 20,000 BP this area was settled by modern humans who had highly sophisticated and sometimes unique technologies. Not many Upper Paleolithic human fossils have been described from this area and consequently the morphology of these people remains largely unknown. Here, we present descriptions and a comparative morphological analysis of four possibly late Pleistocene fossils from European Russia: Skhodnya, Khvalynsk, Satanay, and Podkumok. The frontal bone is chosen for study because it is preserved in all of these fossils and is known to provide good discrimination among groups of Pleistocene hominins. All four fossils have been previously claimed to possess 'archaic' features of frontal morphology, such as developed supraorbital relief and a flat frontal squama. The results of a 3D geometric morphometric analysis of frontal bone landmarks and semilandmarks indicate that these fossils indisputably belong to modern humans. However, there are good reasons to associate Khvalynsk, Skhodnya, and Podkumok with Upper Paleolithic fossils from central and western Europe, whereas Satanay is more similar to a pooled sample of recent modern humans. PMID:21093015

  17. "Russia and Europe"--The Fundamental Problem of Courses in the History of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vul'fson, B. L.

    2009-01-01

    Russia is witnessing an unprecedented explosion of interest in its history. This is entirely understandable. In the Russians' desire to understand the profound changes going on in different areas of their lives they are attempting to look at the past with new eyes, because the past has merged with the present and to a large extent determines its…

  18. News of Education in Russia: [2010--The Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents statements by President Dmitry A. Medvedev at the meeting of the Council on the Implementation of Priority National Projects and Demographic Policy on the development of education, health care, and demography, and at the ceremony on the occasion of the launching of the Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia, held at the Russian…

  19. Natural factors of technological disasters in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    More than 90 percent of disasters occurring in the Russian Federation are technological accidents and catastrophes, which account for nearly 80 percent of all the fatalities and affected people. A total of 1966 technological disasters and 152 natural ones occurred in Russia in 2008. In addition to technical, social, and economic causes of technological disasters, natural factors also play an essential role in triggering or magnifying them. A data base of technological disasters happened in Russia since 1992 has been created. More than 11,000 events are listed in the data base. New information is constantly being added to it. Occurrence time and location, a type of disaster, a number of people killed and affected, economic and ecological losses as well as a probable cause of every disaster are registered; its short description is also included. Using collected data a contribution of various natural hazards and phenomena to occurrence of technological disasters in Russia was assessed. Almost 5 percent of all technological disasters listed in the data base were triggered by natural processes. Natural factors caused the most part of accidents at power supply systems (72 percent), 11 percent of accidents at heat- and 9 percent at water supply systems; more than 10 percent of sudden collapses of buildings and mines as well as water accidents; 4.5 percent of pipeline ruptures, and 2 to 3 percent of air crashes, automobile and railway accidents. The majority of these technological disasters and accidents caused by natural factors were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37 percent), snowfalls and snowstorms (27 percent), rainfalls (16 percent), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12 percent), and thunderstorms (nearly 4 percent). Climate changes expected until the end of the century will have important consequences for frequency increasing and change in spatial distribution of technological disasters triggered by hydrometeorological phenomena. Increasing of

  20. Russia, Ukraine and European security. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, S.J.

    1993-05-20

    The author examines the problems connected with the presence of nuclear weapons in Ukraine and their impact on Russo-Ukrainian relations and European security. He analyzes the fears of both Russia and Ukraine, vis-a-vis each other, that have led to this situation and suggests ways out of the impasse for both states, and particularly for the United States. He examines how the present situation evolved and recommends a solution that contributes in peaceful fashion to all parties' interests.... Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START); Soviet Union/ Russian republic; Ukraine; Conventional and strategic deterrence; NATO; North Atlantic Cooperation Council.

  1. Space Radar Image of Baikal Lake, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band black-and-white image of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The image is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications.

  2. Russia's energy policy, 1992-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Milov, V.; Coburn, L.L.; Danchenko, I.

    2006-05-15

    A team comprising a former Russian policymaker and American analysts of the current Russian energy policy examines the course of that policy and its limitations during the post-Soviet period. In the process, they critically analyze key problems in Russia's oil, gas, coal, and electricity sectors that represent a potential drag on growth of the entire Russian economy and at the very least call into question the sustainability of further increases in exports to the West. The authors explore in considerable depth and detail both the factors underlying the recent increase in government intervention in the energy sector and the likely consequences for domestic production, consumption, resource security, and critical exports.

  3. In defence of moral imperialism: four equal and universal prima facie principles.

    PubMed

    Dawson, A; Garrard, E

    2006-04-01

    Raanan Gillon is a noted defender of the four principles approach to healthcare ethics. His general position has always been that these principles are to be considered to be both universal and prima facie in nature. In recent work, however, he has made two claims that seem to present difficulties for this view. His first claim is that one of these four principles, respect for autonomy, has a special position in relation to the others: he holds that it is first among equals. We argue that this claim makes little sense if the principles are to retain their prima facie nature. His second claim is that cultural variation can play an independent normative role in the construction of our moral judgments. This, he argues, enables us to occupy a middle ground between what he sees as the twin pitfalls of moral relativism and (what he calls) moral imperialism. We argue that there is no such middle ground, and while Gillon ultimately seems committed to relativism, it is some form of moral imperialism (in the form of moral objectivism) that will provide the only satisfactory construal of the four principles as prima facie universal moral principles. PMID:16574872

  4. Global Positioning System measurements of strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley, California - 1986-1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert

    1992-06-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in southern California from 1986 to 1989 indicate considerable strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley. Displacements are computed at 29 stations in and near the valley from 1986 to 1988, and at 11 sites from 1988 to 1989. The earlier measurements indicate 5.9 =/- 1.0 cm/yr right-lateral differential velocity across the valley, although the data are heavily influenced by the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Some measurements, especially the east-trending displacements, are suspects for large errors. The 1988 to 1989 GPS displacements are best modeled by 5.2 =/- 0.9 cm/yr of valley crossing deformation, but rates calculated from conventional geodetic measurements (3.4 to 4.3 cm/yr) fit the data nearly as well. There is evidence from GPS and Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) observations that the present slip rate along the southern San Andreas fault is smaller than the long-term geologic estimate, suggesting a lower earthquake potential than is currently assumed. Correspondingly, a higher earthquake potential is indicated for the San Jacinto fault. The Imperial Valley GPS sites form part of a 183 station network in southern California and northern Baja California, which spans a cross-section of the North American-Pacific plate boundary.

  5. GPS measurements of strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley, California: 1986-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in southern California from 1986 to 1989 indicate considerable strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley. Displacements are computed at 29 stations in and near the valley from 1986 to 1988, and at 11 sites from 1988 to 1989. The earlier measurements indicate 5.9 +/- 1.0 cm/yr right-lateral differential velocity across the valley, although the data are heavily influenced by the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Some measurements, especially the east-trending displacements, are suspects for large errors. The 1988 to 1989 GPS displacements are best modeled by 5.2 +/- 0.9 cm/yr of valley crossing deformation, but rates calculated from conventional geodetic measurements (3.4 to 4.3 cm/yr) fit the data nearly as well. There is evidence from GPS and Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) observations that the present slip rate along the southern San Andreas fault is smaller than the long-term geologic estimate, suggesting a lower earthquake potential than is currently assumed. Correspondingly, a higher earthquake potential is indicated for the San Jacinto fault. The Imperial Valley GPS sites form part of a 183 station network in southern California and northern Baja California, which spans a cross-section of the North American-Pacific plate boundary.

  6. Activities associated with drownings in Imperial County, CA, 1980-90: implications for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Agócs, M M; Trent, R B; Russell, D M

    1994-01-01

    Statewide surveillance in California determined that the highest drowning rate from 1980 through 1989 was for the rural, desert county of Imperial (21.9 drownings per 100,000 population). To identify activities associated with drowning in this county, the authors abstracted data from the county sheriff-coroner's reports. From 1980 through 1990, there were 317 unintentional drownings; 85 percent occurred in irrigation canals. The activity prior to drowning was known for 262 persons (83 percent), and the most common activity was illegal entry into the United States. Overall, 140 persons (53 percent) were illegal entrants. Ninety-three percent of illegal entrants drowned in the All American Canal; the monthly drowning rate increased as the monthly average water velocity in the canal increased (r = 0.36; P < 0.001). Forty-eight persons (18 percent) drowned while riding in or on a land vehicle (automobile, pick-up truck, motorcycle, dune buggy, or tractor), the second most common activity associated with drowning. Seventy percent of the 23 drivers had an alcohol concentration of 100 milligrams per deciliter or more, California's limit for intoxication. To reduce drownings in Imperial County, prevention strategies should target persons engaged in at-risk activities near bodies of water. These strategies should include the identification and use of effective canal safety devices. PMID:8153281

  7. Bioindicators from Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Sampled from the Imperial Valley in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.

    2006-01-01

    The Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge (SSNWR) is located 64 km north of the Mexican border at the southern end of the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. Freshwater ponds and managed habitats at the SSNWR, Calipatria, Calif. are supplied with Colorado River water that carries compounds from upstream sources. Components include municipal and industrial discharges, agricultural drainage, and sewage plant inputs. Aquatic animals in these ecosystems are continuously exposed to multiple constituents, several of which have been demonstrated to be associated with hormonal disturbances. We investigated possible endocrine impacts to fish in the Imperial Valley, Calif., by addressing the null hypothesis that aquatic species in impacted sites did not exhibit evidence of endocrine disruption as compared with those from nonimpacted sites. The results presented are intended to provide managers with science-based information and interpretations about the condition of the animals in their ecosystems for the minimization of potential adverse effects to trust fish and wildlife resources and for the maximization of available water resources.

  8. Relationship between demographics and diet specificity of Imperial Eagles Aquila heliaca in Kazakhstan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katzner, Todd; Bragin, E.; Knick, Steven T.; Smith, Andrew T.

    2005-01-01

    The demographic consequences of within-population variability in predator foraging are not well understood. We assessed the relationship between the degree of diet specialization and two demographic parameters, population density and reproductive output, within a single population of Imperial Eagles Aquila heliaca at a nature reserve in north-central Kazakhstan. Nearest-neighbour distances between eagle nests throughout the reserve, and thus population density, were correlated with the degree to which diets were specialized. Diet diversity showed an extensive regional variability that was linked to prey distributions, but within-year analyses of reproductive output did not show similar linkages. However, multi-year analyses of breeding performance showed inter-regional differences in nesting success that were paralleled, and probably driven by, similar trends in diet diversity. In contrast, brood size at fledging was not linked to diet diversity and was more probably driven by reserve-wide influences such as weather. Finally, the decision to initiate breeding was associated neither with diet diversity nor with environmental variability. Our results indicate that the degree of dietary specialization is linked to the demographics of Imperial Eagle populations. For these and other raptor populations, it is possible that management could be used separately to increase or decrease nesting success, brood size at fledging, and the likelihood that a pair will initiate breeding.

  9. Y chromosome of Aisin Gioro, the imperial house of the Qing dynasty.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi; Tachibana, Harumasa; Wei, Lan-Hai; Yu, Ge; Wen, Shao-Qing; Wang, Chuan-Chao

    2015-06-01

    The House of Aisin Gioro is the imperial family of the last dynasty in Chinese history-Qing dynasty (1644-1911). The Aisin Gioro family originated from Jurchen tribes and founded the Manchu people before they conquered China. By investigating the Y chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) of seven modern male individuals who claim to belong to the Aisin Gioro family (three of which have full records of pedigree), we found that three of them (two of which having full pedigree, whose most recent common ancestor is Nurgaci) showed very close relationship (1-2 steps of differences in 17 STRs) and possessed a rare haplotype. We therefore conclude that this haplotype is the Y chromosome of the House of Aisin Gioro. Further tests of single-nucleotide polymorphisms indicate that they belong to haplogroup C3b2b1*-M401(xF5483), although their Y-STR results indicate that they are not a part of the 'star cluster' (once linked to Genghis Khan), which belongs to the same haplogroup. This study forms the base for the pedigree research of the imperial family of Qing dynasty by means of genetics. PMID:25833470

  10. Mutual Transformation of Colonial and Imperial Botanizing? The Intimate yet Remote Collaboration in Colonial Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung

    2016-06-01

    Argument Mutuality in "contact zones" has been emphasized in cross-cultural knowledge interaction in re-evaluating power dynamics between centers and peripheries and in showing the hybridity of modern science. This paper proposes an analytical pause on this attempt to better invalidate centers by paying serious attention to the limits of mutuality in transcultural knowledge interaction imposed by asymmetries of power. An unusually reciprocal interaction between a Japanese forester, Ishidoya Tsutomu (1891-1958), at the colonial forestry department, and his Korean subordinate Chung Tyaihyon (1883-1971) is chosen to highlight an inescapable asymmetry induced by the imperial power structure. Ishidoya, positioning himself as a settler expert, as opposed to a scientist in Tokyo, pursued localized knowledge in growing interaction with Chung, resulting in Ishidoya's career change as a herbalist focusing on traditional medicine and Chung's leadership in Korean-only botanizing. However, their mutual transformations, limited by asymmetric constraints on their choices, did not unsettle the imperial power structure or the centrality of centers. PMID:27171892

  11. Global Positioning System measurements of strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley, California - 1986-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in southern California from 1986 to 1989 indicate considerable strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley. Displacements are computed at 29 stations in and near the valley from 1986 to 1988, and at 11 sites from 1988 to 1989. The earlier measurements indicate 5.9 =/- 1.0 cm/yr right-lateral differential velocity across the valley, although the data are heavily influenced by the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake sequence. Some measurements, especially the east-trending displacements, are suspects for large errors. The 1988 to 1989 GPS displacements are best modeled by 5.2 =/- 0.9 cm/yr of valley crossing deformation, but rates calculated from conventional geodetic measurements (3.4 to 4.3 cm/yr) fit the data nearly as well. There is evidence from GPS and Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) observations that the present slip rate along the southern San Andreas fault is smaller than the long-term geologic estimate, suggesting a lower earthquake potential than is currently assumed. Correspondingly, a higher earthquake potential is indicated for the San Jacinto fault. The Imperial Valley GPS sites form part of a 183 station network in southern California and northern Baja California, which spans a cross-section of the North American-Pacific plate boundary.

  12. Spheres of Interest: Imperialism, Culture, and Practice in British Solar Eclipse Expeditions, 1860-1914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Alex Soojung-Kim

    Scientific expeditions have played an important role in the development of Western Science, but have received far less attention than theory-making or experiment. This is a cultural and social history of British solar eclipse expeditions and observing practices. An introductory chapter outlines the historiography of scientific practice, imperialism and science, and scientific expeditions, and explains the importance of solar eclipses to nineteenth-century science. The chapters follow expeditions from their planning, through their execution, and into the publication of results. Chapter 2 is an institutional and social history of British and American eclipse planning. British expeditions were organized by national societies, while American expeditions were planned by individual observatories and colleges. Chapters 3 and 4 move into the field. They show how the evolution of tourist culture, the expansion of imperial spheres of political control, the transfer of Western technological systems to colonial territories shaped the experience of going on an expedition, and even made accurate astrophysical observation possible. They also examine the roles women played on eclipse expeditions. Chapters 5 and 6 examine spectroscopic and visual observation. They study the effects of intellectual shifts, the introduction of photography, and the scaling up of instruments on observing practices. Chapter 6 shows how visual and photographic observations of the solar corona were made. Chapter 7 follows those pictures out of the field, and examines how they were copied and shared with other astronomers.

  13. Engineering and Technical Education in Russia, in Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.; Aref'ev, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of the main tendencies in the development of engineering and technical education in Russia during the last 100 years shows that earlier strengths have been lost, and that currently technical education in Russia is far behind modern world standards.

  14. 75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... group responses to its notice of institution (75 FR 9252, March 1, 2010) were adequate.\\1\\ A record of... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on magnesium from China and Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  15. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  16. Adolescent Drunkenness: Perception of the Problem in Russia and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybakova, L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.

  17. The Universities of Russia: Areas and Prospects of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdashkevich, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a significant increase in university students in Russia, the growth of private and state-financed higher education, and the beginnings of a move to a national network of research institutions. The recent economic recession, however, poses a challenge to the continuance of current fee-based higher education in Russia.…

  18. Educational Changes in Russia. Bulletin, 1919, No. 37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Theresa

    1919-01-01

    In the press reports bearing upon conditions in Russia since the outbreak or the revolution in March, 1917, little mention has been made of the tremendous changes that have shaken the entire educational system in that country. One needs only read "Vyestnik Vremennavo Pravitelstva" ("Messenger of the Provisional Government"), Russia's official…

  19. Higher Education Reform in Russia: Democratization or Bureaucratization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panfilova, T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms have increased the level of administrative oversight, and also of interference of the structure and content of university education in Russia. This is leading to a weakening of Russian higher education. In this article, the author talks about the reform of the system of higher education in Russia and the bureaucratization of higher…

  20. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 25, 2013 (78 FR 44969). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50,...

  1. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... its notice of institution (75 FR 74746, December 1, 2010) were adequate and that the respondent... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  2. 77 FR 5770 - Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... International Trade Administration Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Russia AGENCY: International Trade... Energy (DOE) are organizing an Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Moscow and St. Petersburg on June 4-7... market for the sale of U.S. energy efficiency products and services. Russia presents...

  3. In Russia: Warm Schools in a Cold Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kay

    1996-01-01

    Since 1993, groups of Connecticut high school students have had the opportunity to explore Russia firsthand, thanks to a program called "Linking Schools Through Language and Technology." Although Russia is an unstable society, schools visited by New Haven youngsters were cozy, child-centered beacons of continuity and tradition. Schools had a…

  4. Problems of the Reproduction of Russia's Science Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voronin, Iu. M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past ten years there have been signs in Russia of a dangerous widespread tendency to underrate the creation of a whole set of conditions necessary for expanded reproduction of the country's science potential. Russia has fallen farther and farther behind technologically, its ability to compete in the world markets of science-intensive…

  5. Space Surveillance: United States, Russia, and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelmann, P. K.

    2012-06-01

    With the launch of Sputnik, the United States and Russia began the process of tracking artificial satellites. This led to developments for observations, orbit determination, and catalog maintenance. The two countries followed somewhat different approaches to the same problem based on the available hardware and theoretical developments. As more sophisticated hardware and theories have been developed, progress has been made. However, new problems have developed because of debris, collision possibilities, and reentering objects. In addition, the range of spacecraft has increased to include geosynchronous orbits. In more recent times the European Space Agency (ESA) and China have become involved in various aspects of Space Surveillance. In 1994, the first meeting between United States and Russian experts in the field of space surveillance was held. Since then, seven more US Russia Space Surveillance Workshops have been held, with the addition of participants from ESA. Terry Alfriend has been the US Technical Chairman for many of these workshops. In 2009 a US China Space Surveillance Technical Interchange was held in Shanghai, China, and Terry was the US Technical Chairman.

  6. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Heavy Drinking and Suicide in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Russian levels of alcohol consumption and suicide are among the highest in the world. While observers have long suspected an association between the two, they were unable to investigate this hypothesis until recently due to past Soviet secrecy and thus a lack of data. This study took advantage of the newly available data during the post-Soviet era to examine the cross-sectional association between heavy drinking and suicide mortality in Russia. Aggregate mortality data for the Russian regions (n = 78) for the year 2000 were used to measure heavy drinking and suicide rates. Government data were used to control for the regional economic situation and strength of social institutions. Ordinary Least Squares regression was employed to estimate the effect of a proxy for heavy drinking on overall and sex-specific age-adjusted suicide rates. The results showed a positive and significant association between the two, and the association held for overall, male and female rates. These results not only confirmed an association between heavy drinking and suicide in Russia, but when compared to findings from previous studies of other countries they led to the hypothesis that a nation’s beverage preference may be as important as its wet/dry drinking culture in its sensitivity of suicide rates to alcohol consumption. PMID:17160138

  8. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect

    Wolkov, Benjamin M.; Balatsky, Galya I.

    2012-07-26

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of

  9. A new and potentially damaging whitefly-transmitted virus of cucurbits was found this fall 2014 in Imperial County, CA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new virus that appears to be related to but distinct from Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), a Bemisia tabaci-transmitted ipomovirus (family Potyviridae) that occurs in Florida was found in fall 2014 in Imperial County, CA infecting pumpkin and melon plants and exhibiting symptoms of stunting an...

  10. Trap catches of the sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in the Imperial Valley, Caiifornia, from 1996 to 2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), biotype B occurred in the Imperial Valley, California in 1991. The insects destroyed melon crops and seriously damaged other vegetables, ornamentals and row crops. As a result of the need for sampling technology, we developed a w...

  11. Geodetic observations of fault creep in the Imperial Valley: hidden faults, earthquake hazard and implications for frictional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, E. O.; Fialko, Y. A.

    2014-12-01

    We present new observations of the pattern of fault creep and interseismic deformation in the Imperial Valley, California using a combination of multiple InSAR viewing geometries and survey-mode GPS. We combine more than 100 survey-mode GPS velocities (Crowell et al., 2013) with Envisat InSAR observations from descending tracks 84 and 356 and ascending tracks 77 and 306 (149 total acquisitions), processed using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) package (Hooper et al., 2007). The result is a dense map of surface velocities across the Imperial fault and surrounding areas. The data suggest that a previously little-known extension of the Superstition Hills fault through the town of El Centro may accommodate a significant portion of the slip previously attributed to the Imperial Fault. We investigate a suite of possible models for the transfer of this slip to the Imperial and Cerro Prieto faults to the south, yielding a range of plausible hazard scenarios. Finally, we compare the geodetic data to models of earthquake cycles with rate- and state-dependent friction to assess the implications for creep depth, moment accumulation rate, and recurrence interval of large events on these faults.

  12. 78 FR 37845 - Meeting of the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area (ISDRA) Subgroup of the California Desert...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... California Desert District Advisory Council SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given, in accordance with Public Laws 92-463 and 94-579, that the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area Subgroup of the California Desert... filed in advance of the meeting for the California Desert District Advisory Council ISDRA Subgroup,...

  13. 77 FR 49863 - Pacific Imperial Railroad, Inc.-Change in Operator Exemption-Rail Line of San Diego and Arizona...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Pacific Imperial Railroad, Inc.--Change in Operator Exemption-- Rail Line of... original and 10 copies of all pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35657, must be filed with the...

  14. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  15. Russia`s {open_quotes}new look{close_quotes} arms sales strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, K.

    1993-10-01

    Despite new policies and strategies, Russia is largely unsuccessful in selling its arms on the competitive international open market. No matter how hard they try, sales by Russian arms dealers have continued to plummet to less than 10 percent of what they were a few short years ago when the Soviet Union competed with the United States for the position as the world`s No. 1 arms dealer.

  16. Superconductivity in Russia: Update and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozhogin, V.

    1995-01-01

    The research projects and new technological developments that have occured in Russia are highlighted in this document. Some of the research discussed includes: x-ray structure analysis of YBCO superconducting single crystals and accompanying phase transformations; the role of electron-electron interaction in High Temperature Superconductors (HTSC); the formation of Cooper pairs in crystals; the synthesis and research on a new family of superconductors based on complex copper and mercury oxides (HgBa2CuO4 + alpha and HgBa2CaCu2O6 + alpha); methods for the extraction of higher (up to C200) fullerenes and metalfullerenides has been developed; and process of production of Josephson junctions and development of SQUID's.

  17. Nuclear plant emergency preparedness in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Randolph L

    2009-11-01

    An international team of experts conducted a detailed operational review at the Volgodonsk nuclear power plant. The review was the first mission by an International Atomic Energy Agency Operational Safety Review Team to Russia in over a decade. The author reviewed the emergency preparedness program in detail. Emergency preparedness professionals in the West are largely unfamiliar with Russian nuclear plant emergency preparedness programs, and the legacy of Chernobyl may leave some doubt as to their efficacy. This article describes the program in some detail and compares some elements to programs in the United States. The author was favorably impressed with the state of nuclear plant emergency preparedness in the Russian Federation and identified program elements that should be considered for implementation elsewhere. PMID:19820472

  18. New System of Food Control in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Irina V.

    Food safety is quite important for human health in all countries. Humanity has the uniform space and must take care about all parts of it. Pollution of one region leads to the same state of others regions through water, land, air, living organisms. The poor-quality or poisoned food products can pollute the territory and influence negatively on the environment. The food security is important, especially, in connection with the possibility of terrorist attacks. The Federal Service of control in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers was formed in Russia in 2004. This Service carries out the activity directly and through the territorial organizations in interaction with administrative structures in food control and inspection, namely in sanitary-epidemiological service, veterinary service, grain service, inspection of trade connections and standardization and certification. The control is carried out on the basis of laws. The law № 29-FZ concerns the quality and safety of foodstuff and how to control it. The law 134-FZ attracted the protection of the rights of legal persons and individual businessmen. The modification of the law №234-FZ about protection of the rights of consumers is connected with new food - GMOs. Great attention is paid to the safety of new food. Private companies also perform analysis of heavy metals, mycotoxins, radiation and the presence of bacteria, virus or genetically modified organisms. We would like to thank the group Pilot Study "Food chain security" for very important work concerning food safety in different countries. They help us to understand internal problems in Russia and to create the cooperation with other countries. All these steps are very important for the protection population from toxic food.

  19. Russia's national space weather service in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Viatcheslav; Avdyushin, Sergei; Denisova, Valentina

    RWC Russia (Institute of Applied Geophysics, Moscow) -forecasting center unites activity of the National Heliogeophysics Service of Russia and the Regional Warning Center of ISES. Nowadays the centre operates and fulfils numerous functions such as space weather monitoring, collecting, working and handing out the data to both Russian and foreign customers, compiling and spreading various kinds of the space weather condition forecasts. The first regular space weather forecast is known to have been issued on June 10, 1974. Since then this kind of activity has been processed and issued permanently 7 days a week. During year 2009 there were more than 17000 various short terms (semi -day, 1,2,3 and five days) forecasts of the geomagnetic fields and ionosphere conditions, magnetic fields, flare activity, radiation hazard in polar zones and the satellites traces. In the end of 2008 the Institute of Applied Geophysics was provided with necessary subsidizing to support the Space Weather Center. The fundamental repairs of the Institute's building have begun and are being done at present. They are to be completed this year. The allocated funds are sufficient to start the technical renovation of the Service, including: provision of the staff with up-to-date computing machinery; up-grading the observation stations equipment; preparing the apparatus and instruments for monitoring the near-earth space by two of our satellites "Meteor" and "Electro" ("Electro" -geostationary satellite). The "Meteor" satellite (subpolar orbit on altitude of 900 km) equipped with complex including: measurements of electron fluxes with energy more than 0.15 MeV, and proton fluxes with energy more than 5 MeV (40 channels) was launched on September 2009. These data (as well as ionosphere and geomagnetic data) are available on Web page www.geospace.ru since 2 quarter of the2010.

  20. Stationary plasma thruster evaluation in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A team of electric propulsion specialists from U.S. government laboratories experimentally evaluated the performance of a 1.35-kW Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT) at the Scientific Research Institute of Thermal Processes in Moscow and at 'Fakel' Enterprise in Kaliningrad, Russia. The evaluation was performed using a combination of U.S. and Russian instrumentation and indicated that the actual performance of the thruster appears to be close to the claimed performance. The claimed performance was a specific impulse of 16,000 m/s, an overall efficiency of 50 percent, and an input power of 1.35 kW, and is superior to the performance of western electric thrusters at this specific impulse. The unique performance capabilities of the stationary plasma thruster, along with claims that more than fifty of the 660-W thrusters have been flown in space on Russian spacecraft, attracted the interest of western spacecraft propulsion specialists. A two-phase program was initiated to evaluate the stationary plasma thruster performance and technology. The first phase of this program, to experimentally evaluate the performance of the thruster with U.S. instrumentation in Russia, is described in this report. The second phase objective is to determine the suitability of the stationary plasma thruster technology for use on western spacecraft. This will be accomplished by bringing stationary plasma thrusters to the U.S. for quantification of thruster erosion rates, measurements of the performance variation as a function of long-duration operation, quantification of the exhaust beam divergence angle, and determination of the non-propellant efflux from the thruster. These issues require quantification in order to maximize the probability for user application of the SPT technology and significantly increase the propulsion capabilities of U.S. spacecraft.

  1. Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchinsky, Leah R.

    This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

  2. Geothermal evidence of the Late Pleistocene-Holocene orbital forcing (example from the Urals, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demezhko, D. Y.; Gornostaeva, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    We use early obtained in the Middle Urals geothermal reconstruction of the ground surface temperature (GST) history to determine the surface heat flux (SHF) history over the past 35 kyr. A new algorithm of GST-SHF transformation was applied to solve this problem. The time scale of geothermal reconstructions has been corrected by comparing the estimated heat flux and annual insolation at the latitude of 60° N. The consistency of SHF and insolation changes on the interval 35-6 kyr BP (the linear correlation coefficient R = 0.99) points to orbital factors as the main cause of climatic changes during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The amplitude of SHF variations is about 1.3% of the insolation changes amplitude. The increase of carbon dioxide concentrations lagged by 2-3 kyr from the SHF increase and occurred synchronously with GST changes.

  3. Late Quaternary vegetation of Chukotka (Northeast Russia), implications for Glacial and Holocene environments of Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Patricia M.; Lozhkin, Anatoly V.

    2015-01-01

    Two lake records from the Kankaren region of southern Chukotka, when combined with other palynological and macrofossil data, document spatial and temporal variations in the regional vegetation history since ˜21,000 14C/25,400 cal yr BP. Full-glacial environments were severely cold and arid in central and northern Chukotka, whereas southern sites experienced conditions that were relatively moist, although still drier than present. Southern Chukotka may represent a western extension of environments of the land bridge proper, including a possible 'moisture' barrier to intercontinental migration. Shrub Betula tundra established earliest in southern Chukotka (˜15,800-14,000 14C/19,000-16,700 cal yr BP; ˜13,000 14C/15,300 cal yr BP central and north), Pinus pumila earliest in the north (˜9600 14C/11,100 cal yr BP; ˜7600 14C/8400 cal yr BP south), and shrub Alnus earliest in both the south and north (˜12,000-11,000 14C/13,800-12,900 cal yr BP). These patterns support the presence of cryptic refugia for Betula and Alnus in Chukotka during the full glaciation. In contrast, P. pumila probably migrated into Chukotka from populations located in the northern coastal lowlands and from mountainous regions of southwestern Beringia. Evidence for a thermal optimum (˜11,000-8000 14C/12,900-9000 cal yr BP) is strong in northern Chukotka but is absent in central and southern areas.

  4. Well log interpretation of certain geothermal fields in the Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ershaghi, I.; Abdassah, D.

    1984-03-01

    This study reviews the wireline log responses of some geothermal fields in the Imperial Valley, California. The fields under study include the Heber, the East Mesa, the Brawley, and the Westmoreland. The well logs used in the study did not include all the wireline surveys obtained by the operators. The selected well logs obtained under special arrangements with the operators were chosen to maintain the anonymity of specific well locations but are only representative of each area. Analysis of the well logs indicates that on an individual field basis, the well logs are excellent for correlation purposes. The presence of extremely saline fluids in some fields precludes the monitoring of Q/sub v/ (cation exchange capacity per unit volume) profile for detection of hydrothermally altered zones. The producing sections in all the fields are characterized by low porosity and high resistivity.

  5. Steady state, near-source models of the Parkfield, Imperial Valley, and Mexicali Valley Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, A. J.; Luco, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the gross characteristics of the rupture processes for the 1966 Parkfield, 1979 Imperial Valley, and 1980 Mexicali Valley earthquakes are determined by waveform inversion of near-source data employing a steady state dislocation model in a layered half-space. The forward model involves a piecewise-linear rupture front moving with a constant horizontal rupture velocity on a fault of infinite length and finite width. The inferred shapes for the rupture front and for the distribution of slip as a function of depth are consistent with previous results obtained by use of more general models. The results obtained show that a strong velocity pulse observed in the nearsource region can be modeled as the passage of the rupture front phase and that the supershear propagation of the rupture front in the sedimentary layers of the medium provides a mechanism for the generation of the observed large amplitudes.

  6. Recent geothermal developments in the Imperial Valley: Brawley, Salton Sea, Heber

    SciTech Connect

    Papay, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    Imperial Valley programs in geothermal energy are reviewed. The Brawley plant has had a relatively high availability on line since its startup in 1980. The startup at Salton Sea plant was surprisingly smooth. Using these research projects, all of the technical parameters for commercial development of geothermal energy will be known in a year or two. Native brine handling processes, casing materials and configurations, and turbine modifications are being studied. The PUC's decision on the Heber plant was a temporary setback. PUC ruled that projects will not be approved unless they yield competitive busbar costs. The Avoided Cost concept has become the benchmark at PUC. But Avoided Cost does not account for the higher initial design costs and unknown parameters of startup as opposed to mature plant costs. Avoided Cost is seen as the only obstacle to commercial developement in all areas.

  7. Sex in an Imperial war zone: transnational encounters in Second World War India.

    PubMed

    Khan, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests how the waging of war in an imperial setting may have reshaped military and civilian relations in India from 1939-45. The number of troops stationed in India had repercussions for society and local politics. The article investigates widespread prostitution as one aspect of the gendered wartime economy. Indian prostitution was closely linked to militarization and to the effects of the 1943 Bengal famine. The article also argues this was symptomatic of a more far-reaching renegotiation of the interactions between men and women in the Indian Empire of the 1940s. Other Indian, European, North American and Anglo-Indian women worked as nurses, with the Red Cross and in a variety of roles towards the war effort. Women were subject to new social and sexual demands due to the increased numbers of troops stationed in India in the 1940s. PMID:22830097

  8. Spatial structure in the diet of imperial eagles Aquila heliaca in Kazakhstan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katzner, T.E.; Bragin, E.A.; Knick, S.T.; Smith, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between spatial variability in prey and food habits of eastern imperial eagles Aquila heliaca at a 90,000 ha national nature reserve in north-central Kazakhstan. Eagle diet varied greatly within the population and the spatial structure of eagle diet within the population varied according to the scale of measurement. Patterns in dietary response were inconsistent with expectations if either ontogenetic imprinting or competition determined diet choice, but they met expectations if functional response determined diet. Eagles nesting near a high-density prey resource used that resource almost exclusively. In contrast, in locations with no single high-density prey species, eagles' diet was more diverse. Our results demonstrate that spatial structuring of diet of vertebrate predators can provide important insight into the mechanisms that drive dietary decisions. ?? OIKOS.

  9. Response of El Centro Steam Plant equipment during the October 15, 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T. A.; Murray, R. C.; Young, J. A.; Campbell, R. D.; Martore, J. A.; Levin, H. A.; Reiter, L.

    1980-09-01

    For the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performed a dynamic seismic analysis of Unit 4 of the El Centro Steam Plant in El Centro, Calif. Built in 1968, Unit 4 is an oil- or gas-fired, steam-driven turbine-generator that was designed to resist a static lateral force equivalent to 20% of the dead and live load. The unit's structural and mechanical systems sustained only minor damage during the October 15, 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake that produced an estimated 0.5 g peak horizontal ground acceleration (0.66 g vertical) at the site. LLNL's seismic analysis was done to analytically estimate the equipment response, which, when compared to actual observation, will indicate the levels of actual equipment capacity. 15 refs., 51 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Comparison of multispectral remote-sensing techniques for monitoring subsurface drain conditions. [Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettelman, R. C.; Grass, L. B.; Millard, J. P.; Nixon, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    The following multispectral remote-sensing techniques were compared to determine the most suitable method for routinely monitoring agricultural subsurface drain conditions: airborne scanning, covering the visible through thermal-infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum; color-IR photography; and natural-color photography. Color-IR photography was determined to be the best approach, from the standpoint of both cost and information content. Aerial monitoring of drain conditions for early warning of tile malfunction appears practical. With careful selection of season and rain-induced soil-moisture conditions, extensive regional surveys are possible. Certain locations, such as the Imperial Valley, Calif., are precluded from regional monitoring because of year-round crop rotations and soil stratification conditions. Here, farms with similar crops could time local coverage for bare-field and saturated-soil conditions.

  11. Characterisation of imperial college reactor centre legacy waste using gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuhaimi, Alif Imran Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Waste characterisation is a principal component in waste management strategy. The characterisation includes identification of chemical, physical and radiochemical parameters of radioactive waste. Failure to determine specific waste properties may result in sentencing waste packages which are not compliant with the regulation of long term storage or disposal. This project involved measurement of intensity and energy of gamma photons which may be emitted by radioactive waste generated during decommissioning of Imperial College Reactor Centre (ICRC). The measurement will use High Purity Germanium (HPGe) as Gamma-ray detector and ISOTOPIC-32 V4.1 as analyser. In order to ensure the measurements provide reliable results, two quality control (QC) measurements using difference matrices have been conducted. The results from QC measurements were used to determine the accuracy of the ISOTOPIC software.

  12. Surface pauses in relation to dive duration in imperial cormorants; how much time for a breather?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rory P; Quintana, Flavio

    2004-05-01

    Air-breathing animals diving to forage can optimize time underwater by diving with just enough oxygen for the projected performance underwater. By so doing they surface with minimal body oxygen levels, which leads to maximal rates of oxygen uptake. We examined whether imperial cormorants Phalacrocorax atriceps adhere to this by examining dive:pause ratios in birds diving for extended, continuous periods to constant depths, assuming that the oxygen used underwater was exactly replenished by the periods at the surface. Examination of the cumulative time spent in surface pauses relative to the cumulative time spent in diving showed that surface pauses increase according to a power curve function of time spent in the dive or water depth. In a simplistic model we considered the rate at which birds expended energy underwater to be constant and that the rate of oxygen replenishment during the surface pause was directly proportional to the oxygen deficit. We then worked out values for the rate constant for the surface pause before using this constant to examine bird body oxygen levels immediately pre- and post dive. The model predicted that imperial cormorants do not submerge with just enough oxygen to cover their projected dive performance but rather dive with substantial reserves, although these reserves decrease with increasing dive depth/duration. We speculate that these oxygen reserves may be used to enhance bird survival when rare events, such as the appearance of predators or discovery of large prey requiring extended handling time, occur. The form of the oxygen saturation curve over time at the surface means that the time costs for maintaining constant oxygen reserves become particularly onerous for long, deep dives, so the observed decrease in reserves with increasing dive duration is expected in animals benefiting by optimizing for time. PMID:15107434

  13. Imperial County geothermal development semi-annual report, October 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The current geothermal progress in Imperial County is reported. Three areas are reported: Geothermal Administration, Geothermal Planning, and other Geothermal Activities. Geothermal Administration addresses the status of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP) transfer, update of the Geothermal Resource Center, and findings of Geothermal field inspections. In addition, the cooperative efforts between industry and the County; Master EIR for the Salton Sea KGRA and the resurveying of the subsidence detection network are covered. Geothermal Planning addresses a Board of Supervisor action on the Union Oil Geothermal Production Permit for 16 wells in the Salton Sea KGRA and a permit for Southern California Edison 10 megawatts power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA. Planning Commission action covers: Amendment of Magma Power's 49 megawatts Geothermal Production Permit to 28 megawatt power plant and relocation of the plant and wells within the Salton Sea KGRA; Exploration permit to Occidental Geothermal for four exploratory wells in East Brawley; Geothermal Production Permit to Southern California Edison to operate a 10 megawatt power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA; and Geothermal production permit to Union Oil for 16 production-injection wells in the Salton Sea KGRA. Lastly, EIR exemptions to CEQA were granted to Chevron for 70 shallow temperature observation holes and Union for fifteen. Other Geothermal Activity addresses the County Direct Heat Development study; the solicitation for district heating and cooling proposals; the new Geothermal Class II-1 disposal site; the DOE Region IX meeting in Tucson; and USGA designating a new KGRA, the East Brawley KGRA, the Westmorland KGRA, and revising the southern border of the Salton Sea KGRA.

  14. An organic geochemical investigation into lipid distribution at Imperial Geyser, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, L. R.; Krukenberg, V.; Lohman, E.; Santillan, E.; Urrejola, C.; Caporaso, J. G.; Sessions, A. L.; Spear, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Imperial Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, is an alkaline, silica-rich thermal spring with a diverse microbial constituency. In order to characterize this microbial community, mat samples growing downstream from the vent were studied for lipid composition and abundance. Both fatty acids and hopanoids were extracted from the mat samples and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-FID. Microbial community profiling was also performed targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the SHC (squalene-hopene cyclase) gene. Results for both lipid and metagenomic data were compared using principle components analysis (PCA). PCA revealed the clustering of sample sites for both lipids and genes. A strong correlation (p value < .01) between lipid composition and phylogenetic composition per sample was observed. Procrustes analysis also showed a strong correlation between hopanoid abundance and phylogenetic composition (p=0.005). A correlation was also seen between relative abundances of C15 and a-C17 fatty acids with genetic data of Chloroflexus and Chlorobium, indicating that they are the likely source of these lipids at Imperial Geyser. Hopanoid data shows the ratio of methylated to unmethylated hopanoids varies with distance from the vent, potentially representing a response to environmental stress. The ratio of methylated to unmethylated hopanoids appears to be controlled environmentally, being produced by organisms beyond Cyanobacteria. Thus in this setting the 2-methylhopanoid index does not correspond directly to the relative abundance of Cyanobacteria. Results indicate that temperature and pH exert some control over community composition between sample sites and that this is reflected in the lipid composition. However, we also expect to see additional geochemical variants, such as dissolved inorganic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur from the stream water, contributing to the beta diversity of our results. This research was undertaken as part of the International Geobiology Course 2011.

  15. Interpretation of shallow crustal structure of the Imperial Valley, California, from seismic reflection profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Severson, L.K.

    1987-05-01

    Eight seismic reflection profiles (285 km total length) from the Imperial Valley, California, were provided to CALCRUST for reprocessing and interpretation. Two profiles were located along the western margin of the valley, five profiles were situated along the eastern margin and one traversed the deepest portion of the basin. These data reveal that the central basin contains a wedge of highly faulted sediments that thins to the east. Most of the faulting is strike-slip but there is evidence for block rotations on the scale of 5 to 10 kilometers within the Brawley Seismic Zone. These lines provide insight into the nature of the east and west edges of the Imperial Valley. The basement at the northwestern margin of the valley, to the north of the Superstition Hills, has been normal-faulted and blocks of basement material have ''calved'' into the trough. A blanket of sediments has been deposited on this margin. To the south of the Superstition Hills and Superstition Mountain, the top of the basement is a detachment surface that dips gently into the basin. This margin is also covered by a thick sequence sediments. The basement of the eastern margin consists of metamorphic rocks of the upper plate of the Chocolate Mountain Thrust system underlain by the Orocopia Schist. These rocks dip to the southeast and extend westward to the Sand Hills Fault but do not appear to cross it. Thus, the Sand Hills Fault is interpreted to be the southern extension of the San Andreas Fault. North of the Sand Hills Fault the East Highline Canal seismicity lineament is associated with a strike-slip fault and is probably linked to the Sand Hills Fault. Six geothermal areas crossed by these lines, in agreement with previous studies of geothermal reservoirs, are associated with ''faded'' zones, Bouguer gravity and heat flow maxima, and with higher seismic velocities than surrounding terranes.

  16. Geochronology and magma sources of Elbrus volcano (Greater Caucasus, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Elbrus volcano (5642m), the largest Quaternary volcano in the European part of the Russia, is situated within the central part of Greater Caucasus mountain system at the watershed of Black and Caspian seas. Complex isotope-geochronological studies showed that the Elbrus volcano experienced long (approximately 200-250 thousands years) discrete evolution, with protracted periods of igneous quiescence (approximately 50 ka) between large-scale eruptions. The volcanic activity of Elbrus is subdivided into three phases: Middle-Neopleistocene (225-170 ka), Late Neopleistocene (110-70 ka), and Late Neopleistocene-Holocene (less than 35 ka). No eruptions presumably occurred during 'quiescence' periods, while the volcano was dormant or revealed only insignificant explosive eruptions and postmagmatic activity. Volcanic rocks of the Elbrus volcano are represented by biotite-hypersthene-plagioclase calc-alcaline dacites (65.2-70.4% SiO2, and 6.4-7.9% K2O+Na2O at 2.7-3.9% K2O). Petrogeochemical and isotope-geochemical signatures of Elbrus dacitic lavas (87Sr/86Sr - 0.70535-0.70636, Eps(Nd) from +0.8 to -2.3, 206Pb/204Pb - 18.631-18.671, 207Pb/204Pb - 15.649-15.660, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.811-38.847) point to their mantle-crustal origin. It was found that hybrid parental magmas of the volcano were formed due to mixing and/or contamination of deep-seated mantle melts by Paleozoic upper crustal material of the Greater Caucasus. The temporal evolution of isotope characteristics for lavas of Elbrus volcano is well described by a Sr-Nd mixing hyperbole between mantle source of 'Common'-type and estimated average composition of the Paleozoic upper crust of the Greater Caucasus. It was shown that, with time, the proportions of mantle material in the parental magmas of Elbrus gently increased: from ~60% at the Middle-Neopleistocene phase of activity to ~80% at the Late Neopleistocene-Holocene phase, which indicates an increase of the activity of deep-seated source at decreasing input of

  17. Earthquake History of the Northern Imperial Fault, Imperial Valley, California, since the last Lake Cahuilla Highstand, circa A.D. 1680

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzner, A. J.; Rockwell, T. K.; Verdugo, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    The Imperial fault (IF) is the only fault in southern California to have ruptured in two major earthquakes in the 20th century. In 1940, it ruptured end-to-end (both north and south of the international border) in an M 6.9 earthquake, and in 1979, the northern segment of the fault (north of the border) ruptured again in an M 6.4 event. Slip in 1940 was highest (5-6 m) along the central portion of the fault and lowest (<1 m) along the northern portion, with a high slip gradient between these two segments just north of the border. The 1979 earthquake involved surface rupture along only the northern 30 km of the fault, with dextral offsets being <1 m and being nearly identical to 1940 offsets along the northern 20 km of the rupture. The similarities and differences of the two events led Sieh (1996) to propose a "slip-patch model" for the Imperial fault, whereby the fault ruptures with frequent moderate earthquakes along its northern end, like in 1979, and with less frequent larger events like 1940 along its entire length. According to the model, the central patch, which experienced high slip in 1940 and did not rupture in 1979, would rupture with relatively infrequent events (roughly every 260 years) with typically 5-6 m of slip per event; meanwhile, the northern patch, which corresponds to the 1979 rupture, would rupture more frequently (roughly every 40 years) with up to 1 m of slip per event. This model is consistent with the slip distribution observed in 1940 and in 1979. Paleoseismic investigations along the central patch also support this model, as the penultimate event there occurred shortly after the last Lake Cahuilla (LC) highstand at around A.D. 1680 (Thomas and Rockwell, 1996). Prior to the present investigation, however, there were no data on events prior to 1940 on the northern patch, which could serve to either support or refute the slip-patch model. We have opened a trench across the IF south of Harris Road, adjacent to Mesquite Basin, where the fault

  18. Koolen metamorphic complex, NE Russia: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Bering Strait region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinin, Vyacheslav V.; Gelman, Mikhail L.; Sedov, Boris M.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Millwer, Elizabeth L.; Toro, Jaime; Calvert, Andrew T.; Fantini, Riccardo M.; Wright, James E.; Natal'in, Boris A.

    Structural culminations of midcrustal metamorphic rocks are found on both sides of the Bering Strait in Alaska and Russia and occur within a magmatic belt of Cretaceous age. Geologic mapping in the Koolen Lake-Lavrentia Bay region of the Chukchi Peninsula, Russia, outlines the basic relations between deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism in one of these structural culminations, the Koolen metamorphic complex. Here, a 10-15 km-thick, southwest dipping structural succession of gneisses and high-grade metamorphic rocks is exposed. The succession consists of a lower sequence of granitic gneisses and an upper sequence of biotite-rich gneisses, quartzofeldspathic gneisses, lesser amphibolite and marble, and gneisses and schists with an increasing abundance of intercalated marble and calc-silicate units toward the top. All rocks are strongly foliated and exhibit north-south trending stretching lineations. Deformation occurred during sillimanite-grade metamorphism concurrent with partial melting of the crust. Metamorphic conditions varied from 7 to 3 kbar and from 700°C-500°C. Three fractions of monazite from a deformed pegmatite yielded ages of 104 Ma. Igneous monazite from undeformed biotite granite yielded a U-Pb age of 94 Ma, indicating peak metamorphism and deformation is Cretaceous. Relations in the Koolen complex are similar to those in the Kigluaik gneiss dome, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, where upper amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism and deformation occurred between ~105 and 90 Ma. Our findings,together with regional relations, suggest that wholesale crustal extension or extensional collapse of the crust affected this region, perhaps during Pacific-ward migration of subduction. The results do not support large amounts of east-west shortening between North America and Russia predicted by poles of rotation related to opening of the North Atlantic in the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary.

  19. Arctic Late Cretaceous and Paleocene Plant Community Succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Alexei; Spicer, Robert; Daly, Robert; Jolley, David; Ahlberg, Anders; Moiseeva, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic abounds with Late Cretaceous and Paleocene plant fossils attesting to a thriving, diverse, but now extinct polar ecosystem that sequestered vast amounts of carbon. Through detailed examination of plant remains and their distributions in time and space with respect to their entombing sedimentary facies, it has been possible to reconstruct changes in Arctic vegetation composition and dynamics through the Late Cretaceous and into the Paleocene. Based on over 10,000 leaf remains, fossil wood and palynomorph assemblages from northeastern Russia and northern Alaska and palynological data from elsewhere in the Arctic we identify a number of successional plant communities (SPCs) representing seral development from early (pioneer), through middle to late SPCs and climax vegetation. We recognise that (1) Equisetites and some ferns (typically Birisia, but after the beginning of the Maastrichtian, Onoclea) were obligatory components of the early SPCs; (2) first rare angiosperms (e.g. the dicot Vitiphyllum multifidum) appeared in the middle SPCs of the Arctic in the Early - Middle Albian; (3) from late Albian times onwards angiosperms became abundant in the middle SPCs of the Arctic, but were still rare in the earlier and later SPCs; (4) monocots appeared in the Maastrichtian early SPCs; (5) all Arctic Cretaceous late SPCs (and climax vegetation) were dominated by conifers; (6) Arctic SPCs were more numerous and diverse under warm climates than cold; (7) during the Albian and late Cretaceous, advanced (Cenophytic, angiosperm-dominated) plant communities coexisted with those of a more relictual (Mesophytic, dominated by ferns and gymnosperms) aspect, and plants composing these communities did not mix; (8) coal-forming environments (mires) remained conifer, fern and bryophyte dominated throughout the late Cretaceous and Paleocene with little penetration of woody angiosperm components and thus are conservative and predominantly Mesophytic in character; (9) bryophytes

  20. Research Note: Patterns of Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Kim, Sang-Weon

    2006-01-01

    The level of alcohol consumption in Russia is among the highest in the world and is often associated with a variety of problems in the country. Until recently, however, it was impossible to examine the health and social burdens associated with consumption in Russia due to Soviet secrecy surrounding vital statistics and health data related to alcohol and other topics. This study employed newly available mortality data to describe the demographic, temporal, and spatial patterns of mortality resulting directly from chronic and acute alcohol consumption in the country. The data reveal that in spite of high overall rates of alcohol-related mortality in Russia, levels of mortality vary considerably along these dimensions. Although descriptive in nature, the patterns of alcohol-related mortality in Russia presented here should provide initial observations with which to generate and test hypotheses concerning the causes and consequences of these patterns. PMID:16900263

  1. Bryozoans from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Upper Devonian) of the Tom-Kolyvansk area (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolokonnikova, Zoya

    2010-10-01

    Nine bryozoan species are described from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Late Devonian) from Western Siberia, Russia, namely: Leptotrypella pojarkovi Orlovski, 1961, Rhombopora subtilis Nekhoroshev, 1977, Klaucena lalolamina Yang, Hu, Xia, 1988, Eofistulotrypa famennensis sp. n., Atactotoechus cellatus sp. n., Nikiforopora jurgensis sp. n., Eridotrypella tyzhnovi sp. n., Mediapora elegans sp. n., and Klaucena gracilis sp. n. The studied assemblage shows palaeogeographical affinity with Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Transcaucasia, China, and the United States of America.

  2. Ophiolitic terranes of northern and central Alaska and their correlatives in Canada and northeastern Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, W.W. Jr. )

    1993-04-01

    All of the major ophiolitic terranes (Angayucham, Tozitna, Innoko, Seventymile, and Goodnews terranes) in the northern and central Alaska belong to the Tethyan-type' of Moores (1982) and were obducted onto Paleozoic and Proterozoic continental and continental margin terranes in Mesozoic time. Tethyan-type' ophiolitic assemblages also occur in the Slide Mountain terrane in the Canadian Cordillera and extend from western Alaska into northeastern Russia. Although investigators have suggested widely different ages from their times of abduction onto the continent, these ophiolitic terranes display some remarkably similar features: (1) they consist of a stack of imbricated thrust slices dominated by ocean floor sediments, basalt, and high-level gabbro of late Paleozoic and Triassic age; (2) their mafic-ultramafic complexes generally are confined to the uppermost thrust sheets; (3) they lack the large tectonic melanges zones and younger accretionary flysch deposits associated with the ophiolitic terranes of southern Alaska and the Koryak region of northeastern Russia; (4) blueschist mineral assemblages occur in the lower part of these ophiolite terranes and (or) in the underlying continental terranes; and (5) they are bordered on their outboard' side by Mesozoic intraoceanic volcanic arc terranes. Recent geochemical and geologic studies of the mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Anagayucham and Tozitna terranes strongly suggest they were generated in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) and that they are directly overlain by volcanic rocks of the Koyukuk terrane.

  3. Lithospheric delamination underneath Far East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntaflos, Theodoros; Koutsovitis, Petros; Aschchepkov, Igor; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Prikhodko, Vladimir; Asseva, Anna

    2013-04-01

    In the back-arc environment of Far East Russia, mantle xenoliths from Sikhoti-Alin( Komku area, KO) and Primorie (Sviyaginsky area, SV), Far East Russia are fertile spinel lherzolites with traces of amphibole, phlogopite and hyalophane in some of the studied samples. Though samples from both localities are fertile there is a systematic difference in their fertility. The KO samples have mg# varying from 0.891 to 0.899 and are slightly more fertile than the SV samples that have mg# ranging from 0.898 to 0.904. LA-ICP-MS analyses on clinopyroxenes confirm this trend as the (La/Yb)N in KO samples range from 0.1to 1.0 and in SV samples from 0.15 to 1.73. The estimated equilibration temperatures for the KO suite range from 940 °C to 1035 °C and for the SV suite from 770 to 945. The differences in the estimated equilibrium temperatures between the KO and SV suites suggest that the less fertile SV suite originated in shallower depths than the more fertile KO suite. Pargasitic amphibole, kaersutite, and extremely Ti-rich phlogopite, up to 14 wt% TiO2, are associated with intergranular glass indicating clearly metasomatism of undersaturated hydrous alkaline melts. Incompatible element abundances, besides Ba, Sr and Ti that are slightly enriched in the amphibole, are similar in both phases suggesting minor metasomatism due to percolation of small amounts of water-rich fluids. The Sr and Nd cpx isotopic ratios range from 0.702599 to 0.703567 and 0.512915 to 513153, repectively and the model Nd isotope age range from 1.5 to 2.2 Ga indicating an old (Proterozoic?) partial melt event. The lithospheric mantle beneath the studied area represents the residue after partial melting of up to 2 % of a primitive mantle and is comparable to that of Mongolia. Despite the fact that the studied area experienced several subducting episodes, the lithospheric mantle appears to be unaffected from the upwelling fluids/melts of the subducted slab(s). Since there is no indication for plume

  4. Reconstruction of environmental chanees in Holocen in Siberian Arctic, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Diekmann, Bernhard; Frolova, Larisa; Palagushkina, Olga; Tumanov, Oleg; Nourgaliev, Danis

    2013-04-01

    started around 8.0 ka BP in concert with enhanced biological productivity and fluctuating lake level. Reconstructed mean TJuly were equal or up to 1.5 °C higher than today between 6,700 and 5,000 yrs BP. During the entire late Holocene after 4,800 yrs BP, reconstructed mean TJuly remained below modern value, consistent with climate deterioration. Limnological conditions did not change significantly. The inference of a mid-Holocene climate optimum supports conceptional scenarios of Holocene climatic change in the subpolar part of eastern Siberia and gives evidence of climate teleconnections to the North Atlantic realm. Investigation of lakes, located in the interfluve of Korotaiha and Bolshaya Rogovaya rivers in the east side of Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Russia using modern hydrobiological and palaeoecological methods has shown that the major compositional changes in diatom, cladoceran and chironomid communities are synchronous. The chironomid-inferred summer temperature show an increase during the last 100 years, which can be related to the end of LIA in the region and support previous investigations.

  5. Age constraints for the present fault configuration in the Imperial Valley, California - Evidence for northwestward propagation of the Gulf of California rift system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Releveling and other geophysical data for the Imperial Valley of southern California suggest the northern section of the Imperial-Brawley fault system, which includes the Mesquite Basin and Brawley Seismic Zone, is much younger than the 4 to 5 million year age of the valley itself. A minimum age of 3000 years is calculated for the northern segment of the Imperial fault from correlations between surface topography and geodetically observed seismic/interseismic vertical movements. Calculations of a maximum age of 80,000 years is based upon displacements in the crystalline basement along the Imperial fault, inferred from seismic refraction surveys. This young age supports recent interpretations of heat flow measurements, which also suggest that the current patterns of seismicity and faults in the Imperial Valley are not long lived. The current fault geometry and basement morphology suggest northwestward growth of the Imperial fault and migration of the Brawley Seismic Zone. It is suggested that this migration is a manifestation of the propagation of the Gulf of California rift system into the North American continent.

  6. Age constraints for the present fault configuration in the Imperial Valley, California: Evidence for northwestward propagation of the Gulf of California rift system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Shawn; Reilinger, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Releveling and other geophysical data for the Imperial Valley of southern California suggest the northern section of the Imperial-Brawley fault system, which includes the Mesquite Basin and Brawley Seismic Zone, is much younger than the 4 to 5 million year age of the valley itself. A minimum age of 3000 years is calculated for the northern segment of the Imperial fault from correlations between surface topography and geodetically observed seismic/interseismic vertical movements. Calculations of a maximum age of 80,000 years is based upon displacements in the crystalline basement along the Imperial fault, inferred from seismic refraction surveys. This young age supports recent interpretations of heat flow measurements, which also suggest that the current patterns of seismicity and faults in the Imperial Valley are not long lived. The current fault geometry and basement morphology suggest northwestward growth of the Imperial fault and migration of the Brawley Seismic Zone. It is suggested that this migration is a manifestation of the propagation of the Gulf of California rift system into the North American continent.

  7. Cranial Endocast of the lambeosaurine hadrosaurid Amurosaurus riabinini from the Amur region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Lauters, Pascaline; Vercauteren, Martine; Bolotsky, Yuri L; Godefroit, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Information on the structure of the brain of the lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur Amurosaurus riabinini, from the Late Maastrichtian of Blagoveschensk, Far Eastern Russia, is presented based on endocranial casts. The endocasts are compared with physical and digital endocasts of other dinosaurs. The olfactory tract was large. The cerebral hemispheres are enlarged and round, illustrating the important development of this part of the brain in hadrosaurids. The pituitary body is enlarged as well, perhaps prefiguring the large size attained by hadrosaurids. The EQ of Amurosaurus was similar to that of the lambeosaurine dinosaur Hypacrosaurus altispinus and was relatively larger than in most extant non-avian reptiles, including sauropod and ceratopsian dinosaurs. However, it was apparently relatively smaller than those of most theropod dinosaurs. The relatively large size of the cerebrum is consistent with the range and complexity of social behaviors inferred for lambeosaurine dinosaurs. PMID:24236064

  8. The last polar dinosaurs: high diversity of latest Cretaceous arctic dinosaurs in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godefroit, Pascal; Golovneva, Lina; Shchepetov, Sergei; Garcia, Géraldine; Alekseev, Pavel

    2009-04-01

    A latest Cretaceous (68 to 65 million years ago) vertebrate microfossil assemblage discovered at Kakanaut in northeastern Russia reveals that dinosaurs were still highly diversified in Arctic regions just before the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction event. Dinosaur eggshell fragments, belonging to hadrosaurids and non-avian theropods, indicate that at least several latest Cretaceous dinosaur taxa could reproduce in polar region and were probably year-round residents of high latitudes. Palaeobotanical data suggest that these polar dinosaurs lived in a temperate climate (mean annual temperature about 10°C), but the climate was apparently too cold for amphibians and ectothermic reptiles. The high diversity of Late Maastrichtian dinosaurs in high latitudes, where ectotherms are absent, strongly questions hypotheses according to which dinosaur extinction was a result of temperature decline, caused or not by the Chicxulub impact.

  9. Managing the global environmental risks in Russia: The missing links and external influences

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, V.

    1996-12-31

    Based on analysis of management history of three global environmental issues in Russia--climate change, ozone depletion and acid rains--the author suggests a few explanations of failure to build-up the nationwide strategy to manage global risks. Among them are specific factors related to the science-policy relationship on global changes processes and impacts. Particular attention is given to such internal factors as: the monopolization of these issues by the single state agency Hydromet until the late 1980s; the interest of the Soviet military in global atmospheric issues; the absence of any major input from the public or the media; and the manner in which the discussion of these issues was nested within the Soviet government`s broader foreign policy agenda.

  10. Traditional Christian values and women's reproductive rights in modern Russia--is a consensus ever possible?

    PubMed

    Erofeeva, Lyubov Vladimirovna

    2013-11-01

    Recently in Russia, abortion rights have been attacked. For decades, Russian women could have an elective abortion up to week 12 of pregnancy; between 12 and 22 weeks, medical or social grounds were required for an abortion. In mid 2011, a group of Parliamentarians teamed up with Russian Orthodox Church activists and announced their desire to ban abortions, and the new version of the health law with restricting amendments was introduced: a mandatory waiting period, physicians' conscientious objection, and limiting the social indications for late-term abortion. Evidence indicates that restricting legislative changes based on "traditional" values could significantly limit women's reproductive choices (e.g., access to abortion), a setback to women's rights to exert control over their bodies and their lives. PMID:24028250

  11. Cranial Endocast of the Lambeosaurine Hadrosaurid Amurosaurus riabinini from the Amur Region, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Lauters, Pascaline; Vercauteren, Martine; Bolotsky, Yuri L.; Godefroit, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Information on the structure of the brain of the lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur Amurosaurus riabinini, from the Late Maastrichtian of Blagoveschensk, Far Eastern Russia, is presented based on endocranial casts. The endocasts are compared with physical and digital endocasts of other dinosaurs. The olfactory tract was large. The cerebral hemispheres are enlarged and round, illustrating the important development of this part of the brain in hadrosaurids. The pituitary body is enlarged as well, perhaps prefiguring the large size attained by hadrosaurids. The EQ of Amurosaurus was similar to that of the lambeosaurine dinosaur Hypacrosaurus altispinus and was relatively larger than in most extant non-avian reptiles, including sauropod and ceratopsian dinosaurs. However, it was apparently relatively smaller than those of most theropod dinosaurs. The relatively large size of the cerebrum is consistent with the range and complexity of social behaviors inferred for lambeosaurine dinosaurs. PMID:24236064

  12. Complications in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Meguerdichian, David

    2012-11-01

    Complications of late pregnancy are managed infrequently in the emergency department and, thus, can pose a challenge when the emergency physician encounters acute presentations. An expert understanding of the anatomic and physiologic changes and possible complications of late pregnancy is vital to ensure proper evaluation and care for both mother and fetus. This article focuses on the late pregnancy issues that the emergency physician will face, from the bleeding and instability of abruptio placentae to the wide spectrum of complications and management strategies encountered with preterm labor. PMID:23137403

  13. Special education in Russia: historical aspects.

    PubMed

    Malofeev, N N

    1998-01-01

    Tracing the history of special education services in Russia from its beginnings in the early nineteenth century through the rapid expansion of both private and government-supported programs and institutions until the restrictive Soviet period provides both understanding and appreciation of current Russian special education services and institutions. Theoretical principles guiding special education formulated by L. Vygotsky, and sources outside the USSR, were officially suppressed, as were testing and statistical data on handicapped individuals. Official mandates to bring students with handicaps up to state-approved standards resulted in the development of creative, effective approaches. The framework of special education changed little until the breakdown of the USSR. The new Russian Federation ratified UN resolutions protecting the rights of children. Categorical language is a recent development, and terms such as defective, retarded and pedologist are gradually being replaced. The final decade of this century is witnessing rapid change at the initiation of the Ministry of Education that is beginning to produce needed reform. One of the major initiatives is to provide LD specialists in all schools so that students will not need to be a great distance from home to receive needed services. PMID:9529788

  14. Continuity or discontinuity of the life-style in central Italy during the Roman Imperial Age-Early Middle Ages transition: diet, health, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Belcastro, Giovanna; Rastelli, Elisa; Mariotti, Valentina; Consiglio, Chiara; Facchini, Fiorenzo; Bonfiglioli, Benedetta

    2007-03-01

    Dento-alveolar pathologies and alterations (dental wear, caries, abscesses, ante mortem tooth loss (AMTL), calculus, hypoplastic defects, and chipping) and skeletal markers of health (cribra orbitalia and periostitis) were analyzed in two skeletal samples from the necropolises of Quadrella (I-IV c. AD) and Vicenne-Campochiaro (VII c. AD) in the Molise region of central Italy. The aim was to determine if the Roman Imperial Age-Early Middle Ages transition characterized by political, socioeconomic, and cultural transformations affected the biology of these populations, particularly their alimentation and health status. The frequencies of caries and AMTL, similar in the two samples, suggest a high consumption of carbohydrates. The higher levels of heavy wear, calculus, and interproximal chipping in the Vicenne population indicate a greater use of fibrous foods (both meat and others), in line with the dietary model of Germanic peoples. Health conditions do not appear to have been good in either period, as shown by the high frequencies of linear hypoplasia and the presence of cribra orbitalia and periostitis. The diet of the individuals buried with horses of the Vicenne population did not differ from that of the rest of the population, whereas there were evident differences in the use of the teeth for nonmasticatory activities among these individuals. Therefore, from the point of view of alimentation and health status, the profound socioeconomic and cultural transformations during the Late Antiquity-Early Middle Ages transition do not seem to have been translated into a true discontinuity of the two Molisan populations. PMID:17154361

  15. Reclaiming agricultural drainage water with nanofiltration membranes: Imperial Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Schroeder, R.A.; Setmire, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted pilot-scale field experiments using nanofiltration membranes to lower the salinity and remove Se, As and other toxic contaminants from saline agricultural wastewater in the Imperial Valley, California, USA. Farmlands in the desert climate (rainfall - 7.4 cm/a) of Imperial Valley cover -200,000 ha that are irrigated with water (-1.7 km3 annually) imported from the Colorado River. The salinity (-850 mg/L) and concentration of Se (-2.5 ??g/L) in the Colorado River water are high and evapotranpiration further concentrates salts in irrigation drainage water, reaching salinities of 3,000-15,000 mg/L TDS and a median Se value of -30 ??g/L. Experiments were conducted with two commercially available nanofiltration membranes, using drainage water of varying composition, and with or without the addition of organic precipitation inhibitors. Results show that these membranes selectively remove more than 95% of Se, SO4, Mo, U and DOC, and -30% of As from this wastewater. Low percentages of Cl, NO3 and HCO3, with enough cations to maintain electrical neutrality also were removed. The product water treated by these membranes comprised more than 90% of the wastewater tested. Results indicate that the treated product water from the Alamo River likely will have less than 0.2 ??g/L Se, salinity of 300-500 mg/L TDS and other chemical concentrations that meet the water quality criteria for irrigation and potable use. Because acceptability is a major issue for providing treated wastewater to urban centers, it may be prudent to use the reclaimed water for irrigation and creation of lower salinity wetlands near the Salton Sea; an equivalent volume of Colorado River water can then be diverted for the use of increasing populations of San Diego and other urban centers in southern California. Nanofiltration membranes yield greater reclaimed-water output and require lower pressure and less pretreatment, and therefore are generally more cost effective than traditional reverse

  16. National Large Solar Telescope of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, Mikhail

    One of the most important task of the modern solar physics is multi-wavelength observations of the small-scale structure of solar atmosphere on different heights, including chromosphere and corona. To do this the large-aperture telescopes are necessary. At present time there several challenging projects of the large (and even giant) solar telescopes in the world are in the process of construction or designing , the most known ones among them are 4-meter class telescopes ATST in USA and EST in Europe. Since 2013 the development of the new Large Solar Telescope (LST) with 3 meter diameter of the main mirror is started in Russia as a part (sub-project) of National Heliogeophysical Complex (NHGC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It should be located at the Sayan solar observatory on the altitude more then 2000 m. To avoid numerous problems of the off-axis optical telescopes (despite of the obvious some advantages of the off-axis configuration) and to meet to available financial budget, the classical on-axis Gregorian scheme on the alt-azimuth mount has been chosen. The scientific equipment of the LST-3 will include several narrow-band tunable filter devices and spectrographs for different wavelength bands, including infrared. The units are installed either at the Nasmyth focus or/and on the rotating coude platform. To minimize the instrumental polarization the polarization analyzer is located near diagonal mirror after M2 mirror. High order adaptive optics is used to achieve the diffraction limited performances. It is expected that after some modification of the optical configuration the LST-3 will operate as an approximately 1-m mirror coronograph in the near infrared spectral lines. Possibilities for stellar observations during night time are provided as well.

  17. Space Radar Image of Samara, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency space radar image shows the city of Samara, Russia in pink and light green right of center. Samara is at the junction of the Volga and Samara Rivers approximately 800 kilometers (500 miles) southeast of Moscow. The wide river in the center of the image is the Volga. Samara, formerly Kuybyshev, is a busy industrial city known for its chemical, mechanical and petroleum industries. Northwest of the Volga (upper left corner of the image) are deciduous forests of the Samarskaya Luka National Park. Complex patterns in the floodplain of the Volga are caused by 'cut-off' lakes and channels from former courses of the meandering river. The three radar frequencies allow scientists to distinguish different types of agricultural fields in the lower right side of the image. For example, fields which appear light blue are short grass or cleared fields. Purple and green fields contain taller plants or rough plowed soil. Scientists hope to use radar data such as these to understand the environmental consequences of industrial, agricultural and natural preserve areas coexisting in close proximity. This image is 50 kilometers by 26 kilometers (31 by 16 miles) and is centered at 53.2 degrees north latitude, 50.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 1, 1994 onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  18. Dental size and shape in the Roman imperial age: two examples from the area of Rome.

    PubMed

    Manzi, G; Santandrea, E; Passarello, P

    1997-04-01

    Different socioeconomic strata of Roman imperial age are represented by two large dental samples recovered from archaeological excavations near Rome, Italy. Teeth are investigated for crown dimensions and morphological variants. One sample, comprising 1,465 permanent teeth, represents the rural town of Lucus Feroniae (LFR) and is mainly composed of slaves and war veterans. The other, comprising 734 teeth from the Isola Sacra necropolis at Portus Romae (NIS), represents the "middle class" segment of an urban population. Both series show small dental dimensions and fit at the lower end of the trend toward dental reduction in Europe from the Upper Paleolithic to the historical times. The urban sample is less variable metrically and less sexually dimorphic than the rural one. The analysis of discrete crown traits shows absence of rare phenotypic variants in both series. The urban sample is also less variable in this last respect, suggesting that the gene pool of this particular "stratum" of the NIS population was more homogeneous than that of LFR. The occurrence of enamel hypoplasia indicates that metabolic stress during growth and development was similar in LFR and NIS. The overall set of available data is evaluated in the light of the history of the two Roman sites and the composition of each population. PMID:9140539

  19. Heat flow and geothermal potential of the East Mesa KGRA, Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanberg, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The East Mesa KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area) is located in the southeast part of the Imperial Valley, California, and is roughly 150 kilometers square in areal extent. A new heat flow technique which utilizes temperature gradient measurements across best clays is presented and shown to be as accurate as conventional methods for the present study area. Utilizing the best clay gradient technique, over 70 heat flow determinations have been completed within and around the East Mesa KGRA. Background heat flow values range from 1.4 to 2.4 hfu (1 hfu = .000001 cal. per square centimeter-second) and are typical of those throughout the Basin and Range province. Heat flow values for the northwest lobe of the KGRA (Mesa anomaly) are as high as 7.9 hfu, with the highest values located near gravity and seismic noise maxima and electrical resistivity minima. An excellent correlation exists between heat flow contours and faults defined by remote sensing and microearthquake monitoring.

  20. Doctors in court, honour, and professional ethics: two scandals in Imperial Germany.

    PubMed

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2011-01-01

    Comparing two public medical affairs which involved disciplinary proceedings and libel actions, one from Bavaria and one from Prussia, this article analyzes the dynamics behind legal conflicts over doctors' professional ethics in Imperial Germany. In both the case of Dr Maurice Hutzler, who committed suicide after conflicts with senior colleagues at the Gisela Children's Hospital and a sentence of the court of honour of the Munich Medical District Society, and the Berlin "patient trade" affair, in which the medical professors Ernst von Leyden, Hermann Senator, Karl Anton Ewald and Carl Posner were accused of having made payments to middlemen for bringing them lucrative private patients, notions of personal and professional honour played a central role. The Munich case highlighted shortcomings of the Bavarian medical court of honour system, which was less developed than its Prussian counterpart. The analysis of the two cases suggests that the ethics of medical practice in early twentieth-century Germany should be viewed as part of a culture of honour. PMID:22303773

  1. Doctors in Court, Honour, and Professional Ethics: Two Scandals in Imperial Germany*

    PubMed Central

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2013-01-01

    Summary Comparing two public medical affairs which involved disciplinary proceedings and libel actions, one from Bavaria and one from Prussia, this article analyzes the dynamics behind legal conflicts over doctors’ professional ethics in Imperial Germany. In both the case of Dr Maurice Hutzler, who committed suicide after conflicts with senior colleagues at the Gisela Children’s Hospital and a sentence of the court of honour of the Munich Medical District Society, and the Berlin ‘patient trade’ affair, in which the medical professors Ernst von Leyden, Hermann Senator, Karl Anton Ewald and Carl Posner were accused of having made payments to middlemen for bringing them lucrative private patients, notions of personal and professional honour played a central role. The Munich case highlighted shortcomings of the Bavarian medical court of honour system, which was less developed than its Prussian counterpart. The analysis of the two cases suggests that the ethics of medical practice in early twentieth-century Germany should be viewed as part of a culture of honour. PMID:22303773

  2. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  3. Imperial or postcolonial governance? Dissecting the genealogy of a global public health strategy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim; Bell, Morag

    2008-11-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century it became increasingly apparent that the inter-relationship between globalisation and health is extremely complex. This complexity is highlighted in debates surrounding the re-emergence of infectious diseases, where it is recognised that the processes of globalisation have combined to create the conditions where once localised, microbial hazards have come to pose a threat to many western nations. By contrast, in an emerging literature relating to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases, and reflected in the WHO 'Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health', it is the so-called 'western lifestyle' that has been cast as the main threat to a population's health. This paper explores critically global responses to this development. Building on our interest in questions of governance and the ethical management of the healthy body, we examine whether the global strategy, in seeking to contain the influence of a 'western lifestyle', also promotes contemporary 'western-inspired' approaches to public health practices. The paper indicates that a partial reading of the WHO strategy suggests that certain countries, especially those outside the West, are being captured or 'enframed' by the integrative ambitions of a western 'imperial' vision of global health. However, when interpreted critically through a postcolonial lens, we argue that 'integration' is more complex, and that the subtle and dynamic relations of power that exist between countries of the West/non-West, are exposed. PMID:18771835

  4. Late-term abortion.

    PubMed

    Epner, J E; Jonas, H S; Seckinger, D L

    1998-08-26

    Recent proposed federal legislation banning certain abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, would modify the US Criminal Code such that physicians performing these procedures would be liable for monetary and statutory damages. Clarification of medical procedures is important because some of the procedures used to induce abortion prior to viability are identical or similar to postviability procedures. This article reviews the scientific and medical information on late-term abortion and late-term abortion techniques and includes data on the prevalence of late-term abortion, abortion-related mortality and morbidity rates, and legal issues regarding fetal viability and the balance of maternal and fetal interests. According to enacted American Medical Association (AMA) policy, the use of appropriate medical terminology is critical in defining late-term abortion procedures, particularly intact dilatation and extraction, which is a variant of but distinct from dilatation and evacuation. The AMA recommends that the intact dilatation and extraction procedure not be used unless alternative procedures pose materially greater risk to the woman and that abortions not be performed in the third trimester except in cases of serious fetal anomalies incompatible with life. Major medical societies are urged to collaborate on clinical guidelines on late-term abortion techniques and circumstances that conform to standards of good medical practice. More research on the advantages and disadvantages of specific abortion procedures would help physicians make informed choices about specific abortion procedures. Expanded ongoing data surveillance systems estimating the prevalence of abortion are also needed. PMID:9728645

  5. The criteria for the evaluation of natural disasters in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, Sofia

    2010-05-01

    Russia is a very vast country, it covers areas with different kinds of landscape and climate - from subartic tundra in northern parts to semideserts in southern, from artic to subtropic climate. Of course, in different types of regions there are different types of natural hazards. But still some of them can be found in every region (eg. low temperatures or heavy showers). In Russia the words "natural disasters" are very closely connected to "material damage". It means that every natural phenomenon that can cause a catastrophic situation should suit 2 types of criteria: geographical and social-economical. Geographical criteria can be meteorological or meteo-hydrological, etc. In 1990 the Ministry of Emergency situations and natural disasters was organized in Russia and these criteria were fixed. Since that time there were no changes. The problem is that actually there is no spatial differentiation in geographical criteria of manifestation of natural hazards in Russia. In fact you have the same criteria in Yakutsk in Siberia and Sochi on the Black Sea coast. This fact can cause many problems. Statistics show natural disasters which were caused by natural hazards, which do not suit proper geographical criteria - but there is still material damage and even people's death. That's why we propose to distinguish (according to statistics) different parameters of natural hazards, which can cause natural disasters and material damage in different parts and climatic zones of Russia. Also we have to reconsider these criteria according to today's climate situation.

  6. Flooding of the Ob River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of heavy rainfall, snowmelt, and ice jams in late May and early June of this year caused the Ob River and surrounding tributaries in Western Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in thess image taken on June 16, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Last year, the river flooded farther north. Normally, the river resembles a thin black line, but floods have swollen the river considerably. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. Metallogenesis of Gold and Silver in Northeast Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamyanin, G. N.; Goryachev, N. A.

    2004-12-01

    Three genetic series of ore lode deposit types in Notheast Russia are distinguished: hydrothermal-metamorphogenic (early collision stage), hydrothermal plutonogenic granitoid (late collisional stage), and volcanogenic (post-collisional stage). Metallogenesis in the hydrothermal-metamorphogenic series is more or less exclusively gold mineralization (gold-quartz veins, and disseminated gold-sulfide mineralization). In the Yana-Kolyma metallogenic belt, gold mineralization of this genetic type occurs as lenticular quartz bodies. In the Allakh-Yun and West Verkhoyansk belts it is present as zones of stratified quartz veins. The hydrothermal-plutonogenic lode deposits related to granitoid suites were produced by ore-magmatic systems (OMS) with similar geochemical specialization for gold that most probably had a palingenetic crustal origin (Rb-Sr and Pb isotopic data). As the collision proceeded, large granitoid plutons were emplaced to form extensive belts (150-140 and 130-120 Ma), within which local ore-magmatic fields were formed. The intermediate-depth magmatic chambers (15-18 km depth) of the OMSs generated the low-sulfide gold-quartz lode deposits, while in hypabyssal magmatic chambers (1-2 km depth) granitoid-related gold lode deposits are produced. The volcanogenic series of shallow-depth ore lode types are silver-base metal, gold-silver-antimony, and silver-mercury. Subduction processes occurring along the Okhotsk active continental margin could have reactivated the earlier strike-slip fault zones, which served as the ore-controlling structures for the development of Late Cretaceous (95-70 Ma) subvolcanic magmatism and the formation of diversified mineralization (silver-base metal, gold-silver-antimony, and silver-mercury). The earliest is silver-base metal mineralization associated with subvolcanic granite porphyries and located in tin ore fields, thus confirming our supposition about the activation of deep horizons of staniferous OMSs. Gold-silver-antimony and

  8. Stormflow chemistry in the Santa Ana River below Prado Dam and at the diversion downstream from Imperial Highway, southern California, 1995-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Mendez, Gregory O.; Burton, Carmen A.

    2000-01-01

    The Santa Ana River drains about 2,670 square miles of the densely populated coastal area of southern California, near Los Angeles. Almost all the flow in the river, more than 200,000 acre-feet annually, is diverted into ponds where it infiltrates and recharges underlying aquifers. About 2 million people are dependent on these aquifers for water supply. Stormflow in the Santa Ana River is considered a source of 'high-quality' water suitable for use as a source of ground-water recharge. To test this assumption, stormflow samples were collected at two locations--below Prado Dam and at the diversion point downstream from Imperial Highway--for 12 winter storms between 1995 and 1998. Nitrate concentrations decreased during stormflow from a median concentration of 7.8 milligrams per liter in base flow to concentrations less than 1 milligram per liter in some large storms. Concentrations of chemically reduced forms of nitrogen (nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen) increased during stormflow and are the predominant forms of nitrogen in large stormflows. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations increased from a median concentration of 4.6 milligrams per liter in base flow to more than 20 milligrams per liter in some stormflows. Concentrations of DOC were especially high during the first storm of the rainy season, and large increases in DOC concentrations were measured even as a result of small early season storms that did not cause large increases in streamflow. DOC present during early season stormflow had less ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nanometers (UV254 ) per unit of carbon than did DOC from late season stormflows. DOC in water held in storage behind Prado Dam had the highest UV254 absorbance per unit of carbon. Maximum pesticide concentrations in stormflow did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels. Most pesticide concentrations were less than 1 microgram per liter and less than the detection limits obtained using standard

  9. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  10. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  11. Price elasticities of alcohol demand: evidence from Russia.

    PubMed

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we estimate price elasticities of demand of several types of alcoholic drinks, using 14 rounds of data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-HSE, collected from 1994 until 2009. We deal with potential confounding problems by taking advantage of a large number of control variables, as well as by estimating community fixed effect models. All in all, although alcohol prices do appear to influence consumption behaviour in Russia, in most cases the size of effect is modest. The finding that two particularly problematic drinks-cheap vodka and fortified wine-are substitute goods also suggests that increasing their prices may not lead to smaller alcohol consumption. Therefore, any alcohol pricing policies in Russia must be supplemented with other measures, such as restrictions on numbers of sales outlets or their opening times. PMID:24535047

  12. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  13. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    PubMed

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082. PMID:26449508

  14. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  15. 3-D Perspective Kamchatka Peninsula Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions. This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60- meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x 136 km (84 miles) coast to skyline. Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160 deg. East long. Orientation: Easterly view, 2 degrees

  16. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three-dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x

  17. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  18. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001 ASTER captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 8028'. The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25 km ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and the Far East, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in

  19. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  20. SRTM Anaglyph: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet).

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary SRTM elevation model. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by

  1. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Karnachev, Igor P.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Background According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs) and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991) has increased significantly. Methods This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980–2010. Results The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers’ rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices – violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3–6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed. PMID:23519652

  2. Quantifying yield gaps in wheat production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Faramarzi, Monireh; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Koch, Friedrich J.; Müller, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Crop yields must increase substantially to meet the increasing demands for agricultural products. Crop yield increases are particularly important for Russia because low crop yields prevail across Russia’s widespread and fertile land resources. However, reliable data are lacking regarding the spatial distribution of potential yields in Russia, which can be used to determine yield gaps. We used a crop growth model to determine the yield potentials and yield gaps of winter and spring wheat at the provincial level across European Russia. We modeled the annual yield potentials from 1995 to 2006 with optimal nitrogen supplies for both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Overall, the results suggest yield gaps of 1.51-2.10 t ha-1, or 44-52% of the yield potential under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, yield gaps of 3.14-3.30 t ha-1, or 62-63% of the yield potential, were observed. However, recurring droughts cause large fluctuations in yield potentials under rainfed conditions, even when the nitrogen supply is optimal, particularly in the highly fertile black soil areas of southern European Russia. The highest yield gaps (up to 4 t ha-1) under irrigated conditions were detected in the steppe areas in southeastern European Russia along the border of Kazakhstan. Improving the nutrient and water supply and using crop breeds that are adapted to the frequent drought conditions are important for reducing yield gaps in European Russia. Our regional assessment helps inform policy and agricultural investors and prioritize research that aims to increase crop production in this important region for global agricultural markets.

  3. The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia's Mortality Crisis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Gathmann, Christina; Miller, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia's 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985-1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978-2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested. PMID:24224067

  4. Health care in the new Russia: a western perspective.

    PubMed

    Wallen, A J; Cammuso, B S

    1997-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War and establishment of relations with Russia, the opportunity for nurses to meet their Russian colleagues is now available. The authors, with an international group of nurses, visited Russia to learn about their healthcare system and nursing practice. The authors found Russian healthcare system severely lacking in the technology and resources available in other industraialized nations. Within this system, the nurse's role is significantly different from nursing in the American healthcare system. Nurses practice within a system of severe shortages and provide nursing care dependent upon physicians. PMID:9362879

  5. Legal regulation of assisted reproduction treatment in Russia.

    PubMed

    Svitnev, Konstantin

    2010-06-01

    Russia remains one of the countries with a most favourable approach towards human reproduction in Europe, allowing almost everybody wanting to have a child of their own through assisted reproduction treatment to fulfill their dream. The legal situation around assisted reproduction treatment in Russia is very favourable; surrogacy, gamete and embryo donation are permitted, even on a commercial level. Gestational surrogacy is an option for heterosexual couples and single women, although a court decision might be needed to register a 'surrogate' child born to a couple who are not officially married or a single woman. However, it is not explicitly allowed nor prohibited for single men. PMID:20435519

  6. A Survey of Biofuel Production potentials in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykova, Natalya; Gustafsson, Jan-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Due to the abundance of fossil fuel resources in Russia, the development of the renewable energy market there was delayed. Recent technological advancement has led to an increasing interest in biofuel production. The aim of research was to evaluate how biofuels are introduced into the current energy scheme of the country. The potential production of biofuels was estimated based on sustainable approaches which provide solution for carbon emission reduction and environmental benefits. Russia still requires biofuel policy to make biofuels compatible with traditional fossil fuels.

  7. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tverdokhlebov, Valentin P.; Tverdokhlebova, Galina I.; Minikh, Alla V.; Surkov, Mikhail V.; Benton, Michael J.

    2005-02-01

    Fossil fishes and tetrapods (amphibians and reptiles) have been discovered at 81 localities in the Upper Permian of the Southern Urals area of European Russia. The first sites were found in the 1940s, and subsequent surveys have revealed many more. Broad-scale stratigraphic schemes have been published, but full documentation of the rich tetrapod faunas has not been presented before. The area of richest deposits covers some 900,000 km 2 of territory between Samara on the River Volga in the NW, and Orenburg and Sakmara in the SW. A continental succession, some 3 km thick, of mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones, deposited on mudflats and in small rivers flowing off the Ural Mountain chain, span the last two stages of the Permian (Kazanian, Tatarian). The succession is divided into seven successive units of Kazanian (Kalinovskaya, Osinovskaya, and Belebey svitas, in succession) and Tatarian age, which is further subdivided into the early Tatatian Urzhumian Gorizont (Bolshekinelskaya and Amanakskaya svitas, in succession), and the late Tatarian Severodvinian (Vyazovskaya and Malokinelskaya svitas, of equivalent age) and Vyatkian gorizonts (Kulchumovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas, of equivalent age). This succession documents major climatic changes, with increasing aridity through the Late Permian. The climate changes are manifested in changing sedimentation and the spread of dryland plants, and peak aridity was achieved right at the Permo-Triassic (PTr) boundary, coincident with global warming. Uplift of the Urals and extinction of land plants led to stripping of soils and massive run-off from the mountains; these phenomena have been identified at the PTr boundary elsewhere (South Africa, Australia) and this may be a key part of the end-Permian mass extinction. The succession of Late Permian fish and tetrapod faunas in Russia documents their richness and diversity before the mass extinction. The terminal Permian Kulchomovskaya and Kutulukskaya svitas have yielded

  8. Integrated Modeling of Water Policy Futures in the Imperial-Mexicali Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjelland, M. K.; Forster, C. B.; Grant, W. E.; Collins, K.

    2004-12-01

    Divided by an international border, the Imperial-Mexicali Valleys (IMVs) are linked by shared history, natural resources, culture and economy. This region is experiencing changes driven by policy makers both within and outside the IMVs. The largest external decision, the Colorado River Quantification Settlement Agreement (QSA) of 2003, opens the door to a laboratory for studying the consequences of a massive transfer of agricultural water to municipal users. Two irrigation districts, two urban water agencies and the State of California have agreed to a 75 year of more than 30 million acre-feet of Colorado River water from agricultural to urban use. Although Imperial Valley farmers will be compensated for water conservation and land fallowing, the economic, environmental and social consequences are unclear. Farmers who fallow will likely cause a greater impact on local businesses and government than those choosing on-field water conservation. Reduced agricultural water use causes reduced flow of irrigation runoff, at higher salinity than before, to the Salton Sea that, in turn, impacts the population dynamics of Ichthyan and Avian species at the Salton Sea. Municipal wastewater discharged into the New River by Mexicali, Mexico is also an important source of inflow to the Salton Sea that will be reduce by plans to reclaim the wastewater for various uses, including cooling water for two new power plants in the Mexicali. A restoration program is funded to produce a Sea with much reduced surface area. But this approach may, in turn, lead to increases in windblown dust from the dry lakebed that will contribute to an air basin already designated as a federal nonattainment area for particulate emissions. Additional water will be conserved by lining the All American and Coachella canals. But, eliminating seepage from the All American canal reduces groundwater recharge to aquifers used by Mexican farmers. A complex interplay of water-related issues must be accounted for if

  9. Evaluation on chemical stability of lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags.

    PubMed

    Yin, Nang-Htay; Sivry, Yann; Guyot, François; Lens, Piet N L; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2016-09-15

    The leaching behavior of Pb and Zn from lead blast furnace (LBF) and imperial smelting furnace (ISF) slags sampled in the North of France was studied as a function of pHs and under two atmospheres (open air and nitrogen). The leaching of major elements from the slags was monitored as a function of pH (4, 5.5, 7, 8.5 and 10) under both atmospheres for different slag-water interaction times (1 day and 9 days). The leaching results were coupled with a geochemical model; Visual MINTEQ version 3.0, and a detailed morphological and mineralogical analysis was performed on the leached slags by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Significant amounts of Ca, Fe and Zn were released under acidic conditions (pH 4) with a decrease towards the neutral to alkaline conditions (pH 7 and 10) for both LBF and ISF slags. On the other hand, Fe leachability was limited at neutral to alkaline pH for both slags. The concentrations of all elements increased gradually after 216 h compared to initial 24 h of leaching period. The presence of oxygen under open-air atmosphere not only enhanced oxidative weathering but also encouraged formation of secondary oxide and carbonate phases. Formation of carbonates and clay minerals was suggested by Visual MINTEQ which was further confirmed by SEM & TEM. The hydration and partial dissolution of hardystonite, as well as the destabilization of amorphous glassy matrix mainly contributed to the release of major elements, whereas the spinel related oxides were resistant against pH changes and atmospheres within the time frame concerned for both LBF and ISF slags. The total amount of Pb leached out at pH 7 under both atmospheres suggested that both LBF and ISF slags are prone to weathering even at neutral environmental conditions. PMID:27240207

  10. Deformation near the Coyote Creek fault, Imperial County, California: Tectonic or groundwater-related?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellors, Robert J.; Boisvert, Alex

    2003-02-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) measurements show a consistent, 40-km2 wedge-shaped area of deformation partially bounded by a branch of the Coyote Creek fault (a southern extension of the San Jacinto fault) in Imperial County, California, west of the Salton Sea. The deformation is centered at 33.1 N latitude, 116.0 W longitude. 18 ERS-1 and ERS-2 (descending) interferograms falling within 1992 to 2000 are analyzed. An average line-of-sight range change over the area of 6 ± 3 mm per year away from the satellite is observed with peak values up to 12 ± 3 mm per year. The southwestern edge of the deformation is partially bounded by a fault segment that ruptured in the 1968 Mw 6.5 Borrego Mountain earthquake and which also showed triggered slip after the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquakes. The southeastern edge of the deformation also coincides with a mapped fault. The deformation is centered on a farming area that has pumped approximately 5.8 × 10-6 m3 per year of groundwater from 5 wells on the property and which shows declining water levels of 1.4 m per year. The area of highest change appears to be centered on location of the wells and away from the faults. The aquifer is at a depth of roughly 100 to 200 m and consists of sands with interbedded clays. It appears that the most likely explanation is subsidence due to groundwater withdrawal in a fault-bounded aquifer rather than tectonic slip.

  11. Timing and slip for prehistoric earthquakes on the Superstition Mountain Fault, Imperial Valley, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrola, Larry D.; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    1996-03-01

    Trenches excavated across the Superstition Mountain fault in the Imperial Valley, California, have exposed evidence for four prehistorical earthquakes preserved in displaced lacustrine stratigraphy associated with ancient Lake Cahuilla. The presence of shoreline peat accumulations along with abundant detrital charcoal allows for high-precision age determination of some stratigraphic units, thereby providing constraints on the timing of three of the paleoearthquakes. These three events occurred within a 480- to 820-year interval during the past 1200 years. The most recent earthquake (event 1) occurred during a fluvial phase of deposition between A.D. 1440-1637, immediately prior to the inundation of the Cahuilla basin at about A.D. 1480 and 1660. A channel margin was offset 2.2 +0.4/-0.15 m in this rupture, suggesting an earthquake with a magnitude ≥7. The penultimate event (event 2) also occurred during fluvial deposition after A.D. 1280 but before another lakestand at A.D. 1440-1640. Lateral slip could not be resolved for event 2. However, based on juxtaposition of dissimilar units and the amount of deformation produced by this event, it is presumed that this was also a large earthquake. The timing of event 3 is constrained to have occurred between about A.D. 820 and 1280. This event is represented by several fractures and small displacements that rupture up to a distinct stratigraphic level or event horizon. Slip was not resolved for this event. Finally, the timing of event 4 is very poorly constrained to between A.D. 964 and 4670 B.C. Undoubtedly, many events may have occurred during this period. Notably, the past three earthquakes occurred within a period of less than 820 years, and it has been over 350 years since the last earthquake.

  12. Carbon uptake, microbial community structure, and mineralization of layered mats from Imperial Geyser, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woycheese, K. M.; Grabenstatter, J.; Haddad, A.; Ricci, J. N.; Johnson, H.; Berelson, W.; Spear, J. R.; Caporaso, J. G.; International Geobiology Course 2011

    2011-12-01

    Layered microbial mats provide an analog for early microbial communities, and remain one of the few microbiological structures consistently preserved in the geologic record. Despite this, growth rates, metabolic capabilities, and methods of mineralization in modern communities are poorly understood. Imperial Geyser, an alkaline siliceous hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, provides a useful setting to study these parameters. Mat and water samples (T = 64-40 °C) were collected for 13C analysis and 13C-spiked bicarbonate and acetate incubation experiments. Carbon isotopes were measured for the stream water, pore water and biomass. We experimentally determined rates of bicarbonate uptake, acetate uptake and mineral content. Bicarbonate uptake rates ranged from 0 - 0.4% per day, while acetate uptake rates ranged from 0 - 2.0% per day. These results indicate that the mat biomass is capable of turnover in about 300 days resulting in potential growth rates of 1-2 cm/year. Organic carbon content (% dry weight) ranged from 2 to 16%, and decreased with depth in the mat. The mineral content of these mats is predominantly amorphous SiO2. An inverse correlation between mineral percent and bicarbonate uptake rate was observed, suggesting that there may be a link between metabolism and the prevention of mineralization. Comparing the 13C and carbon uptake rates with 16S rDNA pyrosequencing data we were able to hypothesize the carbon fixation pathways and heterotrophic interactions occurring in this environment. In general, two patterns of 13C values were observed. The first pattern was characterized by increased heterotrophy with depth. In the other, preliminary evidence supporting a photoheterotrophic lifestyle for Roseiflexus spp. was found.

  13. The Recent Emergence of Private Christian Colleges and Universities in Russia: Historical Reasons and Contemporary Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrenko, Konstantin I.; Glanzer, Perry L.

    2005-01-01

    Although the history of Christianity in Russia dates back to the tenth century, the history of private Christian higher education in Russia is no more than a decade. This paper first explains the historical reasons for this fact and then describes the contemporary development of faith-based private education in Russia over the past decade. When…

  14. Coping with the new {open_quotes}clear and present danger{close_quotes} from Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Blaker, J.

    1995-04-01

    The time has come to consider a different way to ensure that none of Russia`s nuclear weapons and fissile material ever falls into the hands of terrorists, criminals or rogue states. The current situation in Russia makes such a prospect all too plausible. The author examines mechanisms to control weapons and fissile materials.

  15. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  16. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  17. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  18. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4 to this part 744...

  19. Assessment of the impact on crops of effluent gases from geothermal energy development in the Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The potential impact of regionally dispersed sources of geothermal gaseous effluents on crops in the Imperial Valley was assessed. A detailed model of the photosynthesis and growth of sugar beets fumigated by H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ and generalized from the model calculations to other crops was used. Model calculations were made with estimates of time series of expected ground-level concentrations of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ calculated by the air quality assessment element of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP) at 22 locations around the valley. The model calculations also used time series data of meteorological variables such as air temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity, which were measured by the air quality baseline element in the field of the Imperial Valley. Results indicate that, in the absence of interactions with other ambient pollutant gases, all location would experience an increase (from slight to significant) in total growth of sugar beets. Seven locations will experience an increase of at least 10%. The emissions rate at which negative effects cancel out the benefits of H/sub 2/S fertilization was calculated; in the worst case, emission rates are expected to be no more than 1/13 of this crossover rate. The expected emission rate will be less than that necessary for negative effects on the most sensitive species (such as alfalfa) by a factor of 4. Similar results for other crops are summarized in the report. If CO/sub 2/ emissions are increased proportionately, the dominance of deleterious effects is not expected to occur, even under maximum development as set forth in IVEP scenario projections. 8 figures, 6 tables.

  20. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the bright white peak surrounded by red slopes in the lower left portion of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 25th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 30 kilometers by 60 kilometers (18.5 miles by 37 miles) that is centered at 56.18 degrees north latitude and 160.78 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the current activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The Kamchatka River runs from left to right across the image. An older, dormant volcanic region appears in green on the north side of the river. The current eruption included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). New lava flows are visible on the flanks of Kliuchevskoi, appearing yellow/green in the image, superimposed on the red surfaces in the lower center. Melting snow triggered mudflows on the north flank of the volcano, which may threaten agricultural zones and other settlements in the valley to the north. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars

  1. Space Radar Image of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the image, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the image. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the image. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the

  2. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the Maly Semlyachik volcano, which is part of the Karymsky volcano group on Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The image is centered at 54.2 degrees north latitude and 159.6 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on September 30, 1994, during the second flight. The image channels have been assigned the following colors: red corresponds to data acquired on April 9; green corresponds to data acquired on September 30; and blue corresponds to the ratio between data from April 9 and September 30, 1994. Kamchatka is twice as large as England, Scotland and Wales combined and is home to approximately 470,000 residents. The region is characterized by a chain of volcanoes stretching 800 kilometers (500 miles) across the countryside. Many of the volcanoes, including the active Maly Semlyachik volcano in this image, have erupted during this century. But the most active period in creating the three characteristic craters of this volcano goes back 20,000, 12,000 and 2,000 years ago. The highest summit of the oldest crater reaches about 1,560 meters (1,650 feet). The radar images reveal the geological structures of craters and lava flows in order to improve scientists' knowledge of these sometimes vigorously active volcanoes. This seasonal composite also highlights the ecological differences that have occurred between April and October 1994. In April the whole area was snow-covered and, at the coast, an ice sheet extended approximately 5 kilometers (3 miles) into the sea. The area shown surrounding the volcano is covered by low vegetation much like scrub. Kamchatka also has extensive forests, which belong to the northern frontier of Taiga, the boreal forest ecosystem. This region plays an important role in the world's carbon cycle. Trees require 60 years to

  3. Space Radar Image of Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a vertically polarized L-band image of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The image covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this image. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the image. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the imaged city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific

  4. Secret World of the Forbidden City: Splendors from Imperial China, 1644-1911 and Change and Continuity: Chinese Americans in California. Exhibition Information and Curriculum Guide for Teachers Grades 2-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    The materials in this curriculum guide were designed to prepare teachers and students in grades 2-11 for the "Secret World of the Forbidden City: Splendors from China's Imperial Palace 1644-1911" exhibition at the Oakland Museum of California Education Department, to inform teachers and students about Imperial China, and to illuminate the…

  5. Anomalous record of October 15, 1979, Imperial Valley, California, earthquake from Coachella Canal Engine House No. 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bycroft, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    A recording obtained at the Coachella Canal Engine House No. 4 of the October 15, 1979, Imperial Valley earthquake shows a dominant 2 Hz frequency. This feature is very unusual and an attempt has been made to determine if the recording is real or spurious. As the pumping station is a small heavily constructed bunker type of structure located on material of low shear wave velocity it was considered likely that soil-structure interaction might be responsible for the 2 Hz component. However, both an experimental and theoretical investigation fail to establish this. This report describes the theoretical investigation. The experimental investigation is described in a separate open-file report.

  6. Russian Language Course for Peace Corps Trainees in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobov, Valery A.; And Others

    This guide is designed for Russian language training of Peace Corps workers in Russia, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of seven instructional units. An introductory section gives an overview of the Russian language, Cyrillic alphabet, phonology, and morphology. The first instructional unit is intended as a…

  7. Civic Education and the Future of Democracy in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polozhevets, Pyotr; Schechter, Stephen L.; Perelmuter, Rimma

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the status of democratic civic education in Russia, particularly the need to educate teachers about democracy. Discusses the need for civic education reform, international cooperation in meeting those needs, dissemination of information on civic education, curriculum development and teacher-education projects, and the importance of…

  8. Indicators of the Education Potential of the Population of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikhomirov, N. P.; Ushchev, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    The steady tendencies toward the decline in the size of Russia's population in the twenty-first century, owing to the effect of global political, social, and economic factors, are giving rise to a number of fundamental problems that have to do with the erosion of the conditions that are essential not only for the stable development of society, but…

  9. 76 FR 11813 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... (75 FR 9252) and determined on June 4, 2010 that it would conduct full reviews (75 FR 35086, June 21... 10, 2010 (75 FR 48360). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on December 7, 2010, and all persons... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  10. 75 FR 9252 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... magnesium (also known as magnesium metal) from China and Russia (70 FR 19928-19931). The Commission is... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... employment statute for Federal employees, and Commission rule 201.15(b) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609...

  11. Epidemiology of Primary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Vladimir Region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Ershova, Julia V; Volchenkov, Grigory V; Kaminski, Dorothy A; Somova, Tatiana R; Kuznetsova, Tatiana A; Kaunetis, Natalia V; Cegielski, J Peter; Kurbatova, Ekaterina V

    2015-11-01

    We studied the epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Vladimir Region, Russia, in 2012. Most cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) were caused by transmission of drug-resistant strains, and >33% were in patients referred for testing after mass radiographic screening. Early diagnosis of drug resistance is essential for preventing transmission of MDR TB. PMID:26488585

  12. International Reports on Literacy Research: Canada, France, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Canada, France and Russia. In the first report, research correspondent Linda M. Phillips, in collaboration with Christian Beaulieu, reports on the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet). The vision of CLLRNet is…

  13. Traditions and Innovations: English Language Teaching in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ter-Minasova, Svetlana G.

    2005-01-01

    The English language in Russia: a brief survey. It includes a historical perspective, the traditions of the past and the new challenges of the present-day situation. The history is simple: it is based on a deep love of foreign languages in general and English in particular. Love against all odds, for better, for worse, for richer and for poorer.…

  14. The Problem of Engineering Creativity in Russia: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukushkin, Sergey; Churlyaeva, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    The problem of technological creativity in Russia is briefly discussed. Special attention is paid to the development of indigenous engineering corpus in unfavourable conditions and some reasons for engineers' low creativity are revealed. The Soviet system of engineering higher education (HE) is criticised as not focused on fostering creative…

  15. Responses to Agrarian Reforms in Russia: Evidence from Novosibirsk Oblast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davydova, Irina; Franks, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Interviews with Directors of restructured collective farms, private farmers, Rural Development Officers, and Agricultural specialists in the Administration from Suzun raion, Novosibirsk oblast, central Russia revealed a regional response to recent agrarian reforms. Distinct differences emerged between the objectives of the restructured collective…

  16. Electric propulsion in Russia and its practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, G. A.; Ryzhov, Y. A.

    1993-06-01

    The R&D of electric propulsion in Russia is discussed. Results of studies and tests on ion thrusters, arc thrusters, magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, pulsed plasma thrusters, and stationary plasma thrusters are described. The significance of the results for spacecraft discharging are addressed.

  17. On Models of the University in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozov, N. S.

    2008-01-01

    In current discussions of the problems that affect the development of higher education in Russia, two dimensions dominate, in which opinions diverge and positions clash. In the "first" ("the political and economic" dimension) the extreme poles are the "liberal approach" (according to which higher educational institutions ought to develop as…

  18. The New Universities of Russia: Problems and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiroi, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    Russian universities do poorly in international rankings, and this will hurt Russia's ability to compete successfully in the global market. One way in which to try to improve this situation is to create new universities by merging institutions and organize them in innovative ways to become more efficient and effective. [This article was translated…

  19. Household Childcare Choices and Women's Work Behavior in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokshin, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A model of a household demand for childcare, mothers' labor force participation and mothers' working hours in Russia is presented. The simulations presented show that family allowance transfers intended as a means of reducing poverty do not have a significant effect on a household's choice of childcare arrangements.

  20. Foreign Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2005-01-01

    In the next few years, higher educational institutions in Russia are going to have difficulties recruiting applicants for enrollment owing to the decline of the country's population and the reduced number of young people. One of the most important indicators of the effectiveness of the educational process and the level of competitiveness of the…

  1. The Household and the Family in Rural Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsiorkovskii, V. V.; Patsiorkovskaia, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    There is a great need to improve rural life in Russia, and this must involve the development of the agricultural economy. This will require improving life for rural families, making it easier for them to obtain land to farm, and providing adequate housing and cultural facilities in the Russian village. (Contains 1 table.) [This article was…

  2. 75 FR 28547 - Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S....

  3. The Narcotics Situation in Russia as a Social Pedagogical Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the use of narcotics in Russia has been complicated by the spread of new kinds of drugs that are less visible than more traditional kinds. A worsening of the situation must be prevented. This requires studying the accumulation of world experience, searching for up-to-date approaches to prevention, combining the efforts of science…

  4. Financing Education in Transitional Societies: Lessons from Russia and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark; Borevskaya, Nina

    2001-01-01

    Compares changing patterns in educational finance in Russia and China, drawing on the literature concerning educational change in societies moving from socialism to market economies. Discusses economic and political contexts in the two countries, public and private educational expenditures, decentralization of financial responsibilities, increased…

  5. FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

  6. FOREST FIRES IN RUSSIA: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Boreal forests of Russia play a significant role in the global carbon cycle and the f lux of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. ecause f ire and other disturbances are ecologically inherent in boreal forests, large areas are burned annually and contributions to the flux of carbo...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium bovis Strain BCG-1 (Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Shitikov, Egor A.; Malakhova, Maja V.; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Ilina, Elena N.; Atrasheuskaya, Alena V.; Ignatyev, Georgy M.; Vinokurova, Nataliya V.; Gorbachyov, Vyacheslav Y.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) is a vaccine strain used for protection against tuberculosis. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of M. bovis strain BCG-1 (Russia). Extensive use of this strain necessitates the study of its genome stability by comparative analysis. PMID:27034492

  8. Reforming Undergraduate Instruction in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovzik, Alexander; Watts, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Deals with the restructuring of undergraduate economics instruction at Russia's Moscow State University (MSU) since 1989. Examines how changes at MSU are reflected at Belarus State University and at Kiev State University. Considers issues such as training of faculty members, and the use of translated Western textbooks. (RLH)

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium bovis Strain BCG-1 (Russia).

    PubMed

    Sotnikova, Evgeniya A; Shitikov, Egor A; Malakhova, Maja V; Kostryukova, Elena S; Ilina, Elena N; Atrasheuskaya, Alena V; Ignatyev, Georgy M; Vinokurova, Nataliya V; Gorbachyov, Vyacheslav Y

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovisBCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) is a vaccine strain used for protection against tuberculosis. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence ofM. bovisstrain BCG-1 (Russia). Extensive use of this strain necessitates the study of its genome stability by comparative analysis. PMID:27034492

  10. The Social and Pedagogical Protection of Orphans in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantiukhina, E. N.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the history of the provision of children's care ("prizrenie") in Russia which provides evidence that the desire to help those close to one, especially orphans and the poor, was a traditional trait of the Russian national character. The system of children's welfare as it took shape over many centuries is unique in its own…

  11. A Look at TEFL in Russia and Ukraine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Mary Lee

    A survey of 53 teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Russia and Ukraine, conducted in May 1992, investigated current teaching conditions and methods and perceived needs and concerns. The teachers taught at elementary, secondary, and postsecondary levels; a majority taught in teacher training institutions. Over half the respondents…

  12. Children and Young People Are the Future of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of a country's population as the carrier of its intellectual potential increases greatly in a postindustrial country, where the nation's intelligence, comprised of an aggregate of the intelligence of individuals, becomes the true engine and decisive factor of progress. Any loss of human resources in Russia, without regard to age and…

  13. The Modernization of Russia and Base Centers for Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riabov, V. V.; Rakitov, A. I.

    2011-01-01

    The modernization of Russia requires people to be trained for a modern economy, for technological development, and for the sphere of state, regional, and corporate management. Accomplishing this complex task has been assigned to the "New School" policy, approved in 2010. The present article examines ways of dealing with problems that arise in this…

  14. Understanding Care for the Poor in Rural Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubin, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    The issues surrounding care and care-provision have been key themes in social scientific research, yet the intersections between care and poverty, particularly in rural contexts, have not been sufficiently explored. This paper addresses this gap by studying care for the poor in rural Russia. It argues that isolated, disengaged and decontextualised…

  15. In Russia, Corruption Plagues the Higher-Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    From the top down, says the writer, Russia's universities are impoverished by bribery and insider deals large and small. A new president's dorm at Nizhniy Novgorod is one example of what anti-corruption watchdogs say is widespread mismanagement, and in some cases outright corruption, throughout the country's higher-education system. Presidents use…

  16. Distance Education in Russia: Between the Past and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moiseeva, Marina

    2005-01-01

    The history of distance education in Russia and in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) is a history of dramatic change in ideology, conceptual framework, and approach. It can be divided into two main stages: initial formation and development into the world's largest system of correspondence learning, from the mid 1920s to the…

  17. Human Resource Development Practices in Russia: A Structured Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.

    2005-01-01

    This literature review aimed to investigate the literature on HRD in Russian enterprises, U.S. firms in Russia, or U.S.-Russian joint ventures to determine the role and function of HRD practitioners in creating a successful economic transition. Thirty-three articles were selected through a database search and examined using content analysis. Three…

  18. In Russia, a Model Program Reunites Research and Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bryon

    2007-01-01

    Scientific research has traditionally been left to professionals in Russia. Here, though, graduates and undergraduates work alongside established scientists from different fields, on modern equipment. Some even earn enough money to support themselves. The students have been given this chance under a joint program of the United States and Russia…

  19. Resume Writing in Russia and the Newly Independent States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Betsy; Sapp, David Alan; Sargsyan, Nelly

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the teaching of resume writing at one university in Russia and several institutions in the Newly Independent States (NIS). The authors explore challenges including variable cultural norms for written versus oral communication, severe financial and material hardship in the educational sector, cultural discomfort with the norms…

  20. Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Provides an assessment of the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The report was prepared in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is part of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP).

  1. The Changing Nature of Rurality and Rural Studies in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubin, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to outline different strands of the reconfiguration of the social and spatial perspectives on the countryside in Russia in the last 20 years. The country's transition implied changes in the production of knowledge, including the re-examination of research topics and bringing new theories into rural studies. The article strives to…

  2. Needs Assessment for Health Care Management Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekhter, Natalia; Togunov, Igor A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: For more than 70 years, health care management in the Soviet Union reflected a centralized directive style familiar to the Soviet political system. Market-oriented reform in post-Soviet Russia is pushing practicing physicians and physician-executives to acquire new information and skills regarding health care management. To assist…

  3. Engineering Education in Russia in an Era of Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukianenko, M. V.; Polezhaev, O. A.; Churliaeva, N. P.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering education in Russia is undergoing reforms, but the history of this form of higher education does not indicate that it will succeed in bringing it into line with current world standards, or even making it more able to contribute at a high level to Russian economic growth. (Contains 5 notes.)

  4. Changing tendencies in national identity of the peoples of Russia.

    PubMed

    Aleksakhina, N A

    1999-01-01

    The author examines changes in the ethnic composition of the population of Russia over time, with particular reference to the factors that influence people to change their ethnic affiliation in response to political or other pressures. Attention is also given to the effects of ethnically mixed marriages on the nationality chosen by the children of such marriages. PMID:12294983

  5. Late Babylonian Astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  6. Public health in Russia: the view from the inside.

    PubMed

    Tkatchenko, E; McKee, M; Tsouros, A D

    2000-06-01

    The health of the Russian population continues to lag far behind that in the west. A robust public health response to the high levels of communicable and non-communicable diseases is required. This challenge has attracted considerable attention from international donor agencies and others, but there are still many questions about how the health situation in Russia is understood by policy-makers within the country and what responses are being considered. This paper examines these questions by means of a review of literature published in Russia and interviews with key informants. It concludes that although many of the determinants of health in Russia have been identified, they are typically discussed in a general way. Research on the major determinants of disease in Russia, and published in the international literature, appears to have had little impact. The need for reform to enhance the public health response is recognized. Goals of reform have been described but are poorly defined and there is typically little relationship between a stated goal and the strategy proposed to achieve it. There is a lack of clarity about what is meant by public health, and key concepts, such as inter-sectoral and multi-disciplinary working, are either ignored or misunderstood. Evidence of capacity for managed change is weak. There is an urgent need to create a shared awareness of evidence on the nature of the health challenges facing Russia and the evidence base for both the content of potential responses and the strategies that might be adopted to implement them. PMID:10837039

  7. Petroleum habitat of East Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. In the Lena-Tunguska province, rifts that developed during Riphean time are filled by thick sedimentary rocks, in which petroleum deposits have formed. In Early Cambrian time a barrier reef extended across the East Siberian craton from southeast to northwest. A lagoon to the west of this reef was the site of thick rhythmic salt deposits, which are the main seals for petroleum in the province. The sedimentary sections of the platform cover ranges in age from Late Proterozoic to Permian. More than 25 oil and gas fields have been discovered in the province, all in Riphean through Lower Cambrian rocks. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  8. A health assessment for imperial Roman burials recovered from the necropolis of San Donato and Bivio CH, Urbino, Italy.

    PubMed

    Paine, Robert R; Vargiu, Rita; Signoretti, Carla; Coppa, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Imperial Roman burials recovered from the sites of San Donato and Bivio CH, located in the city of Urbino, Italy were examined for skeletal lesions. Observed pathologies include arthritis, trauma, periostitis, cranial pitting and enamel hypoplasia. All of the adults exhibited at least one enamel hypoplasia. In general, the adult males exhibit greater rates of skeletal pathologies than the females. Clearly, chronic health problems appear to be common among all adults; nearly 89% of them exhibit at least one form of skeletal lesion. This is in stark contrast to what is seen for the sub-adults. Only one sub-adult showed skeletal lesions. Acute health problems may have been the primary contributing factors for the death of the children recovered from the site. Despite previous research and attention to malaria as a critical health problem of Roman sub-adults, it does not seem to be an issue for this burial sample. We compare the frequency of cranial pitting and periostitis for the Urbino burials to several other Imperial Roman skeletal samples as a means to assess the potential for malaria and other casual factors for the observed lesions. In conclusion, we see the extreme rate of skeletal lesions for this community as indication of an extremely poor quality of life for these Romans. PMID:19663175

  9. [Asylum for curing or securing? The confinement of forensic patients as a challenge of asylum psychiatry in Imperial Germany].

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Asylum for curing or securing? The confinement of forensic patients as a challenge of asylum psychiatry in Imperial Germany. In Imperial Germany psychiatrists sought to give their asylums the character of modern medical hospitals. Due to the increase of insanity defence these efforts were obstructed by the high number of inmates with a criminal background. Special departments for mentally ill criminals were founded both in asylums and in prisons. But the clientele was not welcome in any of these institutions. Thus, there was a high fluctuation between prisons and asylums. A new definition of criminal responsibility was needed. In order to keep criminals out of their hospitals psychiatrists developed the medical concept of psychopathy referring to a mental defect without lack of responsibility. On the other hand penal law reformers plead to introduce preventive measures, such as security confinement, into the criminal law book. Since the resolution of the 'law against habitual criminals' in November 1933 judges are allowed to sentence mentally ill offenders to indefinite confinement in psychiatric institutions. PMID:17144371

  10. [Civil engineering education at the Imperial College of Engineering in Tokyo: an analysis based on Ayahiko Ishibashi's memoirs].

    PubMed

    Wada, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    The Imperial College of Engineering (ICE or Kobu-Daigakko) in Tokyo, founded in 1873 under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Works, was one of the most prominent modern institutions of engineering education in early Meiji Japan. Previous studies have revealed that the ICE offered large scale practical training programs at enterprises of the Ministry, which sometimes lasted several months, and praised their ideal combination of theory and practice. In reality, it has been difficult to evaluate the quality of education at the ICE mainly because of scarcity of sources. ICE students published a collection of memoirs for alumni members, commemorating the fiftieth-year of the history of the Tokyo Imperial University. Drawing on the previously neglected collection of students' memoires, this paper appraises the education of civil engineering offered by the ICE. The paper also compares this collection with other official records of the college, and confirms it as a reliable source, even though it contains some minor errors. The author particularly uses the memoirs by Ayahiko Ishibashi, one of the first graduates from its civil engineering course, who left sufficient reminiscences on education that he received. This paper, as a result, illustrates that the main practical training for the students of civil engineering was limited to designing process, including surveying. Furthermore, practical training that Ishibashi received at those enterprises often lacked a plan, and its effectiveness was questionable. PMID:25087447

  11. Assessment of the impact on crops of effluent gases from geothermal energy development in the Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, J.R.

    1981-05-22

    We have assessed the potential impact of regionally dispersed sources of geothermal gaseous effluents on crops in the Imperial Valley. We used a detailed model of the photosynthesis and growth of sugar beets fumigated by H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ and generalized from the model calculations to other crops. Model calculations were made with estimates of time series of expected ground-level concentrations of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ calculated by the Air Quality Assessment element of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP) at 22 locations around the valley. Results indicate that in the absence of interactions with other ambient pollutant gases, all locations would experience an increase (from slight to significant) in total growth of sugar beets. Seven locations will experience an increase of at least 10%. We calculated the emissions rate at which negative effects cancel out the benefits of H/sub 2/S fertilization; in the worst case, emission rates are expected to be no more than 1/13 this crossover rate. The expected emission rate will be less than that necessary for negative effects on the most sensitive species (such as alfalfa) by a factor of 4. Similar results for other crops are summarized in the report. If CO/sub 2/ emissions are increased proportionately, the dominance of deleterious effects is not expected to occur even under maximum development as set forth in IVEP scenario projections. 23 references, 8 figures, 6 tables.

  12. Final Scientific / Technical Report, Geothermal Resource Exploration Program, Truckhaven Area, Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Layman Energy Associates, Inc.

    2006-08-15

    With financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Layman Energy Associates, Inc. (LEA) has completed a program of geothermal exploration at the Truckhaven area in Imperial County, California. The exploratory work conducted by LEA included the following activities: compilation of public domain resource data (wells, seismic data, geologic maps); detailed field geologic mapping at the project site; acquisition and interpretation of remote sensing imagery such as aerial and satellite photographs; acquisition, quality control and interpretation of gravity data; and acquisition, quality control and interpretation of resistivity data using state of the art magnetotelluric (MT) methods. The results of this exploratory program have allowed LEA to develop a structural and hydrologic interpretation of the Truckhaven geothermal resource which can be used to guide subsequent exploratory drilling and resource development. Of primary significance, is the identification of an 8 kilometer-long, WNW-trending zone of low resistivity associated with geothermal activity in nearby wells. The long axis of this low resistivity zone is inferred to mark a zone of faulting which likely provides the primary control on the distribution of geothermal resources in the Truckhaven area. Abundant cross-faults cutting the main WNW-trending zone in its western half may indicate elevated fracture permeability in this region, possibly associated with thermal upwelling and higher resource temperatures. Regional groundwater flow is inferred to push thermal fluids from west to east along the trend of the main low resistivity zone, with resource temperatures likely declining from west to east away from the inferred upwelling zone. Resistivity mapping and well data have also shown that within the WNW-trending low resistivity zone, the thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary section above granite basement ranges from 1,900–2,600 meters. Well data indicates the lower part of this

  13. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  14. Late Washing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-08-31

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft{sup 2} for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec.

  15. Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils: Russia and contiguous countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, E. D.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Sabodina, E. P.

    2014-03-01

    The development of the Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils is a challenge necessitated by the intensive and exhaustive use of soil resources. The long-term strategy of interaction between humans and the environment should be directed towards the creation of favorable conditions for the development of society and saving of nature via application of new legislative norms aimed at preservation of pedodiversity and especially valuable soils. It is important to develop pedology as a fundamental science and to harmonize the relation-ships between humans and nature. The 30-year-long experience of Russia in the development of the Red Data Books of Soils is analyzed, and several conclusions aimed at improving the efficiency of special protection of soils in Russia and contiguous countries are made.

  16. Elder abuse and neglect vs. parricide: a letter from Russia.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    In Russia, elder abuse is rarely discussed in the professional literature and the media. However, it is posited that parricide can be considered a form of elder abuse in Russia, as the line between elder abuse and parricide can be vague. Instances of parricide can appear trivial, hardly realized as such by victims and the social environment. Borderline cases can include involving older people in binge drinking, denying them help, and manipulating them to commit suicide. The perpetrators are often nonpsychotic, although sometimes exhibiting abnormal personality traits. Anger toward the victim can be absent on the part of the perpetrator, with their actions often driven by economic desires. A concluding point is that for better prevention of parricide and, therefore, elder abuse, it should not be considered only an unusual horrific crime committed by the mentally ill. PMID:24779543

  17. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  18. Health lifestyles and political ideology in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Cockerham, Geoffrey B; Abbott, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the association of political ideology with health lifestyle practices and self-rated health in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. The political trajectory of post-Soviet societies has taken two divergent paths, either toward democracy or autocracy. The health trajectory has followed the same pattern with the more autocratic states continuing to experience a mortality crisis, while those former socialist countries that have embraced democracy and moved closer to the West have escaped this crisis. This paper investigates whether political ideology in three post-Soviet countries that are firmly (Belarus), increasingly (Russia), or recently (Ukraine) autocratic is related to health lifestyles and health self-ratings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (N = 8406) with a representative national sample of the adult population. The results show that respondents who are against restoring communism have healthier lifestyles and rate their health better than respondents who wish to see communism return. PMID:16162381

  19. The Higher Education Boom in Russia. Scale, Causes, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arapov, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    The past ten years in Russia have been a period of rapid growth of the system of higher education. The number of college students, which fell to the lowest point in the mid-1990s, began to rise both in the country as a whole and in just about all of the country's regions. From the 1993-94 academic year (or the 1994-95 academic year, because in the…

  20. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  1. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Pengzhu; Li, Xin; Chen, Hsinchun; Dang, Yan; Larson, Catherine; Roco, Mihail C; Wang, Xianwen

    2009-11-01

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R&D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976-2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries' paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as "Quantum dots," "Carbon nanotubes," "Atomic force microscopy," and "Scanning electron microscopy," while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion. PMID:21170128

  2. Did Catherine the Great of Russia have syphilis?

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R S

    1991-01-01

    Catherine the Great (1729-96) ruled Russia for the last 34 years of her life. She pursued many reforms with energy, intelligence and political shrewdness. Not least amongst her activities was a serious interest in matters of public health which extended to personal involvement in the care of the venereally infected. This paper suggests that perhaps her zeal in this last was based on more than social awareness. Images PMID:1774056

  3. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengzhu; Li, Xin; Chen, Hsinchun; Dang, Yan; Larson, Catherine; Roco, Mihail C.; Wang, Xianwen

    2009-01-01

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R&D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976–2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries’ paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as “Quantum dots,” “Carbon nanotubes,” “Atomic force microscopy,” and “Scanning electron microscopy,” while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion. PMID:21170128

  4. First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Sotnikova, Marina V; Foronova, Irina V

    2014-08-01

    A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznetsk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia). The find of P. fossilis first recorded in Asia considerably extends the current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions. The Siberian lion is geologically the oldest form and is dimensionally among the largest members of the group of fossil lions on the Eurasian continent. Although known by mandibular remains only, it is readily distinguished from Panthera (Leo) spelaea by a heavy built mandibular corpus with rectangular profile in the cheek teeth area, a deep, well-outlined and narrow anterior section of the masseteric fossa, and a large p4 supported by a big unreduced anterior root. The Siberian lion shares these features with the European Middle Pleistocene P. fossilis and the American Late Pleistocene P. (Leo) atrox, which suggests their close relationship. P. atrox originated from P. fossilis and was isolated in North America south of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This explains why the American lion has retained more primitive features than the coeval Eurasian cave lion P. (L.) spelaea. PMID:24382145

  5. Life cycle of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the North-West of Russia.

    PubMed

    Grigoryeva, L A; Stanyukovich, M K

    2016-07-01

    The life cycle of Ixodes persulcatus lasts 3 years in the conditions of the Leningrad province (North-West Russia), the development of each phase taking a year. The normal age of the taiga tick is 3 years. The calendar age of larvae and nymphs reaches 11-12 months under favorable abiotic and biotic factors, while the calendar age of adults does not exceed 11 months. At the preimaginal phases of development the ticks that breed in August can feed before or after winter. However, their metamorphosis begins and reaches completion within the same timeframes (from late June to early August) and lasts for about 30-50 (60) days. The survival rate of hungry and engorged larvae and nymphs after wintering is quite high (88.6-100 %). We explain the low activity of larvae and nymphs in late summer and autumn by incomplete development. Morphogenetic diapause of engorged larvae and nymphs interrupts digestion but not metamorphosis which starts only in late June and July after the complete absorption of blood from the gut cavity. PMID:26979586

  6. Alcohol Consumption in Russia and Some Aspects of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Context The problem of alcohol misuse in Russia is immense; but nonetheless there is a tendency to exaggerate it, which is evident for inside observers. Such exaggeration tends to veil shortcomings of the health care system with responsibility shifted onto the patients, that is, self-inflicted diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the above-mentioned and other problems related to the alcohol consumption in Russia, not clearly perceptible from the literature, e.g. toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages. Evidence Acquisition This report is based on a review of literature and observations by the author during the period 1970 - 2014. Results Predictable increase of alcohol consumption after the anti-alcohol campaign facilitated the economical reforms of the early 1990s: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations of state-owned enterprises partly due to their drunkenness, involvement in workplace theft and use of equipment for profit, which was often tolerated by the management at that and earlier time. Conclusions Last time, a gradual change of the alcohol consumption pattern in Russia has been noticed: less heavy binge drinking of vodka, fortified wine and surrogates; more moderate consumption of beer. PMID:27162763

  7. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. PMID:25012953

  8. An update on emergency care and emergency medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Rodigin, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Russia's national healthcare system is undergoing significant changes. Those changes which affect healthcare financing are particularly vital. As has often been the case in other nations, the emergency care field is at the forefront of such reforms. The ongoing challenges constitute the environment in which the hospital-based specialty of emergency medicine needs to develop as part of a larger system. Emergency care has to evolve in order to match true needs of the population existing today. New federal regulations recently adopted have recognized emergency departments as the new in-hospital component of emergency care, providing the long-needed legal foundation upon which the new specialty can advance. General knowledge of Western-style emergency departments in terms of their basic setup and function has been widespread among Russia's medical professionals for some time. Several emergency departments are functioning in select regions as pilots. Preliminary data stemming from their operation have supported a positive effect on efficiency of hospital bed utilization and on appropriate use of specialists and specialized hospital departments. In the pre-hospital domain, there has been a reduction of specialized ambulance types and of the number of physicians staffing all ambulances in favor of midlevel providers. Still, a debate continues at all levels of the medical hierarchy regarding the correct future path for emergency care in Russia with regard to adaptation and sustainability of any foreign models in the context of the country's unique national features. PMID:26608599

  9. Distribution and color variation of gyrfalcons in Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Ellis, C.H.; Pendleton, G.W.; Panteleyev, A.V.; Rebrova, I.V.; Markin, Y.M.

    1992-01-01

    Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) museum specimens in Moscow (73) and St. Petersburg (132) were divided into four color classes (gray, light gray, white gray, and white) and four longitudinal belts representing major physiographic regions of northern Russia. Gray variants predominated in the west and central regions. White birds were most common in extreme eastern Siberia, but were occasionally found even west of the Ural Mountains. Frequencies were as follows: European Russia 4% white, 50% gray (the remainder were intermediates); western Siberia 0% white, 58% gray; central Siberia 15% white, 42% gray; and eastern Siberia 47% white, 33% gray. Remarkably, in the easternmost subregion, white birds predominated even near the southernmost extension. Because the northernmost portions of the species' range in continental Russia are in central Siberia where white variants were rare, we propose that a better predictor of the white variant is longitude, not latitude. White birds were most frequent at the eastern reaches of both the Palearctic and Nearctic. The best environmental correlates of this distribution pattern may be the southward bending thermal isoclines proceeding eastward toward Greenland or Kamchatka, where both land masses are bathed by cold oceanic currents of Arctic origin. By contrast, the western reaches of both land masses are bathed by warm currents. In these western reaches, Gyrfalcon summer distribution is displaced northward and dark variants predominate. The breeding range of the Gyrfalcon, determined by mapping the locations of the specimens we examined, differs little from the range proposed in 1951.

  10. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, S.; Rafikova, J.; Shakun, V.

    2012-10-01

    During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  11. The Spacebridge to Russia Project: internet-based telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Angood, P B; Doarn, C R; Holaday, L; Nicogossian, A E; Merrell, R C

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been a pioneer in telemedicine since the beginning of the human spaceflight program in the early 1960s. With the rapid evolution in computer technology and equally rapid development of computer networks, NASA and the Department of Surgery in Yale University's School of Medicine created a telemedicine testbed with the Russia Space Agency, the Spacebridge to Russia Project, using multimedia computers connected via the Internet. Clinical consultations were evaluated in a store-and-forward mode using a variety of electronic media, packaged as digital files, and transmitted using Internet and World Wide Web tools. These systems allow real-time Internet video teleconferencing between remotely located users over computer systems. This report describes the project and the evaluation methods utilized for monitoring effectiveness of the communications. The Spacebridge to Russia Project is a testbed for Internet-based telemedicine. The Internet and current computer technologies (hardware and software) make telemedicine readily accessible and affordable for most health care providers. Internet-based telemedicine is a communication tool that should become integral to global health care. PMID:10220470

  12. Organohalogenated contaminants in eggs of rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) and imperial shags (Phalacrocorax atriceps) from the Falkland Islands.

    PubMed

    Van den Steen, Evi; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Pinxten, Rianne; van Noordwijk, Hendrika J; Quillfeldt, Petra; Eens, Marcel

    2011-06-15

    In this study, we evaluated the use of seabird eggs of two common bird species from the Falkland Islands as bioindicators of contamination with organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs). We compared contamination levels and profiles of different OHCs between eggs of the rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) and the imperial shag (Phalacrocorax atriceps). In addition, laying order effects on OHC concentrations and profiles were also investigated in both species. For polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), concentrations were significantly lower in eggs of rockhopper penguins (27.6±0.70 ng/g lw, 56.5±1.33 ng/g lw and 0.98±0.04 ng/g lw, respectively) compared to the imperial shags (140±5.54 ng/g lw, 316±11.53 ng/g lw, 1.92±0.15 ng/g lw, respectively). On the other hand, 2'MeO-BDE 68 and 6MeO-BDE 47, two brominated compounds of reported natural origin, were significantly higher in the penguin eggs (0.55±0.05 ng/g lw and 7.01±0.64 ng/g lw, respectively) compared to the shag eggs (0.17±0.03 ng/g lw and 0.50±0.06 ng/g lw, respectively). In addition, PCB, OCP and PBDE contamination profiles differed markedly between the two species. Various factors, such as diet, feeding behaviour, migratory behaviour and species-specific metabolism, may be responsible for the observed results. For both rockhopper penguins and imperial shags, PCB, OCP and PBDE concentrations and profiles did not significantly change in relation to the laying order. This suggests that, for both species, any egg of a clutch is useful as a biomonitoring tool for OHCs. Although our results showed that OHCs have also reached the Falkland Islands, concentrations were relatively low compared to other studies. However, future monitoring may be warranted to assess temporal trends of different OHCs. PMID:21529893

  13. [Late postcontusion secondary glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Chiseliţă, D; Vancea, P; Filiman, O; Brănişteanu, D; Bredetean, M; Poiata, I

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of 33 patients with late postcontusional glaucoma subjected to surgery and followed up for 25 +/- 8.24 months has revealed: the interval accident-surgery is shorter in the close-angle combined forms; the essential mechanisms responsible for glaucoma occurrence are: the alteration of trabecular meshwork (for open-angle glaucoma) and pupillary block (for close angle glaucoma); simple cases required antiglaucoma surgery (trabeculectomy, peripheral iridectomy) and the mixed ones required combined (trabeculectomy, lens extraction, lens implant) or sequential surgeries (antiglaucoma surgery, vitrectomy etc); the glaucomatous process was stopped in 83.4% of the open-angle glaucoma cases and progressed in 23.5% of the close-angle glaucoma cases; the functional improvements post antiglaucoma surgery combined with removal of opacities are lessened by the higher frequency of severe per- and post-operative complication. PMID:7654676

  14. Natural-focal diseases: mapping experience in Russia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Natural-focal diseases constitute a serious hazard for human health. Agents and vectors of such diseases belong to natural landscapes. The aim of this study is to identify the diversity and geography of natural-focal diseases in Russia and to develop cartographic approaches for their mapping, including mathematical-cartographical modeling. Russian medico-geographical mapping of natural-focal diseases is highly developed regionally and locally but extremely limited at the national level. To solve this problem, a scientific team of the Faculty of Geography at Lomonosov Moscow State University has developed and implemented a project of a medico-geographical Atlas of Russia “Natural-Focal Diseases”. Methods The mapping is based on medical statistics data. The Atlas contains a series of maps on disease incidence, long-term dynamics of disease morbidity, etc. In addition, other materials available to the authors were used: mapping of the natural environment, field data, archival materials, analyzed satellite images, etc. The maps are processed using ArcGIS (ESRI) software application. Different methods of rendering of mapped phenomena are used (geographical ranges, diagrams, choropleth maps etc.). Results A series of analytical, integrated, and synthetic maps shows disease incidence in the population at both the national and regional levels for the last 15 years. Maps of the mean annual morbidity of certain infections and maps of morbidity dynamics and nosological profiles allow for a detailed analysis of the situation for each of 83 administrative units of the Russian Federation. The degree of epidemic hazard in Russia by natural-focal diseases is reflected in a synthetic medico-geographical map that shows the degree of epidemic risks due to such diseases in Russia and allows one to estimate the risk of disease manifestation in a given region. Conclusions This is the first attempt at aggregation and public presentation of diverse and multifaceted

  15. Artificial radionuclides in Russia due to the Fukushima NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polianskaia, Olga; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Kim, Vera; Yahryushin, Valery; Volokitin, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive emission into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. The network of Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service (Rosgydromet) carries out supervision over a radiation situation on the territory of Russia. In Russia, the first radionuclides from Fukushima were detected on March 20th in the Far East by network. From March 20th to April 30th I-131 (particulate form), Cs-137 and Cs-134 were detected in samples of atmospheric aerosols at the 30 stations of networks and the same ones were detected in fallout at the 25 stations of networks. The first detection of I-131 in the European territory of Russia (ETR) occurred on March 23rd; and in the South and the North of Siberia - on March 26th. The volumetric activities of I-131 in the ETR sharply increased from March 28th to 30th. Along with the increasing content of I-131 cesium isotopes appeared in the air. The maximum values of radionuclides volume activity were observed between April 3rd and 4th: for I-131 - 4,0 mBq/m3, for Cs-137 - 1,15 mBq/m3, for Cs-134 - 1,04 mBq/m3. Observed in the Far East, the maximum values for I-131 were 2-4 times lower than in the ETR. The maximum values for I-131 in the Asian territory of Russia (ATR) were 2 - 8 times lower, than in the ETR. The Cs-137/Cs-134 ratio in samples of atmospheric aerosols was about 1. The ratio I-131/Cs-137 in air changed in a wide range. From March 23rd to April 5th the ratio fluctuated within 11 to 34, from April 5th to 20th of the ratio decreased and varied within 1,5 to 7,7, further it became less than 1. The value of cesium isotopes in second quarter of 2011 in fallout was lower than 2 Bq/m2. The addition to the density of soil contamination by Cs-137 by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than the decrease of the density of contamination with this isotope of the global origin due to radioactive decay. Based on the obtained experimental data we can

  16. [Epizootological assessment of the possibilities of importing plague from Vietnam to Russia].

    PubMed

    Bazanova, L P; Maramovich, A S; Nikitin, A Ia; Okunev, L P; Innokent'eva, T I; Kosilko, S A; Voronova, G A

    2011-01-01

    To assess whether the plague microbe with vectors or carriers can be imported from Vietnam to Russia, the authors consider the specific features of pathogen circulation in this country's biotopes varying in anthropogenic transformation. The idea that there were natural foci of plague in Vietnam dominated until the late 1990s. The small rat Rattus exulans that inhabits open stations and ensures a parasitic contact with the synanthropic representatives of the fauna was considered to be a major carrier. The recent years have provided conclusive proofs that plague foci are absent in Vietnam wild nature. Anthropurgic foci develop in the network of localities whose conditions are favorable to the existence of synanthropic rodents and the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis. Cases of the plague pathogen, FI antigen and its antibodies being detected in wild mammals are due to their parasitic contacts with synanthropic rats in the agrocultural area around the localities with running epizootias. These contacts are provided by X.cheopis only. Since 2003, there have been no reports on the incidence of human plague or its pathogen isolation from environmental objects in Vietnam. However, all conditions and prerequisites for the formation ofanthropurgic plague foci remain in this country. Further epizootological monitoring is required for appropriate services to rapidly and adequately respond if the epizootological or epidemiological situation of this infection changes. PMID:21797070

  17. Ecosystem remodelling among vertebrates at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Russia.

    PubMed

    Benton, M J; Tverdokhlebov, V P; Surkov, M V

    2004-11-01

    The mass extinction at the Permian-Triassic boundary, 251 million years (Myr) ago, is accepted as the most profound loss of life on record. Global data compilations indicate a loss of 50% of families or more, both in the sea and on land, and these figures scale to a loss of 80-96% of species, based on rarefaction analyses. This level of loss is confirmed by local and regional-scale studies of marine sections, but the terrestrial record has been harder to analyse in such close detail. Here we document the nature of the event in Russia in a comprehensive survey of 675 specimens of amphibians and reptiles from 289 localities spanning 13 successive geological time zones in the South Urals basin. These changes in diversity and turnover cannot be explained simply by sampling effects. There was a profound loss of genera and families, and simplification of ecosystems, with the loss of small fish-eaters and insect-eaters, medium and large herbivores and large carnivores. Faunal dynamics also changed, from high rates of turnover through the Late Permian period to greater stability at low diversity through the Early Triassic period. Even after 15 Myr of ecosystem rebuilding, some guilds were apparently still absent-small fish-eaters, small insect-eaters, large herbivores and top carnivores. PMID:15525988

  18. Geochemical characteristics of organic compounds in a permafrost sediment core sample from northeast Siberia, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, G. I.; Friedmann, E. I.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    We studied total organic carbon (TOC), hydrocarbons and fatty acids in a permafrost sediment core sample (well 6-90, length 32.0 m, 1.5-2.5 Ma BP) from northeast Siberia (approximately 70 degrees N, 158 degrees E), Russia, to elucidate their geochemical features in relation to source organisms and paleoenvironmental conditions. Long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids (>C19) were most predominant hydrocarbons and fatty acids, respectively, so organic matter in the sediment core was derived mainly from vascular plants and, to a much smaller extent, from bacteria. Low concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that organic matter in the sediment core was considerably degraded during and/or after sedimentation. The predominance of vascular plant components, the major ionic components of nonmarine sources, and geological data strongly implied that the sediment layers were formed in shallow lacustrine environments, such as swamp with large influences of tundra or forest-tundra vegetation. Also, no drastic changes in paleoenvironmental conditions for biological activity or geological events, such as sea transgressions or ice-sheet influences, occurred at the sampling site approximately 100 km from the coast of the East Siberian Sea during the late Pliocene an early Pleistocene periods.

  19. Formation of composite dykes by contact remelting and magma mingling: The Shaluta pluton, Transbaikalia (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinovsky, B. A.; Zanvilevich, A. N.; Katzir, Y.

    2012-10-01

    A unique opportunity to study the source areas, from which composite dykes were injected, occurs in the Shaluta pluton, Transbaikalia, Russia. The major quartz syenite pluton was intruded by several synplutonic gabbro bodies of various sizes. Investigations of the contact zones between gabbro and host syenite showed that liquid basalt magma intruded the incompletely crystallized coarse-grained quartz syenite with T = 700-720 °C and caused contact remelting of the silicic rock at about 900-950 °C. Mechanical interaction between newly formed silicic melt and partially crystallized mafic magma resulted in extensive magma mingling. Chemical interaction was exhibited by migration of MgO, CaO, FeO∗, Sr, H2O and Cl from the basalt magma, whereas silica, alkalis, Rb and Ba migrated from the silicic refusion zone into the crystallized gabbro. Presence of melt inclusions with homogenization temperature ranging from 640 to 790 °C in quartz and attaining 850-900 °C in late clinopyroxene indicates that at least part of newly formed minerals crystallized from the hybrid melt. Mingled magmatic material was squeezed out inwards, into the host solid quartz syenite pluton and formed dyke-like apophyses that can be traced for a distance of 60-70 m from the contact zone. Apophyses have the same dimensions, structure and composition as typical composite dykes that are common in the roof pendant over the gabbro bodies and nearby the gabbro exposures.

  20. Fundamental research in the area of high temperature fuel cells in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Dyomin, A.K.

    1996-04-01

    Research in the area of molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells has been conducted in Russia since the late 60`s. Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry is the lead organisation in this area. Research in the area of materials used in fuel cells has allowed us to identify compositions of electrolytes, electrodes, current paths and transmitting, sealing and structural materials appropriate for long-term fuel cell applications. Studies of electrode processes resulted in better understanding of basic patterns of electrode reactions and in the development of a foundation for electrode structure optimization. We have developed methods to increase electrode activity levels that allowed us to reach current density levels of up to 1 amper/cm{sup 2}. Development of mathematical models of processes in high temperature fuel cells has allowed us to optimize their structure. The results of fundamental studies have been tested on laboratory mockups. MCFC mockups with up to 100 W capacity and SOFC mockups with up to 1 kW capacity have been manufactured and tested at IHTE. There are three SOFC structural options: tube, plate and modular.

  1. Digital-model evaluation of the ground-water resources in Ocotillo-Coyote Wells Basin, Imperial County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skrivan, James A.

    1977-01-01

    A flow model using finite-element techniques has been constructed for an alluvial aquifer in the Ocotillo-Coyote Wells Basin, Imperial County, Calif. Natural recharge is about 2,600 acre-feet per year, and estimated ground water in storage is 640 ,000 acre-feet. Pumpage totaled 880 acre-feet in 1975. The computed decline from steady-state conditions in 1925 to December 1975 was 15 feet in Ocotillo. The projected decline from 1976 to 1995 with annual pumpage of 1,000 acre-feet is 6 feet and with annual pumpage of 2,000 acre-feet is 17 feet in Ocotillo. In the latter projection, continued pumping after 1995 may cause saline water to flow toward the potable ground water in and around Ocotillo. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Identification of different types of imperial age marble finds using instrumental chemical analysis and pattern recognition analysis.

    PubMed

    Campanella, L; Gregori, E; Tomassetti, M; Visco, G

    2001-01-01

    A physical-chemical characterisation of several marbles frequently used in ancient times for artistic or decorative purposes was performed in support the work of historians and restorers. The data were obtained using several different types of instrumental chemical methods (Thermogravimetry, Differential Thermal Analysis, X-ray Diffractometry and ICP Plasma Emission Spectroscopy) and have been summarised in short tables. The data have already proved useful in the identification of a small number of finds (statues or architectonic elements) from Ancient Rome (Imperial Age, 2nd-3nd cent. A.D.) for the purpose of which also a well-known pattern recognition analysis software package was used for data processing. In practice, the research showed that an organised set of chemical data obtained using several modern instrumental methods can provide a valid basis for the reasonably rapid and reliable identification of the type of marble used to make artistic artifacts that have not yet been subjected to typological study. PMID:11836948

  3. Scientific investigation of the Imperial Gates belonging to the wooden church from Săcel, Turda County, Romania.

    PubMed

    Măruţoiu, C; Bratu, I; Troşan, L; Neamtu, C; Măruţoiu, V C; Pop, D; Tănăselia, C; Garabagiu, S

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage objects have a major contribution to the historical patrimony of every country. In Romania, wooden churches are famous, they are mostly dated in between the XVth and XXth century, but unfortunately many of them have been destroyed, by natural or anthropic means. Therefore, the necessity of conservation and restoration has appeared, to the ones that still exist, as legacy for the future generations. In the present article, an Imperial Gate from a wooden church in Cluj County, Romania, has been investigated, using scientific techniques (FTIR and XRF). A 3D reconstruction has been performed, using similar colors with the original artwork, as resulted from the scientific investigation of the painting materials. A limited number of constituent materials have been used for this artwork, and the wood species used was lime, due to the ease of carving. PMID:26232574

  4. [Racism of "Blood" and colonial medicine - Blood group anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine].

    PubMed

    Jung, Joon Young

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to explore implications of Colonial medicine's Blood Type Studies, concerning the characteristics and tasks of racism in the Japanese Colonial Empire. Especially, it focuses on the Blood Group Anthropology Studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine. In Colonial Korea, the main stream of Blood Type Studies were Blood Group Anthropology Studies, which place Korean people who was inferior to Japanese people in the geography of the race on the one hand, but on the other, put Koreans as a missing link between the Mongolian and the Japanese for fulfillment of the Japanese colonialism, that is, assimilationist ideology. Then, Compared to the Western medicine and Metropole medicine of Japan, How differentiated was this tendency of Colonial Medicine from them? In this paper, main issues of Blood Group Anthropology Studies and its colonial implications are examined. PMID:23388491

  5. Scientific investigation of the Imperial Gates belonging to the wooden church from Săcel, Turda County, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Măruţoiu, C.; Bratu, I.; Troşan, L.; Neamtu, C.; Măruţoiu, V. C.; Pop, D.; Tănăselia, C.; Garabagiu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage objects have a major contribution to the historical patrimony of every country. In Romania, wooden churches are famous, they are mostly dated in between the XVth and XXth century, but unfortunately many of them have been destroyed, by natural or anthropic means. Therefore, the necessity of conservation and restoration has appeared, to the ones that still exist, as legacy for the future generations. In the present article, an Imperial Gate from a wooden church in Cluj County, Romania, has been investigated, using scientific techniques (FTIR and XRF). A 3D reconstruction has been performed, using similar colors with the original artwork, as resulted from the scientific investigation of the painting materials. A limited number of constituent materials have been used for this artwork, and the wood species used was lime, due to the ease of carving.

  6. Interseismic Strain Accumulation in the Imperial Valley and Implications for Triggering of Large Earthquakes in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2009-12-01

    From February, 2008 to March, 2009, we performed three rapid-static Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys of 115 geodetic monuments stretching from the United States-Mexico border into the Coachella Valley using the method of instantaneous positioning. The monuments are located in key areas near the Imperial, Superstition Hills, San Jacinto, San Andreas and Brawley Faults with nominal baselines generally less than 10 km. We perform a bicubic spline interpolation on the crustal motion vectors from the campaign measurements and 1005 continuous GPS monuments in western North America and solve for the velocity gradient tensor to look at the maximum shear strain, dilatation and rotation rates in the Imperial Valley. We then compare our computed strain field to that computed using the Southern California Earthquake Center Crustal Motion Map 3.0, which extends through 2003 and includes 840 measurements. We show that there is an interseismic strain transient that corresponds to an increase in the maximum shear strain rate of 0.7 μstrain/yr near Obsidian Buttes since 2003 along a fault referred to as the Obsidian Buttes Fault (OBF). A strong subsidence signal of 27 mm/yr and a left-lateral increase of 10 mm/yr are centered along the OBF. Changes in the dilatation and rotation rates confirm the increase in left-lateral motion, as well as infer a strong increase in spreading rate in the southern Salton Sea. The increase in spreading rate has caused an accelerated slip rate along the southern San Andreas near Durmid Hill as evidenced by continuous GPS, which has the potential for earthquake triggering.

  7. The Level of Education in Post-Soviet Russia: A Contradictory Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkevich, Mikhail Nikolaevich

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the development of the level of education of the inhabitants of Russia is analyzed based on the materials of "post-Soviet Russia," in which there are two clearly marked different stages: the 1990s and the beginning of the present century. On the whole, this period has to be seen as one in which "capitalism was restored" in Russia.…

  8. The great disease enemy, Kak'ke (beriberi) and the Imperial Japanese Army.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Alan

    2006-04-01

    Although Japanese military officials had discovered that an improved diet could prevent beriberi by the late 19th century, their soldiers in the army suffered from beriberi during the Russo-Japanese War and World War II. A change in diet at the end of the Russo-Japanese War solved the problem and the army applied the lesson learned, along with postwar scientific discoveries about nutrition, toward the diet used during World War II. However, beriberi again plagued Japanese soldiers, this time due to poor logistics and unpalatable dietary supplements. PMID:16673750

  9. Modeling late Paleozoic glaciation

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; Baum, S.K. )

    1992-06-01

    Late Paleozoic glaciation on Gondwana is associated with changes in geography, solar luminosity, and estimated CO{sub 2} levels. To assess the relative importance of these boundary conditions, the authors conducted a suite of climate model simulations for the periods before, during, and after peak mid-Carboniferous ({approximately}300 Ma) glaciation (340, 300, and 255 and 225 Ma, respectively). Orbital insolation values favorable for glaciation and interglaciation were used for each time interval. Results indicate that changes in geography cause significant changes in snow area, but the temporal trend is not consistent with the geologic record for glaciation. Combined CO{sub 2}-plus-geography changes yield the best agreement with observations. In addition, interglacial orbital configurations result in almost ice-free conditions for the glacial interval at 300 Ma, at a time of low CO{sub 2}. The large simulated glacial-interglacial snowline fluctuations for Permian-Carboniferous time may explain cyclothem fluctuations at these times. Overall, results support the importance of the CO{sub 2} paradigm, but also indicate that a fuller understanding of past climate change requires consideration of paleogeographic, luminosity, and orbital insolation changes.

  10. The Development of Literacy in Russia and the USSR from the Tenth to the Twentieth Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mironov, Boris N.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history of Russian literacy from Kievan Rus, through the Muscovite period, the Imperial period, and the postrevolutionary Soviet Union. Presents tables of literacy levels for various periods. Discusses evidence, theories, and problems with historians' assumptions. Concludes that, until recently, little impetus existed for the bulk of…

  11. Ophiolites and oceanic plateau remnants (greenstones) in Japan and Far East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwatari, A.; Ichiyama, Y.; Koizumi, K.

    2005-12-01

    , suggesting their origin by deep (4-5 GPa) partial melting of a superplume (Ichiyama & Ishiwatari, 2005; CMP, 149, 373-; Lithos, in submission.). The Yakuno ophiolite and the Tamba greenstone thus represent coeval but unrelated SSZ and oceanic magmatisms, respectively, in the same Permian time. The Jurassic superplume-related volcanic rocks are also reported from Hokkaido (Japan) and Sakhalin (Russia), and Jurassic meimechite lavas and related Alaskan-type zoned ultramafic plutons are reported from Primorye (Russia), but their age of accretion is also Late Jurassic. The Jurassic ophiolites in Hokkaido and Sakhalin are characterized by unusually depleted harzburgite (Spinel Cr#80-90), indicating very high degree of melting (Ishiwatari et al. GSL Spec. Publ. 218, 597-). These facts suggests that the superplume was placed beneath the subduction zone (Ishiwatari & Ichiyama, 2004; Int. Geol. Rev., 46, 316-), and facilitated plate convergence and SSZ magmatism. This study provides a new evidence for Permian oceanic superplume magmatism that is coeval with Siberian and Emeishan LIPs, and postulates possibility of superplume-SSZ interaction in Jurassic NW Pacific margin.

  12. Early and Late Onset Sepsis in Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cotten, C. Michael; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is increasing worldwide, and late preterm births, which comprise more than 70% of all preterm births, account for much of the increase. Early and late onset sepsis results in significant mortality in extremely preterm infants, but little is known about sepsis outcomes in late preterm infants. Methods This is an observational cohort study of infants < 121 days of age (119,130 infants less than or equal to 3 days of life and 106,142 infants between 4 and 120 days of life) with estimated gestational age at birth between 34 and 36 weeks, admitted to 248 neonatal intensive care units in the United States between 1996 and 2007. Results During the study period, the cumulative incidence of early and late onset sepsis was 4.42 and 6.30 episodes per 1000 admissions, respectively. Gram-positive organisms caused the majority of early and late onset sepsis episodes. Infants with early onset sepsis caused by Gram-negative rods and infants with late onset sepsis were more likely to die than their peers with sterile blood cultures (OR 4.39, 95% CI 1.71–11.23, P=0.002; and OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.35–4.84, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion Late preterm infants demonstrate specific infection rates, pathogen distribution, and mortality associated with early and late onset sepsis. The results of this study are generalizable to late preterm infants admitted to the special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:19953725

  13. STS-112 crew with President of Ajara in Georgia (Russia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Aslan Abashidze, President of the Autonomous Republic of Ajara in Georgia (Russia) shakes hands with STS-112 Mission Specialist Fyodor N. Yurchikhin, Ph.D., (right) a cosmonaut with the Russian Space Agency. Yurchikhin is at Kennedy Space Center awaiting his launch aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-112 to the International Space Station. The launch has been postponed to no earlier than Monday, Oct. 7, so that the Mission Control Center, located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, can be secured and protected from potential storm impacts from Hurricane Lili.

  14. Geochemical features of Kulunda plain lakes (Altay region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakova, M. N.; Shvartsev, S. L.; Borzenko, S. V.; Isupov, V. P.; Shatskaya, S. S.

    2016-03-01

    Geochemical specifics of lake water of the Kulunda Steppe territory (Altay region, Russia) are studied. The results show that in the territory mainly chloride and less soda lakes with sodium compound are developed. It is presented that calcite and soda saturation indexes (SI) of lake water increase with growth of pH, but decrease in such minerals as gypsum and barite. The opposite situation is typical for SI depending on the salinity. It is revealed that evaporation, secondary mineral formation and various biological processes have the greatest impact on accumulation of elements in solution.

  15. Risk reduction projects in Russia, Ukraine, and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Guppy, J.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Reisman, A.W. ); Spencer, B.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Assistance to Russia, Ukraine, and Central and Eastern Europe countries (CEEC) in the area of nuclear power safety has been undertaken in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for implementing the nuclear safety portion of this assistance. One aspect of this work is to provide near-term improvement to the safety of VVER and RBMK nuclear power plants (NPPs). This activity has been designated as near-term risk reduction (NTRR). This accident risk reduction effort is being conducted by utilizing teams of experts.

  16. Development of geothermal power engineering technologies in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Nikol'Skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2009-11-01

    The present state of geothermal power engineering in Russia and prospects for its development are considered. An assessment is given of the projects of constructing a pilot binary geothermal power plant in Kamchatka, developing geothermal heat supply systems in the town of Vilyuchinsk and settlement of Rozovyi, and increasing the installed capacity of the Mutnovsk geothermal power station, which are the top-priority projects implemented by OAO RusGidro with scientific and technical support from ZAO GEOINKOM and ZAO Geoterm-EM.

  17. Analogue Study of Actinide Transport at Sites in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, A P; Simmons, A M; Halsey, W G

    2003-02-12

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) are engaged in a three-year cooperative study to observe the behavior of actinides in the natural environment at selected disposal sites and/or contamination sites in Russia. The purpose is to develop experimental data and models for actinide speciation, mobilization and transport processes in support of geologic repository design, safety and performance analyses. Currently at the mid-point of the study, the accomplishments to date include: evaluation of existing data and data needs, site screening and selection, initial data acquisition, and development of preliminary conceptual models.

  18. Building a knowledge based economy in Russia using guided entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznik, Boris N.; Daniels, Marc; Ichim, Thomas E.; Reznik, David L.

    2005-06-01

    Despite advanced scientific and technological (S&T) expertise, the Russian economy is presently based upon manufacturing and raw material exports. Currently, governmental incentives are attempting to leverage the existing scientific infrastructure through the concept of building a Knowledge Based Economy. However, socio-economic changes do not occur solely by decree, but by alteration of approach to the market. Here we describe the "Guided Entrepreneurship" plan, a series of steps needed for generation of an army of entrepreneurs, which initiate a chain reaction of S&T-driven growth. The situation in Russia is placed in the framework of other areas where Guided Entrepreneurship has been successful.

  19. [A brief analysis on the on-duty systems and dispatching systems in the Imperial Academy of Medicine of the Qing Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Wenhao; Duan, Xiaohua; Shen, Yi; Zhang, Qicheng

    2014-01-01

    The "on-duty systems" and "dispatching systems" in the Tai yi yuan (Imperial Academy of Medicine) of the Qing Dynasty served as the "prelude" of the medical officials to carry out their diagnoses and treatments. Mainly serving in the royal court, the "on-duty systems" included 3 sorts, viz., "specially selected on-duty", "interior on-duty" and "exterior on-duty". In addition to providing medical services in the royal court, Imperial Academy of Medicine also served other royal members in the Capital, the ministers, the military, the civilians, the metropolitan examinations and the prisons. Thus, the "dispatching systems" was established, also included 3 sorts, viz., "special dispatchments", "dispatchments through reporting to the emperor" and "dispatchments through official communication". PMID:24774889

  20. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  1. Reconstructing a 40-year record of forest disturbance in Russia from contemporary satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, T. V.; Chen, D.; Hight-Harf, C.

    2012-12-01

    Russian boreal forests contain vast pools of carbon and thus play an important role in the global carbon cycle. These forests also figure prominently in the global radiative budget due to their direct impact on surface albedo over large portions of Northern Eurasia within areas of seasonal snow and ice cover in high northern latitudes. As such, Russian boreal forests have a strong influence on the direction and amplitude of regional and global climate change. However, despite the importance of these forests in ecological and climatological contexts, large uncertainties in estimates of carbon storage and dynamics of Russian forests remain. These uncertainties are linked to the limited information about forest age, structure, and dynamics available across the full extent of Russia's forested zone. Although satellite imagery has been collected globally since the early 1970s, satellite data record over Russia from coarse and moderate resolution satellites was spotty until mid-1990s. Great improvements in land surface observations in Northern Eurasia came with the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in late 1999. However, the MODIS-based wall-to-wall multi-temporal observations of forest composition and disturbances are available only for the last decade. Here we present an analysis of disturbances over the past 40 years based on a combination of the on-going mapping of burned area in Russia from the MODIS sensor from 2001 to present and a method based on merging the long-term opportunistic observations of forest cover from Landsat imagery with the spatially contiguous but relatively short-term record from MODIS to reconstruct a nearly 30-year history of disturbances across the full extent of the Russian boreal forests. Our reconstruction approach stems from the slow regrowth rate of boreal forests, making it possible to observe past disturbances and infer the approximate time of disturbance from the present day distribution of forest

  2. Late Pleistocene-Holocene ground surface heat flux changes reconstructed from borehole temperature data (the Urals, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demezhko, D. Y.; Gornostaeva, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    We use geothermal reconstruction of the ground surface temperature (GST) history early obtained in the Middle Urals to determine the surface heat flux (SHF) history over the past 35 kyr. A new algorithm of GST-SHF transformation was applied to solve this problem. The timescale of geothermal reconstructions has been corrected by comparing the estimated heat flux and annual insolation at the latitude of 60° N. The consistency of SHF and insolation changes on the interval 35-6 kyr BP with the linear correlation coefficient R = 0.99 points to orbital factors as the main cause of climatic changes during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The amplitude of SHF variations is about 1.3% of the insolation change amplitude. The increase of carbon dioxide concentrations lagged by 2-3 kyr from the SHF increase and occurred synchronously with GST changes.

  3. The Internet and Political Involvement in Russia (Based on the Data of Mass Surveys)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkov, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Attention to virtual space is growing in Russia. Russian politicians have an interest in the Internet: the president has his own blog and reads Twitter, and the United Russia Party is starting to work with the iPad on a mass scale. Opposition leaders and movements are not lagging behind either. Online surveys of various Internet resources are…

  4. Madrasahs as Vocational Educational Institutions in the Regions of Pre-Revolutionary Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khuziakhmetov, Anvar N.; Aminov, Takhir M.; Yesnazarova, Ulzhalgas A.

    2016-01-01

    The importance is determined by insufficient knowledge of the problem while undergoing serious changes in the system of Muslim education not only in Russia but all over the world. Hence, the purpose of this article is to identify the experience of madrasahs--professional Muslim educational institutions of pre-revolutionary Russia, as its…

  5. The Commercialization of Higher Education: A Threat to the National Security of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolesnikov, V. N.; Kucher, I. V.; Turchenko, V. N.

    2005-01-01

    The crisis of education is one of the most pressing problems in the world today. Russia's crisis in this sphere has taken on the character of an emergency owing to the unprecedented wholesale cutbacks in budget funding. In this article, the authors discuss the commercialization of Russia's higher education, leading to its degradation and threat to…

  6. HIV and STD Knowledge, Sexual Behaviors and Drug Taking Behaviors of Adolescents in Southern Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, R. Mark; Ball, Marcia; Cerullo, Jennie; Trunova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    For several years, HIV infection has increasing rapidly in Eastern Europe and Russia (UNAIDS, 2000, 2003). The purpose of the study was to investigate the HIV and STD knowledge, sexual behaviors and drug taking behaviors of adolescents in southern Russia. The instrument was compiled by the authors, professionally translated, and pilot tested. Most…

  7. The Situation of Children and the Quality of the Human Potential in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2004-01-01

    From 1992 through 2001, Russia lost more than 7 million people as a result of natural population loss or, with the positive migration balance taken into account, 4.7 million. These statistics show that the size of Russia's population is diminishing steadily. This article reports the findings of a study examining the factors that account for the…

  8. 77 FR 21527 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 63 (April 2, 2012). This notice serves as a correction to... International Trade Administration Ammonium Nitrate From Russia: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request... of the antidumping duty orders and inadvertently omitted Ammonium Nitrate from Russia, POR...

  9. Russia as a Returning Donor--Four Roles in Development Assistance to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piattoeva, Nelli; Takala, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the role of Russia in development assistance to education in light of the changing architecture of development assistance--the variety of positions identified with both "new" and "old" donor countries. We shed light on Russia's aims and agenda in the field of development assistance in general and…

  10. School Evaluation in Russia: A Cooperative Venture To Establish World Class Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steadman, David G.

    Of concern to private and public schools in Russia is the evaluation of teachers and schools. The use of voluntary, nongovernmental peer evaluation using extant Western accreditation processes is one choice that is being used in several public and private schools in Russia. This system of peer evaluation and friendly criticism contrasts markedly…

  11. Experiential Environmental Education in Russia: A Study in Community Service Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silcox, Harry C.

    1993-01-01

    In June 1992, 26 high school students and environmentalists left United States to participate in community service/experimental learning environmental project in Russia. Focus was environmental monitoring of Novgorod, Russia. Both U.S. and Russian students gained in scientific knowledge; Russian teens felt more empowered about community service.…

  12. From Marx to Markets: Reform of the University Economics Curriculum in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brue, Stanley L.; MacPhee, Craig R.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a three-week seminar taught by U.S. economists at Moscow State University (Russia) in June 1992. Discusses the history of the pre-1992 economics curriculum and the emerging curriculum in modern Russia. Includes three tables illustrating changing curriculum content in economics over the past two decades. (CFR)

  13. Crisis and Response: The Emergence of Modern Jewish Politics in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritterband, Paul

    This collection of documents examines the response of the Jewish people--primarily in Russia but also in the West--to the sociological and political crises of Tsarist Russia between the years 1800 and 1914. It emphasizes in particular the emergence and interaction of the two ideologies which formulated the most radical solutions to the Jewish…

  14. The Importance of the System of Primary Professional Education for Russia's Innovative Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medvedeva, E. I.; Kroshilin, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in educational policy in Russia will affect the proportion of young people who obtain their occupational qualifications in a university and in secondary-level professional training schools. There is currently a shortage of skilled blue-collar workers in Russia, and more needs to be done to ensure high-quality training for this sector of…

  15. 78 FR 33064 - Silicon Metal From Russia; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... order on imports of silicon metal from Russia (68 FR 14578). Following the five-year reviews by Commerce... order on imports of silicon metal from Russia (73 FR 40848). The Commission is now conducting a second...) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May 5, 2008). This advice was developed in consultation with...

  16. Bazhen Fm matured reservoir evaluation (West Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnachev, S.; Skripkin, A.; Baranov, V.; Zakharov, S.

    2015-02-01

    The depletion of the traditional sources of hydrocarbons leads to the situation when the biggest players of the oil and gas production market turn to unconventional reserves. Commercial shale oil and gas production levels in the USA have largely determined world prospects for oil and gas industry development. Russia takes one of the leading place in the world in terms of shale oil resources. The main source rock of the West Siberia, the biggest oil and gas basin in Russia under development, the Bazhen Fm and its stratigraphic and lithologic analogs, is located in the territory of over 1,000,000 square kilometers. Provided it has similar key properties (organic carbon content, porosity, permeability) with the deposits of the Bakken Fm and Green River Fm, USA, it is still extremely poorly described with laboratory methods. We have performed the laboratory analysis of core samples from a well drilled in Bazhen Fm deposits with matured organic matter (Tmax>435 °C). It was demonstrated the applicability of the improved steady-state gas flow method to evaluate the permeability of nanopermeable rocks. The role of natural fracturing in forming voids was determided that allows regarding potential Bazhen Fm reservoirs as systems with dual porosity and dual permeability.

  17. Between certainty and uncertainty--observations on psychoanalysis in Russia.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Gary N

    2002-04-01

    'Diversity', the theme of our conference, carries a subversive sub-text in totalitarian societies. This is one of the themes presented as the current revival of psychoanalysis in the more democratic post-Communist Russia is explored. The history of psychoanalysis in Russia is summarized with a focus on its politicization, which led to initial interest in its theory (by way of a misapprehension of its tenets), and then to ultimate suppression of psychoanalytic thinking as an ideology deemed antagonistic to the totalitarian regime. In contrast, features of psychoanalysis and democracy are explored for their mutual affinities. The background of the resourceful new generation of analytic therapists is discussed, especially in regard to their experience of the parallel meanings of the word 'repression' (political, psychological). There is a persistence of some traits in patients and practitioners alike that are referable to past repression, such as the newness of verbal treatments, the inhibition of psychological curiosity, the ambivalent lure of certainty, and the pressure of authoritarian introjects. It is noted that psychoanalysis has its own history of a posture opposed to pluralism and diversity, which deepens the dialogue on the mutual engagement between psychoanalysis and the vicissitudes of its history in Russian culture. PMID:12025495

  18. The history of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ragozin, Boris Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    Ayurveda is one of the world's oldest medical sciences, with a history that goes back more than 5,000 years. The knowledge of Ayurveda has at various times had an impact on a number of branches of medicine: From ancient Greek medicine in the West to the Chinese and Tibetan in the East. Ayurveda continues to retain its prominent position in our modern world, being officially recognised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and enjoying great popularity in the US, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. In India, Ayurveda is recognised by conventional medicine on a par with modern medical science. In the Soviet Union a strong interest in Ayurveda arose for the first time after the Chernobyl disaster, and since then Ayurveda has been actively developing in Russia. In this article we present the chronology of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia since 1989, explore academic literature on the subject available in Russian and review the existing Ayurvedic products and services offered on the Russian market. PMID:27143798

  19. [Results of studies of human dirofilariasis in Russia].

    PubMed

    Sergiev, V P; Supriaga, V G; Bronshteĭn, A M; Ganushkina, L A; Rakova, V M; Morozov, E N; Fedianina, L V; Frolova, A A; Morozova, L F; Ivanova, I B; Darchenkova, N N; Zhukova, L A

    2014-01-01

    Human dirofilariasis is a pressing health problem in Russia. By 2014, there have been as many as 850 Dirofilaria repens-infested people living in 42 subjects of the Russian Federation. One of the favorable factors for circulation and spread of invasion is a temperature of above +20-24 degrees C; when the latter is maintained during at least 20 days there may be 1.-1.5 circulations of invasion in the carrier and a 2.8-fold increase in transmission intensity. The border ofa dirofilariasis area with a temperate climate is southward to 58 degrees N in European Russia and West Siberia and southward to 50 degrees N in the Far East. The conditions in the human body have been found to be more favorable for the development of Dirofilaria than considered before and allow the helminth to achieve sexual maturity and to propagate. If man has microfilaremia, he may be a source of invasion. It is necessary to examine venous blood by the enrichment method and, if possible, polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay, which make it possible to establish a diagnosis in occult invasion and to identify a pathogen species. PMID:25286541

  20. Wind power in Russia Today: Development, resources, and technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Martinot, E.; Perminov, E.M.

    1995-12-31

    Wind power development in Russia and technology transfer from the West are discussed from an integrated perspective, including institutional and economic conditions, technologies, geography, and technology transfer experience. Commercialization has only begun in the last few years. Domestic technology development programs for 100-kW to 1000-kW turbines and wind farm projects are described. Good wind resources exist in at least 17 regions (out of 89) in the Far East, Far North, Northwest, North Caucasus, and Lower Volga. To Russians, wind power means jobs and autonomy. Joint ventures are an important form of technology transfer because of existing idle industrial capacity with skilled workers. Equipment imports to-date have been minimal. The only example of a production joint venture so far is Windenergo in Ukraine, which has begun to produce 110-kW turbines under a Kenetech Windpower license. Barriers to technology transfer are described and appear formidable. Russia remains a combination of technology transfer perspectives for developed, developing, and former Communist countries